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Sample records for lesson study episodes

  1. Lesson study i Danmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Der beskrives et japansk lesson study forløb, og det diskuteres i hvilket omfang, de gode japanske erfaringer kan overføres til dansk matematikundervisning.......Der beskrives et japansk lesson study forløb, og det diskuteres i hvilket omfang, de gode japanske erfaringer kan overføres til dansk matematikundervisning....

  2. Lesson Study and History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  3. Breathing Life into Engineering: A Lesson Study Life Science Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Maria; Yang, Li-Ling; Briggs, May; Hession, Alicia; Koussa, Anita; Wagoner, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A fifth grade life science lesson was implemented through a lesson study approach in two fifth grade classrooms. The research lesson was designed by a team of four elementary school teachers with the goal of emphasizing engineering practices consistent with the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (Achieve Inc. 2013). The fifth…

  4. The individual teacher in lesson study collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Charlotte Krog; Møller, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    used in lesson study research. Design/methodology/approach The authors use collective case studies. By being participant observers the authors provide detailed descriptions of two selected teachers’ lived experiences of lesson study collaboration. In addition to gain first-hand insights, the authors...... in the participation of each of the two teachers during a two-year lesson study project. By comparing these shifts the authors identify significant conditions for their individual learning. Research limitations/implications Although the study is small scale, both the insights into the different ways in which teachers...... participated and the theoretical insights might be valuable for other lesson study research approaches. Practical implications This paper provides valuable insights into conditions that might influence teachers’ participation in lesson study activities, especially in cultures with little experience of lesson...

  5. Episodic and Binge Gambling: An Exploration and Preliminary Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, S; Nespoli, E; Jebadurai, J K; Smith, N; Bowden-Jones, H

    2018-03-01

    The DSM-5 includes provisions for episodic forms of gambling disorder, with such changes aligned with earlier accounts of potential binge gambling behaviours. However, there is little research that indicates the utility of these classifications of episodic or binge gambling, and this study considered their characteristics in a clinical sample. It involved administration of a new binge gambling screening tool, along with routine measures, to n = 214 patients entering a specialist treatment clinic for gambling problems. Results indicated that episodic gambling was common in this clinical context, with 28 and 32% of patients reporting gambling episodes that were (a) regular and alternating, and (b) irregular and intermittent, respectively. These patterns were distinguished by factors including associations with covariates that indicated differences from continuous gamblers. For example, the irregular episodic gamblers, but not the regular pattern, demonstrated lower levels of problem gambling severity and comorbidity. Rates of potential binge gambling, which was defined in terms of additional criteria, were around 4% and numbers were insufficient for comparable analyses. The findings support inclusion of episodic forms of gambling disorder in the DSM-5, but highlight the need for improved recognition and research on heterogeneous forms of episodic gambling.

  6. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coentre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.

  7. Improving Mathematics Teaching as Deliberate Practice through Chinese Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongjin; Prince, Kyle M.; Barlow, Angela T.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how a ninth grade teacher improved an Algebra I lesson through a lesson study approach. We used multiple data sources to investigate the improvement of the lesson towards student-centered mathematics instruction, perceived benefits of the teacher, and factors associated with the improvement of teaching. The lesson group…

  8. Applying Lessons from SN Studies to GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, Chris L.

    2009-01-01

    Supernovae and Gamma-Ray bursts display many similarities, both in their observational qualities and in the engines behind these powerful explosions. Although not identical, there is a strong synergy in the study of these two objects. There is much the gamma-ray burst field can learn from the lessons of the more-developed supernova field, but the supernova field can also learn from new techniques developed for gamma-ray burst studies. Here I review some of the 'lessons learned' from these fields to help foster this synergy.

  9. Adaptive scaling of reward in episodic memory: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alice; Ludwig, Casimir; Farrell, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Reward is thought to enhance episodic memory formation via dopaminergic consolidation. Bunzeck, Dayan, Dolan, and Duzel [(2010). A common mechanism for adaptive scaling of reward and novelty. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 1380-1394] provided functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioural evidence that reward and episodic memory systems are sensitive to the contextual value of a reward-whether it is relatively higher or lower-as opposed to absolute value or prediction error. We carried out a direct replication of their behavioural study and did not replicate their finding that memory performance associated with reward follows this pattern of adaptive scaling. An effect of reward outcome was in the opposite direction to that in the original study, with lower reward outcomes leading to better memory than higher outcomes. There was a marginal effect of reward context, suggesting that expected value affected memory performance. We discuss the robustness of the reward memory relationship to variations in reward context, and whether other reward-related factors have a more reliable influence on episodic memory.

  10. A Qualitative Study on Primary School Mathematics Lesson Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongchen; Ma, Yunpeng

    2009-01-01

    Through the qualitative interviews of five implementers of primary school mathematics curriculum, this study addresses the ways in which mathematics lessons are evaluated. Results show that each evaluator recognizes different aspects of a "good lesson," however, among all criteria, the design of the lesson plan, realization of the lesson…

  11. Enhancing mathematics teachers' quality through Lesson Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomibao, Laila S

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency and effectivity of the learning experience is dependent on the teacher quality, thus, enhancing teacher's quality is vital in improving the students learning outcome. Since, the usual top-down one-shot cascading model practice for teachers' professional development in Philippines has been observed to have much information dilution, and the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization demanded the need to develop mathematics teachers' quality standards through the Southeast Asia Regional Standards for Mathematics Teachers (SEARS-MT), thus, an intensive, ongoing professional development model should be provided to teachers. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of Lesson Study on Bulua National High School mathematics teachers' quality level in terms of SEARS-MT dimensions. A mixed method of quantitative-qualitative research design was employed. Results of the analysis revealed that Lesson Study effectively enhanced mathematics teachers' quality and promoted teachers professional development. Teachers positively perceived Lesson Study to be beneficial for them to become a better mathematics teacher.

  12. Learning to observe mathematical learning in lesson studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus; Østergaard, Camilla Hellsten; Foss, Kristian Kildemoes

    2016-01-01

    This poster deals with lesson study (LS) in pre-service teacher education. In particular how to prepare for, carry out, and reflect upon, observations of pupil learning. Observation is of crucial importance to the lesson study process, and here we present a study of observation features which ena...... enable or hinder fruitful lesson study. While substantial research has been carried out in the general field of bserving pupils’ learning processes and teachers’ pedagogical practice, little is known about this in the particular setting of lesson study....

  13. A descriptive review of qualitative studies in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Volpe, Tiziana; Gladstone, Brenda

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a descriptive review of published qualitative research studies on first episode psychosis (FEP). A review was undertaken to describe the findings of qualitative studies in early psychosis. Keyword searches in Medline, CINAHL, ASSIA, PsychINFO databases, as well as manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary papers, were conducted. Thirty-one qualitative papers (representing 27 discrete studies) were identified. The majority reported research concerning young people based in community settings. The research studies were organized according to the following generic social processes: (i) achieving identity; (ii) acquiring perspectives; (iii) doing activity; and, (iv) experiencing relationships. The papers reviewed are based on first-person accounts obtained from individuals who have experienced FEP, their family members and service providers. This descriptive review contributes to our understanding of the complex social processes of achieving identity, acquiring perspectives, doing activities and developing relationships as experienced by young people and the significant others in their world. The cumulative findings highlight the contextually rich and detailed information made possible through qualitative studies of FEP. They begin to account for the active engagement of individuals affected by psychosis in making sense of their experience and suggest that this experience should be understood from within young people's own framework of meaning.

  14. Functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory. Functional dissociation in the medial temporal lobe structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukiura, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the critical role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions in the encoding and retrieval of episodic memory. It has also been shown that an emotional factor in human memory enhances episodic encoding and retrieval. However, there is little evidence regarding the specific contribution of each MTL region to the relational, contextual, and emotional processes of episodic memory. The goal of this review article is to identify differential activation patterns of the processes between MTL regions. Results from functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory show that the hippocampus is involved in encoding the relation between memory items, whereas the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices (anterior parahippocampal gyrus) contribute to the encoding of a single item. Additionally, the parahippocampal cortex (posterior parahippocampal gyrus) is selectively activated during the processing of contextual information of episodic memory. A similar pattern of functional dissociation is found in episodic memory retrieval. Functional neuroimaging has also shown that emotional information of episodic memory enhances amygdala-MTL correlations and that this enhancement is observed during both the encoding and retrieval of emotional memories. These findings from pervious neuroimaging studies suggest that different MTL regions could organize memory for personally experienced episodes via the 'relation' and 'context' factors of episodic memory, and that the emotional factor of episodes could modulate the functional organization in the MTL regions. (author)

  15. Why Lesson Study Works in Japan: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max

    2014-01-01

    Japanese lesson study has attracted many international educators who have been impressed by its capacity to foster student learning and sustained professional growth of teachers. This paper reports a study on its cultural orientations that may explain why lesson study works seamlessly in Japan. Hofstede's dimensions of national culture are…

  16. Mathematics Teachers' Views of Accountability Testing Revealed through Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarema, Connie H.

    2010-01-01

    The practice of lesson study, a professional development model originating in Japan, aligns well with recommendations from research for teacher professional development. Lesson study is also an inductive research method that uncovers student thinking and, in parallel, grants teacher-educators the opportunity to study teachers' thinking about…

  17. Case study of first episode schizophrenia in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Kristopher A; Agarkar, Smita

    2017-08-01

    Patients with first-episode psychosis of peripartum onset commonly prove to have a mood-disorder diathesis; however, a proportion of cases represent first-episode schizophrenia. We present such a case and discuss the clinical relevance of recognizing this small but important population of new mothers. These patients are at considerable risk of misdiagnosis, resulting in ineffective maintenance therapy, poorer recovery of function, and development of treatment resistance. Accurate diagnosis in the peripartum period will impact treatment decisions and long-term therapy. Clinicians need to be vigilant, especially during maintenance therapy, to identify these patients and ensure appropriate antipsychotic therapy is provided.

  18. Processing Depth and Episodic Retrieval: an fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Beratis, Ion

    2010-01-01

    Background. According to the reinstatement theory that stems from the transfer appropriate processing (TAP) and the encoding specificity principles, episodic retrieval involves reactivation of processes and, therefore, of brain regions that were active during encoding. Hence, if two encoding conditions engage different cognitive operations, qualitative differences are expected also to be present at the retrieval phase. Functional neuroimaging applications have detected qualitative differences...

  19. A Reasoned Action Approach to Participation in Lesson Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Siebrichje; Roorda, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates teachers’ attitude toward Lesson Study (LS), a professional development approach which is relatively unknown in the Netherlands. The paper reports a qualitative study based on the Reasoned Action Approach, which explains how teachers’ beliefs influence their

  20. A Model of Microteaching Lesson Study Implementation in the Prospective History Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Indah Wahyu Puji; Mashuri; Nafi'ah, Ulfatun

    2016-01-01

    Microteaching lesson study is a model to improve prospective teacher quality by incorporating several element of microteaching and lesson study. This study concern on the implementation of microteaching lesson study in prospective history teacher education. Microteaching lesson study model implemented in this study consist of three stages: plan,…

  1. Establishing a mathematical Lesson Study culture in Danish teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Charlotte Krog; Østergaard, Camilla Hellsten

    Bridging theory and practice is a general challenge in mathematics teacher education. Research shows that Lesson Study (LS) is an effective way for prospective mathematics teachers to build relations between course work and field experiences......Bridging theory and practice is a general challenge in mathematics teacher education. Research shows that Lesson Study (LS) is an effective way for prospective mathematics teachers to build relations between course work and field experiences...

  2. Benefits and Costs of Context Reinstatement in Episodic Memory: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramão, Inês; Johansson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated context-dependent episodic memory retrieval. An influential idea in the memory literature is that performance benefits when the retrieval context overlaps with the original encoding context. However, such memory facilitation may not be driven by the encoding-retrieval overlap per se but by the presence of diagnostic features in the reinstated context that discriminate the target episode from competing episodes. To test this prediction, the encoding-retrieval overlap and the diagnostic value of the context were manipulated in a novel associative recognition memory task. Participants were asked to memorize word pairs presented together with diagnostic (unique) and nondiagnostic (shared) background scenes. At test, participants recognized the word pairs in the presence and absence of the previously encoded contexts. Behavioral data show facilitated memory performance in the presence of the original context but, importantly, only when the context was diagnostic of the target episode. The electrophysiological data reveal an early anterior ERP encoding-retrieval overlap effect that tracks the cost associated with having nondiagnostic contexts present at retrieval, that is, shared by multiple previous episodes, and a later posterior encoding-retrieval overlap effect that reflects facilitated access to the target episode during retrieval in diagnostic contexts. Taken together, our results underscore the importance of the diagnostic value of the context and suggest that context-dependent episodic memory effects are multiple determined.

  3. Episodic Future Thinking in Semantic Dementia: A Cognitive and fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Armelle; Piolino, Pascale; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by gradual loss of semantic memory. While episodic autobiographical memory seems relatively preserved, behavioral studies suggest that episodic future thinking is impaired. We used fMRI to measure brain activity in four SD patients (JPL, EP, LL, EG) while they envisioned future events and remembered personal past events. Twelve healthy elders served as controls. Episodic quality, emotion, mental imagery and level of consciousness (via remember/know judgements) were checked at debriefing. We analyzed the future compared to the past for each patient. All patients presented lateral temporal atrophy, but varied in terms of frontal and anterior hippocampal atrophy. Patient JPL presented atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and left anterior hippocampus and was unable to engage in episodic future thinking, despite hyperactivations in frontal and occipital regions. Patient EP presented no atrophy in the anterior hippocampus, but atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus and had difficulties to engage in episodic future thinking. Patient LL presented atrophy in left anterior hippocampus, but hyperactivated its right counterpart for future compared to past thinking, permitting her to project efficiently in the future in an episodic way. Patient EG presented no atrophy in the superior medial frontal gyri or anterior hippocampi and was able to engage in episodic future thinking. Altogether, patients' future projections differed depending on the severity and localization of their atrophy. The functional integrity of bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and anterior hippocampus appear crucial for episodic future thinking: atrophy of both structures strongly impairs future projection, while integrity of these structures or hyperactivation of residual tissue normalizes episodic future projection. PMID:25333997

  4. Episodic future thinking in semantic dementia: a cognitive and FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Viard

    Full Text Available Semantic dementia (SD is characterized by gradual loss of semantic memory. While episodic autobiographical memory seems relatively preserved, behavioral studies suggest that episodic future thinking is impaired. We used fMRI to measure brain activity in four SD patients (JPL, EP, LL, EG while they envisioned future events and remembered personal past events. Twelve healthy elders served as controls. Episodic quality, emotion, mental imagery and level of consciousness (via remember/know judgements were checked at debriefing. We analyzed the future compared to the past for each patient. All patients presented lateral temporal atrophy, but varied in terms of frontal and anterior hippocampal atrophy. Patient JPL presented atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and left anterior hippocampus and was unable to engage in episodic future thinking, despite hyperactivations in frontal and occipital regions. Patient EP presented no atrophy in the anterior hippocampus, but atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus and had difficulties to engage in episodic future thinking. Patient LL presented atrophy in left anterior hippocampus, but hyperactivated its right counterpart for future compared to past thinking, permitting her to project efficiently in the future in an episodic way. Patient EG presented no atrophy in the superior medial frontal gyri or anterior hippocampi and was able to engage in episodic future thinking. Altogether, patients' future projections differed depending on the severity and localization of their atrophy. The functional integrity of bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and anterior hippocampus appear crucial for episodic future thinking: atrophy of both structures strongly impairs future projection, while integrity of these structures or hyperactivation of residual tissue normalizes episodic future projection.

  5. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PEMBINAAN KOMPETENSI CALON GURU MATEMATIKA MELALUI LESSON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Bustanul Anwar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Education has a very important role in improving the quality of human resources. Therefore, education is expected to be one of the ways to prepare generations of qualified human resources and has the ability to deal with the progress of time and technology development . In order to enhance the quality of student mastery of competencies in the development of prospective teachers in this study will be applied to the activities in the process of lesson study in lecture . Lesson study is a model of coaching to people who work as both teacher educators and lecturers through collaborative learning and assessment in building sustainable learning communities. The purpose of this research is to improve the competence of prospective mathematics teachers through lesson study . More specifically , this study aims to describe the efforts made to improve the pedagogical, professional competence , social competence and personal competence prospective mathematics teachers through lesson study . Subjects in this study were students who took the micro teaching courses totaling 15 students , divided into 3 group . This type of research is a qualitative descriptive study is to develop the competence of prospective mathematics teachers through lesson study . Lesson study conducted collaborated with Action Research activities ( Action Reseach. The results of this research activity is the implementation of lesson study to greater competence to prospective teachers teaching mathematics through the micro subjects namely: pedagogical competence categories were 80 % and 20 % lower, professional competence categories were 46.7 % and 53.3 % lower, personal competence 100 % category being and social competence categories were 86.7 % and 13.3 % lower .

  6. Pathway for inpatients with depressive episode in Flemish psychiatric hospitals: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens Steven R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the context of a biopsychosocial model of the treatment of depressive episodes, a multidisciplinary approach is needed. Clinical pathways have been developed and implemented in hospitals to support multidisciplinary teamwork. The aim of this study is to explore current practice for the treatment of depressive episodes in Flemish psychiatric hospitals. Current practice in different hospitals is studied to get an idea of the similarities (outlined as a pathway and the differences in the treatment of depressive episodes. Methods A convenience sample of 11 Flemish psychiatric hospitals participated in this qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with different types of health care professionals (n = 43. The websites of the hospitals were searched for information on their approach to treating depressive episodes. Results A flow chart was made including the identified stages of the pathway: pre-admission, admission (observation and treatment, discharge and follow-up care. The characteristics of each stage are described. Although the stages are identified in all hospitals, differences between hospitals on various levels of the pathway exist. Hospitals emphasized the individual approach of each patient. The results point to a biopsychosocial approach to treating depressive episodes. Conclusion This study outlined current practice as a pathway for Flemish inpatients with depressive episodes. Within the context of surveillance of quality and quantity of care, this study may encourage hospitals to consider developing clinical pathways.

  7. Prevalence of bruxism in children with episodic migraine - a case–control study with polysomnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Parents of children with migraine have described a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism and other sleep disturbances in their children. The objective of this study was to use polysomnography to investigate the prevalence of bruxism during sleep in children with episodic migraine relative to controls. Findings Controls and patients were matched by sex, age, years of formal education, presence of snoring, arousals per hour, and respiratory events per hour. A total of 20 controls, between 6 and 12 years old, with no history of headache, recruited from public schools in Sao Paulo between 2009 and 2012, and 20 patients with episodic migraine recruited from the Headache Clinic at the Federal University of Sao Paulo between 2009 and 2012 underwent polysomnography. No intervention was performed before sleep studies. Among migraine patients, 27.5% experienced aura prior to migraine onset. The sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM sleep latency, arousals per hour, percentage of sleep stages, and breathing events per hour were similar between groups. Five children (25%) with episodic migraine exhibited bruxism during the sleep study while this finding was not observed in any control (p = 0.045). Conclusions Our data demonstrate that bruxism during sleep is more prevalent in children with episodic migraine. Further prospective studies will help elucidate the underlying shared pathogenesis between bruxism and episodic migraine in children. PMID:24886343

  8. Prevalence of bruxism in children with episodic migraine--a case-control study with polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuko, Alice Hatsue; Villa, Thais Rodrigues; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Moszczynski, Alexander Joseph; Carvalho, Deusvenir de Souza; Tufik, Sergio; do Prado, Gilmar Fernandes; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho Santos

    2014-05-14

    Parents of children with migraine have described a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism and other sleep disturbances in their children. The objective of this study was to use polysomnography to investigate the prevalence of bruxism during sleep in children with episodic migraine relative to controls. Controls and patients were matched by sex, age, years of formal education, presence of snoring, arousals per hour, and respiratory events per hour.A total of 20 controls, between 6 and 12 years old, with no history of headache, recruited from public schools in Sao Paulo between 2009 and 2012, and 20 patients with episodic migraine recruited from the Headache Clinic at the Federal University of Sao Paulo between 2009 and 2012 underwent polysomnography.No intervention was performed before sleep studies.Among migraine patients, 27.5% experienced aura prior to migraine onset. The sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM sleep latency, arousals per hour, percentage of sleep stages, and breathing events per hour were similar between groups. Five children (25%) with episodic migraine exhibited bruxism during the sleep study while this finding was not observed in any control (p = 0.045). Our data demonstrate that bruxism during sleep is more prevalent in children with episodic migraine. Further prospective studies will help elucidate the underlying shared pathogenesis between bruxism and episodic migraine in children.

  9. A Framework for Analysis of Case Studies of Reading Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Joanne F.; Kelcey, Ben; Rosaen, Cheryl; Phelps, Geoffrey; Vereb, Anita

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and study of a framework to provide direction and guidance for practicing teachers in using a web-based case studies program for professional development in early reading; the program is called Case Studies Reading Lessons (CSRL). The framework directs and guides teachers' analysis of reading instruction by…

  10. Social Studies Teachers' Viewpoints of the Social Studies Lesson "Sample of Turkey and Afghanistan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the perceptions of history, geography and social studies teachers giving the social studies lesson at primary schools in Turkey and Afghanistan towards the social studies lesson. The working group of the study involves history, geography and social studies teachers rendering service in Tokat and Kayseri provinces…

  11. Formative assessment in teacher talk during lesson studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halem, Nicolette; Goei, Sui Lin; Akkerman, Sanne F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent of systematic examination of students’ educational (support) needs by teachers participating in lesson study (LS) meetings within a framework of formative assessment (FA). Design/methodology/approach: The study took place in the context of

  12. Absence of low back pain to demarcate an episode: A prospective multicentre study in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Erik A; Jensen, Irene; Lohela-Karlsson, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that an episode of low back pain (LBP) be defined as: "a period of pain in the lower back lasting for more than 24 h preceded and followed by a period of at least 1 month without LBP". Previous studies have tested the definition in the general population and in se......Background: It has been proposed that an episode of low back pain (LBP) be defined as: "a period of pain in the lower back lasting for more than 24 h preceded and followed by a period of at least 1 month without LBP". Previous studies have tested the definition in the general population...

  13. Anatomy of the Episodic Buffer: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Patients with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Berlingeri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000 Baddeley proposed the existence of a new component of working memory, the episodic buffer, which should contribute to the on-line maintenance of integrated memory traces. The author assumed that this component should be critical for immediate recall of a short story that exceeds the capacity of the phonological store. Accordingly, patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD should suffer of a deficit of the episodic buffer when immediate recall of a short story is impossible. On the other hand, the episodic buffer should be somewhat preserved in such patients when some IR can occur (Baddeley and Wilson, 2002. We adopted this logic for a voxel-based morphometry study. We compared the distribution of grey-matter density of two such groups of AD patients with a group of age-matched controls. We found that both AD groups had a significant atrophy of the left mid-hippocampus; on the other hand, the anterior part of the hippocampus was significantly more atrophic in patients who were also impaired on the immediate prose recall task. Six out of ten patients with no immediate recall were spared at “central executive” tasks. Taken together our findings suggest that the left anterior hippocampus contributes to the episodic buffer of the revised working memory model. We also suggest that the episodic buffer is somewhat independent from the central executive component of working memory.

  14. Neurofeedback reduces overeating episodes in female restrained eaters: a randomized controlled pilot-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Martin, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Overeating episodes, despite of intentions to control weight, are a common problem among women. Recurring episodes of overeating and dietary failure have been reported to result in higher Body Mass Indexes and to induce severe distress even in non-clinical groups. Based on findings from physiological research on eating behavior and craving, as well as previous biofeedback studies, we derived a cue exposure based EEG neurofeedback protocol to target overeating episodes. The treatment was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial, comparing a neurofeedback group (NFG; n = 14) with a waiting list control group (WLG; n = 13) in a sub-clinical sample of female restrained eaters. At post-treatment, the number of weekly overeating episodes and subsequent distress were significantly reduced in the NFG compared to the WLG (p  .50). In a 3 month follow-up, effects in the NFG remained stable. As secondary outcomes, perceived dieting success was enhanced after the treatment. At follow-up, additional beneficial effects on trait food craving were observed. Altogether, we found preliminary evidence for the cue exposure neurofeedback against overeating episodes in female restrained eaters, although specific effects and underlying mechanisms still have to be explored in future research.

  15. The learning teacher in a collaborative lesson study team within the context of mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goei, Sui Lin; Verhoef, Neeltje Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises results of two studies on teachers’ learning when participating in a collaborative Lesson Study team within the context of mathematics teaching. In study one, Lesson Study was used in the classic way of preparing, designing, executing and reflecting on the research lesson.

  16. "Split" Character Studies in "Crime and Punishment." [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary

    Based on Fyodor Dostoevsky's novel "Crime and Punishment," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that: a close study of the characters of a literary classic will yield important clues to an understanding of the work as a whole; an effective analysis of stylistic devices depends upon selection and interpretation…

  17. Cultural Challenges in Adapting Lesson Study to a Philippines Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max

    2014-01-01

    Promising improved student and teacher learning, Japanese lesson study has attracted many international educators to try to implement it in their own contexts. However, a simple transference model of implementation is likely to meet difficulties. Key determinants of any adaptation will be differences between existing conventions of pedagogy and of…

  18. Mobile Learning vs. Traditional Classroom Lessons: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furió, D.; Juan, M.-C.; Seguí, I.; Vivó, R.

    2015-01-01

    Different methods can be used for learning, and they can be compared in several aspects, especially those related to learning outcomes. In this paper, we present a study in order to compare the learning effectiveness and satisfaction of children using an iPhone game for learning the water cycle vs. the traditional classroom lesson. The iPhone game…

  19. A pilot study of cognitive insight and structural covariance in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Corin; Buchy, Lisa; Barbato, Mariapaola; Makowski, Carolina; MacMaster, Frank P; Bray, Signe; Deighton, Stephanie; Addington, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive insight is described as a balance between one's self-reflectiveness (recognition and correction of dysfunctional reasoning), and self-certainty (overconfidence). Neuroimaging studies have linked the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) to cognitive insight in people with psychosis. However, the relationship between cognitive insight and structural connectivity between the VLPFC and other brain areas is unknown. Here, we investigated the modulation of cognitive insight on structural covariance networks involving the VLPFC in a first-episode psychosis sample. Fifteen patients with a first-episode psychosis provided magnetic resonance (MR) scans and completed the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). MR scans were also available for 15 historical controls. Seed-based analysis of structural covariance was conducted using the Mapping Anatomical Correlations Across the Cerebral Cortex (MACACC) methodology, whereby Pearson correlation coefficients were extracted between seed regions in left and right VLPFC and cortical thickness across the brain. Structural covariance maps between groups were compared at each vertex. In first-episode subjects, we evaluated the modulation of BCIS scores on cortical covariance between VLPFC and every other vertex. Findings showed no significant group difference between first-episode psychosis subjects and controls in thickness covariance seeded from left or right VLPFC. However, in first-episode psychosis subjects, a positive association with self-certainty was found in networks seeded from both left and right VLPFC with thickness in medial frontal cortex and right pars triangularis. No significant associations were found for self-reflectiveness. These results suggest that self-certainty, but not self-reflectiveness, positively modulated cortical covariance in a frontal network in patients with a first-episode psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Are All Judgments Created Equal? An fMRI Study of Semantic and Episodic Metamemory Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggev, Niv; Zuckerman, Maya; Maril, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Metamemory refers to the ability of individuals to monitor and control their own memory performance. Although little theoretical consideration of the possible differences between the monitoring of episodic and of semantic knowledge has been published, results from patient and drug studies that used the "feeling of knowing" (FOK) paradigm show a…

  1. Does duration of untreated psychosis bias study samples of first-episode psychosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, S; Melle, I; Larsen, T K

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: While findings are contradictory, many studies report that long Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) correlates with poorer outcome in first episode psychosis. In an outcome study of first-episode psychosis, we compared the patients who refused to participate in a follow-along with th......OBJECTIVE: While findings are contradictory, many studies report that long Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) correlates with poorer outcome in first episode psychosis. In an outcome study of first-episode psychosis, we compared the patients who refused to participate in a follow......-along with those who consented to estimate the importance of this factor in sample recruitment bias. Our questions were: (i) What is the percentage of refusers? (ii) Are there systematic differences between refusers and consenters on DUP and/or other admission variables? (iii) What is the risk of refusal...... for different values of DUP? METHOD: In an unselected group of consecutively admitted patients we compared follow-along refusers and consenters on the following admission variables: sex, age, diagnostic group, substance abuse, being in-patient, coming from an early detection site and DUP. We conducted...

  2. Individualized prediction of illness course at the first psychotic episode: a support vector machine MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mourao-Miranda, J

    2012-05-01

    To date, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made little impact on the diagnosis and monitoring of psychoses in individual patients. In this study, we used a support vector machine (SVM) whole-brain classification approach to predict future illness course at the individual level from MRI data obtained at the first psychotic episode.

  3. The Implementation of Lesson Study in English Language Learning: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakhid Nashruddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lesson Study as a growing interest in the education world has attracted educators, experts, and professionals in the area to make use of it in improving the lessons—it also happens in Indonesia. Originally applied in the teaching of mathematics in Japan, now it turns to be used in other fields, and English is one of them. This paper highlights the guideline on Lesson Study and pictures its application in a private senior high school in Malang, East Java, Indonesia. The adaptation of Lesson Study is interesting since Japan and Indonesia have different cultural background. How Lesson Study is usually implemented in Japan and the US and how it is applied in Indonesia will be seen here. As this is a case study, it will only focus on a school and the result should not be used to generalize Lesson Study applications in Indonesia. Interview and observation were instruments used in this study. The interview was used to gain information on how Lesson Study was normally conducted and observation (and the researchers’ involvements was used to see the real implementation of Lesson Study. What happened during the implementation of Lesson Study and during the teaching and learning process become a great attention here.

  4. Improving the primary school science learning unit about force and motion through lesson study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaikhumnam, Wuttichai; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to develop primary school science lesson plan based on inquiry cycle (5Es) through lesson study. The study focused on the development of 4 primary school science lesson plans of force and motion for Grade 3 students in KKU Demonstration Primary School (Suksasart), first semester of 2015 academic year. The methodology is mixed method. The Inthaprasitha (2010) lesson study cycle was implemented in group of KKU Demonstration Primary School. Instruments of reflection of lesson plan developing included participant observation, meeting and reflection report, lesson plan and other document. The instruments of examining students' learning include classroom observation and achievement test. Data was categorized from these instruments to find the issues of changing and improving the good lesson plan of Thai primary school science learning. The findings revealed that teachers could develop the lesson plans through lesson study. The issues of changing and improving were disused by considering on engaging students related to societal issues, students' prior knowledge, scientific concepts for primary school students, and what they learned from their changing. It indicated that the Lesson Study allowed primary school science teachers to share ideas and develop ideas to improve the lesson. The study may have implications for Thai science teacher education through Lesson Study.

  5. Depersonalisation and schizophrenia: Comparative study of initial and multiple episodes of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Luque, Rogelio; Chauca-Chauca, Geli Marie; Alonso-Lobato, Pablo; Jaen-Moreno, M Jose

    2016-01-01

    The phenomena of depersonalisation/derealisation have classically been associated with the initial phases of psychosis, and it is assumed that they would precede (even by years) the onset of clinical psychosis, being much more common in the prodromal and acute phases of the illness. The aims of the present study are to analyse the differences in depersonalisation/derealisation between patients with initial and multiple episodes and the factors that could influence this. A descriptive, controlled and cross-sectional study of 48 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (20 with an initial episode and 28 with multiple episodes). These patients were assessed using scales such as the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Participants with initial episodes score higher on both the Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale, and the subscale of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that evaluates such experiences. There were no associations between these types of experience and the positive symptoms subscale of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Depersonalisation/derealisation experiences appear with greater frequency, duration and intensity in patients in the early stages of the illnesses, gradually decreasing as they become chronic. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. PENERAPAN LESSON STUDY UNTUK MENINGKATAN KEMAMPUAN MENGAJAR MAHASISWA CALON GURU FISIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rif’ati Dina Handayani

    2015-02-01

    ABSTRAK Lesson study merupakan suatu model pengembangan kemampuan mengajar melalui pengkajian pembelajaran secara kolaboratif dan berkelanjutan. Lesson study dilaksanakan dalam tiga tahapan, yaitu plan, do, see yang dilaksanakan secara terstruktur, bersiklus dan berkelanjutan. Dalam penelitian ini subjek dari pelaksanaan lesson study adalah empat orang  mahasiswa calon guru fisika yang sedang melaksanakan PPL di salah satu SMP Negeri di Bondowoso. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan lesson study dapat meningkatkan kemampuan mengajar mahasiswa calon guru fisika dari kriteria kurang baik menjadi kriteria sangat baik. Kata kunci: Calon guru fisika, Lesson Study, Kemampuan Mengajar

  7. Do Students Really Understand Topology in the Lesson? A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narli, Serkan

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to specify to what extent students understand topology during the lesson and to determine possible misconceptions. 14 teacher trainees registered at Secondary School Mathematics education department were observed in the topology lessons throughout a semester and data collected at the first topology lesson is presented here.…

  8. Lesson study in prospective mathematics teacher education: didactic and paradidactic technology in the post-lesson reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the post-lesson reflection, carried out in the context of eight cases of lesson study conducted by teams of Danish, lower secondaryprospective teachers and their supervisors. The participants, representing different institutions, were all new to the less...... and concern to the whole profession of mathematics teachers and the analysis adds to our insight into the potential of lesson study in prospective education as a meeting place where pertinent actors contribute to the expansion and dissemination of shared professional knowledge......This paper presents a detailed analysis of the post-lesson reflection, carried out in the context of eight cases of lesson study conducted by teams of Danish, lower secondaryprospective teachers and their supervisors. The participants, representing different institutions, were all new to the lesson...... study format. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated how their interaction shape the development of discourse about mathematical learning. The anthropological theory of the didactic is employed as the theoretical approach to analyse the mathematical and primarily didactical praxeologies developed...

  9. Free Trade and Tariffs: Level III, Unit 2, Lesson 1; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism: Lesson 2; Nationalism vs. Internationalism: Lesson 3. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Free Trade and Tariffs; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism; and Nationalism vs. Internationalism. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)

  10. The OCAPI collaborative platform: study of two particle pollution episodes in 2016 in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret, Gilles; Michoud, Vincent; Formenti, Paola; Gratien, Aline; Beekmann, Matthias; Peinado, Florian; Favez, Olivier; Haeffelin, Martial; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Bodichon, Renaud; Gros, Valérie; Ghersi, Véronique; Meleux, Frédérik; Xuéref-Rémy, Irène

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution and its impacts are subject to an expanded interest since the middle of the 20th century, especially in urban areas which gathered an important part of emission sources. These polluted urban air masses are composed by a complex mixture of gases and aerosols coming from various emission sources (vehicular traffic, industries, residential heating, agricultural activities, natural sources) or chemical processes. To efficiently reduce this pollution and its impacts on population, it is important to understand its drivers, its sources and its impact on human health. To get some insights in Paris air pollution, a collaborative measurement platform called OCAPI ("Observation de la Composition Atmosphérique Parisienne de l'IPSL") has been built and implies several Parisian research laboratories of IPSL institute (CEREA, LSCE, LMD, LISA, LATMOS, LERMA and METIS) as well as public agencies and institutes in charge of Paris air pollution monitoring (AIRPARIF, INERIS). OCAPI platform aims at gathering skills and instruments of these laboratories to measure the composition and dynamics of Paris atmosphere. In this framework, multi-site measurements were performed during two intense particle pollution episodes which occurred in March 2016 and between November and December 2016. These two episodes were characterized by different meteorological conditions and different type of emission sources. Indeed, March episode was related to intense agricultural activities and high ammonium nitrate contribution to aerosol composition; while end of year episode was related to low wind speed, cold conditions and thin boundary layer which favoured the stagnation of locally emitted pollutants. This latter episode was characterized by large contribution of organics in aerosol composition. In this presentation, a study of these two episodes will be presented. We will first present the context and the OCAPI platform. Then, first results of dynamics and aerosol composition

  11. A magnetic resonance imaging study in first-episode disorganized-type patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Tohru; Kimura, Michihiro; Takahashi, Tadashi; Iwamoto, Norihiko; Arai, Heii

    1997-01-01

    Although a number of radiological studies have suggested that brains of patients suffering from schizophrenia have morphological abnormalities, the results are inconsistent. In the present study, in order to examine the brain, morphological features of homogeneous schizophrenics' brain magnetic resonance imagings (MRI) were taken, before neuroleptic treatment, from subjects suffering from disorganized-type schizophrenia, (DOS) during their first episodes. Results showed that DOS had significantly smaller indices for bilateral frontal gray matter (GM), left hippocampal formation (HF), left parahippocampal gray matter (PHGM) and left cingulate gyrus gray matter (CGM) than normal controls. These findings support the previous computed tomography (CT) and MRI studies on schizophrenic brains, although the subjects were not defined as disorganized-type, and may suggest the involvement of a neurocircuit between the bilateral frontal lobe and the left side of limbic system in the first-episode DOS group. (author). 54 refs

  12. Episodic Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  13. Qualitative Data Collection and Interpretation: A Turkish Social Studies Lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Grammes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The classroom with its teaching-learning dynamics creates a kind of “embryonic society” in which the micro-policies of collective social knowledge construction and meaning can be re-constructed; therefore, it can be considered as a kind of “mirror” of political culture. Thus, comparative lesson research, which requires indepth classroom observation, has been getting much attention among educational community. On the other hand, there have not been done many studies that represent social studies and civics in particular, in this research tradition. Naturally, this research tradition is based on qualitative research paradigm. Likewise, qualitative research tradition has been getting increasing attention among educational community. Thus, the first purpose of this article is to explain all documentation and pre-interpretation process of this lesson so that it can provide an example for qualitative researchers. The second purpose of this article is to provide an example lesson of political education from Turkey so that educators worldwide can compare one example of social studies education practice in Turkey and with their countries.

  14. A Text Mining Approach for Extracting Lessons Learned from Project Documentation: An Illustrative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Matthies

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lessons learned are important building blocks for continuous learning in project-based organisations. Nonetheless, the practical reality is that lessons learned are often not consistently reused for organisational learning. Two problems are commonly described in this context: the information overload and the lack of procedures and methods for the assessment and implementation of lessons learned. This paper addresses these problems, and appropriate solutions are combined in a systematic lesson learned process. Latent Dirichlet Allocation is presented to solve the first problem. Regarding the second problem, established risk management methods are adapted. The entire lessons learned process will be demonstrated in a practical case study

  15. Organizational justice and major depressive episodes in Japanese employees: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Several European studies showed that low organizational justice (i.e., procedural justice and interactional justice) was associated with major depressive disorders. In these studies, however, the diagnosis of major depressive disorders may be underestimated because they identified only individuals who visited a doctor and received a diagnosis. Moreover, these studies did not consider neurotic personality traits, which can affect the occurrence of major depressive disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cross-sectional association of organizational justice with major depressive episodes in the past 12 months more precisely in Japanese employees. A total of 425 males and 708 females from five branches of a manufacturing company in Japan completed self-administered questionnaires measuring organizational justice, other job stressors (i.e., job strain, social support at work, and effort-reward imbalance), neuroticism, and demographic characteristics. A web-based self-administered version of the computerized Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was used to assess major depressive episodes. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. In the univariate analysis, low procedural justice and low interactional justice were significantly associated with major depressive episodes in the past 12 months. After adjusting for other job stressors and demographic characteristics, only the association of interactional justice remained significant. The moderating effect of neuroticism on the association of organizational justice with major depressive episodes in the past 12 months was not significant. Low interactional justice may be associated with major depressive disorders regardless or other job stressors or neurotic personality traits.

  16. Predictors of functional and clinical outcome in early-onset first-episode psychosis: the child and adolescent first episode of psychosis (CAFEPS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parellada, Mara; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Moreno, Dolores; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Otero, Soraya; de la Serna, Elena; Moreno, Carmen; Baeza, Inmaculada; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to study baseline clinical and biological predictors of 2-year outcome in a cohort of children and adolescents with a first episode of psychosis. Standard instruments were used to evaluate symptoms and functioning in 110 children and adolescents (mean age = 15.47 years) with first episode of psychosis at admission (between 2003 and 2005) and after 2-year follow-up. Clinical assessments included diagnostic assessment to yield DSM-IV diagnosis, developmental, premorbid, and past-year data, together with structural neuroimaging and other biological parameters (genetics and oxidative stress). Eighty-three subjects had assessments at baseline (including the Strauss-Carpenter Outcome Scale [SCOS]) and at 2-year follow-up. Association and multistep regression analyses were conducted to show correlates and predictors of primary outcome measures: functional outcome (Children's Global Assessment Scale [CGAS]), improvement (CGAS change), and primary negative symptoms (Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome Scale). The SCOS predicted 27.46% (P < .001) of the variance in CGAS score at 2 years. Baseline severity (measured by CGAS) predicted 30.9% (P < .001) of CGAS improvement after 2 years, and SCOS total score predicted an added 24.1% (P < .001). A diagnosis of nonaffective psychosis, primary negative symptoms, and less white matter at baseline predicted more primary negative symptoms at follow-up. The prediction of functional outcome was not increased by genetic, oxidative stress, or neurostructural markers. Baseline clinical assessments have a better predictive value than biological assessments for 2-year follow-up functioning of children and adolescents with a first episode of psychosis. Patients with primary negative symptoms at baseline continue to have negative symptoms 2 years later, and neurostructural markers predict these. Clinicians must still rely on clinical variables to judge the functional prognosis of early-onset first psychotic episodes

  17. Relationship between muscle strength and fall episodes among the elderly: the Yilan study, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan-Ping; Hsu, Nai-Wei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Hsi-Chung; Tsao, Hsuan-Ming; Lo, Su-Shun; Chou, Pesus

    2018-04-13

    Fall episodes are not unusual among community residents, especially the elderly, and lower muscle strength is an important issue to address in order to prevent falls. A community health survey was conducted in a suburban area of Taiwan, and 1067 older adults were selected for enrollment in the present study. All the enrolled subjects had been visited at their homes; the subjects' strength of both hands and muscle mass of both legs were measured and well-established questionnaires were finished by certificated paramedic staffs. The incidence of fall episodes in the previous 1 year in the Yilan elderly population was 15.1%, and the female predominance was significant. A significantly higher prevalence of cataracts was found in group who experienced a fall in the past year (64% vs. 54.9% in the non-fall group). Mild or more severe dementia was much more prevalent in the group who experienced a recent fall (33.8% vs. 25.7% in the non-fall group). The strength of both hands tested as the physical function was 17.6 ± 8.0 kg in the recent fall group, significantly weaker than that in the non-fall group (20.7 ± 8.7 kg). Multivariate regression analysis revealed a greater weekly exercise duration and greater strength of both hands reduced the occurrence of falls among the whole and the female population. The standardized effect sizes of hand grip strength between both groups, not trivial, were 0.29 and 0.37 for the total population and the female subpopulation respectively. Less weekly exercise duration and weaker muscle strength were f ound to be independent risk factors of fall episode(s) in an elderly Taiwanese population, especially in the female sub-population. Muscle strength, measured by average of both hands grip strength, was the most significantly factor of one-year fall episode(s) accessed retrospectively.

  18. Lesson Study-Building Communities of Learning Among Pre-Service Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh, Fouada

    Lesson Study is a widely used pedagogical approach that has been used for decades in its country of origin, Japan. It is a teacher-led form of professional development that involves the collaborative efforts of teachers in co-planning and observing the teaching of a lesson within a unit for evidence that the teaching practices used help the learning process (Lewis, 2002a). The purpose of this research was to investigate if Lesson Study enables pre-service teachers to improve their own teaching in the area of science inquiry-based approaches. Also explored are the self-efficacy beliefs of one group of science pre-service teachers related to their experiences in Lesson Study. The research investigated four questions: 1) Does Lesson Study influence teacher preparation for inquiry-based instruction? 2) Does Lesson Study improve teacher efficacy? 3) Does Lesson Study impact teachers' aspiration to collaborate with colleagues? 4) What are the attitudes and perceptions of pre-service teachers to the Lesson Study idea in Science? The 12 participants completed two pre- and post-study surveys: STEBI- B, Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (Enochs & Riggs, 1990) and ASTQ, Attitude towards Science Teaching. Data sources included student teaching lesson observations, lesson debriefing notes and focus group interviews. Results from the STEBI-B show that all participants measured an increase in efficacy throughout the study. This study added to the body of research on teaching learning communities, professional development programs and teacher empowerment.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in subjects with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in a current depressive episode: Population-based study: Metabolic syndrome in current depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fernanda Pedrotti; Jansen, Karen; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Magalhães, Pedro Vieira da Silva; Kapczinski, Flávio; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David

    2017-09-01

    To assess the differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their components in young adults with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in a current depressive episode. This was a cross-sectional study with young adults aged 24-30 years old. Depressive episode (bipolar or unipolar) was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - Plus version (MINI Plus). The MetS was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III). The sample included 972 subjects with a mean age of 25.81 (±2.17) years. Both BD and MDD patients showed higher prevalence of MetS compared to the population sample (BD = 46.9%, MDD = 35.1%, population = 22.1%, p depressive episode compared to the general population. Moreover, there was a significant difference on BMI values in the case of BD and MDD subjects (p = 0.016). Metabolic components were significantly associated with the presence of depressive symptoms, independently of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Adverse life events increase risk for postpartum psychiatric episodes: A population-based epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer-Brody, S; Larsen, J T; Petersen, L; Guintivano, J; Florio, A Di; Miller, W C; Sullivan, P F; Munk-Olsen, T

    2018-02-01

    Trauma histories may increase risk of perinatal psychiatric episodes. We designed an epidemiological population-based cohort study to explore if adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in girls increases risk of later postpartum psychiatric episodes. Using Danish registers, we identified women born in Denmark between January 1980 and December 1998 (129,439 childbirths). Exposure variables were ACE between ages 0 and 15 including: (1) family disruption, (2) parental somatic illness, (3) parental labor market exclusion, (4) parental criminality, (5) parental death, (6) placement in out-of-home care, (7) parental psychopathology excluding substance use, and (8) parental substance use disorder. Primary outcome was first occurrence of in- or outpatient contact 0-6 months postpartum at a psychiatric treatment facility with any psychiatric diagnoses, ICD-10, F00-F99 (N = 651). We conducted survival analyses using Cox proportional hazard regressions of postpartum psychiatric episodes. Approximately 52% of the sample experienced ACE, significantly increasing risk of any postpartum psychiatric diagnosis. Highest risks were observed among women who experienced out-of-home placement, hazard ratio (HR) 2.57 (95% CI: 1.90-3.48). Women experiencing two adverse life events had higher risks of postpartum psychiatric diagnosis HR: 1.88 (95% CI: 1.51-2.36), compared to those with one ACE, HR: 1.24 (95% CI: 1.03-49) and no ACE, HR: 1.00 (reference group). ACE primarily due to parental psychopathology and disability contributes to increased risk of postpartum psychiatric episodes; and greater numbers of ACE increases risk for postpartum psychiatric illness with an observed dose-response effect. Future work should explore genetic and environmental factors that increase risk and/or confer resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The real world cost and health resource utilization associated to manic episodes: The MANACOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Undurraga, Juan; Reinares, María; Bonnín, Caterina del Mar; Sáez, Cristina; Mur, María; Nieto, Evaristo; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a relapsing-remitting condition affecting approximately 1-2% of the population. Even when the treatments available are effective, relapses are still very frequent. Therefore, the burden and cost associated to every new episode of the disorder have relevant implications in public health. The main objective of this study was to estimate the associated health resource consumption and direct costs of manic episodes in a real world clinical setting, taking into consideration clinical variables. Bipolar I disorder patients who recently presented an acute manic episode based on DSM-IV criteria were consecutively included. Sociodemographic variables were retrospectively collected and during the 6 following months clinical variables were prospectively assessed (YMRS,HDRS-17,FAST and CGI-BP-M). The health resource consumption and associate cost were estimated based on hospitalization days, pharmacological treatment, emergency department and outpatient consultations. One hundred sixty-nine patients patients from 4 different university hospitals in Catalonia (Spain) were included. The mean direct cost of the manic episodes was €4,771. The 77% (€3,651) was attributable to hospitalization costs while 14% (€684) was related to pharmacological treatment, 8% (€386) to outpatient visits and only 1% (€50) to emergency room visits. The hospitalization days were the main cost driver. An initial FAST score>41 significantly predicted a higher direct cost. Our results show the high cost and burden associated with BD and the need to design more cost-efficient strategies in the prevention and management of manic relapses in order to avoid hospital admissions. Poor baseline functioning predicted high costs, indicating the importance of functional assessment in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Does virtual reality have a future for the study of episodic memory in aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abichou, Kouloud; La Corte, Valentina; Piolino, Pascale

    2017-03-01

    Episodic memory is the memory of personally lived events located in time and space, it shapes our identity and allows us to project ourselves into the past and the future. This form of memory is vulnerable to the effects of age and its alteration, hindering the autonomy of the subjects, can predict the evolution towards neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, a better understanding of this type of memory is a priority in the field of public health. Actually, traditional neuropsychological tools are often decontextualized, using simplistic situations that did not require the mobilization of all the characteristics of episodic memory, thus they just offer a partial measure of this complex mnemonic capacity. Nowadays, the virtual reality (VR) is a tool allowing the immersion of subjects in simulations of real situations, rich in spatial and temporal naturalistic contexts. Due to its many characteristics, the VR allows to solve several limitations of the traditional tests. The purpose of this review is to expose studies that investigated episodic memory in normal and Alzheimer's disease using VR in order to address its relevance as a new tool in the future practice of neuropsychology of aging.

  3. Color and context: an ERP study on intrinsic and extrinsic feature binding in episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Zimmer, Hubert D; Groh-Bordin, Christian

    2007-09-01

    Episodic memory for intrinsic item and extrinsic context information is postulated to rely on two distinct types of representation: object and episodic tokens. These provide the basis for familiarity and recollection, respectively. Electrophysiological indices of these processes (ERP old-new effects) were used together with behavioral data to test these assumptions. We manipulated an intrinsic object feature (color; Experiment 1) and a contextual feature (background; Experiments 1 and 2). In an inclusion task (Experiment 1), the study-test manipulation of color affected object recognition performance and modulated ERP old-new effects associated with both familiarity and recollection. In contrast, a contextual manipulation had no effect, although both intrinsic and extrinsic information was available in a direct feature (source memory) test. When made task relevant (exclusion task; Experiment 2), however, context affected the ERP recollection effect, while still leaving the ERP familiarity effect uninfluenced. We conclude that intrinsic features bound in object tokens are involuntarily processed during object recognition, thus influencing familiarity, whereas context features bound in episodic tokens are voluntarily accessed, exclusively influencing recollection. Figures depicting all the electrodes analyzed are available in an online supplement at www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  4. PROMOTING ENGLISH TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (TPD THROUGH THE PRACTICE OF LESSON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuarti Apsari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper sheds some lights on the practice of lesson study conducted in higher education level in relations to teacher professional development. This study employed an explorative research design which involved a team of three English teachers of STKIP Siliwangi and one class of English Department. The team was involved in jointly designing, teaching, researching, refining a research lesson. The research was conducted in three cycles, in which each cycle was evaluated. The data were collected through two instruments: classroom observation and teachers’ reflective notes. The result revealed that the practice of lesson study can create multiple pathways for teaching improvement, especially in terms of collaborative activities done by teachers involved in the lesson study team. The result also revealed that the practice of lesson study the practice of lesson study can improve not only students’ academic skills, but also students’ social skills.

  5. A Study of Laughter in Science Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Ritchie, Stephen M.; Hudson, Peter; Mergard, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Laughter is a fundamental human phenomenon. Yet there is little educational research on the potential functions of laughter on the enacted (lived) curriculum. In this study, we identify the functions of laughter in a beginning science teacher's classroom throughout her first year of teaching. Our study shows that laughter is more than a gratuitous…

  6. Comparative study of clozapine versus risperidone in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhtej Sahni

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this preliminary study showed clozapine as a better choice than risperidone in terms of efficacy, tolerability and better quality of life in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia. However, further studies need to be done on a larger group of patients to confirm the findings.

  7. Knowledge in Action: Fitness Lesson Segments That Teach Health-Related Fitness in Elementary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Michael G.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; van der Mars, Hans; Lee, Chong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity levels after the implementation of a series of fitness lessons segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). KIA aims to teach health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) during short episodes of the physical education lesson. Teacher…

  8. Case Study: A Separation of Powers Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Steve

    1986-01-01

    Presents a case study involving students in the issue of separation of powers as applied to the 1952 Immigration and Nationality Act. Students examine the case of Jagdish Rai Chadha, an immigrant threatened with deportation whose problems resulted in 1983 U.S. Supreme Court decision declaring legislative veto provision of Immigration and…

  9. National Workplace Literacy Program. Garment-Related Bilingual (English & Chinese) T.V. Broadcast Lessons. Book I: Episodes 1-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinatown Manpower Project, Inc., New York, NY.

    This publication contains a series of 15 garment-related bilingual (English and Chinese) television broadcast lessons produced by the National Workplace Literacy Program of Chinatown Manpower Project, Inc. (Other partners were the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees and the Greater Blouse, Skirt and Undergarment Association in…

  10. Defining episodes of diarrhoea: results from a three-country study in Sub Saharan Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, Jarrad A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available in the study Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Normal stool Diarrhoea With blood and/or mucus ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� the shape of a container... prospective study. J Trop Pediatr 1991;37:293-9. 5. Morris SS, Cousens SN, Lanata CF, Kirkwood BR. Diarrhea__defining the episode. Int J Epidemiol 1994;23:617-23. 6. Wyrsch M, Coakley K, Alexander N, Saleu G, Taime J, Kakazo M. Diarrhoea morbidity in children...

  11. Understanding Support - lessons from a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Sauer

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Support from top management and others is agreed to be an important factor in information systems success and failure, but little is written about how it has its effect and how it might be managed to a project's advantage. A recently developed conceptual framework is described. It covers the nature and forms of support, the way support affects project outcomes, the bases on which support is provided, and the strategies by which support may be managed. The framework is used to analyse a case study in several stages. At the end of the analysis of each stage, the framework's utility is assessed in terms of its explanatory value and the practical advice it suggests. Areas for further research are identified.

  12. [Lessons from Guam ALS/PDC study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Hirano

    2007-11-01

    An extraordinarily high incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) affecting the native population was discovered on the island of Guam a half century ago. Guam ALS is identical to classic ALS clinically and pathologically while PDC is marked by progressive parkinsonism and dementia. The unusual histological finding in these fetal neurodegenerative diseases is the presence of numerous neurofibrillary tangles in a selective topographic distribution unassociated with senile plaques. There have been remarkable advances in field of age-associated neurodegenerative disease after our initial study of Guam cases. Four noteworthy topics are presented in this communication. 1) Clinically, the coexistence of parkinsonism and dementia was frequently recognized in Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease. Some other new disease entities characterized by coexistence of parkinsonism and dementia have been reported. These include progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. 2) Neuropathologically, abundant neurofibrillary tangles unassociated with senile plaques were demonstrated in many diseases such as aftermath of boxing and tangle-only dementia. Furthermore, tau-positive structures were recognized not only in neurons but in glial cells in certain diseases. Tauopathy is one of the current hot research subjects. 3) Familial aggregation of Guam ALS patients provoked investigation of familial ALS elsewhere. Familial motor neuron disease with SOD1 mutation is the target of worldwide intense investigation at the present time. SOD1 gene mutation is, however, not found in Guam ALS. 4) The most striking findings of the Guam study is the gradual decline in the incidence of ALS on Guam during a quarter century and virtual disappearance of new patients. This may be linked to a remarkable change in environment and life style of the Chamorro population. The etiology of ALS is still unknown and

  13. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  14. Microbial genome-wide association studies: lessons from human GWAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert A; Parkhill, Julian; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2017-01-01

    The reduced costs of sequencing have led to whole-genome sequences for a large number of microorganisms, enabling the application of microbial genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Given the successes of human GWAS in understanding disease aetiology and identifying potential drug targets, microbial GWAS are likely to further advance our understanding of infectious diseases. These advances include insights into pressing global health problems, such as antibiotic resistance and disease transmission. In this Review, we outline the methodologies of GWAS, the current state of the field of microbial GWAS, and how lessons from human GWAS can direct the future of the field.

  15. The effects of rehearsal on the functional neuroanatomy of episodic autobiographical and semantic remembering: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Eva; Levine, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of rehearsal on the neural substrates supporting episodic autobiographical and semantic memory. Stimuli were collected prospectively using audio recordings, thereby bringing under experimental control ecologically-valid, naturalistic autobiographical stimuli. Participants documented both autobiographical and semantic stimuli over a period of 6 to 8 months, followed by a rehearsal manipulation during the three days preceding scanning. During fMRI scanning participants were exposed to recordings that they were hearing for the first, second or eighth time. Rehearsal increased the rated vividness with which information was remembered, particularly for autobiographical events. Neuroimaging findings revealed rehearsal-related suppression of activation in regions supporting episodic autobiographical and semantic memory. Episodic autobiographical and semantic memory produced distinctly different patterns of regional activation that held even after eight repetitions. Region of interest analyses further indicated a functional anatomical dissociation in response to rehearsal and memory conditions. These findings revealed that the hippocampus was specifically engaged by episodic autobiographical memory, whereas both memory conditions engaged the parahippocampal cortex. Our data suggest that when retrieval cues are potent enough to engage a vivid episodic recollection, the episodic/semantic dissociation within medial temporal lobe structures endure even with multiple stimulus repetitions. These findings support the Multiple Trace Theory (MTT) which predicts that the hippocampus is engaged in the retrieval of rich episodic recollection regardless of repeated reactivation such as that occurring with the passage of time. PMID:19279244

  16. The effects of rehearsal on the functional neuroanatomy of episodic autobiographical and semantic remembering: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Eva; Levine, Brian

    2009-03-11

    This study examined the effects of rehearsal on the neural substrates supporting episodic autobiographical and semantic memory. Stimuli were collected prospectively using audio recordings, thereby bringing under experimental control ecologically valid, naturalistic autobiographical stimuli. Participants documented both autobiographical and semantic stimuli over a period of 6-8 months, followed by a rehearsal manipulation during the 3 d preceding scanning. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants were exposed to recordings that they were hearing for the first, second, or eighth time. Rehearsal increased the rated vividness with which information was remembered, particularly for autobiographical events. Neuroimaging findings revealed rehearsal-related suppression of activation in regions supporting episodic autobiographical and semantic memory. Episodic autobiographical and semantic memory produced distinctly different patterns of regional activation that held even after eight repetitions. Region of interest analyses further indicated a functional anatomical dissociation in response to rehearsal and memory conditions. These findings revealed that the hippocampus was specifically engaged by episodic autobiographical memory, whereas both memory conditions engaged the parahippocampal cortex. Our data suggest that, when retrieval cues are potent enough to engage a vivid episodic recollection, the episodic/semantic dissociation within medial temporal lobe structures endure even with multiple stimulus repetitions. These findings support the multiple trace theory, which predicts that the hippocampus is engaged in the retrieval of rich episodic recollection regardless of repeated reactivation such as that occurring with the passage of time.

  17. Overtime Work as a Predictor of Major Depressive Episode: A 5-Year Follow-Up of the Whitehall II Study

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, Marianna; Stansfeld, Stephen A.; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Ferrie, Jane E.; Kivim?ki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between overtime work and depression is still unclear. This study examined the association between overtime work and the onset of a major depressive episode (MDE). Methodology/Principal Findings Prospective cohort study with a baseline examination of working hours, psychological morbidity (an indicator of baseline depression) and depression risk factors in 1991?1993 and a follow-up of major depressive episode in 1997?1999 (mean follow-up 5.8 years) among British civ...

  18. White matter tracts in first-episode psychosis: A DTI tractography study of the uncinate fasciculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gary; Cercignani, Mara; Parker, Geoffrey J.M.; Altmann, Daniel R.; Barnes, Thomas R.E.; Barker, Gareth J.; Joyce, Eileen M.; Ron, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    A model of disconnectivity involving abnormalities in the cortex and connecting white matter pathways may explain the symptoms and cognitive abnormalities of schizophrenia. Recently, diffusion imaging tractography has made it possible to study white matter pathways in detail, and we present here a study of patients with first-episode psychosis using this technique. We studied the uncinate fasciculus (UF), the largest white matter tract that connects the frontal and temporal lobes, two brain regions significantly implicated in schizophrenia. Nineteen patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 23 controls were studied using a probabilistic tractography algorithm (PICo). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and probability of connection were obtained for every voxel in the tract, and the group means and distributions of these variables were compared. The spread of the FA distribution in the upper tail, as measured by the squared coefficient of variance (SCV), was reduced in the left UF in the patient group, indicating that the number of voxels with high FA values was reduced in the core of the tract and suggesting the presence of changes in fibre alignment and tract coherence in the patient group. The SCV of FA was lower in females across both groups and there was no correlation between the SCV of FA and clinical ratings. PMID:17988894

  19. Effects of Lesson Study on Science Teacher Candidates' Teaching Efficacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektas, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the lesson study process on science teacher candidates' teaching in terms of lesson plan content, pedagogy and classroom management based on expert, peer and self-evaluations. The participants of this case study consisted of 16 teacher candidates in elementary science education in their…

  20. Characterizing Mathematics Teaching Research Specialists' Mentoring in the Context of Chinese Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feishi; Gu, Lingyuan

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how mathematics teaching research specialists mentor practicing teachers during post-lesson debriefs of a lesson study in China. Based on a systematic, fine-grained analysis of 107 h of videotaped mentoring meetings of 20 groups of teachers and teaching research specialists from different elementary schools, this study reveals…

  1. Developing teachers’ self-efficacy and adaptive teaching behaviour through lesson study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Tijmen; Goei, Sui Lin; de Vries, Siebrich; van Veen, Klaas

    Teachers are expected to address a broad range of diverse pupil needs but do not always feel capable or lack the skills to meet these high expectations. The professional development approach Lesson Study may address this. Therefore, this study examines whether participating in Lesson Study

  2. Lessons learned from the PMI case study: the community perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, M L; Orians, C E; Kennedy, M G; Goodman, K J; Wijesinha, S; Seals, B F

    2000-03-01

    This summary report presents the lessons learned during the two-part qualitative case study on the efficacy of the Prevention Marketing Initiative (PMI) in its implementation of an HIV prevention program. About 179 community participants were included in the PMI program, which discussed topics ranging from organizing initial planning committees to financially sustaining federal demonstration programs. One of the successes observed was the development of rapport with schools and churches; however, during the course of its implementation, the program realized the necessity of 1) approaching the program as an ongoing process; 2) going beyond studying the target population through formative research; 3) changing the role of a community coalition as the project matures; 4) reexamining the composition of coalition in the light of the target audience; 5) advocating the project as a community resource that promotes collaboration; 6) attending the needs of coalition members; and 7) using the media in the campaign. Likewise, several lessons were also learned in the areas of youth involvement, intervention development, program implementation, and maintenance of PMI activities.

  3. Case studies in cholera: lessons in medical history and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavic, S. M.; Frehm, E. J.; Segal, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Cholera, a prototypical secretory diarrheal disease, is an ancient scourge that has both wrought great suffering and taught many valuable lessons, from basic sanitation to molecular signal transduction. Victims experience the voluminous loss of bicarbonate-rich isotonic saline at a rate that may lead to hypovolemic shock, metabolic acidosis, and death within afew hours. Intravenous solution therapy as we know it was first developed in an attempt to provide life-saving volume replacement for cholera patients. Breakthroughs in epithelial membrane transport physiology, such as the discovery of sugar and salt cotransport, have paved the way for oral replacement therapy in areas of the world where intravenous replacement is not readily available. In addition, the discovery of the cholera toxin has yielded vital information about toxigenic infectious diseases, providing a framework in which to study fundamental elements of intracellular signal transduction pathways, such as G-proteins. Cholera may even shed light on the evolution and pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis, the most commonly inherited disease among Caucasians. The goal of this paper is to review, using case studies, some of the lessons learned from cholera throughout the ages, acknowledging those pioneers whose seminal work led to our understanding of many basic concepts in medical epidemiology, microbiology, physiology, and therapeutics. PMID:11138935

  4. Cumulative social disadvantage, ethnicity and first-episode psychosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C; Kirkbride, J; Hutchinson, G; Craig, T; Morgan, K; Dazzan, P; Boydell, J; Doody, G A; Jones, P B; Murray, R M; Leff, J; Fearon, P

    2008-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported high rates of psychosis in the Black Caribbean population in the UK. Recent speculation about the reasons for these high rates has focused on social factors. However, there have been few empirical studies. We sought to compare the prevalence of specific indicators of social disadvantage and isolation, and variations by ethnicity, in subjects with a first episode of psychosis and a series of healthy controls. All cases with a first episode of psychosis who made contact with psychiatric services in defined catchment areas in London and Nottingham, UK and a series of community controls were recruited over a 3-year period. Data relating to clinical and social variables were collected from cases and controls. On all indicators, cases were more socially disadvantaged and isolated than controls, after controlling for potential confounders. These associations held when the sample was restricted to those with an affective diagnosis and to those with a short prodrome and short duration of untreated psychosis. There was a clear linear relationship between concentrated disadvantage and odds of psychosis. Similar patterns were evident in the two main ethnic groups, White British and Black Caribbean. However, indicators of social disadvantage and isolation were more common in Black Caribbean subjects than White British subjects. We found strong associations between indicators of disadvantage and psychosis. If these variables index exposure to factors that increase risk of psychosis, their greater prevalence in the Black Caribbean population may contribute to the reported high rates of psychosis in this population.

  5. [Physiopathology of autobiographical memory in aging: episodic and semantic distinction, clinical findings and neuroimaging studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolino, Pascale; Martinelli, Pénélope; Viard, Armelle; Noulhiane, Marion; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2010-01-01

    From an early age, autobiographical memory models our feeling of identity and continuity. It grows throughout lifetime with our experiences and is built up from general self-knowledge and specific memories. The study of autobiographical memory depicts the dynamic and reconstructive features of this type of long-term memory, combining both semantic and episodic aspects, its strength and fragility. In this article, we propose to illustrate the properties of autobiographical memory from the field of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and neuroimaging research through the analysis of the mechanisms of disturbance in normal and Alzheimer's disease. We show that the cognitive and neural bases of autobiographical memory are distinct in both cases. In normal aging, autobiographical memory retrieval is mainly dependent on frontal/executive function and on sense of reexperiencing specific context connected to hippocampal regions regardless of memory remoteness. In Alzheimer's disease, autobiographical memory deficit, characterized by a Ribot's temporal gradient, is connected to different regions according to memory remoteness. Our functional neuroimaging results suggest that patients at the early stage can compensate for their massive deficit of episodic recent memories correlated to hippocampal alteration with over general remote memories related to prefrontal regions. On the whole, the research findings allowed initiating new autobiographical memory studies by comparing normal and pathological aging and developing cognitive methods of memory rehabilitation in patients based on preserved personal semantic capacity. © Société de Biologie, 2010.

  6. Genetic Complexity of Episodic Memory: A Twin Approach to Studies of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremen, William S.; Spoon, Kelly M.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Franz, Carol E.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Xian, Hong; Rana, Brinda K.; Toomey, Rosemary; McKenzie, Ruth; Lyons, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory change is a central issue in cognitive aging, and understanding that process will require elucidation of its genetic underpinnings. A key limiting factor in genetically informed research on memory has been lack of attention to genetic and phenotypic complexity, as if “memory is memory” and all well-validated assessments are essentially equivalent. Here we applied multivariate twin models to data from late-middle-aged participants in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging to examine the genetic architecture of 6 measures from 3 standard neuropsychological tests: the California Verbal Learning Test-2, and Wechsler Memory Scale-III Logical Memory (LM) and Visual Reproductions (VR). An advantage of the twin method is that it can estimate the extent to which latent genetic influences are shared or independent across different measures before knowing which specific genes are involved. The best-fitting model was a higher order common pathways model with a heritable higher order general episodic memory factor and three test-specific subfactors. More importantly, substantial genetic variance was accounted for by genetic influences that were specific to the latent LM and VR subfactors (28% and 30%, respectively) and independent of the general factor. Such unique genetic influences could partially account for replication failures. Moreover, if different genes influence different memory phenotypes, they could well have different age-related trajectories. This approach represents an important step toward providing critical information for all types of genetically informative studies of aging and memory. PMID:24956007

  7. Suicide attempts in major depressive episode: evidence from the BRIDGE-II-Mix study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Dina; Vieta, Eduard; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Angst, Jules; Bowden, Charles L; Mosolov, Sergey; Young, Allan H; Perugi, Giulio

    2015-11-01

    The Bipolar Disorders: Improving Diagnosis, Guidance, and Education (BRIDGE-II-Mix) study aimed to estimate the frequency of mixed states in patients with a major depressive episode (MDE) according to different definitions and to compare their clinical validity, looking into specific features such as suicidality. A total of 2,811 subjects were enrolled in this multicenter cross-sectional study. Psychiatric symptoms, and sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected. The analysis compared the characteristics of patients with MDE with (MDE-SA group) and without (MDE-NSA) a history of suicide attempts. The history of suicide attempts was registered in 628 patients (22.34%). In the MDE-SA group, women (72.5%, p = 0.028), (hypo)mania in first-degree relatives (20.5%, p suicide attempts. In the MDE-SA group, 75 patients (11.9%) fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 criteria for MDE with mixed features, and 250 patients (39.8%) fulfilled research-based diagnostic criteria for a mixed depressive episode. Important differences between MDE-SA and MDE-NSA patients have emerged. Early identification of symptoms such as risky behavior, psychomotor agitation, and impulsivity in patients with MDE, and treatment of mixed depressive states could represent a major step in suicide prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Middle and Inferior Temporal Gyrus Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in First-Episode Schizophrenia: An MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroki, Noriomi; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth; Salisbury, Dean; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert William

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of schizophrenia reveal temporal lobe structural brain abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus and the amygdala-hippocampal complex. However, the middle and inferior temporal gyri have received little investigation, especially in first-episode schizophrenia. Method: High-spatial-resolution MRI was used to measure gray matter volume in the inferior, middle, and superior temporal gyri in 20 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 20 pa...

  9. An Event Related Potentials Study of Semantic Coherence Effect during Episodic Encoding in Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lâle Battal Merlet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this electrophysiological study was to investigate the processing of semantic coherence during encoding in relation to episodic memory processes promoted at test, in schizophrenia patients, by using the N400 paradigm. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy participants undertook a recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words either semantically related or unrelated to a given category name (context. During encoding, both groups exhibited an N400 external semantic coherence effect. Healthy controls also showed an N400 internal semantic coherence effect, but this effect was not present in patients. At test, related stimuli were accompanied by an FN400 old/new effect in both groups and by a parietal old/new effect in the control group alone. In the patient group, external semantic coherence effect was associated with FN400, while, in the control group, it was correlated to the parietal old/new effect. Our results indicate that schizophrenia patients can process the contextual information at encoding to enhance familiarity process for related stimuli at test. Therefore, cognitive rehabilitation therapies targeting the implementation of semantic encoding strategies can mobilize familiarity which in turn can overcome the recollection deficit, promoting successful episodic memory performance in schizophrenia patients.

  10. Effects of emotion and reward motivation on neural correlates of episodic memory encoding: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemune, Yayoi; Abe, Nobuhito; Suzuki, Maki; Ueno, Aya; Mori, Etsuro; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2010-05-01

    It is known that emotion and reward motivation promote long-term memory formation. It remains unclear, however, how and where emotion and reward are integrated during episodic memory encoding. In the present study, subjects were engaged in intentional encoding of photographs under four different conditions that were made by combining two factors (emotional valence, negative or neutral; and monetary reward value, high or low for subsequent successful recognition) during H2 15O positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. As for recognition performance, we found significant main effects of emotional valence (negative>neutral) and reward value (high value>low value), without an interaction between the two factors. Imaging data showed that the left amygdala was activated during the encoding conditions of negative pictures relative to neutral pictures, and the left orbitofrontal cortex was activated during the encoding conditions of high reward pictures relative to low reward pictures. In addition, conjunction analysis of these two main effects detected right hippocampal activation. Although we could not find correlations between recognition performance and activity of these three regions, we speculate that the right hippocampus may integrate the effects of emotion (processed in the amygdala) and monetary reward (processed in the orbitofrontal cortex) on episodic memory encoding. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Herbal medicine for hospitalized patients with severe depressive episode: a retrospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lan-Ying; Feng, Bin; Chen, Jiong; Tan, Qing-Rong; Chen, Zheng-Xin; Chen, Wen-Song; Wang, Pei-Rong; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine is increasingly used in depressed patients. The purpose of this retrospective controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine treatment of severe depressive episode. A total of 146 severely depressed subjects were selected from patients who were admitted to the Department of Psychosomatics of Tongde Hospital at Hangzhou, China between 1st September 2009 and 30th November 2013. While all were medicated with psychotropic drugs, 78 received additional individualized herbal medicine. The severity of depressive symptoms was measured using 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-24) at admission and thereafter once weekly during hospital stay. The proportion of patients achieving clinical response and remission and incidence of adverse events were compared. The two groups had similar average length of hospital stay for approximately 28 days and were not different in the use of psychotropic medications. Survival analysis revealed that patients with herbal medicine had significantly higher chance of achieving clinical response [relative risk (RR)=2.179, Pherbal medicine. Patients with herbal medicine experienced remarkably fewer incidences of physical tiredness, headache, palpitation, dry mouth and constipation, but had a significantly higher incidence of digestive discomfort compared to patients without herbal medicine. These results indicate that additional treatment with individualized herbal medicine enhances antidepressant response and reduces certain side effects associated with psychotropic medications. Herbal medicine is an effective and relatively safe therapy for severe depressive episode (Trial Registration: ChiCTR-OCH-13003864). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Deep geologic disposal. Lessons learnt from recent performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Andersson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Performance assessment (PA) studies are part of the decision basis for the siting, operation, and closure of deep repositories of long-lived nuclear wastes. In 1995 the NEA set up the Working Group on Integrated Performance Assessments of Deep Repositories (IPAG) with the goals to analyse existing PA studies, learn about what has been produced to date, and shed light on what could be done in future studies. Ten organisations submitted their most recent PA study for analysis and discussion, including written answers to over 70 questions. Waste management programmes, disposal concepts, geologies, and different types and amounts of waste offered a unique opportunity for exchanging information, assessing progress in PA since 1990, and identifying recent trends. A report was completed whose main lessons are overviewed. (author)

  13. "Lesson Study" as Professional Culture in Japanese Schools: An Historical Perspective on Elementary Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arani, Mohammad Reza Sarkar; Keisuke, Fukaya; Lassegard, James P.

    2010-01-01

    This research examines "lesson study" as a traditional model of creating professional knowledge in schools. "Lesson study," typically defined as teachers' classroom based collaborative research, has a long history in Japan as a shared professional culture with potential for enhancing learning, enriching classroom activities and…

  14. Professional growth in adaptive teaching competence as a result of Lesson Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Tijmen; Goei, Sui Lin; de Vries, Siebrich; van Veen, Klaas

    2017-01-01

    Since classrooms have become more diverse, professional development on adaptive teaching seems critically important, yet turns out to be complex. Lesson Study may address this issue due to its explicit focus on student learning. In total, 22 Lesson Study participants from" different school contexts

  15. Professional growth in adaptive teaching competence as a result of Lesson Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijmen Schipper; Sui Lin Goei; Klaas Veen; Siebrich Vries

    2017-01-01

    Since classrooms have become more diverse, professional development on adaptive teaching seems critically important, yet turns out to be complex. Lesson Study may address this issue due to its explicit focus on student learning. In total, 22 Lesson Study participants from different school contexts

  16. Self-projection in younger and older adults: a study of episodic memory, prospection, and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Shoshana N; Miller, Jeremy K

    2017-07-01

    Self-projection is the ability to orient the self in different places in time and space. Episodic memory, prospection, and theory of mind (ToM) are all cognitive abilities that share an element of self-projection. Previous research has posited that each of these abilities stems from the same neural network. The current study compared performance of cognitively healthy older adults and younger adults on several self-projection tasks to examine the relatedness of these constructs behaviorally. Episodic memory and prospection were measured using an episodic interview task where the participants were asked to remember or imagine events that either had happened in the past or could happen in the future and then gave ratings describing the extent to which they were mentally experiencing the event and from what perspective they viewed it. ToM was measured by asking participants to make judgments regarding the intentions of characters described in stories that involved cognitive, affective, or ironic components. Our results demonstrate that aging influences episodic memory, prospection, and ToM similarly: older adult participants showed declines on each of these measures compared to younger adults. Further, we observed correlations between performance on the measures of episodic memory and prospection as well as between episodic memory and ToM, although no correlation between prospection and ToM was observed after controlling for chronological age. We discuss these results in the light of theories suggesting that each of these abilities is governed by a common brain system.

  17. A qualitative study of the prodrome to first-episode major depressive disorder in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Sheriff, Rebecca J; McGorry, Patrick D; Cotton, Sue; Yung, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Currently, we lack a clear picture of the evolution of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. The period of disturbance preceding MDD can be conceptualised as the prodrome. The aim of the study was to explore the prodrome of first-episode MDD retrospectively in a group of help-seeking adolescents using qualitative methodologies. Consecutively referred adolescents (15-18 years of age) with first-episode MDD were recruited for this study from Orygen Youth Health, Melbourne, Vic., Australia. After using quantitative methodologies to confirm the index episode of MDD and measure the extent of recovery, the prodrome was investigated in depth using qualitative techniques. Twenty-nine adolescents (20 females and 9 males) and 7 informants (6 mothers and 1 grandmother) participated. All 29 participants had a prodrome of varying lengths (between 6 days and 4 years). The most noticeable symptoms initially were perplexity and confusion and, thereafter, sadness and irritability. A common pattern was a reduction in their ability to fulfil their role accompanied by guilt, self-blame and reduced self-esteem. Around half of the participants had increased thoughts of suicide and increased anxiety. There were gender differences in the patterns of symptoms noticed, with males more commonly noticing a change in how they related to the world and females more commonly noticing a change in the way that they related to others. All informants noticed a prodrome of varying lengths; in 2 cases longer, in 2 cases shorter and in 3 cases around the same time period as that noticed by the participant. The changes most commonly noticed by informants were sadness, upset, irritability and reduced self-esteem. The symptoms were fewer in number and sometimes varied from those noticed by the adolescents themselves. Whilst we recognise that this study is vulnerable to autobiographical bias, we took all reasonable measures to minimise this. Symptoms not included in the diagnostic criteria for

  18. The late negative episodic memory effect: the effect of recapitulating study details at test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David; Cycowicz, Yael M; Bersick, Michael

    2005-05-01

    An hypothesis concerning mnemonic function suggests that perceptual details of previously experienced episodes are retrieved from the cortices that initially processed that information during the encoding phase. Cycowicz et al. [Cycowicz, Y.M., Friedman, D. and Snodgrass, J.G., Remembering the color of objects: an ERP investigation of source memory, Cereb Cortex, 11 (2001) 322-334.] have interpreted the presence of a late negative episodic memory (EM) effect, maximal over parieto-occipital scalp, as a brain signature of the search for and/or retrieval/evaluation of the specific perceptual source-specifying attributes (i.e., color) of pictures in the visual cortical regions that were recruited during the encoding of that information. The present study assessed the validity of this hypothesis. Twelve participants studied pictures outlined in red or green and were subsequently tested with inclusion (i.e., item; old or new regardless of color) and exclusion (i.e., source; same color, different color/new judgments) tasks. In both, old pictures were presented either in the same color as at study or in the alternate color. A late negative, parieto-occipital EM effect was of much larger amplitude in the source compared to the item task. It was of similar magnitude to correctly recognized pictures whose colors were identical at study and test relative to those whose colors changed, and was not modulated by the success or failure of the source retrieval. These data run counter to the initial hypothesis that the late negative EM effect reflects the search for and/or retrieval of specific perceptual attributes such as color. Rather, the late negative EM effect may reflect the search for and/or retrieval/evaluation of more general source-specifying information in the cortical regions that initially processed the stimuli.

  19. An Action Research Study: Using Classroom Guidance Lessons to Teach Middle School Students about Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Rebecca C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a three-part classroom guidance lesson that teaches middle school students the definition of sexual harassment, the difference between flirting and sexual harassment, and the harmful effects of sexual harassment. An action research study evaluated the effectiveness of the lessons in decreasing referrals for sexual harassment…

  20. Lessons learned? Selected public acceptance case studies since Three Mile Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blee, D. [NAC International, Atlanta Corporate Headquarters, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2001-02-01

    This paper will present an overview of the present situation, some recent polling survey information, and then look at lessons learned in terms of selected case studies and some global issues over the 22 years since the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident. That is quite an ambitious topic but there are some important lessons we can learn from the post-TMI era. (author)

  1. Source tagging modeling study of heavy haze episodes under complex regional transport processes over Wuhan megacity, Central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Miaomiao; Tang, Xiao; Wang, Zifa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Liang, Shengwen; Hu, Ke; Wu, Lin; Wu, Huangjian; Huang, Zhen; Shen, Longjiao

    2017-01-01

    Wuhan as a megacity of Central China was suffering from severe particulate matter pollution according to previous observation studies, however, the mechanism behind the pollution formation especially the impact of regional chemical transport is still unclear. This study, carried out on the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) coupled with an on-line source-tagging module, explores different roles regional transport had in two strong haze episodes over Wuhan in October 2014 and quantitatively assesses the contributions from local and regional sources to PM 2.5 concentration. Validation of predictions based on observations shows modeling system good skills in reproducing key meteorological and chemical features. The first short-time haze episode occurred on 12 October under strong northerly winds, with a hourly PM 2.5 peak of 180 μg m −3 , and was found to be caused primarily by the long-range transport from the northern regions, which contributed 60.6% of the episode's PM 2.5 concentration (versus a total of 32.7% from sources in and near Wuhan). The second episode lasted from the 15–20 October under stable regional large-scale synoptic conditions and weak winds, and had an hourly PM 2.5 peak of 231.0 μg m −3 . In this episode, both the long-distance transport from far regions and short-range transport from the Wuhan-cluster were the primary causes of the haze episode and account for 24.8% and 29.2% of the PM 2.5 concentration respectively. Therefore, regional transport acts as a crucial driver of haze pollution over Wuhan through not only long-range transfer of pollutants, but also short-range aerosol movement under specific meteorological conditions. The present findings highlight the important role of regional transport in urban haze formation and indicate that the joint control of multi city-clusters are needed to reduce the particulate pollution level in Wuhan. - Highlights: • Regional transport impacts studied on two haze

  2. A comparative study of olanzapine versus asenapine in acute treatment of manic episode: A 3-week prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet Sidana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment of bipolar disorders has evolved over the years from conventional mood stabilizers to second-generation antipsychotics. Among the atypical antipsychotics, few have been approved by Food and Drug Administration as treatment of bipolar disorders. Aim: To study the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine and asenapine in the acute treatment of bipolar disorder-manic episode in a 3-week randomized prospective study. Materials and Methods: A 3-week randomized, prospective, comparative, flexible doses of olanzapine (5-30 mg/day and asenapine (10-20 mg/day for acute treatment of bipolar disorder-current manic episode with or without psychotic symptoms in hospitalized patients. Results: The end-point reduction in mean score of Young Mania rating scale in the olanzapine group was 15.82 in comparison to 6.88 in the asenapine group. Mean score on clinical global impression for bipolar disorder and positive and negative syndrome scale was significantly less in the olanzapine group at the end of the study. 81.81% patients in olanzapine group and 17.60% patients in asenapine group had clinical response. There was significant average weight gain in the olanzapine group - 1.9 kg in comparison to 0.87 kg in asenapine group. Conclusion: The clinical response with olanzapine is significantly higher than the asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder-manic episode with or without psychotic symptoms. However, there is significant weight gain in olanzapine-treated patients.

  3. Association Between Vitamin D Status and Schizophrenia: A First Psychotic Episode Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavert, José; Grados, Dolors; Ramiro, Nuria; Carrión, Maria Isabel; Fadeuilhe, Christian; Palma, Felipe; López, Laura; Erra, Alba; Ramírez, Nicolás

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with schizophrenia. We aimed to determine whether patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) had lower vitamin D levels compared with controls considering their final diagnosis. We conducted a cross-sectional study determining 25-hydroxyvitamin D blood levels. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels were considered optimum at 20 ng/mL or greater. A group of 45 adult patients with FEP and a group of 22 healthy controls matched for age were recruited. The patient group was subdivided in two final diagnosis groups (schizophrenia versus other psychoses) after a 6-month follow-up. Average vitamin D values were deficient for FEP patients, especially those 22 with a final diagnosis of schizophrenia. These results relating vitamin D and schizophrenia generate interest to further examine this association.

  4. Lesson studies y desarrollo profesional docente: estudio de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí PEÑA TRAPERO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es explorar las lesson y learning studies* como modalidad de formación permanente del profesorado orientada a la reconstrucción del «pensamiento práctico». En la presente investigación sobre una maestra que participa en un grupo basado en esta modalidad de formación, esta estrategia metodológica se ha manifestado como un instrumento valioso, puesto que ayuda a promover la reflexión y el cuestionamiento crítico de creencias, hábitos y emociones habitualmente implícitas.

  5. Hypoglycaemia and QT interval prolongation in type 1 diabetes - bridging the gap between clamp studies and spontaneous episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke F.; Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Tarnow, Lise

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We propose a study design with controlled hypoglycaemia induced by subcutaneous injection of insulin and matched control episodes to bridge the gap between clamp studies and studies of spontaneous hypoglycaemia. The observed prolongation of the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) during...... hypoglycaemia varies greatly between studies. METHODS: We studied ten adults with type 1 diabetes (age 41±15years) without cardiovascular disease or neuropathy. Single-blinded hypoglycaemia was induced by a subcutaneous insulin bolus followed by a control episode on two occasions separated by 4weeks. QT...

  6. Collaborative, individualised lifestyle interventions are acceptable to people with first episode psychosis; a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedley, Rebecca; Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny; Bradshaw, Tim; Gellatly, Judith; Ward, Kate; Woodham, Adrine; Wearden, Alison

    2018-04-25

    The adverse impact of unhealthy lifestyle choices and the prescription of antipsychotic medications contribute to weight gain, poor cardiovascular health and reduced life expectancy for people with psychosis. The present study aimed to explore the acceptability and perceived outcomes of a lifestyle intervention designed to prevent or reduce weight gain in people with first-episode psychosis. This was a qualitative study using a data-driven approach. People recovering from first-episode psychosis recruited from UK early intervention services and taking part in the active arm of a randomised controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention (the InterACT trial), were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework Analysis. Participants valued the collaborative and individualised approach taken by the intervention deliverers, and formed high quality relationships with them. Aspects of the intervention that were positively appraised included goal setting, social opportunities, and progress monitoring. Benefits of the intervention, including increased levels of exercise; improved diet and physical health; increased psychological wellbeing (e.g. confidence, self-esteem); and improved social relationships, were identified by participants, independent of actual weight loss. Future interventions should ensure that workers have the skills to form high quality relationships with users, and to individualise the intervention according to users' needs and preferences. Future trials that test healthy living interventions should consider supplementing physical outcome measures with wider psychosocial outcome assessments, in particular social relationship quality, psychological wellbeing, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN22581937 . Date of registration: 27 October 2010 (retrospectively registered).

  7. The implementation of school-based lesson study at elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnomo Purnomo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe and interpret the implementation of school-based lesson study in SDN I Kretek. This study uses the qualitative research. The data were collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation, field notes, and documentation. The data validity was determined through sources and techniques triangulation. The data were analyzed using the Interactive Analysis Model from Miles and Huberman. The results show: (1 the planning of school-based lesson study program at SDN 1 Kretek has been implemented from the beginning of the school year 2014/2015 by establishing school-based lesson study team. This team is responsible for planning, managing, and evaluating school-based lesson study program at SDN 1 Kretek, (2 school-based lesson study at SDN 1 Kretek is implemented in three phases, namely planning, implementation, and reflection, and (3 The evaluation of lesson study is conducted by each teacher who has conducted the open class and conducted thoroughly with a meeting by a team of school-based lesson study SDN 1 Kretek at the end of the school year.

  8. A developmental study of heavy episodic drinking among college students: the role of psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessor, Richard; Costa, Frances M; Krueger, Patrick M; Turbin, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    A theory-based protection/risk model was applied to explain variation in college students' heavy episodic drinking. Key aims were (1) to establish that psychosocial and behavioral protective factors and risk factors can account for cross-sectional and developmental variation in heavy episodic drinking, and (2) to examine whether protection moderates the impact of risk on heavy episodic drinking. Random- and fixed-effects maximum likelihood regression analyses were used to examine data from a three-wave longitudinal study. Data were collected in fall of 2002, spring of 2003, and spring of 2004 from college students (N=975; 548 men) who were first-semester freshmen at Wave 1. Psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors accounted for substantial variation in college-student heavy episodic drinking, and protection moderated the impact of risk. Findings held for both genders and were consistent across the three separate waves of data. Key predictors of heavy episodic drinking were social and individual controls protection (e.g., parental sanctions for transgression and attitudinal intolerance of deviance, respectively); models risk (peer models for substance use); behavioral protection (attendance at religious services); and behavioral risk (cigarette smoking and marijuana use). Changes in controls protection, models risk, and opportunity risk were associated with change in heavy episodic drinking. An explanatory model based on both psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors was effective in accounting for variation in college-student heavy episodic drinking. A useful heuristic was demonstrated through the articulation of models, controls, support, opportunity, and vulnerability to characterize the social context, and of controls, vulnerability, and other behaviors to characterize individuals.

  9. Effects of BDNF polymorphism and physical activity on episodic memory in the elderly: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivet, Anne; Albinet, Cédric T; André, Nathalie; Pylouster, Jean; Rodríguez-Ballesteros, Montserrat; Kitzis, Alain; Audiffren, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration is highest in the hippocampus compared with that in other brain structures and affects episodic memory, a cognitive function that is impaired in older adults. According to the neurotrophic hypothesis, BDNF released during physical activity enhances brain plasticity and consequently brain health. However, even if the physical activity level is involved in the secretion of neurotrophin, this protein is also under the control of a specific gene. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the interaction between physical activity and BDNF Val66Met (rs6265), a genetic polymorphism, on episodic memory. Two hundred and five volunteers aged 55 and older with a Mini Mental State Examination score ≥ 24 participated in this study. Four groups of participants were established according to their physical activity level and polymorphism BDNF profile (Active Val homozygous, Inactive Val homozygous, Active Met carriers, Inactive Met carriers). Episodic memory was evaluated based on the delayed recall of the Logical Memory test of the MEM III battery. As expected, the physical activity level interacted with BDNF polymorphism to affect episodic memory performance (p physical activity and BDNF Val66Met polymorphism that affects episodic memory in the elderly and confirms that physical activity contributes to the neurotrophic mechanism implicated in cognitive health. The interaction shows that only participants with Val/Val polymorphism benefited from physical activity.

  10. Enacting Curriculum Reform through Lesson Study: A Case Study of Mathematics Teacher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Shuilleabhain, Aoibhinn; Seery, Aidan

    2018-01-01

    Based in a time of major curriculum reform, this article reports on a qualitative case study of teacher professional development (PD) in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). Five mathematics teachers in an Irish secondary school were introduced to and participated in successive cycles of school-based lesson study (LS) over the course of one academic…

  11. Event-Related fMRI Studies of Episodic Encoding and Retrieval: Meta-Analyses Using Activation Likelihood Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, Julia; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Kim, Alice S. N.; Han, Hua; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2009-01-01

    The recent surge in event-related fMRI studies of episodic memory has generated a wealth of information about the neural correlates of encoding and retrieval processes. However, interpretation of individual studies is hampered by methodological differences, and by the fact that sample sizes are typically small. We submitted results from studies of…

  12. Lessons Learned from PR and PP Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bley, D.C. [Buttonwood Consulting, Inc., 11738 English Mill Court, Oakton, VA 22124 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) working group on proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) has developed a methodology for evaluating the PR and PP effectiveness of Gen-IV nuclear energy systems. A number of applications studies culminating in the 2008-2009 Case Study have been helpful in developing the methodology, and in testing its ease of use and ability to provide useful information to designers and policy/decision makers. This paper examines the lessons learned from these studies. The applications studies evaluated a set of PR and PP measures for an 'Example Sodium Fast Reactor' (ESFR), a hypothetical design incorporating many features of anticipated Gen-IV energy systems. The objectives of the 2008- 2009 Case Study were to exercise the GIF PR and PP Methodology for a complete Gen-IV reactor/fuel cycle system; to demonstrate, via the comparison of different design options, that the methodology can generate meaningful results for designers and decision makers; to provide examples of PR and PP evaluations for future users; to facilitate transition to other studies; and to facilitate other ongoing collaborative efforts (e.g., INPRO) and associated efforts (e.g., GNEP). We will explain how the Case Study met these goals. PR Lessons Learned. We found that completeness in 'diversion' pathways can be ensured and that a set of diversion pathway segments can be developed along with proliferation resistance measures for each pathway. The examination of 'misuse' found that misuse, for achieving weapons-usable fissile material, is a complex process, i.e., it is not a single action on a single piece of equipment, but rather an integrated exploitation of various assets and system elements. We found that 'breakout' is a modifying strategy within the diversion and misuse threats and takes various forms that depend upon intent and aggressiveness, and ultimately the proliferation time assumed by a

  13. Adaptive scaling of reward in episodic memory:a replication study

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Alice; Ludwig, Casimir; Farrell, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Reward is thought to enhance episodic memory formation via dopaminergic consolidation. Bunzeck, Dayan, Dolan, and Duzel [(2010). A common mechanism for adaptive scaling of reward and novelty. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 1380–1394] provided functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioural evidence that reward and episodic memory systems are sensitive to the contextual value of a reward—whether it is relatively higher or lower—as opposed to absolute value or prediction error. We carrie...

  14. Episodes of breathlessness: types and patterns - a qualitative study exploring experiences of patients with advanced diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steffen T; Higginson, Irene J; Benalia, Hamid; Gysels, Marjolein; Murtagh, Fliss Em; Spicer, James; Bausewein, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence and impact of episodic breathlessness, information about characteristics and patterns is scarce. To explore the experience of patients with advanced disease suffering from episodic breathlessness, in order to describe types and patterns. Qualitative design using in-depth interviews with patients suffering from advanced stages of chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer or motor neurone disease. As part of the interviews, patients were asked to draw a graph to illustrate typical patterns of breathlessness episodes. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework Analysis. The graphs were grouped according to their patterns. Fifty-one participants (15 chronic heart failure, 14 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 13 lung cancer and 9 motor neurone disease) were included (mean age 68.2 years, 30 of 51 men, mean Karnofsky 63.1, mean breathlessness intensity 3.2 of 10). Five different types of episodic breathlessness were described: triggered with normal level of breathlessness, triggered with predictable response (always related to trigger level, e.g. slight exertion causes severe breathlessness), triggered with unpredictable response (not related to trigger level), non-triggered attack-like (quick onset, often severe) and wave-like (triggered or non-triggered, gradual onset). Four patterns of episodic breathlessness could be identified based on the graphs with differences regarding onset and recovery of episodes. These did not correspond with the types of breathlessness described before. Patients with advanced disease experience clearly distinguishable types and patterns of episodic breathlessness. The understanding of these will help clinicians to tailor specific management strategies for patients who suffer from episodes of breathlessness.

  15. Mathematics teachers’ reflective practice within the context of adapted lesson study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Posthuma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be paucity of research in South Africa on mathematics teachers’ reflective practice. In order to study this phenomenon, the context of lesson study (in an adapted form was introduced to five mathematics teachers in a rural school in the Free State. The purpose was to investigate their reflective practice whilst they collaboratively planned mathematics lessons and reflected on the teaching of the lessons. Data were obtained through interviews, video-recorded lesson observations, field notes taken during the lesson study group meetings and document analyses (lesson plans and reflective writings. The adapted lesson study context provided a safe space for teachers to reflect on their teaching and they reported an increase in self-knowledge and finding new ways of teaching mathematics to learners. This finding has some potential value for planning professional learning programmes in which teachers are encouraged to talk about their classroom experiences, share their joys and challenges with one another and strive to build a community of reflective practitioners to enhance their learners’ understanding of mathematics.

  16. Afforestation, seasalt episodes and acidification - A paired catchment study in western Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen, Thorjorn; Holme, Jorun

    2006-01-01

    As acid deposition has declined during the past 15-20 years in western Norway, afforestation and episodic seasalt deposition have become factors of increasing importance in explaining the mobilization of toxic aluminum (Al n+ ) to rivers and lakes. We conducted a paired catchment at four sites in western Norway across a gradient in acid deposition to evaluate the importance of afforestation and seasalt episodes. Streamwater was sampled intensively before, during and after seasalt episodes over a three-year period. A seasalt episode in January 2003 caused considerable impact on the streamwater chemistry. pH dropped and concentrations of Al n+ increased due to cation exchange of Na + ions for H + and Al n+ in the soil. The response was larger in streams draining the catchments which receive high acid deposition and in those afforested with spruce as compared with adjacent catchments in native birch. The results indicate that acid pulses induced by episodic inputs of seasalts are exacerbated by land use change from native birch to planted spruce. - Seasalt episodes cause higher mobilization of toxic aluminum in sites afforested with spruce

  17. First episode of preschool wheeze requiring hospitalization: a prospective study on the chance of recurrence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantawarangul, Karaked; Deerojanawong, Jitladda; Sritippayawan, Suchada

    2017-09-17

    Although wheezing is very common in preschoolers, epidemiologic studies in Thailand are quite limited. The likelihood of having a second wheezing episode following the first attack remains unclearly established. This study aims to investigate the incidence of recurrent wheezing in preschool children presenting with first wheezing episode and identify the associated factors. The study is an observational prospective study conducted at the inpatient pediatric department. Patients admitted with first episode of wheezing were followed up as an outpatient approximately one week after hospital discharge and subsequently followed up by telephone 3-monthly with a structured questionnaire seeking information concerning recurrent wheezing, defined as having a second wheezing episode requiring bronchodilator within a 1-year period. The total of 97 patients, aged 6 months to 5 years, were recruited from June 2014 to November 2015. Thirty-five patients were excluded because of inaccessibility for telephone follow-up. Amongst the remaining 62 patients, twenty-eight (45.2%) had recurrent wheezing within one year. The mean lapse duration was 4.7 ± 3.7 months after the first episode. Having an allergic sensitization to aeroallergen was a risk factor for recurrent wheezing (OR 2.48, 95%CI 1.81-3.4). Although not statistically significant, having an allergic sensitization to food seems to be another related factor (OR 2.36, 95%CI 1.75-3.18). The recurrent rate of wheezing was 45%, which was considerably significant. Allergic sensitization to aeroallergen might increase the risk. These patients should be followed up, especially within the first year after their first wheezing episode.

  18. Functional-anatomic study of episodic retrieval using fMRI. I. Retrieval effort versus retrieval success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, R L; Koutstaal, W; Schacter, D L; Wagner, A D; Rosen, B R

    1998-04-01

    A number of recent functional imaging studies have identified brain areas activated during tasks involving episodic memory retrieval. The identification of such areas provides a foundation for targeted hypotheses regarding the more specific contributions that these areas make to episodic retrieval. As a beginning effort toward such an endeavor, whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine 14 subjects during episodic word recognition in a block-designed fMRI experiment. Study conditions were manipulated by presenting either shallow or deep encoding tasks. This manipulation yielded two recognition conditions that differed with regard to retrieval effort and retrieval success: shallow encoding yielded low levels of recognition success with high levels of retrieval effort, and deep encoding yielded high levels of recognition success with low levels of effort. Many brain areas were activated in common by these two recognition conditions compared to a low-level fixation condition, including left and right prefrontal regions often detected during PET episodic retrieval paradigms (e.g., R. L. Buckner et al., 1996, J. Neurosci. 16, 6219-6235) thereby generalizing these findings to fMRI. Characterization of the activated regions in relation to the separate recognition conditions showed (1) bilateral anterior insular regions and a left dorsal prefrontal region were more active after shallow encoding, when retrieval demanded greatest effort, and (2) right anterior prefrontal cortex, which has been implicated in episodic retrieval, was most active during successful retrieval after deep encoding. We discuss these findings in relation to component processes involved in episodic retrieval and in the context of a companion study using event-related fMRI.

  19. Two Prospective Studies of Changes in Stress Generation across Depressive Episodes in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Hellman, Natalie; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. Participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mother’s history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6 through 12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with ≤ 2 prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with ≥ 3 prior MDEs. In Study 2, participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were re-assessed for depression and stress approximately eight months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multi-factorial relation between stress and depression is discussed. PMID:25422968

  20. Revitalising Mathematics Classroom Teaching through Lesson Study (LS): A Malaysian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chap Sam; Kor, Liew Kee; Chia, Hui Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how implementation of Lesson Study (LS) has brought about evolving changes in the quality of mathematics classroom teaching in one Chinese primary school. The Japanese model of LS was adapted as a teacher professional development to improve mathematics teachers' teaching practices. The LS group consisted of five mathematics…

  1. The Composition of Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Benton J.; And Others

    This study examined the interrelationships among a number of episodic memory tasks and among various attributes of memory. A sample of 200 college students was tested for ten sessions; 28 different measures of episodic memory were obtained. In addition, five measures of semantic memory were available. Results indicated that episodic and semantic…

  2. General health influences episodes of xerostomia: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luciana; Kupek, Emil; Peres, Karen G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associated factors of changes in symptoms of xerostomia (SOX) in adults aged 20-59. A prospective population-based study was conducted in 2009 (n = 1720) and 2012 (n = 1222) in the urban area of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Information on SOX was collected in both years together with age, family income, years of schooling, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, changes in the body mass index (BMI; kg/m²), medicine use, self-reported diagnosis of chronic diseases, change in hypertension status and in the use and need for dentures, and number of remaining teeth. Associated factors with changes in SOX were investigated using multinomial logistic regression, considering those who had never reported this symptom as the reference. Prevalence of regular SOX was equal to 3.8% (95% CI: 2.9-5.1) and irregular (one period only) equal to 12.2% (95% CI: 10.2-14.5). Age, smoking habit, medicine use, self-reported diagnosis of depression, and weight gain increased the probability of regular SOX, whereas highest schooling level was associated with lower probability of this symptom. General and psychosocial health influenced the number of episodes of xerostomia symptoms, calling for multidisciplinary actions to prevent common risk behaviors for oral and general diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Participants' perceived benefits of family intervention following a first episode of psychosis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Liv; Frich, Jan C; Friis, Svein; Norheim, Irene; Røssberg, Jan Ivar

    2016-04-01

    To explore the perceived benefits for patients and family members of psychoeducational family intervention following a first episode of psychosis. A qualitative exploratory study using data from interviews with 12 patients and 14 family members who participated in a psychoeducational multi- or single-family treatment programme. Semi-structured interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim with slight modifications, after which they were analysed by systematic text condensation. Patients and family members reported benefits that could be classified in five categories: (i) developing insight and acceptance requires understanding of the fact that the patient has an illness, and recognizing the need for support; (ii) recognizing warning signs requires an understanding of early signs of deterioration in the patient; (iii) improving communication skills is linked to new understanding and better communication both within the family and in groups; (iv) Learning to plan and solve problems requires the ability to solve problems in new ways; (v) becoming more independent requires patients to take responsibility for their own life. The study suggests that developing insight and acceptance, learning about warning signs, improving communications skills, learning to plan and solve problems, and becoming more independent are perceived as benefits of a psychoeducational family intervention. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency in first episode psychosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Matthieu; Lally, John; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Howes, Oliver; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Smith, Shubulade; Murray, Robin M; Di Forti, Marta; Gaughran, Fiona

    2013-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is seen in a high proportion of people with established psychotic disorders, but it is not known if this is present at onset of the illness. We set out to examine vitamin D levels in people with their first episode of psychosis (FEP). We conducted a matched case-control study to examine vitamin D levels and rates of vitamin D deficiency in sixty nine patients presenting with their FEP and sixty nine controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity. Differences between groups were tested using student's-t tests, paired t-tests and odds ratios for further analysis. Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in cases than in controls (pvitamin D deficient was 2.99 in the FEP group relative to the control group. There was no correlation between vitamin D levels and length of hospitalisation in the patient group (r=-0.027, p=0.827). We found higher rates of vitamin D deficiency in people with FEP compared to matched controls. Given that vitamin D is neuroprotective; that developmental vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for psychosis, and that incipient psychosis may affect lifestyle factors and diet, future studies are required to examine this association further. In the meantime, there is a need for more widespread testing of vitamin D levels in FEP and for the development of appropriate management strategies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling ESCOMPTE episodes with the CTM MOCAGE. Part 2 : sensitivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, A.; Amodei, M.; Brocheton, F.; Michou, M.; Peuch, V.-H.

    2003-04-01

    The multi-scale CTM MOCAGE has been applied to study pollution episodes documented during the ESCOMPTE field campain in June July 2001 in south eastern France (http://medias.obs-mip.fr/escompte). Several sensitivity studies have been performed on the basis of the 2nd IOP, covering 6 continuous days. The main objective of the present work is to investigate the question of chemical boundary conditions, as on the vertical than on the horizontal, for regional air quality simulations of several days. This issue, that often tended to be oversimplified (use of fixed continental climatology), raises increasing interest, particurlarly with the perspective of space-born tropospheric chemisry data assimilation in global model. In addition, we have examined how resolution refinements impact on the quality of the model outputs, at the surface and in altitude, against the observational database of dynamic and chemistry : resolution of the model by the way of the four nested models (from 2° to 0.01°), but also resolution of emission inventories (from 1° to 0.01°). Lastly, the impact of the refinement in the representation of chemistry has been assessed by using either detailed chemical schemes, such as RAM or SAPRC, or schemes used in global modelling, which just account for a limited amount of volatil hydrocarbon.

  6. Japanese lesson study in mathematics its impact, diversity and potential for educational improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Isoda, Masami; Stephens, Max

    2007-01-01

    In Before It''s Too Late: A Report to the Nation from the National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century (2000) in the US, the authors quote from James Stigler''s conclusions from various videotape research studies of mathematics teaching: "The key to long-term improvement [in teaching] is to figure out how to generate, accumulate, and share professional knowledge". Japanese Lesson Study has proved to be one successful means. This book supports the growing movement of lesson study to improve the quality of mathematics education from the original viewpoints of Japanese educators who have been engaging in lesson study in mathematics for professional development and curriculum implementation. This book also illustrates several projects related to lesson study in other countries.

  7. Mixed features in patients with a major depressive episode: the BRIDGE-II-MIX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugi, Giulio; Angst, Jules; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Bowden, Charles L; Mosolov, Sergey; Reis, Joao; Vieta, Eduard; Young, Allan H

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the frequency of mixed states in patients diagnosed with major depressive episode (MDE) according to conceptually different definitions and to compare their clinical validity. This multicenter, multinational cross-sectional Bipolar Disorders: Improving Diagnosis, Guidance and Education (BRIDGE)-II-MIX study enrolled 2,811 adult patients experiencing an MDE. Data were collected per protocol on sociodemographic variables, current and past psychiatric symptoms, and clinical variables that are risk factors for bipolar disorder. The frequency of mixed features was determined by applying both DSM-5 criteria and a priori described Research-Based Diagnostic Criteria (RBDC). Clinical variables associated with mixed features were assessed using logistic regression. Overall, 212 patients (7.5%) fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for MDE with mixed features (DSM-5-MXS), and 818 patients (29.1%) fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a predefined RBDC depressive mixed state (RBDC-MXS). The most frequent manic/hypomanic symptoms were irritable mood (32.6%), emotional/mood lability (29.8%), distractibility (24.4%), psychomotor agitation (16.1%), impulsivity (14.5%), aggression (14.2%), racing thoughts (11.8%), and pressure to keep talking (11.4%). Euphoria (4.6%), grandiosity (3.7%), and hypersexuality (2.6%) were less represented. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, RBDC-MXS was associated with the largest number of variables including diagnosis of bipolar disorder, family history of mania, lifetime suicide attempts, duration of the current episode > 1 month, atypical features, early onset, history of antidepressant-induced mania/hypomania, and lifetime comorbidity with anxiety, alcohol and substance use disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Depressive mixed state, defined as the presence of 3 or more manic/hypomanic features, was present in around one-third of patients experiencing an MDE. The valid symptom, illness

  8. Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned and Accelerated Testing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    A number of mechanism (mechanical moving component) failures and anomalies have recently occurred on satellites. In addition, more demanding operating and life requirements have caused mechanism failures or anomalies to occur even before some satellites were launched (e.g., during the qualification testing of GOES-NEXT, CERES, and the Space Station Freedom Beta Joint Gimbal). For these reasons, it is imperative to determine which mechanisms worked in the past and which have failed so that the best selection of mechanically moving components can be made for future satellites. It is also important to know where the problem areas are so that timely decisions can be made on the initiation of research to develop future needed technology. To chronicle the life and performance characteristics of mechanisms operating in a space environment, a Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned Study was conducted. The work was conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and by Mechanical Technologies Inc. (MTI) under contract NAS3-27086. The expectation of the study was to capture and retrieve information relating to the life and performance of mechanisms operating in the space environment to determine what components had operated successfully and what components had produced anomalies.

  9. Environmental Studies, Section V: Oceanography. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.15: Pollution of the Oceans. Study Guide and Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individual learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on pollution of the oceans. The slides,…

  10. Foresight studies and reform initiatives in construction: Lessons for developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses construction foresight studies and construction reform initiatives with a view to identifying lessons for developing countries. It notes the number of construction reform initiatives over the last 60 years, mostly...

  11. IVHS Institutional Issues and Case Studies, Analysis and Lessons Learned, Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This 'Analysis and Lessons Learned' report contains observations, conclusions, and recommendations based on the performance of six case studies of Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems (IVHS) projects. Information to support the development of the case...

  12. Time-based analysis of total cost of patient episodes: a case study of hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Antti; Kujala, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare in the public and private sectors is facing increasing pressure to become more cost-effective. Time-based competition and work-in-progress have been used successfully to measure and improve the efficiency of industrial manufacturing. Seeks to address this issue. Presents a framework for time based management of the total cost of a patient episode and apply it to the six sigma DMAIC-process development approach. The framework is used to analyse hip replacement patient episodes in Päijät-Häme Hospital District in Finland, which has a catchment area of 210,000 inhabitants and performs an average of 230 hip replacements per year. The work-in-progress concept is applicable to healthcare--notably that the DMAIC-process development approach can be used to analyse the total cost of patient episodes. Concludes that a framework, which combines the patient-in-process and the DMAIC development approach, can be used not only to analyse the total cost of patient episode but also to improve patient process efficiency. Presents a framework that combines patient-in-process and DMAIC-process development approaches, which can be used to analyse the total cost of a patient episode in order to improve patient process efficiency.

  13. Risk of psychosis and internal migration: Results from the Bologna First Episode Psychosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarricone, Ilaria; Boydell, Jane; Kokona, Arnisa; Triolo, Federico; Gamberini, Lisa; Sutti, Enrico; Marchetta, Michela; Menchetti, Marco; Di Forti, Marta; Murray, Robin M; Morgan, Craig; Berardi, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    Incidence of psychotic disorders is higher in many migrant groups; however little is known about internal migrants (IM). This study aims to describe the IR in natives (NA), IM and external migrants (EM). All patients aged 18-64years, with First Episode Psychosis (FEP), who made contact with the Bologna West psychiatric services, between 2002 and 2010, were included. 187 cases were included. Age and sex adjusted IR of psychosis per 100,000per year were: 12.6 for NA, 25.3 for IM and 21.4 for EM. The IRR was 1.93 (1.19-3.13, P=0.007) for IM and 1.79 (1.06-3.02, P=0.03) for EM compared to NA. Rates of psychosis were significantly elevated in IM as well as in EM. This result adds evidence as to the role of migration itself (versus ethnicity) on the risk of psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of action on episodic memory: a virtual reality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, Gaën; Barra, Julien; Orriols, Eric; Piolino, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    A range of empirical findings suggest that active learning is important for memory. However, few studies have focused on the mechanisms underlying this enactment effect in episodic memory using complex environments. Research using virtual reality has yielded inconsistent results. We postulated that the effect of action depends on the degree of interaction with the environment and freedom in the planning of an itinerary. To test these hypotheses, we disentangled the interaction and planning components of action to investigate whether each enhances factual and spatial memory. Seventy-two participants (36 male and 36 female) explored a virtual town in one of three experimental conditions: (a) a passive condition where participants were immersed as passenger of the car (no interaction, no planning); (b) a planning-only condition (the subject chose the itinerary but did not drive the car); (c) an interaction-only condition (the subject drove the car but the itinerary was fixed). We found that itinerary choice and motor control both enhanced spatial memory, while factual memory was impaired by online motor control. The role of action in memory is discussed.

  15. The Media and the Image of War. Study Guide. Episode #724. America's Defense Monitor, Educational TV for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Claudia

    This program examines the series of myths generated by the media about war, peace, and the use of force. This episode explores the emergence of the popular interpretation of violence by "good" citizens who use violence to produce positive results during wartime. The study guide offers questions to use before viewing the video, questions to follow…

  16. The Press and the Pentagon. Study Guide. Episode #824. America's Defense Monitor, Educational TV for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. T.

    This program examines the changing relationship between the military and the press. In this episode leading journalists and military public affairs officials debate uses of censorship, access to the battlefield, and the impact of live television on military operations. The study guide offers questions to use before viewing the video, questions to…

  17. Brain-relevant antibodies in first-episode psychosis: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughran, Fiona; Lally, John; Beck, Katherine; McCormack, Ruaidhri; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Coutinho, Ester; Jacobson, Leslie; Lang, Bethan; Sainz-Fuertes, Ricardo; Papanastasiou, Evangelos; Di Forti, Marta; Nicholson, Tim; Vincent, Angela; Murray, Robin M

    2018-06-01

    There has been much recent excitement about the possibility that some cases of psychosis may be wholly due to brain-reactive antibodies, with antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex reported in a few patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Participants were recruited from psychiatric services in South London, UK, from 2009 to 2011 as part of the Genetics and Psychosis study. We conducted a case-control study to examine NMDAR and VGKC-complex antibody levels and rates of antibody positivity in 96 patients presenting with FEP and 98 controls matched for age and sex. Leucine-rich glioma inactiviated-1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein (CASPR) antibodies were also measured. Notably, patients with suspicion of organic disease were excluded. VGKC-complex antibodies were found in both cases (n = 3) and controls (n = 2). NMDAR antibody positivity was seen in one case and one control. Either LGI1-Abs or CASPR2-Abs were found in three cases and three controls. Neuronal antibody staining, consistent with the above results or indicating potential novel antigens, was overall positive in four patients but also in six controls. Overall, antibody positivity was at low levels only and not higher in cases than in controls. This case-control study of the prevalence of antibodies in FEP does not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that FEP is associated with an immune-mediated process in a subgroup of patients. Nevertheless, as other bio-clinical factors may influence the effect of such antibodies in a given individual, and patients with organic neurological disease may be misdiagnosed as FEP, the field requires more research to put these findings in context.

  18. Incidence and Risk Factors of Childhood Pneumonia-Like Episodes in Biliran Island, Philippines--A Community-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisato Kosai

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is a leading cause of deaths in infants and young children in developing countries, including the Philippines. However, data at the community level remains limited. Our study aimed to estimate incidence and mortality rates and to evaluate risk factors and health-seeking behavior for childhood pneumonia. A household level interview survey was conducted in Biliran Island, the Philippines. Caregivers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to check if children had symptoms suggesting pneumonia-like episodes from June 2011 to May 2012. Of 3,327 households visited in total, 3,302 (99.2% agreed to participate, and 5,249 children less than 5 years of age were included in the study. Incidence rates of pneumonia-like episodes, severe pneumonia-like episodes, and pneumonia-associated mortality were 105, 61, and 0.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. History of asthma [hazard ratio (HR: 5.85, 95% confidence interval (CI: 4.83-7.08], low socioeconomic status (SES (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.20, and long travel time to the healthcare facility estimated by cost distance analysis (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09-1.61 were significantly associated with the occurrence of pneumonia-like episodes by the Cox proportional hazards model. For severe pneumonia-like episodes, a history of asthma (HR: 8.39, 95% CI: 6.54-10.77 and low SES (HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.17-1.45 were significant risk factors. Children who had a long travel time to the hospital were less likely to seek hospital care (Odds ratio: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.19-0.54 when they experienced severe pneumonia-like episodes. Incidence of pediatric pneumonia-like episodes was associated with a history of asthma, SES, and the travel time to healthcare facilities. Travel time was also identified as a strong indicator for health-seeking behavior. Improved access to healthcare facilities is important for early and effective management. Further studies are warranted to understand the causal relationship

  19. Incidence and Risk Factors of Childhood Pneumonia-Like Episodes in Biliran Island, Philippines—A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Hisato; Tamaki, Raita; Saito, Mayuko; Tohma, Kentaro; Alday, Portia Parian; Tan, Alvin Gue; Inobaya, Marianette Tawat; Suzuki, Akira; Kamigaki, Taro; Lupisan, Soccoro; Tallo, Veronica; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of deaths in infants and young children in developing countries, including the Philippines. However, data at the community level remains limited. Our study aimed to estimate incidence and mortality rates and to evaluate risk factors and health-seeking behavior for childhood pneumonia. A household level interview survey was conducted in Biliran Island, the Philippines. Caregivers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to check if children had symptoms suggesting pneumonia-like episodes from June 2011 to May 2012. Of 3,327 households visited in total, 3,302 (99.2%) agreed to participate, and 5,249 children less than 5 years of age were included in the study. Incidence rates of pneumonia-like episodes, severe pneumonia-like episodes, and pneumonia-associated mortality were 105, 61, and 0.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. History of asthma [hazard ratio (HR): 5.85, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.83–7.08], low socioeconomic status (SES) (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02–1.20), and long travel time to the healthcare facility estimated by cost distance analysis (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09–1.61) were significantly associated with the occurrence of pneumonia-like episodes by the Cox proportional hazards model. For severe pneumonia-like episodes, a history of asthma (HR: 8.39, 95% CI: 6.54–10.77) and low SES (HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.17–1.45) were significant risk factors. Children who had a long travel time to the hospital were less likely to seek hospital care (Odds ratio: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.19–0.54) when they experienced severe pneumonia-like episodes. Incidence of pediatric pneumonia-like episodes was associated with a history of asthma, SES, and the travel time to healthcare facilities. Travel time was also identified as a strong indicator for health-seeking behavior. Improved access to healthcare facilities is important for early and effective management. Further studies are warranted to understand the causal relationship

  20. Wintertime particulate pollution episodes in an urban valley of the Western US: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.-W. A.; Watson, J. G.; Chow, J. C.; Green, M. C.; Inouye, D.; Dick, K.

    2012-11-01

    This study investigates the causes of elevated PM2.5 episodes and potential exceedences of the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in Truckee Meadows, Nevada, an urban valley of the Western US, during winter 2009/2010, an unusually cold and snowy winter. Continuous PM2.5 mass and time-integrated chemical speciation data were acquired from a central valley monitoring site, along with meteorological measurements from nearby sites. All nine days with PM2.5 > 35 μg m-3 showed 24-h average temperature inversion of 1.5-4.5 °C and snow cover of 8-18 cm. Stagnant atmospheric conditions limited wind ventilation while highly reflective snow cover reduced daytime surface heating creating persistent inversion. Elevated ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and water associated with it are found to be main reasons for the PM2.5 exceedances. An effective-variance chemical mass balance (EV-CMB) receptor model using locally-derived geological profiles and inorganic/organic markers confirmed secondary NH4NO3 (27-37%), residential wood combustion (RWC; 11-51%), and diesel engine exhaust (7-22%) as the dominant PM2.5 contributors. Paved road dust and de-icing materials were minor, but detectable contributors. RWC is a more important source than diesel for organic carbon (OC), but vice versa for elemental carbon (EC). A majority of secondary NH4NO3 is also attributed to RWC and diesel engines (including snow removal equipment) through oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from these sources. Findings from this study may apply to similar situations experienced by other urban valleys.

  1. Wintertime particulate pollution episodes in an urban valley of the Western US: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-W. A. Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the causes of elevated PM2.5 episodes and potential exceedences of the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS in Truckee Meadows, Nevada, an urban valley of the Western US, during winter 2009/2010, an unusually cold and snowy winter. Continuous PM2.5 mass and time-integrated chemical speciation data were acquired from a central valley monitoring site, along with meteorological measurements from nearby sites. All nine days with PM2.5 > 35 μg m−3 showed 24-h average temperature inversion of 1.5–4.5 °C and snow cover of 8–18 cm. Stagnant atmospheric conditions limited wind ventilation while highly reflective snow cover reduced daytime surface heating creating persistent inversion. Elevated ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 and water associated with it are found to be main reasons for the PM2.5 exceedances. An effective-variance chemical mass balance (EV-CMB receptor model using locally-derived geological profiles and inorganic/organic markers confirmed secondary NH4NO3 (27–37%, residential wood combustion (RWC; 11–51%, and diesel engine exhaust (7–22% as the dominant PM2.5 contributors. Paved road dust and de-icing materials were minor, but detectable contributors. RWC is a more important source than diesel for organic carbon (OC, but vice versa for elemental carbon (EC. A majority of secondary NH4NO3 is also attributed to RWC and diesel engines (including snow removal equipment through oxides of nitrogen (NOx emissions from these sources. Findings from this study may apply to similar situations experienced by other urban valleys.

  2. Effects of enactment in episodic memory: a pilot virtual reality study with young and elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebara, Najate; Orriols, Eric; Zaoui, Mohamed; Berthoz, Alain; Piolino, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    None of the previous studies on aging have tested the influence of action with respect to the degree of interaction with the environment (active or passive navigation) and the source of itinerary choice (self or externally imposed), on episodic memory (EM) encoding. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the influence of these factors on feature binding (the association between what, where, and when) in EM and on the subjective sense of remembering. Navigation in a virtual city was performed by 64 young and 64 older adults in one of four modes of exploration: (1) passive condition where participants were immersed as passengers of a virtual car [no interaction, no itinerary control (IC)], (2) IC (the subject chose the itinerary, but did not drive the car), (3) low, or (4) high navigation control (the subject just moved the car on rails or drove the car with a steering-wheel and a gas pedal on a fixed itinerary, respectively). The task was to memorize as many events encountered in the virtual environment as possible along with their factual (what), spatial (where), and temporal (when) details, and then to perform immediate and delayed memory tests. An age-related decline was evidenced for immediate and delayed feature binding. Compared to passive and high navigation conditions, and regardless of age-groups, feature binding was enhanced by low navigation and IC conditions. The subjective sense of remembering was boosted by the IC in older adults. Memory performance following high navigation was specifically linked to variability in executive functions. The present findings suggest that the decision of the itinerary is beneficial to boost EM in aging, although it does not eliminate age-related deficits. Active navigation can also enhance EM when it is not too demanding for subjects' cognitive resources.

  3. Heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related injuries: An open cohort study among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Doallo, Sonia; Corral, Montserrat; Rodriguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effects of Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) on the incidence of alcohol-related injuries among university students in Spain, taking sex into consideration. We carried out an open cohort study among college students in Spain (992 women and 371 men). HED and alcohol-related injuries were measured by question 3rd and 9th of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22, 24 and 27. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for alcohol and cannabis use. The incidence rate of alcohol-related injuries was 0.028year -1 for females and 0.036year -1 for males. The multivariate analysis showed that among females a high frequency of HED and use of cannabis are risk factors for alcohol-related injuries (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.64 and OR=3.68), while being more than 23 is a protective factor (OR=0.34). For males, bivariate analysis also showed HED like risk factor (OR=4.69 and OR=2.51). Finally, the population attributable fraction for HED among females was 37.12%. HED leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries in both sexes and being over 23 years old acts as a protective factor among women. Our results suggest that about one third of alcohol-related injuries among women could be avoided by removing HED. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of clinical characteristics and antipsychotic medication prescribing practices of first-episode schizophrenia in Israel: a naturalistic prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strous, Rael D; Bar, Faina; Keret, Noa; Lapidus, Raya; Kosov, Nikolai; Chelben, Joseph; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of the clinical presentation and treatment of first-episode psychosis is important in order to exclude effects of age, chronic illness, long-term treatment and institutionalization. The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the management practices of first-episode schizophrenia in a cohort of patients in Israel and to document use of the various "typical" or "atypical" antipsychotic agents. Fifty-one consecutive patients (26 M, 25 F) with first-episode psychosis were recruited for study participation and were administered either typical or atypical antipsychotic medications in a naturalistic manner. While an approximately equal number of subjects received typical and atypical medications at illness onset, a prominent shift to atypical antipsychotic treatment occurred over the study course; 18 subjects had medication class shifts: 17 from typical to atypical, and one from atypical to typical. Negative symptoms did not affect length of hospitalization, but were associated with aggression. Higher depression rates were noted in patients with long hospitalizations who received typical antipsychotic medications. Immigrants were admitted at an age approximately four years older than native-born Israelis. The prominent shift from "typical" to "atypical" antipsychotic medications may indicate sensitivity of first-episode psychotic patients to side-effects of "typical" medications and prominence of use of atypical medications in this patient subpopulation be it due to improved efficacy over time or successful marketing. Unique cultural and population characteristics may contribute to the manifestation of first-episode psychosis and suggest the importance of more effective outreach to the immigrant population in order to manage an apparent treatment delay.

  5. A 10-year follow-up study of violent victimization in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, Johannes; Bjørkly, Stål; Evensen, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Violent victimization in persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences. Little is known about the long-term prevalence of victimization in first episode psychosis, or about factors affecting victimization throughout the course of illness. To assess the prevalence of violent...

  6. General and social cognition in remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients : a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldiroli, Alice; Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Cahn, Wiepke; Altamura, A Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate whether both neurocognitive and social cognitive performances were different between remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients, non-remitters and healthy controls (HC). We assessed social cognition (Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task-DFAR and

  7. The Episodic Buffer in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy A.

    2010-01-01

    Performance on three verbal measures (story recall, paired associated learning, category fluency) designed to assess the integration of long-term semantic and linguistic knowledge, phonological working memory and executive resources within the proposed "episodic buffer" of working memory (Baddeley, 2007) was assessed in children with intellectual…

  8. The diagnostic yield of the first episode of a periodic health evaluation: a descriptive epidemiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermott Cindy A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a periodic health evaluation remain debatable. The incremental value added by such evaluations beyond the delivery of age appropriate screening and preventive medicine recommendations is unclear. Methods We retrospectively collected data on a cohort of consecutive patients presenting for their first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation. We abstracted data on new diagnoses that were identified during this single episode of care and that were not trivial (i.e., required additional testing or intervention. Results The cohort consisted of 491 patients. The rate of new diagnoses per this single episode of care was 0.9 diagnoses per patient. The majority of these diagnoses was not prompted by patients’ complaints (71% and would not have been identified by screening guidelines (51%. Men (odds ratio 2.67; 95% CI, 1.76, 4.03 and those with multiple complaints at presentation (odds ratio 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.19 were more likely to receive a clinically relevant diagnosis at the conclusion of the visit. Age was not a predictor of receiving a diagnosis in this cohort. Conclusion The first episode of a comprehensive periodic health evaluation may reveal numerous important diagnoses or risk factors that are not always identified through routine screening.

  9. Protective Role of Educational Level on Episodic Memory Aging: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group.…

  10. Menstrual-Cycle and Menstruation Disorders in Episodic vs Chronic Migraine: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Egilius L H; Padamsee, Aliya

    2015-07-01

    Migraine is a chronic condition of recurring moderate-to-severe headaches that affects an estimated 6% of men and 18% of women. The highest prevalence is in those 18-49 years of age, generally when women menstruate. It is divided into episodic and chronic migraine depending on the total number of headache days per month being 14 or less or 15 or more, respectively. Migraine has been associated with menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, and endometriosis, the latter particularly in chronic migraine. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 96 women with migraine, 18-45 years old, to determine the occurrence of the menstrual-cycle disorders, oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea, and irregular cycle, and the menstruation disorders, dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia, in episodic vs chronic migraine. The prevalence of menstrual-cycle disorders in general (41.2 vs 22.2%) and dysmenorrhea (51.0 vs 28.9%) was statistically significantly higher in the women with chronic migraine than in those with episodic migraine (P ≤ 0.05) (not corrected for multiple comparisons). Whether the migraine was menstruation sensitive, that is, the headaches consistently occurred or worsened with menstruation, did not impact the prevalence of menstrual disorders. We conclude that chronic migraine is possibly more often than episodic migraine associated with menstrual-cycle disorders in general and dysmenorrhea, without impact on menstruation sensitivity of the headaches. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Heavy Episodic Drinking in Europe : A Cross Section Study in Primary Care in Six European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazareth, Irwin; Walker, Carl; Ridolfi, Antonia; Aluoja, Anu; Bellon, Juan; Geerlings, Mirijam; Svab, Igor; Xavier, Miguel; King, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aims: We examined the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking in general practice attenders who were non-hazardous drinkers, the associated risk factors and the outcome over 6 months. Methods: Consecutive attenders aged 18-75 were recruited from the UK, Spain, Slovenia, Estonia, the Netherlands and

  12. Predictors of suicide attempt in early-onset, first-episode psychoses: a longitudinal 24-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Motserrat; Paya, Beatriz; Llorente, Cloe; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    To study the prevalence of suicide attempts and factors associated with risk for suicide during the first episode of psychosis, and to identify early predictors of suicide attempts over a 24-month follow-up period in an early-onset, first-episode psychosis cohort. 110 subjects in their first episode of psychosis aged between 9 and 17 years were assessed by using the DSM-IV diagnostic interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and a battery of clinical instruments at baseline and at 12 and 24 months. Patients were enrolled in the study from March 2003 through November 2005. Suicide attempts and level of suicidality at each assessment were evaluated by using the Clinical Global Impression for Severity of Suicidality and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Subjects were classified as being at high, low, or no risk of suicide, depending on their scores on certain items of these scales. Clinical associations between the outcome measures high risk for suicide during acute episode and suicide attempts during follow-up were investigated by 2 sets of logistic regression analyses. The 24-month prevalence of suicide attempters was 12.4%. History of suicide attempts prior to psychotic episode (OR = 20.13; 95% CI, 1.83-220.55; P = .01), severe depressive symptoms (OR = 8.78; 95% CI, 1.15-67.11; P = .003), and antidepressant treatment (OR = 15.56; 95% CI, 2.66-90.86; P = .002) were associated with being classified as high suicide risk at baseline. The categorization of high suicide risk at baseline predicted suicide attempts during follow-up (OR = 81.66; 95% CI, 11.61-574.35; P = .000). Suicide is a major concern in early-onset first-episode psychosis. Suicidal behavior and depressive symptoms at psychosis onset are important signs to be aware of to prevent suicide attempts during the early period after first-episode psychosis. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Atmospheric Pressure and Onset of Episodes of Menière's Disease - A Repeated Measures Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkov, Robert; Strobl, Ralf; Heinlin, Nina; Krause, Eike; Olzowy, Bernhard; Koppe, Christina; Grill, Eva

    2016-01-01

    External changes of air pressure are transmitted to the middle and inner ear and may be used therapeutically in Menière's disease, one of the most common vertigo disorders. We analyzed the possible relationship of atmospheric pressure and other meteorological parameters with the onset of MD vertigo episodes in order to determine whether atmospheric pressure changes play a role in the occurrence of MD episodes. Patients of a tertiary outpatient dizziness clinic diagnosed with MD were asked to keep a daily vertigo diary to document MD episodes (2004-2009). Local air pressure, absolute temperature and dew point temperature were acquired on an hourly basis. Change in meteorological parameters was conceptualized as the maximum difference in a 24 hour time frame preceding each day. Effects were estimated using additive mixed models with a random participant effect. We included lagged air parameters, age, sex, weekday and season in the model. A total of 56 persons (59% female) with mean age 54 years were included. Mean follow-up time was 267 days. Persons experienced on average 10.3 episodes during the observation period (median 8). Age and change in air pressure were significantly associated with vertigo onset risk (Odds Ratio = 0.979 and 1.010). We could not show an effect of sex, weekday, season, air temperature, and dew point temperature. Change in air pressure was significantly associated with onset of MD episodes, suggesting a potential triggering mechanism in the inner ear. MD patients may possibly use air pressure changes as an early warning system for vertigo attacks in the future.

  14. Episodic medical home interventions in severe bedridden chronic respiratory failure patients: a 4 year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, L; Bertella, E; Vitacca, M

    2009-09-01

    Home care for respiratory patients includes a complex array of services delivered in an uncontrolled setting. The role of a respiratory specialist inside the home healthcare team has been scarcely studied up to now. Our aims were to analyse the number and quality of episodic home visits performed by respiratory physicians to severe bedridden Chronic Respiratory Failure (CRF) patients, and also to evaluate the safety of tracheotomy tube substitutions at home. 231 home interventions (59.8/year) in 123 CRF patients (59 males; age 63 +/- 17 y, 24 on oxygen therapy, 35 under non invasive mechanical ventilation, 46 under invasive ventilation, 74 with tracheostomy) located 35 +/- 16 km far from referred hospital, were revised in a period of 4 years (2005-2008). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (31%) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (28%) were the more frequent diagnoses. Interventions were: tracheotomy tube substitution (64%) presenting 22% of minor adverse events and 1.4% of major adverse events; change or new oxygen prescription (37%); nocturnal pulsed saturimetric trend prescription (24%); change in mechanical ventilation (MV) setting (4%); new MV adaptation (7%). After medical intervention, new home medical equipment devices (oxygen and MV) were prescribed in 36% of the cases while rehabilitative hospital admission and home respiratory physiotherapy prescription was proposed in 9% and 6% of the cases respectively. Patient/caregiver's satisfaction was reported on average 8.48 +/- 0.79 (1 = the worst; 10 = the higher). The local health care system (HCS) reimbursed 70 euros for each home intervention. Families saved 42 +/- 20 euros per visit for ambulance transportation. Home visits performed by a respiratory physician to bedridden patients with chronic respiratory failure: 1. include predominantly patients affected by COPD and ALS; 2. determine a very good satisfaction to patients/caregivers; 3. allow money saving to caregivers; 4. are predominantly

  15. Lesson 3: A Case Study of Mountain Tourism in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which students examine the characteristics of successful and unsuccessful tourism development projects in mountains by utilizing the included list of websites. Expounds that, based on their search of the websites, the students propose solutions for maintaining a balance among environmental conservation, cultural advancement,…

  16. Model Pembelajaran Seni Musik melalui Lesson Study: Studi Kasus di SDN Jawilan, Serang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianti Fitriani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini dilatar-belakangi persoalan pembelajaran seni musik di SDN Jawilan Kab. Serang. Di SD ini penyelenggaraan pendidikan seni belum memperoleh perhatian yang cukup baik dari guru. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari pembagian alokasi waktu pembelajaran dan keterlibatan guru kelas yang tidak memiliki latar belakang pendidikan seni (musik. Dampak yang muncul, rata-rata siswa belum memiliki kemandirian dalam berkreativitas dan kurang berpartisipasi aktif dalam kegiatan musik baik di sekolah maupun di luar sekolah. Untuk memperbaiki persoalan tersebut dirasa perlu meminjam Lesson Study yang di dalamnya terdapat metode, pendekatan dan strategi pembelajaran sebagai pola untuk membelajarkan seni musik agar dapat memberikan alternatif sudut pandang terhadap persoalan metode yang tepat guna dan terencana dalam pengajaran pendidikan musik di SD, termasuk paradigma membelajarkan musik secara hakiki. Hasil yang diperoleh dapat memberikan alternatif sebagai dasar pengembangan pembelajaran seni musik.   The Model of Music Learning through a Lesson Study: A Case Study in Jawilan Elementary School, Serang. The learning problems of music lessons at Jawilan Elementary School in Serang becomes the mainly source of the research background in this article. The implementation of art education in this school has not gained enough attention from teachers. It can be seen from the distribution of the allocated time of learning and the involvement of classroom teachers who do not have sufficient background in art education (music. The appearing impact shows that the average of students do not have any independence in creativity and have less-active participation in the activities of musical arts either in school or outside the school. However, solving the problem is necessary to do by using a Lesson Study as a pattern (approaches, strategies, and methods of learning to teach music that can be used as an alternative point of view in developing methods and organizing the

  17. Students’ motivation in a disc golf-lesson and a soccer-lesson: An experimental study in the Physical Education setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Vernegaard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the purposes of physical education (PE in both Norway and Denmark is that PE should inspire to a lifelong active lifestyle. Based on the self-determination theory, the aim of the present study was to compare students’ intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and perceived competence in a lifestyle sport inspired PE-lesson (disc golf to a traditional PE-lesson (soccer and general PE. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether differences in motivation and perceived competence were conditional of the students’ relative attitude toward PE. The result of the study revealed that perceived competence was higher in the disc golf-lesson compared to the soccer-lesson and general PE. No overall differences in intrinsic motivation were found. However, when investigating differences in intrinsic motivation according to the students’ relative attitude toward PE, the results indicated that the students with a negative attitude toward PE was significantly more intrinsically motivated in disc golf-lesson compared to soccer-lesson and general PE. The findings may be seen as further recommendations to physical educators to vary the activity choices in physical education classes.

  18. Episodic runoff generation at Central European headwater catchments studied using water isotope concentration signals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Dohnal, M.; Vogel, T.; Šanda, M.; Tesař, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2017), s. 114-122 ISSN 0042-790X Grant - others:Grantová agentura České republiky (GA ČR)(CZ) GC14-15201J Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : O isotope * headwater catchment runoff * subsurface runoff * tracer * rainfall-runoff episodes Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Hydrology Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  19. The loss of episodic memories in retrograde amnesia: single-case and group studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Kopelman, M D; Kapur, N

    2001-01-01

    Retrograde amnesia in neurological disorders is a perplexing and fascinating research topic. The severity of retrograde amnesia is not well correlated with that of anterograde amnesia, and there can be disproportionate impairments of either. Within retrograde amnesia, there are various dissociations which have been claimed-for example, between the more autobiographical (episodic) and more semantic components of memory. However, the associations of different types of retrograde amnesia are als...

  20. Implementation of lesson study in physics teaching by group of teachers in Solok West Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurnetti, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This article based of collaborative classroom action research with science teachers group or MGMP at Solok West Sumatera; based on their willingness to implementation of lesson study by this group. The study started by discussing some problems according to the implementation of the lesson study, establishing the teaching materials, developing learning tools, defining the model teachers, conducting classroom activities, and reflecting by discussions. The preparation of this study includes some learning material according to temperature and heat; the observation form that led by observer teachers; teachers’s model impression and open questionnaire implementation of lesson study that applied to the students and teachers. This research got some information about the strengths and weaknesses of learning using lesson study from the students involved. To conclude, the implementation of lesson study should be able to support the principle of collaborative in learning. The challenge of this study is how to make a condition to gather some teachers in one school at a certain time because they have the schedule at their own school.

  1. Age effect on components of episodic memory and feature binding: A virtual reality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, Gaën; Gyselinck, Valerie; Nicolas, Serge; Piolino, Pascale

    2010-05-01

    The aims were (1) to explore the effects of normal aging on the main aspects of episodic memory--what, where, and when,--and on feature binding in a virtual environment; (2) to explore the influence of the mode of learning, intentional versus incidental; and (3) to benchmark virtual environment findings collected with older adults against data recorded in classical neuropsychological tests. We tested a population of 82 young adults and 78 older adults without dementia (they participated in a short battery of neuropsychological tests). All the participants drove a car in an urban virtual environment composing of 9 turns and specific areas. Half of the participants were told to drive through the virtual town; the other half were asked to drive and to memorize the environment (itinerary, elements, etc.). All aspects of episodic memory were then assessed (what, where, when, and binding). The older participants had less recollection of the spatiotemporal context of events than the younger with intentional encoding (p episodic memory.

  2. Sustaining Lesson Study: Resources and Factors that Support and Constrain Mathematics Teachers' Ability to Continue After the Grant Ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druken, Bridget Kinsella

    Lesson study, a teacher-led vehicle for inquiring into teacher practice through creating, enacting, and reflecting on collaboratively designed research lessons, has been shown to improve mathematics teacher practice in the United States, such as improving knowledge about mathematics, changing teacher practice, and developing communities of teachers. Though it has been described as a sustainable form of professional development, little research exists on what might support teachers in continuing to engage in lesson study after a grant ends. This qualitative and multi-case study investigates the sustainability of lesson study as mathematics teachers engage in a district scale-up lesson study professional experience after participating in a three-year California Mathematics Science Partnership (CaMSP) grant to improve algebraic instruction. To do so, I first provide a description of material (e.g. curricular materials and time), human (attending district trainings and interacting with mathematics coaches), and social (qualities like trust, shared values, common goals, and expectations developed through relationships with others) resources present in the context of two school districts as reported by participants. I then describe practices of lesson study reported to have continued. I also report on teachers' conceptions of what it means to engage in lesson study. I conclude by describing how these results suggest factors that supported and constrained teachers' in continuing lesson study. To accomplish this work, I used qualitative methods of grounded theory informed by a modified sustainability framework on interview, survey, and case study data about teachers, principals, and Teachers on Special Assignment (TOSAs). Four cases were selected to show the varying levels of lesson study practices that continued past the conclusion of the grant. Analyses reveal varying levels of integration, linkage, and synergy among both formally and informally arranged groups of

  3. The Study of Understanding a Child through "Episodic Recording Method" : Focusing on the relation of contents of childcare "Language"

    OpenAIRE

    岡花, 祈一郎

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to clarify influence of colleagues in childcare upon the process of understanding a child. Now day, "Episodic Recording Method" is not only childcare recordings but refleective practice in Childcare. The results are as follows. First, there exist both verbal and nonverbal types of information. Second, there are four types of information to modify the teacher's understanding. Third, the information has both quantitative and qualitative effects. The colleagues hav...

  4. PENINGKATAN KOMPETENSI PEDAGOGIK GURU DAN KEMAMPUAN AKADEMIK SISWA MELALUI LESSON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Andriani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to improve teachers' pedagogical competence and academic achievement of students through lesson study based learning. The design of this study is classroom action research method of observation and written tests. The data were analyzed by quantitative descriptive. The research was conducted on a geography teacher and students of class XI social science programe specialization courses in high school. The results showed an increase pedagogical competence of teachers of the first cycle to the second cycle. This can be seen from the ability of teachers prepare lesson plans and implementing learning. Based learning lesson study also impact on improving the academic skills of students in the form of activity and learning outcomes. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kompetensi pedagogik guru dan prestasi akademik siswa melalui pembelajaran berbasis lesson study. Rancangan penelitian ini adalah penelitian tindakan kelas dengan metode observasi dan tes tertulis. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif kuantitatif. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada guru Geografi dan siswa kelas XI program peminatan ilmu sosial di SMA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya peningkatan kompetensi pedagogik guru dari siklus I ke siklus II. Hal ini bisa dilihat dari kemampuan guru menyusun RPP dan melaksanakan pembelajaran. Pembelajaran berbasis lesson study juga berdampak pada peningkatan kemampuan akademis siswa berupa aktivitas dan hasil belajar.

  5. Frequency, duration and predictors of bronchiolitis episodes of care among infants ≥32 weeks gestation in a large integrated healthcare system: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaherman Valerie J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchiolitis is common in the first two years of life and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in this age group. No previous studies have used an episode-of-care analysis to describe the frequency, duration, and predictors of bronchiolitis episodes of care during the first two years. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 123,264 infants ≥32 weeks gestation born at 6 Northern California Kaiser Permanente hospitals between 1996 and 2002. We used electronic medical records to concatenate hospital, emergency department and outpatient health care encounters for bronchiolitis into discrete episodes of care. We used descriptive statistics to report frequency and duration of bronchiolitis episodes and used logistic regression to assess the effect of gestational age and other clinical and demographic predictors on the outcome of bronchiolitis episodes. Results Among all infants, the rate of bronchiolitis episodes was 162 per 1000 children during the first 2 years of life; approximately 40% required >1 day of medical attention with a mean duration of 7.0 ± 5.9 days. Prematurity was associated with increased risk of bronchiolitis episodes and longer duration. Bronchiolitis episodes rates per 1000 infants were 246 for 32–33 weeks gestational age, 204 for 34–36 weeks, and 148–178 for >36 weeks. Male gender, African-American and Hispanic race/ethnicity, and parental history of asthma were associated with an increased risk of having a bronchiolitis episode and/or longer duration. Conclusions Bronchiolitis episodes of care are frequent during the first two years of life and the duration ranges from 1 to 27 days. Prematurity was associated with more frequent and longer duration of bronchiolitis episodes of care, which may reflect illness severity and/or perceived vulnerability.

  6. Esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH-testing in the study of apparent life threatening episode incidents in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blasco-Alonso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The conventional 24-hour pH monitoring is the gold standard for the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER, a possible cause of Apparent Life Threatening Episodes (ALTE. However, multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII may provide advantages. Objectives: Comparison of the results of MII and pH monitoring in patients undergoing MII-pH monitoring in the 3-year study period because of having suffered from ALTE. Material and methods: Prospective study of MII-pH monitoring performed in our unit to infants 5 min per patient and clearance of 1.20 (IQ: 0.70-2.20 min/reflux. With pH monitoring analysis, 14 children (35.9 % could have been diagnosed as GER (8 mild, 4 moderate and 2 severe based on the classical criteria. MII identified a total of 8,895 events; only 3,219 among them were refluxes, with a median of 75 (IQ: 54-111 per patient, 1.30 (IQ: 1.3-2.6 episodes/hour. With MII-pH monitoring combination there were 21.60 (SD 15.21 acid reflux episodes, 67.33 weekly acid (SD 32.09 and 3.34 (SD 7.23 non-acid, being finally diagnosed 33 patients as GER. Conclusions: The association of pH monitoring and MII provides additional information that improves GER diagnostic performance without posing any additional risk to the infant patient. The non-acid/weekly acid refluxes, not detected by pH monitoring, account for a high percentage of episodes, this may have diagnostic and therapeutic significance, especially in infants. Further studies are needed to assess the normality of MMI in pediatric patients.

  7. Pedagogical Content Knowledge-Guided Lesson Study: Effects on Teacher Competence and Students’ Achievement in Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lou S. Lucenario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Pedagogical Content Knowledge-Guided Lesson Study (PCKLS as an intervention to develop PCK competencies among teachers and consequently enhance student achievement in terms of conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. Using quasi-experimental design, teacher competencies and student achievement in the PCKLS group and the conventional group were compared. In the PCKLS group, the intervention involved planning the lesson by the research team, teaching the planned lesson while PCK observations were made by the researcher and another teacher from the group, including a feedback meeting, implementing the improvements in the reteach stage of the lesson study cycle by another teacher from the research team, and, finally, revising lesson plans based on the consolidated suggestions for improvement. Analyses of data showed that there was a significant difference in the science teacher competencies of the PCKLS group teacher respondents compared to those of the conventional group. Also, student respondents showed a significant increase on mean scores in terms of conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. Therefore, it was concluded that PCKLS was an effective method to develop the teachers’ PCK competencies and student achievement in terms of conceptual understanding and problem solving. This study recommends that this intervention be used across chemistry topics and in other science classes such as Biology, Earth and Environmental Science, Physics, and Mathematics.

  8. Free Recall Episodic Memory Performance Predicts Dementia Ten Years prior to Clinical Diagnosis: Findings from the Betula Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Johan Boraxbekk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Early dementia diagnosis is a considerable challenge. The present study examined the predictive value of cognitive performance for a future clinical diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a random population sample. Methods: Cognitive performance was retrospectively compared between three groups of participants from the Betula longitudinal cohort. Group 1 developed dementia 11-22 years after baseline testing (n = 111 and group 2 after 1-10 years (n = 280; group 3 showed no deterioration towards dementia during the study period (n = 2,855. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the predictive value of tests reflecting episodic memory performance, semantic memory performance, visuospatial ability, and prospective memory performance. Results: Age- and education-corrected performance on two free recall episodic memory tests significantly predicted dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis. Free recall performance also predicted dementia 11-22 years prior to diagnosis when controlling for education, but not when age was added to the model. Conclusion: The present results support the suggestion that two free recall-based tests of episodic memory function may be useful for detecting individuals at risk of developing dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis.

  9. Imaging Microglial Activation in Untreated First-Episode Psychosis: A PET Study With [18F]FEPPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, Sina; Tseng, Huai-Hsuan; Rao, Naren; Selvanathan, Thiviya; Kenk, Miran; Bazinet, Richard P; Suridjan, Ivonne; Wilson, Alan A; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Remington, Gary; Houle, Sylvain; Rusjan, Pablo M; Mizrahi, Romina

    2017-02-01

    Neuroinflammation and abnormal immune responses are increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies targeting the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) have been limited by high nonspecific binding of the first-generation radioligand, low-resolution scanners, small sample sizes, and psychotic patients being on antipsychotics or not being in the first episode of their illness. The present study uses the novel second-generation TSPO PET radioligand [ 18 F]FEPPA to evaluate whether microglial activation is elevated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of untreated patients with first-episode psychosis. Nineteen untreated patients with first-episode psychosis (14 of them antipsychotic naive) and 20 healthy volunteers underwent a high-resolution [ 18 F]FEPPA PET scan and MRI. Dynamic PET data were analyzed using the validated two-tissue compartment model with arterial plasma input function with total volume of distribution (V T ) as outcome measure. All analyses were corrected for TSPO rs6971 polymorphism (which is implicated in differential binding affinity). No significant differences were observed between patients and healthy volunteers in microglial activation, as indexed by [ 18 F]FEPPA V T , in either the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or the hippocampus. There were no significant correlations between [ 18 F]FEPPA V T and duration of illness, clinical presentation, or neuropsychological measures after adjusting for multiple testing. The lack of significant differences in [ 18 F]FEPPA V T between groups suggests that microglial activation is not present in first-episode psychosis.

  10. Utilizing Lesson Study in Improving Year 12 Students' Learning and Performance in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Siew Yin Chong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of Lesson Study to improve Year 12 students' performance in conditional probability through Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL lessons. In total, 66 students comprised of three Year 12 classes of similar abilities, and their three respective teachers from a government junior college participated in the study. The instruments used to collect the relevant data in this study were teachers' reflective journals and students' achievement tests. The collected data were then analyzed and interpreted quantitatively using the SPSS. The analysis of the students' pre- and post-tests concluded that as the lesson plans were gradually refined and enhanced, their performance in solving conditional probability questions steadily improved.

  11. Headache impact of chronic and episodic migraine: results from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Dawn; Manack, Aubrey; Serrano, Daniel; Reed, Michael; Varon, Sepideh; Turkel, Catherine; Lipton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid measure that assesses the impact of headaches on the lives of persons with migraine. Originally used in studies of episodic migraine (EM), HIT-6 is finding increasing applications in chronic migraine (CM) research. (1) To examine the headache-impact on persons with migraine (EM and CM) using HIT-6 in a large population sample; (2) to identify predictors of headache-impact in this sample; (3) to assess the magnitude of effect for significant predictors of headache-impact in this sample. The American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study is a longitudinal, population-based study that collected data from persons with severe headache from 2004 to 2009 through annual, mailed surveys. Respondents to the 2009 survey who met International Classification of Headache Disorders 2 criteria for migraine reported at least 1 headache in the preceding year, and completed the HIT-6 questionnaire were included in the present analysis. Persons with migraine were categorized as EM (average headache days per month) or CM (average ≥15 headache days per month). Predictors of headache-impact examined include: sociodemographics; headache days per month; a composite migraine symptom severity score (MSS); an average pain severity rating during the most recent long-duration headache; depression; and anxiety. HIT-6 scores were analyzed both as continuous sum scores and using the standard, validated categories: no impact; some impact; substantial impact; and severe impact. Group contrasts were based on descriptive statistics along with linear regression models. Multiple imputation techniques were used to manage missing data. There were 7169 eligible respondents (CM = 373, EM = 6554). HIT-6 scores were normally distributed. After converting sum HIT-6 scores to the standard categories, those with CM were significantly more likely to experience "severe" headache impact (72.9% vs 42.3%) and had higher odds of

  12. A Pharmacovigilance Study in First Episode of Psychosis: Psychopharmacological Interventions and Safety Profiles in the PEPs Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioque, Miquel; Llerena, Adrián; Cabrera, Bibiana; Mezquida, Gisela; Lobo, Antonio; González-Pinto, Ana; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Corripio, Iluminada; Aguilar, Eduardo J; Bulbena, Antoni; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Vieta, Eduard; Lafuente, Amàlia; Mas, Sergi; Parellada, Mara; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Cuesta, Manuel J; Bernardo, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of the first episode of psychosis and how it should be treated are principal issues in actual research. Realistic, naturalistic studies are necessary to represent the entire population of first episode of psychosis attended in daily practice. Sixteen participating centers from the PEPs project recruited 335 first episode of psychosis patients, aged 7 to 35 years. This article describes and discusses the psychopharmacological interventions and safety profiles at baseline and during a 60-day pharmacovigilance period. The majority of first episode of psychosis patients received a second-generation antipsychotic (96.3%), orally (95%), and in adjusted doses according to the product specifications (87.2%). A total of 24% were receiving an antipsychotic polytherapy pattern at baseline, frequently associated with lower or higher doses of antipsychotics than the recommended ones. Eight patients were taking clozapine, all in monotherapy. Males received higher doses of antipsychotic (P=.043). A total of 5.2% of the patients were being treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics; 12.2% of the patients received anticholinergic drugs, 12.2% antidepressants, and 13.7% mood stabilizers, while almost 40% received benzodiazepines; and 35.52% reported at least one adverse drug reaction during the pharmacovigilance period, more frequently associated with higher antipsychotic doses and antipsychotic polytherapy (85.2% vs 45.5%, Psecurity issues, support future research of determinate pharmacological strategies for the treatment of early phases of psychosis, such as the role of clozapine, long-acting injectable antipsychotics, antipsychotic combination, and the use of benzodiazepines. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  13. Small rural emergency services can electronically collect accurate episode-level data: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Samantha L; Baker, Tim; Salzman, Scott

    2015-04-01

    There is little evidence that useful electronic data could be collected at Australian small rural emergency services. If in future their funding model changed to the Activity-Based Funding model, then they would need to collect and submit more data. We determine whether it is possible to collect episode-level data at six small rural emergency services and quantify the accuracy of eight fields. A prospective cross-sectional study. South-West Victoria, Australia. Six small rural emergency services. We collected and audited episode-level emergency data from participating services between 1 February 2011 and 31 January 2012. A random sample of these data were audited monthly. Research assistants located at each service supported data entry and audited data accuracy for four hours per week. Rates for data completeness, accuracy and total accuracy were calculated using audit data. Episode-level data were collected for 20 224 presentations across six facilities. The audit dataset consisted of 8.5% (1504/17 627) of presentations from five facilities. For all fields audited, the accuracy of entered data was high (>93%).Triage category was deemed appropriate for 95.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 94.9-96.9%) of the patient records reviewed. Some procedures were missing (28.7%, 95%CI: 27.2-30.3%). No significant improvement in data accuracy over 12 months was observed. All six services collected useful episode-level data for 12-months with four hours per week of assistance. Data entry accuracy was high for all fields audited, and data entry completeness was low for procedures. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  14. Lesson study: Professional development and its impact on science teacher self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Rae

    This study focuses on an analysis of a professional development program known as lesson study via data obtained during an in-service professional development program for secondary school science teachers. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of one group of science teachers related to their experiences in a lesson study. Another purpose for this research, aligned with the first, included a theoretical analysis of the lesson study construct to see if its design promoted positive self-efficacy beliefs of its participants. The research is framed within the context of social constructivism and self-efficacy and is qualitative in nature and utilized descriptive analysis as a means of research. Case studies were conducted detailing two of the six participants. Data sources included researcher field notes and transcriptions of all planning and debriefing sessions; individual interviews with each participant and the schools' principal; a participant questionnaire, and the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument. Themes that emerged included the positive perceptions of lesson study as a collaborative and teacher-centered experience; the understanding that lesson study can instill a sense of professionalism to those who participate in the process; the sense that discussing student learning using objective observations from classroom is a powerful way to assess learning and uncover personal teacher beliefs; and the insight that the time commitment that lesson study requires can inhibit teachers and schools from sustaining it as a form of on-going professional development. Although these themes are consistent with the research on lesson study in Japan and elsewhere in the United States, they also extend the research on self-efficacy and science teacher professional development. In the end, this study supported some of the conclusions of the self-efficacy research as it relates to professional development while also adding that interpersonal

  15. Studying a disease with no home--lessons in trial recruitment from the PATCH II study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomas, Kim S

    2010-01-01

    Cellulitis is a very common condition that often recurs. The PATCH II study was designed to explore the possibility of preventing future episodes of cellulitis, with resultant cost savings for the NHS. This was the first trial to be undertaken by the UK Dermatology Clinical Trials Network. As such, it was the first to test a recruitment model that involved many busy clinicians each contributing just a few patients.

  16. Attentional biases toward emotional images in the different episodes of bipolar disorder: an eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Ana; Salmerón, Ladislao; Perea, Manuel; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2014-03-30

    Attentional biases toward emotional information may represent vulnerability and maintenance factors in bipolar disorder (BD). The present experimental study examined the processing of emotional information in BD patients using the eye-tracking technology. Bipolar patients in their different states (euthymia, mania, depression) simultaneously viewed four pictures with different emotional valence (happy, neutral, sad, threatening) for 20s while their eye movements were monitored. A group of healthy individuals served as the control. The data revealed the following: (i) a decrease in attention to happy images in BD patients in their depressive episodes compared to healthy individuals, and (ii) an increase in attention to threatening images in BD patients (regardless of their episode) relative to the healthy controls. These biases appeared in the late stages of information processing and were sustained over the 20s interval. Thus, the present findings reveal that attentional biases toward emotional information can be a key feature of BD, in that: (i) an anhedonic lack of sensitivity to positive stimuli during the bipolar depressive episode may be considered a maintaining factor of this clinical state, and (ii) the trait-bias toward threat, even in asymptomatic patients, may reflect a marker of vulnerability in BD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trajectories of premorbid childhood and adolescent functioning in schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses: A first-episode study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Leslie E; Tarbox, Sarah I; Olino, Thomas M; Haas, Gretchen L

    2015-06-30

    Evidence of social and behavioral problems preceding the onset of schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses is consistent with a neurodevelopmental model of these disorders. Here we predict that individuals with a first episode of schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses will evidence one of three patterns of premorbid adjustment: an early deficit, a deteriorating pattern, or adequate or good social adjustment. Participants were 164 (38% female; 31% black) individuals ages 15-50 with a first episode of schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses. Premorbid adjustment was assessed using the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale. We compared the fit of a series of growth mixture models to examine premorbid adjustment trajectories, and found the following 3-class model provided the best fit with: a "stable-poor" adjustment class (54%), a "stable-good" adjustment class (39%), and a "deteriorating" adjustment class (7%). Relative to the "stable-good" class, the "stable-poor" class experienced worse negative symptoms at 1-year follow-up, particularly in the social amotivation domain. This represents the first known growth mixture modeling study to examine premorbid functioning patterns in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses. Given that the stable-poor adjustment pattern was most prevalent, detection of social and academic maladjustment as early as childhood may help identify people at increased risk for schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses, potentially increasing feasibility of early interventions. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Within-person Changes in Individual Symptoms of Depression Predict Subsequent Depressive Episodes in Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Morris, Matthew C.; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined which individual symptoms of depression uniquely predicted a subsequent Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in adolescents, and whether these relations differed by sex. Adolescents (N=240) were first interviewed in grade 6 (M=11.86 years old; SD = 0.56; 54% female; 81.5% Caucasian) and then annually through grade 12 regarding their individual symptoms of depression as well as the occurrence of MDEs. Individual symptoms of depression were assessed with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) and depressive episodes were assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results showed that within-person changes in sleep problems and low self-esteem/excessive guilt positively predicted an increased likelihood of an MDE for both boys and girls. Significant sex differences also were found. Within-person changes in anhedonia predicted an increased likelihood of a subsequent MDE among boys, whereas irritability predicted a decreased likelihood of a future MDE among boys, and concentration difficulties predicted a decreased likelihood of an MDE in girls. These results identified individual depressive symptoms that predicted subsequent depressive episodes in male and female adolescents, and may be used to guide the early detection, treatment, and prevention of depressive disorders in youth. PMID:26105209

  19. Mental images in episodic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Han, KyungHun

    2009-01-01

    Episodic memory, i.e. memorization of information within a spatiotemporal environment, is affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its loss may also occur in the normal aging process. The purpose of this study is to analyze and evaluate episodic memory in patients with AD by examining their cognitive skills in episodic memory through the introspection technique. A new method was used, wherein we assessed mental images of the subject's own past recalled in the mind like projected pictures and ...

  20. Exploring the Use of Lesson Study to Develop Elementary Preservice Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Pongsanon, Khemmawadee; Park Rogers, Meredith A.; Carter, Ingrid; Galindo, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    This study explored a modified version of Japanese Lesson Study to determine whether and how it influenced preservice elementary teachers in their abilities to deliver science lessons that included nature of science (NOS) to their own students. We used a case study approach that focused on one subset of a cohort of preservice elementary teachers…

  1. Lessons learned in communicating nuclear transportation issues - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, B.; Austin, P.

    1992-01-01

    Successful communication requires several key elements. They include a non-intimidating forum for exchanging information, two-way communication, advance preparation to identify what each party wants to learn, and feedback. There is no single approach that guarantees success. Factors such as technical complexity of the issue, level of support by the public, and trust and confidence among the parties all play a role in determining the most workable approach for any particular situation. This paper illustrates lessons learned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in communicating nuclear waste disposal and transportation issues to the public

  2. Exploring Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Biology Graduate Teaching Assistants through Their Participation in Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampley, Sandra A.; Gardner, Grant E.; Barlow, Angela T.

    2018-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are responsible for teaching the majority of biology undergraduate laboratory sections, although many feel underprepared to do so. This study explored the impact of biology GTA participation in a professional development model known as lesson study. Using a case study methodology with multiple qualitative data…

  3. Artificial intelligence based approach to forecast PM2.5 during haze episodes: A case study of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dhirendra; Goyal, P.; Upadhyay, Abhishek

    2015-02-01

    Delhi has been listed as the worst performer across the world with respect to the presence of alarmingly high level of haze episodes, exposing the residents here to a host of diseases including respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and lung cancer. This study aimed to analyze the haze episodes in a year and to develop the forecasting methodologies for it. The air pollutants, e.g., CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 as well as meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction index, relative humidity, visibility, dew point temperature, etc.) have been used in the present study to analyze the haze episodes in Delhi urban area. The nature of these episodes, their possible causes, and their major features are discussed in terms of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and relative humidity. The correlation matrix shows that temperature, pressure, wind speed, O3, and dew point temperature are the dominating variables for PM2.5 concentrations in Delhi. The hour-by-hour analysis of past data pattern at different monitoring stations suggest that the haze hours were occurred approximately 48% of the total observed hours in the year, 2012 over Delhi urban area. The haze hour forecasting models in terms of PM2.5 concentrations (more than 50 μg/m3) and relative humidity (less than 90%) have been developed through artificial intelligence based Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) techniques and compared with the other modeling techniques e.g., multiple linear regression (MLR), and artificial neural network (ANN). The haze hour's data for nine months, i.e. from January to September have been chosen for training and remaining three months, i.e., October to December in the year 2012 are chosen for validation of the developed models. The forecasted results are compared with the observed values with different statistical measures, e.g., correlation coefficients (R), normalized mean square error (NMSE), fractional bias (FB) and index of agreement (IOA). The performed

  4. Exploring the use of lesson study with six Canadian middle-school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Terry James

    This qualitative case study explores the use of lesson study over a ten-week period with six Ontario middle school science teachers. The research questions guiding this study were: (1) How does participation in science-based lesson study influence these teachers': (a) science subject matter knowledge (science SMK), (b) science pedagogical content knowledge (science PCK), and (c) confidence in teaching science?, and (2) What benefits and challenges do they associate with lesson study? Data sources for this study were: teacher questionnaires, surveys, reflections, pre- and post- interviews, and follow-up emails; researcher field notes and reflections; pre- and post- administration of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument; and audio recordings of group meetings. The teachers demonstrated limited gains in science SMK. There was evidence for an overall improvement in teacher knowledge of forces and simple machines, and two teachers demonstrated improvement in over half of the five scenarios assessing teacher science SMK. Modest gains in teacher science PCK were found. One teacher expressed more accurate understanding of students' knowledge of forces and a better knowledge of effective science teaching strategies. The majority of teachers reported that they would be using three-part lessons and hands-on activities more in their science teaching. Gains in teacher pedagogical knowledge (PK) were found in four areas: greater emphasis on anticipation of student thinking and responses, recognition of the importance of observing students, more intentional teaching, and anticipated future use of student video data. Most teachers reported feeling more confident in teaching structures and mechanisms, and attributed this increase in confidence to collaboration and seeing evidence of student learning and engagement during the lesson teachings. Teacher benefits included: learning how to increase student engagement and collaboration, observing students, including video data

  5. Training Lessons Learned from Peak Performance Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    psychical self-regulation program developed in Russia. This program uses techniques from numerous training systems ( meditation , yoga, hypnosis, autogenic ...athletes’ activation levels through auto suggestion. ’-- These techniques (e.g., autogenic training, biofeedback, breathing exercises, progressive muscle

  6. Neuroanatomy of episodic and semantic memory in humans: a brief review of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lázaro, Haydée G; Ramirez-Carmona, Rocio; Lara-Romero, Ruben; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    One of the most basic functions in every individual and species is memory. Memory is the process by which information is saved as knowledge and retained for further use as needed. Learning is a neurobiological phenomenon by which we acquire certain information from the outside world and is a precursor to memory. Memory consists of the capacity to encode, store, consolidate, and retrieve information. Recently, memory has been defined as a network of connections whose function is primarily to facilitate the long-lasting persistence of learned environmental cues. In this review, we present a brief description of the current classifications of memory networks with a focus on episodic memory and its anatomical substrate. We also present a brief review of the anatomical basis of memory systems and the most commonly used neuroimaging methods to assess memory, illustrated with magnetic resonance imaging images depicting the hippocampus, temporal lobe, and hippocampal formation, which are the main brain structures participating in memory networks.

  7. Lessons learned from the tokamak Advanced Reactor Innovation and Evaluation Study (ARIES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Lessons from the four-year ARIES (Advanced Reactor Innovation and Evaluation Study) investigation of a number of commercial magnetic-fusion-energy (MFE) power-plant embodiments of the tokamak are summarized. These lessons apply to physics, engineering and technology, and environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) characteristics of projected tokamak power plants. Summarized herein are the composite conclusions and lessons developed in the course of four conceptual tokamak power-plant designs. A general conclusion from this extensive investigation of the commercial potential of tokamak power plants is the need for combined, symbiotic advances in both physics, engineering, and materials before economic competitiveness with developing advanced energy sources can be realized. Advances in materials are also needed for the exploitation of environmental advantages otherwise inherent in fusion power

  8. Neural correlates of working memory in first episode and recurrent depression: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Dilara; Dietsche, Bruno; Konrad, Carsten; Dannlowski, Udo; Kircher, Tilo; Krug, Axel

    2018-06-08

    Patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) show deficits in working memory (WM) performance accompanied by bilateral fronto-parietal BOLD signal changes. It is unclear whether patients with a first depressive episode (FDE) exhibit the same signal changes as patients with recurrent depressive episodes (RDE). We investigated seventy-four MDD inpatients (48 RDE, 26 FDE) and 74 healthy control (HC) subjects performing an n-back WM task (0-back, 2-back, 3-back condition) in a 3T-fMRI. FMRI analyses revealed deviating BOLD signal in MDD in the thalamus (0-back vs. 2-back), the angular gyrus (0-back vs. 3-back), and the superior frontal gyrus (2-back vs. 3-back). Further effects were observed between RDE vs. FDE. Thus, RDE displayed differing neural activation in the middle frontal gyrus (2-back vs. 3-back), the inferior frontal gyrus, and the precentral gyrus (0-back vs. 2-back). In addition, both HC and FDE indicated a linear activation trend depending on task complexity. Although we failed to find behavioral differences between the groups, results suggest differing BOLD signal in fronto-parietal brain regions in MDD vs. HC, and in RDE vs. FDE. Moreover, both HC and FDE show similar trends in activation shapes. This indicates a link between levels of complexity-dependent activation in fronto-parietal brain regions and the stage of MDD. We therefore assume that load-dependent BOLD signal during WM is impaired in MDD, and that it is particularly affected in RDE. We also suspect neurobiological compensatory mechanisms of the reported brain regions in (working) memory functioning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Implementing Mathematics Teaching That Promotes Students' Understanding through Theory-Driven Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongjin; Gong, Zikun; Han, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Lesson study (LS) has been practiced in China as an effective way to advance teachers' professional development for decades. This study explores how LS improves teaching that promotes students' understanding. A LS group including didacticians (practice-based teaching research specialist and University-based mathematics educators) and mathematics…

  10. The Planning of Teaching in the Context of Lesson Study: Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulou, Eurydice-Maria; Darra, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to examine the attitudes, perceptions and experiences of the teachers participating in the planning of teaching in the context of the Lesson Study. The present work, which is part of a wider research effort, followed a mixed methodological planning for reasons of triangulation. The survey was conducted from…

  11. The Episodic Nature of Episodic-Like Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Alexander; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Eacott, Madeline J.

    2012-01-01

    Studying episodic memory in nonhuman animals has proved difficult because definitions in humans require conscious recollection. Here, we assessed humans' experience of episodic-like recognition memory tasks that have been used with animals. It was found that tasks using contextual information to discriminate events could only be accurately…

  12. Do synesthetes have a general advantage in visual search and episodic memory? A case for group studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Rothen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some studies, most of them case-reports, suggest that synesthetes have an advantage in visual search and episodic memory tasks. The goal of this study was to examine this hypothesis in a group study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we tested thirteen grapheme-color synesthetes and we compared their performance on a visual search task and a memory test to an age-, handedness-, education-, and gender-matched control group. The results showed no significant group differences (all relevant ps>.50. For the visual search task effect sizes indicated a small advantage for synesthetes (Cohen's d between .19 and .32. No such advantage was found for episodic memory (Cohen's d<.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that synesthesia per se does not seem to lead to a strong performance advantage. Rather, the superior performance of synesthetes observed in some case-report studies may be due to individual differences, to a selection bias or to a strategic use of synesthesia as a mnemonic. In order to establish universal effects of synesthesia on cognition single-case studies must be complemented by group studies.

  13. Teacher Learning and Mathematics Manipulatives: A Collective Case Study about Teacher Use of Manipulatives in Elementary and Middle School Mathematics Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Laurel; Taylor, Ann; O'Donnell, Barbara; Fick, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This collective case study analyzes the use of manipulatives in math lessons developed and taught by 4 groups of elementary teachers (K-8) involved in lesson study as part of a professional development program. The study found that in three of four lessons studied manipulative use was turned into an end in and of itself, rather than a tool, and…

  14. Abnormal brain connectivity in first-episode psychosis: A diffusion MRI tractography study of the corpus callosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gary; Cercignani, Mara; Parker, Geoffrey J.M.; Altmann, Daniel R.; Barnes, Thomas R.E.; Barker, Gareth J.; Joyce, Eileen M.; Ron, Maria A.

    2007-01-01

    A model of disconnectivity involving abnormalities in the cortex and connecting white matter pathways may explain the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia. Recently, diffusion imaging tractography has made it possible to study white matter pathways in detail and we present here a study of patients with first-episode psychosis using this technique. We selected the corpus callosum for this study because there is evidence that it is abnormal in schizophrenia. In addition, the topographical organization of its fibers makes it possible to relate focal abnormalities to specific cortical regions. Eighteen patients with first-episode psychosis and 21 healthy subjects took part in the study. A probabilistic tractography algorithm (PICo) was used to study fractional anisotropy (FA). Seed regions were placed in the genu and splenium to track fiber tracts traversing these regions, and a multi-threshold approach to study the probability of connection was used. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore group differences. FA, a measure of tract coherence, was reduced in tracts crossing the genu, and to a lesser degree the splenium, in patients compared with controls. FA was also lower in the genu in females across both groups, but there was no gender-by-group interaction. The FA reduction in patients may be due to aberrant myelination or axonal abnormalities, but the similar tract volumes in the two groups suggest that severe axonal loss is unlikely at this stage of the illness. PMID:17275337

  15. Preservice teachers' use of lesson study in teaching nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Amy Virginia

    The purpose of this study was to explore preservice teachers' lived experiences in a lesson study focused on teaching and learning nature of science (NOS). The body of knowledge about shifting pre- and in-service novice NOS understandings is substantial. The focus of science education research is now exploring ways to move these informed NOS understandings into classroom practice (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000b). The research questions guiding the study were (a) how do preservice teachers' understandings of NOS shift as a result of the lesson study experience?, and (b) how does the reflective practice that occurs in lesson study influence preservice teachers' transition of NOS tenets into classroom practice? The participants in this study represented a sample of graduate preservice teachers, who were part of a middle and secondary science teaching alternative certification program in a southeastern university. In the first summer semester of this certification program, the participants were immersed in reform based science instruction; a section of which included NOS teachings (INTASC, 2002). In the following semester, participants were placed in a practicum setting; where the exploration of the preservice teachers' teaching of NOS was supported through the modified lesson study framework. Data sources included the Views on Nature of Science-Form B (VNOS-b), interviews, and lesson study portfolios. Analysis of NOS understandings was guided by instruments found in literature associated with the VNOS-b (Lederman et al., 2002) and reflection (Ward & McCotter, 2004). Results showed successful transfer of NOS into classroom practice using the modified lesson study framework, with less success in the deepening of participants' NOS understandings. Of particular significance was that results indicated a deepening of NOS pedagogical content knowledge for those participants functioning at higher levels of reflection. The study's results contributes to two knowledge bases

  16. The late posterior negativity in ERP studies of episodic memory: action monitoring and retrieval of attribute conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mikael; Mecklinger, Axel

    2003-10-01

    The focus of the present paper is a late posterior negative slow wave (LPN) that has frequently been reported in event-related potential (ERP) studies of memory. An overview of these studies suggests that two broad classes of experimental conditions tend to elicit this component: (a) item recognition tasks associated with enhanced action monitoring demands arising from response conflict and (b) memory tasks that require the binding of items with contextual information specifying the study episode. A combined stimulus- and response-locked analysis of data from two studies mapping onto these classes allowed a temporal and functional decomposition of the LPN. While only the LPN observed in the item recognition task could be attributed to the involvement of a posteriorly distributed response-locked error-related negativity (or error negativity; ERN/Ne) occurring immediately after the response, the source-memory task was associated with a stimulus-locked negative slow wave occurring prior and during response execution that was evident when data were matched for response latencies. We argue that the presence of the former reflects action monitoring due to high levels of response conflict, whereas the latter reflects retrieval processes that may act to reconstruct the prior study episode when task-relevant attribute conjunctions are not readily recovered or need continued evaluation.

  17. Learning with and about Advertising in Chemistry Education with a Lesson Plan on Natural Cosmetics--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a case study on the chemistry behind natural cosmetics in five chemistry learning groups (grades 7-11, age range 13-17) in a German comprehensive school. The lesson plan intends to promote critical media literacy in the chemistry classroom and specifically emphasizes learning with and about advertising. The lessons of four…

  18. What is it like to take antipsychotic medication? A qualitative study of patients with first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R; Deane, K

    2016-03-01

    What is known on the subject? Antipsychotic drugs are an important part of treatment for most patients with first episode psychosis. We do not know much about what it is like to take these drugs from the patient's point of view. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? We talked to 20 young people with psychosis about their experiences of taking antipsychotic drugs. Patients relationship with medication was complex, young people found medication often to be both good and bad at the same time. We were interested in how seemingly trivial issues--colour, taste, size, name--could be very important to young people and could result in them stopping. What are the implications for practice? We think our study highlights the complicated internal struggles that people with first episode psychosis have with medication. Our study highlights how Nurses and Doctors need to try and better understand what it is like to take these drugs and work collaboratively with patients to support them to make informed choices about treatment. Low-dose antipsychotic medication is an important part of treatment for people experiencing a first episode of psychosis. Little is known about this group of patients' experiences of taking medication. A qualitative study of purposively sampled young people experiencing a first episode of psychosis was carried out. A mental health nurse working in the early psychosis team interviewed participants using a structured topic guide. Interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Interviews were completed with 20 young people. Thematic analysis generated six themes: (1) the drugs do work, (2) the drugs don't work (as well as I'd like), (3) side effects, (4) the indirect effects of medication, (5) rage against the machine and (6) the not trivial issues about medication. Our overarching meta-theme was that young people's experience of taking antipsychotics was complex; medication was often considered good and bad at the same time. Our observations underpin

  19. Swine-Flu Scare Offers Lessons for Study-Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Reports of swine flu have led some colleges to pull students and faculty members out of Mexico, the epicenter of the outbreak, and to cancel study-abroad programs there. But even as the number of new cases appears to be falling, the health scare offers some lasting lessons for colleges, says Gary Rhodes, director of the Center for Global Education…

  20. A Study of the Validity and Reliability of a Mathematics Lesson Attitude Scale and Student Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Murat; Ozcan, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes of the students towards mathematics lessons are very important in terms of their success and motivation. The purpose of this study is to develop a scale for the assessment of primary school students' attitudes towards mathematics courses in the 2nd and 3rd grades, to analyse its validity-reliability structure and to determine the…

  1. Microteaching Lesson Study: An Approach to Prepare Teacher Candidates to Teach Science through Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, George; Xu, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Inquiry-based teaching has become the most recommended approach in science education for a few decades; however, it is not a common practice yet in k-12 school classrooms. In order to prepare future teachers to teach science through inquiry, a Microteaching Lesson Study (MLS) approach was employed in our science methods courses. Instead of asking…

  2. A Study of Community Guides: Lessons for Professionals Practicing with and in Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael; Manuel, Susan; Mealey, Stephanie; Thomas, Golda; Campbell, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    A study of 35 nonprofessional helpers, identified as community "guides," focused on the contribution each made to helping marginalized individuals and families become a part of their communities. The lessons learned through these lay helpers can inform a postmodern social work practice that promotes the use of indigenous practice principles…

  3. Prayer Lessons to Promote Happiness among Kindergarten School Children: A Cross-Country Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Samta P.

    2018-01-01

    Based on a one-year longitudinal experimental study with 3,782 kindergarten school children across 15 countries, this article examines the association between prayer and happiness. Results show that the post-test scores on the faces scale were higher for the participant group who had taken the prayer lessons vis-à-vis the comparison group.…

  4. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Teacher Study Guides Used in Conjunction with Educational Television Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Lynne Schafer

    One of three different types of study guide materials was given to teachers whose classes watched televised music lessons. One guide provided a description of the program content, suggested activities to be performed before and after the program, and other supplementary material; a second guide provided only a description of the program content;…

  5. Does age at onset of first major depressive episode indicate the subtype of major depressive disorder?: the clinical research center for depression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age at onset of the first major depressive episode on the clinical features of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large cohort of Korean depressed patients. We recruited 419 MDD patients of age over 18 years from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study in South Korea. At the start of the study, the onset age of the first major depressive episode was self-reported by the subjects. The subjects were divided into four age-at-onset subgroups: childhood and adolescent onset (ages depressive episodes (F=3.475, p=0.016) and higher scores on the brief psychiatric rating scale (F=3.254, p=0.022), its negative symptom subscale (F=6.082, pdepressive episode is a promising clinical indicator for the clinical presentation, course, and outcome of MDD.

  6. 30 day mortality in adult palliative radiotherapy – A retrospective population based study of 14,972 treatment episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Katie; Morris, Eva; Dugdale, Emma; Newsham, Alexander; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Turner, Rob; Hall, Geoff; Crellin, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Background: 30-day mortality (30DM) has been suggested as a clinical indicator of the avoidance of harm in palliative radiotherapy within the NHS, but no large-scale population-based studies exist. This large retrospective cohort study aims to investigate the factors that influence 30DM following palliative radiotherapy and consider its value as a clinical indicator. Methods: All radiotherapy episodes delivered in a large UK cancer centre between January 2004 and April 2011 were analysed. Patterns of palliative radiotherapy, 30DM and the variables affecting 30DM were assessed. The impact of these variables was assessed using logistic regression. Results: 14,972 palliative episodes were analysed. 6334 (42.3%) treatments were delivered to bone metastases, 2356 (15 7%) to the chest for lung cancer and 915 (5.7%) to the brain. Median treatment time was 1 day (IQR 1–7). Overall 30DM was 12.3%. Factors having a significant impact upon 30DM were sex, primary diagnosis, treatment site and fractionation schedule (p < 0.01). Conclusion: This is the first large-scale description of 30-day mortality for unselected adult palliative radiotherapy treatments. The observed differences in early mortality by fractionation support the use of this measure in assessing clinical decision making in palliative radiotherapy and require further study in other centres and health care systems

  7. An optimized voxel-based morphometry MRI study of the brain in patients with first episode schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Su; Huang Xiaoqi; Tang Hehan; Gong Qiyong; Ouyang Luo; Deng Wei; Jiang Lijun; Li Tao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the structural differences between patients with first episode schizophrenia and normal controls using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study. Methods: High resolution T 1 weighted images were obtained using 3.0 T MR from 13 first-episode, untreated schizophrenia and 13 age, sex, handedness matched normal controls. Images were preprocessed by employing the optimized VBM and two sample t-test was used to detect differences between patients and normal controls with respect to both density and volume of gray matter in the brain. Results Patients with schizophrenia had significant lower gray matter density and gray matter volume generally distributed among bilateral hemispheres, especially in bilateral frontal and temporal lobes. However, no significant increase of gray matter density and gray matter volume was observed in these patients. Conclusions: Optimized voxel-based morphometry study is an automatic and effective method to study psychological diseases such as schizophrenia. Compared with normal controls, patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower gray matter density and gray matter volume across the bilateral hemispheres. (authors)

  8. A multicenter observational study on the role of comorbidities in the recurrent episodes of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Alessandro; Dispenza, Francesco; Suarez, Hamlet; Perez-Fernandez, Nicolas; Manrique-Huarte, Raquel; Ban, Jae Ho; Kim, Min-Beom; Kim, Min Beom; Strupp, Michael; Feil, Katharina; Oliveira, Carlos A; Sampaio, Andres L; Araujo, Mercedes F S; Bahmad, Fayez; Ganança, Mauricio M; Ganança, Fernando F; Dorigueto, Ricardo; Lee, Hyung; Kulamarva, Gautham; Mathur, Navneet; Di Giovanni, Pamela; Petrucci, Anna Grazia; Staniscia, Tommaso; Citraro, Leonardo; Croce, Adelchi

    2014-02-01

    Primary objective of this study was to find a statistical link between the most worldwide comorbidities affecting the elderly population (hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthrosis, osteoporosis and depression) and recurrent episodes of BPPV. Secondary objective was defining possible "groups of risk" for people suffering recurrent positional vertigo related to the presence of a well documented comorbidity. This was an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter, spontaneous, non-pharmacological study. The data of 1092 patients suffering BPPV evaluated in 11 different Departments of Otolaryngology, Otoneurology and Neurology, referring Centers for positional vertigo evaluation, were retrospectively collected. Regarding evaluated comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthrosis, osteoporosis and depression), data analysis showed the presence of at least one comorbid disorder in 216 subjects (19.8%) and 2 or more in 408 subjects (37.4%). Moreover there was a statistical significant difference between the number of comorbidities and the number of recurrences, otherwise said as comorbidity disorders increased the number of relapses increased too. The presence of a systemic disease may worsen the status of the posterior labyrinth causing a more frequent otolith detachment. This condition increases the risk for patients suffering BPPV to have recurrent episodes, even if correctly managed by repositioning maneuvers. The combination of two or more of aforementioned comorbidities further increases the risk of relapsing BPPV, worsened by the presence of osteoporosis. On the basis of this results it was possible to define "groups of risk" useful for predicting BPPV recurrence in patients with one or more comorbidity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. The subjective experience and phenomenology of depression following first episode psychosis: a qualitative study using photo-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amrita; Ives, Jonathan; Birchwood, Max; Upthegrove, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    Depression following first episode psychosis (FEP) is a frequent occurrence, with profound impact on recovery and outcome. Whilst many theories exist about the causes of depression here, research to date has been based on nosology imported wholesale from affective disorder, with little primary research on the subjective experience. This study aimed to explore the subjective experience and phenomenological features of post-psychotic depression in FEP. A qualitative methodology, photo-elicitation, together with unstructured interviews, was used to characterise aspects of depression following FEP and analysed using contemporary framework analysis. Depression was reported by participants as linked to the experience of and recovery from psychosis. The psychotic episode was a traumatic event followed by subjective doubt, shame and embarrassment. Loss and social isolation were central. Core biological symptoms did not feature. Despite the relatively small sample size, this study was able to generate in-depth data that provides useful and novel insight. Whilst generalisability is incompatible with qualitative methodology, further research using the same methodology would generate a wider range of experiences and perspectives. Understanding this dimension of psychosis in and of itself has the potential to improve and aid development of more effective and appropriately targeted interventions and associated outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-resolution WRF-LES simulations for real episodes: A case study for prealpine terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Cornelius; Mauder, Matthias; Laux, Patrick; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    While in most large or regional scale weather and climate models turbulence is parametrized, LES (Large Eddy Simulation) allows for the explicit modeling of turbulent structures in the atmosphere. With the exponential growth in available computing power the technique has become more and more applicable, yet it has mostly been used to model idealized scenarios. It is investigated how well WRF-LES can represent small scale weather patterns. The results are evaluated against different hydrometeorological measurements. We use WRF-LES to model the diurnal cycle for a 48 hour episode in summer over moderately complex terrain in southern Germany. The model setup uses a high resolution digital elevation model, land use and vegetation map. The atmospheric boundary conditions are set by reanalysis data. Schemes for radiation and microphysics and a land-surface model are employed. The biggest challenge in modeling arises from the high horizontal resolution of dx = 30m, since the subgrid-scale model then requires a vertical resolution dz ≈ 10m for optimal results. We observe model instabilities and present solutions like smoothing of the surface input data, careful positioning of the model domain and shortening of the model time step down to a twentieth of a second. Model results are compared to an array of various instruments including eddy covariance stations, LIDAR, RASS, SODAR, weather stations and unmanned aerial vehicles. All instruments are part of the TERENO pre-Alpine area and were employed in the orchestrated measurement campaign ScaleX in July 2015. Examination of the results show reasonable agreement between model and measurements in temperature- and moisture profiles. Modeled wind profiles are highly dependent on the vertical resolution and are in accordance with measurements only at higher wind speeds. A direct comparison of turbulence is made difficult by the purely statistical character of turbulent motions in the model.

  11. The Use of Lesson Study Combined with Content Representation in the Planning of Physics Lessons During Field Practice to Develop Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhler, Martin Vogt

    2016-08-01

    Recent research, both internationally and in Norway, has clearly expressed concerns about missing connections between subject-matter knowledge, pedagogical competence and real-life practice in schools. This study addresses this problem within the domain of field practice in teacher education, studying pre-service teachers' planning of a Physics lesson. Two means of intervention were introduced. The first was lesson study, which is a method for planning, carrying out and reflecting on a research lesson in detail with a learner and content-centered focus. This was used in combination with a second means, content representations, which is a systematic tool that connects overall teaching aims with pedagogical prompts. Changes in teaching were assessed through the construct of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). A deductive coding analysis was carried out for this purpose. Transcripts of pre-service teachers' planning of a Physics lesson were coded into four main PCK categories, which were thereafter divided into 16 PCK sub-categories. The results showed that the intervention affected the pre-service teachers' potential to start developing PCK. First, they focused much more on categories concerning the learners. Second, they focused far more uniformly in all of the four main categories comprising PCK. Consequently, these differences could affect their potential to start developing PCK.

  12. The cost of relapse for patients with a manic/mixed episode of bipolar disorder in the EMBLEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jihyung; Reed, Catherine; Novick, Diego; Haro, Josep Maria; Windmeijer, Frank; Knapp, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by episodes of mania and depression. The debilitating symptoms during an acute episode require intensive treatment, frequently leading to inpatient psychiatric care, which places significant demands on health and social care systems and incurs substantial costs. However, no study to date has estimated the economic impact of relapse. To estimate the direct costs associated with relapse in the treatment of BD following an acute manic or mixed episode over a 21-month follow-up period in routine clinical practice in Europe, using data from a large, prospective, observational study. EMBLEM was a prospective, observational study on the outcomes of patients with a manic/mixed episode of BD conducted in 14 European countries. Patients eligible for analysis were those enrolled in the 21-month maintenance phase of the study, following the 3-month acute phase. Relapse was defined as achieving any one of the following criteria: (i) at least a one-point increase in Clinical Global Impression - Bipolar Disorder (CGI-BP) overall score from the previous visit, with a final rating of > or =4; (ii) inpatient admission for an acute episode of BD; or (iii) psychiatrists' confirmation of relapse. Data on healthcare resource use were recorded retrospectively for the four respective periods (3-6, 6-12, 12-18 and 18-24 month visits). Multivariate analyses were performed to compare the cost of resource use (inpatient stay, day care, psychiatrist visits and medication) for those who relapsed during the 21-month maintenance phase and those who never relapsed. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to examine the 6-month costs during relapse. The analyses were adjusted for patient characteristics and took account of non-Normality of the cost data by using a log link function. UK unit costs were applied to resource use. The analysis was repeated after multiple imputation for missing data. All costs were presented as year 2007/08 values. A total of 1379

  13. A cross-cultural comparison of biology lessons between China and Germany: a video study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Neuhaus, Birgit Jana

    2017-08-01

    Given the globalization of science education and the different cultures between China and Germany, we tried to compare and explain the differences on teacher questions and real life instances in biology lessons between the two countries from a culture-related perspective. 22 biology teachers from China and 21 biology teachers from Germany participated in this study. Each teacher was videotaped for one lesson on the unit blood and circulatory system. Before the teaching unit, students' prior knowledge was tested with a pretest. After the teaching unit, students' content knowledge was tested with a posttest. The aim of the knowledge tests here was for the better selection of the four samples for qualitative comparison in the two countries. The quantitative analysis showed that more lower-order teacher questions and more real life instances that were introduced after learning relevant concepts were in Chinese lessons than in German lessons. There were no significant differences in the frequency of higher-order questions or real life instances that were introduced before learning concepts. Qualitative analysis showed that both German teachers guided students to analyze the reasoning process of Landsteiner experiment, but nor Chinese teachers did that. The findings reflected the subtle influence of culture on classroom teaching. Relatively, Chinese biology teachers focused more on learning content and the application of the content in real life; German biology teachers emphasized more on invoking students' reasoning and divergent thinking.

  14. Differential effects of acute cortisol administration on deep and shallow episodic memory traces: a study on healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioncoloni, David; Galli, Giulia; Mazzocchio, Riccardo; Feurra, Matteo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Bonifazi, Marco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2014-10-01

    We aimed at investigating rapid effects of plasma cortisol elevations on the episodic memory phase of encoding or retrieval, and on the strength of the memory trace. Participants were asked either to select a word containing the letter "e" (shallow encoding task) or to judge if a word referred to a living entity (deep encoding task). We intravenously administered a bolus of 20mg of cortisol either 5 min before encoding or 5 min before retrieval, in a between-subjects design. The study included only male participants tested in the late afternoon, and neutral words as stimuli. When cortisol administration occurred prior to retrieval, a main effect of group emerged. Recognition accuracy was higher for individuals who received cortisol compared to placebo. The higher discrimination accuracy for the cortisol group was significant for words encoded during deep but not shallow task. Cortisol administration before encoding did not affect subsequent retrieval performance (either for deep or shallow stimuli) despite a facilitatory trend. Because genomic mechanisms take some time to develop, such a mechanism cannot apply to our findings where the memory task was performed shortly after the enhancement of glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, glucocorticoids, through non-genomic fast effects, determine an enhancement in episodic memory if administered immediately prior to retrieval. This effect is more evident if the memory trace is laid down through deep encoding operations involving the recruitment of specific neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The roles of lesson study in the development of mathematics learning instrument based on learning trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnasanti; Dien, C. A.; Azizah, F.

    2018-03-01

    This study is aimed to describe Lesson Study (LS) activity and its roles in the development of mathematics learning instruments based on Learning Trajectory (LT). This study is a narrative study of teacher’s experiences in joining LS activity. Data collecting in this study will use three methods such as observation, documentations, and deep interview. The collected data will be analyzed with Milles and Huberman’s model that consists of reduction, display, and verification. The study result shows that through LS activity, teachers know more about how students think. Teachers also can revise their mathematics learning instrument in the form of lesson plan. It means that LS activity is important to make a better learning instruments and focus on how student learn not on how teacher teach.

  16. Episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking: intersections between memory and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Daniel L; Benoit, Roland G; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K

    2015-01-01

    This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one's personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one's personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. White Matter Changes in First Episode Psychosis and their Relation to the Size of Sample Studied: A DTI Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melicher, T.; Horáček, J.; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Španiel, F.; Tintěra, J.; Ibrahim, I.; Mikoláš, P.; Novák, T.; Mohr, P.; Höschl, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 162, 1-3 (2015), s. 22-28 ISSN 0920-9964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23940S Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 1392213 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : first episode psychosis * schizophrenia * diffusion tensor imaging * Tract-Based Spatial Statistics * fractional anisotropy Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology Impact factor: 4.453, year: 2015

  18. Adjunctive Taurine in First-Episode Psychosis: A Phase 2, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Colin P; Allott, Kelly A; Murphy, Brendan P; Yuen, Hok Pan; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; Papas, Alicia; Moral, Jennifer; Pham, Tee; O'Regan, Michaela K; Phassouliotis, Christina; Simpson, Raelene; McGorry, Patrick D

    2016-12-01

    Taurine is an inhibitory neuromodulatory amino acid in the central nervous system that activates the GABA- and glycine-insensitive chloride channel and inhibits the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. It also functions as a neuroprotective agent and has a role in neural development and neurogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of adjunctive taurine in improving symptomatology and cognition among patients with a DSM-IV first-episode psychotic disorder. 121 patients with first-episode psychosis, aged 18-25 years, attending early intervention services consented to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from January 2007 to May 2009. Patients taking low-dose antipsychotic medication were randomly assigned to receive once-daily taurine 4 g or placebo for 12 weeks. The coprimary outcomes were change in symptomatology (measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale [BPRS] total score) and change in cognition (measured by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia [MATRICS] Consensus Cognitive Battery composite score) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included tolerability and safety and additional clinical and functioning measures. 86 participants (n = 47 taurine; n = 39 placebo) were included in the final analysis. Taurine significantly improved symptomatology measured by the BPRS total score (95% CI, 1.8-8.5; P = .004) and psychotic subscale (95% CI, 0.1-1.5; P = .026) compared to placebo. Additionally, improvements were observed in the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (95% CI, 0.1-3.0; P = .047) and Global Assessment of Functioning (95% CI, 0.3-8.8; P = .04) scores. There was no group difference in composite cognitive score (95% CI, -1.7 to 1.0; P = .582). A significant group difference was found on one safety and tolerability item (psychic item 2, asthenia/lassitude/increased fatigability) of the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser, with the taurine group showing a

  19. The history of a lesson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    2003-01-01

    and emphasises the need to study the history of lessons rather than the lessons of history. This approach shows that Munich is the end point of a constitutive history that begins in the failure of the Versailles treaty to create a durable European order following the First World War. The Munich lesson is thus......The article investigates the concept of lessons in IR. By means of a constructivist critique of the 'lessons literature', the article analyses one of the most important of IR lessons: that of Munich. Examining how the Munich lesson came about, the article shows the praxeological nature of lessons...... one element of the lesson of Versailles, which is a praxeology that defines how the West is to make peace, and against whom peace must be defended. The lesson of Versailles has been, at least in part, constitutive of the outbreak of the Cold War, and it continues to define the Western conception...

  20. Learning from Lessons: studying the structure and construction of mathematics teacher knowledge in Australia, China and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Ching Esther; Clarke, David J.; Clarke, Doug M.; Roche, Anne; Cao, Yiming; Peter-Koop, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    The major premise of this project is that teachers learn from the act of teaching a lesson. Rather than asking "What must a teacher already know in order to practice effectively?", this project asks "What might a teacher learn through their activities in the classroom and how might this learning be optimised?" In this project, controlled conditions are created utilising purposefully designed and trialled lesson plans to investigate the process of teacher knowledge construction, with teacher selective attention proposed as a key mediating variable. In order to investigate teacher learning through classroom practice, the project addresses the following questions: To what classroom objects, actions and events do teachers attend and with what consequence for their learning? Do teachers in different countries attend to different classroom events and consequently derive different learning benefits from teaching a lesson? This international project combines focused case studies with an online survey of mathematics teachers' selective attention and consequent learning in Australia, China and Germany. Data include the teacher's adaptation of a pre-designed lesson, the teacher's actions during the lesson, the teacher's reflective thoughts about the lesson and, most importantly, the consequences for the planning and delivery of a second lesson. The combination of fine-grained, culturally situated case studies and large-scale online survey provides mutually informing benefits from each research approach. The research design, so constituted, offers the means to a new and scalable vision of teacher learning and its promotion.

  1. Improving the quality of learning in science through optimization of lesson study for learning community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, S.

    2018-03-01

    Lesson Study for Learning Community is one of lecturer profession building system through collaborative and continuous learning study based on the principles of openness, collegiality, and mutual learning to build learning community in order to form professional learning community. To achieve the above, we need a strategy and learning method with specific subscription technique. This paper provides a description of how the quality of learning in the field of science can be improved by implementing strategies and methods accordingly, namely by applying lesson study for learning community optimally. Initially this research was focused on the study of instructional techniques. Learning method used is learning model Contextual teaching and Learning (CTL) and model of Problem Based Learning (PBL). The results showed that there was a significant increase in competence, attitudes, and psychomotor in the four study programs that were modelled. Therefore, it can be concluded that the implementation of learning strategies in Lesson study for Learning Community is needed to be used to improve the competence, attitude and psychomotor of science students.

  2. Suicidality and symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation in patients experiencing manic episodes with depressive symptoms: a naturalistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Eberhard,1 Emmanuelle Weiller2 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: Patients with a bipolar I disorder (BD-I manic episode meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5, criteria for “with mixed features” have a high incidence of suicide attempts and of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (AIA symptoms. The aim of this analysis was to explore the relationship between suicidality and AIA symptoms in patients with BD-I experiencing mania with depressive symptoms, using data from a previous naturalistic study.Patients and methods: Psychiatrists completed an online questionnaire about their adult patients who had a current BD-I manic episode. Questions covered the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier, the severity of AIA symptoms, the frequency and controllability of suicidal ideation, and the number of suicide attempts.Results: Of 1,035 patients with BD-I mania who were included in the analyses, 348 (33.6% met the criteria for the DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier (three or more depressive symptoms. These patients were further stratified according to the severity of their AIA symptoms: “mild AIA” (zero or one AIA symptom above a severity threshold; 105 patients or “severe AIA” (all three AIA symptoms above a severity threshold; 167 patients. A greater incidence of suicidal ideation was observed in the severe AIA group (71.9% than in the mild AIA group (47.6%. Twice as many patients had easily controlled suicidal ideation than difficult-to-control suicidal ideation in both subgroups. The mean number of suicide attempts was higher in the severe AIA group than in the mild AIA group, during the current episode (0.84 vs 0.34 attempts, respectively; P<0.05 and over the patient’s lifetime (1.56 vs 1.04 attempts, respectively.Conclusion: The high risk of suicide among BD-I mania patients with depressive

  3. Age-related deficits in selective attention during encoding increase demands on episodic reconstruction during context retrieval: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Taylor; Strunk, Jonathan; Arndt, Jason; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) and neuroimaging evidence suggests that directing attention toward single item-context associations compared to intra-item features at encoding improves context memory performance and reduces demands on strategic retrieval operations in young and older adults. In everyday situations, however, there are multiple event features competing for our attention. It is not currently known how selectively attending to one contextual feature while attempting to ignore another influences context memory performance and the processes that support successful retrieval in the young and old. We investigated this issue in the current ERP study. Young and older participants studied pictures of objects in the presence of two contextual features: a color and a scene, and their attention was directed to the object's relationship with one of those contexts. Participants made context memory decisions for both attended and unattended contexts and rated their confidence in those decisions. Behavioral results showed that while both groups were generally successful in applying selective attention during context encoding, older adults were less confident in their context memory decisions for attended features and showed greater dependence in context memory accuracy for attended and unattended contextual features (i.e., hyper-binding). ERP results were largely consistent between age groups but older adults showed a more pronounced late posterior negativity (LPN) implicated in episodic reconstruction processes. We conclude that age-related suppression deficits during encoding result in reduced selectivity in context memory, thereby increasing subsequent demands on episodic reconstruction processes when sought after details are not readily retrieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Peningkatan Pengetahuan Dan Keterampilan Guru SD Muhammadiyah 4 Batu Dalam Mengelola Pembelajaran ABK melalui Lesson Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Poerwanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anak-anak dengan kebutuhan khusus (ABK yang dikenal sebagai anak-anak cacat, atau anak-anak yang luar biasa, anak-anak yaitu yang menyimpang secara signifikan dari kriteria normal, baik dari aspek fisik, psikologis, emosional dan sosial. Mulai tahun 2001, pemerintah mulai program pendidikan inklusif, pendidikan inklusif adalah untuk memasukkan anak-anak dengan kebutuhan khusus belajar bersama dengan anak normal di kelas dan sekolah reguler. Masalahnya, guru di sekolah reguler tidak berpendidikan dan dipersiapkan khusus untuk mengelola proses belajar mengajar untuk ABK. Masalah juga dialami oleh SD Muhammadiyah 4 Batu, untuk membantu memecahkan masalah tim FKIP menerapkan aktivitas Lesson Study untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan guru dan keterampilan dalam mengelola ABK pembelajaran individual Lesson study yang dilakukan dalam tiga siklus yang dikemas dalam tiga model pembelajaran; ABK belajar sendiri di kelas khusus, pengajaran dan pembelajaran di kelas reguler dan pengajaran dan pembelajaran ABK di kelas reguler dengan bantuan GPK. Setiap siklus terdiri dari beberapa kegiatan. Studi pelajaran terdiri dari empat kegiatan yang disingkat PDCA; P (rencana atau perencanaan, D (lakukan adalah pelaksanaan pembelajaran oleh seorang guru sebagai model dan diamati oleh guru lainnya, C (cek merupakan cerminan dari perbaikan lebih lanjut proses pembelajaran, dan A (tindak adalah tindak lanjut.  Dari tiga tahapan pelaksanaan proses belajar mengajar ABK dapat memberikan manfaat bagi para guru untuk meningkatkan pemahaman dan keterampilan untuk mengelola pembelajaran untuk ABK. Melalui Lesson Study diharapkan ABK mendapatkan layanan yang tepat dan belajar yang optimal. Beberapa temuan dampak pada perilaku siswa di kelas adalah bahwa siswa dapat menerima keberadaan ABK di. Meskipun keterbatasan kelas fasilitas guru mendapatkan pengalaman berharga yang terkait dengan pengembangan pembelajaran melalui forum ABK Lesson Study. Jadi kebutuhan untuk pelaksanaan tindak

  5. Students’ Attitudes towards their EFL Lessons and Teachers: Their Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Žefran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates attitudes towards English as a foreign language (EFL by focusing on retrospective accounts of higher-education students’ experience with learning English. The first part looks at individual factors affecting foreign language (FL learning, such as attitudes towards FL learning and FL anxiety. The second part presents the results of a study conducted among students of the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Primorska. The main aim of the study was to identify students’ attitudes towards their past EFL lessons and teachers and students’ FL anxiety level. The results show that anxiety is a serious problem and that students exhibit alarmingly negative attitudes towards EFL lessons and teachers.

  6. Non-technical impediments to maglev development : a lesson learned study of the Florida Maglev Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to study lessons learned, to date, from the Orlando experience. Particular attention will be given to the economics of competing modes in the private and public section. That objective will entail identifying the groups...

  7. Peningkatan Kualitas Perkuliahan Fisiologi Tumbuhan melalui Lesson Study di Jurusan Biologi Fmipa Um

    OpenAIRE

    Susilo, Herawati

    2014-01-01

    Since three years ago Plant Physiology lecture has been using a model of learning Reading, Questioning, and Answering System (RQA), but the results are still not satisfactory. Three open classes of Lesson Study (LS) has been implemented to improve the lecture on April 4, 7, and 14, 2014 by the LS Team consisting of three lecturers and four assistant lecturers. The input for improving the teaching and learning process of lecture conducted as a result of reflection before and after three open ...

  8. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico JA; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaig...

  9. Fractionation of the component processes underlying successful episodic encoding: a combined fMRI and divided-attention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncapher, Melina R; Rugg, Michael D

    2008-02-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that attentional resources are necessary for the encoding of episodic memories, but the nature of the relationship between attention and neural correlates of encoding is unclear. Here we address this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a divided-attention paradigm in which competition for different types of attentional resources was manipulated. Fifteen volunteers were scanned while making animacy judgments to visually presented words and concurrently performing one of three tasks on auditorily presented words: male/female voice discrimination (control task), 1-back voice comparison (1-back task), or indoor/outdoor judgment (semantic task). The 1-back and semantic tasks were designed to compete for task-generic and task-specific attentional resources, respectively. Using the "remember/know" procedure, memory for the study words was assessed after 15 min. In the control condition, subsequent memory effects associated with later recollection were identified in the left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus and in the left hippocampus. These effects were differentially attenuated in the two more difficult divided-attention conditions. The effects of divided attention seem, therefore, to reflect impairments due to limitations at both task-generic and task-specific levels. Additionally, each of the two more difficult divided-attention conditions was associated with subsequent memory effects in regions distinct from those showing effects in the control condition. These findings suggest the engagement of alternative encoding processes to those engaged in the control task. The overall pattern of findings suggests that divided attention can impact later memory in different ways, and accordingly, that different attentional resources, including task-generic and task-specific resources, make distinct contributions to successful episodic encoding.

  10. The implementation of discovery learning model based on lesson study to increase student's achievement in colloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyanti, Retno Dwi; Purba, Deby Monika

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this research are to get the increase student's achievement on the discovery learning model based on lesson study. Beside of that, this research also conducted to know the cognitive aspect. This research was done in three school that are SMA N 3 Medan. Population is all the students in SMA N 11 Medan which taken by purposive random sampling. The research instruments are achievement test instruments that have been validated. The research data analyzed by statistic using Ms Excell. The result data shows that the student's achievement taught by discovery learning model based on Lesson study higher than the student's achievement taught by direct instructional method. It can be seen from the average of gain and also proved with t-test, the normalized gain in experimental class of SMA N 11 is (0.74±0.12) and control class (0.45±0.12), at significant level α = 0.05, Ha is received and Ho is refused where tcount>ttable in SMA N 11 (9.81>1,66). Then get the improvement cognitive aspect from three of school is C2 where SMA N 11 is 0.84(high). Then the observation sheet result of lesson study from SMA N 11 92 % of student working together while 67% less in active using media.

  11. Lessons learned from the Tokamak Advanced Reactor Innovation and Evaluation Study (ARIES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Lessons from the four-year ARIES (Advanced Reactor Innovation and Evaluation Study) investigation of a number of commercial magnetic-fusion-energy (MFE) power-plant embodiments of the tokamak are summarized. These lessons apply to physics, engineering and technology, and environmental, safety and health (ES ampersand H) characteristics of projected tokamak power plants. A general conclusion from this extensive investigation of the commercial potential of tokamak power plants is the need for combined, symbiotic advances relative to present understanding in physics, engineering, and materials before economic competitiveness with developing advanced energy sources can be realized. Advanced tokamak plasmas configured in the second-stability regime that achieve both high β and bootstrap fractions near unity through strong profile control offer high promise in this regard

  12. Personal semantics: Is it distinct from episodic and semantic memory? An electrophysiological study of memory for autobiographical facts and repeated events in honor of Shlomo Bentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoult, Louis; Tanguay, Annick; Beaudry, Myriam; Tavakoli, Paniz; Rabipour, Sheida; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2016-03-01

    Declarative memory is thought to consist of two independent systems: episodic and semantic. Episodic memory represents personal and contextually unique events, while semantic memory represents culturally-shared, acontextual factual knowledge. Personal semantics refers to aspects of declarative memory that appear to fall somewhere in between the extremes of episodic and semantic. Examples include autobiographical knowledge and memories of repeated personal events. These two aspects of personal semantics have been studied little and rarely compared to both semantic and episodic memory. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of 27 healthy participants while they verified the veracity of sentences probing four types of questions: general (i.e., semantic) facts, autobiographical facts, repeated events, and unique (i.e., episodic) events. Behavioral results showed equivalent reaction times in all 4 conditions. True sentences were verified faster than false sentences, except for unique events for which no significant difference was observed. Electrophysiological results showed that the N400 (which is classically associated with retrieval from semantic memory) was maximal for general facts and the LPC (which is classically associated with retrieval from episodic memory) was maximal for unique events. For both ERP components, the two personal semantic conditions (i.e., autobiographical facts and repeated events) systematically differed from semantic memory. In addition, N400 amplitudes also differentiated autobiographical facts from unique events. Autobiographical facts and repeated events did not differ significantly from each other but their corresponding scalp distributions differed from those associated with general facts. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of personal semantics can be distinguished from those of semantic and episodic memory, and may provide clues as to how unique events are transformed to semantic memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  13. First-episode psychosis at the West Bologna Community Mental Health Centre: results of an 8-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarricone, I; Mimmi, S; Paparelli, A; Rossi, E; Mori, E; Panigada, S; Carchia, G; Bandieri, V; Michetti, R; Minenna, G; Boydell, J; Morgan, C; Berardi, D

    2012-11-01

    Research mostly conducted in the UK and northern Europe has established that there are high rates of first-episode psychosis (FEP) in large cities and immigrant populations; moreover, psychosis has been found to be associated with cannabis use and early trauma. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence rate of FEP and the distribution of several risk factors (e.g. age, ethnicity, substance abuse) in Bologna, Italy. The Bologna FEP (BoFEP) study is an 8-year prospective study. All FEP patients, 18-64 years old, consecutively referred to the West Bologna Community Mental Health Centre (CMHC) from 2002 to 2009 were evaluated. Sociodemographic information, migration history and clinical data were collected through an ad-hoc schedule. Psychiatric diagnoses were recorded using the Schedule for Clinical Assessment of Neuropsychiatry (SCAN). The overall incidence rate (IR) in the BoFEP study was 16.4 per 100 000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-18.9]. The incidence was higher in young people, men and migrants (MI). The IR of FEP found by the Bologna study is lower than that found by other European studies. However, as in other studies, the incidence was higher in certain groups. This heterogeneity has implications for policy and mental health service development, and for understanding the aetiology of psychosis.

  14. Implementasi Metode Sokratik Melalui Lesson Study Untuk Meningkatkan Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis Mahasiswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Susiani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the experience of implementing the action research to apply the Socratic dialogue method through lesson study in the lecture of Educational Profession to improve critical thinking skills of the university students. The subject of this action research is 36 students (22 women and 14 men in grade VI class B, Department Guidance and Counseling (BK, Faculty of Education, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha (Undiksha on academic years 2016/2017. This action research conducted in cycles (reported in three cycles which is integrated into the activities of lesson study. In every cycle consisted of a plan, action, observation/evaluation and reflection phase. Critical thinking skills are assessed through observation activities in group discussion activities and classes, as well as through student response in solving essay test (on cases analysis, which assessed by a rubric assessment of students critical thinking skills at each end of the course. The results showed that the mean of the critical thinking skills of students at the end of the first cycle is 50 (low, then at the end of the second cycle increased to 65 (average and at the end of the third cycle increased again to 89 (high. Research also shows that the lesson learned were founded through collaborating and careful observation of the course observer with researchers in identifying strengths and constraints and to produce efforts to improve the implementation of the course to improve the quality of learning.

  15. Factors associated with the time to the first wheezing episode in infants: a cross-sectional study from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants (EISL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Gonzalez, Rosa M; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu; Brand, Paul L P; Perez-Fernandez, Virginia; Sanchez-Solis, Manuel; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2016-01-21

    Male gender, asthmatic heredity, perinatal tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory infections have been associated with wheeze in the first years of life, among other risk factors. However, information about what factors modify the time to the first episode of wheeze in infants is lacking. The present study analyses which factors are associated with shorter time to the first episode of wheeze in infants. Parents of 11- to 24-month-old children were surveyed when attending their health-care centres for a control visit. They answered a questionnaire including the age in months when a first wheeze episode (if any) had occurred (outcome variable). The study was performed in 14 centres in Latin America (LA) and in 8 centres in Europe (EU) (at least 1,000 infants per centre). Factors known to be associated with wheezing in the cohort were included in a survival analysis (Cox proportional hazards model). Summary hazard ratios adjusted for all risk factors (aHR) were calculated using the meta-analysis approach with random effects. A total of 15,067 infants had experienced wheezing at least once, out of 35,049 surveyed. Male gender in LA (aHR 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.10, P=0.047), parental asthma in LA and EU (aHR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.11, P=0.037), infant eczema in EU (aHR 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.39, Passociated with a shorter period of time to the first episode. Breast feeding for at least 3 months was associated with a longer period, only in LA (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.96, Passociation.

  16. Older and Wiser: Older Adults’ Episodic Word Memory Benefits from Sentence Study Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Laura E.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark of adaptive cognition is the ability to modulate learning in response to the demands posed by different types of tests and different types of materials. Here we evaluate how older adults process words and sentences differently by examining patterns of memory errors. In two experiments, we explored younger and older adults’ sensitivity to lures on a recognition test following study of words in these two types of contexts. Among the studied words were compound words such as “blackmail” and “jailbird” that were related to conjunction lures (e.g. “blackbird”) and semantic lures (e.g. “criminal”). Participants engaged in a recognition test that included old items, conjunction lures, semantic lures, and unrelated new items. In both experiments, younger and older adults had the same general pattern of memory errors: more incorrect endorsements of semantic than conjunction lures following sentence study and more incorrect endorsements of conjunction than semantic lures following list study. The similar pattern reveals that older and younger adults responded to the constraints of the two different study contexts in similar ways. However, while younger and older adults showed similar levels of memory performance for the list study context, the sentence study context elicited superior memory performance in the older participants. It appears as though memory tasks that take advantage of greater expertise in older adults--in this case, greater experience with sentence processing--can reveal superior memory performance in the elderly. PMID:23834493

  17. Teachers' Perceptions of Infusion of Values in Science Lessons: a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarassamy, Jayanthy; Koh, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Much has been written and debated on the importance of including moral, character or values education in school curricula. In line with this, teachers' views with regard to values education have often been sought. However, a search into the literature on values in science education has revealed little on this domain. In an attempt to close this gap, this study explored the views of teachers with regard to values infusion in the teaching of science. The aim was to investigate teachers' perceptions on two broad areas: (i) how values were infused or addressed in lower secondary science and (ii) how values-infused science lessons influenced their students' dispositions and actions. The participants who took part in the interviews were lower secondary science teachers teaching Grade 8 in selected Singapore and New Delhi schools. The findings showed that values inherent in the discipline of science, such as validity, fairness, honesty, rigour, predominated in the lessons conducted by the teachers in both contexts. Furthermore, in Singapore, equal numbers of teachers made references to values upheld and practised by scientists and values arising from the interplay between people and scientific processes and products. In New Delhi however, the emphasis was higher on the latter category of values than on the former. Generally, in both contexts, values infusion in science lessons was not planned but occurred spontaneously as values issues surfaced in class. Teachers in both Singapore and New Delhi used strategies such as questioning, discussion, activities and direct instructions to carry out values infusion, although they experienced challenges that included content and time constraints, lack of student readiness and of teacher competency. Nevertheless, the teachers interviewed perceived that values in science lessons brought about changes in students' personal attributes, affect and behaviour, such as greater interest and prosocial engagement.

  18. A STUDY OF THE CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS, BIOCHEMICAL FINDINGS, PRECIPITATING FACTORS AND COMPLICATIONS IN 56 EPISODES OF DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rafii

    1998-01-01

    Fifty six episodes of DKA occurred in 33 patients during the period between 1998 -96. These patients were admitted and treated in Bahrami children hospital, a Tehran University teaching medical center. The most frequent clinical manifestations consisted of polyuria and polydipsia (66%), nausea and vomiting (64%), reduction in consciousness (53%), and Kussmaul respiration (53.5%). 54.6% of DKA episodes showed a pH below 7.1. There was a relationship between the severity of acidosis and the tim...

  19. Bleeding Episodes Among Patients with Congenital Fibrinogen Disorders, a Study On 12 New Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Naderi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital fibrinogen disorders (CFDs comprise about 10% of rare bleeding disorders (RBDs. CFDs are divided into two groups of quantitative (afibrinogenemia and hypofibrinogenemia with autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, and qualitative (dysfibrinogenemia, hypodysfibrogenemia disorders, mainly with autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Sistan and Baluchestan Province in Iran, with its high rate of consanguineous marriages, has a high incidence of RBDs including CFD. In the current study, we report clinical manifestations of patients with CFDs.Methods: Twelve new Iranian patients from Sistan and Baluchestan Province with different types of CFDs were selected for this study. Diagnosis of CFDs was based on clinical features and familial history followed by laboratory assessment by routine and specific coagulation tests including prothrombin time (PT and activated partial time tests (APTT, as well as FI activity assay by Clauss method.Results: Out of 12 patients, 3(25% had afibrinogenemia, 7(58.3% had hypofibrinogenemia while 2(16/7% were suspected of having dysfibrinogenemia. Although umbilical cord bleeding (UCB 9(75% was the most common clinical presentation among the study population, this feature was not observed among patients with dysfibrinogenemia. Hematoma (100% was the most common presentation of patients with dysfibrinogenemia.  Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that some clinical presentations are the diagnostic features of CFDs and can be used for precise and in-time diagnosis CFDs in conjunction with family history and laboratory findings.Keywords: Fibrinogen Deficiency; Congenital Afibrinogenemia; Blood Coagulation Disorder; Afibrinogenemia

  20. Longitudinal Study of Neurological Soft Signs in First-Episode Early-Onset Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, M.; Bombin, I.; Castro-Fornieles, J.; Gonzalez-Pinto, A.; Otero, S.; Parellada, M.; Moreno, D.; Baeza, I.; Graell, M.; Rapado, M.; Arango, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, the assessment of neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with psychosis has become a subject of special interest. The study of the progression of NSS during adolescence will provide valuable information about the role of NSS as endophenotypes or biomarkers and about brain development at a stage in which brain…

  1. Fall episodes in elderly patients with asthma and COPD - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, Andrzej; Jarzab, Jerzy; Hadas, Ewa; Jakalski, Marek; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2018-05-08

    Evidence of an increased risk of falls in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exists; however, this has not been studied in elderly asthmatic patients. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of falls in elderly patients who were diagnosed with bronchial asthma compared to subjects with COPD. A 12 - month prospective observational study in elderly outpatients with diagnosis of either asthma or COPD was conducted. All of the participants were monitored on the following parameters: falls, comorbidities, drug therapy and The Berg Balance Scale. The rate of falls was shown as an incidence ratio. Cluster analysis for subgroups with similar features was performed on all patients included in the study. Two clusters of frequent fallers were determined. The fall incidence rate in falls per person per year was 1.41 (95% CI: 0.86-1.96) in asthmatic patients and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.05-2.11) in the COPD group. Frequent fallers were more prevalent in the COPD group, with 32% in this group compared to 28% in the groups of patients with asthma. In cluster analysis, frequent fallers were grouped into two models characterized by polytherapy, depression symptoms, hospitalizations, coronary disease, dementia and diagnosis of COPD or asthma. Elderly asthmatic patients presented a high rate of falls, which is comparable to that of patients with COPD.

  2. The counteracting effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and drought episodes: Studies of enchytraeid communities in a dry heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Kristine; Krogh, Paul Henning; Linden, Leon

    2010-01-01

    The potential impacts of interactions of multiple climate change factors in soil ecosystems have received little attention. Most studies have addressed effects of single factors such as increased temperature or atmospheric CO2 but little is known about how such environmental factors will interact...... impact of drought on the enchytraeids, compared to the year with a wet summer and autumn (2007). Our study emphasises the importance of multi-factorial experimental design as a means to investigate effects of climatic changes.......The potential impacts of interactions of multiple climate change factors in soil ecosystems have received little attention. Most studies have addressed effects of single factors such as increased temperature or atmospheric CO2 but little is known about how such environmental factors will interact....... In the present study we investigate the effects of in situ exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, increased temperatures and prolonged drought episodes on field communities of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) in a dry heathland (Brandbjerg, Denmark). Increased CO2 had a positive effect on enchytraeid...

  3. [A naturalistic study: 100 consecutive episodes of acute agitation in a psychiatric emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, J C; Madre, M; Puigdemont, D; Oller, S; Corripio, I; Díaz, A; Faus, G; Perez, V; Alvarez, E

    2006-01-01

    Psychomotor agitation is a common event in psychiatric emergency services (PES) with a prevalence of approximately 10 %. There is no general consensus on to how to manage psychomotor agitation; benzodiazepines, typical antipsychotics and now atypical antipsychotics have demonstrated similar efficacy. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical management of agitation in "real-life" in a psychiatric emergency service. A naturalistic study was performed in acutely agitated patients recruited consecutively in a psychiatric emergency service. Demographics, clinical and therapeutic characteristics were analyzed. Efficacy was assessed by the Excitement Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC) and the Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES). Pragmatic variables such as the need for second pharmacological intervention and the need for physical restraints were assessed. The study included 100 patients with psychomotor agitation. Mean age was 36.2 % and 54% were women. The most prevalent diagnoses were psychotic disorder (48 %) and personality disorder (24 %). Physical restraint was required in 39 % of patients and 52 % accepted oral treatment. Haloperidol was the most frequent oral treatment and olanzapine was the most frequent intramuscular treatment. A naturalistic approach provides data based on clinical reality in psychiatric emergency services. Strict research designs of clinical trials of efficacy imply sample selection biases and are generally distanced from the clinical reality. Atypical antipsychotics have become the first-line treatment in acute agitation

  4. The role of life events and psychological factors in the onset of first and recurrent mood episodes in bipolar offspring : Results from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemner, S. M.; Mesman, E.; Nolen, W. A.; Eijckemans, M. J C; Hillegers, M. H J

    2015-01-01

    Background Life events are an established risk factor for the onset and recurrence of unipolar and bipolar mood episodes, especially in the presence of genetic vulnerability. The dynamic interplay between life events and psychological context, however, is less studied. In this study, we investigated

  5. The role of life events and psychological factors in the onset of first and recurrent mood episodes in bipolar offspring : results from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemner, S. M.; Mesman, E.; Nolen, W. A.; Eijckemans, M. J. C.; Hillegers, M. H. J.

    Background Life events are an established risk factor for the onset and recurrence of unipolar and bipolar mood episodes, especially in the presence of genetic vulnerability. The dynamic interplay between life events and psychological context, however, is less studied. In this study, we investigated

  6. Epidemiological and clinical characterization following a first psychotic episode in major depressive disorder: comparisons with schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder in the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (CAMFEPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, Olabisi; Kingston, Tara; Scully, Paul J; Baldwin, Patrizia; Browne, David; Kinsella, Anthony; Russell, Vincent; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Waddington, John L

    2013-07-01

    While recent research on psychotic illness has focussed on the nosological, clinical, and biological relationships between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, little attention has been directed to the most common other psychotic diagnosis, major depressive disorder with psychotic features (MDDP). As this diagnostic category captures the confluence between dimensions of psychotic and affective psychopathology, it is of unappreciated heuristic potential to inform on the nature of psychotic illness. Therefore, the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MDDP were compared with those of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (n = 370). Epidemiologically, the first psychotic episode of MDDP (n = 77) was uniformly distributed across the adult life span, while schizophrenia (n = 73) and bipolar disorder (n = 73) were primarily disorders of young adulthood; the incidence of MDDP, like bipolar disorder, did not differ between the sexes, while the incidence of schizophrenia was more common in males than in females. Clinically, MDDP was characterized by negative symptoms, executive dysfunction, neurological soft signs (NSS), premorbid intellectual function, premorbid adjustment, and quality of life similar to those for schizophrenia, while bipolar disorder was characterized by less prominent negative symptoms, executive dysfunction and NSS, and better quality of life. These findings suggest that what we currently categorize as MDDP may be more closely aligned with other psychotic diagnoses than has been considered previously. They indicate that differences in how psychosis is manifested vis-à-vis depression and mania may be quantitative rather than qualitative and occur within a dimensional space, rather than validating categorical distinctions.

  7. Epidemiological and clinical characterization following a first psychotic episode in major depressive disorder: Comparisons with Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Disorder in the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (CAMFEPS).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owoeye, Olabisi

    2013-05-28

    While recent research on psychotic illness has focussed on the nosological, clinical, and biological relationships between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, little attention has been directed to the most common other psychotic diagnosis, major depressive disorder with psychotic features (MDDP). As this diagnostic category captures the confluence between dimensions of psychotic and affective psychopathology, it is of unappreciated heuristic potential to inform on the nature of psychotic illness. Therefore, the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MDDP were compared with those of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (n = 370). Epidemiologically, the first psychotic episode of MDDP (n = 77) was uniformly distributed across the adult life span, while schizophrenia (n = 73) and bipolar disorder (n = 73) were primarily disorders of young adulthood; the incidence of MDDP, like bipolar disorder, did not differ between the sexes, while the incidence of schizophrenia was more common in males than in females. Clinically, MDDP was characterized by negative symptoms, executive dysfunction, neurological soft signs (NSS), premorbid intellectual function, premorbid adjustment, and quality of life similar to those for schizophrenia, while bipolar disorder was characterized by less prominent negative symptoms, executive dysfunction and NSS, and better quality of life. These findings suggest that what we currently categorize as MDDP may be more closely aligned with other psychotic diagnoses than has been considered previously. They indicate that differences in how psychosis is manifested vis-à-vis depression and mania may be quantitative rather than qualitative and occur within a dimensional space, rather than validating categorical distinctions.

  8. Episodic aphasia associated with tumor active multiple sclerosis: a correlative SPECT study utilising image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roff, G.; Campbell, A.; Lawn, N.; Henderson, A.; McCarthy, M.; Lenzo, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cerebral perfusion imaging is a common technique to assess cerebral perfusion and metabolism. It can complement anatomical imaging in assessing a number of neurological conditions. At times it can better define the clinical manifestations of a disease process than anatomical imaging alone. We present a clinical case whereby cerebral SPECT imaging helped define the physiological reason for intermittent aphasia in a patient with tumor active multiple sclerotic white matter plaques. Cerebral SPECT studies were performed during a period of aphasia and when the patient had recovered. We utilised subtraction analyses and image fusion techniques to better define the changes seen on SPECT. We discuss the neuroanatomical relationship of aphasia and the automatic fusion technique that allows accurate co-registration of the MRI and SPECT data. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. Research lessons from implementing a national nursing workforce study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzostek, T; Brzyski, P; Kózka, M; Squires, A; Przewoźniak, L; Cisek, M; Gajda, K; Gabryś, T; Ogarek, M

    2015-09-01

    National nursing workforce studies are important for evidence-based policymaking to improve nursing human resources globally. Survey instrument translation and contextual adaptation along with level of experience of the research team are key factors that will influence study implementation and results in countries new to health workforce studies. This study's aim was to describe the pre-data collection instrument adaptation challenges when designing the first national nursing workforce study in Poland while participating in the Nurse Forecasting: Human Resources Planning in Nursing project. A descriptive analysis of the pre-data collection phase of the study. Instrument adaptation was conducted through a two-phase content validity indexing process and pilot testing from 2009 to September 2010 in preparation for primary study implementation in December 2010. Means of both content validation phases were compared with pilot study results to assess for significant patterns in the data. The initial review demonstrated that the instrument had poor level of cross-cultural relevance and multiple translation issues. After revising the translation and re-evaluating using the same process, instrument scores improved significantly. Pilot study results showed floor and ceiling effects on relevance score correlations in each phase of the study. The cross-cultural adaptation process was developed specifically for this study and is, therefore, new. It may require additional replication to further enhance the method. The approach used by the Polish team helped identify potential problems early in the study. The critical step improved the rigour of the results and improved comparability for between countries analyses, conserving both money and resources. This approach is advised for cross-cultural adaptation of instruments to be used in national nursing workforce studies. Countries seeking to conduct national nursing workforce surveys to improve nursing human resources policies may

  10. Study of emission episodes of urban aerosol by ion beam analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angyal, A.; Kertesz, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Furu, E.; Csedreki, L.; Daroczi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Aerosol pollution has impact on the climate and on human health. Thus investigation of atmospheric aerosol is important in urban environment such as Debrecen. One of the main goals of our study was to define the sources of the particles. The hourly evolution of atmospheric aerosol concentration was used to identify sources of fine (aerodynamic diameter < 2,5 μm) and coarse (10 μm ≥ aerodynamic diameter ≥ 2.5 μm) urban particulate matter in Debrecen. In both size fractions sources were found which were characterized by high heavy metal content. In this study we provide accurate information of the sources of coarse mode heavy metals by using nuclear and scanning electron microscopy. Single particle analysis of chosen samples was carried out on the ATOMKI Scanning Nuclear Microprobe Facility. Elemental composition for Z ≥ 6, morphology and size of around 500 coarse mode particles were determined by Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy, light-element PIXE and PIXE analytical methods. Furthermore Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate particles morphology. The main components of the particles were Na, K, Ca, S, P and Fe with traces of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Co, Pb. S-rich particles were enriched in one or more of the following elements: Na, Ca, K, Fe, Zn. Trace metals (Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr) occurred together Fe supposedly originated from industrial emission or traffic. P appeared in the Ca-rich particles. Particles with high concentration of Ni were rich in V, Fe and S. Thus this source was identified as residual combustion. V-rich particles occurred together with Fe, Mn and Cr. Their possible source was industry. Pb was attached to Ca, Fe, S containing particles. As result of the SEM study the following particle types (Figure 1.) were identified: semitransparent material (S-K-rich, S-Zn-rich, PCa-rich), spherical (FeO, Fe-Ni-Cr-V-rich), cubic (KCl, CaCl) and crystalline (S-Ca-rich). The main sources of

  11. Illness episodes and A-bomb exposure: a study of absenteeism among Nagasaki Mitsubishi Shipyard workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Teizo; Hashimoto, Takeaki; Onishi, Shigeyuki; Fujisawa, Hideo

    1963-01-23

    With rate, frequency, and length of absence as indices, a study of the relation between A-bomb exposure and health status was conducted among male workers of the Nagasaki Mitsubishi Shipyard. The following results were obtained: absence rate of the group located 0 to 1999 m from the hypocenter was approximately 0.20 which is practically the same as the rates of the other comparison groups. Within the 0 to 1999 m group, the absence rate of the group with symptoms was higher than that of the group without symptoms. This was not statistically significant, and was ascribed to the effect of absence proneness in the group with symptoms. The absence rate showed a tendency to increase gradually with exposure dose. Within the 0 to 1999 m group, the hospitalization rate of the group with symptoms was significantly lower than that of the group without symptoms. The absence rate for diseases of the digestive system was high among those located 3000 to 3999 m from the hypocenter as well as those not in the city ATB, but in the 0 to 1000 m group the rate was high for diseases of the respiratory system. Between the 3 comparison groups no marked difference was noted in the prevalence rate of diseases which are possibly related to radiation. Of the 52 individuals who had been absent from duty 4 or more days on account of illness during the 2-year period at the Nagasaki Mitsubishi Shipyard, corresponding findings were recorded at the ABCC clinic for 25 (48.1%). 9 references, 2 figures, 18 tables.

  12. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study mapping the episodic memory encoding network in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Meneka K.; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P.; Bonelli, Silvia; Centeno, Maria; Vollmar, Christian; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J.; Koepp, Matthias J.

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated reorganization of memory encoding networks within the temporal lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy, but little is known of the extra-temporal networks in these patients. We investigated the temporal and extra-temporal reorganization of memory encoding networks in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and the neural correlates of successful subsequent memory formation. We studied 44 patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (24 left) and 26 healthy control subjects. All participants performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm of faces and words with subsequent out-of-scanner recognition assessments. A blocked analysis was used to investigate activations during encoding and neural correlates of subsequent memory were investigated using an event-related analysis. Event-related activations were then correlated with out-of-scanner verbal and visual memory scores. During word encoding, control subjects activated the left prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis showed significant additional right temporal and extra-temporal activations. Control subjects displayed subsequent verbal memory effects within left parahippocampal gyrus, left orbitofrontal cortex and fusiform gyrus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis activated only right posterior hippocampus, parahippocampus and fusiform gyrus. Correlational analysis showed that patients with left hippocampal sclerosis with better verbal memory additionally activated left orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and left posterior hippocampus. During face encoding, control subjects showed right lateralized prefrontal cortex and bilateral hippocampal activations. Patients with right hippocampal sclerosis showed increased temporal activations within the superior temporal gyri bilaterally and no increased extra-temporal areas of activation compared with

  13. Does psychomotor agitation in major depressive episodes indicate bipolarity? Evidence from the Zurich Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Benazzi, Franco; Ajdacic, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-02-01

    Kraepelin's partial interpretation of agitated depression as a mixed state of "manic-depressive insanity" (including the current concept of bipolar disorder) has recently been the focus of much research. This paper tested whether, how, and to what extent both psychomotor symptoms, agitation and retardation in depression are related to bipolarity and anxiety. The prospective Zurich Study assessed psychiatric and somatic syndromes in a community sample of young adults (N = 591) (aged 20 at first interview) by six interviews over 20 years (1979-1999). Psychomotor symptoms of agitation and retardation were assessed by professional interviewers from age 22 to 40 (five interviews) on the basis of the observed and reported behaviour within the interview section on depression. Psychiatric diagnoses were strictly operationalised and, in the case of bipolar-II disorder, were broader than proposed by DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. As indicators of bipolarity, the association with bipolar disorder, a family history of mania/hypomania/cyclothymia, together with hypomanic and cyclothymic temperament as assessed by the general behavior inventory (GBI) [15], and mood lability (an element of cyclothymic temperament) were used. Agitated and retarded depressive states were equally associated with the indicators of bipolarity and with anxiety. Longitudinally, agitation and retardation were significantly associated with each other (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0-3.2), and this combined group of major depressives showed stronger associations with bipolarity, with both hypomanic/cyclothymic and depressive temperamental traits, and with anxiety. Among agitated, non-retarded depressives, unipolar mood disorder was even twice as common as bipolar mood disorder. Combined agitated and retarded major depressive states are more often bipolar than unipolar, but, in general, agitated depression (with or without retardation) is not more frequently bipolar than retarded depression (with or without agitation), and

  14. Communicative Case Studies for EFL--Lessons for Interactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses use of case studies and role play throughout the curriculum at the Ecole de Hautes Etudes Commerciales du Nord, a French graduate school associated with the Catholic University of Lille. Provides a case study that was developed to reconcile conflicting needs in the business English classroom at the graduate level. Students require…

  15. Main lessons for FBR safety study from the CABRI experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Ikken

    2006-01-01

    CABRI project has been carried out FBR safety study with international cooperation of five nations since 1978. The project consists of four periods such as CABRI-1, CABRI-2, CABRI-FAST and CABRI-RAFT. The objects and the main information for hypothetical core decay accident and safety study of fuel are described. The behavior of core decay accident was studied in the first period (CABRI-1), the safety study of fuel was investigated after the second period (CABRI-2). Change of phenomena at the initial process of core decay accident, comparison between analysis and data of fuel diffusion behavior of neutron horoscope by CABRI-2 experiment, representative in-core experiment under slow TOP conditions, the damaged and undamaged pin under slow TOP conditions, the exterior of CABRI and TREAT and the upper part of CABRI and TREAT reactor are shown. CABRI experiments changed to LWR safety study and a part of TREAT is stated. (S.Y.)

  16. Episodic Memories in Anxiety Disorders: Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Machulska, Alla; Adolph, Dirk; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD). The available literature on explicit, autobiographical, and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret, and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:24795583

  17. Episodic memories in anxiety disorders: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin eZlomuzica

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD. The available literature on explicit-, autobiographical- and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms.

  18. Lessons from empirical studies in product and service variety management.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Andrew C.L.

    2013-01-01

    [EN] For many years, a trend for businesses has been to increase market segmentation and extend product and service-variety offerings in order to provid more choice for customers and gain a competitive advantags. However, there have been relatively few variety-related, empirical studies that have been undertaken. In this research, two empirical studies are presented that address the impact of product and service variety on business and business function performance. In the first (service-vari...

  19. Studying a disease with no home - lessons in trial recruitment from the PATCH II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kim S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulitis is a very common condition that often recurs. The PATCH II study was designed to explore the possibility of preventing future episodes of cellulitis, with resultant cost savings for the NHS. This was the first trial to be undertaken by the UK Dermatology Clinical Trials Network. As such, it was the first to test a recruitment model that involved many busy clinicians each contributing just a few patients. Methods A double-blind randomised controlled trial comparing prophylactic antibiotics (penicillin V with placebo tablets, for the prevention of repeat episodes of cellulitis of the leg. Primary outcome was time to subsequent recurrence of cellulitis. Results The PATCH II study was closed to recruitment having enrolled 123 participants from a target of 400. Whilst the recruitment period was extended by 12 months, it was not possible to continue beyond this point without additional funds. Many factors contributed to poor recruitment: (i changes in hospital policy and the introduction of community-based intravenous teams resulted in fewer cellulitis patients being admitted to hospital; ii those who were admitted were seen by many different specialties, making it difficult for a network of dermatology clinicians to identify suitable participants; and iii funding for research staff was limited to a trial manager and a trial administrator at the co-ordinating centre. With no dedicated research nurses at the recruiting centres, it was extremely difficult to maintain momentum and interest in the study. Attempts to boost recruitment by providing some financial support for principal investigators to employ local research staff was of limited success. Discussion The model of a network of busy NHS clinicians all recruiting a few patients into large clinical studies requires further testing. It did not work very well for PATCH II, but this was probably because patients were not routinely seen by dermatologists, and recruitment

  20. Lessons learned from international comparative crosscultural studies on dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Hugh C

    2006-06-01

    International and crosscultural comparative studies of Alzheimer disease (AD) offer significant advantages in elucidating risk factors for the disease by providing a wider diversity of environmental exposures as well as greater genetic diversity than do studies confined to a single ethnic group in a developed country. They also present with major methodological problems. The problems and their possible solutions are discussed in this article by describing three projects involving the Cree and English-speaking residents of Manitoba, blacks from Indianapolis, Indiana, and Yoruba from Ibadan and residents of Chinese villages. In this review, the development and harmonization of a culture fair screening instrument for dementia, the CSID, is described. The advantage of a scientific paradigm that can incorporate genetic and environmental factors as well as their interactions to explore the etiology of AD is presented. The importance of developing strategies for recruitment and retention in international community-based studies is emphasized as is the necessity of establishing academic partnerships between the countries. The unique opportunity provided by geopolitical and sociocultural influences to study environmental exposures is exemplified by the ongoing study of the influence of selenium levels on cognition in Chinese villagers. Results from the Indianapolis, Indiana-Ibadan dementia project are presented suggesting that the incidence of AD is lower in Yoruba than in blacks and that this lower rate may be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

  1. Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunziker S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical algorithms, technical skills, and repeated training are the classical cornerstones for successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Increasing evidence suggests that human factors, including team interaction, communication, and leadership, also influence the performance of CPR. Guidelines, however, do not yet include these human factors, partly because of the difficulties of their measurement in real-life cardiac arrest. Recently, clinical studies of cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity video-assisted simulations have provided opportunities to better delineate the influence of human factors on resuscitation team performance. This review focuses on evidence from simulator studies that focus on human factors and their influence on the performance of resuscitation teams. Similar to studies in real patients, simulated cardiac arrest scenarios revealed many unnecessary interruptions of CPR as well as significant delays in defibrillation. These studies also showed that human factors play a major role in these shortcomings and that the medical performance depends on the quality of leadership and team-structuring. Moreover, simulated video-taped medical emergencies revealed that a substantial part of information transfer during communication is erroneous. Understanding the impact of human factors on the performance of a complex medical intervention like resuscitation requires detailed, second-by-second, analysis of factors involving the patient, resuscitative equipment such as the defibrillator, and all team members. Thus, high-fidelity simulator studies provide an important research method in this challenging field.

  2. Physical Activity Measurements: Lessons Learned from the Pathways Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    High obesity rates in American Indian children led to Pathways, a randomized school and community-based childhood prevention study. Seven tribes, five universities, the NIH/NHLBI, and four elementary schools partnered. Increasing physical activity (PA) was an important intervention target. PA assessment was based on study objectives, feasibility, and tribal acceptance. A time-segmented analysis was also desired. Two methods were developed during pilot testing, a new PA questionnaire and accelerometry. Together, the methods provided qualitative and quantitative information and showed 3 of 4 sites were able to increase average daily PA, although overall the control versus intervention difference was not significant. The main limitation was inability to distinguish PA among individuals. Accelerometer size and some community concerns led to a protocol based on a single day of wearing time. Newer model triaxial accelerometers which are much smaller and allow sampling of multiple days of activity are recommended for future studies. PMID:20689391

  3. Sustainable development and climate change: Lessons from country studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Shukla, P.; Garg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable development has been suggested as a framework for integrating development and climate change policies in developing countries. Mainstreaming climate change into sustainable development policies would allow these countries to achieve their development goals while addressing climate...... change. A number of research programmes have investigated how potential synergies could be achieved at national level and what kind of trade-offs between the various aspects of sustainable development have to be faced. An overview of these studies is provided, focusing on national case studies....... The energy and transportation sectors are covered in many studies, but some attention is also given to the infrastructure sector and water supply. Most existing development policies will not lead to a sustainable development pattern, since they insufficiently address climate change. However, good...

  4. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Lessons Learned from Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Evens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK is generally accepted as positively impacting teaching quality and student learning. Therefore, research on PCK development in (prospective teachers is highly relevant. Based on a search in three databases (ERIC, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, a systematic review is conducted on intervention studies aiming at PCK development. The research questions are threefold: (1 How are the studies designed? (2 How are the interventions designed? and (3 What elements of interventions contribute to PCK development? The results show that most intervention studies are conducted in math and science education and use a qualitative methodology. Reflection, PCK courses, contact with other teachers, and experiences in educational practice are typically part of effective interventions. The review enables the identification of clear guidelines that may strengthen future research on stimulating PCK.

  5. [A new assessment for episodic memory. Episodic memory test and caregiver's episodic memory test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojea Ortega, T; González Álvarez de Sotomayor, M M; Pérez González, O; Fernández Fernández, O

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test is to evaluate episodic memory according to its definition in a way that is feasible for families and achieves high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. We administered a test consisting of 10 questions about episodic events to 332 subjects, of whom 65 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), 115 had amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 152 showed no cognitive impairment according to Reisberg's global deterioration scale (GDS). We calculated the test's sensitivity and specificity to distinguish AD from episodic aMCI and from normal ageing. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of aMCI was 0.94 and the best cut-off value was 20; for that value, sensitivity was 89% and specificity was 82%. For a diagnosis of AD, the area under the ROC curve was 0.99 and the best cut-off point was 17, with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 91%. A subsequent study using similar methodology yielded similar results when the test was administered directly by the caregiver. The episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test are useful as brief screening tools for identifying patients with early-stage AD. It is suitable for use by primary care medical staff and in the home, since it can be administered by a caregiver. The test's limitations are that it must be administered by a reliable caregiver and the fact that it measures episodic memory only. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Lessons from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a woman who maintained high cognitive test scores until her death at 101 years of age despite anatomical evidence of Alzheimer's disease. The woman was part of a larger "Nun Study" in which 678 sisters donated their brains to teach others about the etiology of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Findings are discussed. (RJM)

  7. Lessons from empirical studies in product and service variety management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C.L. Lyons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For many years, a trend for businesses has been to increase market segmentation and extend product and service-variety offerings in order to provid more choice for customers and gain a competitive advantags. However, there have been relatively few variety-related, empirical studies that have been undertaken. In this research, two empirical studies are presented that address the impact of product and service variety on business and business function performance. In the first (service-variety study, the focus concerns the relationship between service provision offered by UK-based, third-party logistics (3PL providers and the operational and financial performance of those providers. Here, the results of a large survey identify the  most important services offered by 3PLs and the most important aspects of 3PL operational performance. Also, the research suggests that the range of service variety offered by 3PLs does not directly influence the 3PLs’ financial performance. The second (product-variety study presents the findings from an analysis of data from 163 manufacturing plants where the impact of product variety on the performance of five business functions is examined. An increase in product variety was found to influence business functions differently depending on the combination of customisation and variety offered to customers

  8. A Study about Using Internet in History Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    Internet has become an important part in the field of education as it is in every area nowadays as well. Internet has become appealing among educators and students with its easy and quick access and wide opportunities. In this study, an application of using internet in the history course was done. 160 students who were enrolled in College of…

  9. Rethinking Research on Teaching: Lessons Learned from an International Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Doris W.,Ed.; Anderson, Lorin W.,Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Reviewing their "Classroom Environment Study: Teaching for Learning" and other teaching research literature, project personnel examine the limitations of the process-product paradigm typically used in research on teaching. Topics covered include a conceptual model for teaching; preservice and inservice teacher training; appropriate…

  10. Some life lessons in the work place: personal narrative/case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Michael Schwartz, a lawyer deaf since birth, describes his journey as a professional for the last 32 years since his graduation from NYU School of Law in 1981. He offers a case study of his experiences with accommodations on the job as required by federal and state law. The study includes specific examples of what worked and what did not work for a deaf lawyer like him working at his craft. Schwartz wraps up with the lessons he learned over the last three decades as we moved from the model of non-compliance to that of compliance, even beyond compliance, with the mandates of law in the employment context.

  11. The 'Ottoman-German Jihad': Lessons for the Contemporary 'Area Studies' Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    The 'Arab Spring' added new fuel to the ongoing controversy over the validity of regional or area studies. None of the Middle East 'area experts' predicted the revolutionary events that led to the fall of a number of authoritarian rulers in the Arab world. As a result, scholars, the media and pol....... The article would argue that this historical dispute already reflected some of the core issues of the contemporary controversy of 'area studies' and contained some lessons for us to learn regarding the analysis of Middle Eastern economy, society and politics....

  12. FORMING SCHOOLCHILD’S PERSONALITY IN COMPUTER STUDY LESSONS AT PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Salan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of computer on the formation of primary schoolchildren’s personality and their implementing into learning activity are considered in the article. Based on the materials of state standards and the Law of Ukraine on Higher Education the concepts “computer”, “information culture” are defined, modern understanding of the concept “basics of computer literacy” is identified. The main task of school propaedeutic course in Computer Studies is defined. Interactive methods of activity are singled out. They are didactic games, designing, research, collaboration in pairs, and group interaction, etc. The essential characteristics of didactic game technologies are distinguished, the peculiarities of their use at primary school in Computer Study lessons are analyzed. Positive and negative aspects of using these technologies in Computer Study lessons are defined. The expediency of using game technologies while organizing students’ educational and cognitive activity in Computer Studies is substantiated. The idea to create a school course “Computer Studies at primary school” is caused by the wide introduction of computer technics into the educational system. Today’s schoolchild has to be able to use a computer as freely and easily as he can use a pen, a pencil or a ruler. That’s why it is advisable to start studying basics of Computer Studies at the primary school age. This course is intended for the pupils of the 2nd-4th forms. Firstly, it provides mastering practical skills of computer work and, secondly, it anticipates the development of children’s logical and algorithmic thinking styles. At these lessons students acquire practical skills to work with information on the computer. Having mastered the computer skills at primary school, children will be able to use it successfully in their work. In senior classes they will be able to realize acquired knowledge of the methods of work with information, ways of problem solving

  13. Lessons learned from measuring safety culture: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Suellen; Chiarella, Mary; Homer, Caroline S E

    2010-10-01

    adverse events in maternity care are relatively common but often avoidable. International patient safety strategies advocate measuring safety culture as a strategy to improve patient safety. Evidence suggests it is necessary to fully understand the safety culture of an organisation to make improvements to patient safety. this paper reports a case study examining the safety culture in one maternity service in Australia and considers the benefits of using surveys and interviews to understand safety culture as an approach to identify possible strategies to improve patient safety in this setting. the study took place in one maternity service in two public hospitals in NSW, Australia. Concurrently, both hospitals were undergoing an organisational restructure which was part of a major health reform agenda. The priorities of the reform included improving the quality of care and patient safety; and, creating a more efficient health system by reducing administration inefficiencies and duplication. a descriptive case study using three approaches: the safety culture was identified to warrant improvement across all six safety culture domains. There was reduced infrastructure and capacity to support incident management activities required to improve safety, which was influenced by instability from the organisational restructure. There was a perceived lack of leadership at all levels to drive safety and quality and improving the safety culture was neither a key priority nor was it valued by the organisation. the safety culture was complex as was undertaking this study. We were unable to achieve a desired 60% response rate highlighting the limitations of using safety culture surveys in isolation as a strategy to improve safety culture. Qualitative interviews provided greater insight into the factors influencing the safety culture. The findings of this study provide evidence of the benefits of including qualitative methods with quantitative surveys when examining safety culture

  14. IMPROVING LECTURERS’ PAEDAGOGIC COMPETENCE THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF LESSON STUDY IN FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION OF PAKUAN UNIVERSITY, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Sarimanah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at improving the lecturers of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of Pakuan University paedagogic competence through the implementation of lesson study which covers learning management competence including developing chapter design and lesson design, media making, teaching and learning, evaluation, post evaluation follow-up and learning supervision. This research involves four study program. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive. The data are collected through documentation, observation, interview and questionnaire. The data are analyzed descriptively to investigate the improvement of the lecturers’ paedagogic competence in teaching through the implementation of lesson study. Lesson study has been implemented for two years in Indonesian and Literature Education Study Program, English Education Study Program, Biology Education Study Program, and Primary Education Study Program. The findings show that there is an improvement of the lecturers paedagogic competence in developing chapter design and lesson design, developing material and designing media for learning (plan stage; running the lesson (do stage; and observing the lesson as well as evaluating and reflecting it (see stage. Besides, it is found the lecturers develop learning innovation to create students’ active learning. The colleagality among the lecturers is also develop well through the implementation of lesson study. The questionnaire result also shows that the implementation of lesson study can make the student become autonomous learners.

  15. Treatment and violent behavior in persons with first episode psychosis during a 10-year prospective follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, Johannes; Bjørkly, Stål; Auestad, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First episode psychosis (FEP) patients have an increased risk for violence and criminal activity prior to initial treatment. However, little is known about the prevalence of criminality and acts of violence many years after implementation of treatment for a first episode psychosis. AIM......: To assess the prevalence of criminal and violent behaviors during a 10-year follow-up period after the debut of a first psychosis episode, and to identify early predictors and concomitant risk factors of violent behavior. METHOD: A prospective design was used with comprehensive assessments of criminal...... follow-up period, 20% of subjects had been apprehended or incarcerated. At 10-year follow-up, 15% of subjects had exposed others to threats or violence during the year before assessment. Illegal drug use at baseline and five-year follow-up, and a longer duration of psychotic symptoms were found...

  16. Metabolomics applied to diabetes-lessons from human population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggi, Sonia; Griffin, Julian L

    2017-12-01

    The 'classical' distribution of type 2 diabetes (T2D) across the globe is rapidly changing and it is no longer predominantly a disease of middle-aged/elderly adults of western countries, but it is becoming more common through Asia and the Middle East, as well as increasingly found in younger individuals. This global altered incidence of T2D is most likely associated with the spread of western diets and sedentary lifestyles, although there is still much debate as to whether the increased incidence rates are due to an overconsumption of fats, sugars or more generally high-calorie foods. In this context, understanding the interactions between genes of risk and diet and how they influence the incidence of T2D will help define the causative pathways of the disease. This review focuses on the use of metabolomics in large cohort studies to follow the incidence of type 2 diabetes in different populations. Such approaches have been used to identify new biomarkers of pre-diabetes, such as branch chain amino acids, and associate metabolomic profiles with genes of known risk in T2D from large scale GWAS studies. As the field develops, there are also examples of meta-analysis across metabolomics cohort studies and cross-comparisons with different populations to allow us to understand how genes and diet contribute to disease risk. Such approaches demonstrate that insulin resistance and T2D have far reaching metabolic effects beyond raised blood glucose and how the disease impacts systemic metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alzheimer Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Moderate Baseline Differences and Predict Longitudinal Change in Attentional Control and Episodic Memory Composites in the Adult Children Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A; Fagan, Anne M; Duchek, Janet M; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Morris, John C

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive measures that are sensitive to biological markers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology are needed to (a) facilitate preclinical staging, (b) identify individuals who are at the highest risk for developing clinical symptoms, and (c) serve as endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of interventions. The present study assesses the utility of two cognitive composite scores of attentional control and episodic memory as markers for preclinical AD pathology in a group of cognitively normal older adults (N = 238), as part of the Adult Children Study. All participants were given a baseline cognitive assessment and follow-up assessments every 3 years over an 8-year period, as well as a lumbar puncture within 2 years of the initial assessment to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and amyloid tracer Pittsburgh compound-B scan for amyloid imaging. Results indicated that attentional control was correlated with levels of Aβ42 at the initial assessment whereas episodic memory was not. Longitudinally, individuals with high CSF tau exhibited a decline in both attention and episodic memory over the course of the study. These results indicate that measures of attentional control and episodic memory can be used to evaluate cognitive decline in preclinical AD and provide support that CSF tau may be a key mechanism driving longitudinal cognitive change.

  18. Alzheimer Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Moderate Baseline Differences and Predict Longitudinal Change in Attentional Control and Episodic Memory Composites in the Adult Children Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Balota, David A.; Fagan, Anne M.; Duchek, Janet M.; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Morris, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cognitive measures that are sensitive to biological markers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology are needed in order to (a) facilitate preclinical staging, (b) identify individuals who are at the highest risk for developing clinical symptoms and (c) serve as endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of interventions. The present study assesses the utility of two cognitive composite scores of attentional control and episodic memory as markers for preclinical AD pathology in a group of cognitively normal older adults (N = 238), as part of the Adult Children Study. Method All participants were given a baseline cognitive assessment and follow-up assessments every 3 years over an 8-year period, as well as a lumbar puncture within two years of the initial assessment to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and a PET-PIB scan for amyloid imaging. Results Results indicated that attentional control was correlated with levels of Aβ42 at the initial assessment whereas episodic memory was not. Longitudinally, individuals with high CSF tau exhibited a decline in both attention and episodic memory over the course of the study. Conclusion These results indicate that measures of attentional control and episodic memory can be utilized to evaluate cognitive decline in preclinical AD and provide support that CSF tau may be a key mechanism driving longitudinal cognitive change. PMID:26416094

  19. Rett syndrome diagnostic criteria: lessons from the Natural History Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Alan K; Neul, Jeffrey L; Glaze, Daniel G; Motil, Kathleen J; Skinner, Steven A; Khwaja, Omar; Lee, Hye-Seung; Lane, Jane B; Barrish, Judy O; Annese, Fran; McNair, Lauren; Graham, Joy; Barnes, Katherine

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of 819 participants enrolled in the Rett syndrome (RTT) Natural History Study validates recently revised diagnostic criteria. 765 females fulfilled 2002 consensus criteria for classic (653/85.4%) or variant (112/14.6%) RTT. All participants classified as classic RTT fulfilled each revised main criterion; supportive criteria were not uniformly present. All variant RTT participants met at least 3 of 6 main criteria in the 2002, 2 of 4 main criteria in the current format, and 5 of 11 supportive criteria in both. This analysis underscores the critical role of main criteria for classic RTT; variant RTT requires both main and supportive criteria.

  20. Prospective randomized clinical studies involving reirradiation. Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, Carsten; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Guckenberger, Matthias; Grosu, Anca L.

    2016-01-01

    Reirradiation is a potentially useful option for many patients with recurrent cancer. The purpose of this study was to review all recently published randomized trials in order to identify methodological strengths and weaknesses, comment on the results, clinical implications and open questions, and give advice for the planning of future trials. Systematic review of trials published between 2000 and 2015 (databases searched were PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science). We reviewed 9 trials, most of which addressed reirradiation of head and neck tumours. The median number of patients was 69. Trial design, primary endpoint and statistical hypotheses varied widely. The results contribute mainly to decision making for reirradiation of nasopharynx cancer and bone metastases. The trials with relatively long median follow-up confirm that serious toxicity remains a concern after high cumulative total doses. Multi-institutional collaboration is encouraged to complete sufficiently large trials. Despite a paucity of large randomized studies, reirradiation has been adopted in different clinical scenarios by many institutions. Typically, the patients have been assessed by multidisciplinary tumour boards and advanced technologies are used to create highly conformal dose distributions. (orig.) [de

  1. Study of metamemory in patients with chronic alcoholism using a feeling-of-knowing episodic memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Pinon, Karine; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Allain, Philippe; Eustache, Francis; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2010-11-01

    Alcoholism affects various cognitive processes, including components of memory. Metamemory, though of particular interest for patient treatment, has not yet been extensively investigated.  A feeling-of-knowing (FOK) measure of metamemory was administered to 28 alcoholic patients and 28 healthy controls during an episodic memory task including the learning of 20 pairs of items, followed by a 20-minute delayed recall and a recognition task. Prior to recognition, participants rated their ability to recognize each nonrecalled word among 4 items. This episodic FOK measure served to compare predictions of future recognition performance and actual recognition performance. Furthermore, a subjective measure of metamemory, the Metamemory In Adulthood (MIA) questionnaire, was completed by patients and controls. This assessment of alcoholic patients' metamemory profile was accompanied by an evaluation of episodic memory and executive functioning. FOK results revealed deficits in accuracy, with the alcoholic patients providing overestimations. There were also links between FOK inaccuracy, executive decline, and episodic memory impairment in patients. MIA results showed that although alcoholics did display memory difficulties, they did not differ from controls on questions about memory capacity. Chronic alcoholism affects both episodic memory and metamemory for novel information. Patients were relatively unaware of their memory deficits and believed that their memory was as good as that of the healthy controls. The monitoring measure (FOK) and the subjective measure of metamemory (MIA) showed that patients with chronic alcoholism overestimated their memory capacities. Episodic memory deficit and executive dysfunction would explain metamemory decline in this clinical population. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Lessons Learned on Benchmarking from the International Human Reliability Analysis Empirical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Forester, John A.; Bye, Andreas; Dang, Vinh N.; Lois, Erasmia

    2010-01-01

    The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to 'translate' the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.

  3. Lessons Learned on Benchmarking from the International Human Reliability Analysis Empirical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; John A. Forester; Andreas Bye; Vinh N. Dang; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to “translate” the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.

  4. Prospective randomized clinical studies involving reirradiation. Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Carsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); University of Tromsoe, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); Langendijk, Johannes A. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Groningen (Netherlands); Guckenberger, Matthias [University Hospital Zuerich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Grosu, Anca L. [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Reirradiation is a potentially useful option for many patients with recurrent cancer. The purpose of this study was to review all recently published randomized trials in order to identify methodological strengths and weaknesses, comment on the results, clinical implications and open questions, and give advice for the planning of future trials. Systematic review of trials published between 2000 and 2015 (databases searched were PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science). We reviewed 9 trials, most of which addressed reirradiation of head and neck tumours. The median number of patients was 69. Trial design, primary endpoint and statistical hypotheses varied widely. The results contribute mainly to decision making for reirradiation of nasopharynx cancer and bone metastases. The trials with relatively long median follow-up confirm that serious toxicity remains a concern after high cumulative total doses. Multi-institutional collaboration is encouraged to complete sufficiently large trials. Despite a paucity of large randomized studies, reirradiation has been adopted in different clinical scenarios by many institutions. Typically, the patients have been assessed by multidisciplinary tumour boards and advanced technologies are used to create highly conformal dose distributions. (orig.) [German] Eine Rebestrahlung kann fuer viele Patienten mit rezidivierenden Malignomen eine nuetzliche Option bieten. Der Zweck dieser Studie bestand darin, alle in der juengeren Vergangenheit publizierten randomisierten Studien zu beurteilen, da deren methodische Staerken und Schwaechen, Ergebnisse und resultierende Implikationen bzw. offene Fragen die Planung kuenftiger Studien wesentlich beeinflussen koennen. Systematische Uebersicht aller zwischen 2000 und 2015 veroeffentlichten Studien (Literatursuche ueber PubMed, Scopus und Web of Science). Ausgewertet wurden 9 Studien, in die vor allem Patienten mit Kopf-Hals-Tumoren eingeschlossen waren. Im Median hatten 69 Patienten teilgenommen. Das

  5. Detecting congenital malformations - Lessons learned from the Mpepu study, Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbolahan Ajibola

    Full Text Available A large and increasing number of HIV-infected women are conceiving on antiretroviral treatment (ART. While most antiretrovirals are considered safe in pregnancy, monitoring for rare pregnancy and infant adverse outcomes is warranted.We conducted a retrospective secondary analysis nested within a clinical trial of infant cotrimoxazole vs. placebo prophylaxis in Botswana (the Mpepu Study. Infants were examined at birth, and at least every 3 months through 18 months of age. Abnormal physical findings and diagnostic testing revealing malformations were documented. Post hoc, a geneticist classified all reported malformations based on available documentation. Structural malformations with surgical, medical or cosmetic importance were classified as major malformations. We present a descriptive analysis of identified malformations.Between 2011 and 2014, 2,933 HIV-infected women who enrolled in the Mpepu study delivered 2,971 live-born infants. Study staff conducted 2,944 (99% newborn exams. One thousand eighty-eight (38% women were taking ART at conception; 1,147 (40% started ART during pregnancy; 442 (15% received zidovudine monotherapy; and 223 (7% received no antiretroviral during pregnancy. Of 33 reported anomalies, 25 (76% met congenital malformations criteria, 10 (30% were classified as major malformations, 4 (40% of which were identified after the birth exam.Our results highlight the importance of staff training on identification of congenital malformations, programmatic monitoring beyond the birth examination and the value of geneticist involvement in the malformations classification process in resource-limited settings. These elements will be important to fully define antiretroviral drug safety in pregnancy.Surveillance systems for monitoring the safety of antiretroviral use during pregnancy among HIV-infected women in resource-limited setting are lacking. The World Health Organization's published programmatic recommendations for such

  6. Lessons learned from studying syndromic autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztainberg, Yehezkel; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2016-10-26

    Syndromic autism spectrum disorders represent a group of childhood neurological conditions, typically associated with chromosomal abnormalities or mutations in a single gene. The discovery of their genetic causes has increased our understanding of the molecular pathways critical for normal cognitive and social development. Human studies have revealed that the brain is particularly sensitive to changes in dosage of various proteins from transcriptional and translational regulators to synaptic proteins. Investigations of these disorders in animals have shed light on previously unknown pathogenic mechanisms leading to the identification of potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The demonstration of reversibility of several phenotypes in adult mice is encouraging, and brings hope that with novel therapies, skills and functionality might improve in affected children and young adults. As new research reveals points of convergence between syndromic and nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorders, we believe there will be opportunities for shared therapeutics for this class of conditions.

  7. Engineered nanomaterial risk. Lessons learnt from completed nanotoxicology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, Helinor; Pojana, Giulio; Zuin, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    PARTICLE_RISK was one of the first multidisciplinary projects funded by the European Commission's Framework Programme that was responsible for evaluating the implications of nanomaterial (NM) exposure on human health. This project was the basis for this review which identifies the challenges...... and identifying the limitations and failings of existing research. We have reflected on what commonly encountered challenges exist and explored how these issues may be resolved. In particular, the following is discussed (i) NM selection (ii) NM physico-chemical characterisation; (iii) NM dispersion; (iv...... that exist within the assessment of NM risk. We have retrospectively reflected on the findings of completed nanotoxicology studies to consider what progress and advances have been made within the risk assessment of NMs, as well as discussing the direction that nanotoxicology research is taking...

  8. Nutraceuticals in cardiovascular prevention: lessons from studies on endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchi, Cinzia; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Lüscher, Thomas F; Landmesser, Ulf

    2010-08-01

    An "unhealthy" diet is considered as a main cause of increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the industrialized countries. There is a substantial interest in the potential cardiovascular protective effects of "nutraceuticals," that is food-derived substances that exert beneficial health effects. The correct understanding of cardiovascular effects of these compounds will have important implications for cardiovascular prevention strategies. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to play an important role in development and progression of atherosclerosis, and the characterization of the endothelial effects of several nutraceuticals may provide important insights into their potential role in cardiovascular prevention. At the same time, the analysis of the endothelial effects of nutraceuticals may also provide valuable insights into mechanisms of why certain nutraceuticals may not be effective in cardiovascular prevention, and it may aid in the identification of food-derived substances that may have detrimental cardiovascular effects. These findings further support the notion that nutraceuticals do need support from large clinical outcome trials with respect to their efficacy and safety profile for cardiovascular prevention, before their widespread use can be recommended. In fact, the term nutraceutical was coined to encourage an extensive and profound research activity in this field, and numerous large-scale clinical outcome trials to examine the effects of nutraceuticals on cardiovascular events have now been performed or are still ongoing. Whereas it is possible that single nutraceuticals may be effective in cardiovascular prevention, this field of research provides also valuable insights into which food components may be particularly important for cardiovascular prevention, to further advice the composition of a particularly healthy diet. The present review summarizes recent studies on the endothelial effects of several nutraceuticals, that have been

  9. PENERAPAN PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TIPE JIGSAW BERBASIS LESSON STUDY UNTUK MENINGKATAN AKTIVITAS KOLABORATIF MAHASISWA PGSD PADA MATA KULIAH PENDIDIKAN MATEMATIKA I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Purnamasari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui peningkatan aktivitas kolaboratif mahasiswa pada mata kuliah pendidikan matematika I dengan menerapkan pembelajaran kooperatif tipe jigsaw berbasis lesson study. Penelitian dilakukan dengan tahapan-tahapan yang berlaku dalam pembelajaran berbasis lesson study yang terdiri dari plan, do dan see. Lokasi penelitian di FKIP UNPAK dengan waktu pelaksanaan antara bulan Mei-Juni 2013. Subyek penelitian mahasiswa S1 Prodi Pendidikan Guru Sekolah Dasar (PGSD semester VI yang mengambil mata kuliah pendidikan matematika I. Pengumpulan data dengan teknik dokumentasi, observasi, wawancara dan angket. Instrumen meliputi : lembar observasi, pedoman wawancara dan angket. Data hasil observasi dianalisis secara deskriptif kualitatif untuk mengetahui peningkatan aktivitas kolaboratif mahasiswa dalam kerja kelompok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penerapan pembelajaran kooperatif tipe jigsaw berbasis lesson study dapat meningkatkan aktivitas kolaboratif mahasiswa dalam kerja kelompok pada mata kuliah pendidikan matematika I, khususnya pada materi KPK, FPB dan pecahan. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari peningkatan ketercapaian indikator kegiatan lesson study di setiap siklusnya, serta hasil angket respon mahasiswa yang mayoritas menyatakan positif terhadap proses pembelajaran yang dilakukan. Selain itu, hasil wawancara terhadap mahasiswa juga menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran kooperatif tipe jigsaw ternyata dapat meningkatkan motivasi mahasiswa untuk belajar secara berkolaborasi. Alangkah baiknya jika para dosen dalam membelajarkan mata kuliah pendidikan matematika 1 mencoba menggunakan pembelajaran kooperatif tipe jigsaw berbasis lesson study. Kata Kunci: Aktivitas Kolaboratif, Jigsaw, Lesson Study  Abstract. This study aimed to increase collaborative activities of students in the subject of Pendidikan Matematika I by implementing cooperative learning jigsaw-based lesson study. Research carried out by stages that apply in lesson

  10. Brain regions involved in subprocesses of small-space episodic object-location memory: a systematic review of lesion and functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Eschen, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Object-location memory (OLM) enables us to keep track of the locations of objects in our environment. The neurocognitive model of OLM (Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2004). The neuropsychology of object-location memory. In G. L. Allen (Ed.), Human spatial memory: Remembering where (pp. 143-160). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2008). How the brain remembers and forgets where things are: The neurocognition of object-location memory. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 1339-1345. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.05.001 ) proposes that distinct brain regions are specialised for different subprocesses of OLM (object processing, location processing, and object-location binding; categorical and coordinate OLM; egocentric and allocentric OLM). It was based mainly on findings from lesion studies. However, recent episodic memory studies point to a contribution of additional or different brain regions to object and location processing within episodic OLM. To evaluate and update the neurocognitive model of OLM, we therefore conducted a systematic literature search for lesion as well as functional neuroimaging studies contrasting small-space episodic OLM with object memory or location memory. We identified 10 relevant lesion studies and 8 relevant functional neuroimaging studies. We could confirm some of the proposals of the neurocognitive model of OLM, but also differing hypotheses from episodic memory research, about which brain regions are involved in the different subprocesses of small-space episodic OLM. In addition, we were able to identify new brain regions as well as important research gaps.

  11. Public Participation: Lessons from the Case Study Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beierle, Thomas C.; Cayford, Jerry [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Public participation has received increasing attention in environmental policy making world wide. Yet research has been inadequate to answer fundamental questions about how successful past programs have been, what factors lead to success, and where efforts to improve public involvement should focus. To address these questions, we examine the case study record of public participation efforts in the United States over the last 30 years. We evaluate the success of numerous examples of public participation in environmental decision making and identify the factors that lead to success. The paper deals with a number of themes, including: The extent to which participation can incorporate public values into decision making, improve the substantive quality of decisions, reduce conflict, increase trust in institutions, and educate and inform the public; What can be expected from different approaches to public participation, such as public meetings, advisory committees, and mediation; The relative importance of the participatory process vs. the context in which participation takes place; Procedural features of particular importance; and The relationship between participation and implementation. The paper provides general results that can be used to guide the improvement of public participation programs, support assessment of innovative methods, and advance the theoretical understanding of public participation.

  12. Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study: Findings and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Method Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (Global Positioning System, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Result Overall teenage crash and near crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. Conclusion The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Practical Applications Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. PMID:26403899

  13. Public Participation: Lessons from the Case Study Record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierle, Thomas C.; Cayford, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    Public participation has received increasing attention in environmental policy making world wide. Yet research has been inadequate to answer fundamental questions about how successful past programs have been, what factors lead to success, and where efforts to improve public involvement should focus. To address these questions, we examine the case study record of public participation efforts in the United States over the last 30 years. We evaluate the success of numerous examples of public participation in environmental decision making and identify the factors that lead to success. The paper deals with a number of themes, including: The extent to which participation can incorporate public values into decision making, improve the substantive quality of decisions, reduce conflict, increase trust in institutions, and educate and inform the public; What can be expected from different approaches to public participation, such as public meetings, advisory committees, and mediation; The relative importance of the participatory process vs. the context in which participation takes place; Procedural features of particular importance; and The relationship between participation and implementation. The paper provides general results that can be used to guide the improvement of public participation programs, support assessment of innovative methods, and advance the theoretical understanding of public participation

  14. Lessons from a European study[Financing Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langniss, Ole [German Aerospace Center, Stuttgart (Germany); Helby, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy System Studies

    2000-10-01

    A large number of proven technical solutions exists for the use of renewable energies (RE). However, their dissemination is still too slow to meet the political goal of substituting 12 % of the primary energy demand in the European Union by the year 2010. Even renewable energy systems (RES) with economic potential are only partly exploited. There is a long literature concerning the barriers to RE use. In particular it has become clear that the availability of finance and the forms and conditions upon which it is lent have a major impact on RE deployment. An area of importance is the deficiency of appropriate ownership forms and properly adapted financing instruments in certain countries. Moreover, different regulations and institutional barriers in the European countries hinder the free flow of capital for RES within the European common market. On the other hand, solutions have been developed very successfully in individual countries. Differences in cultures and institutions have promoted growth of several approaches to RE investment. These differences can be understood as a European source of experience that constitutes a rich basis for transnational emulation. The research project FIRE analysed and compared the means of financing RES in Austria, Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom to put forward best practise recommendations so that RE deployments will occur at a faster rate. Main tasks of this study were to analyse the means of financing RES in a number of countries; to provide an analysis of best practise; and to provide an analysis of the barriers to the implementation in the investigated countries. Different means of financing RES were analysed in relation to the country-specific environment. This included exogenous conditions such as tax aspects, legal restrictions and subsidies, as well as individually defined risk management strategies and collateral requirements. Eight in-depth-case studies were undertaken for

  15. Determinants of duration of untreated psychosis among first-episode psychosis patients in Denmark: A nationwide register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Jansen, Jens Einar; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-02-01

    Information on determinants of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is still needed to inform campaigns targeting people with first episode psychosis (FEP). This nation-wide study analysed the association between demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, and geographic area), premorbid and illness-related factors (global functional level, substance misuse, and contact to police), healthcare factors (referral source and first FEP contact) and DUP. The study population of 1266 patients aged 15-25years diagnosed with FEP (ICD10 F20.0-F20.99) was drawn from the Danish National Indicator Project during 2009-2011. The study population was combined with data from national administrative registers. A multinomial regression model was estimated to analyse the impact of demographic, premorbid and illness-related, and healthcare factors on DUP. One third of the population had a DUP below 6months. DUP longer than 12months was associated with older age at onset, being female, having cannabis misuse, and living in peripheral municipalities. Being charged by the criminal authorities during one year before FEP was associated with a DUP over 6months. DUP is related to a number of demographic, premorbid and healthcare factors. These findings suggest that future information campaigns should focus on increasing the awareness of early signs of psychosis not only among mental health professionals but also other professionals in contact with adolescents such as the police. It may also be useful to consider how to target information campaigns towards persons living in peripheral areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Uptake of critical knowledge in nursing practice: lessons learned from a knowledge translation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joan M; Browne, Annette J; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Lynam, M Judith; Rodney, Paddy; Varcoe, Colleen; Wong, Sabrina; Tan, Elsie; Smye, Victoria; McDonald, Heather; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; Reimer, Joanne; Peltonen, Adrienne; Brar, Anureet

    2010-09-01

    This article is based on a knowledge translation (KT) study of the transition of patients from hospital to home. It focuses on the lessons learned about the challenges of translating research-derived critical knowledge in practice settings. The authors situate the article in current discourses about KT; discuss their understanding of the nature of critical knowledge; and present themes from their body of research, which comprises the knowledge that was translated. The findings have the potential to guide future KT research that focuses on the uptake of critical knowledge in nursing practice.

  17. DESKRIPSI PARTISIPASI AKTIF, DAN KEMAMPUAN KOMUNIKASI MATEMATIS MAHASISWA PADA MATA KULIAH GEOMETRI ANALITIK BIDANG MELALUI PENERAPAN LESSON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Nugroho Yanuarto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the active participation, independent learning, and mathematical communication skills of students in the field of analytic geometry courses through the implementation of lesson study. The study consisted of four cycles, each cycle shall be composed of three stages: plan, do, see. The subjects were students of first semester 2014 in class A of mathematics education, The University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto. The data of this research were through observation sheets, video recordings, portfolios, and questionnaires. The data were analyzed through data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. The results showed that the students' learning motivation can be increased with learning-based lesson study. Keywords: active participation, independent learning, mathematical communication, lesson study

  18. One-year follow-up study of first suicide attempts in first episode psychosis: Personality traits and temporal pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Rivero, Manuel; Barrigón, Maria Luisa; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Rodriguez-Testal, Juan F; Giner, Lucas; Obiols-Llandrich, Jordi E; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The highest suicide rates occur after psychiatric hospitalization or soon after discharge. In addition to other factors, personality traits have been suggested as predictors of suicide attempts (SA) after first episode psychosis (FEP). In this study we examined their temporal pattern and the influence of personality traits on first suicide attempts (fSA) during one year after FEP. One-year follow-up of 65 FEP patients. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to explore the relationship between personality traits and fSA. This analysis was also adjusted for a set of sociodemographic, clinical and psychopathological variables. fSAs in the six months following FEP were predicted by higher scores in passive-dependent personality traits (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.15-5.09) and severity of symptoms at onset (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.07-3.76). Severity of symptoms at onset (OR = 2.71, CI = 1.15-6.39) was the most significant predictor of fSA from six to twelve months after FEP. Seventy percent of fSA occurred during the first six months after FEP, decreasing considerably afterwards. Our study suggests that personality traits play a role in fSA after FEP. Specifically, passive-dependent personality traits emerged as a predictor of fSA in the six months following FEP. Severity of symptoms at onset predicted early and late first suicide attempts. We also found that risk of fSA is highest during the six months following FEP. These results can contribute to the implementation of prevention program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Workplace social capital and the onset of major depressive episode among workers in Japan: a 3-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraya, Asuka; Imamura, Kotaro; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Takahashi, Masaya; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the prospective association of workplace social capital (WSC) with major depressive episode (MDE) among Japanese employees. A 3-year prospective cohort study was conducted among 1058 employees from a private think-tank company who participated in a baseline survey; after excluding those with MDE in the past 12 months, 929 were followed up. WSC at baseline was measured using a 3-item scale. MDE was assessed at baseline and at follow-up every year, by using a web-based, self-administered version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI) 3.0 depression section, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition: Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)/DSM-5 criteria. Cox discrete-time hazards analyses were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs, adjusting for covariates. A group with middle-level WSC scores had the lowest risk of MDE after being fully adjusted (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.84, p=0.02). The relationship between WSC and MDE was U-shaped, although a non-linear model fit better than a linear model, with only marginally statistical significance (p=0.06). Dichotomised and continuous variables of WSC scores were significantly and negatively associated with MDE (p=0.03 and pMDE in Japan. The slightly U-shaped relationship, that is, the group with high WSC having a small elevated risk of MDE, may reflect a dark side of WSC in a country with collectivity-oriented and hierarchy-oriented culture, such as Japan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. The Role of Episodic Memory in Controlled Evaluative Judgments about Attitudes: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ray, Jr.; Simon, Elizabeth J.; Henkell, Heather; Zhu, John

    2011-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are unique in their ability to provide information about the timing of activity in the neural networks that perform complex cognitive processes. Given the dearth of extant data from normal controls on the question of whether attitude representations are stored in episodic or semantic memory, the goal here was to…

  1. The Episodic/Semantic Memory Distinction as an Heuristic in the Study of Instructional Effects on Cognitive Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Clifford E.; Bates, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Significant correlations between measures of cognitive structure and performance were found using a procedure distinguishing between episodic and semantic memory as an heuristic with achievement test items. The design increased the likelihood of indications of semantic memory. Higher-order and lower-order cognitive processes are discussed.…

  2. Rates and predictors of remission, recurrence and conversion to bipolar disorder after the first lifetime episode of depression--a prospective 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, J D; Andersen, P K; Kessing, L V

    2016-04-01

    In depression, non-remission, recurrence of depressive episodes after remission and conversion to bipolar disorder are crucial determinants of poor outcome. The present study aimed to determine the cumulative incidences and clinical predictors of these long-term outcomes after the first lifetime episode of depression. A total of 301 in- or out-patients aged 18-70 years with a validated diagnosis of a single depressive episode were assessed from 2005 to 2007. At 5 years of follow-up, 262 patients were reassessed by means of the life chart method and diagnostic interviews from 2011 to 2013. Cumulative incidences and the influence of clinical variables on the rates of remission, recurrence and conversion to bipolar disorder, respectively, were estimated by survival analysis techniques. Within 5 years, 83.3% obtained remission, 31.5% experienced recurrence of depression and 8.6% converted to bipolar disorder (6.3% within the first 2 years). Non-remission increased with younger age, co-morbid anxiety and suicidal ideations. Recurrence increased with severity and treatment resistance of the first depression, and conversion to bipolar disorder with treatment resistance, a family history of affective disorder and co-morbid alcohol or drug abuse. The identified clinical characteristics of the first lifetime episode of depression should guide patients and clinicians for long-term individualized tailored treatment.

  3. Atmospheric Pressure and Onset of Episodes of Menière’s Disease - A Repeated Measures Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Ralf; Heinlin, Nina; Krause, Eike; Olzowy, Bernhard; Koppe, Christina; Grill, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background External changes of air pressure are transmitted to the middle and inner ear and may be used therapeutically in Menière’s disease, one of the most common vertigo disorders. We analyzed the possible relationship of atmospheric pressure and other meteorological parameters with the onset of MD vertigo episodes in order to determine whether atmospheric pressure changes play a role in the occurrence of MD episodes. Methods Patients of a tertiary outpatient dizziness clinic diagnosed with MD were asked to keep a daily vertigo diary to document MD episodes (2004–2009). Local air pressure, absolute temperature and dew point temperature were acquired on an hourly basis. Change in meteorological parameters was conceptualized as the maximum difference in a 24 hour time frame preceding each day. Effects were estimated using additive mixed models with a random participant effect. We included lagged air parameters, age, sex, weekday and season in the model. Results A total of 56 persons (59% female) with mean age 54 years were included. Mean follow-up time was 267 days. Persons experienced on average 10.3 episodes during the observation period (median 8). Age and change in air pressure were significantly associated with vertigo onset risk (Odds Ratio = 0.979 and 1.010). We could not show an effect of sex, weekday, season, air temperature, and dew point temperature. Conclusions Change in air pressure was significantly associated with onset of MD episodes, suggesting a potential triggering mechanism in the inner ear. MD patients may possibly use air pressure changes as an early warning system for vertigo attacks in the future. PMID:27096752

  4. Predictors of rate and time to remission in first-episode psychosis: a two-year outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Ashok; Norman, Ross; Schmitz, Norbert; Manchanda, Rahul; Béchard-Evans, Laura; Takhar, Jatinder; Haricharan, Raj

    2006-05-01

    The evidence regarding the independent influence of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) on rate and time to remission is far from unequivocal. The goal of the current study was to examine the role of predictors for rate and time to remission in first-episode psychosis (FEP). The differential effect of age, gender, age of onset, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), duration of untreated illness (DUI), pre-morbid adjustment, co-morbid diagnosis of substance abuse and adherence to medication on the rate of and time to remission were estimated using a logistic and Poisson regression, and survival analysis respectively, in FEP patients. In a sample of 107 FEP patients 82.2% achieved remission over a period of 2 years after a mean of 10.3 weeks (range 1-72). Regression analysis, based on complete data on all variables of interest (n=80), showed status of remission to be positively influenced by better pre-morbid adjustment (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.95, p<0.05), later age of onset (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.13, p<0.0001), higher level of adherence to medication (RR 1.96, 95% CI 1.38-2.76, p<0.001) and shorter DUI (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.997-0.999, p<0.005). Time to remission was influenced by age of onset (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08, p<0.04) and adherence to medication (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.11-2.23, p<0.01). Improving adherence to medication early in the course of treatment may be an important intervention to improve short-term outcome.

  5. The effect of the environment on symptom dimensions in the first episode of psychosis: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oher, F J; Demjaha, A; Jackson, D; Morgan, C; Dazzan, P; Morgan, K; Boydell, J; Doody, G A; Murray, R M; Bentall, R P; Jones, P B; Kirkbride, J B

    2014-08-01

    The extent to which different symptom dimensions vary according to epidemiological factors associated with categorical definitions of first-episode psychosis (FEP) is unknown. We hypothesized that positive psychotic symptoms, including paranoid delusions and depressive symptoms, would be more prominent in more urban environments. We collected clinical and epidemiological data on 469 people with FEP (ICD-10 F10-F33) in two centres of the Aetiology and Ethnicity in Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (AESOP) study: Southeast London and Nottinghamshire. We used multilevel regression models to examine neighbourhood-level and between-centre differences in five symptom dimensions (reality distortion, negative symptoms, manic symptoms, depressive symptoms and disorganization) underpinning Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) Item Group Checklist (IGC) symptoms. Delusions of persecution and reference, along with other individual IGC symptoms, were inspected for area-level variation. Reality distortion [estimated effect size (EES) 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.24] and depressive symptoms (EES 0.21, 95% CI 0.07-0.34) were elevated in people with FEP living in more urban Southeast London but disorganized symptomatology was lower (EES -0.06, 95% CI -0.10 to -0.02), after controlling for confounders. Delusions of persecution were not associated with increased neighbourhood population density [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.83-1.23], although an effect was observed for delusions of reference (aOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.12-1.77). Hallucinatory symptoms showed consistent elevation in more densely populated neighbourhoods (aOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.61). In people experiencing FEP, elevated levels of reality distortion and depressive symptoms were observed in more urban, densely populated neighbourhoods. No clear association was observed for paranoid delusions; hallucinations were consistently associated with increased population density. These

  6. Prognostic factors of liver cirrhosis mortality after a first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcarne, Luigi; Sopeña, Julia; Martínez-Cerezo, Francisco José; Vergara, Mercedes; Miquel, Mireia; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Dalmau, Blai; Machlab, Salvador; Portilla, Dustin; González-Padrón, Yonaisy; Real Álvarez, Mónica; Carpintero, Chantal; Casas, Meritxell

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is an infectious complication with a negative impact on survival of patients with cirrhosis. To analyze the short- and long-term survival after a first episode of bacterial peritonitis and the associated prognostic factors. This was a retrospective, multicenter study of patients admitted to hospital for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis between 2008 and 2013. Independent variables related to mortality were analyzed by logistic regression. The prognostic power of the Child Pugh Score, the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and the Charlson index was analyzed by ROC curve. A total of 159 patients were enrolled, 72% were males with a mean age of 63.5 years and a mean MELD score of 19 (SD ± 9.5). Mortality at 30 and 90 days and one and two years was 21%, 31%, 55% and 69%, respectively. Hepatic encephalopathy (p = 0.008, OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.8) and kidney function (p = 0.026, OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.13-16.7) were independent factors for short- and long-term mortality. MELD was a good marker of short- and long-term survival (area under the curve [AUC] 0.7: 95% CI 1.02-1.4). The Charlson index was related to long-term mortality (AUC 0.68: 95% CI 0.6-0.77). Short- and long-term mortality of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is still high. The main prognostic factors for mortality are impairment of liver and kidney function. MELD and the Charlson index are good markers of survival.

  7. Poverty, inequality and the treated incidence of first-episode psychosis: an ecological study from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan K; Esterhuizen, Tonya

    2008-04-01

    It is now commonly accepted that a range of psychosocial and environmental factors interact with genetic vulnerability in the genesis of psychotic illness. The aim of this study was to investigate whether measures of poverty and income inequality impact upon the treated incidence of first-episode psychosis (FEP) in the District of Umgungundlovu, South Africa. Clinical and demographic data was collected from hospital records on all people aged 15-49 years from the District who presented to psychiatric services with FEP (DSM IV criteria) during 2005 (n = 160). All incident cases were grouped by municipality according to their recorded address. Measures of poverty and income inequality were calculated for each of the seven municipalities using data from the Statistics SA online database for the National Census 2001. Correlations were performed using SPSS to determine the relationships between treated incidence of FEP and poverty and inequality indices per municipality. There was a significant positive relationship between treated incidence and Inequality Index (Partial correlation coefficient 0.840; P = 0.036) and a non-significant negative relationship between treated incidence and Poverty Measure per municipality (Partial correlation coefficient -0.660; P = 0.154). These findings remained significant after adjusting for gender, age, ethnicity, urbanicity and employment status. Importantly, these results were not adjusted for individual level poverty. These findings lend support, in an African context, to increasing evidence that social, economic and political factors such as poverty and income inequality "shape both the landscape of risk for developing (psychosis) and the context in which health-care is provided" (Kelly in Soc Sci Med 61:721-730, 2005). These complex environmental factors appear to impact on the development and course of psychotic illness.

  8. Work Engagement as a Predictor of Onset of Major Depressive Episode (MDE) among Workers, Independent of Psychological Distress: A 3-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito; Inoue, Akiomi; Shimazu, Akihito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Takahashi, Masaya; Totsuzaki, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated work engagement as a baseline predictor of onset of major depressive episode (MDE). Methods The study used a prospective cohort design, conforming to the STROBE checklist. Participants were recruited from the employee population of a private think tank company (N = 4,270), and 1,058 (24.8%) of them completed a baseline survey, of whom 929 were included in this study. Work engagement and psychological distress at baseline were assessed as predictor variables. ...

  9. Strategies for establishing networking with partner schools for implementing lesson study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwidodo Nurwidodo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesson Study for Learning Community (LSLC contains two terminologies underpinning one another. There are many difficult challenges when the plan to create LSLC surfaces. Therefore, strong motivation and precise implementation strategies are of urgency. One of the ways is by developing networking of LSLC between universities and partner schools. The LSLC program will become powerful when it is done collaboratively in a form of strong partnership connected by networks. Writing this article aims to describe strategies for establishing networking with partner schools for implementing lesson study in Indonesia. This review article uses literature comparison study methods and use content analysis. In order for LSLC to manifest and become successful, resourcing and utilizing the partnership with schools are required. In a partnership with schools in order to implement LSLC, both parties must share the same need, which is facing the challenge with the willingness to cooperate for solving the problem. Cooperation with partner schools needs to be nurtured to become networking so that the benefits and the spirit of cooperation in solving problem double fold. Networking with partner schools can be implemented and can function well when the management of this networking conforms to shared needs, nurtures cooperation and mutual respect, gives and takes equally, and also promotes fair acceptance, support, independence, and discipline.

  10. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT DAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS KONSTRUKTIVIS MATAKULIAH STATISTIKA MELALUI PENDEKATAN LESSON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Setyaningsih

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to produce instructional design and model-based constructivist learning course of Statistics Math through lesson study in an effort to improve the quality of learning. Besides, it is also to find the effect of the use of the device and the constructivist model of learning based on student results. This study uses the approach of research and development (research & development. Results of research and development are as follows: (1 The statistical learning mathematics, covering the syllabus, lecture and Quality Plans, and Teaching materials are ready to be validated through lesson study approach, planning, implementation, reflection, and follow-up. (2 Design-based constructivist learning model includes the stages of orientation, elicitasi, restructuring ideas, the application and review. (3 Based on the findings of the trial results and the model of learning, particularly in the development of student activity indicates that the use of constructivist-based learning model can increase the activity of students, as measured by indicators of the ability to answer questions, the ability to propose ideas, and the ability to submit allegations.

  11. Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  12. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Segregation, and Beyond-Lessons for Studying Structural Racism and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Alicia R

    2018-04-01

    A recent surge of interest in identifying the health effects of structural racism has coincided with the ongoing attention to neighborhood effects in both epidemiology and sociology. Mindful of these currents in the literature, it makes sense that we are seeing an emergent tendency in health disparities research to operationalize structural racism as either neighborhood disadvantage or racial residential segregation. This review essay synthesizes findings on the relevance of neighborhood disadvantage and residential segregation to the study of structural racism and health. It then draws on recent literature to propose four lessons for moving beyond traditional neighborhood effects approaches in the study of structural racism and health. These lessons are (1) to shift the focus of research from census tracts to theoretically meaningful units of analysis, (2) to leverage historic and geographic variation in race relations, (3) to combine data from multiple sources, and (4) to challenge normative framing that aims to explain away racial health disparities without discussing racism or racial hierarchy. The author concludes that research on the health effects of structural racism should go beyond traditional neighborhood effects approaches if it is to guide intervention to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities.

  13. Adventitious agents in viral vaccines: lessons learned from 4 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricciani, John; Sheets, Rebecca; Griffiths, Elwyn; Knezevic, Ivana

    2014-09-01

    Since the earliest days of biological product manufacture, there have been a number of instances where laboratory studies provided evidence for the presence of adventitious agents in a marketed product. Lessons learned from such events can be used to strengthen regulatory preparedness for the future. We have therefore selected four instances where an adventitious agent, or a signal suggesting the presence of an agent, was found in a viral vaccine, and have developed a case study for each. The four cases are: a) SV40 in polio vaccines; b) bacteriophage in measles and polio vaccines; c) reverse transcriptase in measles and mumps vaccines; and d) porcine circovirus and porcine circovirus DNA sequences in rotavirus vaccines. The lessons learned from each event are discussed. Based in part on those experiences, certain scientific principles have been identified by WHO that should be considered in regulatory risk evaluation if an adventitious agent is found in a marketed vaccine in the future. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of images in Social Studies and Science lessons: Teaching through visual semiotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Haas Prieto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learners access the school curriculum through meanings created among a variety of semiotic modes (diagrams, photographs, drawings, writing, etc., this learning enables them to join a worldview as they do in each curricular discipline. From a pedagogical and semiotic gaze to classroom interaction, we focus on the use of images in teaching, in relation to their potential to create meaning in social studies and science lessons. This article is part of Fondecyt 1130684 and systematizes methodological tools from Social Semiotics and multimodality used to explore the semiotic potential of a set images used by teachers of elementary and secondary in a public school. From an audiovisual corpus of lessons of a complete curricular unit, we analyze Social Studies and Science videos from the two subjects in 3rd, 6th grade of elementary and 1st grade of secondary school. Through a Multimodal Discourse Analysis using the concepts of ideational or representational metafunction and the categories of Visual Grammar Design, we show examples of situated images anylisis. The results show how the meaning in the image is modified when teachers use them in face to face interaction. This analysis should help teachers to select and deploy images in terms of improving the learning process and teaching materials they prepare for students.

  15. Children's episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Lee, Joshua

    2011-07-01

    Episodic memory develops during childhood and adolescence. This trajectory depends on several underlying processes. In this article, we first discuss the development of the basic binding processes (e.g., the processes by which elements are bound together to form a memory episode) and control processes (e.g., reasoning and metamemory processes) involved in episodic remembering. Then, we discuss the role of these processes in false-memory formation. In the subsequent sections, we examine the neural substrates of the development of episodic memory. Finally, we discuss atypical development of episodic memory. As we proceed through the article, we suggest potential avenues for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 365-373 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.114 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Case Study of Lessons Learned from the Operation of the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.; Omberg, R.; Grandy, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The lessons learned approach being followed at the Fast Flux Test Facility is to have domain experts in each subject area develop a short write-up or report on each lesson learned. Each lesson learned write-up is on the order of 4–6 pages. Longer reports can be developed as needed. Each lessons learned summary discusses the problem and the resolution method employed to address the problem, and also tries to capture the essential “tacit knowledge” associated with each topic in a focused manner. All lessons learned write-ups are supported by more detailed documents. For example, references of more detailed reports are generally included, where available. Topics are selected as those most likely to apply to future design or operating problems. This lessons learned approach has been successful in capturing essential tacit knowledge about key events in FFTF history and providing a context for interpreting the existing data and references. (author

  17. Overview of the LADCO winter nitrate study: hourly ammonia, nitric acid and PM2.5 composition at an urban and rural site pair during PM2.5 episodes in the US Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shaw

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the LADCO (Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium Winter Nitrate Study (WNS is presented. Sampling was conducted at ground level at an urban-rural pair of sites during January–March 2009 in eastern Wisconsin, toward the western edge of the US Great Lakes region. Areas surrounding these sites experience multiday episodes of wintertime PM2.5 pollution characterized by high fractions of ammonium nitrate in PM, low wind speeds, and air mass stagnation. Hourly surface monitoring of inorganic gases and aerosols supplemented long-term 24-h aerosol chemistry monitoring at these locations. The urban site (Milwaukee, WI experienced 13 PM2.5 episodes, defined as periods where the seven-hour moving average PM2.5 concentration exceeded 27 μg m−3 for at least four consecutive hours. The rural site experienced seven episodes by the same metric, and all rural episodes coincided with urban episodes. Episodes were characterized by low pressure systems, shallow/stable boundary layer, light winds, and increased temperature and relative humidity relative to climatological mean conditions. They often occurred in the presence of regional snow cover at temperatures near freezing, when snow melt and sublimation could generate fog and strengthen the boundary layer inversion. Substantial contribution to nitrate production from nighttime chemistry of ozone and NO2 to N2O5 and nitric acid is likely and requires further investigation. Pollutant-specific urban excess during episode and non-episode conditions is presented. The largest remaining uncertainties in the conceptual model of the wintertime episodes are the variability from episode-to-episode in ammonia emissions, the balance of daytime and nighttime nitrate production, the relationship between ammonia controls, NOx controls and ammonium nitrate reductions, and the extent to which snow and fog are causal (either through meteorological or chemical processes rather than just correlated with episodes

  18. Neuroanatomical differences between first-episode psychosis patients with and without neurocognitive deficit: a 3 year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa eAyesa-Arriola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The course of cognitive function in first episode psychosis (FEP patients suggests that some individuals are normal or near-normal whereas some cases present a marked decline. The goal of the present longitudinal study was to identify neuroanatomical differences between deficit and non-deficit patients.Methods: Fifty nine FEP patients with neuroimage and neurocognitive information were studied at baseline and 3 year after illness onset. A global cognitive function score was used to classify deficit and non-deficit patients at baseline. Analysis of covarianes and repeated-measures analysis were performed to evaluate differences in brain volumes. Age, premorbid IQ and intracranial volume were used as covariates. We examined only volumes of whole brain, whole brain gray and white matter, cortical CSF and lateral ventricles, lobular volumes of gray and white matter, and subcortical (caudate nucleus and thalamus regions.Results: At illness onset 50.8% of patients presented global cognitive deficit. There were no significant differences between neuropsychological subgroups in any of the brain regions studied at baseline (all F(1,54 ≤ 3.42; all p ≥ 0.07 and follow-up (all F(1,54 ≤ 3.43; all p ≥ 0.07 time points. There was a significant time by group interaction for the parietal tissue volume (F(1,54 =4.97, p = 0.030 and the total gray matter volume (F(1,54 = 4.31, p =0.042, with the deficit group showing a greater volume decrease. Conclusions: Our results did not confirm the presence of significant morphometric differences in the brain regions evaluated between cognitively impaired and cognitively preserved schizophrenia patients at the early stages of the illness. However, there were significant time by group interactions for the parietal tissue volume and the total gray matter volume during the 3-year follow-up period, which might indicate that cognitive deficit in schizophrenia would be associated with progressive brain volume

  19. Predictors of change in social networks, support and satisfaction following a first episode psychosis: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Laoise; Owens, Liz; Lyne, John; O'Donoghue, Brian; Roche, Eric; Drennan, Jonathan; Sheridan, Ann; Pilling, Mark; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Clarke, Mary

    2017-11-01

    Diminished social networks are common in psychosis but few studies have measured these comprehensively and prospectively to determine how networks and support evolve during the early phase. There is little information regarding perceived support in the early phase of illness. The aim of this study was to describe social support, networks and perceived satisfaction, explore the clinical correlates of these outcomes and examine whether phases of untreated psychosis are linked with social network variables to determine potential opportunities for intervention. During the study period, we assessed 222 people with first-episode psychosis at entry into treatment using valid and reliable measures of diagnosis, positive and negative symptoms, periods of untreated psychosis and prodrome and premorbid adjustment. For follow-up we contacted participants to conduct a second assessment (n=158). There were 97 people who participated which represented 61% of those eligible. Social network and support information obtained at both time points included the number of friends, self-reported satisfaction with support and social network size and clinician's evaluation of the degree of support received through networks. Mixed effects modelling determined the contribution of potential explanatory variables to social support measured. A number of clinical variables were linked with social networks, support and perceived support and satisfaction. The size of networks did not change over time but those with no friends and duration of untreated psychosis was significantly longer for those with no friends at entry into treatment (n=129, Median=24.5mths, IQR=7.25-69.25; Mann-Whitney U=11.78, p=0.008). Social support at baseline and at one year was predicted by homelessness (t=-2.98, p=0.001, CI -4.74 to -1.21), duration of untreated psychosis (t=-0.86, p=0.031, CI -1.65 to -0.08) and premorbid adjustment (t=-2.26, p=0.017, CI -4.11 to -0.42). Social support improved over time but the duration

  20. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome mimicking herpes simplex encephalitis on imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieraerts, Christopher; Demaerel, Philippe; Van Damme, Philip; Wilms, Guido

    2013-01-01

    We present a case in which mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome mimicked the clinical and radiological signs of herpes simplex encephalitis. In a patient with subacute encephalopathy, on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, lesions were present in both temporal lobes extending to both insular regions with sparing of the lentiform nuclei and in both posterior straight and cingulate gyri. Final diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome was based on biochemical investigations on cerebrospinal fluid, electromyogram, muscle biopsy, and genetic analysis. On diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion restriction was present in some parts of the lesions but not throughout the entire lesions. We suggest that this could be an important sign in the differential diagnosis with herpes simplex encephalitis.

  1. Episodic Memory Dysfunction in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: A Clinical And FDG-PET Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Matarrubia, Marta; Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Cabrera-Martín, María Nieves; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Valles-Salgado, María; Carreras, José Luis; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Episodic memory disturbance is still considered as an exclusion criterion for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), but growing evidence suggests that memory can be impaired. Our main purposes were to assess episodic memory in a group of bvFTD patients comparatively with Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and analyze the relationship between episodic memory and brain metabolism measured using positron emission tomography imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET). Twenty-six bvFTD, 29 AD, and 24 healthy controls were included. Episodic memory was assessed by the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), which controls for effective encoding and measures memory consolidation processing. All participants underwent FDG-PET brain scans to provide data for voxel-based brain mapping analysis. Half of bvFTD patients had a deficit of total, free delayed, and total free delayed recall as severe as AD patients (amnestic-FTD). The other half had FCSRT scores similar to controls (non-amnestic-FTD). Imaging analyses revealed that amnestic-FTD showed bilateral lower metabolism than non-amnestic-FTD in anterior parahippocampal and inferior temporal gyri. Additionally, FCSRT total and total delayed scores were inversely correlated with parahippocampal metabolism in both bvFTD and AD. Besides, bvFTD showed an inverse association among FCSRT and inferior temporal metabolism. Our findings support that bvFTD could present a genuine amnesia affecting storage and consolidation abilities, which involves structures implicated in the Papez circuit, as occurs in AD, and also inferior temporal regions. These results contribute to understanding the mechanisms underpinning memory dysfunction in bvFTD, and may be relevant to further revisions of the current diagnostic criteria.

  2. Lessons learned from case studies of inhalation exposures of workers to radioactive aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, M.D.; Fencl, A.F.; Newton, G.J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Various Department of Energy requirements, rules, and orders mandate that lessons learned be identified, evaluated, shared, and incorporated into current practices. The recently issued, nonmandatory DOE standard for Development of DOE Lessons Learned Program states that a DOE-wide lessons learned program will {open_quotes}help to prevent recurrences of negative experiences, highlight best practices, and spotlight innovative ways to solve problems or perform work more safely, efficiently, and cost effectively.{close_quotes} Additional information about the lessons learned program is contained in the recently issued DOE handbook on Implementing U.S. Department of Energy Lessons Learned Programs and in October 1995 DOE SAfety Notice on Lessons Learned Programs. This report summarizes work in progress at ITRI to identify lessons learned for worker exposures to radioactive aerosols, and describes how this work will be incorporated into the DOE lessons learned program, including a new technical guide for measuring, modeling, and mitigating airborne radioactive particles. Follow-on work is focusing on preparation of {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} training materials for facility designers, managers, health protection professionals, line supervisors, and workers.

  3. Lessons learned from case studies of inhalation exposures of workers to radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Fencl, A.F.; Newton, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Various Department of Energy requirements, rules, and orders mandate that lessons learned be identified, evaluated, shared, and incorporated into current practices. The recently issued, nonmandatory DOE standard for Development of DOE Lessons Learned Program states that a DOE-wide lessons learned program will open-quotes help to prevent recurrences of negative experiences, highlight best practices, and spotlight innovative ways to solve problems or perform work more safely, efficiently, and cost effectively.close quotes Additional information about the lessons learned program is contained in the recently issued DOE handbook on Implementing U.S. Department of Energy Lessons Learned Programs and in October 1995 DOE SAfety Notice on Lessons Learned Programs. This report summarizes work in progress at ITRI to identify lessons learned for worker exposures to radioactive aerosols, and describes how this work will be incorporated into the DOE lessons learned program, including a new technical guide for measuring, modeling, and mitigating airborne radioactive particles. Follow-on work is focusing on preparation of open-quotes lessons learnedclose quotes training materials for facility designers, managers, health protection professionals, line supervisors, and workers

  4. How to Make Lesson Study Work in America and Worldwide: A Japanese Perspective on the Onto-Cultural Basis of (Teacher) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy; Komatsu, Hikaru

    2017-01-01

    Lesson Study is a Japanese approach to teacher development borrowed by American researchers in the late 1990s seeking to break from top-down, "best practice" approaches. Two decades later, Lesson Study has gained a strong foothold in American policy circles. Seeking to contribute to the growing research base, this article looks deeper…

  5. Preferences of Young Adults With First-Episode Psychosis for Receiving Specialized Mental Health Services Using Technology: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shalini; Dell'Elce, Jennifer; Tucci, Natasha; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Tamblyn, Robyn; Malla, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential and interest of using technology for delivering specialized psychiatric services to young adults, surprisingly limited attention has been paid to systematically assess their perspectives in this regard. For example, limited knowledge exists on the extent to which young people receiving specialized services for a first-episode psychosis (FEP) are receptive to using new technologies as part of mental health care, and to which types of technology-enabled mental health interventions they are amenable to. The purpose of this study is to assess the interest of young adults with FEP in using technology to receive mental health information, services, and supports. This study uses a cross-sectional, descriptive survey design. A convenience sample of 67 participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were recruited from two specialized early intervention programs for psychosis. Interviewer-administered surveys were conducted between December 2013 and October 2014. Descriptive statistics are reported. Among the 67 respondents who completed the survey, the majority (85%, 57/67) agreed or strongly agreed with YouTube as a platform for mental health-related services and supports. The top five technology-enabled services that participants were amenable to were (1) information on medication (96%, 64/67); (2) information on education, career, and employment (93%, 62/67); (3) decision-making tools pertaining to treatment and recovery (93%, 62/67); (4) reminders for appointments via text messaging (93%, 62/67); and (5) information about mental health, psychosis, and recovery in general (91%, 61/67). The top self-reported barriers to seeking mental health information online were lack of knowledge on how to perform an Internet search (31%, 21/67) and the way information is presented online (27%, 18/67). Two thirds (67%; 45/67) reported being comfortable in online settings, and almost half (48%; 32/67) reported a preference for mixed formats when viewing mental health

  6. Severity of depressive episodes during the course of depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether the severity of depressive episodes changes during the course of depressive disorder. Aims To investigate whether the severity of depressive episodes increases during the course of illness. Method Using a Danish nationwide case register, all psychiatric inpatients...... and out-patients with a main ICD-10 diagnosis of a single mild, moderate or severe depressive episode at the end of first contact were identified. Patients included in the study were from the period 1994-2003. Results A total of 19 392 patients received a diagnosis of a single depressive episode at first...... contact. The prevalence of severe depressive episodes increased from 25.5% at the first episode to 50.0% at the 15th episode and the prevalence of psychotic episodes increased from 8.7% at the first episode to 25.0% at the 15th episode. The same pattern was found regardless of gender, age at first contact...

  7. Severity of depressive episodes during the course of depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether the severity of depressive episodes changes during the course of depressive disorder. AIMS: To investigate whether the severity of depressive episodes increases during the course of illness. METHOD: Using a Danish nationwide case register, all psychiatric in......-patients and out-patients with a main ICD-10 diagnosis of a single mild, moderate or severe depressive episode at the end of first contact were identified. Patients included in the study were from the period 1994-2003. RESULTS: A total of 19 392 patients received a diagnosis of a single depressive episode at first...... contact. The prevalence of severe depressive episodes increased from 25.5% at the first episode to 50.0% at the 15th episode and the prevalence of psychotic episodes increased from 8.7% at the first episode to 25.0% at the 15th episode. The same pattern was found regardless of gender, age at first contact...

  8. Lessons Learned from Applying Design Thinking in a NASA Rapid Design Study in Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria; Bakula, Casey; Castner, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    In late 2015, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an experiment in rapid design and rapid teaming to explore new approaches to solving challenging design problems in aeronautics in an effort to cultivate and foster innovation. This report summarizes several lessons learned from the rapid design portion of the study. This effort entailed learning and applying design thinking, a human-centered design approach, to complete the conceptual design for an open-ended design challenge within six months. The design challenge focused on creating a capability to advance experimental testing of autonomous aeronautics systems, an area of great interest to NASA, the US government as a whole, and an entire ecosystem of users and developers around the globe. A team of nine civil servant researchers from three of NASA's aeronautics field centers with backgrounds in several disciplines was assembled and rapidly trained in design thinking under the guidance of the innovation and design firm IDEO. The design thinking process, while used extensively outside the aerospace industry, is less common and even counter to many practices within the aerospace industry. In this report, several contrasts between common aerospace research and development practices and design thinking are discussed, drawing upon the lessons learned from the NASA rapid design study. The lessons discussed included working towards a design solution without a set of detailed design requirements, which may not be practical or even feasible for management to ascertain for complex, challenging problems. This approach allowed for the possibility of redesigning the original problem statement to better meet the needs of the users. Another lesson learned was to approach problems holistically from the perspective of the needs of individuals that may be affected by advances in topic area instead of purely from a technological feasibility viewpoint. The interdisciplinary nature of the design team also

  9. Attitudes of Select Music Performance Faculty toward Students Teaching Private Lessons after Graduation: A USA Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, William E.; Moore, Christopher; Gavin, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to pilot test an adjusted version of a questionnaire, used in earlier studies with college music students, to determine opinions of college music faculty on the topic of private lesson teaching. Full-time tenure-track college music faculty, with primary appointments in applied music at two universities in the United…

  10. Lessons for Co-Innovation in Agricultural Innovation Systems: A Multiple Case Study Analysis and a Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielke, Simon J.; Botha, Neels; Reid, Janet; Gray, David; Blackett, Paula; Park, Nicola; Williams, Tracy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper highlights important lessons for co-innovation drawn from three ex-post case study innovation projects implemented within three sub-sectors of the primary industry sector in New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach: The characteristics that fostered co-innovation in each innovation project case study were identified from…

  11. Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with the Geometer's Sketchpad through Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chew Cheng; Sam, Lim Chap

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop pre-service secondary teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) for teaching mathematics with The Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) through Lesson Study (LS). Specifically, a single-group pretest-posttest design was employed to examine whether there was a significant difference in the…

  12. Lesson Study og lærerstudenters fokus på elevers læring i veiledningssamtaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Bjuland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Søkelyset settes her på norsk lærerutdanning og på grunnskolelærerstudenters veiledningssamtaler i praksisopplæring hvor Lesson Study ble innført som arbeidsmetode. Analysen fra studentenes veiledningssamtaler forsøker å identifisere muligheter og begrensninger ved innføring av Lesson Study der samtalefokus er elevers læring knyttet til et bestemt tema i en forskningstime. Et teoretisk og analytisk rammeverk benyttes (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000 for å identifisere elevsentrerte, kunnskapssentrerte, vurderingssentrerte og felleskapssentrerte ytringer i veiledningssamtalene. Slike ytringer blir knyttet til tre sentrale aspekter ved planlegging og gjennomføring av en forskningstime i en Lesson Study syklus: Elevobservasjon, prediksjon og forskningsspørsmål. Resultater fra analysene av veiledningssamtaler fra to studentgrupper tilknyttet naturfag og matematikk viste store forskjeller med tanke på gruppenes planlegging av en Lesson Study syklus. Studentene i matematikk valgte å legge opp undervisningen ut ifra lærebokens nivåinndeling av lærestoffet, noe som ser ut til å virke hemmende med tanke på elevobservasjon og prediksjon knyttet til det faglige emnet. Studentene i naturfag var mye mer opptatt av å formulere gode læringsmål og forskningsspørsmål. I denne veiledningssamtalen var det også et tydelig fokus på prediksjon samt aktiv elevobservasjon under gjennomføringen av undervisningsøkten. Resultater fra denne studien påpeker behov for et grundig forarbeid på campus av faglærere ved utdanningsinstitusjonen slik at studentene får muligheten til å forberede en Lesson Study syklus der forskningsspørsmål, elevobservasjon og prediksjon er sentrale hovedmomenter som løftes fram. Videre er det behov for et godt samarbeid mellom faglærere og praksislærere ved skolene for at implementering av Lesson Study skal være vellykket.Abstract In this article, we present a study of field practice during Initial

  13. Scientific Disagreement and Evidential Pluralism: Lessons from the Studies on Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli-Pekka Parkkinen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistencies between scientific theories have been studied, by and large, from the perspective of paraconsistent logic. This approach considered the formal properties of theories and the structure of inferences one can legitimately draw from theories. However, inconsistencies can be also analysed from the perspective of modelling practices, in particular how modelling practices may lead scientists to form opinions and attitudes that are different, but not necessarily inconsistent (from a logical point of view. In such cases, it is preferable to talk about disagreement, rather than inconsistency. Disagreement may originate in, or concern, a number of epistemic, socio-political or psychological factors. In this paper, we offer an account of the ‘loci and reasons’ for disagreement at different stages of the scientific process. We then present a controversial episode in the health sciences: the studies on hypercholesterolemia. The causes and effects of high levels of cholesterol in blood have been long and hotly debated, to the point of deserving the name of ‘cholesterol wars’; the debate, to be sure, isn’t settled yet. In this contribution, we focus on some selected loci and reasons for disagreement that occurred between 1920 and 1994 in the studies on hypercholesterolemia. We hope that our analysis of ‘loci and reasons’ for disagreement may shed light on the cholesterol wars, and possibly on other episodes of scientific disagreement.

  14. Imagining the personal past: Episodic counterfactuals compared to episodic memories and episodic future projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özbek, Müge; Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    Episodic counterfactuals are imagined events that could have happened, but did not happen, in a person’s past. Such imagined past events are important aspects of mental life, affecting emotions, decisions, and behaviors. However, studies examining their phenomenological characteristics and content...... are few. Here we introduced a new method to systematically compare self-generated episodic counterfactuals to self-generated episodic memories and future projections with regard to their phenomenological characteristics (e.g., imagery, emotional valence, rehearsal) and content (e.g., reference to cultural...... distance. The findings show that imagined events are phenomenologically different from memories of experienced events, consistent with reality monitoring theory, and that imagined future events are different from both actual and imagined past events, consistent with some theories of motivation....

  15. A population approach to renal replacement therapy epidemiology: lessons from the EVEREST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Fergus J; Jager, Kitty J

    2014-08-01

    The marked variation that exists in renal replacement therapy (RRT) epidemiology between countries and within countries requires careful systematic examination if the root causes are to be understood. While individual patient-level studies are undoubtedly important, there is a complementary role for more population-level, area-based studies--an aetiological approach. The EVEREST Study adopted such an approach, bringing RRT incidence rates, survival and modality mix together with macroeconomic factors, general population factors and renal service organizational factors for up to 46 countries. This review considers the background to EVEREST, its key results and then the main methodological lessons and their potential application to ongoing work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  16. Centralisation of services for children with cleft lip or palate in England: a study of hospital episode statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 1998, a process of centralisation was initiated for services for children born with a cleft lip or palate in the UK. We studied the timing of this process in England according to its impact on the number of hospitals and surgeons involved in primary surgical repairs. Methods All live born patients with a cleft lip and/or palate born between April 1997 and December 2008 were identified in Hospital Episode Statistics, the database of admissions to English National Health Service hospitals. Children were included if they had diagnostic codes for a cleft as well as procedure codes for a primary surgical cleft repair. Children with codes indicating additional congenital anomalies or syndromes were excluded as their additional problems could have determined when and where they were treated. Results We identified 10,892 children with a cleft. 21.0% were excluded because of additional anomalies or syndromes. Of the remaining 8,606 patients, 30.4% had a surgical lip repair only, 41.7% a palate repair only, and 28.0% both a lip and palate repair. The number of hospitals that carried out these primary repairs reduced from 49 in 1997 to 13, with 11 of these performing repairs on at least 40 children born in 2008. The number of surgeons responsible for repairs reduced from 98 to 26, with 22 performing repairs on at least 20 children born in 2008. In the same period, average length of hospital stay reduced from 3.8 to 3.0 days for primary lip repairs, from 3.8 to 3.3 days for primary palate repairs, and from 4.6 to 2.6 days for combined repairs with no evidence for a change in emergency readmission rates. The speed of centralisation varied with the earliest of the nine regions completing it in 2001 and the last in 2007. Conclusions Between 1998 and 2007, cleft services in England were centralised. According to a survey among patients’ parents, the quality of cleft care improved in the same period. Surgical care became more consistent with current

  17. Trajectories of Verbal Episodic Memory in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya, Beatriz; Bobak, Martin; Haro, Josep Maria; Demakakos, Panayotes

    2017-06-01

    To identify distinct latent groups of baseline levels and age-related decline in verbal episodic memory in middle-aged and older adults, and to identify factors associated with these trajectories. Longitudinal study of six data collections over a period of 10 years. Population-based cohort in England. 9,515 community-dwelling adults aged 50-79 years. Six repeated measurements of immediate and delayed recall of 10 words over 10-year follow-up. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify patterns of baseline levels and subsequent decline in memory in two age categories (50-64 and 65-79 years), and to investigate associations between trajectories and baseline predictors of group membership (gender, education, household wealth, marital status, smoking and physical activity) and time-varying covariates (depressive symptoms and number of chronic conditions). Four trajectories were identified and labelled according to baseline status and decline in memory: very low/decline (9.8%), low/stable (40.2%), average/stable (39.5%) and good/stable (10.5%) in the younger group, and very low/rapid decline (15.7%), low/decline (32.0%), average/stable (38.8%), and good/stable (13.5%) in older participants. In people with stable or declining trajectories, a higher number of depressive symptoms and the presence of cardiovascular diseases were associated with worse memory. Female sex, younger age, and higher education, wealth and physical activity were consistently associated with more favourable trajectories. We identified four memory trajectories. Factors known to be associated with cognitive reserve (such as education, wealth and physical activity) were associated with better memory function while depressive symptoms and cardiovascular disease were associated with poorer memory. This suggests that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and better manage cardiovascular risk factors and disease in midlife may help prevent or delay future memory decline. © 2017, Copyright

  18. The Influence of Music on Prefrontal Cortex during Episodic Encoding and Retrieval of Verbal Information: A Multichannel fNIRS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreri, Laura; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bard, Patrick; Bugaiska, Aurélia

    2015-01-01

    Music can be thought of as a complex stimulus able to enrich the encoding of an event thus boosting its subsequent retrieval. However, several findings suggest that music can also interfere with memory performance. A better understanding of the behavioral and neural processes involved can substantially improve knowledge and shed new light on the most efficient music-based interventions. Based on fNIRS studies on music, episodic encoding, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), this work...

  19. Successful recruitment to a study of first-episode psychosis by clinicians: a qualitative account of outcomes and influences on process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sue; Duhig, Michael; Connell, Melissa; Scott, James

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Background: Strategies proposed to promote recruitment of representative samples to trials and mental health research have focused on researchers external to clinical services. How clinicians approach recruitment as researchers and particularities of recruiting people with first episode of psychosis warrant investigation. To describe recruitment, by clinicians, of people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and factors influencing process and enrolment. Observational study nested within longitudinal examination of trauma and outcomes for patients experiencing first psychotic episode. Data collected during 20 scheduled meetings of clinicians recruiting from services in Australia. Timely recruitment of 60 young people demonstrates that clinicians can successfully engage patients in research. Success depends on satisfaction of organisational preconditions and clinician motivation grounded in considering the study worthwhile. Pre-selection of participants was informed by judgments about health, insight and quality of the therapeutic alliance. Patients' decisions were influenced by family support, acceptance of diagnosis and altruism. Honoraria had variable effect. Clinicians are well placed to recruit when appropriately supported, and people with FEP are willing to engage in research that fits their personal circumstances. Research should examine the meaning of participation in such studies and ways participation could support recovery.

  20. In vivo gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate levels in people with first-episode schizophrenia: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, P W; Lui, Simon S Y; Hung, Karen S Y; Chan, Raymond C K; Chan, Queenie; Sham, P C; Cheung, Eric F C; Mak, Henry K F

    2018-03-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) dysfunction and its consequent imbalance are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Reduced GABA production would lead to a disinhibition of glutamatergic neurons and subsequently cause a disruption of the modulation between GABAergic interneurons and glutamatergic neurons. In this study, levels of GABA, Glx (summation of glutamate and glutamine), and other metabolites in the anterior cingulate cortex were measured and compared between first-episode schizophrenia subjects and healthy controls (HC). Diagnostic potential of GABA and Glx as upstream biomarkers for schizophrenia was explored. Nineteen first-episode schizophrenia subjects and fourteen HC participated in this study. Severity of clinical symptoms of patients was measured with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Metabolites were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and quantified using internal water as reference. First-episode schizophrenia subjects revealed reduced GABA and myo-inositol (mI), and increased Glx and choline (Cho), compared to HC. No significant correlation was found between metabolite levels and PANSS scores. Receiver operator characteristics analyses showed Glx had higher sensitivity and specificity (84.2%, 92.9%) compared to GABA (73.7%, 64.3%) for differentiating schizophrenia patients from HC. Combined model of both GABA and Glx revealed the best sensitivity and specificity (89.5%, 100%). This study simultaneously showed reduction in GABA and elevation in Glx in first-episode schizophrenia subjects, and this might provide insights on explaining the disruption of modulation between GABAergic interneurons and glutamatergic neurons. Elevated Cho might indicate increased membrane turnover; whereas reduced mI might reflect dysfunction of the signal transduction pathway. In vivo Glx and GABA revealed their diagnostic potential for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Major depressive episodes over the course of 7 years and hippocampal subfield volumes at 7 tesla MRI: the PREDICT-MR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisse, L E M; Biessels, G J; Stegenga, B T; Kooistra, M; van der Veen, P H; Zwanenburg, J J M; van der Graaf, Y; Geerlings, M I

    2015-04-01

    Smaller hippocampal volumes have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). The hippocampus consists of several subfields that may be differentially related to MDD. We investigated the association of occurrence of major depressive episodes (MDEs), assessed five times over seven years, with hippocampal subfield and entorhinal cortex volumes at 7 tesla MRI. In this prospective study of randomly selected general practice attendees, MDEs according to DSM-IV-R criteria were assessed at baseline and after 6, 12, 39 and 84 months follow-up. At the last follow-up, a T2 (0.7 mm(3)) 7 tesla MRI scan was obtained in 47 participants (60±10 years). The subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1 to 3, dentate gyrus&CA4 and entorhinal cortex volumes were manually segmented according a published protocol. Of the 47 participants, 13 had one MDE and 5 had multiple MDEs. ANCOVAs, adjusted for age, sex, education and intracranial volume, revealed no significant differences in hippocampal subfield or entorhinal cortex volumes between participants with and without an MDE in the preceding 84 months. Multiple episodes were associated with smaller subiculum volumes (B=-0.03 mL/episode; 95% CI -0.06; -0.003), but not with the other hippocampal subfield volumes, entorhinal cortex, or total hippocampal volume. A limitation of this study is the small sample size which makes replication necessary. In this exploratory study, we found that an increasing number of major depressive episodes was associated with smaller subiculum volumes in middle-aged and older persons, but not with smaller volumes in other hippocampal subfields or the entorhinal cortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Communicating for Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons from a Case Study with Nature-Based Tour Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Sparrow, E. B.; Pettit, E. C.; Trainor, S. F.; Taylor, K.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing temperatures are projected to have a positive effect on the length of Alaska's tourism season, but the natural attractions that tourism relies on, such as glaciers, wildlife, fish, or other natural resources, may change. In order to continue to derive benefits from these resources, nature-based tour operators may have to adapt to these changes, and communication is an essential, but poorly understood, component of the climate change adaptation process. The goal of this study was to determine how to provide useful climate change information to nature-based tour operators by answering the following questions: 1. What environmental changes do nature-based tour operators perceive? 2. How are nature-based tour operators responding to climate and environmental change? 3. What climate change information do nature-based tour operators need? To answer these questions, twenty-four nature-based tour operators representing 20 different small and medium sized businesses in Juneau, Alaska were interviewed. The results show that many of Juneau's nature-based tour operators are observing, responding to, and in some cases, actively planning for further changes in the environment. The types of responses tended to vary depending on the participants' certainty in climate change and the perceived risks to their organization. Using these two factors, this study proposes a framework to classify climate change responses for the purpose of generating meaningful information and communication processes that promote adaptation and build adaptive capacity. During the course of the study, several other valuable lessons were learned about communicating about adaptation. The results of this study demonstrate that science communication research has an important place in the practice of promoting and fostering climate change adaptation. While the focus of this study was tour operators, the lessons learned may be valuable to other organizations striving to engage unique groups in climate

  3. When ageing and disasters collide: Lessons from 16 international case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, S.; Plouffe, L.; Gorr, P.

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen case studies examined the impact of various natural disasters and conflict-related emergencies on older people, the strengths and gaps in emergency planning, response and recovery, and the contributions older people made to their families and communities. Case examples were chosen from both developed and developing countries. Older persons suffered disproportionate impacts in several cases. Regardless of the country's level of prosperity, those most affected tended to be economically disadvantaged, disabled or frail, women, socially isolated, or caregivers of family members. Emergency responders were often not aware of distinct needs or abilities of older persons and not equipped to respond appropriately. The best emergency practices recognised and included specific needs within mainstream efforts and integrated older persons in community planning, response and recovery activities. This paper presents the 'lessons learned' from these case studies and makes the case for greater attention to this segment of the population in emergency management. (authors)

  4. Maintaining Research Integrity While Balancing Cultural Sensitivity: A Case Study and Lessons From the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Rebekah; Loiseau, Bethina; Darren, Benedict; Raman, Salem A; Dimaras, Helen; Loh, Lawrence C

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary emphasis on creating culturally relevant and context specific knowledge increasingly drives researchers to conduct their work in settings outside their home country. This often requires researchers to build relationships with various stakeholders who may have a vested interest in the research. This case study examines the tension between relationship development with stakeholders and maintaining study integrity, in the context of potential harms, data credibility and cultural sensitivity. We describe an ethical breach in the conduct of global health research by a arising from the ad-hoc participation of a community stakeholder external to the visiting research group. A framework for reflection is developed from a careful examination of underlying factors and presented with a discussion of consequences and mitigation measures. This framework aims to present lessons learned for researchers working abroad who might face similar situations in their work. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part I: Lessons learned and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Bakas, Ioannis; Clavreul, Julie

    2014-01-01

    distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste......The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where...... and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic...

  6. Lessons learned from the PISC III study of the influence on human factors on inspection reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murgatroyd, R.A.; Worrall, G.M.; Crutzen, S.

    1995-01-01

    Results from the PISC II Programme suggested that differences existed between manual inspectors in terms of their skills, knowledge and working practices which could exert a significant influence on the reliability on an inspection. Therefore, a programme of work on human reliability studies was initiated in the PISC III Programme as Action 7, with the objectives of studying and identifying causes of variability in inspection activities, and identifying some of the factors influencing the reliability of inspection in industrial conditions. It was foreseen that the information from Action 7 would aid in the development of methods for reducing the incidence of human error in inspection activities. This paper gives a brief summary of the programme and describes the lessons learned as a result of the work. A considerably more detailed description of the work is available as a PISC report. 3 refs, 3 figs

  7. The effectiveness of Concept Mapping Content Representation Lesson Study (ComCoReLS) model to improve skills of Creating Physics Lesson Plan (CPLP) for pre-service physics teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, E.; Suyatno; Wasis; Prahani, B. K.

    2018-03-01

    This research is aimed to analyse the effectiveness of ComCoReLS (Concept Mapping Content Representation Lesson Study) model towards the improvement skills of Creating Physics Lesson Plan (CPLP) for pre-service physics teacher. This research used one group pre-test and post-test design on 12 pre-service physics teacher at University of Malang State (Indonesia) in academic year 2016/2017. Data collection was conducted through test and interview. Skills of creating physics lesson plan for pre-service physics teacher measurement were conducted through Physics Lesson Plan Evaluation Sheet (PLPES). The data analysis technique was done by using paired t-test and n-gain. The CoMCoReLS model consists of 5 phases, including (1) Preparation, (2) Coaching, (3) Guided Practice, (4) Independent Practice, and (5) Evaluation. In the first, second, third and fifth phases are done at University of Malang State, while the fourth phase (Independent Practice) is done in SMAN 1 Singosari, SMAN 2 Malang, SMA Lab UM, MAN 3 Malang. The results showed that there was a significant increase in skills of creating physics lesson plan for pre-service physics teacher at α = 5% and n-gain average of high category. Thus, the ComCoReLS model is effective for improving skills of creating physics lesson plan for pre-service physics teacher.

  8. Exploring Osmosis and Diffusion in Cells: A Guided-Inquiry Activity for Biology Classes, Developed through the Lesson-Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Lauren; Myerowitz, Lindsay; Sampson, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Guided inquiry is an instructional technique that requires students to answer a teacher-proposed research question, design an investigation, collect and analyze data, and then develop a conclusion (Bell, Smetana, and Binns 2005; NRC 2000). In this article, the authors describe a guided-inquiry lesson developed through the lesson-study process…

  9. First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Psychosis Treatment Share Fact Sheet: First Episode Psychosis Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy En Español Facts About Psychosis The word psychosis is used to describe conditions ...

  10. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Method and Systematic Teaching on Students' Achievement and Retention of Knowledge in Social Studies Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz Toklucu, Selma; Tay, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Many effective instructional strategies, methods, and techniques, which were developed in accordance with constructivist approach, can be used together in social studies lessons. Constructivist education comprises active learning processes. Two active learning approaches are cooperative learning and systematic teaching. Purpose…

  11. Impact of Dust on Air Quality and Radiative Forcing : AN Episodic Study for the Megacity Istanbul Using RegCM4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agacayak, T.; Kindap, T.; Unal, A.; Mallet, M.; Pozzoli, L.; Karaca, M.; Solmon, F.

    2012-04-01

    Istanbul is a megacity (with population over 15 million) that has significant levels of Particulate Matter concentrations. It is suspected that long-range transport of Saharan dust is one of the main contributors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between high PM concentrations and dust transport using atmospheric modeling, satellite data as well as in-situ observations. Measurements of PM10 concentrations at 10 different stations in Istanbul for the period 2004-2010 were provided by the Turkish Ministry of Environment. Daily mean PM10 concentrations exceeding the European standard of 50 µg/m3 were found to be, on average, 49 days for the Spring period, 45 days for the Winter period, and 41 days for the Fall period. DREAM model output (Nickovic et al. 2001; Perez et al. 2006) suggests that high PM10 concentrations correlate highly with mineral dust transport episodes from Saharan desert (i.e., 23% for winter and 58% for spring). In this study, we have utilized RegCM4.1 model to further investigate the Saharan dust transport in the selected episodes. During the period between March 21st and 24th, 2008, observed daily mean of PM10 concentrations reach up to 140 µg/m3 in Istanbul. Simulations conducted by RegCM4.1 provides AOD (350-640 nm model band) values ranging between 0.04 and 0.98during this episode. Central Anatolia is affected from the dust transport on 21 and 22 March 2008, with a daily mean AOD of 0.9. On 23th March 2008, the dust plume reaches the Marmara Sea and AOD increases about 1.0 over the region according to both DREAM and RegCM4.1 model outputs. On the fourth day of the episode, the dust event stops and AOD decreases to 0.5 over the region. Asymmetry parameters can be seen as 0.62 during the dust episode, while single scattering albedo is about 0.93 during the entire dust episode over Istanbul. The effect of the dust episode on the regional radiative budget over Istanbul was also estimated. Model results indicate a daily

  12. Implementing maternal death surveillance and response: a review of lessons from country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; Ameh, Charles; Roos, Natalie; Mathai, Matthews; Broek, Nynke van den

    2017-07-17

    Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) implementation is monitored globally, but not much is known about what works well, where and why in scaling up. We reviewed a series of country case studies in order to determine whether and to what extent these countries have implemented the four essential components of MDSR and identify lessons for improving implementation. A secondary analysis of ten case studies from countries at different stages of MDSR implementation, using a policy analysis framework to draw out lessons learnt and opportunities for improvement. We identify the consistent drivers of success in countries with well-established systems for MDSR, and common barriers in countries were Maternal Death Review (MDR) systems have been less successful. MDR is accepted and ongoing at subnational level in many countries, but it is not adequately institutionalised and the shift from facility based MDR to continuous MDSR that informs the wider health system still needs to be made. Our secondary analysis of country experiences highlights the need for a) social and team processes at facility level, for example the existence of a 'no shame, no blame' culture, and the ability to reflect on practice and manage change as a team for recommendations to be acted upon, b) health system inputs including adequate funding and reliable health information systems to enable identification and analysis of cases c) national level coordination of dissemination, and monitoring implementation of recommendations at all levels and d) mandatory notification of maternal deaths (and enforcement of this) and a professional requirement to participate in MDRs. Case studies from countries with established MDSR systems can provide valuable guidance on ways to set up the processes and overcome some of the barriers; but the challenge, as with many health system interventions, is to find a way to provide catalytic assistance and strengthen capacity for MDSR such that this becomes embedded in

  13. Lessons Studies: un viaje de ida y vuelta recreando el aprendizaje comprensivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación SOTO GÓMEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En Las Lesson Study (LS atraen, desde hace unos años, la atención internacional como estrategia de mejora de la enseñanza y el aprendizaje en los centros educativos. ¿Qué son? ¿Cómo se organizan? Suponen un proceso donde los docentes cooperativamente diseñan, desarrollan, observan, analizan y revisan una propuesta didáctica. Una estrategia cíclica donde cada uno/a de los componentes del grupo y de forma rotativa, desarrolla la propuesta y es observado por el grupo. Una propuesta diversa e internacionalmente extendida que asume no solo la mejora del aprendizaje del alumnado sino también la de los maestros y maestras que participan en ella.

  14. [Effects of long-term fluoride in drinking water on risks of hip fracture of the elderly: an ecologic study based on database of hospitalization episodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Hwang, Seung Sik; Kim, Jai Yong; Cho, Soo Hun

    2008-05-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water is known to decrease dental caries, particularly in children. However, the effects of fluoridated water on bone over several decades are still in controversy. To assess the risk of hip fracture related to water fluoridation, we evaluated the hip fracture-related hospitalizations of the elderly between a fluoridated city and non-fluoridated cities in Korea. Cheongju as a fluoridated area and Chungju, Chuncheon, Suwon, Wonju as non-fluoridated areas were chosen for the study. We established a database of hip fracture hospitalization episode based on the claims data submitted to the Health Insurance Review Agency from January 1995 to December 2002. The hip fracture hospitalization episodes that satisfied the conditions were those that occurred in patients over 65 years old, the injuries had a hip fracture code (ICD-9 820, ICD-10 S72) and the patients were hospitalized for at least 7days. A total of 80,558 cases of hip fracture hospitalization episodes were analyzed. The admission rates for hip fracture increased with the age of the men and women in both a fluoridated city and the non-fluoridated cities (phip fracture increased significantly both for men and women as their age increased. However, any difference in the hip fracture admission rates was not consistently observed between the fluoridated city and the nonfluoridated cities. We cannot conclude that fluoridation of drinking water increases the risk of hip fracture in the elderly.

  15. The predictive value of baseline NAA/Cr for treatment response of first-episode schizophrenia: A ¹H MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weibo; Yu, Hualiang; Jiang, Biao; Pan, Bing; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Huichun; Zheng, Leilei

    2015-07-23

    The study focused on the predictive value of baseline metabolite ratios in bilateral hippocampus of first-episode schizophrenia by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS). (1)H MRS data were acquired from 23 hallucination and 17 non-hallucination first-episode schizophrenia patients compared with 17 healthy participants. Clinical characteristics of patients were rated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) before and after 3-month treatment. The schizophrenia patients showed lower NAA/Cr ratio than healthy participants respectively (p=0.024; p=0.001), and non-hallucination patients had even lower NAA/Cr ratio than hallucination patients (p=0.033). After 3-month treatment, hallucination patients had greater improvement in negative symptoms than non-hallucination patients (p=0.018). The reduction of PANSS total score and negative factor score was positively correlated with the left NAA/Cr in both group patients (pNAA/Cr had predictive value for the whole treatment response, and the left hippocampal NAA/Cr can predict the prognosis of negative symptoms during acute phase medication in first-episode schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Influence of Music on Prefrontal Cortex during Episodic Encoding and Retrieval of Verbal Information: A Multichannel fNIRS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Laura; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bard, Patrick; Bugaiska, Aurélia

    2015-01-01

    Music can be thought of as a complex stimulus able to enrich the encoding of an event thus boosting its subsequent retrieval. However, several findings suggest that music can also interfere with memory performance. A better understanding of the behavioral and neural processes involved can substantially improve knowledge and shed new light on the most efficient music-based interventions. Based on fNIRS studies on music, episodic encoding, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), this work aims to extend previous findings by monitoring the entire lateral PFC during both encoding and retrieval of verbal material. Nineteen participants were asked to encode lists of words presented with either background music or silence and subsequently tested during a free recall task. Meanwhile, their PFC was monitored using a 48-channel fNIRS system. Behavioral results showed greater chunking of words under the music condition, suggesting the employment of associative strategies for items encoded with music. fNIRS results showed that music provided a less demanding way of modulating both episodic encoding and retrieval, with a general prefrontal decreased activity under the music versus silence condition. This suggests that music-related memory processes rely on specific neural mechanisms and that music can positively influence both episodic encoding and retrieval of verbal information. PMID:26508813

  17. The Influence of Music on Prefrontal Cortex during Episodic Encoding and Retrieval of Verbal Information: A Multichannel fNIRS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferreri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Music can be thought of as a complex stimulus able to enrich the encoding of an event thus boosting its subsequent retrieval. However, several findings suggest that music can also interfere with memory performance. A better understanding of the behavioral and neural processes involved can substantially improve knowledge and shed new light on the most efficient music-based interventions. Based on fNIRS studies on music, episodic encoding, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, this work aims to extend previous findings by monitoring the entire lateral PFC during both encoding and retrieval of verbal material. Nineteen participants were asked to encode lists of words presented with either background music or silence and subsequently tested during a free recall task. Meanwhile, their PFC was monitored using a 48-channel fNIRS system. Behavioral results showed greater chunking of words under the music condition, suggesting the employment of associative strategies for items encoded with music. fNIRS results showed that music provided a less demanding way of modulating both episodic encoding and retrieval, with a general prefrontal decreased activity under the music versus silence condition. This suggests that music-related memory processes rely on specific neural mechanisms and that music can positively influence both episodic encoding and retrieval of verbal information.

  18. The Influence of Music on Prefrontal Cortex during Episodic Encoding and Retrieval of Verbal Information: A Multichannel fNIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Laura; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bard, Patrick; Bugaiska, Aurélia

    2015-01-01

    Music can be thought of as a complex stimulus able to enrich the encoding of an event thus boosting its subsequent retrieval. However, several findings suggest that music can also interfere with memory performance. A better understanding of the behavioral and neural processes involved can substantially improve knowledge and shed new light on the most efficient music-based interventions. Based on fNIRS studies on music, episodic encoding, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), this work aims to extend previous findings by monitoring the entire lateral PFC during both encoding and retrieval of verbal material. Nineteen participants were asked to encode lists of words presented with either background music or silence and subsequently tested during a free recall task. Meanwhile, their PFC was monitored using a 48-channel fNIRS system. Behavioral results showed greater chunking of words under the music condition, suggesting the employment of associative strategies for items encoded with music. fNIRS results showed that music provided a less demanding way of modulating both episodic encoding and retrieval, with a general prefrontal decreased activity under the music versus silence condition. This suggests that music-related memory processes rely on specific neural mechanisms and that music can positively influence both episodic encoding and retrieval of verbal information.

  19. Lessons learned from implementation of computerized provider order entry in 5 community hospitals: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven R; Keohane, Carol A; Amato, Mary; Coffey, Michael; Cadet, Bismarck; Zimlichman, Eyal; Bates, David W

    2013-06-24

    Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) can improve patient safety, quality and efficiency, but hospitals face a host of barriers to adopting CPOE, ranging from resistance among physicians to the cost of the systems. In response to the incentives for meaningful use of health information technology and other market forces, hospitals in the United States are increasingly moving toward the adoption of CPOE. The purpose of this study was to characterize the experiences of hospitals that have successfully implemented CPOE. We used a qualitative approach to observe clinical activities and capture the experiences of physicians, nurses, pharmacists and administrators at five community hospitals in Massachusetts (USA) that adopted CPOE in the past few years. We conducted formal, structured observations of care processes in diverse inpatient settings within each of the hospitals and completed in-depth, semi-structured interviews with clinicians and staff by telephone. After transcribing the audiorecorded interviews, we analyzed the content of the transcripts iteratively, guided by principles of the Immersion and Crystallization analytic approach. Our objective was to identify attitudes, behaviors and experiences that would constitute useful lessons for other hospitals embarking on CPOE implementation. Analysis of observations and interviews resulted in findings about the CPOE implementation process in five domains: governance, preparation, support, perceptions and consequences. Successful institutions implemented clear organizational decision-making mechanisms that involved clinicians (governance). They anticipated the need for education and training of a wide range of users (preparation). These hospitals deployed ample human resources for live, in-person training and support during implementation. Successful implementation hinged on the ability of clinical leaders to address and manage perceptions and the fear of change. Implementation proceeded smoothly when institutions

  20. Impact of emotional salience on episodic memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauel, Kerstin; Duzel, Emrah; Hinrichs, Hermann; Santel, Stephanie; Rellum, Thomas; Baving, Lioba

    2007-06-15

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show episodic memory deficits especially in complex memory tasks. We investigated the neural correlates of memory formation in ADHD and their modulation by stimulus salience. We recorded event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during an episodic memory paradigm with neutral and emotional pictures in 12 male ADHD subjects and 12 healthy adolescents. Emotional salience did significantly augment memory performance in ADHD patients. Successful encoding of neutral pictures was associated with activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in healthy adolescents but with activation of the superior parietal lobe (SPL) and precuneus in ADHD patients. Successful encoding of emotional pictures was associated with prefrontal and inferior temporal cortex activation in both groups. Healthy adolescents, moreover, showed deactivation in the inferior parietal lobe. From a pathophysiological point of view, the most striking functional differences between healthy adolescents and ADHD patients were in the ACC and SPL. We suggest that increased SPL activation in ADHD reflected attentional compensation for low ACC activation during the encoding of neutral pictures. The higher salience of emotional stimuli, in contrast, regulated the interplay between ACC and SPL in conjunction with improving memory to the level of healthy adolescents.

  1. Analysis strategies for combining continuous and episodic GNSS for studies of neo-tectonics in Northern-Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierulf, Halfdan Pascal

    2017-09-01

    Crustal deformation in the seismically active Nordland area in Northern Norway is estimated based on a combination of data from local episodic epGNSS campaigns (three 5-day campaigns in 1999, 2008 and 2015) and continuously operating cGNSS stations in the area that were mainly established in 2008 and in 2009. To establish a local long-term stable reference frame, which is consistent both with the epGNSS network and the network of newer cGNSS, a three-step procedure for reference frame realization is used to get consistent results from all the stations in the area. Analysis of the main error sources shows that uncertainties for the episodic epGNSS stations are around 0.2 mm/yr in the horizontal components and 0.5 mm/yr in the vertical component. The results support earlier findings that Ranafjord area of the Nordland is undergoing crustal spreading with horizontal displacement velocities of ca. 1.0 ± 0.2 mm/yr, predominantly in the east-west direction. The results also show a gradient in the uplift along the coast of Nordland that is larger than predicted by existing glacial isostatic adjustment models.

  2. The effect of atypical antipsychotics on pituitary gland volume in patients with first-episode psychosis: a longitudinal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolo, John-Paul; Berger, Gregor E; Garner, Belinda A; Velakoulis, Dennis; Markulev, Connie; Kerr, Melissa; McGorry, Patrick D; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McConchie, Mirabel; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary volume is currently measured as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hyperactivity in patients with psychosis despite suggestions of susceptibility to antipsychotics. Qualifying and quantifying the effect of atypical antipsychotics on the volume of the pituitary gland will determine whether this measure is valid as a future estimate of HPA-axis activation in psychotic populations. To determine the qualitative and quantitative effect of atypical antipsychotic medications on pituitary gland volume in a first-episode psychosis population. Pituitary volume was measured from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images in a group of 43 first-episode psychosis patients, the majority of whom were neuroleptic-naïve, at baseline and after 3months of treatment, to determine whether change in pituitary volume was correlated with cumulative dose of atypical antipsychotic medication. There was no significant baseline difference in pituitary volume between subjects and controls, or between neuroleptic-naïve and neuroleptic-treated subjects. Over the follow-up period there was a negative correlation between percentage change in pituitary volume and cumulative 3-month dose of atypical antipsychotic (r=-0.37), i.e. volume increases were associated with lower doses and volume decreases with higher doses. Atypical antipsychotic medications may reduce pituitary gland volume in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that atypical antipsychotic medication may support affected individuals to cope with stress associated with emerging psychotic disorders.

  3. Gender differences in young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders at baseline in the Danish OPUS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences in age at first onset, duration of untreated psychosis, psychopathology, social functioning, and self-esteem were investigated in a group of 578 young adults with a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The mean age at first-onset of symptoms, age at first contact......, and duration of untreated psychosis were similar for men and women. Men had more severe negative symptoms, poorer premorbid functioning, and poorer social networks, whereas women had more severe hallucinations. More men than women were substance abusers, were unemployed, and lived alone. Women had poorer self-esteem...... functioning, which cannot be explained by older age of onset for women. Women make more suicide attempts and experience lower self-esteem in spite of better social functioning. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  4. Gender differences in young adults with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders at baseline in the Danish OPUS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia

    2007-01-01

    Gender differences in age at first onset, duration of untreated psychosis, psychopathology, social functioning, and self-esteem were investigated in a group of 578 young adults with a first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The mean age at first-onset of symptoms, age at first contact......, and duration of untreated psychosis were similar for men and women. Men had more severe negative symptoms, poorer premorbid functioning, and poorer social networks, whereas women had more severe hallucinations. More men than women were substance abusers, were unemployed, and lived alone. Women had poorer self-esteem...... functioning, which cannot be explained by older age of onset for women. Women make more suicide attempts and experience lower self-esteem in spite of better social functioning....

  5. Escherichia coli bacteraemia in patients with and without haematological malignancies: a study of strain characters and recurrent episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, B; Kolmos, H J; Orskov, F

    1998-01-01

    We compared serotypes, virulence factors and susceptibility to antibiotics of Escherichia coli strains isolated from 282 patients with bacteraemia. Thirty-five of these were neutropenic patients with haematological malignancy and 247 were patients with a normal or raised total white blood cell......-haematological patients had recurrences with a strain different from the strain isolated in a previous episode. A possible connection between shorter intervals and recurrence with identical strains is discussed. We suggest that strains from recurrent E. coli bacteraemia are sent to a reference laboratory for serotyping...... count and no haematological malignancy. Strains isolated from recurrent bacteraemia were also bio- and ribotyped. Overall, no significant difference was found between O serogroups, K antigens, serum sensitivity, production of haemolysin, expression of P-fimbriae and patterns of antibiotic susceptibility...

  6. Obesity and episodic memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily

    2018-04-17

    Obesity-related lifestyle factors, such as physical activity behavior and dietary intake, have been shown to be associated with episodic memory function. From animal work, there is considerable biological plausibility linking obesity with worse memory function. There are no published systematic reviews evaluating the effects of obesity on episodic memory function among humans, and examining whether physical activity and diet influences this obesity-memory link. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the totality of research examining whether obesity is associated with episodic memory function, and whether physical activity and dietary behavior confounds this relationship. A review approach was employed, using PubMed, PsychInfo, and Sports Discus databases. Fourteen studies met our criteria. Among these 14 reviewed studies, eight were cross-sectional, four were prospective, and two employed a randomized controlled experimental design. Twelve of the 14 studies did not take into consideration dietary behavior in their analysis, and similarly, nine of the 14 studies did not take into consideration participant physical activity behavior. Among the 14 studies, ten found an inverse association of weight status on memory function, but for one of these studies, this association was attenuated after controlling for physical activity. Among the 14 evaluated studies, four did not find a direct effect of weight status on memory. Among the four null studies, one, however, found an indirect effect of BMI on episodic memory and another found a moderation effect of BMI and age on memory function. It appears that obesity may be associated with worse memory function, with the underlying mechanisms discussed herein. At this point, it is uncertain whether adiposity, itself, is influencing memory changes, or rather, whether adiposity-related lifestyle behaviors (e.g., physical inactivity and diet) are driving the obesity-memory relationship.

  7. Transforming Past Lessons to Mold the Future: A Case Study on Operation NICKEL GRASS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riney, Thomas J

    2003-01-01

    ...?" In this case, the specific lessons from the 1973 airlift operation supporting Israel, Operation NICKEL GRASS, were analyzed and generalized using the Tenets of Operations described in U.S. Army field manuals...

  8. Preparing for the Worst: Psychological Excellence of First Responders - A Katrina Lessons Learned Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seong, Younho; Springs, Sherry; Chung, Yongchul; Avery-Epps, Regina

    2008-01-01

    ... formidable disaster. In fact, there have been several official lessons learned reports and the findings and recommendations from these reports of the response to Hurricane Katrina have been addressed...

  9. The Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial: lessons from the study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, L; Gwiazda, J

    2004-01-01

    The Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET), a multicentre clinical trial based in 4 schools of optometry in the United States, evaluated the effect of progressive addition lenses versus single vision lenses on myopia progression in an ethnically diverse group of 469 myopic children aged 6 to 11 years. Completion of the clinical trial phase of the study provides an opportunity to evaluate aspects of the study design that contribute to its success. This article describes aspects of the study design that were influential in ensuring the smooth conduct of COMET. These include a dedicated team of investigators, an organisational structure with strong leadership and an independent Co-ordinating Centre, regular communication among investigators, flexible and creative approaches to recruitment and retention, sensitivity to concerns for child safety and child participation, and methods for enhancing and monitoring data reliability. The experience with COMET has provided a number of valuable lessons for all aspects of the study design that should benefit the development and implementation of future clinical trials, particularly those done in similar populations of children. The use of a carefully designed protocol using standard methods by dedicated members of the study team is essential in ensuring achievement of the study aims.

  10. Integrated regional assessment of global climatic change. Lessons from the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Stewart J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the potential role integrated regional assessments of global climatic change scenarios could play in building better links between science and related policy concerns. The concept is illustrated through description of an ongoing case study from Canada-the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS). As part of the Government of Canada's Green Plan, the Global Warming Science Program includes a study of regional impacts of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, located in northwestern Canada. The MBIS is a six-year program focussing on potential climate-induced changes in the land and water resource base, and the implications of four scenarios of global climatic change on land use and economic policies in this region. These policy issues include interjurisdictional water management, sustainability of native lifestyles, economic development opportunities (agriculture, forestry, tourism, etc.), sustainability of ecosystems and infrastructure maintenance. MBIS is due to be completed in 1997. MBIS represents an attempt to address regional impacts by incorporating a 'family of integrators' into the study framework, and by directly involving stakeholders in planning and research activities. The experience in organizing and carrying out this project may provide some lessons for others interested in organizing regional or country studies

  11. Lessons for integrated household energy conservation policies from an intervention study in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kua, H.W.; Wong, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for a community energy conservation program in the southwest district of Singapore, a pilot intervention study was conducted between August and November 2008 to study the effectiveness of tailored information and feedback in promoting household conservation. A sample of 125 households was involved in the study, of which 63 were the control group. Both self-reported behavioral changes and actual energy reductions were measured and any Hawthorne effect was identified. It was found that self-reported behavioral changes were strongly correlated to the level of trust in the energy conservation information given, the need for ease in practicing the recommended conservation measures and feeling of satisfaction in executing the measures; these results differ from several past studies on energy interventions. 60.7% of those who reported behavioral changes actually reduced energy consumption. Reasons were found and discussed. Lessons from this intervention study can be applied to design integrated policies aimed at promoting energy conservation in households. - Highlights: ► Energy intervention was implemented on 125 households. ► Outreach instruments included stickers, pamphlets and counseling. ► Self-reported behavioral and actual reductions were recorded. ► Self-reported behavioral change was only correlated to trust of information given. ► It was also correlated to ease of actions and feeling of satisfaction from actions.

  12. Studying Acute Coronary Syndrome Through the World Wide Web: Experiences and Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Angelo A

    2017-10-13

    This study details my viewpoint on the experiences, lessons, and assessments of conducting a national study on care-seeking behavior for heart attack in the United States utilizing the World Wide Web. The Yale Heart Study (YHS) was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Grounded on two prior studies, the YHS combined a Web-based interview survey instrument; ads placed on the Internet; flyers and posters in public libraries, senior centers, and rehabilitation centers; information on chat rooms; a viral marketing strategy; and print ads to attract potential participants to share their heart attack experiences. Along the way, the grant was transferred from Ohio State University (OSU) to Yale University, and significant administrative, information technology, and personnel challenges ensued that materially delayed the study's execution. Overall, the use of the Internet to collect data on care-seeking behavior is very time consuming and emergent. The cost of using the Web was approximately 31% less expensive than that of face-to-face interviews. However, the quality of the data may have suffered because of the absence of some data compared with interviewing participants. Yet the representativeness of the 1154 usable surveys appears good, with the exception of a dearth of African American participants. ©Angelo A Alonzo. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 13.10.2017.

  13. Frontal-subcortical volumetric deficits in single episode, medication-naïve depressed patients and the effects of 8 weeks fluoxetine treatment: a VBM-DARTEL study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Convergent studies suggest that morphological abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits which involved with emotional and cognitive processing may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD. Antidepressant treatment which has been reported to reverse the functional abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuits in MDD may have treating effects to related brain morphological abnormalities. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry method to investigate whole brain structural abnormalities in single episode, medication-naïve MDD patients. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of an 8 weeks pharmacotherapy with fluoxetine. METHODS: 28 single episode, medication-naïve MDD participants and 28 healthy controls (HC acquired the baseline high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI scan. 24 MDD participants acquired a follow-up sMRI scan after 8 weeks antidepressant treatment. Gray matter volumetric (GMV difference between groups was examined. RESULTS: Medication-naïve MDD had significantly decreased GMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left middle frontal gyrus as well as increased GMV in the left thalamus and right insula compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected. Moreover, treated MDD had significantly increased GMV in the left middle frontal gyrus and right orbitofrontal cortex compared to HC (P<0.05, corrected. No difference on GMV was detected between medication-naïve MDD group and treated MDD group. CONCLUSIONS: This study of single episode, medication-naïve MDD subjects demonstrated structural abnormalities of frontal-subcortical circuitsin the early stage of MDD and the effects of 8 weeks successful antidepressant treatment, suggesting these abnormalities may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset.

  14. Human cortical EEG rhythms during long-term episodic memory task. A high-resolution EEG study of the HERA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Babiloni, Fabio; Carducci, Filippo; Cappa, Stefano; Cincotti, Febo; Del Percio, Claudio; Miniussi, Carlo; Moretti, Davide Vito; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Rossi, Simone; Sosta, Katiuscia; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2004-04-01

    Many recent neuroimaging studies of episodic memory have indicated an asymmetry in prefrontal involvement, with the left prefrontal cortex more involved than the right in encoding, the right more than the left in retrieval (hemispheric encoding and retrieval asymmetry, or HERA model). In this electroencephalographic (EEG) high-resolution study, we studied brain rhythmicity during a visual episodic memory (recognition) task. The theta (4-6 Hz), alpha (6-12 Hz) and gamma (28-48 Hz) oscillations were investigated during a visuospatial long-term episodic memory task including an encoding (ENC) and retrieval (RET) phases. During the ENC phase, 25 figures representing interiors of buildings ("indoor") were randomly intermingled with 25 figures representing landscapes ("landscapes"). Subject's response was given at left ("indoor") or right ("landscapes") mouse button. During the RET phase (1 h later), 25 figures representing previously presented "indoor" pictures ("tests") were randomly intermingled with 25 figures representing novel "indoor" ("distractors"). Again, a mouse response was required. Theta and alpha EEG results showed no change of frontal rhythmicity. In contrast, the HERA prediction of asymmetry was fitted only by EEG gamma responses, but only in the posterior parietal areas. The ENC phase was associated with gamma EEG oscillations over left parietal cortex. Afterward, the RET phase was associated with gamma EEG oscillations predominantly over right parietal cortex. The predicted HERA asymmetry was thus observed in an unexpected location. This discrepancy may be due to the differential sensitivity of neuroimaging methods to selected components of cognitive processing. The strict relation between gamma response and perception suggests that retrieval processes of long-term memory deeply impinged upon sensory representation of the stored material.

  15. Anterior cingulate cortex-related connectivity in first-episode schizophrenia: a spectral dynamic causal modeling study with functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Biao eCui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural basis of schizophrenia (SZ is important for shedding light on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this mental disorder. Structural and functional alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC have been implicated in the neurobiology of SZ. However, the effective connectivity among them in SZ remains unclear. The current study investigated how neuronal pathways involving these regions were affected in first-episode SZ using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Forty-nine patients with a first-episode of psychosis and diagnosis of SZ—according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision—were studied. Fifty healthy controls (HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state fMRI. We used spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM to estimate directed connections among the bilateral ACC, DLPFC, hippocampus, and MPFC. We characterized the differences using Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA in addition to classical inference (t-test. In addition to common effective connectivity in these two groups, HCs displayed widespread significant connections predominantly involved in ACC not detected in SZ patients, but SZ showed few connections. Based on BPA results, SZ patients exhibited anterior cingulate cortico-prefrontal-hippocampal hyperconnectivity, as well as ACC-related and hippocampal-dorsolateral prefrontal-medial prefrontal hypoconnectivity. In summary, sDCM revealed the pattern of effective connectivity involving ACC in patients with first-episode SZ. This study provides a potential link between SZ and dysfunction of ACC, creating an ideal situation to associate mechanisms behind SZ with aberrant connectivity among these cognition and emotion-related regions.

  16. Transforming the energy efficiency market in California: Key findings, lessons learned and future directions from California's market effects studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, Edward

    2013-01-01

    In the last three years, the California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE), along with the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), managed three market effects studies that were funded by the CPUC. This paper summarizes the key findings from these studies that focused on compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), residential new construction (RNC), and high bay lighting (HBL), with a particular focus on changes to California's market effects evaluation protocol and lessons learned during the evaluation of market effects. This paper also summarizes the key results from a survey that was conducted by CIEE in February 2011 to determine what additional studies should be conducted in the evaluation of market effects. - Highlights: • We summarize three market effects studies and provide lessons learned. • Collect baseline market data as early as possible and throughout program lifecycle. • Estimate market effects throughout a program's lifecycle. • Require hypothesis testing as part of the evaluation. • Include elements of market effects evaluation in other program evaluations

  17. Health information exchange implementation: lessons learned and critical success factors from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sue S; Schooley, Benjamin L; Bhavsar, Grishma P

    2014-08-15

    Much attention has been given to the proposition that the exchange of health information as an act, and health information exchange (HIE), as an entity, are critical components of a framework for health care change, yet little has been studied to understand the value proposition of implementing HIE with a statewide HIE. Such an organization facilitates the exchange of health information across disparate systems, thus following patients as they move across different care settings and encounters, whether or not they share an organizational affiliation. A sociotechnical systems approach and an interorganizational systems framework were used to examine implementation of a health system electronic medical record (EMR) system onto a statewide HIE, under a cooperative agreement with the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, and its collaborating organizations. The objective of the study was to focus on the implementation of a health system onto a statewide HIE; provide insight into the technical, organizational, and governance aspects of a large private health system and the Virginia statewide HIE (organizations with the shared goal of exchanging health information); and to understand the organizational motivations and value propositions apparent during HIE implementation. We used a formative evaluation methodology to investigate the first implementation of a health system onto the statewide HIE. Qualitative methods (direct observation, 36 hours), informal information gathering, semistructured interviews (N=12), and document analysis were used to gather data between August 12, 2012 and June 24, 2013. Derived from sociotechnical concepts, a Blended Value Collaboration Enactment Framework guided the data gathering and analysis to understand organizational stakeholders' perspectives across technical, organizational, and governance dimensions. Several challenges, successes, and lessons learned during the implementation of a health system to the

  18. Gray matter changes in subjects at high risk for developing psychosis and first-episode schizophrenia: a voxel-based structural MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue eNakamura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to use a voxel-based MRI method to investigate the neuroanatomical characteristics in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis compared with those of healthy controls and first-episode schizophrenia patients. Methods: This study included 14 subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS, 34 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and 51 healthy controls. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM with the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL tools to investigate the whole-brain difference in gray matter volume among the three groups. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, the schizophrenia patients showed significant gray matter reduction in the left anterior cingulate gyrus. There was no significant difference in the gray matter volume between the ARMS and other groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests that alteration of the anterior cingulate gyrus may be associated with development of frank psychosis. Further studies with a larger ARMS subjects would be required to examine the potential role of neuroimaging methods in the prediction of future transition into psychosis.

  19. First episode schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with schizophrenia present clinically with psychotic, negative and cognitive ... changes in their emotions, cognition or behaviour which may indicate a ... contribute 80% to the risk of schizophrenia developing. A number of .... Positive symptoms ... Depression ... treatment of first episode schizophrenia is of critical importance.

  20. The utility of observational studies in clinical decision making: lessons learned from statin trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, JoAnne M; Mendys, Phillip M; Liu, Larry Z; Simpson, Ross J

    2010-05-01

    Contemporary clinical decision making is well supported by a wide variety of information sources, including clinical practice guidelines, position papers, and insights from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Much of our fundamental understanding of cardiovascular risk factors is based on multiple observations from major epidemiologic studies, such as The Seven Country Studies and the US-based Framingham Heart Study. These studies provided the framework for the development of clinical practice guidelines, including the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel series. The objective of this article is to highlight the value of observational studies as a complement to clinical trial data for clinical decision making in real-world practice. Although RCTs are still the benchmark for assessing clinical efficacy and safety of a specific therapeutic approach, they may be of limited utility to practitioners who must then adapt the lessons learned from the trial into the patient care environment. The use of well-structured observational studies can improve our understanding of the translation of clinical trials into clinical practice, as demonstrated here with the example of statins. Although such studies have their own limitations, improved techniques for design and analysis have reduced the impact of bias and confounders. The introduction of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines has provided more uniformity for such studies. When used together with RCTs, observational studies can enhance our understanding of effectiveness and utility in real-world clinical practice. In the examples of statin observational studies, the results suggest that relative effectiveness of different statins and potential impact of switching statins should be carefully considered in treating individual patients by practicing physicians.

  1. Predicting the occurrence of embolic events: an analysis of 1456 episodes of infective endocarditis from the Italian Study on Endocarditis (SEI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Embolic events are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with infective endocarditis. We analyzed the database of the prospective cohort study SEI in order to identify factors associated with the occurrence of embolic events and to develop a scoring system for the assessment of the risk of embolism. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 1456 episodes of infective endocarditis from the multicenter study SEI. Predictors of embolism were identified. Risk factors identified at multivariate analysis as predictive of embolism in left-sided endocarditis, were used for the development of a risk score: 1 point was assigned to each risk factor (total risk score range: minimum 0 points; maximum 2 points). Three categories were defined by the score: low (0 points), intermediate (1 point), or high risk (2 points); the probability of embolic events per risk category was calculated for each day on treatment (day 0 through day 30). Results There were 499 episodes of infective endocarditis (34%) that were complicated by ≥ 1 embolic event. Most embolic events occurred early in the clinical course (first week of therapy: 15.5 episodes per 1000 patient days; second week: 3.7 episodes per 1000 patient days). In the total cohort, the factors associated with the occurrence of embolism at multivariate analysis were prosthetic valve localization (odds ratio, 1.84), right-sided endocarditis (odds ratio, 3.93), Staphylococcus aureus etiology (odds ratio, 2.23) and vegetation size ≥ 13 mm (odds ratio, 1.86). In left-sided endocarditis, Staphylococcus aureus etiology (odds ratio, 2.1) and vegetation size ≥ 13 mm (odds ratio, 2.1) were independently associated with embolic events; the 30-day cumulative incidence of embolism varied with risk score category (low risk, 12%; intermediate risk, 25%; high risk, 38%; p endocarditis, a simple scoring system, which combines etiology and vegetation size with time on antimicrobials, might contribute to a

  2. A Study of Soft Neurological Signs and Its Correlates in Drug-Naive Patients with First Episode Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Vanishree; Venkatesh, V Mathan Kumar; Asokan, T V

    2016-01-01

    Soft neurological signs are minor, non localizing, objective abnormalities, thought to reflect damage in cortical and sub-cortical connections or connections within different cortical regions. Regional structural grey matter anomalies have already been observed and correlated with the presence of cognitive deficits and presence of soft neurological signs in schizophrenic patients. Drug naive patients presenting with first episode of psychosis (FEP)were clinically evaluated for soft neurological signs using the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. The soft neurological signs scores were compared with scores in healthy volunteers. In the patient group, this score was also correlated with demographic and disorder variables. Of the 30 patients with FEP, 60% were women. The average age of the participant was 36.2 years. The average duration of illness was 1.55 years. More than 50% of the patients had schizophrenia. 93.3% of patients with FEP had atleast one soft neurological sign compared to 16.6% of controls. The average score on BPRS was 25.86 and on PANSS was 39.29, and BPRS, PANSS scores had a significant correlation with total soft neurological signs score. There is a significantly higher incidence of soft neurological signs in patients with FEP, particularly schizophrenia. The presence of soft signs correlated with the severity of psychosis.

  3. Lessons Learned... and Not Learned: A Case Study in Regulatory Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conant, J. F.; Woodard, R. C.

    2006-01-01

    'Are you better off than you were four years ago?' 'You've come a long way, baby.' Eschewing politics and advertising, these idioms are applied to the evolution of regulatory processes for Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. We use a case study of a (nearly) completed D and D project at a large nuclear fuel manufacturing facility, to chronicle one licensee's experience with US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) D and D regulations from the 1990's to the present. Historical milestones include the birth of a D and D project, a false start and resultant consequences, a D and D 'moratorium' with subsequent planning and stakeholder integration, a second start which included the challenge of parallel path D and D physical work and regulatory processes, and the 'lessons learned' contributions to timely project progress. Further discussion includes a look at the 'declaration of victory' and examines what it really means to be finished. The rich contextual experience from the case study and the observations of other industry members provides the basis for answers to several key questions: How far has the regulatory process for D and D really evolved, and in what direction? Are licensees generally satisfied or dissatisfied with the methods? What has not improved? Which improvements looked promising, but languished in recent years? How far have we really come and are we better off? What are the opportunities for further improvement? The summary answer to each question, using compendious engineering terms is... 'it depends'. (authors)

  4. The process of changing national malaria treatment policy: lessons from country-level studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Holly Ann; Durrheim, David; Shretta, Rima

    2004-11-01

    Widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites to commonly used antimalarials, such as chloroquine, has resulted in many endemic countries considering changing their malaria treatment policy. Identifying and understanding the key influences that affect decision-making, and factors that facilitate or undermine policy implementation, is critical for improving the policy process and guiding resource allocation during this process. A historical review of archival documents from Malaŵi and data obtained from in-depth policy studies in four countries (Tanzania, South Africa, Kenya and Peru) that have changed malaria treatment policy provides important lessons about decision-making, the policy cycle and complex policy environment, while specifically identifying strategies successfully employed to facilitate policy-making and implementation. Findings from these country-level studies indicate that the process of malaria drug policy review should be institutionalized in endemic countries and based on systematically collected data. Key stakeholders need to be identified early and engaged in the process, while improved communication is needed on all levels. Although malaria drug policy change is often perceived to be a daunting task, using these and other proven strategies should assist endemic countries to tackle this challenge in a systematic fashion that ensures the development and implementation of the rational malaria drug policy.

  5. Lessons Learned From A Study Of Genomics-Based Carrier Screening For Reproductive Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfond, Benjamin S; Kauffman, Tia L; Jarvik, Gail P; Reiss, Jacob A; Richards, C Sue; McMullen, Carmit; Gilmore, Marian; Himes, Patricia; Kraft, Stephanie A; Porter, Kathryn M; Schneider, Jennifer L; Punj, Sumit; Leo, Michael C; Dickerson, John F; Lynch, Frances L; Clarke, Elizabeth; Rope, Alan F; Lutz, Kevin; Goddard, Katrina A B

    2018-05-01

    Genomics-based carrier screening is one of many opportunities to use genomic information to inform medical decision making, but clinicians, health care delivery systems, and payers need to determine whether to offer screening and how to do so in an efficient, ethical way. To shed light on this issue, we conducted a study in the period 2014-17 to inform the design of clinical screening programs and guide further health services research. Many of our results have been published elsewhere; this article summarizes the lessons we learned from that study and offers policy insights. Our experience can inform understanding of the potential impact of expanded carrier screening services on health system workflows and workforces-impacts that depend on the details of the screening approach. We found limited patient or health system harms from expanded screening. We also found that some patients valued the information they learned from the process. Future policy discussions should consider the value of offering such expanded carrier screening in health delivery systems with limited resources.

  6. A review of social media methods and lessons learned from the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Winseck, Kate; Jouvenal, Leslie Cooke; Hubble, David; Kulbicki, Kathryn M

    2017-08-01

    Given the reach and influence of social media, the National Children's Study Vanguard Study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of using social media to support participant retention. We describe a social media experiment designed to assess the impact of social media on participant retention, discuss several key considerations for integrating social media into longitudinal research, and review factors that may influence engagement in research-related social media. User participation varied but was most active when at launch. During the short life of the private online community, a total of 39 participants joined. General enthusiasm about the prospect of the online community was indicated. There were many lessons learned throughout the process in areas such as privacy, security, and Institutional Review Board clearance. These are described in detail. The opportunity to engage participants in longitudinal research using online social networks is enticing; however, more research is needed to consider the feasibility of their use in an ongoing manner. Recommendations are presented for future research seeking to use social media to improve retention in longitudinal research.

  7. Lesson study on 2nd grader of elementary school to improve the student’s numeracy skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, A.; Asih; Jumardi

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to find the most appropriate learning media of multiplication and division for the 2nd graders of elementary school. The study used the steps in the lesson study, Plan-Do-See. Data were taken using observation instruments, video documentation, and learning evaluation tools. Initially, teachers used gravel as media of multiplication and division. Students can solve numeracy problems when they learn by those media. In test, 80% of students were failure when the teacher evaluates them. By involving experts and partner teachers at school, classroom teachers can solve problems by discover multiplication and division media with the drawing media created by the students themselves. At the end of the lesson, 100% of students have mastered multiplication and division with the media.

  8. Small-scale bioenergy initiatives: brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Afica. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    Fifteen case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America were undertaken to assess the impacts that different types of local-level bioenergy initiatives can have on rural livelihoods. The report concludes with preliminary lessons and recommendations for further work.

  9. Clinical features of and risk factors for major depression with history of postpartum episodes in Han Chinese women: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuzhong; Gardner, Charles O; Bigdeli, Tim; Gao, Jingfang; Zhang, Zhen; Tao, Ming; Liu, Ying; Li, Youhui; Wang, Gang; Shi, Jianguo; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Kerang; Li, Kan; Wang, Xumei; Liu, Lanfen; Sun, Jing; Du, Bo; Shi, Shenxun; Zhang, Jingbei; Wu, Wenyuan; Wang, Xueyi; Shen, Jianhua; Liu, Tiebang; Gu, Danhua; Liang, Wei; Deng, Hong; Pan, Jiyang; Yang, Lijun; Jian, Hu; Jiang, Guoqin; Meng, Huaqing; Miao, Guodong; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Huang, Guoping; Zhang, Yutang; Chen, Yunchun; Ha, Baowei; Gao, Shu; Fang, Xiang; Mei, Qiyi; Hong, Xiaohong; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Fengyu, Yu; Zhong, Hui; Sang, Hong; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Dong, Jicheng; Shen, Zhenmin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xiaoping; Pan, Runde; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Yi; Liu, Zhengrong; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Gongying; Flint, Jonathan; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2015-09-01

    We sought to investigate the clinical features of and risk factors for recurrent major depression (MD) with history of postpartum episodes (PPD) in Han Chinese women and the differences between first-onset postpartum MD (MD that has its first lifetime depressive episode in the postpartum period) and first-onset non-postpartum MD (MD with history of PPD and has its first lifetime depressive episode in a period other than postpartum). Data were derived from the China, Oxford and Virginia Commonwealth University Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology (CONVERGE) study (N=6017 cases) and analyzed in two steps. We first examined the clinical features of and risk factors for MD patients with (N=981) or without (N=4410) a history of PPD. We then compared the differences between first-onset postpartum MD (N=583) and first-onset non-postpartum MD (N=398) in those with a history of PPD. Linear, logistic and multinomial logistic models were employed to measure the associations. A history of PPD was associated with more guilt feelings, greater psychiatric comorbidity, higher neuroticism, earlier onset and more chronicity (OR 0.2-2.8). Severe premenstrual symptoms (PMS) and more childbirths increased the risk of PPD, as did a family history of MD, childhood sexual abuse, stressful life events and lack of social support (OR 1.1-1.3). In the MD with history of PPD subsample, first-onset postpartum MD was associated with fewer recurrent major depressive episodes, less psychiatric comorbidity, lower neuroticism, less severe PMS and fewer disagreements with their husbands (OR 0.5-0.8), but more childbirths (OR 1.2). Data were obtained retrospectively through interview and recall bias may have affected the results. MD with history of PPD in Han Chinese women is typically chronic and severe, with particular risk factors including severe PMS and more childbirths. First-onset postpartum MD and first-onset non-postpartum MD can be partly differentiated by their clinical features

  10. Surface-Based Regional Homogeneity in First-Episode, Drug-Naïve Major Depression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous volume-based regional homogeneity (ReHo studies neglected the intersubject variability in cortical folding patterns. Recently, surface-based ReHo was developed to reduce the intersubject variability and to increase statistical power. The present study used this novel surface-based ReHo approach to explore the brain functional activity differences between first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients and healthy controls. Methods. Thirty-three first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients and 32 healthy controls participated in structural and resting-state fMRI scans. MDD patients were rated with a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression prior to the scan. Results. In comparison with the healthy controls, MDD patients showed reduced surface-based ReHo in the left insula. There was no increase in surface-based ReHo in MDD patients. The surface-based ReHo value in the left insula was not significantly correlated with the clinical information or the depressive scores in the MDD group. Conclusions. The decreased surface-based ReHo in the left insula in MDD may lead to the abnormal top-down cortical-limbic regulation of emotional and cognitive information. The surface-based ReHo may be a useful index to explore the pathophysiological mechanism of MDD.

  11. Minnesvärda episoder i undervisningen- en studie av elevers episodiska minnen från en undervisningssekvens i biologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Magntorn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores primary school students’ abilities to recall events from a teaching sequence taking place 18 months earlier. The aim of the teaching sequence was to develop students’ ability to read nature in a river habitat. The concept reading nature has to do with an ability to recognise organisms and relate them to material cycling and energy flow in the specific habitat which is to be read. In this study the aim is to analyse the episodes the students recall in order to find patterns in students’ views of memorable learning events. Combining the affective and cognitive domains by first hand experiences which challenge students’ everyday conceptions and to involve them in the design of the activities make lasting impressions in the long term memories of the majority of students. These memorable episodes can be useful to relate to in the further classroom teaching about the content knowledge of science in order to make it more meaningful for the students.

  12. Service user perspectives on the experience of illness and pathway to care in first-episode psychosis: a qualitative study within the TOP project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Wøldike, Peter Michael; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-03-01

    Delays in initiating treatment are associated with poor clinical and functional outcomes, yet there remains unclarity as to what facilitates and what acts as barriers to accessing appropriate support for first-episode psychosis. To explore this we examined service users' views of their illness trajectory and help-seeking behavior. To describe service-users' experiences with and understanding of their illness and pathway to care, including their need for treatment, the role of their relatives and experience with the treatment service. In-depth interviews were conducted with eleven randomly selected service users (median age 20, range 15-24, 6 males, 5 females) diagnosed with a first-episode psychosis and currently enrolled in treatment for this disorder. Fear of stigma, lack of knowledge about mental illness and normalisation of symptoms were barriers to accessing appropriate treatment, while support from significant others and information accessed by internet were reported as important elements in seeking appropriate treatment. The findings regarding barriers to treatment are in accordance with themes found in earlier studies and serve to validate these. Our study highlights the need to include psychological factors such as normalisation of symptoms and fear of stigma when attempting to reduce DUP in early psychosis, in addition to initiatives to reduce service delays. Also, a greater use of the potentials inherent in Internet and social media platforms seems important in this regard.

  13. Lessons learned and advice from Vietnam war nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell-Desch, Elizabeth A

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe guidance for nurses today from the lessons learned by nurses who served in the Vietnam War. There is little research focusing on nurses' experiences in the Vietnam War. Lessons learned and subsequent advice from nurses who served in Vietnam may be helpful to those serving in current and future wars. A Husserlian phenomenological approach was taken, using interviews with a purposive sample of Registered Nurses who were female, and had served in the United States of America armed forces in Vietnam during the war. Seven theme clusters described the lesson learned and guidance offered by the Vietnam War nurses: advice about journaling, training, caring for yourself, use of support systems, talking about your experiences, understanding the mission, and lack of preparation for war. Much can be learned from the lessons learned and advice given by Vietnam War nurses. These lessons stress that nurses need to take a pro-active role in preparing themselves for deployment to a war zone, and that institutional training for war needs to be intensive and realistic. The environmental, cultural, technological, clinical and psychosocial demands of war nursing need to be comprehensively addressed before nurses deploy to a war.

  14. Cannabis use in children and adolescents with first episode psychosis: influence on psychopathology and short-term outcome (CAFEPS study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Immaculada; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Parellada, Mara; González-Pinto, Ana; Payá, Beatriz; Soutullo, César; de la Serna, Elena; Arango, Celso

    2009-09-01

    To know the prevalence of substance use and its relationship with psychopathology at onset and after six months in children and adolescents with first episode psychosis (FEP). 110 FEP patients, aged 9-17, were assessed for substance use, and with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and other psychopathological and general functioning scales at baseline and after a six-month follow-up. Patients' substance use at baseline was: tobacco (30.9%), cannabis (29.1%), alcohol (21.8%), cocaine (8.2%), amphetamines (2.7%), LSD (1.8%) and opiates (0.90%). Six months later, there was a decrease in patients' use of cannabis (p=0.004) and other drugs, except tobacco. Patients were divided, according to their baseline cannabis use, into 32 cannabis users (CU) and 78 non-cannabis users (NCU). CU were older (p=0.002) and had higher PANSS positive scores (p=0.002) and lower PANSS negative (p<0.001), PANSS general (p=0.002) and PANSS total (p=0.007) scores than NCU. At six months, CU had significantly lower PANSS positive (p=0.010), negative (p=0.0001), general (p=0.002) and total (p=0.002) scores than NCU. When we divided CU at six months into previous CU (n=16) and current CU (n=15), previous CU had the best outcome, NCU the worst and current CU had an intermediate profile. Cannabis use may be related to higher positive symptom scores for FEP patients, with greater improvement after six months for those who cease using cannabis.

  15. Frequency of Viremic Episodes in HIV-Infected Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy During Pregnancy: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Landon; Dunning, Lorna; Lesosky, Maia; Hsiao, Nei-Yuan; Phillips, Tamsin; Petro, Greg; Zerbe, Allison; McIntyre, James A; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-02-15

    The numbers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy are increasing rapidly with global policy changes. There are widespread concerns about ART adherence during pregnancy and postpartum but few data on viral suppression (VS) over time in these populations. We followed a cohort of 523 women in Cape Town, South Africa, initiating ART in pregnancy (once-daily tenofovir 300 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and efavirenz 600 mg) and achieving VS (1000 copies/mL) and minor (50-1000 copies/mL) viremic episodes (VEs) and factors associated with major VEs. In the cohort (median age, 28 years; median pre-ART VL, 3.99 copies/mL; 3% previously defaulted ART; 24% with previous exposure to short-course antiretrovirals), the median time of follow-up from VS was 322 days. Overall, 70% maintained VS throughout follow-up, 8% experienced minor VEs only, and at least 1 major VE was documented in 22% of women. In women with VEs, peak viremia (median, 3.79 log10 copies/mL) was linearly related to pre-ART VL. The incidence of major VEs after initial VS was independently associated with younger age, ART initiation during the third trimester, previous defaulting on ART, and postpartum follow-up. Viremia appears to occur frequently, particularly postpartum, among HIV-infected women after initial VS in this setting. More intensive VL monitoring is warranted in this population; the immediate causes and long-term implications of VE require investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Las Lesson Study en Andalucía: un modelo de formación permanente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M.ª Caparrós Vida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo ofrece los resultados de un estudio de casos desarrollado en el marco de un proyecto de investigación I+D de la Universidad de Málaga a través de una de las modalidades de formación permanente ofertadas por un Centro de Formación del Profesorado, bajo la demanda de un grupo de docentes de una escuela de la comarca de la Axarquía en Málaga. Las Lesson Study se convierten en el eje del estudio de los procesos de comprensión y reconstrucción del conocimiento práctico de una maestra de 1º de primaria sobre la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la lectura y escritura, encontrando evidencias significativas sobre cómo esta estrategia metodológica y de investigación contribuye a la reconstrucción del mismo.

  17. The value teleradiology represents for Europe: A study of lessons learned in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechet, Tiron C.M.; Girard, Greg; Walsh, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Pathology and demography have combined to fuel exponential demand for advanced medical imaging. To support this demand, radiology must move beyond traditional department or modality-based picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) to solutions that ensure access regardless of location. This article delineates underlying reasons for the growth in demand for access to medical imaging in both Europe and the United States. It explains why teleradiology/PACS is critical to support this growth in Europe. It discusses the benefits of and barriers to its widespread implementation as discovered in Canada and the U.S. and how these lessons learned relate to Europe. The article establishes the technological imperatives for teleradiology/PACS and presents three real-world case studies of successful data sharing and shared workflow models via single imaging implementations. CML HealthCare: Geographically spanning Canada and the United States with 129 sites performing nearly 5 million plus annual exams. Shields MRI: 29 facilities, including 3 Radiation Oncology centers, across an area 4 times the size of Switzerland. MRA/Novant: 40 radiologists working in a complete subspecialty reporting environment. Finally, it provides a high-level list of selection criteria for teleradiology/PACS and examines how industry trends affecting the U.S. are important baseline considerations to the success of teleradiology/PACS in Europe.

  18. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  19. Perspectives on Episodic-like and Episodic Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bettina M Pause; Armin eZlomuzica; Kiyoka eKinugawa; Jean eMariani; Reinhard ePietrowsky; Ekrem eDere

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Further...

  20. The contributions of handedness and working memory to episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aparna; Christman, Stephen D; Propper, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    Past studies have independently shown associations of working memory and degree of handedness with episodic memory retrieval. The current study takes a step ahead by examining whether handedness and working memory independently predict episodic memory. In agreement with past studies, there was an inconsistent-handed advantage for episodic memory; however, this advantage was absent for working memory tasks. Furthermore, regression analyses showed handedness, and complex working memory predicted episodic memory performance at different times. Results are discussed in light of theories of episodic memory and hemispheric interaction.

  1. Geoprospective study of a nuclear waste repository. Prospective tectonics: convergent and divergent episodes, evolution of stress during the next 100,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Within the frame of a contract with the CEC, dealing with storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in geological formations, the B.R.G.M. has been involved in a research on prospective tectonics. Within the Western European continental plate, since Mesozoic times, one sees the alternation or succession of convergent and divergent tectonic episodes. These tectonic episodes, although representing geologically discontinuous phenomena, still have time periods of between 4 to 40 millions years. These tectonic phenomena are the cause of the formation or reactivation, at all scales in the continental plate, of brittle, fault-like structures. Tectonic analysis and the in situ measures of stress and the earthquake focal phenomena show that, from the lower Quaternary to the present, the Western European continental plate has been subjected to NNW to SSE convergent stress. A study of the arrangement of European and African plates in the Western Mediterranean shows that the entire region, is undergoing a period of continental collision. The change in the process implies a westerly continental drift of the Spanish plate, a movement which would take several million years. On the Western European scale, the most likely hypothesis during the next 100,000 years is the persistance of the present stress trending approximately N-5. On the other hand, on a local scale, reorganisations of this stress are possible, owing to the presence of tectonic or lithological heterogeneities

  2. Internet-based recruitment to a depression prevention intervention: lessons from the Mood Memos study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy Joanna; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James

    2013-02-12

    Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. ACTRN12609000925246.

  3. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part I: Lessons learned and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Alexis; Bakas, Ioannis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Hauschild, Michael Z.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • Studies mainly concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. • Assessments of relevant waste types apart from household waste have been overlooked. • Local specificities of systems prevent a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results. • LCA should support recommendations representative of the local conditions. - Abstract: The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of

  4. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part I: Lessons learned and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Alexis, E-mail: alau@dtu.dk [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bakas, Ioannis [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Clavreul, Julie [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bernstad, Anna [Water and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Niero, Monia [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); ECO – Ecosystems and Environmental Sustainability, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Gentil, Emmanuel [Copenhagen Resource Institute, 1215 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hauschild, Michael Z. [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H. [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • Studies mainly concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. • Assessments of relevant waste types apart from household waste have been overlooked. • Local specificities of systems prevent a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results. • LCA should support recommendations representative of the local conditions. - Abstract: The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of

  5. Internet-Based Recruitment to a Depression Prevention Intervention: Lessons From the Mood Memos Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. Objective To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Methods Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. Results The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Conclusions Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. Trial Registration ACTRN

  6. The Role of Episodic and Semantic Memory in Episodic Foresight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Louw, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a special form of future thinking, termed "episodic foresight" and its relation with episodic and semantic memory. We outline the methodologies that have largely been developed in the last five years to assess this capacity in young children and non-human animals. Drawing on Tulving's definition of episodic and semantic…

  7. Perspectives on Episodic-Like and Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pause, Bettina M.; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Dere, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Furthermore, impaired episodic memory function is also observed in a variety of other neuropsychiatric diseases including dissociative disorders, schizophrenia, and Parkinson disease. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to induce and measure episodic memories in the laboratory and it is even more difficult to measure it in clinical populations. Presently, the tests used to assess episodic memory function do not comply with even down-sized definitions of episodic-like memory as a memory for what happened, where, and when. They also require sophisticated verbal competences and are difficult to apply to patient populations. In this review, we will summarize the progress made in defining behavioral criteria of episodic-like memory in animals (and humans) as well as the perspectives in developing novel tests of human episodic memory which can also account for phenomenological aspects of episodic memory such as autonoetic awareness. We will also define basic behavioral, procedural, and phenomenological criteria which might be helpful for the development of a valid and reliable clinical test of human episodic memory. PMID:23616754

  8. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  9. Use of two-part regression calibration model to correct for measurement error in episodically consumed foods in a single-replicate study design: EPIC case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogo, George O; van der Voet, Hilko; van't Veer, Pieter; Ferrari, Pietro; Leenders, Max; Muller, David C; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Bamia, Christina; Braaten, Tonje; Knüppel, Sven; Johansson, Ingegerd; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Boshuizen, Hendriek

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiologic studies, measurement error in dietary variables often attenuates association between dietary intake and disease occurrence. To adjust for the attenuation caused by error in dietary intake, regression calibration is commonly used. To apply regression calibration, unbiased reference measurements are required. Short-term reference measurements for foods that are not consumed daily contain excess zeroes that pose challenges in the calibration model. We adapted two-part regression calibration model, initially developed for multiple replicates of reference measurements per individual to a single-replicate setting. We showed how to handle excess zero reference measurements by two-step modeling approach, how to explore heteroscedasticity in the consumed amount with variance-mean graph, how to explore nonlinearity with the generalized additive modeling (GAM) and the empirical logit approaches, and how to select covariates in the calibration model. The performance of two-part calibration model was compared with the one-part counterpart. We used vegetable intake and mortality data from European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. In the EPIC, reference measurements were taken with 24-hour recalls. For each of the three vegetable subgroups assessed separately, correcting for error with an appropriately specified two-part calibration model resulted in about three fold increase in the strength of association with all-cause mortality, as measured by the log hazard ratio. Further found is that the standard way of including covariates in the calibration model can lead to over fitting the two-part calibration model. Moreover, the extent of adjusting for error is influenced by the number and forms of covariates in the calibration model. For episodically consumed foods, we advise researchers to pay special attention to response distribution, nonlinearity, and covariate inclusion in specifying the calibration model.

  10. Factors associated with the time to the first wheezing episode in infants : a cross-sectional study from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants (EISL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco-Gonzalez, Rosa M.; Mallol, Javier; Sole, Dirceu; Brand, Paul L. P.; Perez-Fernandez, Virginia; Sanchez-Solis, Manuel; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Male gender, asthmatic heredity, perinatal tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory infections have been associated with wheeze in the first years of life, among other risk factors. However, information about what factors modify the time to the first episode of wheeze in infants is lacking. The

  11. Studying the use of forest management decision support systems: An initial synthesis of lessons learned from case studies compiled using a semantic wiki

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, S.N.; Floris, A.; Boerboom, L.G.J.; Lamas, T.; Eriksson, L.O.; Nieuwenhuis, M.G.; Rodriguez, L.

    2014-01-01

    In order to share information on the development and use of forest management decision support systems (FMDSS), a European-initiated network has established a wiki website as part of its activities. Case studies and associated lessons learned were solicited from the network using semantic structures

  12. Effect of goal attainment theory based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: Randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moonkyoung; Song, Rhayun; Jeong, Jin-Ok

    2017-06-01

    Effect of goal-attainment-theory-based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: randomized study BACKGROUND: The behavioral modification strategies should be explored at the time of admission to lead the maximum effect of cardiovascular risk management. This randomized study aimed to elucidate the effects of a nurse-led theory-based education program in individuals with a first episode of acute myocardial infarction on cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The study involved a convenience sample of 64 patients with acute myocardial infarction who were randomly assigned to either the education group or the control group. The goal-attainment-based education program was designed to set the mutually agreed goals of risk management and the behavioral modification strategies for achieving those goals. Those in the control group received routine management only. The participants in both groups were contacted at 6-8 weeks and at 6 months after discharge to measure outcome variables. Repeated measure ANOVA was conducted using SPSSWIN (version 20.0) to determine the significance of differences in outcome variables over 6 months between the groups. Both groups showed significant positive changes in cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The 2-year risk of cardiovascular disease was significantly reduced in both study groups, but with no significant interaction effect (F=2.01, p=0.142). The performance and maintenance of health behaviors (F=3.75, p=0.029) and the mental component of quality of life (F=4.03, p=0.020) were significantly better in the education group than the control group. Applying a goal-oriented education program at an early stage of hospital management improved and maintained blood glucose, health behaviors, and mental component of the quality of life up to six months in

  13. What Happens at the Lesson Start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloviita, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Transitional periods, such as lesson starts, are necessary steps from one activity to another, but they also compete with time for actual learning. The aim of the present study was to replicate a previous pilot study on lesson starts and explore possible disturbances. In total, 130 lesson starts in Finnish basic education in grades 1-9 were…

  14. Sick-listing adherence: a register study of 1.4 million episodes of sickness benefit 2010-2013 in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Ola; Josephson, Malin; Österlund, Niklas

    2015-04-14

    This register study aims to increase the knowledge on how common it is that sickness benefit recipients are sick-listed for as long as their physician prescribes in their medical sickness certificate, i.e. sick-listing adherence, or wholly/partly bring return-to-work (RTW) forward, i.e. early RTW. The unit for analysis was an episode of 100% sickness benefit, commenced between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013. Completed episodes of sickness benefit and full or partial early RTW was analysed by comparing the prescribed length of sick leave in medical sickness certificates and benefit days disbursed by the sickness insurance system. Probability for a full and partial early RTW was estimated with hazard ratio (HR) using the Cox proportional hazard model. In total, about 1.4 million episodes of sickness benefit (60% women) were included in the study. The overall sick-listing adherence was 84% for women and 82% for men during the first year of sick leave. Adherence varied between 82 and 87% among women and between 79 and 86% among men with regard to ICD-10 diagnosis chapter. The probability of an early RTW varied between diagnosis chapters, where mental disorders was associated with a lower probability of a full early RTW among women and men (HR 0.52 and HR 0.47) as well as a partial early RTW (HR 0.51 and HR 0.46). Younger age (16-29 years), high educational level and high income was associated with a higher probability of an early RTW, while older age (≥ 50 years), not native-born, low educational level, unemployment and parental leave were associated with a lower probability. The study demonstrates that sick-listing adherence is relatively high. Probability of an early RTW differs with regard to diagnosis chapter, demographic, socioeconomic and labour market characteristics of the sickness benefit recipients. Interventions intended to improve the sick-listing process, and to affect the length and degree of sick leave in certain target groups, should include

  15. Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Capacity in Teaching Science with Technology through Microteaching Lesson Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, George; Xu, Judy; Martinovic, Dragana

    2017-01-01

    In order to effectively use technology in teaching, teacher candidates need to develop technology related pedagogical content knowledge through being engaged in a process of discussion, modeling, practice, and reflection. Based on the examination of teacher candidates' lesson plan assignments, observations of their microteaching performance, and…

  16. Probability Lessons at Hancock School, Lexington; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Lyn

    These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics. Presented are plans for teaching 23 probability lessons in the elementary grades at Hancock School, Lexington, Massachusetts. The discovery approach was utilized by the…

  17. Inequality Lessons at Adams School, Lexington; Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, B.

    These materials were written with the aim of reflecting the thinking of The Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics (CCSM) regarding the goals and objectives for school mathematics. Presented are plans for teaching 15 inequality lessons for above average first grade students. The discovery approach is utilized by the teacher in order to involve…

  18. Kan Na! Authentic Chinese Reading. Lessons for Intermediate to Advanced Self-Study. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Stephen; Hiple, David; Ning, Cynthia

    This compact disc offers several lessons in Chinese, including a photo feature from a Chinese newspaper, the service directory from a Chinese hotel room, a pamphlet for travelers from Taiwan, a family letter, an introduction to Chinese cuisine, an article about a hijacking, a letter of agreement between institutions, an odyssey of a teenaged boy,…

  19. Lessons in Beauty: Art and Adult Education. Studies in Pedagogy, Andragogy, and Gerontagogy, Volume 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, Bastiaan

    This book explores the connections between art and education and, specifically, the links among the art of painting, the training of artists, and the education of adults. Five chapters discuss moralization, professionalization, aestheticization, musealization, and indoctrination. "Instruction and Diversion: Moral Lessons in Dutch Art"…

  20. Setting up and functioning of an Emergency Medicine Department: Lessons learned from a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Asish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Tertiary care teaching hospitals remain referral centres for victims of trauma and mass casualty. Often specialists from various disciplines manage these crowded casualty areas. These age old casualty areas are being replaced, throughout the country by Emergency Medicine Departments (EMDs, presumed to be better planned to confront a crisis. We aimed to gather basic data contributive in setting up of an EMD at a tertiary care teaching hospital from the lessons learned from functioning existent systems. Methods: This is primarily a questionnaire-based descriptive study at tertiary care referral centres across the country, which was purposively selected.The study models included one from a hospital without designated EMD and the other four from hospitals with established EMDs. Direct observation and focus group meetings with experienced informants at these hospitals contributed to the data. In the absence of a validated hospital preparedness assessment scale, comparison was done with regard to quantitative, qualitative and corroborative parameters using descriptive analysis. Results: The EMDs at best practice models were headed by specialist in Emergency Medicine assisted by organised staff, had protocols for managing mass casualty incident (MCI, separate trauma teams, ergonomic use of infrastructure and public education programmes. In this regard, these hospitals seemed well organised to manage MCIs and disasters. Conclusion: The observation may provide a preliminary data useful in setting up an EMD. In the absence of published Indian literature, this may facilitate further research in this direction. Anaesthesiologists, presently an approved Faculty in Emergency Medicine training can provide creative input with regard to its initial organisation and functioning, thus widening our horizons in a country where there is a severe dearth of trained emergency physicians.

  1. Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R; Zola, S M

    1998-01-01

    Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline diencephalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe/diencephalic damage should be proportionately impaired in both episodic and semantic memory. An alternative view is that the capacity for semantic memory is spared, or partially spared, in amnesia relative to episodic memory ability. This article reviews two kinds of relevant data: 1) case studies where amnesia has occurred early in childhood, before much of an individual's semantic knowledge has been acquired, and 2) experimental studies with amnesic patients of fact and event learning, remembering and knowing, and remote memory. The data provide no compelling support for the view that episodic and semantic memory are affected differently in medial temporal lobe/diencephalic amnesia. However, episodic and semantic memory may be dissociable in those amnesic patients who additionally have severe frontal lobe damage.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome in First Episode Schizophrenia, Based on the National Mental Health Registry of Schizophrenia (NMHR) in a General Hospital in Malaysia: A 10-Year Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert Muh Haur; Ng, Chong Guan; Koh, Ong Hui; Gill, Jesjeet Singh; Aziz, Salina Abdul

    2018-05-07

    Schizophrenia has been linked with various medical comorbidities, particularly metabolic syndrome. The number of studies on this aspect is lacking in Malaysia. (1) Objective: To investigate metabolic syndrome rates and its associated factors. (2) Method: This is the first 10-year retrospective-outcome study of patients with first episode schizophrenia in Malaysia. Out of 394 patients diagnosed with first episode schizophrenia and registered with the National Mental Health Registry of Schizophrenia (NMHR) in the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur (GHKL) in 2004⁻2005, 174 patients consented to participate in the study. They were interviewed using a Schizophrenia outcome questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made using the National Cholesterol Education Program—Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III). (3) Results: All patients’ weight, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, and blood pressure are significantly increased. Sixty-three subjects (36.2%) developed metabolic syndrome while 36 (23.2%) were hypertensive, and 41 (28.1%) were diabetic. Use of fluphenthixol depot (CI = 1.05⁻5.09, OR: 0.84, p = 0.039), reduced physical activity (CI = 0.13⁻1.00, OR: −1.04, p = 0.049), and substance use disorder (CI = 1.40, 13.89, OR: 1.48, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome based on univariate analysis. In further multivariate analysis, comorbid substance abuse was the only significant factor associated with metabolic syndrome after adjusting for physical activity and intramuscular depot. (4) Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of metabolic syndrome. It is important to address substance use problems as an important risk factor of this comorbidity.

  3. Health services for Buruli ulcer control: lessons from a field study in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy M Ackumey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, is a debilitating disease of the skin and underlying tissue. The first phase of a BU prevention and treatment programme (BUPaT was initiated from 2005-2008, in the Ga-West and Ga-South municipalities in Ghana to increase access to BU treatment and to improve early case detection and case management. This paper assesses achievements of the BUPaT programme and lessons learnt. It also considers the impact of the programme on broader interests of the health system. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach included patients' records review, review of programme reports, a stakeholder forum, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, clinic visits and observations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Extensive collaboration existed across all levels, (national, municipality, and community, thus strengthening the health system. The programme enhanced capacities of all stakeholders in various aspects of health services delivery and demonstrated the importance of health education and community-based surveillance to create awareness and encourage early treatment. A patient database was also created using recommended World Health Organisation (WHO forms which showed that 297 patients were treated from 2005-2008. The proportion of patients requiring only antibiotic treatment, introduced in the course of the programme, was highest in the last year (35.4% in the first, 23.5% in the second and 42.5% in the third year. Early antibiotic treatment prevented recurrences which was consistent with programme aims. CONCLUSIONS: To improve early case management of BU, strengthening existing clinics to increase access to antibiotic therapy is critical. Intensifying health education and surveillance would ultimately increase early reporting and treatment for all cases. Further research is needed to explain the role of environmental factors for BU contagion. Programme strategies reported in our study: collaboration

  4. Predicting the evolution of large cholera outbreaks: lessons learnt from the Haiti case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Righetto, Lorenzo; Knox, Allyn; Finger, Flavio; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical models can provide key insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic, potentially aiding real-time emergency management in allocating health care resources and possibly anticipating the impact of alternative interventions. Spatially explicit models of waterborne disease are made routinely possible by widespread data mapping of hydrology, road network, population distribution, and sanitation. Here, we study the ex-post reliability of predictions of the ongoing Haiti cholera outbreak. Our model consists of a set of dynamical equations (SIR-like, i.e. subdivided into the compartments of Susceptible, Infected and Recovered individuals) describing a connected network of human communities where the infection results from the exposure to excess concentrations of pathogens in the water, which are, in turn, driven by hydrologic transport through waterways and by mobility of susceptible and infected individuals. Following the evidence of a clear correlation between rainfall events and cholera resurgence, we test a new mechanism explicitly accounting for rainfall as a driver of enhanced disease transmission by washout of open-air defecation sites or cesspool overflows. A general model for Haitian epidemic cholera and the related uncertainty is thus proposed and applied to the dataset of reported cases now available. The model allows us to draw predictions on longer-term epidemic cholera in Haiti from multi-season Monte Carlo runs, carried out up to January 2014 by using a multivariate Poisson rainfall generator, with parameters varying in space and time. Lessons learned and open issues are discussed and placed in perspective. We conclude that, despite differences in methods that can be tested through model-guided field validation, mathematical modeling of large-scale outbreaks emerges as an essential component of future cholera epidemic control.

  5. Lessons learned from recruiting nursing homes to a quantitative cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzouvara, Vasiliki; Papadopoulos, Chris; Randhawa, Gurch

    2016-03-01

    A growing older adult population is leading to increased admission rates to long-term care facilities such as nursing homes and residential care homes. Assisted healthcare services should be flexible, integrated, and responsive to older adults' needs. However, there is a limited body of empirical evidence because of the recruitment challenges in these settings. To describe the barriers and challenges faced in recruiting to a recent pilot study, consider previously implemented and proposed recruitment strategies, and propose a new multi-method approach to maximising recruitment of care homes. The proposed multi-method approach harnesses key recruitment strategies previously highlighted as effective in navigating the many challenges and barriers that are likely to be encountered, such as mistrust, scepticism and concerns about disruption to routines. This includes making strategic use of existing personal and professional connections within the research team, engaging with care homes that have previously engaged with the research process, forming relationships of trust, and employing a range of incentives. Implementing carefully planned recruitment strategies is likely to improve relationships between nursing homes and researchers. As a consequence, recruitment can be augmented which can enable the production of rigorous evidence required for achieving effective nursing practice and patient wellbeing. Boosting recruitment rates is crucial in helping to build new and less biased research evidence and for informing and underpinning all forms of evidence-based practice. The lessons learned from our pilot and the review of the literature highlight these issues and better enable investigators to access research settings that commonly possess many complex recruitment barriers and challenges.

  6. Aging, recall and recognition: a study on the sensitivity of the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test (USC-REMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth S; Landau, Susan M; Whipple, Stephen C; Schwartz, Barbara L

    2004-05-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test (USC-REMT) to the effects of aging in a sample of 112 men and women from 18 to 93 years old. Two new recognition measures, yes-no and forced-choice, were developed to supplement the original USC-REMT which measured only free-recall. Free-recall, yes-no recognition and forced-choice recognition were sensitive to age effects, with free-recall being the most sensitive. The seven recall and recognition lists can be used interchangeably. The data indicate that the USC-REMT is worthy of consideration when there is a need for a brief, screening tool of various memory functions, particularly when there is interest in memory changes over time and repeated assessments.

  7. Moderated online social therapy for carers of young people recovering from first-episode psychosis: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, John; Lederman, Reeva; Herrman, Helen; Koval, Peter; Eleftheriadis, Dina; Bendall, Sarah; Cotton, Sue M; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario

    2017-01-17

    First-episode psychosis most often has its onset during late adolescence. In caring for the young person, families endure high levels of stress and depression. Meanwhile, the social networks of families often erode. Our group has previously shown that family cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) leads to significantly improved perceived stress compared with specialist first-episode treatment as usual; however, there are well-known barriers to the dissemination of effective family interventions. To address this, we have developed a novel online intervention entitled 'Altitudes' that fully integrates purpose-built online social networking, expert and peer moderation, and evidence-based psychoeducation within a single application. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of Altitudes in reducing stress in carers over a 6-month period. We describe here a single-blinded cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) with permutated blocks. The clusters comprise individual families. The two treatment conditions include Altitudes plus Specialist Treatment as Usual (STAU) and STAU alone. Altitudes involves participation in our novel online programme whereas STAU comprises specialist family work at the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre (EPPIC), Melbourne, Australia. We aim to recruit 160 family members of young, 15-27 year-old, patients registered for treatment for first-episode psychosis (FEP) at EPPIC. The design includes two assessment time points, namely, baseline and 6-month follow-up. The study is due for completion within 2 years including an 18-month recruitment period and a 6-month treatment phase. The primary outcome is carers' perceived stress at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures include a biomarker of stress, depressive symptoms, worry, substance use, loneliness, social support, satisfaction with life, and a range of measures that tap into coping resources. We seek to gain a dynamic picture of carer stress through our

  8. Plasma levels of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol are associated with microstructural changes within the cerebellum in the early stage of first-episode schizophrenia: a longitudinal VBM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Joji Nishimura,1 Shingo Kakeda,1 Osamu Abe,2 Reiji Yoshimura,3 Keita Watanabe,1 Naoki Goto,3 Hikaru Hori,3 Toru Sato,1 Hidemasa Takao,4 Hiroyuki Kabasawa,5 Jun Nakamura,3 Yukunori Korogi1 1Department of Radiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nihon University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan; 4Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 5MR Applied Science Laboratory Japan, GE Yokogawa Medical Systems, Hino-shi, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: The aims of this study are to determine how the interval changes of the brain structures in the early stage of first-episode schizophrenia relate to the interval changes in the clinical data, including the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia and catecholaminergic measures (plasma homovanillic acid [HVA] and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol [MHPG]. Regional brain volumes and fractional anisotropy (FA/mean diffusivity (MD with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI were measured at baseline and 6-month follow-up in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI system in a cohort of 16 schizophrenic patients, who were in their first episode at the time of baseline MRI. At the time of baseline and follow-up MRI, all 16 patients underwent evaluations that included a psychopathological assessment (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] and peripheral catecholaminergic measures (plasma MHPG or HVA. For interval changes between baseline and follow-up MRI data (morphological change, MD, and FA, the correlation/regression analysis was performed as a series of single regression correlations in Statistical Parametric Mapping 5, with the interval changes in PANSS or plasma HVA and MHPG as the covariates of interest. Positive and inverse correlations contrasts were created, and in this

  9. Hypoxic Episodes in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard J; Di Fiore, Juliann M; Walsh, Michele C

    2015-12-01

    Hypoxic episodes are troublesome components of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Immature respiratory control seems to be the major contributor, superimposed on abnormal respiratory function. Relatively short respiratory pauses may precipitate desaturation and bradycardia. This population is predisposed to pulmonary hypertension; it is likely that pulmonary vasoconstriction also plays a role. The natural history has been well-characterized in the preterm population at risk for BPD; however, the consequences are less clear. Proposed associations of intermittent hypoxia include retinopathy of prematurity, sleep disordered breathing, and neurodevelopmental delay. Future study should address whether these associations are causal relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Episodic memory and self-reference via semantic autobiographical memory: Insights from an fMRI study in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eKalenzaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-referential processing relies mainly on the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and enhances memory encoding (i.e., Self-Reference Effect, SRE as it improves the accuracy and richness of remembering in both young and older adults. However, studies on age-related changes in the neural correlates of the SRE on the subjective (i.e., autonoetic consciousness and the objective (i.e., source memory qualitative features of episodic memory are lacking. In the present fMRI study, we compared the effects of a self-related (semantic autobiographical memory task and a non self-related (general semantic memory task encoding condition on subsequent episodic memory retrieval. We investigated encoding-related activity during each condition in two groups of 19 younger and 16 older adults. Behaviorally, the SRE improved subjective memory performance in both groups but objective memory only in young adults. At the neural level, a direct comparison between self-related and non self-related conditions revealed that SRE mainly activated the cortical midline system, especially the MPFC, in both groups. Additionally, in older adults and regardless of the condition, greater activity was found in a fronto-parietal network. Overall, correlations were noted between source memory performance and activity in the MPFC (irrespective of age and visual areas (mediated by age. Thus, the present findings expand evidence of the role of the MPFC in self-referential processing in the context of source memory benefit in both young and older adults using incidental encoding via semantic autobiographical memory. However, our finding suggests that its role is less effective in aging.

  11. Episodic memory and self-reference via semantic autobiographical memory: insights from an fMRI study in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenzaga, Sandrine; Sperduti, Marco; Anssens, Adèle; Martinelli, Penelope; Devauchelle, Anne-Dominique; Gallarda, Thierry; Delhommeau, Marion; Lion, Stéphanie; Amado, Isabelle; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Self-referential processing relies mainly on the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and enhances memory encoding (i.e., Self-Reference Effect, SRE) as it improves the accuracy and richness of remembering in both young and older adults. However, studies on age-related changes in the neural correlates of the SRE on the subjective (i.e., autonoetic consciousness) and the objective (i.e., source memory) qualitative features of episodic memory are lacking. In the present fMRI study, we compared the effects of a self-related (semantic autobiographical memory task) and a non self-related (general semantic memory task) encoding condition on subsequent episodic memory retrieval. We investigated encoding-related activity during each condition in two groups of 19 younger and 16 older adults. Behaviorally, the SRE improved subjective memory performance in both groups but objective memory only in young adults. At the neural level, a direct comparison between self-related and non self-related conditions revealed that SRE mainly activated the cortical midline system, especially the MPFC, in both groups. Additionally, in older adults and regardless of the condition, greater activity was found in a fronto-parietal network. Overall, correlations were noted between source memory performance and activity in the MPFC (irrespective of age) and visual areas (mediated by age). Thus, the present findings expand evidence of the role of the MPFC in self-referential processing in the context of source memory benefit in both young and older adults using incidental encoding via semantic autobiographical memory. However, our finding suggests that its role is less effective in aging.

  12. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in first-episode, drug-naïve depressive patients: A 5-year retrospective study.

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    Kerang Zhang

    Full Text Available Despite different treatments and courses of illness, depressive symptoms appear similar in bipolar disorder (BD and major depressive disorder (MDD, causing BD with an onset of depressive episode being frequently misdiagnosed as MDD, and leading to inappropriate treatment and poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore underlying neural basis to distinguish BD from MDD. The medical records of 80 first-episode, drug-naïve depressive patients with an initial diagnosis of MDD and illness duration of at least 5 years were reviewed retrospectively for this study. Fourteen bipolar depressed patients with a diagnosis conversion from MDD to BD, 14 patients with diagnosis of MDD, and 14 healthy subjects demographically matched with the BD group, were selected to participate in the study. Firstly, we examined whether there were differences among the three groups in whole brain fALFF during resting state. Secondly, clusters showing group differences in fALFF in any two groups were chosen as regions of interest (ROI and then correlation between clinical features and fALFF values of ROIs were calculated. The BD group showed increased fALFF in bilateral putamen relative to both the MDD group and controls, while the MDD group exhibited decreased fALFF in left superior frontal gyrus (SFG relative to both the BD group and controls (p < 0.05, corrected. Positive correlations between abnormality in the putamen and symptom severity were observed (significant for the MDD group, p = 0.043; marginally significant for the BD group, p = 0.060/0.076. These results implicate that abnormalities of key regions in the striatum and prefrontal areas may be trait markers for BD and MDD.

  13. Assessing the Impact of Lesson Study on the Teaching Practice of Middle School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Michael C.

    Despite wave after wave of educational reform in the United States our students continue to lag behind their peers in other industrialized countries on virtually all measures of academic achievement. Effective professional development (PD) is seen as a key to improving instructional practice and therefore student learning, but traditional forms of PD have been wholly unsuccessful in changing teaching practice. Over the last two decades an emerging body of research has identified some key features of effective PD that seem to create meaningful change and improvement in instructional practice. Some of this research highlights the promise of adapting Japanese lesson study (LS) to the American context as a means of incrementally improving instruction. Much of the existing research around LS is descriptive in nature and offers little insight into if and how participation in LS impacts subsequent instructional practice. This study utilized case study methodology to examine the instructional practice of one group of four middle school science teachers before, during, and after participation in LS. The study attempted to identify specific learning outcomes of a LS process, to identify influences on teacher learning during LS, and to identify subsequent changes in the instructional practice of participants resulting from participation in LS. Key findings from the study include significant teacher learning derived from the LS process, the identification of influences that enhanced or inhibited teacher learning, and clear evidence that participants successfully integrated learning from the LS into subsequent instructional practice. Learning outcomes included deepening of subject matter knowledge, increased understanding of student thinking and abilities, clarity of expectations for student performance, recognition of the ineffectiveness of past instructional practice, specific instructional strategies, shared student learning goals, and an increased commitment to future

  14. Effects of the Original Versus Revised Bloom's Taxonomy on Lesson Planning Skills: A Turkish Study Among Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bümen, Nilay T.

    2007-07-01

    The original taxonomy of educational objectives, developed by Benjamin S.␣Bloom and his associates in the 1950s, was revised several decades later by a group of educationists and cognitive psychologists, who developed a revised taxonomy (RT). This article describes a Turkish study carried out among a group of pre-service teachers in order to compare the influence of the two systems on lesson planning skills. The results confirmed other studies that have indicated a number of advantages of the revised system over the earlier one.

  15. The formation of a complex community program for diabetes control: lessons learned from a case study of Project DIRECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, R M; Liburd, L C; Green-Phillips, A

    2001-05-01

    A case study was conducted of the formation of a diabetes initiative in a largely African American urban community. The study focused on how confluent the original project model was with actual formation, what benefits were produced, what areas of needed improvement surfaced, and how different stakeholder groups characterized one another's involvement. The project produced several benefits but also experienced needed improvements in its formation, which suffered from a lack of communication, cooperation, and coordination; unclear goals and personnel roles; and early delays. Lessons include treating project formation as an important developmental stage and reducing bureaucratic management approaches not suited for community partnerships.

  16. Investigating the episodic buffer

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    Alan Baddeley

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A brief account is presented of the three-component working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch. This is followed by an account of some of the problems it encountered in explaining how information from different subsystems with different codes could be combined, and how it was capable of communicating with long-term memory. In order to account for these, a fourth component was proposed, the episodic buffer. This was assumed to be a multidimensional store of limited capacity that can be accessed through conscious awareness. In an attempt to test and develop the concept, a series of experiments have explored the role of working memory in the binding of visual features into objects and verbal sequences into remembered sentences. The experiments use a dual task paradigm to investigate the role of the various subcomponents of working memory in binding. In contrast to our initial assumption, the episodic buffer appears to be a passive store, capable of storing bound features and making them available to conscious awareness, but not itself responsible for the process of binding.

  17. When higher activations reflect lower deactivations: a PET study in Alzheimer’s disease during encoding and retrieval in episodic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eBejanin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the cerebral substrates of episodic memory disorders in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and investigate patients' hyperactivations frequently reported in the functional imaging literature. It remains unclear whether some of these hyperactivations reflect compensatory mechanisms or deactivation disturbances in the default mode network. Using positron emission tomography (15O-H2O, cerebral blood flow was measured in eleven ADs and twelve healthy elderly controls at rest and during encoding and stem-cued recall of verbal items. We performed subtractions analyses between the experimental and control conditions between groups. The average signal was extracted in regions showing hyperactivation in AD patients versus controls in both contrasts. To determine whether hyperactivations occurred in regions that were activated or deactivated during the memory tasks, we compared signal intensities between the experimental conditions versus rest. Our results showed reduced activation in ADs compared to controls in several core episodic memory regions, including the medial temporal structures, during both encoding and retrieval. ADs also showed hyperactivations compared to controls in a set of brain areas. Further analyses conducted on the signal extracted in these areas indicated that most of these hyperactivations in ADs actually reflected a failure of deactivation. Indeed, almost all of these regions were significantly more activated at rest than during the experimental conditions in controls, only one region presented a similar pattern of deactivation in ADs. Altogether, our findings suggest that hyperactivations in AD must be interpreted with caution and may not systematically reflect compensatory mechanisms. Although there has been evidence supporting the existence of genuine compensatory mechanisms, dysfunction within the default mode network may be responsible for part of the apparent hyperactivations reported in

  18. Metformin for treatment of antipsychotic-induced amenorrhea and weight gain in women with first-episode schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-Rong; Jin, Hua; Gao, Keming; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Ou, Jian-Jun; Shao, Ping; Wang, Juan; Guo, Xiao-Feng; Davis, John M; Chan, Philip K; Zhao, Jing-Ping

    2012-08-01

    Data on the treatment of antipsychotic-induced amenorrhea, particularly when occurring with weight gain, are limited. The authors investigated the efficacy and safety of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic-induced amenorrhea and weight gain in women with first-episode schizophrenia. Eighty-four women (ages 18-40 years) with first-episode schizophrenia who suffered from amenorrhea during antipsychotic treatment were randomly assigned, in a double-blind study design, to receive 1000 mg/day of metformin or placebo in addition to their antipsychotic treatment for 6 months. The primary outcome measures were restoration of menstruation and change in body weight and body mass index (BMI). Secondary outcome measures were changes in levels of prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and testosterone; in fasting levels of insulin and glucose; in LH/FSH ratio; and in insulin resistance index. Repeated mixed models with repeated-measures regression analyses and binary logistic regression were used in the analysis. A total of 76 patients completed the 6-month trial. Significantly more patients in the metformin group (N=28, 66.7%) than in placebo group (N=2, 4.8%) resumed their menstruation. Among patients treated with metformin, BMI decreased by a mean of 0.93 and the insulin resistance index by 2.04. In contrast, patients who received placebo had a mean increase in BMI of 0.85. The prolactin, LH, and testosterone levels and LH/FSH ratio decreased significantly in the metformin group at months 2, 4, and 6, but these levels did not change in the placebo group. Metformin was effective in reversing antipsychotic-induced adverse events, including restoration of menstruation, promotion of weight loss, and improvement in insulin resistance in female patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health

  20. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-02-21

    Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health sector. Whether or not a particular

  1. A Relevant Lesson: Hitler Goes to the Mall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, David

    2003-01-01

    A "Motivation" eliciting the "Aim" of each lesson initiates each lesson in the orthodox "developmental lesson-plan" that has dominated classroom instruction in NYC public schools for at least the past half-century. An action-research study of 38 lesson-plans (over 5 each from 5 teachers) drawn from student-teaching…

  2. What factors influence successful recruitment of siblings of individuals with first episode psychosis to e-health interventions? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jacqueline; Henderson, Claire; Spain, Debbie; Gamble, Catherine; Norman, Ian

    2017-08-01

    Recruitment to clinical research studies can prove complex. This is particularly true of mental health research, given factors such as confidentiality, capacity and consent, or when attempting to recruit family members as opposed to service users themselves. This study investigated the challenges experienced and strategies employed in the recruitment of siblings of people with first episode psychosis using Early Intervention in Psychosis Services (EIPS) in England. As part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an e-health intervention for siblings, we conducted a process evaluation study whereby semistructured interview was undertaken with clinical and research staff involved in recruitment of siblings. Data were analysed thematically. Twelve participants from six EIPS were interviewed. Data analysis revealed seven key themes: (i) limited comprehensive family data available; (ii) data governance and consent issues; (iii) organizational factors; (iv) convoluted recruitment methods; (v) concerns about service users' opinions; (vi) fluidity in siblings' needs and expectations; and (vii) strategies to enhance recruitment. Recruitment challenges identified in this study concerned administrative, organizational, process and attitudinal issues. These are similar to other studies recruiting mental health service users as well as family members. Failure to recruit to target implies that studies are underpowered to detect potential statistically or clinically meaningful changes. Future studies should establish how best to enhance family inclusiveness in clinical practice and research. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Using Mobile Phones to Collect Patient Data: Lessons Learned From the SIMPle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Sinead; Tandan, Meera; Murphy, Andrew W; Vellinga, Akke

    2017-04-25

    Mobile phones offer new opportunities to efficiently and interactively collect real-time data from patients with acute illnesses, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs). One of the main benefits of using mobile data collection methods is automated data upload, which can reduce the chance of data loss, an issue when using other data collection methods such as paper-based surveys. The aim was to explore differences in collecting data from patients with UTI using text messaging, a mobile phone app (UTI diary), and an online survey. This paper provides lessons learned from integrating mobile data collection into a randomized controlled trial. Participants included UTI patients consulting in general practices that were participating in the Supporting the Improvement and Management of UTI (SIMPle) study. SIMPle was designed to improve prescribing antimicrobial therapies for UTI in the community. Patients were invited to reply to questions regarding their UTI either via a prospective text message survey, a mobile phone app (UTI diary), or a retrospective online survey. Data were collected from 329 patients who opted in to the text message survey, 71 UTI patients through the mobile phone UTI symptom diary app, and 91 online survey participants. The age profile of UTI diary app users was younger than that of the text message and online survey users. The largest dropout for both the text message survey respondents and UTI diary app users was after the initial opt-in message; once the participants completed question 1 of the text message survey or day 2 in the UTI diary app, they were more likely to respond to the remaining questions/days. This feasibility study highlights the potential of using mobile data collection methods to capture patient data. As well as improving the efficiency of data collection, these novel approaches highlight the advantage of collecting data in real time across multiple time points. There was little variation in the number of patients responding

  4. Making the case for OWTS management: lessons from case studies and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, B.; Woods, F.; Hwang, S.; Walter, M. T.; Grantham, D. G.; Riha, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are used in 20-25% of homes in the United States and can be an efficient and cost-effective alternative to conventional centralized systems. However, OWTS also represent a source of non-point nutrient, pathogen, and micro-contaminant pollution to surface and groundwater if they are poorly designed, sited and/or maintained. Despite their ubiquity and potential to negatively impact water resources, the contribution of OWTS to local and regional water contamination issues is poorly understood. There are no federal regulations or uniform standards for the operation, maintenance, and management of these systems. The effectiveness of educational programs and best management practices developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, along with local and regional governments, remains uncertain. Here we describe attempts to increase our knowledge of the state of OWTS in relation to water resources and their management. Specifically, we summarize 1) efforts to modernize a NY State-wide inventory of residential OWTS using GIS-based tools; 2) research aimed at better understanding the impact of OWTS on surface and ground water in 5 upstate NY counties across a gradient of land uses; 3) lessons learned from 13 case studies of municipal OWTS management programs across the US; and 4) observations on the roles of data, education and policy in creating and evaluating successful municipal OWTS management programs. Initial results show that total numbers of OWTS in NY State continue to grow, particularly in areas associated with ex-urban migration. Research into the relationship between OWTS and nutrient and pathogen contamination in ground and surface waters, respectively, suggests location-specific variation. This has implications for management approaches: preventing failure of any individual OWTS may be just as effective as programs attempting to bring all OWTS up to a high level of performance. Case studies of management programs

  5. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E

    2012-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as "memory detection," little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

  6. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio eGanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a probe item by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs between this item and comparison items (irrelevants. Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as memory detection, little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addressed the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study. Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing semantic knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive component (LPC than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. Thus, the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

  7. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  8. Neurological soft signs in psychoses. I: a comparative study of prevalence amongst drug naive first episode patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aims and objective of the study was to find out the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS amongst the three groups of psychiatric disorder which were brief psychotic disorder, schizophreniform psychosis, and schizophrenia. Material and methods: The study was conducted over a period of seven months starting from 1st of May, 2010 to 30th November, 2010. NSS were assessed by the Heidelberg Manual. Results: We found that all the patients from each of the three groups have shown at least one or more neurological abnormalities. The present study found a significant association between types of NSS namely in group of motor coordination, motor sequencing, and sensory integration, and the different category of disorders under study whereas the severity of neurological impairment was not found to be significantly associated within the three groups. Conclusion: We hope that in future larger studies observing for long period of time will shed definite lights in the present study findings.

  9. Neurological soft signs in psychoses. II: an explorative study of structural involvement amongst drug naive first episode patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aims and objective of the study was to find out the different structural involvement in the three study groups, namely brief psychotic disorder, schizophreniform psychosis, and schizophrenia as reflected by the neurological soft signs (NSS. Material and methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar, Cachar, Assam. In this study, we had further classified the soft signs into groups related to their corresponding brain structures as per the aims and objectives. Results: Our study consisted of 30 patients distributed into three case groups, namely brief psychotic disorder having 14 cases, schizophrenia having 12 cases, and only four cases in the schizophreniform group. We have made a novel attempt to establish a functional relationship between the structural involvement and the three groups of disorders under study through the evaluation of NSS at the onset of symptoms, which at times may not be possible to diagnose through currently available radio-imaging techniques. We have definitely found a predominant involvement of the cerebellum in the brief psychotic disorder and schizophrenia groups, and the involvement of parietal lobe in the schizophreniform psychosis group; although the results were not statistically significant. Conclusion: We hope that in future larger studies with more number of patients will shed definite lights in the present study findings.

  10. Lessons from Studies to Evaluate an Online 24-Hour Recall for Use with Children and Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon I. Kirkpatrick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With technological innovation, comprehensive dietary intake data can be collected in a wide range of studies and settings. The Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24 Dietary Assessment Tool is a web-based system that guides respondents through 24-h recalls. The purpose of this paper is to describe lessons learned from five studies that assessed the feasibility and validity of ASA24 for capturing recall data among several population subgroups in Canada. These studies were conducted within a childcare setting (preschool children with reporting by parents, in public schools (children in grades 5–8; aged 10–13 years, and with community-based samples drawn from existing cohorts of adults and older adults. Themes emerged across studies regarding receptivity to completing ASA24, user experiences with the interface, and practical considerations for different populations. Overall, we found high acceptance of ASA24 among these diverse samples. However, the ASA24 interface was not intuitive for some participants, particularly young children and older adults. As well, technological challenges were encountered. These observations underscore the importance of piloting protocols using online tools, as well as consideration of the potential need for tailored resources to support study participants. Lessons gleaned can inform the effective use of technology-enabled dietary assessment tools in research.

  11. Episodic memory for natural and transformed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Marilena; Vignando, Miriam; Foroni, Francesco; Pergola, Giulio; Rossi, Paola; Silveri, Maria Caterina; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2018-05-10

    It has been proposed that the conceptual knowledge of food and its putative subdivision into natural (i.e., fruit/vegetables) and transformed (i.e., food that underwent thermic or non-thermic processing) may follow the living/non-living distinction. In the present study, we investigated whether the advantage for living things compared to non-living things observed in episodic memory (the so-called animacy effect) extends to natural foods and transformed foods respectively. We pursued this issue in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we measured episodic memory for natural and transformed foods in young participants. In Experiment 2, we enrolled dementia-free centenarians, patients with Alzheimer's disease (DAT), Progressive primary aphasia (PPA), and healthy controls whose episodic memory was also tested for living/non-living things. Results showed that young participants had better recognition memory for transformed foods compared to natural foods. This difference disappeared in centenarians and patients. However, centenarians and PPA exhibited enhanced levels of false alarms (FA) with natural food, and DAT patients with both natural and transformed food. As far as the living/non-living distinction is concerned, the episodic memory for the living category appears more resilient to the decline compared to the non-living category in patients, particularly those with PPA. In conclusion, our study shows that transformed food is better remembered than natural food, suggesting that it is more salient and possibly relevant from an evolutionary perspective. The natural/transformed distinction appears susceptible to erosion only in the presence of a high degree of episodic memory impairment. These results offer novel insight on episodic memory of food, and also extend the current knowledge on the animacy effect in episodic memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. First-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    . Patients with first-episode psychosis had significantly high NEO-PI-R scores for neuroticism and agreeableness, and lower scores for conscientiousness and extroversion. The median time for remission in the total sample was three months. Female gender and better premorbid functioning were predictive of less...... negative symptoms and shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was predictive for shorter time to remission, stable remission, less severe positive psychotic symptoms, and better social functioning. Female gender, better premorbid social functioning and more education also contributed to a better...... should warn clinicians to pay attention to the more elaborate needs of these patients. A re-evaluation at three months should reveal that non-remitted patients with longer DUPs indicate high risk of continuous non-remission. A possible shift to clozapine for this group should be strongly considered....

  13. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Dynamics of malaria transmission and susceptibility to clinical malaria episodes following treatment of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic carriers: results of a cluster-randomized study of community-wide screening and treatment, and a parallel entomology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiono, Alfred B; Guelbeogo, Moussa W; Sagnon, N Falé; Nébié, Issa; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Mukhopadhyay, Amitava; Hamed, Kamal

    2013-11-12

    In malaria-endemic countries, large proportions of individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum are asymptomatic and constitute a reservoir of parasites for infection of newly hatched mosquitoes. Two studies were run in parallel in Burkina Faso to evaluate the impact of systematic identification and treatment of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum, detected by rapid diagnostic test, on disease transmission and susceptibility to clinical malaria episodes. A clinical study assessed the incidence of symptomatic malaria episodes with a parasite density >5,000/μL after three screening and treatment campaigns ~1 month apart before the rainy season; and an entomological study determined the effect of these campaigns on malaria transmission as measured by entomological inoculation rate. The intervention arm had lower prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of asexual parasites and lower prevalence of gametocyte carriers during campaigns 2 and 3 as compared to the control arm. During the entire follow-up period, out of 13,767 at-risk subjects, 2,516 subjects (intervention arm 1,332; control arm 1,184) had symptomatic malaria. Kaplan-Meier analysis of the incidence of first symptomatic malaria episode with a parasite density >5,000/μL showed that, in the total population, the two treatment arms were similar until Week 11-12 after campaign 3, corresponding with the beginning of the malaria transmission season, after which the probability of being free of symptomatic malaria was lower in the intervention arm (logrank p entomological inoculation rate was comparable in both arms, with September peaks in both indices. Community screening and targeted treatment of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum had no effect on the dynamics of malaria transmission, but seemed to be associated with an increase in the treated community's susceptibility to symptomatic malaria episodes after the screening campaigns had finished. These results highlight the importance of further

  15. Nonlinear response of hail precipitation rate to environmental moisture content: A real case modeling study of an episodic midlatitude severe convective event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingxin; Zhang, Fuqing; Zhang, Qinghong; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Kumjian, Matthew R.

    2017-07-01

    The dependence of hail production on initial moisture content in a simulated midlatitude episodic convective event occurred in northeast China on 10-11 June 2005 was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a double-moment microphysics scheme where both graupel and hail are considered. Three sensitivity experiments were performed by modifying the initial water vapor mixing ratio profile to 90% ("Q-10%"), 105% ("Q+5%"), and 110% ("Q+10%") of the initial conditions used for the control simulation. It was found that increasing the initial water vapor content caused the hail and total precipitation rates to increase during the first 5 h. The precipitation response to increasing water vapor content was monotonic for this first episode; however, for the event's second episode, the hail precipitation rate responds to the initial water vapor profile nonlinearly, while the total precipitation rate responds mostly monotonically. In particular, simulation Q+5% achieves the largest hail production rate while simulation Q+10% has the largest total precipitation rate. In contrast, during the second episode simulation Q-10% has the strongest vertical motion, produces the most cloud ice and snow, but has the lowest hail production. Analysis shows that increasing the initial moisture content directly increases the precipitation during the first episode, which subsequently induces a stronger, longer-lasting cold pool that limits the development of deep convection during the second episode.

  16. Determinants of duration of untreated psychosis among first-episode psychosis patients in Denmark: A nationwide register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Jansen, Jens Einar

    2018-01-01

    area), premorbid and illness-related factors (global functional level, substance misuse, and contact to police), healthcare factors (referral source and first FEP contact) and DUP. Method: The study population of 1266 patients aged 15-25. years diagnosed with FEP (ICD10 F20.0-F20.99) was drawn from...

  17. The evolution of episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  18. Episodic Specificity in Acquiring Thematic Knowledge of Novel Words from Descriptive Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meichao; Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined whether thematic relations of the novel words could be acquired via descriptive episodes, and if yes, whether it could be generalized to thematically related words in a different scenario. In Experiment 1, a lexical decision task was used where the novel words served as primes for target words in four conditions: (1) corresponding concepts of the novel words, (2) thematically related words in the same episodes as that in learning condition, (3) thematically related words in different episodes, or (4) unrelated words served as targets. Event related potentials elicited by the targets revealed that compared to the unrelated words, the corresponding concepts and thematically related words in the same episodes elicited smaller N400s with a frontal-central distribution, whereas the thematically related words in different episodes elicited an enhanced late positive component. Experiment 2 further showed a priming effect of the corresponding concepts on the thematically related words in the same episodes as well as in a different episode, indicating that the absence of a priming effect of the learned novel words on the thematically related words in different episode could not be attributed to inappropriate selection of thematically related words in the two conditions. These results indicate that only the corresponding concepts and the thematically related words in the learning episodes were successfully primed, whereas the thematic association between the novel words and the thematically related words in different scenarios could only be recognized in a late processing stage. Our findings suggest that thematic knowledge of novel words is organized via separate scenarios, which are represented in a clustered manner in the semantic network.

  19. Ethnic variations in incidence of asthma episodes in England & Wales: national study of 502,482 patients in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Hurwitz, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2005-10-21

    Recent studies have demonstrated marked international variations in the prevalence of asthma, but less is known about ethnic variations in asthma epidemiology within individual countries and in particular the impact of migration on risk of developing asthma. Recent within country comparisons have however revealed that despite originating from areas of the world with a low risk for developing asthma, South Asian and Afro-Caribbean people in the UK are significantly (3x and 2x respectively) more likely to be admitted to hospital for asthma related problems than Whites. Using data from the Fourth National Study of Morbidity Statistics in General Practice, a one-percent broadly representative prospective cohort study of consultations in general practice, we investigated ethnic variations in incident asthma consultations (defined as new or first consultations), and compared consultation rates between those born inside and outside the UK (migrant status). Logistic regression models were used to examine the combined effects of ethnicity and migration on asthma incident consultations. Results showed significantly lower new/first asthma consultation rates for Whites than for each of the ethnic minority groups studied (mean age-adjusted consultation rates per 1000 patient-years: Whites 26.4 (95%CI 26.4, 26.4); South Asians 30.4 (95%CI 30.3, 30.5); Afro-Caribbeans 35.1 (95%CI 34.9, 35.3); and Others 27.8 (27.7, 28.0). Within each of these ethnic groups, those born outside of the UK showed consistently lower rates of incident asthma consultations. Modelling the combined effects of ethnic and migrant status revealed that UK-born South Asians and Afro-Caribbeans experienced comparable risks for incident GP consultations for asthma to UK-born Whites. Non-UK born Whites however experienced reduced risks (adjusted OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.69, 0.97) whilst non-UK born South Asians experienced increased risks (adjusted OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.04, 1.70) compared to UK-born Whites. These findings

  20. Neural Dynamics Associated with Semantic and Episodic Memory for Faces: Evidence from Multiple Frequency Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zion-Golumbic, Elana; Kutas, Marta; Bentin, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Prior semantic knowledge facilitates episodic recognition memory for faces. To examine the neural manifestation of the interplay between semantic and episodic memory, we investigated neuroelectric dynamics during the creation (study) and the retrieval (test) of episodic memories for famous and nonfamous faces. Episodic memory effects were evident…

  1. Satisfaction with inpatient treatment for first-episode psychosis among different ethnic groups: a report from the UK AeSOP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Jane; Morgan, Craig; Dutta, Rina; Jones, Barry; Alemseged, Fana; Dazzan, Paola; Morgan, Kevin; Doody, Gillian; Harrison, Glynn; Leff, Julian; Jones, Peter; Murray, Robin; Fearon, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is concern about the level of satisfaction with mental healthcare among minority ethnic patients in the UK, particularly as black patients have more compulsory admissions to hospital. To determine and compare levels of satisfaction with mental healthcare between patients from different ethnic groups in a three-centre study of first-onset psychosis. Data were collected from 216 patients with first-episode psychosis and 101 caregivers from South London, Nottingham and Bristol, using the Acute Services Study Questionnaire (Patient and Relative Version) and measures of sociodemographic variables and insight. No differences were found between ethnic groups in most domains of satisfaction tested individually, including items relating to treatment by ward staff and number of domains rated as satisfactory. However, logistic regression modelling (adjusting for age, gender, social class, diagnostic category and compulsion) showed that black Caribbean patients did not believe that they were receiving the right treatment and were less satisfied with medication than white patients. Black African patients were less satisfied with non-pharmacological treatments than white patients. These findings were not explained by lack of insight or compulsory treatment. The study found that black patients were less satisfied with specific aspects of treatment, particularly medication, but were equally satisfied with nursing and social care. Understanding the reasons behind this may improve the acceptability of psychiatric care to black minority ethnic groups.

  2. Satisfaction with inpatient treatment for first-episode psychosis among different ethnic groups: A report from the UK AeSOP study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boydell, Jane

    2010-09-17

    BACKGROUND: There is concern about the level of satisfaction with mental healthcare among minority ethnic patients in the UK, particularly as black patients have more compulsory admissions to hospital. AIMS: To determine and compare levels of satisfaction with mental healthcare between patients from different ethnic groups in a three-centre study of first-onset psychosis. METHOD: Data were collected from 216 patients with first-episode psychosis and 101 caregivers from South London, Nottingham and Bristol, using the Acute Services Study Questionnaire (Patient and Relative Version) and measures of sociodemographic variables and insight. RESULTS: No differences were found between ethnic groups in most domains of satisfaction tested individually, including items relating to treatment by ward staff and number of domains rated as satisfactory. However, logistic regression modelling (adjusting for age, gender, social class, diagnostic category and compulsion) showed that black Caribbean patients did not believe that they were receiving the right treatment and were less satisfied with medication than white patients. Black African patients were less satisfied with non-pharmacological treatments than white patients. These findings were not explained by lack of insight or compulsory treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that black patients were less satisfied with specific aspects of treatment, particularly medication, but were equally satisfied with nursing and social care. Understanding the reasons behind this may improve the acceptability of psychiatric care to black minority ethnic groups.

  3. Collaborative Resilience to Episodic Shocks and Surprises: A Very Long-Term Case Study of Zanjera Irrigation in the Philippines 1979–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Yabes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This thirty-year case study uses surveys, semi-structured interviews, and content analysis to examine the adaptive capacity of Zanjera San Marcelino, an indigenous irrigation management system in the northern Philippines. This common pool resource (CPR system exists within a turbulent social-ecological system (SES characterized by episodic shocks such as large typhoons as well as novel surprises, such as national political regime change and the construction of large dams. The Zanjera nimbly responded to these challenges, although sometimes in ways that left its structure and function substantially altered. While a partial integration with the Philippine National Irrigation Agency was critical to the Zanjera’s success, this relationship required on-going improvisation and renegotiation. Over time, the Zanjera showed an increasing capacity to learn and adapt. A core contribution of this analysis is the integration of a CPR study within an SES framework to examine resilience, made possible the occurrence of a wide range of challenges to the Zanjera’s function and survival over the long period of study. Long-term analyses like this one, however rare, are particularly useful for understanding the adaptive and transformative dimensions of resilience.

  4. Episodic memory in former professional football players with a history of concussion: an event-related functional neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn H; Giovanello, Kelly S; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2013-10-15

    Previous research has demonstrated that sport-related concussions can have short-term effects on cognitive processes, but the long-term consequences are less understood and warrant more research. This study was the first to use event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine long-term differences in neural activity during memory tasks in former athletes who have sustained multiple sport-related concussions. In an event-related fMRI study, former football players reporting multiple sport-related concussions (i.e., three or more) were compared with players who reported fewer than three concussions during a memory paradigm examining item memory (i.e., memory for the particular elements of an event) and relational memory (i.e., memory for the relationships between elements). Behaviorally, we observed that concussion history did not significantly affect behavioral performance, because persons in the low and high concussion groups had equivalent performance on both memory tasks, and in addition, that concussion history was not associated with any behavioral memory measures. Despite demonstrating equivalent behavioral performance, the two groups of former players demonstrated different neural recruitment patterns during relational memory retrieval, suggesting that multiple concussions may be associated with functional inefficiencies in the relational memory network. In addition, the number of previous concussions significantly correlated with functional activity in a number of brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe and inferior parietal lobe. Our results provide important insights in understanding the long-term functional consequences of sustaining multiple sports-related concussions.

  5. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on clinical course after an episode of acute heart failure. EAHFE-COPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Javier; Tost, Josep; Miró, Òscar; Herrero, Pablo; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Pere

    2017-01-15

    To study if the coexistence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients diagnosed with acute heart failure (AHF) at the emergency department (ED) has an impact on short- and long-term outcomes. The EAHFE-COPD study included patients who attended in 34 Spanish EDs for AHF. We compared patients with AHF plus COPD with patients with AHF in whom COPD was neither diagnosed nor excluded by functional respiratory tests (FRT). Outcome analysis included all-cause mortality, prolonged hospitalization, and ED revisit. Crude results were adjusted by differences between patients with and without COPD. We included 8099 patients with AHF, 2069 having COPD (25.6%; AHF-COPD-known). Compared with AHF-COPD-unknown, AHF-COPD-known differed in 20 variables. After adjusting for differences between the two groups, AHF-COPD-known patients showed no significant differences in 30-day mortality (OR=0.89; 95% CI=0.71-1.11), prolonged hospitalization in general wards (OR=1.04; 95% CI=0.89-1.22) or SSU (OR=1.38; 95% CI=0.97-1.97), and 1-year mortality (HR: 1.02; 95% CI=0.89-1.17), but showed a higher 30-day revisit rate (OR=1.32; 95% CI=1.13-1.54). In patients attending the ED for AHF, the coexistence of COPD is only associated with an increased risk of short-term ED revisit, but not prolonged hospitalization and short- or long-term mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  7. Study of the impact of satellite data in the analysis and forecasting of a SACZ episode using G3DVar

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, H. B.; Goncalves, L.

    2013-05-01

    Earth observations from satellite have great importance and impact, in particular for operational weather and climate forecast centers in the Southern Hemisphere such as the Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies (CPTEC from its Portuguese acronym), a division of the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE from its Portuguese acronym). It is well known that such data is critical, in particular over Southern Hemisphere oceans where there is a lack of other information sources e.g. radiosonde and aircraft, where satellite data provides excellent spatial coverage with relatively frequent sampling in addition to sweeping continents, deserts, woodlands and other remote areas. Hence, studies like OSEs (Observing Systems Experiments) where we are able to test whether observational input data in an assimilation system degrades or improves analyzes and forecasts, are of great value. Furthermore OSEs applied to satellite observations are expected to show large impact due to its large amount of information compared to conventional observations. OSE also provides useful information on the efficiency of the system and this information can be used to improve the use of one or another observation system in the data assimilation process and to determine its relative importance compared to other observation systems. This is a technique where one or more observation systems are retained in the data assimilation process in order to assess the impact of the inclusion or exclusion of a particular observation on the quality of numerical weather prediction (NWP). One of the difficulties within the NWP nevertheless, is to predict the correct intensity of severe weather systems, which has great impact on the population. Over South America, an important weather system is the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), which every year during summer yelds large amounts of rainfall over a band oriented northwest-southeast, extending from the Amazon to the Brazilian

  8. Retrospective observational study of emergency department syndromic surveillance data during air pollution episodes across London and Paris in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Helen E; Morbey, Roger; Fouillet, Anne; Caserio-Schönemann, Céline; Dobney, Alec; Hughes, Thomas C; Smith, Gillian E; Elliot, Alex J

    2018-04-19

    Poor air quality (AQ) is a global public health issue and AQ events can span across countries. Using emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance from England and France, we describe changes in human health indicators during periods of particularly poor AQ in London and Paris during 2014. Using daily AQ data for 2014, we identified three periods of poor AQ affecting both London and Paris. Anonymised near real-time ED attendance syndromic surveillance data from EDs across England and France were used to monitor the health impact of poor AQ.Using the routine English syndromic surveillance detection methods, increases in selected ED syndromic indicators (asthma, difficulty breathing and myocardial ischaemia), in total and by age, were identified and compared with periods of poor AQ in each city. Retrospective Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests were used to identify significant increases in ED attendance data on days with (and up to 3 days following) poor AQ. Almost 1.5 million ED attendances were recorded during the study period (27 February 2014 to 1 October 2014). Significant increases in ED attendances for asthma were identified around periods of poor AQ in both cities, especially in children (aged 0-14 years). Some variation was seen in Paris with a rapid increase during the first AQ period in asthma attendances among children (aged 0-14 years), whereas during the second period the increase was greater in adults. This work demonstrates the public health value of syndromic surveillance during air pollution incidents. There is potential for further cross-border harmonisation to provide Europe-wide early alerting to health impacts and improve future public health messaging to healthcare services to provide warning of increases in demand. © Crown copyright 2018. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office/Queen’s Printer for Scotland and Public Health England.

  9. Verbal episodic memory in young hypothyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatsal Priyadarshi Pandey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypothyroidism affects cognitive functions especially memory. However, most of the previous studies have generally evaluated older hypothyroid patients and sample size of these studies varied in terms of age range. Aims: To see whether hypothyroidism affects memory in young patients. Settings and Design: The sample consisted of 11 hypothyroid patients with an age of 18–49 and 8 healthy controls matched on age and education. Subjects and Methods: Verbal episodic memory was assessed using Hindi adaptation of Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Statistical Analysis Used: An independent t-test was used to see the difference between mean performance of the patient group and healthy control on memory measures. Results: Results indicated nonsignificant difference between verbal episodic memory of patient group and healthy controls. Conclusions: On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that hypothyroidism may not affect younger patients in terms of episodic verbal memory the same way as it does in the older patients.

  10. Relationship between neurocognition and functional recovery in first-episode schizophrenia: Results from the second year of the Oslo multi-follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgalsbøen, Anne-Kari; Mohn, Christine; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2015-06-30

    Lack of control of confounding variables, high attrition rate, and too few neurocognitive domains completed at each assessment point are some of the limitations identified in studies of the relationship between cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia. In the ongoing Oslo multi-follow-up study 28 first episode schizophrenia patients and a pairwise matched control group (N=28) are assessed with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), a clinical interview, an inventory on social and role functioning and criteria of remission and recovery at several follow-up points. The current paper describes the rate of remission and full recovery, and investigates the relationship between neurocognition and functional outcome. At 2-year follow-up, 80.0% of the patients were in remission and 16.0% of them fulfilled the criteria for full recovery. The attrition rate was very low. In the follow-up period, there was a statistically significant decline in Verbal Learning and a significant improvement on Reasoning/Problem Solving and Social Cognition in the schizophrenia group, but not in the control group. This indicates a differentiated neurocognitive course. In the schizophrenia group, Attention/Vigilance and years of education at baseline were significant predictors of social and role functioning 2 years later. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cannabis Use Is Associated With Increased Psychotic Symptoms and Poorer Psychosocial Functioning in First-Episode Psychosis: A Report From the UK National EDEN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Jennifer L; Birchwood, Max; Copello, Alex; Everard, Linda; Jones, Peter B; Fowler, David; Amos, Tim; Freemantle, Nick; Sharma, Vimal; Marshall, Max; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-05-01

    The use of cannabis during the early stage of psychosis has been linked with increased psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to examine the use of cannabis in the 12 months following a first-episode of psychosis (FEP) and the link with symptomatic course and outcome over 1 year post psychosis onset. One thousand twenty-seven FEP patients were recruited upon inception to specialized early intervention services (EIS) for psychosis in the United Kingdom. Participants completed assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The results indicate that the use of cannabis was significantly associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms, mania, depression and poorer psychosocial functioning. Continued use of cannabis following the FEP was associated with poorer outcome at 1 year for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, negative psychotic symptoms, depression and psychosocial functioning, an effect not explained by age, gender, duration of untreated psychosis, age of psychosis onset, ethnicity or other substance use. This is the largest cohort study of FEP patients receiving care within EIS. Cannabis use, particularly "continued use," was associated with poorer symptomatic and functional outcome during the FEP. The results highlight the need for effective and early intervention for cannabis use in FEP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Comparison between neck pain disability and cervical range of motion in patients with episodic and chronic migraine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gabriela F; Chaves, Thais C; Gonçalves, Maria C; Florencio, Lidiane L; Braz, Carolina A; Dach, Fabíola; Fernández de Las Peñas, Cesar; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck pain-related disability and cervical range of motion (CROM) in patients with episodic migraine (EM) and chronic migraine (CM) and to examine the correlation of both outcomes. This cross-sectional study consisted of 91 patients with EM and 34 with CM. Cervical range of motion was measured with the CROM device, and pain during the cervical movement was recorded. Self-reported disability related to neck pain was assessed with the Neck Disability Index. Patients with CM showed higher Neck Disability Index scores and more moderate and severe disability (P = .01). Severe disability as a result of neck pain was associated with 7.6-fold risk of developing CM (P = .003). No significant differences in CROM were identified between groups. Moderate negative correlations between CROM and disability were found for 4 motions within the CM group (-0.60 pain evoked during CROM in both groups (0.34 pain was highly prevalent in patients with migraine. Neck pain-related disability increased with increased frequency of the migraine attacks and was associated with the risk of migraine chronicity. The correlation between CROM and neck pain disability was more evident in patients with CM and in patients with pain during cervical movement. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Service user and carer experiences of seeking help for a first episode of psychosis: a UK qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raine Rosalind

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP is associated with poor outcomes and low quality of life at first contact with mental health services. However, long DUP is common. In order to inform initiatives to reduce DUP, we investigated service users' and carers' experiences of the onset of psychosis and help-seeking in two multicultural, inner London boroughs and the roles of participants' social networks in their pathways to care. Method In-depth interviews were conducted with service users and carers from an early intervention service in North London, purposively sampled to achieve diversity in sociodemographic characteristics and DUP and to include service users in contact with community organisations during illness onset. Interviews covered respondents' understanding of and reaction to the onset of psychosis, their help-seeking attempts and the reactions of social networks and health services. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted. Results Multiple barriers to prompt treatment included not attributing problems to psychosis, worries about the stigma of mental illness and service contact, not knowing where to get help and unhelpful service responses. Help was often not sought until crisis point, despite considerable prior distress. The person experiencing symptoms was often the last to recognise them as mental illness. In an urban UK setting, where involved, workers in non-health community organisations were frequently willing to assist help-seeking but often lacked skills, time or knowledge to do so. Conclusion Even modest periods of untreated psychosis cause distress and disruption to individuals and their families. Early intervention services should prioritise early detection. Initiatives aimed at reducing DUP may succeed not by promoting swift service response alone, but also by targeting delays in initial help-seeking. Our study suggests that strategies for doing this may include addressing the

  14. Episodic-like memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Stephanie J; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2006-07-11

    A fundamental question in comparative cognition is whether animals remember unique, personal past experiences. It has long been argued that memories for specific events (referred to as episodic memory) are unique to humans. Recently, considerable evidence has accumulated to show that food-storing birds possess critical behavioral elements of episodic memory, referred to as episodic-like memory in acknowledgment of the fact that behavioral criteria do not assess subjective experiences. Here we show that rats have a detailed representation of remembered events and meet behavioral criteria for episodic-like memory. We provided rats with access to locations baited with distinctive (e.g., grape and raspberry) or nondistinctive (regular chow) flavors. Locations with a distinctive flavor replenished after a long but not a short delay, and locations with the nondistinctive flavor never replenished. One distinctive flavor was devalued after encoding its location by prefeeding that flavor (satiation) or by pairing it with lithium chloride (acquired taste aversion), while the other distinctive flavor was not devalued. The rats selectively decreased revisits to the devalued distinctive flavor but not to the nondevalued distinctive flavor. The present studies demonstrate that rats selectively encode the content of episodic-like memories.

  15. A comparative study of the effectiveness of "Star Show" vs. "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" lessons in a middle school Starlab setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platco, Nicholas L.., Jr.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of "Star Show" and the "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" (POP) instructional programs in a middle school Starlab setting. The Star Show is a planetarium program that relies heavily on an audiovisual/lecture format to impart information, while the POP method of instruction is an inquiry, activity-based approach to teaching astronomy. All Star Show and POP lessons were conducted in a Starlab planetarium. This study examined the effectiveness of the two methods on the attainment of astronomy knowledge, changes in student attitudes toward astronomy, retention of knowledge, and gender differences. A pilot study (N = 69) was conducted at a middle school near King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. The main study (N = 295) was conducted at a middle school near Reading, Pennsylvania. All students were pretested and posttested in both studies. The testing instruments included a 60-question paper-and-pencil content test and a 22-item Likert-style science attitude test. The content test was judged to be valid and reliable by a panel of science educators. The attitude test is a field-tested attitude survey developed by Michael Zeilik. The topics included in the Star Show and POP lessons were seasons, moon phases, eclipses, stars, and constellations. The Star Show programs used in this study are professionally prepared planetarium programs from Jeff Bowen Productions. Several planetarium educators who have been involved with planetarium training workshops throughout the United States developed the POP lessons used in this study. The Star Show was clearly the more effective method for improving student knowledge in both the pilot and main studies. Both methods were equally effective for improving student attitudes toward astronomy. The POP method was the more effective method of instruction when retention of knowledge was examined four weeks after the treatments ended. Gender did not have any significant effect on this study

  16. Recovery from episodes during the course of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the duration of treated episodes changes during the course of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder. METHOD: The rate of recovery from successive hospitalized episodes was estimated with survival analyses in a case-register study...... including all hospital admissions with primary affective disorder in Denmark during the period 1971-1993. RESULTS: A total of 9174 patients with recurrent episodes were followed from their first admission. The rate of recovery from hospitalized episodes did not change with the number of episodes in unipolar...... or bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the rate of recovery was constant across episodes, regardless of the combination of age, gender and type of disorder. Initially in the course of the illness, the rate was a little faster for bipolar than for unipolar patients, but later in the course of the illness the rate...

  17. Participating in and delivering the ATEAM trial (Alexander technique lessons, exercise, and massage) interventions for chronic back pain: A qualitative study of professional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Angela; Shaw, Alison; Yardley, Lucy; Little, Paul; Sharp, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    To outline professionals' experiences of participation, perceived benefits and acceptability of the interventions delivered in the ATEAM trial (Alexander technique lessons, exercise, and massage), for patients with chronic or recurrent back pain. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted with a purposeful sample of twenty professionals (general practitioners (GPs), nurses, Alexander technique teachers, and massage therapists). Data were recorded, transcribed, and analysed thematically using the constant comparison method. Evidence of effectiveness GPs wanted an evidence base for the interventions, whilst nurses, Alexander technique teachers and massage therapists perceived patient reports of benefit as evidence. Professionals' perception of the acceptability of the intervention: professional perspectives differed, with GPs and nurses viewing the structured nature of exercise prescription and Alexander technique lessons as more beneficial and acceptable than massage in alleviating patients' back pain. Economic cost: the cost to patients pursuing Alexander technique lessons and massage was perceived to be a barrier outside the trial. Inter-professional communication: there was little communication between the professionals groups within the trial. Valuable insights have been gained into the perceived benefits and acceptability of exercise, Alexander technique lessons and massage as interventions for chronic back pain. Lessons in the Alexander technique with or without exercise, was perceived as more beneficial and acceptable than massage by professionals who participated and delivered the ATEAM trial interventions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  19. Attentional episodes in visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks

  20. Cost and predictors of lost productive time in chronic migraine and episodic migraine: results from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Daniel; Manack, Aubrey N; Reed, Michael L; Buse, Dawn C; Varon, Sepideh F; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the cost differences and predictors of lost productive time (LPT) in persons with chronic migraine (CM) and episodic migraine (EM). The American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) study is a US national longitudinal survey of severe headache. Cost estimates were obtained via U.S. Census income data. To elucidate the unique predictors of LPT, the optimal distribution for modeling was determined. Zero inflation models for LPT were predicted from sociodemographics, headache features, characteristics and disability, medication use, and depression. The interaction between headache status and age was the primary effect of interest. The eligible sample included 6329 persons with EM and 374 persons with CM. Men with CM aged 45 to 54 years cost employers nearly $200 per week more than do their EM counterparts. Likewise, for women, costs were higher for CM, with the cost differential between EM and CM being $90 per week. After comprehensive adjustment, increases in LPT with age were significantly higher in CM than in EM (rate ratio 1.03; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.05). When age was recoded to a decade, metric rates of LPT increased 25% more per decade for CM than for EM (rate ratio 1.25; 95% confidence interval 1.004-1.5). LPT is more costly and increases more rapidly for those with CM than for those with EM as age increases. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnosis, symptoms, frequency and mortality of 260 patients with urea cycle disorders from a 21-year, multicentre study of acute hyperammonaemic episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summar, Marshall L; Dobbelaere, Dries; Brusilow, Saul; Lee, Brendan

    2008-10-01

    A large longitudinal interventional study of patients with a urea cycle disorder (UCD) in hyperammonaemic crisis was undertaken to amass a significant body of data on their presenting symptoms and survival. Between 1982 and 2003, as part of the FDA approval process, data were collected on patients receiving an intravenous combination of nitrogen scavenging drugs (Ammonul sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate (10%, 10%)) for the treatment of hyperammonaemic crises caused by urea cycle disorders. A final diagnosis of a UCD was made for 260 patients, representing 975 episodes of hospitalization. Only 34% of these patients presented within the first 30 days of life and had a mortality rate of 32%. The most common presenting symptoms were neurological (80%), or gastrointestinal (33%). This cohort is the largest collection of patients reported for these diseases and the first large cohort in the United States. Surprisingly, the majority (66%) of patients with heritable causes of hyperammonaemia present beyond the neonatal period (>30 days). Patients with late-onset presenting disorders exhibited prolonged survival compared to the neonatal-presenting group.

  2. The impact of substance use at psychosis onset on First Episode Psychosis course: results from a 1 year follow-up study in Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarricone, Ilaria; Boydell, Jane; Panigada, Serena; Allegri, Fabio; Marcacci, Thomas; Minenna, Maria Gabriella; Kokona, Arnisa; Triolo, Federico; Storbini, Viviana; Michetti, Rossella; Morgan, Craig; Di Forti, Marta; Murray, Robin M; Berardi, Domenico

    2014-03-01

    Substance abuse is a well established risk factor for First-Episode Psychosis (FEP), but its influence on FEP course is less clear. Starting from our baseline observation that substance users were younger than non-users at the psychosis onset, we hypothesized that substance use at baseline could be an independent risk factor for a worse clinical course. An incidence cohort of patients with FEP collected in an 8year period (2002-2009) at the Bologna West Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) was assessed at baseline and at 12month follow-up. Drop-out, hospitalizations and service utilization were used as clinical outcomes. Most of the patients were still in contact with CMHC at 12month follow up. Substance users had a significantly higher rate of hospitalizations during the follow-up after adjusting for age, gender and other potential confounders (OR 5.84, 95% CI 2.44-13.97, p≤0.001). This study adds to previous evidence showing the independent effect of substance use on FEP course. The identification of a "potentially modifiable" environmental predictor of the course of the illness such as substance use at psychosis onset allows us to envisage the possibility of ameliorating the course of the illness by managing this factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Social functioning in Chinese college students with and without schizotypal personality traits: an exploratory study of the Chinese version of the First Episode Social Functioning Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The First Episode Social Functioning Scale (FESFS was designed to measure social functioning of young individuals with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to validate a Chinese version of the FESFS in a sample of young Chinese adults. METHOD: The FESFS was translated to Chinese prior to being administered to 1576 college students. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the scale were examined. RESULTS: Two items were deleted after item analysis and the internal consistency of the whole scale was .89. A six-factor structure was derived by exploratory factor analysis. The factors were interpersonal, family and friends, school, living skills, intimacy, and balance. Estimates of the structural equation model supported this structure, with Goodness of Fit Chi-Square χ(2 = 1097.53 (p<0.0001, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.058, and the comparative fit index (CFI = 0.93. Scale validity was supported by significant correlations between social functioning factors scores and schizophrenia personality questionnaire (SPQ scores. Individuals with schizotypal personality features presented poorer social functioning than those without schizotypal personality features. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese revised version of the FESFS was found to have good psychometric properties and could be used in the future to examine social functioning in Chinese college students.

  4. The role of premorbid personality and social cognition in suicidal behaviour in first-episode psychosis: A one-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Rivero, Manuel; Lopez-Moriñigo, J D; Barrigón, M L; Perona-Garcelán, S; Jimenez-Casado, C; David, A S; Obiols-Llandrich, J E; Ruiz-Veguilla, M

    2017-10-01

    High suicide attempt (SA) rates have been reported in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, particularly during the first year after the illness onset. Despite previous studies establishing several risk factors for suicidal behaviour in FEP, premorbid personality and social cognition have not been sufficiently investigated to date. To test whether personality traits and social cognition are associated with SAs in FEP over a 12-month follow-up. Sixty-five FEP patients were evaluated at first contact with mental health services. The presence of SAs was recorded at six and twelve months after first presentation. Bivariate and multivariate analyses explored the influence of a range of sociodemographic and clinical variables, including premorbid personality and social cognition-related Theory of Mind (ToM) measures, on SAs. SAs were associated with greater severity of symptoms at first hospitalization with psychotic symptoms (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.25-3.82), schizoid personality traits (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.02-2.57) and impairment in a first-order false belief task (OR = 4.26, 95% CI = 1.05-17.31) in the multivariate models. Symptom severity at illness onset, premorbid schizoid personality traits and ToM impairment emerged as predictors of SA in this FEP sample, which, if replicated, may be useful in identifying high-risk groups and implementing more targeted suicide prevention programs in FEP. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Using mental visual imagery to improve autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients: A randomised-controlled trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Alexandra; Blanc, Frédéric; De Seze, Jérôme; Manning, Liliann

    2015-01-01

    The co-occurrence of autobiographical memory (AM) and episodic future thinking (EFT) impairment has been documented in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients. On these bases, we aimed at probing the efficacy of a mental visual imagery (MVI)-based facilitation programme on AM and EFT functioning in the context of a randomised-controlled trial study in RR-MS patients. Using the Autobiographical Interview (AI), 40 patients presenting with an AM/EFT impairment were randomly assigned in three groups: (i) the experimental (n = 17), who followed the MVI programme, (ii) the verbal control (n = 10), who followed a sham verbal programme, and (iii) the stability groups (n = 13), who underwent the AM/EFT test twice, with no intervention in between. AI's second assessment scores showed a significant improvement of AM and EFT performance only for the experimental group, with a long-term robustness of treatment benefits. The control and stability groups' results ruled out nursing and test learning effects as explanations of AM/EFT improvement. These benefits were corroborated by the patients' comments, which indicated an effective MVI strategy transfer to daily life. Our results suggest that the MVI programme tackles a common cognitive process of scene construction present in AM and EFT.

  6. Negative symptom subgroups have different effects on the clinical course of schizophrenia after the first episode: a 24-month follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, C; Üçok, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure of negative symptoms in first-episode schizophrenia (FES), and to examine the relationship of these factors with clinical course and functioning of patients during the two-year follow up. We assessed 174 drug-naïve patients with FES using Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Expanded (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and a cognitive battery at admission. The scales were repeated monthly during follow up. We recorded the patients' functioning levels, remission, and work status after 12 and 24 months. A two-factor structure was found at the baseline, whereas one factor was found after 12 and 24 months. Expressive deficit (ED) factor consisted of alogia and blunted affect, and motivation-pleasure deficit (MPD) factor consisted of avolition and anhedonia. ED factor was related to earlier onset and remission, and it was negatively correlated with duration of education and cognitive test scores. MPD factor was related to duration of untreated psychosis, family history of schizophrenia, and work status, and it appeared as the only independent variable that contributed to the baseline GAF score in linear regression analysis. Our findings suggest that the factors have different aetiologies and impacts on the clinical course of schizophrenia and functioning after FES. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Intravenous dipyrone for the acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Bigal

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute headaches are responsible for a significant percentage of the case load at primary care units and emergency rooms in Brazil. Dipyrone (metamizol is easily available in these settings, being the most frequently used drug. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to assess the effect of dipyrone in the acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache. Sixty patients were randomized to receive placebo (intravenous injection of 10 ml saline or 1 g dipyrone in 10 ml saline. We used seven parameters of analgesic evaluation. The patients receiving dipyrone showed a statistically significant improvement (P<0.05 of pain compared to placebo up to 30 min after drug administration. The therapeutic gain was 30% in 30 min and 40% in 60 min. The number of patients needed to be treated for at least one to have benefit was 3.3 in 30 min and 2.2 in 60 min. There were statistically significant reductions in the recurrence (dipyrone = 25%, placebo = 50% and use of rescue medication (dipyrone = 20%, placebo = 47.6% for the dipyrone group. Intravenous dipyrone is an effective drug for the relief of pain in tension-type headache and its use is justified in the emergency room setting.

  8. Executive function, episodic memory, and Medicare expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Alex C; Austin, Andrea M