WorldWideScience

Sample records for lesson preparation activities

  1. Lessons learned in streamlining the preparation of SNM standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.; Johnson, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    Improved safeguard measurements have produced a demand for greater quantities of reliable SNM solution standards. At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), the demand for these standards has been met by several innovations to improve the productivity and reliability of standards preparations. With the use of computer controlled balance, large batches of SNM stock solutions are prepared on a gravimetric basis. Accurately dispensed quantities of the stock solution are weighed and stored in bottles. When needed, they are quantitatively transferred to tared containers, matrix adjusted to target concentrations, weighed, and measured for density at 25 0 C. Concentrations of SNM are calculated both gravimetrically and volumetrically. Calculated values are confirmed analytically before the standards are used in measurement control program (MCP) activities. The lessons learned include: MCP goals include error identification and management. Strategy modifications are required to improve error management. Administrative controls can minimize certain types of errors. Automation can eliminate redundancy and streamline preparations. Prudence and simplicity enhance automation success. The effort expended to increase productivity has increased the reliability of standards and provided better documentation for quality assurance

  2. ICT and Teachers' Performance in Terms of Lesson Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a report of a study carried out to examine how information and Communication Technology (ICT) and teachers' performance in terms of lesson preparation and delivery in primary schools in Ogoja Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of the study, one research question was ...

  3. Physically active academic lessons in elementary children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, John B; Jowers, Esbelle M

    2011-06-01

    Although schools are an ideal location to conduct interventions that target children, the emphasis on standardized testing makes it difficult to implement interventions that do not directly support academic instruction. In response, physically active academic lessons have been developed as a strategy to increase physical activity while also addressing core educational goals. Texas I-CAN! is one incarnation of this approach. We will review the on-going research on the impact of these active lessons on: teacher implementation, child step count, child attention control, and academic performance. The collected studies support the impact of physically active academic lessons on each area of interest. If these data can be replicated, it suggests that teachers might find these lessons of benefit to their primary role as educators, which should ease dissemination of these and other physically active lessons in elementary schools. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mammalian hibernation: lessons for organ preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C

    2000-01-01

    The adaptations to low environmental temperatures exhibited in mammalian hibernation are many and varied, and involve molecular and cellular mechanisms as well as the systematic physiology of the whole organism. Natural torpidity is characterised by a profound reduction in body temperature and other functions lasting from a few hours to several weeks. Controlled reduction of heart rate, respiration and oxygen consumption is followed by the fall in body temperature. However, thermoregulation persists such that a decrease in ambient temperature below dangerous levels typically triggers arousal, and shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis from brown fat provide the heat to restore body temperature to normal levels. Many of the cellular mechanisms for survival are similar to those brought into play during medium-term storage of organs destined for transplantation. For example maintenance of ionic regulation and membrane fluxes is fundamental to cell survival and function at low body temperatures. Differences between hibernating and non-hibernating species are marked by differences in Na+/K+ transport and Ca++pumps. These in turn are probably associated with alterations in the lipoproteins of the plasma membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane. We have accordingly conducted a series of pilot studies in captured Richardson's ground squirrels kept in laboratory conditions as a model for hypothermic organ preservation. Tissue function was compared during the summer (non-hibernating season) with that in the winter when the animals could be: (i) in deep hibernation in a cold chamber at 4 degree C; (ii) maintained in an ambient temperature of 4 degree C but active and awake; or (iii) active at an ambient temperature of 22 degree C. The studies involved: whole animal monitoring of standard physiological parameters; whole organ (kidney) storage and transplantation for viability assessment; storage and functional assessment on an ex vivo test circuit with capacity for

  5. The Activity Structure of Lesson Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robert B.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    1987-01-01

    Approaches classroom instruction and teacher effectiveness by conceptualizing the physical milieu shaping teacher-student interactions. Lessons are viewed as a series of segments with three components (purpose, activity format, and assignment) that help characterize the instructional environment. Scripts are suggested to help regulate activity…

  6. Lessons Learned in Preparation and Review of Safety Analysis Report of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2010-01-01

    PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) is the one and only research reactor in Malaysia. Since the day it was supplied by General Atomic (GA) in 1983, periodic safety reviews were carried out but not published in the form of a complete SAR. In fact, the original SAR (SAR 1983) document was provided by GA as soon as GA was selected as the supplier of RTP. The focus of this report is on the lessons learned from the preparation of SAR. The lessons learned were to address the preparation and regulatory review of the second SAR (SAR 2006). Realizing that safety is important as RTP is aging, the experiences and lessons learned from SAR development and updating processes are of great value for all parties involved. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and organize the lessons learned and suggest the best practice for the next SAR development both in preparation and regulatory review

  7. Lessons Learned in Preparation and Review of Safety Analysis Report of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskin, Mazleha [Korea Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) is the one and only research reactor in Malaysia. Since the day it was supplied by General Atomic (GA) in 1983, periodic safety reviews were carried out but not published in the form of a complete SAR. In fact, the original SAR (SAR 1983) document was provided by GA as soon as GA was selected as the supplier of RTP. The focus of this report is on the lessons learned from the preparation of SAR. The lessons learned were to address the preparation and regulatory review of the second SAR (SAR 2006). Realizing that safety is important as RTP is aging, the experiences and lessons learned from SAR development and updating processes are of great value for all parties involved. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and organize the lessons learned and suggest the best practice for the next SAR development both in preparation and regulatory review

  8. Improving the Mathematics Preparation of Elementary Teachers, One Lesson at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Dawn; Hiebert, James

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a model for systematically improving the mathematics preparation of elementary teachers, one lesson at a time. We begin by identifying a serious obstacle for teacher educators: the absence of mechanisms for developing a shareable knowledge base for teacher preparation. We propose our model as a way to address this…

  9. Preparing Future Teacher Leaders: Lessons from Exemplary School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that teachers have an opportunity to take on leadership roles in technology-rich schools and districts. Based on data collected during a year-long project to investigate award-winning schools and districts, we used observations, interviews and focus groups, and document analysis to glean lessons learned from leaders and…

  10. Microteaching Lesson Study: An Approach to Prepare Teacher Candidates to Teach Science through Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, George; Xu, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Inquiry-based teaching has become the most recommended approach in science education for a few decades; however, it is not a common practice yet in k-12 school classrooms. In order to prepare future teachers to teach science through inquiry, a Microteaching Lesson Study (MLS) approach was employed in our science methods courses. Instead of asking…

  11. Effects of Teacher Preparation Courses: Do Graduates Use What They Learned to Plan Mathematics Lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Anne K.; Hiebert, James

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the content pre-service teachers studied in elementary teacher preparation mathematics courses was related to their performance on a mathematics lesson planning task 2 and 3 years after graduation. The relevant mathematics knowledge was studied when the teachers were freshmen, 5 to 6 years earlier. Results showed that when…

  12. Lesson Learned in Preparation for Decommissioning of Three Canadian Prototype Power Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickerd, Meggan; Kenny, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Lesson learned by Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL)(former AECL) in preparation for decommissioning of three Prototype Reactors is a result of various strategies used for each site. CNL is responsible for the eventual decommissioning of three prototype power reactors; Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD), Gentilly-1 and Douglas Point. Each of the Canadian prototype power reactor sites shutdown using different strategies. Depending on the site location, configuration, and intended designation of the respective sites, the individual facility systems (ventilation, electrical system, fire detection etc.) were also shut down using different strategies and operating objectives. As CNL embarks on decommissioning the first Canadian prototype reactor, this paper will reflect on the lessons learned over the past thirty years and what CNL is adjusting in the decommissioning strategy to prepare better plans for the future. The Nuclear Power Demonstration Nuclear Generating Station (NPDNGS) was constructed in late 1950's and operated from 1962 to 1987 when it was permanently shutdown after exceeding its operational goals. The NPD reactor was the first Canadian nuclear power reactor and it consisted of a single 20 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor located on a single facility site in Rolphton, Ontario. The NPD facility was shutdown to a 'Cold, Dark and Quiet' state and is maintained using an unmanned strategy by managing the site remotely with active fire detection and security surveillance systems, minimal electrical supply and an active ventilation system which is operated periodically to allow for intermittent inspections. The Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station (DPNGS) was constructed in the early 1960's and operated from 1968 to 1984 when it was permanently shutdown. It consisted of a 200 MW prototype Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor and is embedded on the Bruce Power site near Kincardine, Ontario. The Douglas Point site is maintained in a

  13. Preparation of very pure active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloot, H.A. van der; Hoede, D.; Zonderhuis, J.; Meijer, C.

    1980-02-01

    The preparation of very pure active carbon is described. Starting from polyvinylidene chloride active carbon is prepared by carbonization in a nitrogen atmosphere, grinding, sieving and activation of the powder fraction with CO 2 at 950 0 to approximately 50% burn-off. The concentrations of trace and major elements are reduced to the ppb and ppm level, respectively. In the present set-up 100 g of carbon grains and approximately 50 g of active carbon powder can be produced weekly

  14. Preparation for YMP backfill activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conca, J.

    1998-01-01

    Yucca Mountain activities for FY 1999 are anticipated to require specific information on the chemical and physical properties of the candidate getter materials and other backfill components necessary for defensible modeling of the source term, and possible controlling of the source term. There should be three tasks to this activity: at the end of this report is a draft test plan reflecting the present funding anticipated, the other tasks may be added as funding becomes available. (Task 1) The immobilization capacity of the getter materials for specific radionuclides. This task will primarily include column sorption tests of getter materials with solutions spiked with radionuclides. The getter materials will include Apatite II, MgO (with NaPO 4 plus Ba,SrCO 3 and soluble sulfate, with and without Apatite II), Gibbsite/Boehmite, and Hematite. Radionuclides will include Pu, U, Np, Am, Ra, Tc, and Th. Experiments will be performed under various anticipated repository conditions and with anticipated solution compositions. Occasional batch tests will be used to obtain specific K d s and other thermodynamic data. Solid and liquid analyses will be needed for characterization of the effluent concentrations from the columns to assess performance and for use in geochemical modeling. (Task 2) Intrinsic stability of the getter materials under repository conditions. The use of any candidate getter material will depend upon its anticipated lifetime in the backfill environment. Literature search for any existing data will be performed and augmented by solubility experiments on the getter materials. This is especially important for the reactive materials such as MgO and the soluble sulfates and phosphates that may be a limited lifetime in the backfill. It is also necessary to decide how much getter material to emplace. (Task 3) Diffusion of radionuclides across a Richards Barrier. The Richards Barrier, if emplaced, will act as a hydraulic diversion barrier for the diversion of

  15. Disaster Preparation and Recovery: Lessons from Research on Resilience in Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann S. Masten

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Four decades of theory and research on resilience in human development have yielded informative lessons for planning disaster response and recovery. In developmental theory, resilience following disaster could take multiple forms, including stress resistance, recovery, and positive transformation. Empirical findings suggest that fundamental adaptive systems play a key role in the resilience of young people facing diverse threats, including attachment, agency, intelligence, behavior regulation systems, and social interactions with family, peers, school, and community systems. Although human resilience research emphasizes the adaptive well-being of particular individuals, there are striking parallels in resilience theory across the developmental and ecological sciences. Preparing societies for major disasters calls for the integration of human research on resilience with the theory and knowledge gained from other disciplines concerned with resilience in complex, dynamic systems, and particularly those systems that interact with human individuals as disaster unfolds.

  16. Preparation and characterisation of activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badri bin Muhammad; Karen binti Badri; Mohd Zobir bin Hussein; Zulkarnain bin Zainal; W.M. Daud bin W Yunus; Ramli bin Ibrahim

    1994-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from Agricultural wastes, such as coconut shell, Palm oil Shell and mangrove trunk by destructive distillation under vakuum. Chemical and Physical properties of the activated carbon were studied and some potentially useful application in the fields of chemistry was also carried out

  17. Lessons learnt from the capacity building activities for Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has being providing much of cooperative activities for establishing the nuclear regulatory infrastructure to the several Asian countries like China, Indonesia, Thailand and particularly Vietnam which either started extended construction of nuclear power stations or are launching on new nuclear power programs. Our cooperation to these countries covers several different types like long-term training course, issue-specific training course and periodic safety seminar etc. Through these activities what we have learnt is that to help other countries is not an easy business. To fully recognize what are actually requested by the recipients' countries is not at all an easy business either. This paper will illustrate our experiences to have worked on the cooperative activities putting the emphasis on the lessons learnt through these experiences. (author)

  18. A Lesson about the Circular Flow. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfried, Janet

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate grade level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subjects; instructional objectives; time…

  19. Gross Domestic Pizza. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiene, Irena; Venger, Anatoly; MacDonald, Rich; Davis, Debbie

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate age level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subject areas; instructional objectives; time…

  20. Assessment of Understanding: Student Teachers' Preparation, Implementation and Reflection of a Lesson Plan for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhler, Martin Vogt

    2017-05-01

    Research finds that student teachers often fail to make observable instructional goals, without which a secure bridge between instruction and assessment is precluded. This is one reason that recent reports state that teacher education needs to become better at helping student teachers to develop their thinking about and skills in assessing pupils' learning. Currently in Europe, the Lesson Study method and the Content Representation tool, which both have a specific focus on assessment, have started to address this problem. This article describes and discusses an intervention in which Lesson Study was used in combination with Content Representation in student teachers' field practice. Empirical materials from one group of student teachers were analyzed to illustrate how the student teachers worked with assessment during the planning of a lesson, how they implemented it in a research lesson, and how they used the gathered observations to make claims about assessment aims. The findings suggest that the student teachers placed greater emphasis on assessment through the intervention. However, it is also found that more attention should have been dedicated to the planning phase and that the group did not manage to keep a research focus throughout the Lesson Study process. This suggests that it properly would be beneficial with several planning sessions prior to the research lesson, as well as having an expert teacher leading the Lesson Study.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, A. R.; Ibrahim, A. H.; Zulkepli, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    Activated alumina is a high surface area and highly porous form of aluminum oxide that can be employed for contaminant species adsorb from ether gases or liquids without changing its form. The research in getting this material has generated huge interested. Thus, this paper presented preparation of activated alumina from chemical process. Pure aluminum (99.9% pure) reacted at room temperature with an aqueous NaOH in a reactor to produce a solution of sodium aluminate (NaAlO2). This solution was passed through filter paper and the clear filtrate was neutralized with H2SO4, to pH 6, 7 or 8, resulting in the precipitation of a white gel, Al(OH)3·XH2O. The washed gel for sulfate ions were dried at 80 °C for 6 h, a 60 mesh sieve was to separate and sort them into different sizes. The samples were then calcined (burn) for 3h in a muffle furnace, in air, at a heating rate of 2 °C min-1. The prepared activated alumina was further characterized for better understanding of its physical properties in order to predict its chemical mechanism.

  2. Lessons learned from recent geomagnetic disturbance model validation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Welling, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    Due to concerns pertaining to geomagnetically induced current impact on ground-based infrastructure, there has been significantly elevated interest in applying models for local geomagnetic disturbance or "delta-B" predictions. Correspondingly there has been elevated need for testing the quality of the delta-B predictions generated by the modern empirical and physics-based models. To address this need, community-wide activities were launched under the GEM Challenge framework and one culmination of the activities was the validation and selection of models that were transitioned into operations at NOAA SWPC. The community-wide delta-B action is continued under the CCMC-facilitated International Forum for Space Weather Capabilities Assessment and its "Ground Magnetic Perturbations: dBdt, delta-B, GICs, FACs" working group. The new delta-B working group builds on the past experiences and expands the collaborations to cover the entire international space weather community. In this paper, we discuss the key lessons learned from the past delta-B validation exercises and lay out the path forward for building on those experience under the new delta-B working group.

  3. Preparing for the Worst: Psychological Excellence of First Responders - A Katrina Lessons Learned Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seong, Younho; Springs, Sherry; Chung, Yongchul; Avery-Epps, Regina

    2008-01-01

    ... formidable disaster. In fact, there have been several official lessons learned reports and the findings and recommendations from these reports of the response to Hurricane Katrina have been addressed...

  4. KINAC/INSA International Training Activities and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Chul

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to strengthen the coordination of the nuclear security training and support centers, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established the International Network for Nuclear Security Training and Support Centres (NSSC Network) in February 2012. In February 2013, NSSC Network members from China, Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK) established the 'Asia Regional Network' under the auspices of the NSSC Network to enhance regional collaboration to harmonize activities of the regional CoEs to provide effective support on nuclear security. Japan opened its CoE, Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) in February 2011. The Chinese CoE, so called State Nuclear Security Technology Center (SNSTC), is expected to open in March 2016. As one of ROK's national commitments at the 2010 NSS, the KINAC/INSA was established in 2014 in order to share ROK's expertise and support the Summit's mission. International training activities of the KINAC/INSA for two years have been introduced and the lessons learned from those activities have been identified. While the KINAC/INSA as the ROK's CoE has begun on the right foot, it still remains challenging to achieve real excellence in training. Such international training efforts of the KINAC/INSA will eventually contribute to the ROK acknowledged as a global leader in the area of nuclear nonproliferation and security and a nuclear supplier fulfilling responsibility on global nuclear nonproliferation and security regime

  5. KINAC/INSA International Training Activities and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In an effort to strengthen the coordination of the nuclear security training and support centers, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established the International Network for Nuclear Security Training and Support Centres (NSSC Network) in February 2012. In February 2013, NSSC Network members from China, Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK) established the 'Asia Regional Network' under the auspices of the NSSC Network to enhance regional collaboration to harmonize activities of the regional CoEs to provide effective support on nuclear security. Japan opened its CoE, Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) in February 2011. The Chinese CoE, so called State Nuclear Security Technology Center (SNSTC), is expected to open in March 2016. As one of ROK's national commitments at the 2010 NSS, the KINAC/INSA was established in 2014 in order to share ROK's expertise and support the Summit's mission. International training activities of the KINAC/INSA for two years have been introduced and the lessons learned from those activities have been identified. While the KINAC/INSA as the ROK's CoE has begun on the right foot, it still remains challenging to achieve real excellence in training. Such international training efforts of the KINAC/INSA will eventually contribute to the ROK acknowledged as a global leader in the area of nuclear nonproliferation and security and a nuclear supplier fulfilling responsibility on global nuclear nonproliferation and security regime.

  6. Text Linguistics in Research Papers Prepared by University Students: Teaching through Lesson Plans and Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Albarrán-Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research project revolves around the properties of text linguistics under a qualitative approach.  The author analyzed drafts of a research paper by two university students as well as lesson plans and textbooks of high school Spanish Language and Literature courses and lesson plans of courses from the Licentiate degree in Education.  According to the information from the drafts, students struggle with coherence and cohesion in writing; however, they succeed in choosing the correct language for the type of writing.  Difficulties are most likely due to fact that this topic is not included in secondary education plans and is not commonly addressed in textbooks or university classes.  In conclusion, teachers should include the properties of text linguistics in their lesson plans in order to help students overcome these difficulties.

  7. Novice Teachers' Perspectives on Learning in Lesson Rehearsals in Second Language Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyan, Francis John; Peercy, Megan Madigan

    2016-01-01

    Although scholars working in core practices have put forth lesson rehearsals as central to novice teachers' learning and development, there is little work on how novice teachers experience rehearsals. This qualitative research investigated learning opportunities for novice teachers of language learners during rehearsals. The analysis examines two…

  8. Activated Carbon Preparation and Modification for Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhe

    . The adsorption capacities of these active carbon samples were almost three times that of zeolite. However, the un-modified active carbon had the highest adsorption capacity for butanol vapor (259.6 mg g-1), compared to 222.4 mg g-1 after 10% H2O2 hydrothermal treatment. Both modified and un-modified active carbon can be easily regenerated for repeatable adsorption by heating to 150 °C. Therefore, surface oxygen groups significantly reduced the adsorption capacity of active carbons for butanol vapor. In addition, original active carbon and AC samples modified by nitric acid hydrothermal modification were assessed for their ability to adsorb butanol vapor. The specific surface area and oxygen-containing functional groups of AC were tested before and after modification. The adsorption capacity of unmodified AC samples were the highest. Hydrothermal oxidation of AC with HNO3 increased the surface oxygen content, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, micropore, mesopore and total pore volume of AC. Although the pore structure and specific surface area were greatly improved after hydrothermal oxidization with 4 M HNO3, the increased oxygen on the surface of AC decreased the dynamic adsorption capacity. In order to get high adsorption capacity adsorbents, we used corn stalk as precursor to fabricate porous carbon. ACs were prepared through chemical activation of biochar from whole corn stalk (WCS) and corn stalk pith (CSP) at varying temperatures using potassium hydroxide as the activating agent. ACs were characterized via pore structural analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These adsorbents were then assessed for their adsorption capacity for butanol vapor. It was found that WCS activated at 900 °C for 1 h (WCS-900) had optimal butanol adsorption characteristics. The BET surface area and total pore volume of the WCS-900 were 2330 m2 g-1 and 1.29 cm3 g-1, respectively. The dynamic adsorption capacity of butanol vapor was 410.0 mg g-1, a 185.1 % increase

  9. PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION OF INTERACTIVE MINI-LESSONS USING MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATIONS FOR TEACHERS - PARTICIPANTS OF PEDAGOGICAL MASTERY WORKSHOP BASED ON PRACTICAL SKILLS AND VALUE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Semenova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the preparation of interactive mini-lessons using multimedia presentations for teachers – participants of the seminar based on practical skills and value experience, which is considered in the unity of intellectual and emotional-volitional personality characteristics. The article covers the theoretical, methodological and practical approaches to creating presentations using MS PowerPoint in preparing and conducting interactive lessons by teachers based on andragogy approach. The proposed approach takes into account the personal aspects of teachers - participants of the seminar, as well as presents an appropriate planning cycle. That helps turn into reality the idea of vocational training throughout life "teacher to teacher".

  10. Rainstorm Activities for Early Childhood Music Lessons Inspired by Teachable Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Harrison Grant

    2016-01-01

    Activities that focus on already familiar concepts are good starting points when designing early childhood music lessons. The author uses teachable moments, a spider in the classroom and a rainstorm, to design interdisciplinary preschool group activities that teach music, math, and science concepts. Dynamics and tempo are the music concepts that…

  11. Physically Active Math and Language Lessons Improve Academic Achievement : A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J,; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Doolaard, Simone; Bosker, Roel J.; Visscher, Chris

    OBJECTIVES: Using physical activity in the teaching of academic lessons is a new way of learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an innovative physically active academic intervention ("Fit & Vaardig op School" [F&V]) on academic achievement of children. METHODS: Using

  12. Lessons learned in preparing method 29 filters for compliance testing audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, R F; McCartney, J E; Bursey, J T; Riley, C E

    2000-01-01

    Companies conducting compliance testing are required to analyze audit samples at the time they collect and analyze the stack samples if audit samples are available. Eastern Research Group (ERG) provides technical support to the EPA's Emission Measurements Center's Stationary Source Audit Program (SSAP) for developing, preparing, and distributing performance evaluation samples and audit materials. These audit samples are requested via the regulatory Agency and include spiked audit materials for EPA Method 29-Metals Emissions from Stationary Sources, as well as other methods. To provide appropriate audit materials to federal, state, tribal, and local governments, as well as agencies performing environmental activities and conducting emission compliance tests, ERG has recently performed testing of blank filter materials and preparation of spiked filters for EPA Method 29. For sampling stationary sources using an EPA Method 29 sampling train, the use of filters without organic binders containing less than 1.3 microg/in.2 of each of the metals to be measured is required. Risk Assessment testing imposes even stricter requirements for clean filter background levels. Three vendor sources of quartz fiber filters were evaluated for background contamination to ensure that audit samples would be prepared using filters with the lowest metal background levels. A procedure was developed to test new filters, and a cleaning procedure was evaluated to see if a greater level of cleanliness could be achieved using an acid rinse with new filters. Background levels for filters supplied by different vendors and within lots of filters from the same vendor showed a wide variation, confirmed through contact with several analytical laboratories that frequently perform EPA Method 29 analyses. It has been necessary to repeat more than one compliance test because of suspect metals background contamination levels. An acid cleaning step produced improvement in contamination level, but the

  13. Investigating the Mechanisms of Learning from a Constrained Preparation for Future Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Stephanie A.; Klahr, David; Price, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown benefits associated with engaging students in problem-solving activities prior to administering lessons. These problem-solving activities are assumed to activate relevant knowledge and allow students to develop some initial knowledge structures, which support understanding of the lesson. In this paper we report the results…

  14. The Lessons of the PFF Concerning the Job Market. Preparing Future Faculty. Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNeef, A. Leigh

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of the Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) program in equipping graduate students for the realities of the academic job market. It reviews the experiences of Duke University (North Carolina) with the PFF program and the effect that PFF has had on preparing graduate students to enter the job market as new faculty.…

  15. Preparing Teachers for a Mission: Six Lessons Shared with the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespia, Kathleen L.; McGann, Barbara E.; Gibbons, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Vast research and personal testimonies provide strong evidence that a highly effective teacher plays a critical role in the successes of their students, particularly those at risk of underachievement. That same evidence is now being demanded of teacher preparation programs. By comparison, military preparation programs have long been outcome-based…

  16. A Study Examining the Dimensionality of Core Competencies Measure in Teacher Preparation Programs: Challenges and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizil, Ruhan Circi; Briggs, Derek; Seidel, Kent; Green, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The evidence that teacher preparation programs have an impact on teacher quality is often limited. Progress in research on this topic will remain rather limited in its influence on practice until more proximal measures of teacher education outcomes can be established. The dearth of variables to measure the impact of teacher preparation programs on…

  17. Lessons Learned from the USAID Girls' Education Activity in Guatemala, Morocco, and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, Andrea; Brush, Lorelei

    The Girls' Education Activity (GEA) is a project of the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID's) Office of Women in Development (WID) in the Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade. This report summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from 12 project initiatives in the 3 participating countries (Guatemala,…

  18. Improving diet and physical activity: 12 lessons from controlling tobacco smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Yach, Derek; McKee, Martin; Lopez, Alan D; Novotny, Tom

    2005-01-01

    On behalf of Oxford Vision 2020, a partnership dedicated to preventing the forecast worldwide growth of chronic diseases, the authors suggest that 12 lessons learnt from attempts to control tobacco smoking could be used to tackle the chronic disease epidemics evolving from unhealthy diets and a lack of physical activity

  19. TED-Ed lessons & TED-Ed clubs: Educational activities to amplify students' voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villias, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    TED-Ed lessons and TED-Ed clubs are two powerful educational tools that can be used in today's school classrooms in order to create an educational environment that is engaging for the students and favors their active participation, created and fostered by TED-Ed. TED-Ed is TED's educational initiative, committed to create lessons worth sharing and amplify the voices and ideas of teachers and students around the world. TED-Ed animated lessons are fully organized lessons structured around an animated video that introduces new topics to learners in an exciting, thought-provoking way. These lessons have been created as a result of the cooperation between expert educators and animators and have been uploaded at the TED-Ed platform (http://ed.ted.com). On the other hand, TED-Ed Clubs are also an interesting way to offer students the chance, the voice and the opportunity to express their thoughts, engage actively on these matters and connect with each other, both at a local, as well as at an international level (http://ed.ted.com/clubs). By developing new TED-Ed lessons or by customizing appropriately existing animated TED-Ed lessons (translating, modifying the questions asked, introducing new discussion topics), I have created and implemented in my student-centered, didactic approach, a series of TED-ED animated lessons directly connected with the Greek national science syllabus that were used to spark students curiosity and initiate a further analytical discussion or introduce other relevant educational activities (http://gvillias.wixsite.com/education). Furthermore, at my school, we established Varvakeio TED-Ed Club, an environment that supports and empowers our students to research, develop and disseminate their own personal ideas that worth spreading. During the year, our members were inspired by watching TED talks presented by experts on their field on various different areas, including social, economical, environmental and technological-scientific issues. Our aim

  20. Using Activity Theory to Examine How Teachers' Lesson Plans Meet Students' Learning Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhik, Estella Williams; Chizhik, Alexander Williams

    2018-01-01

    How is lesson planning useful? This research study used Cultural Historical Activity Theory and intersubjectivity to answer this questions. This research explored to what extent teacher candidates' lesson plans (i.e., alignment among objectives, assessment, and instruction), and analyses of assessment data mediate their thinking about students'…

  1. The 2015 Nepal Earthquake(s): Lessons Learned From the Disability and Rehabilitation Sector's Preparation for, and Response to, Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Michel D; Sheppard, Phillip S; Leung, Kit; Retis, Chiara; Salvador, Edwin C; Raman, Sudha R

    2016-11-01

    The frequency of natural disasters appears to be mounting at an alarming rate, and the degree to which people are surviving such traumatic events also is increasing. Postdisaster survival often triggers increases in population and individual disability-related outcomes in the form of impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions, all of which have an important impact on the individual, his or her family, and their community. The increase in postdisaster disability-related outcomes has provided a rationale for the increased role of the disability and rehabilitation sector's involvement in emergency response, including physical therapists. A recent major earthquake that has drawn the world's attention occurred in the spring of 2015 in Nepal. The response of the local and international communities was large and significant, and although the collection of complex health and disability issues have yet to be fully resolved, there has been a series of important lessons learned from the 2015 Nepal earthquake(s). This perspective article outlines lessons learned from Nepal that can be applied to future disasters to reduce overall disability-related outcomes and more fully integrate rehabilitation in preparation and planning. First, information is presented on disasters in general, and then information is presented that focuses on the earthquake(s) in Nepal. Next, field experience in Nepal before, during, and after the earthquake is described, and actions that can and should be adopted prior to disasters as part of disability preparedness planning are examined. Then, the emerging roles of rehabilitation providers such as physical therapists during the immediate and postdisaster recovery phases are discussed. Finally, approaches are suggested that can be adopted to "build back better" for, and with, people with disabilities in postdisaster settings such as Nepal. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  2. Mental and Active Preparation: Examining Variations in Women's Processes of Preparing to Leave Abusive Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermea, Autumn M; Khaw, Lyndal; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Rosenbloom, Lindsay; Salerno, Craig

    2017-02-01

    Although the process of leaving abusive relationships has received increased research attention, preparing to leave is still largely understudied. Despite an emphasis on safety planning, not all women take active steps to prepare, and the characteristics and experiences of those who do or do not actively prepare are unknown. We address this gap with a secondary data analysis of interviews with 25 abused mothers in the process of leaving. All women initially engaged in mental planning, where they had emotionally disconnected from their partners. Using constructivist grounded theory techniques, we identified two distinct groups: those whose mental planning led to active planning ( n = 11), and those who moved directly from mental planning to leaving ( n = 14) with little time or need to actively plan. The groups differed on several individual, relationship, and child factors, which may have impacted the ability or decisions to prepare. This study supports the feminist view that survivors are not helpless victims but active agents who strategize for safety. Those who engage solely in mental planning still prepare to leave, even if they do not engage in active planning. Practitioners should consider factors affecting preparations and acknowledge mental planning as a necessary effort in leaving.

  3. Administrative activities in the phase of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Details of the licensing procedure in the FRG: site selection, necessary documents for application, selection of a safety level for the plant in question, organization of the licensing authority, consultant and expert activities. (HP) [de

  4. Preparing for a Global Scientific Workforce: Lessons Learned by the Chemistry Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovic, M.; Nameroff, T.

    2005-12-01

    Globalization has significant implications for science, science education, and the workforce. Flows of capital and knowledge are altering patterns of economic and technological development. Technology is allowing science to be conducted in real time on a global scale. International connections and mobility are increasing worldwide. At the same time science is becoming a truly global endeavor, the convergence of disciplines suggests that scientists from different backgrounds can learn from each other's experiences in addressing these challenges and opportunities. This presentation reviews some of the impacts of globalization on the chemically related sciences, students, and profession. As a result of globalization, today's practitioners of chemistry need an ever-expanding skill set to succeed. In addition to a strong command of the basic principles of chemistry, students and practitioners need to know how to work on multicultural teams, have knowledge of other languages, and be able to communicate effectively. The American Chemical Society (ACS) is coming to terms with and responding to changes in the nature of chemistry and its practice. This presentation will explore some of the innovative efforts of ACS to meet the challenges for chemistry in an era of globalization. The Earth and space sciences community may benefit from the chemistry community's "lessons learned."

  5. Lessons Learned from Preparing OSIRIS-REx Spectral Analog Samples for Bennu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, D. L.; McCoy, T. J.; Cody, G. D.; King, A. J.; Schofield, P. F.; Russell, S. S.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Keller, L. P.; Donaldson Hanna, K.; Bowles, N.; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's OSIRIS-REx sample return mission launched on September 8th, 2016 to rendezvous with B-type asteroid (101955) Bennu in 2018. Type C and B asteroids have been linked to carbonaceous chondrites because of their similar visible - to - near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectral properties [e.g., 1,2]. The OSIRIS-REx Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (OVIRS) and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) will make spectroscopic observations of Bennu during the encounter. Constraining the presence or absence of hydrous minerals (e.g., Ca-carbonate, phyllosilicates) and organic molecules will be key to characterizing Bennu [3] prior to sample site selection. The goal of this study was to develop a suite of analog and meteorite samples and obtain their spectral properties over the wavelength ranges of OVIRS (0.4- 4.3 micrometer) and OTES (5.0-50 micrometer). These spectral data were used to validate the mission science-data processing system. We discuss the reasoning behind the study and share lessons learned.

  6. Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from albizia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon was prepared from the pods of Albizia saman for the purpose of converting the waste to wealth. The pods were thoroughly washed with water to remove any dirt, air- dried and cut into sizes of 2-4 cm. The prepared pods were then carbonised in a muffle furnace at temperatures of 4000C, 5000C, 6000C ...

  7. A Three-Year Journey: Lessons Learned from Integrating Teacher Preparation and Urban Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yontz, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    This narrative outlines the process of how an independent liberal arts college integrated coursework and learning experiences focused on urban school teacher preparation with an existing university program in Urban Studies. Programmatic changes and additions to teacher education programs at independent liberal arts colleges are often very…

  8. Lessons learned from DMAT medical activities in the great disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Lessons learned from actions taken by DMAT (Disaster Medical Assistant Team) at the Great East Japan Disaster (Mar. 11) are reported. One unit of DMAT consists from 2 doctors, 2 nurses and 1 logistics clerk, who all had education and training authorized by Japan MHLW. On the disaster, MHLW and suffering prefectures can order DMAT to gather at the disaster base hospital or SCU (Staging Care Unit) like an airport nearby. DMAT missions are firstly to grasp the medical state of the disaster and its report to the MHLW through EMIS (Emergency Medical Information System), and then to estimate the possible numbers of serious patients, their transporting systems and further DMAT needed. Within 3 days after the Disaster, 32 base hospitals in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures received 2,092 patients including 752 serious ones. Needs for DMAT were rather scarce within 48 hr after the Disaster and 103 DMAT in total within Mar. 14 in the 3 prefectures decreased to 50 of 840 patients in the area of 20 km distance from the Plant died during urgent evacuation without medicare staff due to deterioration of the basal disease, dehydration, hypothermia, etc., suggesting necessity of the more flexible action of DMAT, of which responsibility has been defined to be essentially within 48 hr after the disaster. Probably, DMAT should have assumption that complicated disaster with natural and atomic courses can occur at the earthquake in future. (T.T.)

  9. Sector activities and lessons learned around initial implementation of the United States national physical activity plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Satinsky, Sara B

    2014-08-01

    National plans are increasingly common but infrequently evaluated. The 2010 United States National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) provided strategies to increase population levels of physical activity. This paper describes (i) the initial accomplishments of the NPAP sector teams, and (ii) results from a process evaluation to determine how the sectors operated, their cross-sector collaboration, challenges encountered, and positive experiences. During 2011, a quarterly reporting system was developed to capture sector-level activities. A year-end interview derived more detailed information. Interviews with 12 sector leads were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for common themes. The 6 sectors worked on goals from the implementation plan that focused broadly on education, promotion, intervention, policy, collaboration, and evaluation. Through year-end interviews, themes were generated around operations, goal setting, and cross-sector collaboration. Challenges to the NPAP work included lack of funding and time, the need for marketing and promotion, and organizational support. Positive experiences included collaboration, efficiency of work, enhanced community dynamic, and accomplishments toward NPAP goals. These initial results on the NPAP sector teams can be used as a baseline assessment for future monitoring. The lessons learned may be useful to other practitioners developing evaluations around state- or national-level plans.

  10. Lithium carbonate tablets. Preparation techniques influence over active ingredient liberation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, J.H.F.; Oliveira, A.G. de; Toledo Salgado, P.E. de

    1989-01-01

    Lithium carbonate tablets, prepared using wet and dry granulation, were assessed in vitro so as to determine the active ingredient dissolution. In this study, standardized formulations were used and developed with usual adjuvants (lactose - maize starch). Parallel to the dissolution testing. The influence of the preparation process over some physical characteristics (hardness, friability and disintegration) was also analysed. Although a better performance was observed of tables prepared using dry granulation, the authors concluded that the wet process is more suitable in preparing tables with the mentioned drug. (author)

  11. Preparation and antidiabetic activity of polysaccharide from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraction parameters of polysaccharide from Portulaca oleracea L. (POP) and antidiabetic activity of POP on alloxan induced diabetic mice were studied. Better extraction parameters of POP were obtained by the single factor test, as follows: extraction temperature 95°C, extraction time 5 h, and ratio of solvent to raw ...

  12. Preparation and characterization of active carbon using palm kernel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbons were prepared from Palm kernel shells. Carbonization temperature was 6000C, at a residence time of 5 min for each process. Chemical activation was done by heating a mixture of carbonized material and the activating agents at a temperature of 700C to form a paste, followed by subsequent cooling and ...

  13. The search for active learning: Lessons from a happy accident

    OpenAIRE

    Bashforth, Hedley; Parmar, Nitin R

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the concept of ‘active learning’ has different meanings. These meanings are created in the dynamic and variable relationships between the uses of learning technologies and approaches to pedagogy. Institutions play a key role in mediating these relationships, privileging some meanings of ‘active learning’ over others. More dialogical forms of active learning call for changes in the mediating role of the institution. This article draws on a case study of the use of El...

  14. Evaluation of the activated carbon prepared from the algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the activated carbon prepared from the algae Gracilaria for the biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... This study shows the benefit of using activated carbon from marine red algae as a low cost sorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solution wastewater.

  15. Preparing Students for (Inter-)Action with Activity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore recent developments in activity theoretical HCI with the purpose of preparing designers for action. The paper discusses two projects where students engaged in iterative design applying fundamental principles from Activity Theory. They had been introduced to these principles...

  16. Properties of Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shells in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials commonly used for preparation of activated carbons include coal and coconut shells. Ghana generates over 30,000 tonnes of coconut shells annually from coconut oil processing activities but apart from a small percentage of the shells, which is burned as fuel, the remaining is usually dumped as waste.

  17. A Judicious Lesson: A Whole-Learning Reading Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Describes a unique language learning activity using the whole language approach in a tertiary level lower advanced reading and speaking course. Following a semester long theme on crime and punishment, students were introduced to an authentic, idiomatic text dealing with a famous murder case in U.S. history. (Author/VWL)

  18. Effects of School Gardening Lessons on Elementary School Children's Physical Activity and Sedentary Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees-Punia, Erika; Holloway, Alicia; Knauft, David; Schmidt, Michael D

    2017-12-01

    Recess and physical education time continue to diminish, creating a need for additional physical activity opportunities within the school environment. The use of school gardens as a teaching tool in elementary science and math classes has the potential to increase the proportion of time spent active throughout the school day. Teachers from 4 elementary schools agreed to teach 1 math or science lesson per week in the school garden. Student physical activity time was measured with ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers on 3 garden days and 3 no-garden days at each school. Direct observation was used to quantify the specific garden-related tasks during class. The proportion of time spent active and sedentary was compared on garden and no-garden days. Seventy-four children wore accelerometers, and 75 were observed (86% participation). Children spent a significantly larger proportion of time active on garden days than no-garden days at 3 of the 4 schools. The proportion of time spent sedentary and active differed significantly across the 4 schools. Teaching lessons in the school garden may increase children's physical activity and decrease sedentary time throughout the school day and may be a strategy to promote both health and learning.

  19. Preparation of tritiated thymidine of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan'kova, E.K.; Sidorov, G.V.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    Optimum conditions for the reaction are determined; and conditions for reaction component separation on resins of Dowex-1x8 and APA-8p (HCOO - , elution with ammonium formate) are optimized. It is established that the transition from thymine preparations with the specific activity of 0.15 and 1.5 TBq/mmol to the preparation with the specific activity of 3.25 TBq/mmol brings about the reduction in the desoxyribosylation reaction rate and the decrease in the thymidine yield from 85-90 to 65% [ru

  20. Physical Activity Measurements: Lessons Learned from the Pathways Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    High obesity rates in American Indian children led to Pathways, a randomized school and community-based childhood prevention study. Seven tribes, five universities, the NIH/NHLBI, and four elementary schools partnered. Increasing physical activity (PA) was an important intervention target. PA assessment was based on study objectives, feasibility, and tribal acceptance. A time-segmented analysis was also desired. Two methods were developed during pilot testing, a new PA questionnaire and accelerometry. Together, the methods provided qualitative and quantitative information and showed 3 of 4 sites were able to increase average daily PA, although overall the control versus intervention difference was not significant. The main limitation was inability to distinguish PA among individuals. Accelerometer size and some community concerns led to a protocol based on a single day of wearing time. Newer model triaxial accelerometers which are much smaller and allow sampling of multiple days of activity are recommended for future studies. PMID:20689391

  1. 11. Creative Interdisciplinary Math Lessons by Means of Music Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudáková Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to introduce the project Comenius “EMP-Maths”, entitled ‘Providing Mathematics with Music Activities’, in which seven European countries took part. The key chapter is devoted to music activities that Slovak team integrated in the school subject of Mathematics. Music activities were selected and designed in accordance with the content of school subject Mathematics. To each particular theme the project solvers designed methodologies and didactic musical games, contests, music and drama exercises. The authoresses illustrate in detail one example of this integration which was presented during the meeting of 7 European countries in Barcelona in January 2015. Their illustration refers to interconnection of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor goals of both school subjects to develop musical and mathematical abilities of 11 – 12 year old elementary school pupils.

  2. Slice&Dice: Recognizing Food Preparation Activities Using Embedded Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Olivier, Patrick

    Within the context of an endeavor to provide situated support for people with cognitive impairments in the kitchen, we developed and evaluated classifiers for recognizing 11 actions involved in food preparation. Data was collected from 20 lay subjects using four specially designed kitchen utensils incorporating embedded 3-axis accelerometers. Subjects were asked to prepare a mixed salad in our laboratory-based instrumented kitchen environment. Video of each subject's food preparation activities were independently annotated by three different coders. Several classifiers were trained and tested using these features. With an overall accuracy of 82.9% our investigation demonstrated that a broad set of food preparation actions can be reliably recognized using sensors embedded in kitchen utensils.

  3. Microdevelopment during an activity-based science lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parziale, Jim

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the microdevelopment of task-related skills during a classroom science activity. Pairs of fifth and pairs of seventh grade students were videotaped as they constructed marshmallow and toothpick bridges. A skill theory based system of analysis was developed and used to detect the construction of new understandings. Patterns of change observed in these understandings were used to infer three means of self-construction: shifts of focus, bridging mechanisms and distributed cognition. Shift of focus is a mechanism used by students to efficiently explore a web of possibilities, collect ideas and make observations for later coordination as new understandings. Bridging mechanisms are partially built conversational structures that scaffolded the construction of higher level thinking structures. Students used the distributed cognition mechanism to test the adaptiveness of their design ideas without the need to fully coordinate an understandings of these designs. An integrated model of these three mechanisms is proposed specific to this task. This model describes how these mechanisms spontaneously emerged and interacted to support the construction of mental representations.

  4. Activated alumina preparation and characterization: The review on recent advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, A. R.; Ibrahim, A. H.; Zulkepli, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum and aluminum based material are significant industrial materials synthesis because of their abandonment, low weight and high-quality corrosion resistance. The most advances in aluminum processing are the ability to synthesize it's under suitable chemical composition and conditions, a porous structure can be formed on the surface. Activated alumina particles (AAP) synthesized by the electrochemically process from aluminum have gained serious attention, inexpensive material that can be employed for water filtration due to its active surface. Thus, the paper present a review study based on recent progress and advances in synthesizing activated alumina, various techniques currently being used in preparing activated alumina and its characteristics are studied and summarized

  5. Goiania radiation accident: activities carried out and lessons learned based on personal experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Goiânia Radiological Accident, on September 13, 1987, with a radioactive source of cesium-137 with 50.9 TBq, used in radiotherapy, is one of the most important accidents in the scientific area, representing a milestone for all workers in the areas of radiation protection and radiological emergency that worked during the event. A personal view of the Goiânia Radiological Accident is presented, showing some activities carried out in contaminated areas and lessons learned based on own experience during the event

  6. European technology activities to prepare for ITER component procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparotto, M.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few years the technology activities of the European fusion programme have principally been devoted to: a) the completion of design and R (and) D studies in preparation for the procurement of ITER systems and components in close collaboration with the ITER team and according to the ITER design and schedule; b) provision of support to European industry and associations in key areas of fusion R (and) D to ensure a competitive and timely approach to the planned procurement. The EU contribution to ITER design and R (and) D activities has been maintained at a significant level with the objectives of: · continuing, and in some areas expanding, the effort in areas where design and R (and)D are still required: in particular in Machine Assembly, Remote Handling, ITER Test Blanket Modules, Diagnostics, Heating and Current Drive Systems. · continuing and completing manufacturing R (and)D to determine the most technically and cost affective manufacturing methods for ITER components to be built in Europe. · preparing new test facilities needed during ITER construction (DIPOLE, HELOKA, DTP-2, ECRH Test Facility, Fatigue Testing Facility). · supporting the European site preparation process and the preparation of safety and licensing documentation for ITER in Cadarache. · maintaining support to EU industries in R (and) D activities of relevance to fusion. To support the ITER Design activities and to prepare for the provision of timely answers to key issues, which may be raised during the ITER design review, support from specialized companies has been set-up in the fields of Civil and General Plant Engineering, Mechanical Engineering / Components, Mechanical Engineering / Systems (and) Plants, Remote Handling (and) Assembly, Electrical Engineering, Nuclear Safety Engineering. In recent years major efforts have been directed towards the technology development of the ITER components for which procurement can be launched during the first years of the construction

  7. Support of an Active Science Project by a Large Information System: Lessons for the EOS Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Gary L.; Skiles, J. W.; Popovici, Lidia Z.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of large information systems to support the changing data requirements of active science projects is being tested in a NASA collaborative study. This paper briefly profiles both the active science project and the large information system involved in this effort and offers some observations about the effectiveness of the project support. This is followed by lessons that are important for those participating in large information systems that need to support active science projects or that make available the valuable data produced by these projects. We learned in this work that it is difficult for a large information system focused on long term data management to satisfy the requirements of an on-going science project. For example, in order to provide the best service, it is important for all information system staff to keep focused on the needs and constraints of the scientists in the development of appropriate services. If the lessons learned in this and other science support experiences are not applied by those involved with large information systems of the EOS (Earth Observing System) era, then the final data products produced by future science projects may not be robust or of high quality, thereby making the conduct of the project science less efficacious and reducing the value of these unique suites of data for future research.

  8. The management plan preparation activities nuclear power plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utomo

    2011-01-01

    A feasibility Study that has been updated show that two nuclear power units with each unit of power up to 1000 MWe can represent decently an economical alternative energy supply. It added that the available time schedule was quite tight so that the preparation for the development must be starting first. This paper will discuss the preparation of plans of the first nuclear power plant which includes program activities, the structure of contracts, schedules of activities and funding. From the information obtained to date that in addition to a candidate site that is ready to be built in Muria peninsula is still required another potential alternative site besides to search other complete data information. This site investigation activities completed within the time schedule was passed ''critical path'', so that these activities should be carried out intensively and obey the time. This paper describes the steps that need to be prepared to welcome the first nuclear power plant, after reviewing the various input above and apply the reality in Indonesia as the initial conditions. (author)

  9. Long-term effects of physically active academic lessons on physical fitness and executive functions in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greeff, Johannes W; Hartman, Esther; Wijnsma, Marijke; Bosker, Roelof J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Christiaan

    Integrating physical activity into the curriculum has potential health and cognitive benefits in primary school children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physically active academic lessons on cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness and executive functions. In the current

  10. Upper School Maths: Lesson Plans and Activities for Ages 9-11 Years. Series of Caribbean Volunteer Publications, No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voluntary Services Overseas, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This collection of lesson plans and activities for students aged 9-11 years is based on a science curriculum developed by a group of Caribbean nations. The activities pertain to topics such as place value, prime and composite numbers, the sieve of Eratosthenes, square numbers, factors and multiples, sequences, averages, geometry, symmetry,…

  11. Porous Materials from Thermally Activated Kaolinite: Preparation, Characterization and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, porous alumina/silica materials were prepared by selective leaching of silicon/aluminum constituents from thermal-activated kaolinite in inorganic acid or alkali liquor. The correlations between the characteristics of the prepared porous materials and the dissolution properties of activated kaolinite were also investigated. The results show that the specific surface area (SSA of porous alumina/silica increases with silica/alumina dissolution, but without marked change of the BJH pore size. Furthermore, change in pore volume is more dependent on activation temperature. The porous alumina and silica obtained from alkali leaching of kaolinite activated at 1150 °C for 15 min and acid leaching of kaolinite activated at 850 °C for 15 min are mesoporous, with SSAs, BJH pore sizes and pore volumes of 55.8 m2/g and 280.3 m2/g, 6.06 nm and 3.06 nm, 0.1455 mL/g and 0.1945 mL/g, respectively. According to the adsorption tests, porous alumina has superior adsorption capacities for Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ compared with porous silica and activated carbon. The maximum capacities of porous alumina for Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ are 134 mg/g, 183 mg/g and 195 mg/g, respectively, at 30 °C.

  12. KOH catalysed preparation of activated carbon aerogels for dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sie King; Tian, H Y; Wang, Shaobin; Rufford, Thomas; Zhu, Z H; Buckley, C E

    2011-05-01

    Organic carbon aerogels (CAs) were prepared by a sol-gel method from polymerisation of resorcinol, furfural, and hexamethylenetetramine catalysed by KOH at around pH 9 using ambient pressure drying. The effect of KOH in the sol-gel on CA synthesis was studied. It was found that addition of KOH prior to the sol-gel polymerisation process improved thermal stability of the gel, prevented the crystallinity of the gel to graphite, increased the microporosity of CA and promoted activation of CA. The CAs prepared using the KOH catalyst exhibited higher porosity than uncatalysed prepared samples. Activation in CO(2) at higher temperature also enhanced the porosity of CAs. Adsorption tests indicated that the CAs were effective for both basic and acid dye adsorption and the adsorption increased with increasing surface area and pore volume. The kinetic adsorption of dyes was diffusion control and could be described by the second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium adsorption of dyes was higher than activated carbon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of strategies to increase adolescents’ physical activity and motivation during physical education lessons: the Motivating Active Learning in Physical Education (MALP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenkranz Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical activity (PA levels of many children and adolescents in Australia are currently insufficient to promote health benefits. Physical education (PE programs aim to promote PA and reach nearly all school-aged children, but PA levels within PE lessons are often low. PE teachers may influence children’s motivation to be physically active in PE lessons, but little is known about teacher strategies that effectively motivate children to participate in PA, and few intervention studies have examined motivational strategies in PE. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three motivational strategies, each based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT, on PA levels, and their hypothesized antecedents, during year 8 PE lessons. Methods/design This study employed a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Following a familiarization session, PA levels and hypothesized PA antecedents were measured during a baseline lesson and a post-intervention or control lesson. Teachers (n = 16 and their classes from five secondary schools in Sydney, Australia were randomly assigned into four blocks and instructed to provide one of four 20-min lesson teaching strategy conditions: (1 explaining the relevance of activities; (2 providing choice from PA options selected by the teacher; (3 providing equipment and free choice of activities; or (4 usual practice. The primary outcomes were lesson time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA, and motivation towards the lesson. Secondary outcomes were perceptions of teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and lesson time spent in sedentary behavior. PA and sedentary behavior were measured during baseline and post-intervention lessons with waist-mounted Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and motivation were assessed via questionnaires at the end of each lesson. Linear mixed-model analyses will be run on all outcomes, with students nested

  14. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of strategies to increase adolescents' physical activity and motivation during physical education lessons: the Motivating Active Learning in Physical Education (MALP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Richard R; Lubans, David R; Peralta, Louisa R; Bennie, Andrew; Sanders, Taren; Lonsdale, Chris

    2012-10-01

    The physical activity (PA) levels of many children and adolescents in Australia are currently insufficient to promote health benefits. Physical education (PE) programs aim to promote PA and reach nearly all school-aged children, but PA levels within PE lessons are often low. PE teachers may influence children's motivation to be physically active in PE lessons, but little is known about teacher strategies that effectively motivate children to participate in PA, and few intervention studies have examined motivational strategies in PE. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three motivational strategies, each based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT), on PA levels, and their hypothesized antecedents, during year 8 PE lessons. This study employed a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Following a familiarization session, PA levels and hypothesized PA antecedents were measured during a baseline lesson and a post-intervention or control lesson. Teachers (n = 16) and their classes from five secondary schools in Sydney, Australia were randomly assigned into four blocks and instructed to provide one of four 20-min lesson teaching strategy conditions: (1) explaining the relevance of activities; (2) providing choice from PA options selected by the teacher; (3) providing equipment and free choice of activities; or (4) usual practice. The primary outcomes were lesson time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA, and motivation towards the lesson. Secondary outcomes were perceptions of teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and lesson time spent in sedentary behavior. PA and sedentary behavior were measured during baseline and post-intervention lessons with waist-mounted Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Teacher behavior, psychological needs satisfaction, and motivation were assessed via questionnaires at the end of each lesson. Linear mixed-model analyses will be run on all outcomes, with students nested within teachers as a random effect. Study

  15. Effects of preparation method and active metal content on of Ni/kieselguhr catalyst activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galuh Widiyarti; Wuryaningsih Sri Rahayu

    2010-01-01

    The preparation and the active metal content influence the activity of catalyst. Study has been conducted to see the activity of Ni/kieselguhr based on preparation method and Nickel (Ni) contents in the catalyst in the laboratory scale. The Ni/kieselguhr catalyst were prepared by impregnation and precipitation methods, with Ni active contents of 10, 20, and 30 % by weight. The catalysts characterization was analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Catalysts activities were analyzed based on decreasing of iodine number from hydrogenation of crude palm oil for 2 hours. The activity tests results show that precipitation catalysts are more active than impregnation catalysts. The decreasing in iodine number of fatty acid after 2 hours of hydrogenation process using precipitation catalysts and impregnation catalysts are 51.53 and 21.85 %, respectively. In addition, the catalysts are more active with increasing Ni contents. (author)

  16. Preparation and characterization of chrome doped sphene pigments prepared via precursor mechanochemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantić, Jelena, E-mail: jelena.pantic@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade (Serbia); Prekajski, Marija; Dramićanin, Miroslav; Abazović, Nadica [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade (Serbia); Vuković, Nikola [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, 12-16 Studentski Trg, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Kremenović, Aleksandar [Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Djušina 7, Belgrade (Serbia); Matović, Branko [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2013-12-05

    Highlights: •Mechanical activation of precursors has been used for the preparation of Cr-doped sphene ceramic pigments (CaTi{sub 1−y}Cr{sub y}SiO{sub 5}). •The average particle size is around 1 μm, which is desirable for application. •The optimum pigment (best hue with lowest Cr content) is obtained with 0.1% Cr. •Both chromium ions (Cr{sup 4+} and Cr{sup 3+}), find itself within distorted octahedral coordination. -- Abstract: Mechanical activation of precursors has been used for the preparation of Cr-doped sphene ceramic pigments (CaTi{sub 1−y}Cr{sub y}SiO{sub 5}). Ceramic material has been prepared from a powder mixture of CaCO{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2} and Cr(NO{sub 3})⋅9H{sub 2}O using vibro-milling for homogenization and activation of precursors. The mechanochemical process initially yielded amorphous powders, which on further calcination, crystallized to yield Cr-doped sphene ceramic pigment. Phase evolution in CaTi{sub 1−y}Cr{sub y}SiO{sub 5} composition with thermal treatment was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Texture properties and particle size distribution were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction, respectively. UV/Vis reflectance spectra are used to determinate the behavior of the chromium ion. The color efficiency of pigments was evaluated by colorimetric analysis (CIE L {sup *} a {sup *} b system). Photoluminescence measurements were also performed.

  17. Moderate-to-vigorous physically active academic lessons and academic engagement in children with and without a social disadvantage : a within subject experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: Integration of physical active academic lessons in the school curriculum may be an innovative way to improve academic outcomes. This study examined the effect of physically active academic lessons (Fit en Vaardig op school) on academic engagement of socially disadvantaged children and

  18. Urea adsorption by activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Chee-Heong; Sim, Yoke-Leng; Yeoh, Fei-Yee

    2017-07-01

    Dialysis treatment is crucial for patients suffer from renal failure. The dialysis system removes the uremic toxin to a safe level in a patient's body. One of the major limitations of the current hemodialysis system is the capability to efficiently remove uremic toxins from patient's body. Nanoporous materials can be applied to improve the treatment. Palm kernel shell (PKS) biomass generated from palm oil mills can be utilized to prepare high quality nanoporous activated carbon (AC) and applied for urea adsorption in the dialysis system. In this study, AC was prepared from PKS via different carbonization temperatures and followed by carbon dioxide gas activation processes. The physical and chemical properties of the samples were studied. The results show that the porous AC with BET surface areas ranging from 541 to 622 m2g-1 and with total pore volumes varying from 0.254 to 0.297 cm3g-1, are formed with different carbonization temperatures. The equilibrium constant for urea adsorption by AC samples carbonized at 400, 500 and 600 °C are 0.091, 0.287 and 0.334, respectively. The increase of carbonization temperatures from 400 to 600 °C resulted in the increase in urea adsorption by AC predominantly due to increase in surface area. The present study reveals the feasibility of preparing AC with good porosity from PKS and potentially applied in urea adsorption application.

  19. Preparation and bactericide activity of gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Alvarez, S. A.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A.; Nino-Martinez, N.; Reyes-Macias, J. F.; Patino-Marin, N.; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Ruiz, Facundo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, gold nanoparticles with three different sizes (13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm) were prepared using a simple aqueous method with gallic acid as the reducing and stabilizing agent, the different sizes were obtained varying some experimental parameters as the pH of the reaction and the amount of the gallic acid. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Samples were identified as elemental gold and present spherical morphology, a narrow size distribution and good stabilization according to TEM and DLS results. The antibacterial activity of this gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles against S. mutans (the etiologic agent of dental caries) was assessed using a microdilution method obtaining a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.31, 12.31, and 49.25 μg/mL for 13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm gold nanoparticles, respectively. The antibacterial assay showed that gold nanoparticles prepared in this work present a bactericide activity by a synergistic action with gallic acid. The MIC found for this nanoparticles are much lower than those reported for mixtures of gold nanoparticles and antibiotics.

  20. Debate preparation/participation: an active, effective learning tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklanaris, Nikki; MacKenzie, Andrew P; Fino, M Elizabeth; Arslan, Alan A; Seubert, David E

    2008-01-01

    Passive educational techniques (such as lectures) are thought to be less productive than active learning. We examined whether preparing for and participating in a debate would be an effective, active way to learn about a controversial topic. We compared quiz performance in residents who attended a lecture to residents who prepared for/participated in a debate. Twelve residents each participated in one lecture session and one debate session. Learning was evaluated via a quiz. Quizzes were given twice: before the debate/lecture and 1 week after the debate/lecture. Quiz scores were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance, with a p value of debating was given to all participants. There was a statistically significant difference in the pretest mean quiz score between the debate and lecture groups: 78.3% and 52.5%, respectively (p = .02). Similarly, on posttest quizzes, the average debater scored 85.8%, versus 61.7% for the lecture group (p = .003). Although no one in the debate group scored lower on a follow-up quiz, 3 residents in the lecture group did worse on follow-up. When learning about a controversial topic, residents who prepared for/participated in a debate achieved higher quiz scores and were better at retaining information than those who attended a lecture. When faced with teaching a controversial topic, organizing a debate may be more effective than giving a lecture.

  1. Preparation and bactericide activity of gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Alvarez, S. A. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de Materiales (Mexico); Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.m [UASLP, Maestria en Ciencias Odontologicas, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Nino-Martinez, N. [UASLP, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F.; Patino-Marin, N.; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P. [UASLP, Maestria en Ciencias Odontologicas, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [UASLP, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    In this work, gold nanoparticles with three different sizes (13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm) were prepared using a simple aqueous method with gallic acid as the reducing and stabilizing agent, the different sizes were obtained varying some experimental parameters as the pH of the reaction and the amount of the gallic acid. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Samples were identified as elemental gold and present spherical morphology, a narrow size distribution and good stabilization according to TEM and DLS results. The antibacterial activity of this gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles against S. mutans (the etiologic agent of dental caries) was assessed using a microdilution method obtaining a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.31, 12.31, and 49.25 {mu}g/mL for 13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm gold nanoparticles, respectively. The antibacterial assay showed that gold nanoparticles prepared in this work present a bactericide activity by a synergistic action with gallic acid. The MIC found for this nanoparticles are much lower than those reported for mixtures of gold nanoparticles and antibiotics.

  2. Lessons Learned from Data Management Activities after the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kitamoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes our effort towards managing the multi-disciplinary disaster-related data from the Great East Japan Earthquake, which happened on March 11, 2011 off the coast of Northeast Japan. This earthquake caused the largest tsunami in the recorded history of Japan, killed many people along the coast, and caused a nuclear disaster in Fukushima, which continues to affect a large area of Japan. Just after the earthquake, we started crisis response data management activities to provide useful information for supporting disaster response and recovery. This paper introduces the various types of datasets we made from the viewpoint of data management processing and draws lessons from our post-disaster activities.

  3. Present and future activities of the IAEA on internal dosimetry: Lessons learned from international intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Suarez, R.; Gustafsson, M.; Mrabit, K.

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts safety activities to support the assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides; a comprehensive set of safety documents will soon be completed. In recent years, extensive improvements in measurement techniques, phantoms and computational tools have been made. Thus, it is important for laboratories involved in internal dosimetry to undergo performance testing procedures to demonstrate the correctness of the methods applied and also to determine the consistency of their results with those obtained by other laboratories. Several intercomparisons were organised, and they revealed significant differences among laboratories in their approaches, methods and assumptions, and consequently in their results. This paper presents the current and future IAEA activities in support of assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides in the IAEA Member States, as well as the lessons learned from several intercomparison exercises in the last 5 years. (author)

  4. Lessons learned bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    During the past four years, the Department of Energy -- Savannah River Operations Office and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program completed various activities ranging from waste site investigations to closure and post closure projects. Critiques for lessons learned regarding project activities are performed at the completion of each project milestone, and this critique interval allows for frequent recognition of lessons learned. In addition to project related lessons learned, ER also performs lessons learned critiques. T'he Savannah River Site (SRS) also obtains lessons learned information from general industry, commercial nuclear industry, naval nuclear programs, and other DOE sites within the complex. Procedures are approved to administer the lessons learned program, and a database is available to catalog applicable lessons learned regarding environmental remediation, restoration, and administrative activities. ER will continue to use this database as a source of information available to SRS personnel

  5. Lesson Planning the Kodaly Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkoff, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the contribution of Zoltan Kodaly to music lesson planning. Emphasizes preparation, presentation, and practice as the three important strategies in teaching concepts and skills to be included in a lesson plan. Includes a sample lesson plan covering a semester and advice on choosing song material. (DK)

  6. Preparation of activated carbon fabrics from cotton fabric precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R.; Dadashian, F.; Abedi, M.

    2017-10-01

    The preparation of activated carbon fabrics (ACFs) from cotton fabric was performed by chemical activation with phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The operation conditions for obtaining the ACFs with the highest the adsorption capacity and process yield, proposed. Optimized conditions were: impregnation ratio of 2, the rate of temperature rising of 7.5 °C min-1, the activation temperature of 500 °C and the activation time of 30 min. The ACFs produced under optimized conditions was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The surface area and pore volume of carbon nanostructures was characterized by BET nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 °K. The pore size distribution calculated from the desorption branch according to BJH method. The iodine number of the prepared ACFs was determined by titration at 30 °C based on the ASTM D4607-94. The results showed the improvement of porous structure, fabric shape, surface area (690 m2/g), total pore volume (0.3216 cm3/g), and well-preserved fibers integrity.

  7. Preparation of [35S]sulfobromophthalein of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurisu, H.; Nilprabhassorn, P.; Wolkoff, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Study of the hepatocyte transport mechanism of organic anions such as bilirubin and sulfobromophthalein has been limited by the relatively low specific activities of these ligands. [ 3 H]Bilirubin and [ 35 S]sulfobromophthalein have been available with specific activities of only approximately 100 mCi/mmol. We now report a relatively simple procedure to prepare [ 35 S]sulfobromophthalein at a specific activity of approximately 3000 mCi/mmol. This compound is radiochemically pure and serves as a tracer for authentic sulfobromophthalein as judged by chromatography, hepatocyte uptake, metabolism, and biliary excretion. Use of this material as a photoaffinity probe and as a transported ligand may permit dissection and understanding of its transport mechanism

  8. Preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood revisited. II. Physical activation with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Idriss, A.; Cuerda-Correa, E.M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, C.; Alexandre-Franco, M.F.; Gomez-Serrano, V. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry; Stitou, M. [Univ. Abdelmalek Esaadi, Tetouan (Morocco). Dept. de Chimie; Macias-Garcia, A. [Extremadura Univ., Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical, Energetic and Materials Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Olive-tree has been grown in the Mediterranean countries for centuries. For an adequate development of the tree it must be subjected to different treatments such as trimming, large amounts of a woody residue being produced. Such a residue has been traditionally used as a domestic fuel or simply burnt in the landfield. In both cases greenhouse gases are generated to a large extent. Thus, the preparation of activated carbons from olive-tree wood appears as an attractive alternative to valorize this by-product. Commonly, two activation strategies are used with such an aim, namely chemical and physical activation. In this study, the optimization of the physical activation method with air for the production of activated carbon has been analyzed. The results obtained clearly show that if the preparation conditions are adequately controlled, it is possible to prepare activated carbons showing tailored properties in terms of micro- or mesoporous texture and surface area. (author)

  9. [Preparation and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate bioplastics with antibacterial activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiuli; Ma, Yiming; Che, Xuemei; Zhong, Jin; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Haoqian

    2016-08-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), as a novel class of biopolymer, are attracting more attention due to their diverse material properties and environment-independent biodegradability. Here we report the preparation of PHA exhibiting efficient antibacterial activity by embedding Nisin, a food additive generally recognized as safe, into poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), a type of PHA with high biocompatibility. We first prepared Nisin-containing PHBHHx films using solvent casting method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that a well-mixed integrated structure of the films with an even distribution of the Nisin particles in the PHBHHx matrices. Then the antimicrobial activity of PHBHHx/Nisin films against Micrococcus luteus was quantified on agar plate by measuring the size of inhibition zone. Cultivation in liquid media further confirmed the releasing of Nisin from the films and the long-time antibacterial activity. Results showed that the threshold of Nisin concentration for long-time and effective inhibition against bacteria growth is 25 μg/g. These results altogether establish a technological foundation for the application of PHA in biomedicine and food industry.

  10. Effectiveness of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's willingness to taste vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes-Fries, Marieke C.E.; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Zeinstra, Gertrude G.; Dongen, van Ellen J.I.; Meester, Hante J.; Top, van den Rinelle; Veer, van 't Pieter; Graaf, de Kees

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of the Dutch school programme Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables. Thirty-three primary schools (877 children in grades 6-7 with a mean age of 10.3 years)

  11. Neuromuscular activity of Bothrops fonsecai snake venom in vertebrate preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carla T; Giaretta, Vânia MA; Prudêncio, Luiz S; Toledo, Edvana O; da Silva, Igor RF; Collaço, Rita CO; Barbosa, Ana M; Hyslop, Stephen; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; Cogo, José C

    2014-01-01

    The neuromuscular activity of venom from Bothrops fonsecai, a lancehead endemic to southeastern Brazil, was investigated. Chick biventer cervicis (CBC) and mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations were used for myographic recordings and mouse diaphragm muscle was used for membrane resting potential (RP) and miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) recordings. Creatine kinase release and muscle damage were also assessed. In CBC, venom (40, 80 and 160μg/ml) produced concentration- and time-dependent neuromuscular blockade (50% blockade in 85±9 min and 73±8 min with 80 and 160μg/ml, respectively) and attenuated the contractures to 110μM ACh (78–100% inhibition) and 40mM KCl (45–90% inhibition). The venom-induced decrease in twitch-tension in curarized, directly-stimulated preparations was similar to that in indirectly stimulated preparations. Venom (100 and 200μg/ml) also caused blockade in PND preparations (50% blockade in 94±13 min and 49±8 min with 100 and 200μg/ml, respectively) but did not alter the RP or MEPP amplitude. In CBC, venom caused creatine kinase release and myonecrosis. The venom-induced decrease in twitch-tension and in the contractures to ACh and K+ were abolished by preincubating venom with commercial antivenom. These findings indicate that Bothrops fonsecai venom interferes with neuromuscular transmission essentially through postsynaptic muscle damage that affects responses to ACh and KCl. These actions are effectively prevented by commercial antivenom. PMID:25028603

  12. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  13. A summary of lessons learned activities conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbert, B.P.

    1997-01-01

    A series of lessons learned studies have been conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The purpose of these lessons learned reports are to summarize knowledge and experience gained across a number of research project. This paper presents a summary of main issues addressed in four of these lessons learned projects. These are concerned with software development and quality assurance, software reliability, methods for test and evaluation of developed systems, and the evaluation of system design features

  14. "Frankenstein." [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Melanie

    Based on Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that active readers interpret a novel (its characters, plot, setting, and theme) in different ways; and the great literature can be and has been adapted in many ways over time. The main activity of the lesson involves students…

  15. Validation of an observation tool to assess physical activity-promoting physical education lessons in high schools: SOFIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Stuart J; Weaver, R Glenn; Johnson, Siobhan; Rawlinson, Jack

    2018-05-01

    SOFIT+ is an observation tool to measure teacher practices related to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) promotion during physical education (PE). The objective of the study was to examine the validity of SOFIT+ during high school PE lessons. This cross-sectional, observational study tested the construct validity of SOFIT+ in boys' and girls' high school PE lessons. Twenty-one PE lessons were video-recorded and retrospectively coded using SOFIT+. Students wore hip-mounted accelerometers during lessons as an objective measure of MVPA. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of students engaging in MVPA during different teacher practices represented by observed individual codes and a combined SOFIT+ index-score. Fourteen individual SOFIT+ variables demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with girls' and boys' MVPA. Observed lesson segments identified as high MVPA-promoting were related to an increased likelihood of girls engaging in 5-10 (OR=2.86 [95% CI 2.41-3.40]), 15-25 (OR=7.41 [95% CI 6.05-9.06]), and 30-40 (OR=22.70 [95% CI 16.97-30.37])s of MVPA. For boys, observed high-MVPA promoting segments were related to an increased likelihood of engaging in 5-10 (OR=1.71 [95% CI 1.45-2.01]), 15-25 (OR=2.69 [95% CI 2.31-3.13]) and 30-40 (OR=4.26 [95% CI 3.44-5.29])s of MVPA. Teacher practices during high school PE lessons are significantly related to students' participation in MVPA. SOFIT+ is a valid and reliable tool to examine relationships between PE teacher practices and student MVPA during PE. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation of Chitin, Study of Physicochemical Properties and Biopesticide Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Rohyami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitin was preparated from shrimp shells by chemically method. Preparation was carried out by deproteination shrimp shells powder < 150 mesh with 1 - 2 M NaOH, demineralization followed by reaction with 1.0 M HCl and depigmentation with (1 : 2 : 4, v/v of chloroform : methanol : water. Physicochemical properties of chitin was determined from characterization of infrared spectra, ash value, loss on drying and total of nitrogen. Biopesticide activities of chitin was done to pest Bemisia tabaci at guava leaves with various concentration from 0.5 to 2.0 % chitin on 3 % v/v acetic acid. This study indicated that concentration of NaOH on deproteination process effected to its physicochemicals properties. Effectivity of 2 M NaOH on deproteination reaction was higher than 1 M NaOH . The degree of chitin deacetylation from 2 M NaOH was 13.61% and had lower molar ratio of total nitrogen. The degree of deacetylation of chitin from 1 M NaOH had lower and had higher molar ratio of total nitrogen. Physicochemicals properties of chitin quite an impact on its ability to reduce pest Bemisia tabaci. Biopesticide activity assay showed that treatment for 2 days on average mortality rate of 13.83%. Deacetylation of chitin which has a higher degree have a greaterability biopesticide with a mortality rate of up to 38.24%. This study the effect of deproteination process to biopesticide activities of chitin.Key Words : chitin, degree of deacetilation, molar ratio, biopesticide, Bemisia tabaci

  17. Examining the Delivery Modes of Metacognitive Awareness and Active Reading Lessons in a College Nonmajors Introductory Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra M. Hill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research supports the role of metacognitive strategies to enhance reading comprehension. This study measured the effectiveness of online versus face-to-face metacognitive and active reading skills lessons introduced by Biology faculty to college students in a non-majors introductory biology course. These lessons were delivered in two lectures either online (Group 1: N = 154 or face-to-face (Group 2: N = 152. Previously validated pre- and post-surveys were used to collect and compare data by paired and independent t-test analysis (α = 0.05. Pre- and post-survey data showed a statistically significant improvement in both groups in metacognitive awareness (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively and reading comprehension (p < 0.001 for both groups. When comparing the delivery mode of these lessons, no difference was detected between the online and face-to-face instruction for metacognitive awareness (pre- p = 0.619, post- p = 0.885. For reading comprehension, no difference in gains was demonstrated between online and face-to-face (p = 0.381, however, differences in pre- and post- test scores was measured (pre- p = 0.005, post- p = 0.038. This study suggests that biology instructors can easily introduce effective metacognitive awareness and active reading lessons into their course, either through online or face-to-face instruction.

  18. A Rooster and a Bean Seed. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelyuk, Julia

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a description of the lesson; appropriate age level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subject areas; instructional objectives;…

  19. Greek Mythology: Cultures and Art. ArtsEdge Curricula, Lessons and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Charles

    The visual arts offer aesthetic, perceptual, creative, and intellectual opportunities. This lesson points out that by creating and painting mythological characters, students will improve their ability to analyze, reorganize, critique, and create. The lesson also intends for fourth-grade students to gain insight into Greek culture through the…

  20. Moderate-to-vigorous physically active academic lessons and academic engagement in children with and without a social disadvantage: a within subject experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W; Bosker, Roel J; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-04-19

    Integration of physical active academic lessons in the school curriculum may be an innovative way to improve academic outcomes. This study examined the effect of physically active academic lessons (Fit en Vaardig op school) on academic engagement of socially disadvantaged children and children without this disadvantage. In addition, the relationship between lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and academic engagement was examined. From four elementary schools, 86 children who participated in the 22-weeks intervention were recruited (23 socially disadvantaged children). Academic engagement was determined by observing time-on-task during three classroom observation moments (start, midway and end observation). Every moment consisted of lesson observations after intervention lessons (post-intervention) and after regular classroom lessons (post-control). Differences in time-on-task between socially disadvantaged children and children without this disadvantage were analyzed using independent samples t-test. Differences between post-intervention and post-control observations were analyzed using multilevel analysis. Heart rate monitors measured the lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. The relationship between percentage of moderate to vigorous physical activity during the intervention lessons and time-on-task was analyzed by calculation of partial correlations. Time-on-task of socially disadvantaged children was lower than that of children without this disadvantage, differences were significant at the start post-control (t(65) = 2.39, p < 0.05) and post-intervention (t(71) = 2.75, p < 0.05) observation and at the midway post-control (t(68) = 2.45, p < 0.05) observation. Multilevel analysis showed that the time-on-task of all children was significantly higher during post-intervention in comparison with post-control lessons (ES = 0.41). No significant difference was found at the start observation, but

  1. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Wang Geun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-Ro, Suncheon, Jeollanam-Do 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Balathanigaimani, M.S., E-mail: msbala@rgipt.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Ratapur Chowk, Rae Bareli, 229316 Uttar Pradesh (India); Moon, Hee, E-mail: hmoon@jnu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Highly porous carbon materials from Mongolian anthracite by chemical activation. • Cheaper and eco-friendly activation process has been employed. • Activated carbons with graphitic structure and energetically heterogeneous surface. • Surface hydrophobicity and porosity of the activated carbons can be controlled. - Abstract: Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816–2063 m{sup 2}/g and of 0.55–1.61 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  2. Mixed method evaluation of the Virtual Traveller physically active lesson intervention: An analysis using the RE-AIM framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2018-02-02

    Physically active lessons integrating movement into academic content are a way to increase children's physical activity levels. Virtual Traveller was a physically active lesson intervention set in Year 4 (aged 8-9) primary school classes in Greater London, UK. Implemented by classroom teachers, it was a six-week intervention providing 10-min physically active Virtual Field Trips three times a week. The aim of this paper is to report the process evaluation of the Virtual Traveller randomized controlled trial according to RE-AIM framework criteria (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance). A mixed methods approach to evaluation was conducted with five intervention group classes. Six sources of data were collected via informed consent logs, teacher session logs, teacher and pupil questionnaires, teacher interviews and pupil focus groups. High participation and low attrition rates were identified (Reach) alongside positive evaluations of Virtual Traveller sessions from pupil and teachers (Effectiveness). Participants were from more deprived and ethnic backgrounds than local and national averages, with Virtual Traveller having the potential to be a free intervention (Adoption). 70% of sessions were delivered overall (Implementation) but no maintenance of the programme was evident at three month follow-up (Maintenance). Mixed method evaluation of Virtual Traveller showed potential for it to be implemented as a low-cost physically active lesson intervention in UK primary schools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tahmad3@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmed, Jahangeer [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Al-Shihri, Ayed S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m{sup 2}/g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m{sup 2/}g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl{sub 2}, however, NaBH{sub 4} produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m{sup 2}/g for 7 nm and 269 m{sup 2}/g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H{sup +} efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  4. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna; Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Al-Shihri, Ayed S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m 2 /g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m 2/ g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl 2 and NaBH 4 as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl 2 , however, NaBH 4 produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m 2 /g for 7 nm and 269 m 2 /g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H + efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  5. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingjin; Ge, Liming; Lyu, Yongbo; Zi, Yaxin; Li, Xinying; Li, Defu; Mu, Changdao

    2017-10-15

    The oxidized κ-carrageenans with different oxidation levels were prepared through the hydrogen peroxide and copper sulfate redox system. The oxidation level of oxidized κ-carrageenan was successfully controlled by adjusting the dosage of hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that the microtopography of oxidized κ-carrageenan changed from rough granules to smooth flakes, mainly resulting from the easily melting property of oxidized κ-carrageenan induced by introduced carboxyl and aldehyde groups. Especially, the antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenans against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was systematically investigated. The results showed that the oxidized κ-carrageenan could damage the bacterial cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane and suppress the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The oxidized κ-carrageenan possessed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, which may be used as a new antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of polio eradication activities on routine immunization: lessons from the 2013 outbreak response in Somali region of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tafesse, Belete; Tekle, Ephrem; Wondwossen, Liya; Bogale, Mengistu; Fiona, Braka; Nsubuga, Peter; Tomas, Karengera; Kassahun, Aron; Kathleen, Gallagher; Teka, Aschalew

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia experienced several WPV importations with a total of 10 WPV1 cases confirmed during the 2013 outbreak alone before it is closed in 2015. We evaluated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), including lessons learned for their effect on the routine immunization program during the 2013 polio outbreak in Somali regional state. Methods We used descriptive study to review documents and analyse routine health information system reports from the polio outbreak affected Som...

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon Fibers from Liquefied Wood by ZnCl2 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigao Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activated carbon fibers (ACFs were prepared from liquefied wood by chemical activation with ZnCl2, with a particular focus on the effects of temperature and ZnCl2: liquefied wood-based fiber (LWF ratio on yield, porous texture, and surface chemistry. The characterization and properties of these ACFs were investigated by nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. When using a 6:1 impregnation ratio, the specific surface area (SBET of the resultant ACFs was as high as 1423 m2/g. The effect of an increase in impregnation ratio on the porosity of ACFs was stronger than that of an increase in the activation temperature. However, the former had a weaker impact on the surface chemistry and structure. It was also found that the yields of ACFs obtained by ZnCl2 activation were higher than those obtained by physical activation. Besides, the prepared ACFs presented higher adsorption than other raw materials in the adsorption test, indicating that ACFs prepared from LWF by ZnCl2 activation could be used as an adsorbent for the adsorption of medium size organic compounds.

  8. Lessons Learned: Mechanical Component and Tribology Activities in Support of Return to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2017-01-01

    The February 2003 loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia resulted in NASA Management revisiting every critical system onboard this very complex, reusable space vehicle in a an effort to Return to Flight. Many months after the disaster, contact between NASA Johnson Space Center and NASA Glenn Research Center evolved into an in-depth assessment of the actuator drive systems for the Rudder Speed Brake and Body Flap Systems. The actuators are CRIT 1-1 systems that classifies them as failure of any of the actuators could result in loss of crew and vehicle. Upon further evaluation of these actuator systems and the resulting issues uncovered, several research activities were initiated, conducted, and reported to the NASA Space Shuttle Program Management. The papers contained in this document are the contributions of many researchers from NASA Glenn Research Center and Marshall Space Flight Center as part of a Lessons Learned on mechanical actuation systems as used in space applications. Many of the findings contained in this document were used as a basis to safely Return to Flight for the remaining Space Shuttle Fleet until their retirement.

  9. Effect of Active Lessons on Physical Activity, Academic, and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie; Murtagh, Elaine M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of classroom-based physical activity interventions that integrate academic content and assess the effectiveness of the interventions on physical activity, learning, facilitators of learning, and health outcomes. Method: Six electronic databases (ERIC, PubMed, Google Scholar,…

  10. Assessment of activated carbon prepared from corncob by chemical activation with phosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal O. El-Sayed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Corncob, which is the main waste from corn agricultures in Egypt, has been used as a raw material for the preparation of different activated carbons. Activated carbons (ACs were prepared by chemical activation with concentrated H3PO4 acid; followed by pyrolysis at 400, 500 and 600 °C. Different ACs have been used for the removal of methylene blue (MB dye from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed as a function of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and pH. Adsorption data were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Adsorption of MB on AC1 (R2=0.9868 and AC2 (R2=0.9810 followed Langmuir model with maximum monolayer sorption capacity of 28.65 and 17.57 mg/g, respectively. Adsorption onto AC3 was better fitted to Freundlich isotherm model (R2=0.9823.

  11. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from pistachio nut shells via microwave-induced chemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, pistachio nut shell, a biomass residue abundantly available from the pistachio nut processing industries, was utilized as a feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon (PSAC) via microwave assisted KOH activation. The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. The porosity, functional and surface chemistry were featured by means of low temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result showed that the BET surface area, Langmuir surface area, and total pore volume of PSAC were 700.53 m 2 g -1 , 1038.78 m 2 g -1 and 0.375 m 3 g -1 , respectively. The adsorptive property of PSAC was tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. Equilibrium data was best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model, showing a monolayer adsorption capacity of 296.57 mg g -1 . The study revealed the potentiality of microwave-induced activation as a viable activation method. -- Highlights: → Pistachio nut shell activated carbon (PSAC) was prepared via microwave assisted KOH activation. → The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. → BET surface area of PSAC was 700.53 m 2 /g. → Monolayer adsorption capacity of PSAC for MB was 296.57 mg/g.

  12. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from pistachio nut shells via microwave-induced chemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K. Y. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    In this work, pistachio nut shell, a biomass residue abundantly available from the pistachio nut processing industries, was utilized as a feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon (PSAC) via microwave assisted KOH activation. The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. The porosity, functional and surface chemistry were featured by means of low temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result showed that the BET surface area, Langmuir surface area, and total pore volume of PSAC were 700.53 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, 1038.78 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.375 m{sup 3} g{sup -1}, respectively. The adsorptive property of PSAC was tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. Equilibrium data was best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model, showing a monolayer adsorption capacity of 296.57 mg g{sup -1}. The study revealed the potentiality of microwave-induced activation as a viable activation method. -- Highlights: {yields} Pistachio nut shell activated carbon (PSAC) was prepared via microwave assisted KOH activation. {yields} The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. {yields} BET surface area of PSAC was 700.53 m{sup 2}/g. {yields} Monolayer adsorption capacity of PSAC for MB was 296.57 mg/g.

  13. Self-determined motivation and students' physical activity during structured physical education lessons and free choice periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Sabiston, Catherine M; Raedeke, Thomas D; Ha, Amy S C; Sum, Raymond K W

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations have suggested that physical education (PE) should play a central role in increasing adolescents' physical activity (PA) levels. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between students' self-determined motivation and their PA behavior during a structured PE lesson led by their teacher and a free-choice period in which they were not required to be active. 528 Hong Kong students (mean age=15.78 years) participated in this study in April and May 2007. Situational Motivation Scale scores were used to form high and low self-determined motivation groups. Students wore a pedometer during a 20-minute structured basketball lesson and a 20-minute free choice period, during which they did not receive instruction. ANOVA revealed that self-determined motivation and PE class environments which provided students opportunities to make choices were related to greater PA. Furthermore, the difference in PA between the high and low self-determined groups was greater in the free-choice condition than the structured lesson, suggesting that self-determined motivation is especially important when students are not supervised. Findings indicated that promoting self-determined motivation may be an effective means of ensuring that PE programs are able to increase PA levels, foster self-initiated PA behaviors, and enhance adolescents' health.

  14. Lessons for Teaching Art Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Terry, Ed.; Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    This collection of lessons is meant to be a practical guide to help teachers engage children in art criticism. The lessons generally follow a similar format. Most suggest an age group but may be modified for use with younger or older students. Several authors suggest variations and extensions for lessons that include studio activities. A broad…

  15. Advanced Curation Activities at NASA: Preparation for Upcoming Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Evans, C. A.; McCubbin, F. M.; Harrington, A. D.; Regberg, A. B.; Snead, C. J.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2017-07-01

    NASA Curation cares for NASA's astromaterials and performs advanced curation so as to improve current practices and prepare for future collections. Cold curation, microbial monitoring, contamination control/knowledge and other aspects are reviewed.

  16. Effect of preparation duration diminution in shot put through neurovegetative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dittmar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, time allocated to athletes concentration has been reduced to 1 minute. Increased activation and focused attention are thought to be important operations which influence performance during preparation. The aim of the study was to test whether reducing preparation time has an effect on subjects’ mental activity and consequently on performance. Ten subjects took part in the experiment. Each subject had to perform 14 throws: a 7 with preparation b 7 with no preparation. Autonomic nervous system activity was continuously recorded through six variables (2 electrodermal, 2 thermovascular and 2 cardiorespiratory variables. Performance was comparable in preparation and non-preparation modalities. Subjects increase their activation before throwing, however more rapidly without preparation time. Thus, performance was obtained through the same activation level whatever the time allocated to prepare. Shot-put performance seems to be dependent upon execution quality but also on reaching an optimal activation level. Phasic autonomic responses (related to focused attention and movement programming were recorded during preparation and execution. Only a weak relationship was evidenced between vegetative responses in preparation and execution phases. Thus, vegetative responses during the preparation phase did not attest mental operations such as focusing attention on a technical aspect.

  17. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon produced from pomegranate seeds by ZnCl 2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Erdem, Murat; Tay, Turgay; Karagöz, Selhan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, pomegranate seeds, a by-product of fruit juice industry, were used as precursor for the preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation with ZnCl 2. The influence of process variables such as the carbonization temperature and the impregnation ratio on textural and chemical-surface properties of the activated carbons was studied. When using the 2.0 impregnation ratio at the carbonization temperature of 600 °C, the specific surface area of the resultant carbon is as high as 978.8 m 2 g -1. The results showed that the surface area and total pore volume of the activated carbons at the lowest impregnation ratio and the carbonization temperature were achieved as high as 709.4 m 2 g -1 and 0.329 cm 3 g -1. The surface area was strongly influenced by the impregnation ratio of activation reagent and the subsequent carbonization temperature.

  18. Modeling and preparation of activated carbon for methane storage II. Neural network modeling and experimental studies of the activated carbon preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namvar-Asl, Mahnaz; Soltanieh, Mohammad; Rashidi, Alimorad

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the activated carbon (AC) preparation for methane storage. Due to the need for the introduction of a model, correlating the effective preparation parameters with the characteristic parameters of the activated carbon, a model was developed by neural networks. In a previous study [Namvar-Asl M, Soltanieh M, Rashidi A, Irandoukht A. Modeling and preparation of activated carbon for methane storage: (I) modeling of activated carbon characteristics with neural networks and response surface method. Proceedings of CESEP07, Krakow, Poland; 2007.], the model was designed with the MATLAB toolboxes providing the best response for the correlation of the characteristics parameters and the methane uptake of the activated carbon. Regarding this model, the characteristics of the activated carbon were determined for a target methane uptake. After the determination of the characteristics, the demonstrated model of this work guided us to the selection of the effective AC preparation parameters. According to the modeling results, some samples were prepared and their methane storage capacity was measured. The results were compared with those of a target methane uptake (special amount of methane storage). Among the designed models, one of them illustrated the methane storage capacity of 180 v/v. It was finally found that the neural network modeling for the assay of the efficient AC preparation parameters was financially feasible, with respect to the determined methane storage capacity. This study could be useful for the development of the Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) technology

  19. Immunoglobulin preparations for intravenous administration. A review of their biologic activities and comparison of various preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H

    1994-01-01

    procedures are employed by different commercial suppliers of immunoglobulins, and from the literature it appears that various important biologic functions, e.g., opsonic activity, complement fixation, and Fc-receptor function, are subject to alterations during the preparation. The best preservation...

  20. Considerations for preparing a randomized population health intervention trial: lessons from a South African–Canadian partnership to improve the health of health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalee Yassi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community-based cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs are increasingly being conducted to address pressing global health concerns. Preparations for clinical trials are well-described, as are the steps for multi-component health service trials. However, guidance is lacking for addressing the ethical and logistic challenges in (cluster RCTs of population health interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Objective: We aimed to identify the factors that population health researchers must explicitly consider when planning RCTs within North–South partnerships. Design: We reviewed our experiences and identified key ethical and logistic issues encountered during the pre-trial phase of a recently implemented RCT. This trial aimed to improve tuberculosis (TB and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevention and care for health workers by enhancing workplace assessment capability, addressing concerns about confidentiality and stigma, and providing onsite counseling, testing, and treatment. An iterative framework was used to synthesize this analysis with lessons taken from other studies. Results: The checklist of critical factors was grouped into eight categories: 1 Building trust and shared ownership; 2 Conducting feasibility studies throughout the process; 3 Building capacity; 4 Creating an appropriate information system; 5 Conducting pilot studies; 6 Securing stakeholder support, with a view to scale-up; 7 Continuously refining methodological rigor; and 8 Explicitly addressing all ethical issues both at the start and continuously as they arise. Conclusion: Researchers should allow for the significant investment of time and resources required for successful implementation of population health RCTs within North–South collaborations, recognize the iterative nature of the process, and be prepared to revise protocols as challenges emerge.

  1. Preparation of activated Carbons from extracted waste biomass by chemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toteva, V.; Nickolov, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Novel biomass precursors for the production of activated carbons (ACs) were studied. ACs were prepared from extracted coffee husks and extracted spent ground coffee - separately or as mixtures with 10, 20 and 30 mass % Bulgarian lignite coal. Activation by potassium hydroxide was employed for all samples. The results obtained show that the surface and porous parameters of the ACs depend on the nature of the initial materials used. The specific surface areas (BET) and the microporosities of ACs obtained from extracted spent ground coffee mixed with 20 mass % Bulgarian lignite coals, are greater than those of the ACs from extracted coffee husks. It is likely that the reason for this result is the chemical composition of the precursors. The coffee husks have less lignin and more holocellulose. The latter undergoes more significant destructive changes in the process of chemical activation. On the contrary, waste ground coffee precursors contain more lignin and less holocellulose. As a result, after the chemical activation, the carbons prepared from extracted spent ground coffee exhibit better porous parameters and higher specific surface areas. key words: activated carbons, extraction, waste biomass

  2. Preparation and characterization of alkali-activated white belite cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahir, Mohammed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Activated white cement clinkers with a theoretical 60% (wt belite (dicalcium silicate content were prepared at a temperature 100 ºC lower than used to manufacture conventional white Portland cement clinkers. Activation was achieved by adding variable amounts of K2CO 3 or Na2CO 3 to the raw mixes. Rietveld quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction findings showed that adding the alkalis stabilized the high temperature belite polymorphs. When 2.0% (wt of Na2O was added, the composition (by wt found was 16.4(4% alpha-C2S, 16.7(8% alpha’-H-C2S, 23.2(6% beta-C2S, 32.7(7% total C3S, 9.5(2% orthorhombic C3A and 1.50(5% free lime. Due to the high volatilization rate of K2O under the experimental conditions, it stabilized the alpha-type C2S less effectively than Na2O. A calorimetric study was likewise performed to correlate the phase composition with early age hydration (behaviour.Se han preparado clínkeres blancos activados con un porcentaje en peso teórico de belita (silicato dicálcico del 60%, a una temperatura 100 ºC menor que los clínkeres Portland blancos convencionales. El proceso de activación se ha llevado a cabo añadiendo a las mezclas crudas cantidades variables de K2CO3 o Na2CO 3. Utilizando la difracción de rayos-X y la metodología de Rietveld se ha comprobado la estabilización a temperatura ambiente de porcentajes variables de los polimorfos de alta temperatura de la belita por la adición de alcalinos. De hecho, al añadir 2,0% en peso de Na2O se ha obtenido 16,4(4% de alfa-C2S, 16,7(8% de alfa’-H-C2S, 23,2(6% de beta-C2S, 32,7(7% de C3S total, 9,5(2% de C3A ortorrómbico y 1,50(5% de cal libre, porcentajes en peso. Se ha comprobado que el grado de volatilización de los alcalinos, en estas condiciones de preparación, ha sido muy acusado para el K2O, lo que ha provocado una menor estabilización de los polimorfos tipo-alfa-C2S. Además, se ha realizado un estudio calorimétrico para correlacionar el ensamblaje de fases con

  3. Management and integration of engineering and construction activities: Lessons learned from the AP1000R nuclear power plant China project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, M. C.; Ebeling-Koning, D.; Evans, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The lessons learned during the early phase of design engineering and construction activities for the AP1000 China Project can be applied to any project involving multiple disciplines and multiple organizations. Implementation of a first-of-a-kind design to directly support construction activities utilizing resources assigned to design development and design delivery creates challenges with prioritization of activities, successful closure of issues, and communication between site organizations and the home office. To ensure successful implementation, teams were assigned and developed to directly support construction activities including prioritization of activities, site communication and ensuring closure of site emergent issues. By developing these teams, the organization is better suited to meet the demands of the construction schedule while continuing with design evolution of a standard plant and engineering delivery for multiple projects. For a successful project, proper resource utilization and prioritization are key for overcoming obstacles and ensuring success of the engineering organization. (authors)

  4. Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ting; Lua, Aik Chong

    2006-01-01

    The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400 deg. C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage of the carbon structure. The microstructures and microcrystallinity of the activated carbons prepared were examined by scanning electron microscope and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively, while Fourier transform infrared spectra determined the changes in the surface functional groups at the various stages of preparation

  5. Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yang [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lua, Aik Chong [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-12-10

    The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400 deg. C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage of the carbon structure. The microstructures and microcrystallinity of the activated carbons prepared were examined by scanning electron microscope and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively, while Fourier transform infrared spectra determined the changes in the surface functional groups at the various stages of preparation.

  6. Studying of the standardization principles of pharmacological activity of recombinant erythropoietin preparations

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Yakovlev; L. A. Gayderova; N. A. Alpatova; T. N. Lobanova; E. L. Postnova; E. I. Yurchikova; T. A. Batuashvili; R. A. Volkova; V. N. Podkuiko; Yu. V. Olefir

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the publications devoted to the structure, functions, mechanism of action of erythropoietin is given in the article. Erythropoietin preparations derived from recombinant DNA technology are a mixture of isoforms with different biological activity, which determine the biological properties pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of medicinal product. Erythropoietin preparations derived by using recombinant DNA technology are a mixture of isoforms with differe...

  7. Surface and Adsorption Properties of Activated Carbon Fabric Prepared from Cellulosic Polymer: Mixed Activation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhati, Surendra; Mahur, J. S.; Choubey, O. N. [Barkatullah Univ., Bhopal (India); Dixit, Mahur Savita [Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopla (India)

    2013-02-15

    In this study, activated carbon fabric was prepared from a cellulose-based polymer (viscose rayon) via a combination of physical and chemical activation (mixed activation) processes by means of CO{sub 2} as a gasifying agent and surface and adsorption properties were evaluated. Experiments were performed to investigate the consequence of activation temperature (750, 800, 850 and 925 .deg. C), activation time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes) and CO{sub 2} flow rate (100, 200, 300 and 400 mL/min) on the surface and adsorption properties of ACF. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K was measured and used for the determination of surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, mesopore volume and pore size distribution using BET, t-plot, DR, BJH and DFT methods, respectively. It was observed that BET surface area and TPV increase with rising activation temperature and time due to the formation of new pores and the alteration of micropores into mesopores. It was also found that activation temperature dominantly affects the surface properties of ACF. The adsorption of iodine and CCl{sub 4} onto ACF was investigated and both were found to correlate with surface area.

  8. Surface and Adsorption Properties of Activated Carbon Fabric Prepared from Cellulosic Polymer: Mixed Activation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Surendra; Mahur, J. S.; Choubey, O. N.; Dixit, Mahur Savita

    2013-01-01

    In this study, activated carbon fabric was prepared from a cellulose-based polymer (viscose rayon) via a combination of physical and chemical activation (mixed activation) processes by means of CO 2 as a gasifying agent and surface and adsorption properties were evaluated. Experiments were performed to investigate the consequence of activation temperature (750, 800, 850 and 925 .deg. C), activation time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes) and CO 2 flow rate (100, 200, 300 and 400 mL/min) on the surface and adsorption properties of ACF. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K was measured and used for the determination of surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, mesopore volume and pore size distribution using BET, t-plot, DR, BJH and DFT methods, respectively. It was observed that BET surface area and TPV increase with rising activation temperature and time due to the formation of new pores and the alteration of micropores into mesopores. It was also found that activation temperature dominantly affects the surface properties of ACF. The adsorption of iodine and CCl 4 onto ACF was investigated and both were found to correlate with surface area

  9. Structural and adsorptive properties of activated carbons prepared by carbonization and activation of resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboda, R; Skubiszewska-Zieba, J; Tomaszewski, W; Gun'ko, V M

    2003-07-15

    Four activated carbons (S1-S4) possessing different structural characteristics were prepared by carbonization of commercial resins (used for ion exchange) and subsequent activation. Their textural parameters were determined on the basis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77.4 K, analyzed by applying several local and overall adsorption isotherm equations. The nature of carbon surface functionalities was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The GC and solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques were applied to study the influence of the texture of carbonaceous materials on their adsorptive properties. The adsorption efficiency of synthesized carbons with respect to alkylhalides used as probe compounds in the GC measurements varied over a range from 28% (C(2)H(3)Cl(3)/S2) to 85% (CHBr(3)/S1) depending on the type of adsorbates and adsorbents. The concentrating efficiency of these carbons in SPE of explosive materials changed over a larger range from 12% (trinitroglycerin/S4) and 13% (trinitrotoluene/S2) up to 100% (octogen/S1). Active carbon prepared using Zerolite 225x8 as a precursor demonstrated better results than other carbons in two types of adsorption with average values of the efficiency of 75.4% for explosives and 60.8% for alkylhalides.

  10. Preparing for Evaluation: Lessons from the Evaluability Assessment of the Teagle Foundation's College-Community Connections Initiative. Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Funders, policymakers, and program leaders recognize the value of high-quality evidence. To make good use of a program evaluation, initiatives must contend with a set of fundamental questions first. Some of these are about the initiative itself: What outcomes does it seek to affect? Are daily activities in line with long-term goals? Others are…

  11. MULTIPLE-FUNCTION ACTIVITY OF THE PREPARATION ARTAFIDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubov Demianovna Shamanskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents test results of the preparation Artafidin that fights parasitic fauna of plants, animals and birds. Artafidin effectiveness against various kinds of aphids has been estimated 96.5-100% on horticultural crops, 97.4-98% on melons and 100% on vegetable crops. The preparation has proved to be highly selective towards the beneficial fauna. No resistance to Artafidin against Aphis pomi Deg. was found at its check studies at a long-term apple station. Artafidin has shown 100% effectiveness against the ixodic ticks Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer at a concentration of 4% while performing treatment with spray material and at a concentration of 3% while using foam. High sensitivity to Artafidin in the menoponidae Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch, 1818, being parasites on chickens, has been found. Ovicide effect of the preparation against the parasite ensures a prolonged protective effect. The use of Artafidin against various kinds of parasitic fauna removes a number of restrictions on the use of protection products, contributes to ecologically friendly agricultural production and cattle breeding as well as provides ecological security.

  12. ANDRA 2009 activity report: managing today to prepare the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This activity report first presents the four-year contract between the French State and the ANDRA (the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes), the personnel working for ANDRA. Then, it presents various activities of ANDRA in the field of the management of radioactive materials and pollutions (material and waste survey, security of polluted sites, collecting radioactive wastes and objects, public information), its operational activities (evolution and project of storage sites), its design activities for storage sites for different types of wastes (life and activity). It also describes activities in the fields of international expertise and of protection of industrial concepts

  13. Successes, Challenges and Lessons Learned for Recruiting, Engaging and Preparing a Diverse Student Population for 21st Century Careers in Ocean Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkston, B. E.; Garza, C.

    2015-12-01

    Diversity within the Ocean Sciences workforce is still underperforming relative to other scientific disciplines, a problem that will be only be solved by recruiting, engaging and retaining a more diverse student population. The Monterey Bay Regional Ocean Science Research Experiences for Undergraduates program is housed at California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB), an HSI with strong connections to multiple regional community colleges and other Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) in the CSU system. From this unique position, 11 sophomore and junior-level undergraduate students are recruited per year from academic institutions where research opportunities in STEM are limited and from groups historically underrepresented in the Ocean Sciences, including women, underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, and veterans. During the program, students engage in a 10-week original research project guided by a faculty research mentor in one of four themes: Oceanography, Marine Biology and Ecology, Ocean Engineering, and Marine Geology. In addition to research, students engage in rigorous weekly professional development workshops in which they practice critical thinking, ethical decision-making, peer review, writing and oral communication skills. These workshops include tangible products such as an NSF-style proposal paper, Statement of Purpose and CV modelled for the SACNAS Travel Award Application, research abstract, scientific report and oral presentation. To help retain students in Ocean Sciences, students build community during the REU by living together in the CSUMB dormitories; post-REU, students stay connected through an online facebook group, LinkedIn page and group webinars. To date, the REU has supported 22 students in two cohorts (2014, 2015) and here we present successes, challenges and lessons learned for a program designed to prepare students for 21st century Ocean Science careers.

  14. New methodology for source location and activity determination in preparation of repairing or decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toubon, H.; Boudergui, K.; Pin, P.; Nohl, B.; Lefevre, S.; Chiron, M.

    2006-01-01

    The operations of dismantling of nuclear installations are often difficult due to the lack of knowledge about the position, the identification and the radiological characteristics of the contamination. To avoid the manual mapping and simply sampling and radiochemical analysis, which takes time and causes doses new tools are now used: - CARTOGAM to detect the position of the activity and the relative dose rates of the different hot spots, - NaI, CZT or Ge gamma spectrometers to characterize the major radionuclides, - a model with ISOCS gamma attenuation code or MERCURAD-PASCALYS gamma attenuation and dose rate evaluation code CARTOGAM and MERCURAD were developed in collaboration with CEA and COGEMA. All these tools are used to build a complete methodology to give adapted solutions to the nuclear facilities. This methodology helps to prepare for and execute decontamination and dismantling activities. After describing the methodology, examples are given of its use in preparation of repairing at an EDF NPP site and in dismantling operations at a CEA site. These examples give concrete insights into their significance and the productivity gains they offer. (authors)

  15. Preparation of activated carbon from western Canadian high rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacik, G.; Wong, B.; Furimsky, E. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada). Coal and Hydrocarbon Processing Dept.

    1995-01-01

    Partial steam gasification of Mt. Klappan anthracite and Cascade semianthracite with char conversion greater than 60%, produced activated carbons with surface areas greater than 1000 m{sup 2}/g. The pore structures of the activated carbons were predominantly microporous and mesoporous. The proportions of macropores were of the order of 2%. Fuel gas produced during steam activation of chars contained predominantly combustible gases i.e. 45-55% H{sub 2} and 30-40% CO whereas the amount of CO{sub 2} ranged between 5 and 15%. Correlations of char conversion with operating parameters and surface areas were developed and used to predict the activation process. Selected samples of activated carbons were characterized for the water and wastewater treatment as well as for gold recovery. 7 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. The preparation of synthetic standards for use in instrumental neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, B.T.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Erasmus, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the formulation and preparation of synthetic standards suitable for the routine analysis of minerals, ores, and ore concentrates by instrumental neutron activation. Fifteen standards were prepared, each containing from one to seven elements. The standards contain forty-four elements that produce isotopes with half-lives longer than 12 hours. An evaluation of the accuracy and precision of the method of preparation is given

  17. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of immobilized composite photocatalyst (titania nanoparticle/activated carbon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Arami, Mokhtar; Zhang, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Dyes were decolorized and degraded using novel immobilized composite photocatalyst. → Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates where, they were further oxidized slowly to CO 2 . → Nitrate, chloride and sulfate anions were detected as the photocatalytic mineralization products of dyes. → Novel immobilized composite photocatalyst is the most effective novel immobilized composite photocatalyst to degrade of textile dyes. - Abstract: An immobilized composite photocatalyst, titania (TiO 2 ) nanoparticle/activated carbon (AC), was prepared and its photocatalytic activity on the degradation of textile dyes was tested. AC was prepared using Canola hull. Basic Red 18 (BR18) and Basic Red 46 (BR46) were used as model dyes. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometry, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ion chromatography (IC) analyses were employed. The effects of reaction parameters such as weight percent (wt.%) of activated carbon, pH, dye concentration and anions (NO 3 - , Cl - , SO 4 2- , HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- ) were investigated on dye degradation. Data showed that dyes were decolorized and degraded using novel immobilized composite photocatalyst. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates where, they were further oxidized slowly to CO 2 . Nitrate, chloride and sulfate anions were detected as the photocatalytic mineralization products of dyes. Results show that novel immobilized composite photocatalyst with 2 wt.% of AC is the most effective novel immobilized composite photocatalyst to degrade of textile dyes.

  18. Preparation of activated carbon from a renewable agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... good and cheap agricultural residue for the production of activated carbon, with carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen ... fuel-wood because household energy requirements are met with ..... Thin layer solar drying and mathematical.

  19. Preparing students for research activities in the context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Content of the innovative didactics of the technical university presented as a ... tasks, comprehensive, end-to-end research projects, interactive forms and methods; ... for research activities, program-target management system, resource model ...

  20. Ultrasonic treatment of Viscozyme Cassava C preparation for improving cellulase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tra, Tran Thi Thu; Vu, Huynh Minh; Man, Le Van Viet

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the effects of ultrasonic treatment on the cellulolytic activity of Viscozyme Cassava C preparation were investigated. The biocatalyst was treated with ultrasound at different enzyme concentrations (from 0.02 to 19.50 mg protein/mL), ultrasonic powers (from 0 to 12 W/mL) and times (from 0 to 120 seconds). The highest cellulase activity was achieved when the enzyme preparation was ultrasonicated at 7.3 W/mL for 40 sec, under which the cellulase activity increased by 18.1% over the control. The optimal pH and temperature of the sonicated and unsonicated biocatalysts were statistically similar. However, the half-life value of the sonicated preparation at 4 °C was 24.5% higher than that of the unsonicated preparation. This result indicated that ultrasonic treatment of the enzyme preparation could reduce its amount used in biocatalysis.

  1. PREPARING FUTURE TEACHERS TO RISK WARNING IN PEDAGOGICAL ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Maryna Butyrina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to identify the peculiarities of professional activities for teachers’ physical and mental health; to implement comprehensive analysis of the negative impact on teaching profession; to disclose accidents and mental destruction of future teachers’ individuals. The professional health is an integral characteristic of functional state of human mental and physical indicators to assess his/her abilities to a certain professional activities and practice of a given durat...

  2. MgO nanoparticles as antibacterial agent: preparation and activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing, E-mail: tangzhenxing@126.com [Department of Food Science, Anqing, Vocational and Technical College, Anqing, Anhui (China); Lv, Bin-Feng [Date Palm Research Center, King Faisal University, (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-07-15

    Bacterial pollution is a great risk for human health. Nanotechnology offers a way to develop new inorganic antibacterial agents. Nano-inorganic metal oxide has a potential to reduce bacterial contamination. MgO is an important inorganic oxide and has been widely used in many fields. Many studies have shown that MgO nanoparticles have good antibacterial activity. Therefore, in this paper, the main synthesis methods, antibacterial activity and antibacterial mechanisms of MgO nanoparticles are reviewed. (author)

  3. MgO nanoparticles as antibacterial agent: preparation and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Lv, Bin-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pollution is a great risk for human health. Nanotechnology offers a way to develop new inorganic antibacterial agents. Nano-inorganic metal oxide has a potential to reduce bacterial contamination. MgO is an important inorganic oxide and has been widely used in many fields. Many studies have shown that MgO nanoparticles have good antibacterial activity. Therefore, in this paper, the main synthesis methods, antibacterial activity and antibacterial mechanisms of MgO nanoparticles are reviewed. (author)

  4. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenor, Sandro; Carene, Betty; Emmanuel, Evens; Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Gaspard, Sarra

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X(P) (gH(3)PO(4)/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm(3)/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) and the normalized standard deviation Deltaq (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse. Opposite effects governing MB

  5. Monitoring and assessment activities and indications of empathic behavior of the examined teachers during physical education lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Muszkieta

    2015-12-01

    The material of the studies was the physical education teachers of randomly chosen Poznań (Poland schools: primary, grammar, and secondary schools. The studies involved 584 physical education teachers. The studies were conducted in the school year of 1999-2000. For the studies, an observation method was applied consisting in lesson observations during physical education lessons carried out by physical education teachers. The results of the studies form characteristic upward or downward tendencies. The higher the educational stage the higher the percentage value for the teachers who: a assess attitudes and behavior of the students; b monitor and assess knowledge of the students in the field of physical culture; c assess with grades or points motor and organizational skills; d assess verbally tasks’ achievement; e apply and introduce self-monitoring and self-assessment of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and physical fitness of the students. The downward tendencies were observed exclusively for monitoring attitudes and behavior of the students (i.e. having sports outfit, activity, involvement, attendance, etc.. The examined women were characterized by better and more positive empathic behavior. For all parameters, the women appeared to be better.

  6. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Activated carbons have been prepared from Fox nutshell with chemical activation using ZnCl 2 . • The thermal behavior of the raw material and impregnated raw material has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. • The characterizations of the prepared activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, FTIR, XRD, and FESEM. • The BET surface area and total pore volume of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2869 m 2 /g, 2124 m 2 /g, and 1.96 cm 3 /g, respectively. • The microporous surface area, micropore volume, and microporosity percentage of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2124 m 2 /g, 1.68 cm 3 /g, and 85.71%, respectively. - Abstract: High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl 2 as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl 2 /Fox nutshell) ratios (1–2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500–700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at −196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m 2 /g, 2124 m 2 /g, 1.96 cm 3 /g, and 1.68 cm 3 /g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  7. International conference on lessons learned from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the safe termination of nuclear activities. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in cooperation with the European Commission (EC), Nuclear Energy Agency to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA), and the World Nuclear Association (WNA), organized an International Conference on Lessons Learned from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities and the Safe Termination of Nuclear Activities from 11 to 15 December 2006 in Athens, Greece. This Book of Contributed Papers contains technical papers and posters contributed by experts from operating organisations, regulatory bodies, technical support organisations, and other institutions on issues falling within the scope of the Conference. The following main topics were covered: Evolution of national and international policies and criteria for the safe and efficient decommissioning of nuclear facilities and safe termination of nuclear activities; Review of lessons learned from ongoing or completed activities associated with decommissioning; Improvement of safety and efficiency through the use of new and innovative technologies; Practical aspects in the management of material, waste and sites resulting from decommissioning, including the management of waste in the absence of repositories and waste acceptance requirements; Procedures for demonstrating compliance with clearance criteria; Experience from radiological assessments associated with decommissioning; Involvement of the local communities and the impact that decommissioning activities has on them. The presented papers and posters were reviewed and accepted following the guidelines established by the Conference Programme Committee for consideration at the Conference. The material compiled in this Book of Contributed Papers has not undergone rigorous editing by the editorial staff of the IAEA. However, certain modifications were made: a unified format was adopted for all papers; and minor corrections were made in the text where required. Each paper and poster has been indexed

  8. International conference on lessons learned from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the safe termination of nuclear activities. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in cooperation with the European Commission (EC), Nuclear Energy Agency to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA), and the World Nuclear Association (WNA), organized an International Conference on Lessons Learned from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities and the Safe Termination of Nuclear Activities from 11 to 15 December 2006 in Athens, Greece. This Book of Contributed Papers contains technical papers and posters contributed by experts from operating organisations, regulatory bodies, technical support organisations, and other institutions on issues falling within the scope of the Conference. The following main topics were covered: Evolution of national and international policies and criteria for the safe and efficient decommissioning of nuclear facilities and safe termination of nuclear activities; Review of lessons learned from ongoing or completed activities associated with decommissioning; Improvement of safety and efficiency through the use of new and innovative technologies; Practical aspects in the management of material, waste and sites resulting from decommissioning, including the management of waste in the absence of repositories and waste acceptance requirements; Procedures for demonstrating compliance with clearance criteria; Experience from radiological assessments associated with decommissioning; Involvement of the local communities and the impact that decommissioning activities has on them. The presented papers and posters were reviewed and accepted following the guidelines established by the Conference Programme Committee for consideration at the Conference. The material compiled in this Book of Contributed Papers has not undergone rigorous editing by the editorial staff of the IAEA. However, certain modifications were made: a unified format was adopted for all papers; and minor corrections were made in the text where required. Each paper and poster has been indexed

  9. PREPARING FUTURE TEACHERS TO RISK WARNING IN PEDAGOGICAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Butyrina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify the peculiarities of professional activities for teachers’ physical and mental health; to implement comprehensive analysis of the negative impact on teaching profession; to disclose accidents and mental destruction of future teachers’ individuals. The professional health is an integral characteristic of functional state of human mental and physical indicators to assess his/her abilities to a certain professional activities and practice of a given duration over a period of life and endurance to adverse factors that accompany this activity. Violation of a teacher’s mental and physical health, signs of combustion syndrome affect the students’ health. So the problem of preserving and strengthening teachers’ health should be a priority in his/her life and among professional problems; the main object of study is future teachers’ training in the course “Health in the field (of education”. Distinctive features of the teaching profession reflect the state of his/her health: working as a teacher is both mental and physical activity, which combines creative, organizational and research ones; high density of interpersonal contacts; a lot of stress, high nervous and emotional tension; periodic need for the scheduled amount of work in a tightly regulated period; special responsibility for students and colleagues; the need to make operational decisions; significant mobilization of analyzers, attention, and memory functions. In educational activities along with common risk factors for mental health (such as neuro-emotional stress, information overload, hypokinesia there are specific risk factors such as a significant voice load, prevalence static load, a large amount of visual work, violation of work regime and rest points. The unfavorable effects of teaching profession, such as neuro-psychiatric and physical (static overloading teachers, in addition to occupational diseases can also lead to accidents due to

  10. Actively preparing for pregnancy is associated with healthier lifestyle of women during the preconception period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, Marjolein; van Stel, Henk F; Franx, Arie; Koster, Maria P H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether actively preparing for pregnancy by women is associated with lifestyle changes during the preconception period. DESIGN: retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: primary care community midwifery practice in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: convenience sample of 283

  11. A systematic review and meta-analysis of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels in secondary school physical education lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Jenna L; Sutherland, Rachel; Williams, Amanda J; Campbell, Elizabeth; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2017-04-24

    Schools play an important role in physical activity promotion for adolescents. The systematic review aimed to determine the proportion of secondary (middle and high) school physical education (PE) lesson time that students spend in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and to assess if MVPA was moderated by school level (middle and high school), type of physical activity measurement and type of PE activities. A systematic search of nine electronic databases was conducted (PROSPERO2014:CRD42014009649). Studies were eligible if they were published between 2005 and 2014; written in English; assessed MVPA in PE lessons of secondary (middle and high) school students; and used a quantitative MVPA measure (i.e., accelerometry, heart rate monitoring, pedometers or observational measures). Two reviewers examined the retrieved articles, assessed risk of bias, and performed data extraction. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate a pooled estimate of the percent of PE lesson time spent in MVPA and to assess moderator effects where data allowed. The search yielded 5,132 potentially relevant articles; 28 articles representing 25 studies (7 middle and 18 high school) from seven countries were included. Twelve studies measured MVPA through observational measures, seven used accelerometers, five used heart rate monitors and four used pedometers (including three studies using a mix of measures). Meta-analysis of 15 studies found that overall, students spent a mean (95% CI) of 40.5% (34.8-46.2%) of PE in MVPA. Middle school students spent 48.6% (41.3-55.9%) of the lesson in MVPA (n = 5 studies) and high school students 35.9% (28.3-43.6%) (n = 10 studies). Studies measuring MVPA using accelerometers (n = 5) showed that students spent 34.7% (25.1-44.4%) of the lesson in MVPA, while 44.4% (38.3-50.5%) was found for lessons assessed via observation (n = 9), 43.1% (24.3-61.9%) of the lesson for a heart rate based study, and 35.9% (31.0-40.8%) for a

  12. Invention activities as preparation for learning laboratory data handling skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James

    2012-10-01

    Undergraduate physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals, and usually enough of them to cause cognitive overload for the student. Our recent findings align well with studies indicating that students often exit a physics lab without having properly learned how to handle real data. The value of having students explore the underlying structure of a problem before being able to solve it has been shown as an effective way to ready students for learning. Borrowing on findings from the fields of education and cognitive psychology, we use ``invention activities'' to precede direct instruction and bolster learning. In this talk I will show some of what we have learned about students' data handling skills, explain how an invention activity works, and share some observations of successful transfer.

  13. Binding of nickel and zinc ions with activated carbon prepared from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon was prepared from sugar cane fibre by carbonizing at 500 oC for 30 minutes. This was followed by activation with ammonium chloride. The activated carbon was characterised in terms of pH, bulk density, ash content, surface area and surface charge. Equilibrium sorption of nickel and zinc ions by the ...

  14. The NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence - Phase I Lessons and Phase II Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Peter [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada). Uranium and Radioactive Waste Div.; Pescatore, Claudio [Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    2006-09-15

    The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was created under a mandate from the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) to facilitate the sharing of international experience in addressing the societal dimension of radioactive waste management. It explores means of ensuring an effective dialogue with the public, and considers ways to strengthen confidence in decision-making processes. The Forum was launched in August 2000 and completed its first phase in 00 . Major findings and principles for action were published under the title of 'Learning and Adapting to Societal Requirements'. Activities of the FSC were also reported at Valdor 2003. In the second mandate of the FSC, there is continued use of a variety of tools and formats to allow dialogue among stakeholders in an atmosphere of mutual trust: national workshops and community visits, topical sessions, and desk and interview studies. In Phase II, the FSC is exploring: the link between research, development and demonstration and stakeholder confidence; cultural and organisational changes in RWM institutions; the role of media relations and outreach opportunities; tools and processes to help society prepare and manage decisions through stakeholder involvement; and increasing the value of waste management facilities to local communities. Workshops have been held in Germany and Spain. A large set of publications makes both Phase I and Phase II findings widely available.

  15. The NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence - Phase I Lessons and Phase II Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was created under a mandate from the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) to facilitate the sharing of international experience in addressing the societal dimension of radioactive waste management. It explores means of ensuring an effective dialogue with the public, and considers ways to strengthen confidence in decision-making processes. The Forum was launched in August 2000 and completed its first phase in 00 . Major findings and principles for action were published under the title of 'Learning and Adapting to Societal Requirements'. Activities of the FSC were also reported at Valdor 2003. In the second mandate of the FSC, there is continued use of a variety of tools and formats to allow dialogue among stakeholders in an atmosphere of mutual trust: national workshops and community visits, topical sessions, and desk and interview studies. In Phase II, the FSC is exploring: the link between research, development and demonstration and stakeholder confidence; cultural and organisational changes in RWM institutions; the role of media relations and outreach opportunities; tools and processes to help society prepare and manage decisions through stakeholder involvement; and increasing the value of waste management facilities to local communities. Workshops have been held in Germany and Spain. A large set of publications makes both Phase I and Phase II findings widely available

  16. Preparation of sensitized ZnS and its photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haitao; Chen Xinyi; Li Zhaosheng; Kou Jiahui; Yu Tao; Zou Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, sensitized ZnS with visible light driven photocatlytic ability was successfully prepared. The obtained ZnS was characterized by x-ray diffraction, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectra. The photocatalytic property of the prepared ZnS was evaluated by decomposing methyl orange (MO). These sensitized ZnS powders with a proper molar ratio showed higher photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 (P25) under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. A possible explanation for the visible light activity of the prepared ZnS was proposed

  17. Keiko, Killer Whale. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Keiko, the killer whale, lived for a long time in an aquarium and had to be taught to live independently; and that computer users can get updates on how Keiko is doing. The main activity of the lesson involves middle school students working in small groups to produce a…

  18. Refining MARGINS Mini-Lessons Using Classroom Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.; McDaris, J. R.; Lee, S.

    2009-12-01

    One of the challenges that we face in developing teaching materials or activities from research findings is testing the materials to determine that they work as intended. Traditionally faculty develop material for their own class, notice what worked and didn’t, and improve them the next year. However, as we move to a community process of creating and sharing teaching materials, a community-based process for testing materials is appropriate. The MARGINS project has piloted such a process for testing teaching materials and activities developed as part of its mini-lesson project (http://serc.carleton.edu/margins/index.html). Building on prior work developing mechanisms for community review of teaching resources (e.g. Kastens, 2002; Hancock and Manduca, 2005; Mayhew and Hall, 2007), the MARGINS evaluation team developed a structured classroom observation protocol. The goals of field testing are to a) gather structured, consistent feedback for the lesson authors based on classroom use; b) guide reviewers of these lessons to reflect on research-based educational practice as a framework for their comments; c) collect information on the data and observations that the reviewer used to underpin their review; d) determine which mini-lessons are ready to be made widely available on the website. The protocol guides faculty observations on why they used the activity, the effectiveness of the activity in their classroom, the success of the activity in leading to the desired learning, and what other faculty need to successfully use the activity. Available online (http://serc.carleton.edu/margins/protocol.html), the protocol can be downloaded and completed during instruction with the activity. In order to encourage review of mini-lessons using the protocol, a workshop focused on review and revision of activities was held in May 2009. In preparation for the workshop, 13 of the 28 participants chose to field test a mini-lesson prior to the workshop and reported that they found this

  19. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  20. Role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon prepared by potassium carbonate activation of lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubouchi, Naoto, E-mail: tsubon@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Nishio, Megumi; Mochizuki, Yuuki

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Activated carbon prepared from a lignin/urea/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixture provides a high specific surface area and a large pore volume. • Part of the urea nitrogen present in the mixture is retained as heterocyclic nitrogen in the solid phase after activation/carbonization. • Pore development is thought to proceed through interactions between K-species and C–N forms. - Abstract: The present work focuses on the role of nitrogen in the development of pores in activated carbon produced from lignin by K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} activation, employing a fixed bed reactor under a high-purity He stream at temperatures of 500–900 °C. The specific surface area and pore volume obtained by activation of lignin alone are 230 m{sup 2}/g and 0.13 cm{sup 3}/g at 800 °C, and 540 m{sup 2}/g and 0.31 cm{sup 3}/g at 900 °C, respectively. Activation of a mixture of lignin and urea provides a significant increase in the surface area and volume, respectively reaching 3300–3400 m{sup 2}/g and 2.0–2.3 cm{sup 3}/g after holding at 800–900 °C for 1 h. Heating a lignin/urea/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixture leads to a significant decrease in the yield of released N-containing gases compared to the results for urea alone and a lignin/urea mixture, and most of the nitrogen in the urea is retained in the solid phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses clearly show that part of the remaining nitrogen is present in heterocyclic structures (for example, pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen), and the rest is contained as KOCN at ≤600 °C and as KCN at ≥700 °C, such that the latter two compounds can be almost completely removed by water washing. The fate of nitrogen during heating of lignin/urea/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and role of nitrogen in pore development in activated carbon are discussed on the basis of the results mentioned above.

  1. Interrelations in the Development of Primary School Learners' Creative Imagination and Creative Activity When Depicting a Portrait in Visual Art Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlahova, Aleksandra; Volonte, Ilze; Cacka, Maris

    2017-01-01

    Creative imagination is a psychic process of creating a new original image, idea or art work based on the acquired knowledge, skills, and abilities as well as on the experience of creative activity. The best of all primary school learners' creative imagination develops at the lessons of visual art, aimed at teaching them to understand what is…

  2. Structure-activity relationship of surfactant for preparing DMFC anodic catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yi; Xue Xinzhong; Xu Weilin; Liu Changpeng; Xing Wei; Zhou Xiaochun; Tian Tian; Lu Tianhong

    2006-01-01

    Three kinds of surfactants as stabilizer were applied to the preparation of electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The catalysts have been characterized by examining their catalytic activities, morphologies and particle sizes by means of cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is found that the surfactants with different structures have a significantly influence on the catalyst shape and activity. The catalysts prepared with non-ionic surfactants as the stabilizer show higher activity for direct oxidation of methanol. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis has been explored and the effect of hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB value) has also been discussed

  3. Lessons Learned Through the Implementation of an eHealth Physical Activity Gaming Intervention with High School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Garnett, Bernice; Dibble, Marguerite

    2018-04-01

    To encourage high school students to meet physical activity goals using a newly developed game, and to document the feasibility, benefits, and challenges of using an electronic gaming application to promote physical activity in high school students. Working with youth and game designers an electronic game, Camp Conquer, was developed to motivate high school students to meet physical activity goals. One-hundred-five high school students were recruited to participate in a 12-week pilot test of the game and randomly assigned to a Game Condition or Control Condition. Students in both conditions received a FitBit to track their activity, and participants in the Game Condition received access to Camp Conquer. Number of steps and active minutes each day were tracked for all participants. FitBit use, game logins, and qualitative feedback from researchers, school personnel, and participants were used to determine intervention engagement. The majority of study participants did not consistently wear their FitBit or engage with the gaming intervention. Numerous design challenges and barriers to successful implementation such as the randomized design, absence of a true school-based champion, ease of use, and game glitches were identified. Developing games is an exciting technique for motivating the completion of a variety of health behaviors. Although the present intervention was not successful in increasing physical activity in high school students, important lessons were learned regarding how to best structure a gaming intervention for the high school population.

  4. BiVO4 nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataraman Sivakumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple thermal decomposition method. The synthesized bismuth vanadate nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, it is found that the synthesized sample belongs to monoclinic BiVO4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms the formation of Bi-O bond in the sample. Ultraviolet–Visible (DRS-UV–Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveal the optical property of the BiVO4 nanoparticles. The morphology was identified by both scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Further, the photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 nanoparticles was investigated by photodegradation of methylene blue as a model organic pollutant.

  5. Carbon Monitoring System Applications Framework: Lessons Learned from Stakeholder Engagement Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda Carlo, E.; Escobar, V. M.; Delgado Arias, S.; Forgotson, C.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Carbon Monitoring System initiated by U.S. Congress in 2010 is developing products that characterize and quantify carbon sources and sinks in the United States and the global tropics. In 2013, an applications effort was selected to engage potential end users and gather feedback about their data needs. For the past four years the CMS applications efforts has expanded and implemented a number of strategies to connect carbon scientists to decision-makers, contributing to the societal benefits of CMS data products. The applications efforts use crowd sourcing to collects feedback from stakeholders on challenges and lessons learned in the use of CMS data products. Some of the most common data needs from engaged organizations include above and below-ground biomass and fluxes in forestlands and wetlands, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across all land use/cover and land use changes. Stakeholder organizations' needs for CMS data products support national GHG inventories following the Paris Agreement, carbon markets, and sub-national natural resources management and policies. The lessons learned report presents stakeholder specific applications, challenges, and successes from using CMS data products. To date, the most common uses of CMS products include: conservation efforts, emissions inventory, forestry and land cover applications, and carbon offset projects. The most common challenges include: the need for familiar and consistent products over time, budget constraints, and concern with uncertainty of modeled results. Recurrent recommendations from stakeholder indicate that CMS should provide high resolution (30m) and frequent data products updates (annually). The applications efforts have also helped identified success stories from different CMS projects, including the development of the GHG emissions inventory from Providence, RI, the improvement of the U.S. GHG Inventory though the use of satellite data, and the use of high resolution canopy cover maps for

  6. CP-5 reactor remote dismantlement activities: Lessons learned in the integration of new technology in an operations environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the developer's perspective on lessons learned from one example of the integration of new prototype technology into a traditional operations environment. The dual arm work module was developed by the Robotics Technology Development Program as a research and development activity to examine manipulator controller modes and deployment options. It was later reconfigured for the dismantlement of the Argonne National Laboratory Chicago Pile No. 5 reactor vessel as the crane-deployed dual arm work platform. Development staff worked along side operations staff during a significant part of the deployment to provide training, maintenance, and tooling support. Operations staff completed all actual remote dismantlement tasks. At the end of available development support funding, the Dual Arm Work Platform was turned over to the operations staff, who are still using it to complete their dismantlement tasks

  7. Preparation of high specific activity labelled triiodothyronine (T3) for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Nagvekar, U.H.; Desai, C.N.; Mani, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    A method standardized for the preparation of high specific activity labelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) is discussed. Iodine-125 labelled T 3 with a specific activity of 3 mCi μg was prepared by iodinating 3,5-diiodothyronine (T 2 ) and purifying it over Sephadex G-25 gel. Radochemical purity and stability evaluations were done by paper chromatography. Specific activity of the labelled T 3 prepared was estimated by the self-displacement method. The use of this high specific activity labelled T 3 in radioimmunoassay increased the sensitivity considerably. The advantage of this procedure is that the specific activity of labelled T 3 formed is independent of reaction yield and labelled T 3 yield. (author)

  8. Considering lessons learned about safety culture and their reflection to activity. After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obu, Etsuji; Hamada, Jun; Fukano, Takuya

    2011-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident forced neighboring residents to evacuate for a long time and gave Public anxieties greatly and significant effects to social activities in Japan. Public trust of nuclear power was lost by not preventing the accident and future of nuclear power became reconsidered, which nuclear industry people regretted deeply. Japan Nuclear Technology Institute (JANTI) had conducted activities enhancing safety culture in nuclear industry. It would be necessary to consider improvements of accident prevention and mitigation measures after evaluating the accident in a viewpoint of 'safety culture'. Based on published information and knowledge accumulated by activities of JANTI, the accident was examined taking account of greatness of nuclear accident and its effects from the side of safety culture. Lessons learned about safety culture were pointed out as; (1) reconfirmation of specialty of nuclear technology. (2) reinforcement of questioning and learning attitudes and (3) improvement of evaluation capability of nuclear safety and safety assurance against external event. These were reflected in activities such as; (1) reconsideration of safety culture assessment, (2) strengthening further support to improve safety culture consciousness and (3) improvement of peer review activity. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Reduction of activity concentration of radiocesium in meat by preparation of heat-pressure bowling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Kunova, V.

    2006-01-01

    The meat (Sus stroma) was salted (5 g NaCl to 100 g meat) before preparation by heat pressure bowling - 15 minutes. There was reached drop of activity concentration of radiocesium about 50 % (from 42.7 % to 58.3 %). The meat had activity concentration of radiocesium 106 Bq · kg -1 . The activity concentration of radiocesium was reduced on average to 53 Bq · kg -1 . The activity concentration of 137 Cs was measured by gamma-spectrometry. (authors)

  10. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PEMBINAAN KOMPETENSI CALON GURU MATEMATIKA MELALUI LESSON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Bustanul Anwar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Education has a very important role in improving the quality of human resources. Therefore, education is expected to be one of the ways to prepare generations of qualified human resources and has the ability to deal with the progress of time and technology development . In order to enhance the quality of student mastery of competencies in the development of prospective teachers in this study will be applied to the activities in the process of lesson study in lecture . Lesson study is a model of coaching to people who work as both teacher educators and lecturers through collaborative learning and assessment in building sustainable learning communities. The purpose of this research is to improve the competence of prospective mathematics teachers through lesson study . More specifically , this study aims to describe the efforts made to improve the pedagogical, professional competence , social competence and personal competence prospective mathematics teachers through lesson study . Subjects in this study were students who took the micro teaching courses totaling 15 students , divided into 3 group . This type of research is a qualitative descriptive study is to develop the competence of prospective mathematics teachers through lesson study . Lesson study conducted collaborated with Action Research activities ( Action Reseach. The results of this research activity is the implementation of lesson study to greater competence to prospective teachers teaching mathematics through the micro subjects namely: pedagogical competence categories were 80 % and 20 % lower, professional competence categories were 46.7 % and 53.3 % lower, personal competence 100 % category being and social competence categories were 86.7 % and 13.3 % lower .

  11. Catalase activity of a crude enzyme preparation from iron-chlorotic barley (Hordeum vulgaris) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotaka, S; Krueger, A P; Andriese, P C

    1964-12-19

    An attempt is made to investigate the effect of Fe-EDTA on catalase activity of the enzyme preparation from iron-chlorotic barley. It has been observed that the addition of iron in the form of iron-potassium-ethylene-tetraacetate to cell-free extracts prepared from barley seedlings which had developed chlorosis produced a marked increase in the catalase activity of the extracts. Results are presented which indicate that the pattern of increase in catalase activity is related to the extent of chlorosis. 7 references, 3 figures.

  12. Effect of biological and chemical preparations on peroxidase activity in leaves of tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Kolomiets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In terms of treating tomato variety Chaika with chemical preparations with active substances if aluminum phosphate, 570 g/l + phosphorous acid 80 g/,l and mankotseb in concentration of 640 g/kg, the maximum increase in peroxidase activity in leaves of plants was observed in12 hours. In terms of use of biological preparations based on living cells Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum its activity was maximum in 24 hours and ranged from 77.7 to 112.7 un.mg-1•s-1

  13. Effect of preparation method on catalytic activity of Ni/ γ-Al2O3 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Morales, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The performance of catalysts was shown to be strongly dependent on their methods of preparation. A study to examine the relationship between catalyst preparation procedures and the structure, dispersion, activity, and selectivity of the finished catalyst is reported. 10 wt.%Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and by wet impregnation. The catalysts were used in the conversion of glycerol in gas phase and atmospheric pressure. The selectivity and activity of the catalysts were affected by the preparation method employed. The catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), N 2 -physorption, H 2 -chemisorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). The Ni particle size and dispersion of the catalysts affected the selectivity to hydrogenolysis and dehydration routes, and the formation of carbon deposits was also affected. (author) [es

  14. An activated microporous carbon prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin for lithium ion battery anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yinhai; Xiang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Enhui; Wu, Yuhu; Xie, Hui; Wu, Zhilian; Tian, Yingying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microporous carbon was prepared by chemical activation of phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin. ► Activation leads to high surface area, well-developed micropores. ► Micropores lead to strong intercalation between carbon and lithium ion. ► Large surface area promotes to improve the lithium storage capacity. -- Abstract: Microporous carbon anode materials were prepared from phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin by ZnCl 2 and KOH activation. The physicochemical properties of the obtained carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and elemental analysis. The electrochemical properties of the microporous carbon as anode materials in lithium ion secondary batteries were evaluated. At a current density of 100 mA g −1 , the carbon without activation shows a first discharge capacity of 515 mAh g −1 . After activation, the capacity improved obviously. The first discharge capacity of the carbon prepared by ZnCl 2 and KOH activation was 1010 and 2085 mAh g −1 , respectively. The reversible capacity of the carbon prepared by KOH activation was still as high as 717 mAh g −1 after 20 cycles, which was much better than that activated by ZnCl 2 . These results demonstrated that it may be a promising candidate as an anode material for lithium ion secondary batteries.

  15. Therapy Dogs on Campus: A Counseling Outreach Activity for College Students Preparing for Final Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Sandra B.; Barker, Randolph T.; Schubert, Christine M.

    2017-01-01

    A university counseling center engaged a therapy dog program for an outreach activity to reduce stress as students prepare for final exams at a large culturally diverse university. This article describes the rationale, planning, and implementation of the activity; presents an evaluation summary; and provides recommendations and implications for…

  16. Report: EPA Prepared to Implement Strategic Human Capital Management Activities But Challenges Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2004-P-00024, September 20, 2004. EPA’s headquarters and regional offices are prepared to implement strategic human capital management activities, but an alignment of office-level activities to the Agency’s Strategy for Human Capital is lacking.

  17. Preparation and characterization of biocomposite film based on chitosan and kombucha tea as active food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashrafi, Azam; Jokar, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    An active film composed of chitosan and kombucha tea (KT) was successfully prepared using the solvent casting technique. The effect of incorporation of KT at the levels 1%–3% w/w on the physical and functional properties of chitosan film was investigated. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan...

  18. Preparation of activated carbon from banana peel waste for reducing air pollutant from motorcycle muffler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafidz Achmad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gas or emission from motor vehicle contains various pollutants and some of them are toxic and very harmful for human health. In the present work, we prepared an activated carbon to reduce the toxic pollutants (via adsorption process from the exhaust gas of the motor vehicle (particularly motorcycle in this work. The activated carbon was prepared from local banana peel which considered as an agricultural waste without economic value. To prepare the activated carbon, banana peel was carbonized using furnace at 500°C. Then the resulted carbon was activated using chemical activation with ZnCl2 and physical activation with either microwave (300 W or furnace (700°C. The prepared activated carbon was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR analysis. The SEM result showed that the pore of microwave induced ZnCl2 activated carbon (ACM was larger than the pore of virgin char/carbon and furnace induced ZnCl2 activataed carbon (ACF. The FT-IR spectrum of ACM showed some peaks at 3408.59 cm-1, 1589.25 cm-1, and 1093.63 cm-1. They are assigned to O-H stretching, C=O stretching, and C-OH stretching. Additionally, the adsorption performance of the prepared activation carbon to reduce the pollutants concentration (i.e. CO and CH from the exhaust gas of motor vehicle was investigated. The results showed that the activated carbon induced by microwave and ZnCl2 activation (ACM gave the best result. The adsorption or removal efficiency of gas CO reached approximately 97.64 %vol.

  19. Preparation of Active Absorbent for Flue Gas Desulfurization From Coal Bottom Ash: Effect of Absorbent Preparation Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chin Li, Lee Keat Teong, Subhash Bhatia and Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An active absorbent for flue gas desulfurization was prepared from coal bottom ash, calcium oxide (CaO and calcium sulfate by hydro-thermal process. The absorbent was examined for its micro-structural properties. The experiments conducted were based on Design Of Experiments (DOE according to 23 factorial design. The effect of various absorbent preparation variables such as ratio of CaO to bottom ash (A, hydration temperature (B and hydration period (C towards the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of the absorbent were studied. At a CaO to bottom ash ratio = 2, hydration temperature = 200 ?C and hydration period = 10 hrs, absorbent with a surface area of 90.1 m2/g was obtained. Based on the analysis of the factorial design, it was concluded that factor A and C as well as the interaction of factors ABC and BC are the significant factors that effect the BET surface area of the absorbent. A linear mathematical model that describes the relation between the independent variables and interaction between variables towards the BET specific surface area of the absorbent was also developed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the model was significant at 1% level.Key Words: Absorbent, Bottom Ash, Design Of Experiments, Desulfurization, Surface Area.

  20. Method of preparing tritium-labelled thymidine-5'-monophosphates of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, J.; Vesely, J.; Cihak, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of preparing thymidine-5'-monophosphates labelled with tritium of high specific activity based on enzyme synthesis in vitro. Phosphorylation was carried out using the catalytic effect of an enzyme contained in the supernatant fraction prepared from Yoshida ascites carcinoma in rats. The course of the enzyme reaction can be controlled by the concentration of the individual reaction mixture components. The method described allows obtaining thymidine-5'-monophosphate of radiochemical purity better than 95%. (J.B.)

  1. Effective Lesson Planning: Field Trips in the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C. R.

    2010-10-01

    Science field trips can positively impact and motivate students. However, if a field trip is not executed properly, with appropriate preparation and follow-up reinforcement, it can result in a loss of valuable educational time and promote misconceptions in the students. This study was undertaken to determine if a classroom lesson before an out-of-the-classroom activity would affect learner gain more or less than a lesson after the activity. The study was based on the immersive theater movie ``Earth's Wild Ride'' coupled with a teacher-led Power Point lesson. The participants in the study were students in a sixth grade physical science class. The order of lessons showed no detectable effect on final learner outcomes. Based on pre- and post-testing, improvement in mean learning gain came from the teacher-led lesson independent of the movie. The visit to the immersive theater, however, had significant positive effects that did not show up in the quantitative results of the testing.

  2. Preparation of Activated Carbon from Maize Stems by Sulfuric Acids Activation and Their Application in Copper (II Ion Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Ryantin Gunawan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons were prepared from maize (Zea mays L. stems by sulfuric acids activation or chemical methods. The dry maize stems are usually used as low-value energy resources in many countries, burned in the field, or discarded, which are unfavorable to environment. This motivates the investigation of producing value-added products from the dry maize stems, such as activated carbons, as well as solving some environmental problems. The preparation process consisted of sulfuric acid impregnation at different impregnation ratio followed by carbonization at 250-400 oC for 1-4 h. The results show that the impregnation ratio was 1.25, the optimum activation temperature was 300 oC and the activation time was 1 h. The sorption capacity of the activated carbon was 25.1 mg/g.

  3. EEG alpha activity reflects motor preparation rather than the mode of action selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre eDeiber

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-band activity (8-13 Hz is suppressed by sensory stimulation and movements, modulated by attention, working memory and mental tasks and may be sensitive to higher motor control functions. The aim of the present study was to examine alpha oscillatory activity during the preparation of simple left or right finger movements, contrasting the external and internal mode of action selection. Three preparation conditions were examined using a precueing paradigm with S1 as the preparatory and S2 as the imperative cue: Full, laterality instructed by S1; Free, laterality freely selected and None, laterality instructed by S2. Time-frequency analysis was performed in the alpha frequency range during the S1-S2 interval, and alpha motor-related amplitude asymmetries (MRAA were also calculated. The significant MRAA during the Full and Free conditions indicated effective external and internal motor response preparation. In the absence of specific motor preparation (None, a posterior alpha power decrease (event-related desynchronization, ERD dominated, reflecting the main engagement of attentional resources. In Full and Free motor preparation, posterior alpha ERD was accompanied by a midparietal alpha power increase (event-related synchronization, ERS, suggesting a concomitant inhibition of task-irrelevant visual activity. In both Full and Free motor preparation, analysis of alpha power according to MRAA amplitude revealed two types of functional activation patterns: 1 a motor alpha pattern, with predominantly midparietal alpha ERS and large MRAA corresponding to lateralized motor activation/visual inhibition and 2 an attentional alpha pattern, with dominating right posterior alpha ERD and small MRAA reflecting visuospatial attention. The present results suggest that alpha oscillatory patterns do not resolve the selection mode of action, but rather distinguish separate functional strategies of motor preparation. 

  4. What Happens at the Lesson Start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloviita, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Transitional periods, such as lesson starts, are necessary steps from one activity to another, but they also compete with time for actual learning. The aim of the present study was to replicate a previous pilot study on lesson starts and explore possible disturbances. In total, 130 lesson starts in Finnish basic education in grades 1-9 were…

  5. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara, E-mail: hmjena@nitrkl.ac.in

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Activated carbons have been prepared from Fox nutshell with chemical activation using ZnCl{sub 2}. • The thermal behavior of the raw material and impregnated raw material has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. • The characterizations of the prepared activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, FTIR, XRD, and FESEM. • The BET surface area and total pore volume of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2869 m{sup 2}/g, 2124 m{sup 2}/g, and 1.96 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. • The microporous surface area, micropore volume, and microporosity percentage of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2124 m{sup 2}/g, 1.68 cm{sup 3}/g, and 85.71%, respectively. - Abstract: High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl{sub 2} as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl{sub 2}/Fox nutshell) ratios (1–2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500–700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at −196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m{sup 2}/g, 2124 m{sup 2}/g, 1.96 cm{sup 3}/g, and 1.68 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  6. Effect of potassium hydroxide activation in the desulfurization process of activated carbon prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan; Liao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Hui; Liao, Li

    2018-03-01

    Series sludge straw-based activated carbons were prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation, and the desulfurization performance of activated carbons was studied. To obtain the best desulfurization performance, the optimum ratio between the raw materials and the activator was investigated. The results showed that when the mass ratio of sewage sludge, corn straw, and KOH was 3:7:2, the activated carbon obtained the best breakthrough and saturation sulfur sorption capacities, which were 12.38 and 5.74 times, respectively, those of samples prepared by the nonactivated raw materials. The appropriate KOH could improve the microporosity and alkaline groups, meanwhile reducing the lactone groups, which were all beneficial to desulfurization performance. The chemical adsorption process of desulfurization can be simplified to four main steps, and the main desulfurization products are elemental sulfur and sulfate. Sewage sludge (SS) and corn straw (CS) both have great production and wide distribution and are readily available in China. Much attention has been paid on how to deal with them effectively. Based on the environment protection idea of waste treatment with waste and resource recycling, low-cost adsorbents were prepared by these processes. The proposed method can be expanded to the municipal solid waste recycling programs and renewable energy plan. Thus, proceeding with the study of preparing activated carbon by SS and straw as a carbon-based dry desulfurization agent could obtain huge social, economic, and environmental benefits.

  7. The variations of enzymatic activity of pepsin preparation by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro; Taimatsu, Meiko; Kanbashi, Toshitaka; Okamoto, Shinichi; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of γ-irradiation on the enzymatic activity of raw pepsin and some saccharated pepsin preparations were studied in the dose range from 0 to 300 kGy. As a result, the apparent reduction rate of saccharated pepsin preparations is less than of raw pepsin. K values of raw and saccharated pepsins were 0.014 and 0.0040-0.0061, and G values of raw and saccharated pepsins were 3.98 and 1.13-1.73, respectively. The lower K and G values of saccharated pepsin than those of raw pepsin seem to be due to radiolytic products of lactose in the preparations as an excipient. Retention rates of enzymatic activity of irradiated preparations at the dose of 25 kGy, which is a complete sterilization dose of pharmaceutical materials, were estimated to be 83% for raw pepsin, and 86% and 93% for saccharated pepsin preparations. At the dose of 10 kGy suggested for food irradiation the retention rates were more than 93% for all pepsins. Therefore, this method is applicable considering the stability of the enzymatic activity after irradiation in the proper range of dose. However, it is necessary to consider the fact that radiolytic products of lactose affect the measurement of enzymatic activity. (author)

  8. Brothers Grimm. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Grimm's fairy tales, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that fairy tales connect them to earlier generations, help them think about present situations, that magic figures prominently in fairy tales, and that fairy tales can inspire readers to create original works of art. The main activity in the…

  9. Method of preparing highly active and thermostable preparations of liver uridin-kinase usable for enzymic synthesis of radioactive nucleoside-5'-phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihak, A.; Vesely, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of preparing a high-activity uridine kinase for the enzymic synthesis of radioactive nucleoside-5m-phosphates of the pyrimidine series. The preparation is separated from male rat liver after intraperitoneal application of 5'-azacytidine. Examples are given showing detailed procedures for the conversion of uridine and 6-azauridine to the corresponding 5'-phosphates. (L.K.)

  10. Simple Method of Preparation and Characterization of New Antifungal Active Biginelli Type Heterocyclic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, A. Senthilkumara; Joseph, J.; Raman, N.

    2008-01-01

    A simple, efficient and cost effective method is described for the synthesis of Biginelli type heterocyclic compounds of dihydropyrimidinones analogous. They were prepared from a reaction mixture consisting of substituted benzaldehydes, thiourea and ethylacetoacetate using ammonium dihydrogenphosphate as catalyst. The procedure for the preparation of the compounds is environmentally benign and safe which is advantageous in terms of experimentation, catalyst reusability, yields of the products, shorter reaction times and preclusion of toxic solvents. The four new synthesised compounds were tested for their antifungal activity. They have good antifungal activity comparing to the standard (Fluconazole). PMID:23997611

  11. Assessment of in vitro antifungal activity of preparation ''fin Candimis'' against Candida strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Głowacka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” (oregano essential oil against yeast-like strains belonging to the genus Candida. During the investigation, there were used up nine Candida albicans strains and ten C. glabrata strains isolated from different clinical material, along with one C. albicans demonstration strain ATCC 90028. The oregano essential oil, utilized in the study, was obtained from fresh leaves of Origanum vulgare L. and bore a trade name „fin Candimis”. According to data yielded by its manufacturer, concentration of pure oregano essential oil in preparation „fin Candimis” totals up to 210 mg/ml. The susceptibility of the Candida strains to preparation „fin Candimis” was assessed by means of the disc-diffusion method, upon the Sabouraud solid medium (after a 24-hour incubation of the cultures at temperature of 37 degrees centigrade; the oregano essential oil had been diluted in 1 ml of DMSO, according to the geometrical progression. A measure of the antifungal activity of preparation „fin Candimis” was the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, in terms of the fungus growth. Preparation „fin Candimis” is capable of being applied in the prevention and treatment of candidiasis – alone, or as a natural adjunctive agent. The C. albicans strains are more susceptible to preparation „fin Candimis” in comparison to the C. glabrata ones.

  12. Preparation of porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk by leaching ash and chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiduzzaman, Md; Sadrul Islam, A K M

    2016-01-01

    Preparation porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk char study has been conducted in this study. Rice husk char contains high amount silica that retards the porousness of bio-char. Porousness of rice husk char could be enhanced by removing the silica from char and applying heat at high temperature. Furthermore, the char is activated by using chemical activation under high temperature. In this study no inert media is used. The study is conducted at low oxygen environment by applying biomass for consuming oxygen inside reactor and double crucible method (one crucible inside another) is applied to prevent intrusion of oxygen into the char. The study results shows that porous carbon is prepared successfully without using any inert media. The adsorption capacity of material increased due to removal of silica and due to the activation with zinc chloride compared to using raw rice husk char. The surface area of porous carbon and activated carbon are found to be 28, 331 and 645 m(2) g(-1) for raw rice husk char, silica removed rice husk char and zinc chloride activated rice husk char, respectively. It is concluded from this study that porous bio-char and activated carbon could be prepared in normal environmental conditions instead of inert media. This study shows a method and possibility of activated carbon from agro-waste, and it could be scaled up for commercial production.

  13. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity: lessons from around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L; Andersen, Lars Bo; Owen, Neville; Goenka, Shifalika; Montes, Felipe; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-07-21

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities.

  14. Preparation and Characterizations of Chitosan/Citral Nanoemulsions and their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan I. Kh. Marei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The antimicrobial activity of essential oils has been long recognized, however, they easily evaporate and/or decompose during preparation, owing to direct exposure to heat, pressure and light. The current study deals with the formulation and characterization of bio-based oil in water nanoemulsions and their antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens.Material and Methods: Citral oil and low molecular weight chitosan were used for preparation of nanoemulsions in the presence of sodium tripolyphosphate. Nanoemulsions were prepared by adding dropwise citral at different ratios into an aqueous solution containing chitosan, sodium tripolyphosphate and surfactant with continuous stirring and then ultrasonication. The success of formulation was confirmed by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Physical stability and viscosity were investigated in details. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Erwinia carotovora, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. Results and Conclusion: The nanoemulsions had a polydispersity index ranged from 0.508 to 0.614 and particle size from 27 to 1283 nm. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed with F1 formulation (EC50 = 23, 278 and 221 mg L-1, against Erwinia carotovora, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer, respectively. Based on the antimicrobial activity, the prepared chitosan/citral nanoemulsions can be a cost-effective way to protect crops from microbial pathogens. Because such formulations contain bioactive products, the development of resistant pathogens can be delayed.Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. 

  15. Adsorption of mercury by activated carbon prepared from dried sewage sludge in simulated flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongmin; Lee, Sang-Sup

    2018-04-25

    Conversion of sewage sludge to activated carbon is attractive as an alternative method to ocean dumping for the disposal of sewage sludge. Injection of activated carbon upstream of particulate matter control devices has been suggested as a method to remove elemental mercury from flue gas. Activated carbon was prepared using various activation temperatures and times and was tested for their mercury adsorption efficiency using lab-scale systems. To understand the effect of the physical property of the activated carbon, its mercury adsorption efficiency was investigated as a function of their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. Two simulated flue gas conditions: (1) without hydrogen chloride (HCl) and (2) with 20 ppm HCl, were used to investigate the effect of flue gas composition on the mercury adsorption capacity of activated carbon. Despite very low BET surface area of the prepared sewage sludge activated carbons, their mercury adsorption efficiencies were comparable under both simulated flue gas conditions to those of pinewood and coal activated carbons. After injecting HCl into the simulated flue gas, all sewage sludge activated carbons demonstrated high adsorption efficiencies, i.e., more than 87%, regardless of their BET surface area. IMPLICATIONS We tested activated carbons prepared from dried sewage sludge to investigate the effect of their physical properties on their mercury adsorption efficiency. Using two simulated flue gas conditions, we conducted mercury speciation for the outlet gas. We found that the sewage sludge activated carbon had comparable mercury adsorption efficiency to pinewood and coal activated carbons, and the presence of HCl minimized the effect of physical property of the activated carbon on its mercury adsorption efficiency.

  16. Investigation of photocalalytic activity of ZnO prepared by spray pyrolis with various precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourfaa, F; Lamri Zeggar, M; A, A; Aida, M S; Attaf, N

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysts such as ZnO has attracted much attention in recent years due to their various applications for the degradation of organic pollutants in water, air and in dye sensitized photovoltaic solar cell. In the present work, ZnO thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis by using different precursors namely: acetate, chloride and zinc nitrate in order to investigate their influence on ZnO photocatalytic activity. The films crystalline structure was studied by mean of X- ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and the films surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The films optical properties were studied by mean of UV-visible spectroscopy. The prepared films were tested for the degradation of the red reactive dye largely used in textile industry. As a result, we found that the zinc nitrate is the best precursor to prepare ZnO thin films suitable for a good photocatalytic activity. (paper)

  17. Biological activity and safety of Tripterygium extract prepared by sodium carbonate extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Peng, Fan; Yi, Tao; Zhang, Cong; Wan, Chunxi; Xu, Huibi; Lam, Christopher Waikei; Yang, Xiangliang

    2012-09-17

    The commercial preparation named “Tripterygium glycosides” prepared by column chromatography has been used for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases with significant efficacy but concurrent toxicity. The aim of this study was to reduce the toxicity of Tripterygium extracts, using cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of the three principal active components of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. (TWHF)as guiding parameters. Column chromatography was replaced by sodium carbonate extraction for removing the acidic compounds and enriching epoxyditerpenoids and alkaloids in the extract. Results showed that the therapeutic index (IC50/EC50) on murine macrophage Raw 264.7 cells and rat mesangial HBZY-1 cells of the extract prepared by sodium carbonate extraction was significantly higher than that of Tripterygium glycosides(0.8 and 5.2 vs. 0.3 and 2.6, p sodium carbonate extraction may represent a potentially optimal source of medicine with good therapeutic index.

  18. Lessons Learned from Outsourcing the Pearl Harbor MK-48 Intermediate Maintenance Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gansler, Jacques S; Lucyshyn, William; Alarcon-Deza, Benigno

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, active duty sailor resources were in large demand. In an effort to return sailors to the fleet, the operation of the Navy's Heavyweight Torpedo Intermediate Maintenance Activities (IMA...

  19. A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Approach in Natural Sciences Education Laboratory Lessons towards Reforming Teachers Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokouri, Eleni; Theodoraki, Xarikleia; Plakitsi, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on connecting natural sciences education with Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). In this sense, natural sciences education is considered as a lifelong learning procedure, not seen as an individual but as a collective activity. Moreover, learning becomes a human activity in which theory and praxis are strongly connected…

  20. Photocatalytic activity of sonochemically prepared TiO_2 decorated with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, R.

    2017-01-01

    A novel way of titanium dioxide synthesis using non-water environment was investigated. In synthesis, water causes aggregation of particles of titania thus reducing active surface significantly. To avoid this, a non- water environment such as toluene was employed. Reaction between solid precursor and gaseous ammonia was conducted in this environment using dried reactants in tempered glass reactor and irradiated by ultrasonic horn. As prepared powders were then calcinated and decorated with Ag nanoparticles. Photocatalytic activity was determined by TOC method and compared to P25 standard TiO_2. Samples were analysed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy and surface morphology was investigated by SEM. Powders prepared by this method had comparable or higher photocatalytic activity than P25. Ag nanoparticles seem to have no significant impact on photocatalytic activity whatsoever. (authors)

  1. Removal of cobalt and europium radioisotopes using activated carbon prepared from apricot stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifullah, A.A.M.; Moloukhia, H.

    2002-01-01

    the phenomena of cobalt and europium sorption by activated carbon from aqueous solution was studied. Activated carbon prepared from locally available agricultural wastes; apricot stones; was used. The prepared carbon was characterized using different techniques. The chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon was also studied. Experimental studies were conducted to evaluate and optimize the various process variables i.e. equilibrium time, carbon dose, solution ph and the presence of competitive. Optimal conditions for the sorption of the radioisotopes have been identified. The sorption isotherm of Freundlich was the best fitting for the concentration range studied. Interference of oxalic acid, EDTA and phenol molecules were discussed. Percentages desorption of both acid, EDTA and phenol using bi-distilled water and IMHCI was determined. The data suggest the possible use of activated carbon of apricot stone (ACAS) for the concentration of these cations

  2. Preparation And Characterization Of Cr/Activated Carbon Catalyst From Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Fanani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Preparation and characterization of Cr/activated carbon catalyst from palm empty fruit bunch had been done. The research were to determine the effect of carbonization temperature towards adsorption of ammonia, iodine number, metilen blue number, and porosity of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst. The determination of porosity include surface area, micropore volume and total pore volume. The results showed the best carbonization temperature activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst at 700°C. The adsorption ammonia of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 6.379 mmol/g and 8.1624 mmol/g. The iodine number of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 1520.16 mg/g and 1535.67 mg/g. The metilen blue number of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 281.71 mg/g and 319.18 mg/g. The surface area of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 1527.80 m2/g and 1652.58 m2/g. The micropore volume of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 0.7460 cm3/g and 0.8670 cm3/g. The total pore volume of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 0.8243 cm3/g and 0.8970 cm3/g.

  3. The NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence - its Activities and Main Lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebars, Yves; Pescatore, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    can these concerns be addressed; and development opportunities for local communities. Experts in radiation protection, community governance, ethics, and additional stakeholders participated to the discussions. The work of the FSC provides useful lessons on the involvement of stakeholders in decision-making on radioactive waste management

  4. Preparation of activated carbon from sorghum pith and its structural and electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, S.T.; Senthilkumar, B. [Solid State Ionics and Energy Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Balaji, S. [Materials Laboratory, Thiagarajar Advanced Research Center, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai 625015 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003 (India); Kalai Selvan, R., E-mail: selvankram@buc.edu.in [Solid State Ionics and Energy Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Sorghum pith as the cost effective raw material for activated carbon preparation. {yields} Physicochemical method/KOH activation for preparation of activated carbon is inexpensive. {yields} Activated carbon having lower surface area surprisingly delivered a higher specific capacitance. {yields} Treated at 500 {sup o}C activated carbon exceeds maximum specific capacitances of 320.6 F/g at 10 mV/s. -- Abstract: The cost effective activated carbon (AC) has been prepared from sorghum pith by NaOH activation at various temperatures, including 300 {sup o}C (AC1), 400 {sup o}C (AC2) and 500 {sup o}C (AC3) for the electrodes in electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) applications. The amorphous nature of the samples has been observed from X-ray diffraction and Raman spectral studies. Subsequently, the surface functional groups, surface morphology, pore diameter and specific surface area have been identified through FT-IR, SEM, histogram and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm methods. The electrochemical characterization of AC electrodes has been examined using cyclic voltammetry technique in the potential range of -0.1-1.2 V in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte at different scan rates (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100 mV/s). The maximum specific capacitances of 320.6 F/g at 10 mV/s and 222.1 F/g at 100 mV/s have been obtained for AC3 electrode when compared with AC1 and AC2 electrodes. Based on the characterization studies, it has been inferred that the activated carbon prepared from sorghum pith may be one of the innovative carbon electrode materials for EDLC applications.

  5. The Electrochemical Characteristics of Hybrid Capacitor Prepared by Chemical Activation of NaOH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Eun; Bae, Ga Yeong; Yang, Jeong Min; Lee, Jong Dae [Chungbuk National Univ., Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Active carbons with high specific surface area and micro pore structure were prepared from the coconut shell char using the chemical activation method of NaOH. The preparation process has been optimized through the analysis of experimental variables such as activating chemical agents to char ratio and the flow rate of gas during carbonization. The active carbons with the surface area (2,481m{sup 2}/g) and mean pore size (2.32 nm) were obtained by chemical activation with NaOH. The electrochemical performances of hybrid capacitor were investigated using LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2} as the positive electrode and prepared active carbon as the negative electrode. The electrochemical behaviors of hybrid capacitor using organic electrolytes (LiPF{sub 6}, TEABF{sub 4}) were characterized by constant current charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry, cycle and leakage tests. The hybrid capacitor using LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AC electrodes had better capacitance than other hybrid systems and was able to deliver a specific energy as high as 131 Wh/kg at a specific power of 1,448 W/kg.

  6. The Electrochemical Characteristics of Hybrid Capacitor Prepared by Chemical Activation of NaOH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeong Eun; Bae, Ga Yeong; Yang, Jeong Min; Lee, Jong Dae

    2013-01-01

    Active carbons with high specific surface area and micro pore structure were prepared from the coconut shell char using the chemical activation method of NaOH. The preparation process has been optimized through the analysis of experimental variables such as activating chemical agents to char ratio and the flow rate of gas during carbonization. The active carbons with the surface area (2,481m 2 /g) and mean pore size (2.32 nm) were obtained by chemical activation with NaOH. The electrochemical performances of hybrid capacitor were investigated using LiMn 2 O 4 , LiCoO 2 as the positive electrode and prepared active carbon as the negative electrode. The electrochemical behaviors of hybrid capacitor using organic electrolytes (LiPF 6 , TEABF 4 ) were characterized by constant current charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry, cycle and leakage tests. The hybrid capacitor using LiMn 2 O 4 /AC electrodes had better capacitance than other hybrid systems and was able to deliver a specific energy as high as 131 Wh/kg at a specific power of 1,448 W/kg

  7. Physical activity in Brazil: lessons from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Almeida, Maria Conceição Chagas; Queiroz, Ciro Oliveira; Aquino, Estela Maria Leão de; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was conducted among civil servants at six higher education institutions located in six Brazilian state capitals. The objective of this review was to identify the publications produced within the scope of ELSA-Brasil that analyzed the participants' physical activity. Review study using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review of Brazilian studies on physical activity produced using data from ELSA-Brasil participants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among ELSA-Brasil participants was low (44.1% among men and 33.8% among women). The main factors associated were social (higher schooling and family income), environmental (living in places with conditions and opportunities for physical activity) and individual (not being obese, being retired, not smoking and positive perception of body image). The perception of facilities for walking in the neighborhood was positively associated with both LTPA and commuting-related physical activity. An active lifestyle was a protective factor against several cardiometa-bolic variables (hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk over the next 10 years). Comparison between LTPA and commuting-related physical activity showed that only LTPA had a protective effect against arterial hypertension. The prevalence of physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants was low. The main determinants were social, environmental and personal. LTPA had a greater protective efect on cardio-metabolic outcomes than did commuting-related physical activity.

  8. Physical activity in Brazil: lessons from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil was conducted among civil servants at six higher education institutions located in six Brazilian state capitals. The objective of this review was to identify the publications produced within the scope of ELSA-Brasil that analyzed the participants’ physical activity. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review study using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil. METHODS: Narrative review of Brazilian studies on physical activity produced using data from ELSA-Brasil participants. RESULTS: The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA among ELSA-Brasil participants was low (44.1% among men and 33.8% among women. The main factors associated were social (higher schooling and family income, environmental (living in places with conditions and opportunities for physical activity and individual (not being obese, being retired, not smoking and positive perception of body image. The perception of facilities for walking in the neighborhood was positively associated with both LTPA and commuting-related physical activity. An active lifestyle was a protective factor against several cardiometa-bolic variables (hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk over the next 10 years. Comparison between LTPA and commuting-related physical activity showed that only LTPA had a protective effect against arterial hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants was low. The main determinants were social, environmental and personal. LTPA had a greater protective efect on cardio-metabolic outcomes than did commuting-related physical activity.

  9. Preparing people to make a difference: Transferable lessons from a first-year student leadership development programme in New Zealand. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Elnagar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The transition from a secondary to a university education environment is one rife with opportunity and novelty. It can be a difficult time for students as they begin to participate and take part in a new culture. Lessons learned from a specific programme for first-year students, the Emerging Leaders Development Programme (ELDP, provide an example of an initiative that not only assists with the transition, but also offers leadership development opportunities. Data collected from ELDP participants suggests that there are valuable, relatable, and transferable ideas that can inform the design and implementation of other transition programmes generally, and leadership development programmes specifically.   

  10. Effects of polio eradication activities on routine immunization: lessons from the 2013 outbreak response in Somali region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafesse, Belete; Tekle, Ephrem; Wondwossen, Liya; Bogale, Mengistu; Fiona, Braka; Nsubuga, Peter; Tomas, Karengera; Kassahun, Aron; Kathleen, Gallagher; Teka, Aschalew

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia experienced several WPV importations with a total of 10 WPV1 cases confirmed during the 2013 outbreak alone before it is closed in 2015. We evaluated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), including lessons learned for their effect on the routine immunization program during the 2013 polio outbreak in Somali regional state. We used descriptive study to review documents and analyse routine health information system reports from the polio outbreak affected Somali regional state. All data and technical reports of the 15 rounds of polio SIAs from June 2013 through June 2015 and routine immunization coverages for DPT-Hib-HepB 3 and measles were observed. More than 93% of the SIAs were having administrative coverage above 95%. The trend of routine immunization for the two antigens, over the five years (2011 through 2015) did not show a consistent pattern against the number of SIAs. Documentations showed qualitative positive impacts of the SIAs strengthening the routine immunization during all courses of the campaigns. The quantitative impact of polio SIAs on routine immunization remained not so impressive in this study. Clear planning, data consistencies and completeness issues need to be cleared for the impact assessment in quantitative terms, in polio legacy planning as well as for the introduction of injectable polio vaccine through the routine immunization.

  11. ACTIVITY OF LEAF-CUTTING ANT Atta sexdens piriventris SUBMITED TO HIGH DILUTION HOMEOPATHIC PREPARATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Giesel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high dilution preparations on the movement and foraging activities of Atta sexdens piriventris was evaluated. Five colonies of ants were located on each of the five experimental areas using a randomized complete block design. Three main forage trails from each colony were selected from where evaluations were made. Ten mL of high dilution preparation of Atta sexdens piriventris nosodes and Belladonna homeopathy solution were sprayed over 0.5 m of each selected trail, 1.0 m far from the nest. The controls were pure water and non treated trails. Applications were made daily during 10 days. The total number of ants moving on each trail one meter away from the nest, carrying or not plant fragments, were assessed before the daily application. Dilution preparations at 30CH (thirtieth centesimal Hahnemannian dilution of A. sexdens piriventris nosodes and Belladonna reduced the activities of ants from the fifth day after the first application. The treatment effect lasted more than 20 days after the last application. The use of preparation at 30CH dilution order to reduce the foraging activity of leaf-cutting ants is a potential non residual method to manage leaf-cutting ants.

  12. Activating the adoption of innovation : lessons from a passive house network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore innovation adoption theory and to define a model to investigate operational activities and communication in innovation networks that can stimulate both supply and demand. It also aims to exemplify this model with the activities of an innovation

  13. Oxygen reduction activity of N-doped carbon-based films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Shunya; Kawaguchi, Kazuhiro; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Yoshikawa, Masahito

    2010-12-01

    Carbon-based films with nitrogen species on their surface were prepared on a glassy carbon (GC) substrate for application as a non-platinum cathode catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Cobalt and carbon were deposited in the presence of N 2 gas using a pulsed laser deposition method and then the metal Co was removed by HCl-washing treatment. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity was electrochemically determined using a rotating disk electrode system in which the film samples on the GC substrate were replaceable. The ORR activity increased with the temperature of the GC substrate during deposition. A carbon-based film prepared at 600 °C in the presence of N 2 at 66.7 Pa showed the highest ORR activity among the tested samples (0.66 V vs. NHE). This film was composed of amorphous carbons doped with pyridine type nitrogen atoms on its surface.

  14. Sustained release of doxorubicin from zeolite-magnetite nanocomposites prepared by mechanical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruebo, Manuel; Fernandez-Pacheco, Rodrigo; Irusta, Silvia; Arbiol, Jordi; Ibarra, M Ricardo; SantamarIa, Jesus

    2006-01-01

    Nanocomposites consisting of magnetite and FAU zeolite with a high surface area and adsorption capacity have been prepared by mechanical activation using high-energy milling at room temperature. FTIR results, as well as HRTEM, EFTEM, and XPS measurements, show that the resulting magnetic nanoparticles are covered by a thin aluminosilicate coating. A saturation magnetization as high as 16 emu g -1 and 94.2 Oe of coercivity were observed for the obtained composites. The main advantages of this synthesis procedure are (i) simplicity of the preparation procedure (ii) prevention of agglomeration of the magnetite nanoparticles to a large extent, and (iii) absence of free magnetite outside the zeolitic matrix. In addition, in vitro experiments revealed that the nanoparticles prepared were able to store and release substantial amounts of doxorubicin. In view of these advantages, these magnetic nanoparticles can be considered as potential candidates for drug-delivery applications

  15. Development of concept-based physiology lessons for biomedical engineering undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Regina K; Chesler, Naomi C; Strang, Kevin T

    2013-06-01

    Physiology is a core requirement in the undergraduate biomedical engineering curriculum. In one or two introductory physiology courses, engineering students must learn physiology sufficiently to support learning in their subsequent engineering courses and careers. As preparation for future learning, physiology instruction centered on concepts may help engineering students to further develop their physiology and biomedical engineering knowledge. Following the Backward Design instructional model, a series of seven concept-based lessons was developed for undergraduate engineering students. These online lessons were created as prerequisite physiology training to prepare students to engage in a collaborative engineering challenge activity. This work is presented as an example of how to convert standard, organ system-based physiology content into concept-based content lessons.

  16. Effect of combined activation on the preparation of high porous active carbons from granulated post-consumer polyethyleneterephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sych, N.V.; Kartel, N.T.; Tsyba, N.N.; Strelko, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared from granulated post-consumer PET by combined activation including heat treatment with sulphuric acid (chemical activation) followed by steam activation. The effect of activation time, temperature, impregnation coefficient in the activation process was studied in order to optimize those reception parameters. One of the most important parameter in combined activation of crushed PET was found to be impregnation coefficient. It was defined that the optimal impregnation coefficient is equal 28%. Activation temperature is another variability which has a significant effect on the pore volume evolution. The increasing of activation temperature enhances the surface area and pore volumes of active carbons. The yield of final product which composes of nearly 15% is the factor limited the activation temperature above 800 deg. C. Textural characteristics of the samples were carried out by performing N 2 adsorption isotherm at -196 deg. C. The obtained active carbons were mainly micro- and mesoporous and with BET apparent surface areas of up to 1030 m 2 /g. The adsorption capacity on methylene blue reaches 1.0 mmol/g, the sorption activity on iodine comes to 77%

  17. Ring-substituted 4-Hydroxy-1H-quinolin-2-ones: Preparation and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Dohnal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the study, a series of twelve ring-substituted 4-hydroxy-1H-quinolin-2-one derivatives were prepared. The procedures for synthesis of the compounds are presented. The compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity and tested for their photosynthesis-inhibiting activity using spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. All the synthesized compounds were also evaluated for antifungal activity using in vitro screening with eight fungal strains. For all the compounds, the relationships between the lipophilicity and the chemical structure of the studied compounds are discussed, as well as their structure-activity relationships (SAR.

  18. Optimized preparation for large surface area activated carbon from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stone biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danish, Mohammed; Hashim, Rokiah; Ibrahim, M.N. Mohamad; Sulaiman, Othman

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of activated carbon from date stone treated with phosphoric acid was optimized using rotatable central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). The chemical activating agent concentration and temperature of activation plays a crucial role in preparation of large surface area activated carbons. The optimized activated carbon was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the larger surface area of activated carbon from date stone can be achieved under optimum activating agent (phosphoric acid) concentration, 50.0% (8.674 mol L −1 ) and activation temperature, 900 °C. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of optimized activated carbon was found to be 1225 m 2  g −1 , and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that 55.2% mass of optimized activated carbon was found thermally stable till 900 °C. The leading chemical functional groups found in the date stone activated carbon were aliphatic carboxylic acid salt ν(C=O) 1561.22 cm −1 and 1384.52 cm −1 , aliphatic hydrocarbons ν(C–H) 2922.99 cm −1 (C–H sym./asym. stretch frequency), aliphatic phosphates ν(P–O–C) 1054.09 cm −1 , and secondary aliphatic alcohols ν(O–H) 3419.81 cm −1 and 1159.83 cm −1 . - Highlights: • RSM optimization was done for the production of large surface area activated carbon. • Two independent variables with two responses were selected for optimization. • Characterization was done for surface area, morphology and chemical constituents. • Optimized date stone activated carbon achieved surface area 1225 m 2  g −1

  19. Preparing Soups. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.10b. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with preparing and serving soups. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas: thin soups, thick soups, convenience soups,…

  20. On brain activity mapping: insights and lessons from Brain Decoding Project to map memory patterns in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Joe Z; Li, Meng; Osan, Remus; Chen, Guifen; Lin, Longnian; Wang, Phillip Lei; Frey, Sabine; Frey, Julietta; Zhu, Dajiang; Liu, Tianming; Zhao, Fang; Kuang, Hui

    2013-09-01

    The BRAIN project recently announced by the president Obama is the reflection of unrelenting human quest for cracking the brain code, the patterns of neuronal activity that define who we are and what we are. While the Brain Activity Mapping proposal has rightly emphasized on the need to develop new technologies for measuring every spike from every neuron, it might be helpful to consider both the theoretical and experimental aspects that would accelerate our search for the organizing principles of the brain code. Here we share several insights and lessons from the similar proposal, namely, Brain Decoding Project that we initiated since 2007. We provide a specific example in our initial mapping of real-time memory traces from one part of the memory circuit, namely, the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. We show how innovative behavioral tasks and appropriate mathematical analyses of large datasets can play equally, if not more, important roles in uncovering the specific-to-general feature-coding cell assembly mechanism by which episodic memory, semantic knowledge, and imagination are generated and organized. Our own experiences suggest that the bottleneck of the Brain Project is not only at merely developing additional new technologies, but also the lack of efficient avenues to disseminate cutting edge platforms and decoding expertise to neuroscience community. Therefore, we propose that in order to harness unique insights and extensive knowledge from various investigators working in diverse neuroscience subfields, ranging from perception and emotion to memory and social behaviors, the BRAIN project should create a set of International and National Brain Decoding Centers at which cutting-edge recording technologies and expertise on analyzing large datasets analyses can be made readily available to the entire community of neuroscientists who can apply and schedule to perform cutting-edge research.

  1. Optimization on Preparation Conditions of Salidroside Liposome and Its Immunological Activity on PCV-2 in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the preparation conditions of salidroside liposome with high encapsulation efficiency (EE and to study the immunological enhancement activity of salidroside liposome as porcine circovirus type 2 virus (PCV-2 vaccine adjuvant. Response surface methodology (RSM was selected to optimize the conditions for the preparation of salidroside liposome using Design-Expert V8.0.6 software. Three kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants were prepared to study their adjuvant activity. BALB/c mice were immunized with PCV-2 encapsulated in different kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants. The PCV-2-specific IgG in immunized mice serum was determined with ELISA. The results showed that when the concentration of ammonium sulfate was 0.26 mol·L−1, ethanol volume 6.5 mL, temperature 43°C, ethanol injection rate 3 mL·min−1, and salidroside liposome could be prepared with high encapsulation efficiency of 94.527%. Salidroside liposome as adjuvant could rapidly induce the production of PCV-2-specific IgG and salidroside liposome I adjuvant proved to provide the best effect among the three kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants.

  2. Preparation, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of MoCo/USY Catalyst on Hydrodeoxygenation Reaction of Anisole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugrahaningtyas, K. D.; Suharbiansah, R. S. R.; Rahmawati, F.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to prepare, characterize, and study the catalytic activity of Molybdenum (Mo) and Cobalt (Co) metal with supporting material Ultra Stable Y-Zeolite (USY), to produce catalysts with activity in hydrotreatment reaction and in order to eliminate impurities compounds that containing unwanted groups heteroatoms. The bimetallic catalysts MoCo/USY were prepared by wet impregnation method with weight variation of Co metal 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and Mo metal 8% (w/w), respectively. Activation method of the catalyst included calcination, oxidation, reduction and the crystallinity was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), the acidity of the catalyst was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gravimetry method, minerals present in the catalyst was analyzed using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), and surface of the catalyst was analyzed using Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). Catalytic activity test (benzene yield product) of MoCo/USY on hydrodeoxigenation reaction of anisole aimed to determine the effect of Mo-Co/USY for catalytic activity in the reaction hydrodeoxigenation (HDO) anisole. Based on characterization and test of catalytic activity, it is known that catalytic of MoCo/USY 2% (catalyst B) shows best activities with acidity of 10.209 mmol/g, specific area of catalyst of 426.295 m2/g, pore average of 14.135 Å, total pore volume 0.318 cc/g, and total yield of HDO products 6.06%.

  3. Russian energy efficiency projects: lessons learnt from Activities Implemented Jointly pilot phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korppoo, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Russia needs to improve the efficiency of energy. Failure to do so will retard the economic recovery of the country, but the energy sector is lacking both domestic and foreign investments. JI projects could provide the underfinanced Russian energy sector with additional investments. AIJ pilot project experiences provide an overview of the potential difficulties for future JI projects. Institutional problems were the most important category. Most of these problems remain, and the lack of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Russia has formed a new very significant barrier. Implementation level problems caused some problems to AIJ projects, but they are likely to have less impact on the better prepared JI projects. The character of funding-related problems has changed: for AIJ projects the main problem was that emission reductions could not be credited, whereas future JI projects will experience more competition in the Kyoto market where the overall investment climate and the availability of local cofunding are more relevant. Therefore, the unfinished economic and energy sector reforms currently discourage JI investments. The project experiences so far have been dismal, and if Russian policy-makers cannot improve this performance, only few JI projects can be expected in the future

  4. Physical Education Lesson Content and Teacher Style and Elementary Students' Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…

  5. Lessons learned from SONOPA : (SOcial Networks for Older adults to Promote an Active life)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allouch, S. Ben; Jaschinski, C.; Deboeverie, F.; Aghajan, Hamid; Philips, Wilfried

    This paper describes the development and testing of an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) solution that combines state-of-the- art sensor technology with a social network application to empower elders to stay active, autonomous and socially connected and consequently support and unburden family

  6. Does Lesson Study contribute to activating and cognitively demanding teaching behavior? A single case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Siebrich; Roorda, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Activating and cognitively demanding teaching behavior is problematic for many teachers in Dutch secondary education, in particular for the less experienced advanced beginners. In the context of a Professional Learning Community (PLC) for both less and more experienced teachers of mathematics,

  7. Barriers in the implementation of a physical activity intervention in primary care settings: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josyula, Lakshmi K; Lyle, Roseann M

    2013-01-01

    Barriers encountered in implementing a physical activity intervention in primary health care settings, and ways to address them, are described in this paper. A randomized comparison trial was designed to examine the impact of health care providers' written prescriptions for physical activity, with or without additional physical activity resources, to adult, nonpregnant patients on preventive care or chronic disease monitoring visits. Following abysmal recruitment outcomes, the research protocol was altered to make it more appealing to all the participants, i.e., health care providers, office personnel, and patients. Various barriers--financial, motivational, and executive--to the implementation of health promotion interventions in primary health care settings were experienced and identified. These barriers have been classified by the different participants in the research process, viz., healthcare providers, administrative personnel, researchers, and patients. Some of the barriers identified were lack of time and reimbursement for health promotion activities, and inadequate practice capacity, for health care providers; increased time and labor demands for administrative personnel; constrained access to participants, and limited funding, for researchers; and superseding commitments, and inaccurate comprehension of the research protocol, for patients. Solutions suggested to overcome these barriers include financial support, e.g., funding for researchers, remuneration for health care organization personnel, reimbursement for providers, payment for participants, and free or subsidized postage, and use of health facilities; motivational strategies such as inspirational leadership, and contests within health care organizations; and partnerships, with other expert technical and creative entities, to improve the quality, efficiency, and acceptability of health promotion interventions.

  8. Best Practices in University-Community Partnerships: Lessons Learned from a Physical-Activity-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David

    2006-01-01

    Universities have the potential to make significant contributions to their neighboring schools and youth agencies through university-community partnerships and the programs they spawn. However, even with proven goals, trained staff, and eager students, collaborative physical-activity-based youth development programs can fail despite the best…

  9. (Re-)activation of neurons in aging and dementia: Lessons from the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, Dick F.; Bao, Ai-Min

    2011-01-01

    Our hypothesis is that there is 'wear and tear' in the brain, which is the basis of the process of aging, but that stimulation of brain function may slow down brain aging and diminish the risk for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly by activating repair mechanisms.

  10. A doped activated carbon prepared from polyaniline for high performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Limin; Liu, Enhui; Li, Jian; Yang, Yanjing; Shen, Haijie; Huang, Zhengzheng; Xiang, Xiaoxia; Li, Wen [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2010-03-01

    A novel doped activated carbon has been prepared from H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-doped polyaniline which is prepared by the oxypolymerization of aniline. The morphology, surface chemical composition and surface area of the carbon have been investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunaner-Emmett-Teller measurement, respectively. Electrochemical properties of the doped activated carbon have been studied by cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 6 mol l{sup -1} KOH. The specific capacitance of the carbon is as high as 235 F g{sup -1}, the specific capacitance hardly decreases at a high current density 11 A g{sup -1} after 10,000 cycles, which indicates that the carbon possesses excellent cycle durability and may be a promising candidate for supercapacitors. (author)

  11. IAEA activities in preparation of reglamentary documents on nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    The activities of the IAEA in the field of working out practical rules and recommendations ensuring the nuclear power plant safety are discussed. The practical rules will establish the aims and the minimum of requirements, that must be carried out to ensure the necessary safety of systems, components and equipment of the nuclear power plant throughout the whole period of its exploitation. Described is the procedure of the document preparation, consisting of the collection of documents, edited in different countries, the integration of documents by the IAEA Secretariat, the consideratiom of documents by the Group of senior advisers, the preparation of the draft document, the additional wort at the document in accordaqce with the remarks of the IAEA member-countries, the edition and dissemination of documents. The necessity for the active participation of the CMEA member-countries in the development and discussion of documents concerning the nuclear power plant safety is stated [ru

  12. HL-60 differentiating activity and flavonoid content of the readily extractable fraction prepared from citrus juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Yano, M

    1999-01-01

    Citrus plants are rich sources of various bioactive flavonoids. To eliminate masking effects caused by hesperidin, naringin, and neoeriocitrin, the abundant flavonoid glycosides which make up 90% of the conventionally prepared sample, the readily extractable fraction from Citrus juice was prepared by adsorbing on HP-20 resin and eluting with EtOH and acetone from the resin and was subjected to HL-60 differentiation assay and quantitative analysis of major flavonoids. Screening of 34 Citrus juices indicated that King (C. nobilis) had a potent activity for inducing differentiation of HL-60, and the active principles were isolated and identified as four polymethoxylated flavonoids, namely, nobiletin, 3,3',4',5,6,7, 8-heptamethoxyflavone, natsudaidain, and tangeretin. HPLC analysis of the readily extractable fraction also indicated that King contained high amounts of these polymethoxylated flavonoids among the Citrus juices examined. Principal component and cluster analyses of the readily extractable flavonoids indicated peculiarities of King and Bergamot.

  13. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from rubber-seed shell by physical activation with steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Kang; Jiang, Jian chun

    2010-01-01

    The use of rubber-seed shell as a raw material for the production of activated carbon with physical activation was investigated. The produced activated carbons were characterized by Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, Scanning electron microscope, Thermo-gravimetric and Differential scanning calorimetric in order to understand the rubber-seed shell activated carbon. The results showed that rubber-seed shell is a good precursor for activated carbon. The optimal activation condition is: temperature 880 o C, steam flow 6 kg h -1 , residence time 60 min. Characteristics of activated carbon with a high yield (30.5%) are: specific surface area (S BET ) 948 m 2 g -1 , total volume 0.988 m 3 kg -1 , iodine number of adsorbent (q iodine ) 1.326 g g -1 , amount of methylene blue adsorption of adsorbent (q mb ) 265 mg g -1 , hardness 94.7%. It is demonstrated that rubber-seed shell is an attractive source of raw material for producing high capacity activated carbon by physical activation with steam.

  14. Lessons learned from SONOPA: (SOcial Networks for Older adults to Promote an Active life)

    OpenAIRE

    Allouch, S. Ben; Jaschinski, C.; Deboeverie, F.; Aghajan, Hamid; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) solution that combines state-of-the- art sensor technology with a social network application to empower elders to stay active, autonomous and socially connected and consequently support and unburden family caregivers. From a very early development phase both social scientists and engineers worked together to ensure a holistic approach to the development of the technology. To get a better insight into the need...

  15. Lessons Learned from Outsourcing the Pearl Harbor MK-48 Intermediate Maintenance Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    transfer of ownership of assets. However, outsourcing is not simply a procurement decision. All organizations procure elements of their operations...systems, commercialization, and franchising (Office of Management and Budget, 2004). Strengths of Outsourcing Outsourcing is more efficient than...operating the IMA with organic resources vs . the cost of a comparable service provided by a contractor. Activity-based costing would also help managers

  16. Physical Education Preservice Teachers' Perceptions About Preparation for Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ja Youn; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; van der Mars, Hans; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Norris, Jason

    2018-06-01

    Physical educators may be the responsible people for implementing comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAPs) in schools. However, it is unclear whether physical education teacher education (PETE) programs provide the relevant learning opportunities to preservice teachers for CSPAP implementation. The purpose of this study was to understand preservice teachers' perspectives and experiences of CSPAP preparation in their PETE programs. Fourteen PETE students from 6 different universities participated and shared their experiences in PETE programs. Data were collected through a short survey, 1 formal interview, field images, document gathering, and an additional survey to follow up the interview. Descriptive statistics, constant comparison, and analytic induction techniques were used to analyze the data. Participants' familiarity with CSPAPs was related to positive opinions about the role of physical educators in CSPAPs. Three common themes were revealed: (a) introducing CSPAP via courses, (b) the lack of programwide hands-on experiences for CSPAP, and (c) limited preparation for social skills with stakeholders. Participants' perceptions of the role of physical educators as physical activity leaders had been expanded during their training. The participating PETE programs integrated CSPAP components in the existing courses to introduce CSPAP, while there was a lack of sufficient practical opportunities to learn how to implement (aspects of) a CSPAP. Participants felt they were insufficiently prepared to promote and implement expanded physical activity programming beyond physical education classes in schools. The majority of the PETE preservice teachers wanted more practical CSPAP experiences in their programs.

  17. Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Prepared from Pea Shells (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal Geçgel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An activated carbon was prepared from pea shells and used for the removal of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solutions. The influence of various factors such as adsorbent concentration, initial dye concentration, temperature, contact time, pH, and surfactant was studied. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm was found to follow the Langmuir model. The monolayer sorption capacity of activated carbon prepared from pea shell for MB was found to be 246.91 mg g−1 at 25 ∘C. Two simplified kinetic models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equation were selected to follow the adsorption processes. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as , , and were evaluated. The results in this study indicated that activated carbon prepared from pea shell could be employed as an adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions.

  18. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania-silica mixed oxide prepared via basic hydrolyzation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chao; Xu Zili; Yang Qiujing; Xue Baoyong; Du Yaoguo; Zhang Jiahua

    2004-01-01

    Two different synthesis routes were applied to prepare TiO 2 -XSiO 2 (X denotes mol% of silica in titania-silica mixed oxides) with different silica concentrations by using ammonia water as hydrolysis catalyst. Through comparing the photocatalytic performance of two sets of mixed oxides, we found that the photocatalytic activity of mixed oxides prepared via the route which can promote homogeneity, was significantly enhanced as compared with that of counterparts prepared via the another route, and the highest photocatalytic activity obtained by adding about 9.1 mol% silica into titania was much higher than that of pure TiO 2 . The mixed oxides were investigated by means of XRD, thermal analysis, UV-vis, FT-IR and XPS. The characterization results suggest that, in comparison with pure TiO 2 , the mixed oxides exhibit smaller crystallite size and higher thermal stability which can elevate the temperature of anatase to rutile phase transformation due to the addition of silica. Furthermore, Broensted acidity, which is associated with the formation of Ti-O-Si hetero linkages where tetrahedrally coordinated silica is chemically mixed with the octahedral titania matrix, may be a very important contribution to the enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania-silica mixed oxides as well

  19. Preparation of albumin based nanoparticles for delivery of fisetin and evaluation of its cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pooja; Singha Roy, Atanu; Chaudhury, Susmitnarayan; Jana, Saikat Kumar; Chaudhury, Koel; Dasgupta, Swagata

    2016-05-01

    Fisetin is a well known flavonoid that shows several properties such as antioxidant, antiviral and anticancer activities. Its use in the pharmaceutical field is limited due to its poor aqueous solubility which results in poor bioavailability and poor permeability. The aim of our present study is to prepare fisetin loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles to improve its bioavailability. The nanoparticles were prepared by a desolvation method and characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The particles were smooth and spherical in nature with an average size of 220 ± 8 nm. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be 84%. The in vitro release profile showed a biphasic pattern and the release rate increases with increase in ionic strength of solution. We have also confirmed the antioxidant activity of the prepared nanoparticles by a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Further its anticancer activity was evaluated using MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Our findings suggest that fisetin loaded HSA nanoparticles could be used to transfer fisetin to target areas under specific conditions and thus may find use as a delivery vehicle for the flavonoid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thalamo-cortical activation and connectivity during response preparation in adults with persistent and remitted ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Suzanne M; Schulz, Kurt P; Berwid, Olga G; Fan, Jin; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Tang, Cheuk Y; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    The neural correlates of stimulus-driven processes, such as response preparation, have been posited to be associated with the onset of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while being distinct from the neural mechanisms associated with recovery. The authors tested this hypothesis in adults with remitted and persistent ADHD. Thirty-eight young adults who were diagnosed with combined-type ADHD in childhood (probands) and 32 carefully matched comparison subjects were followed longitudinally and scanned with functional MRI while performing an event-related cued reaction time task. Probands were characterized as individuals with persistent or remitted ADHD. Differences in thalamo-cortical activation and functional connectivity during response preparation between comparison subjects and probands and between individuals with persistent ADHD and those with remitted ADHD were assessed by contrasting neural activation and functional connectivity during cue or noncue events. Probands exhibited less cue-related activation than comparison subjects in the thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, inferior parietal lobe, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex despite similar overall patterns of activation. There were no differences in activation between individuals in the remitted ADHD group and those in the persistent ADHD group in any hypothesized regions. However, cue-related functional connectivity between the right thalamus and brainstem was greater in comparison subjects relative to probands, and cue-related connectivity was greater between the right thalamus and prefrontal regions in individuals with remitted ADHD relative to those with persistent ADHD. Decreased thalamo-cortical activation during response preparation was present in adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood regardless of symptom remission in adulthood, and may be partly driven by less functional coordination between the brainstem and thalamus. Greater functional integration of the

  1. Self-activation of cellulose: A new preparation methodology for activated carbon electrodes in electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bommier, Clement; Xu, Rui; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xingfeng; Wen, David; Lu, Jun; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-04-01

    Current synthetic methods of biomass-derived activated carbon call for a costly chemical or physical activation process. Herein, we report a simple one-step annealing synthesis yielding a high surface area cellulose-derived activated carbon. We discover that simply varying the flow rate of Argon during pyrolysis enables ‘self-activation’ reactions that can tune the specific surface areas of the resulting carbon, ranging from 98 m2/g to values as high as 2600 m2/g. Furthermore, we, for the first time, observe a direct evolution of H2 from the pyrolysis, which gives strong evidence towards an in situ self-activation mechanism. Surprisingly, the obtained activated carbon is a crumbled graphene nanostructure composed of interconnected sheets, making it ideal for use in an electrochemical capacitor. The cellulose-derived nanoporous carbon exhibits a capacitance of 132 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, a performance comparable to the state-of-the-art activated carbons. This work presents a fundamentally new angle to look at the synthesis of activated carbon, and highlights the importance of a controlled inert gas flow rate during synthesis in general, as its contributions can have a very large impact on the final material properties.

  2. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber prepared from phenol formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon-based materials are used commercially to remove SO2 from coal combustion flue gases. Historically, these materials have consisted of granular activated carbons prepared from lignite or bituminous coal. Recent studies have reported that activated carbon fibers (ACFs) may have potential in this application due to their relatively high SO2 adsorption capacity. In this paper, a comparison of SO2 adsorption for both coal-based carbons and ACFs is presented, as well as ideas on carbon properties that may influence SO2 adsorption

  3. [Preparation of a kind of SERS-active substrates for spot fast analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Nan; Li, Zhi-Shi; Zhao, Bing; Zou, Bo

    2013-02-01

    A kind of SERS-active substrates was prepared using chemical self-assembly method, aiming at spot fast analysis using portable Raman spectrometer. PDDA was first absorbed on the inner wall of vials, and then Ag colloids were assembled on the inner wall. UV-Vis spectra and Raman spectra of two kinds of blank vials were investigated and the transparent vials were thought to be better for SERS-vials. UV-Vis spectra were used to monitor the assembly process of Ag colloids. SERS activity of our substrates was characterized using p-ATP as probing molecules.

  4. Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation activities. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichle, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This revision adds a section addressing impacts of dropping surfacing tool and rack cutter on the basin floor, and corrects typographical errors. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparisons of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions was made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classifications

  5. New aromatic activated dihalides and bisphenol monomers for the preparation of novel poly(arylene ethers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, James F.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research program was to synthesize a series of unique monomers of type I to be utilized at NASA-Langley in the preparation of new poly(arylene ether ketones), poly(arylene ether ketosulfones), and poly(arylene ether ketophosphine oxides). These A-A and A-B monomer systems, which possess activated aryl halide and/or phenolic end groups, are accessible via condensation reactions of appropriately substituted aryl acetonitrile carbanions with activated aryl dihalides followed by oxidative decyanation.

  6. Beautiful Beads: A Lesson in Making Beads with Friendly Clay. AMACO[R] Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Harriet; Gamble, David

    This lesson resource includes a brief summary of the history of bead making and historic fascination with beads as adornment. A focus on design elements, color theory, craftsmanship, and technical skill in bead making is encouraged. The plan includes lesson goals and objectives; background preparation; a glossary of terms; a list of supplies; and…

  7. Increasing high school girls' exposure to computing activities with e-textiles: challenges and lessons learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsotti, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    ; stereotypes about computing as a ‘male’ domain; widespread lack of pre-college CS education and perceptions of computing as not socially relevant. STEAM activities have often been used to bridge the gender gap and to broaden the appeal of computing among children and youth. This contribution examines a STEAM......The number of female students in computer science degrees has been rapidly declining in Denmark in the past 40 years, as in many other European and North-American countries. The main reasons behind this phenomenon are widespread gender stereotypes about who is best suited to pursue a career in CS...

  8. Analyzing R&D Activities of Foreign Enterprises in Emerging Economies. Lessons from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    M. Teoman Pamukçu; Erkan Erdil

    2011-01-01

    Emerging economies have played an important role in the internationalization of R&D activities at least since the 1990s. Turkey, an emerging economy and at same time an accession country to the European Union which signed a Customs Union Agreement with the EU already in 1995, is no exception. In-depth face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with R&D directors of 26 multinational companies operating in Turkey –with headquarters located in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Switzerla...

  9. Preparation, Surface and Pore Structure of High Surface Area Activated Carbon Fibers from Bamboo by Steam Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High surface area activated carbon fibers (ACF have been prepared from bamboo by steam activation after liquefaction and curing. The influences of activation temperature on the microstructure, surface area and porosity were investigated. The results showed that ACF from bamboo at 850 °C have the maximum iodine and methylene blue adsorption values. Aside from the graphitic carbon, phenolic and carbonyl groups were the predominant functions on the surface of activated carbon fiber from bamboo. The prepared ACF from bamboo were found to be mainly type I of isotherm, but the mesoporosity presented an increasing trend after 700 °C. The surface area and micropore volume of samples, which were determined by application of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and t-plot methods, were as high as 2024 m2/g and 0.569 cm3/g, respectively. It was also found that the higher activation temperature produced the more ordered microcrystalline structure of ACF from bamboo.

  10. Preparation of High Surface Area Activated Carbon from Spent Phenolic Resin by Microwave Heating and KOH Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Song; Zhang, Libo; Zhang, Shengzhou; Xia, Hongying; Peng, Jinhui

    2018-01-01

    The spent phenolic resin is as raw material for preparing high surface area activated carbon (HSAAC) by microwave-assisted KOH activation. The effects of microwave power, activation duration and impregnation ratio (IR) on the iodine adsorption capability and yield of HSAAC were investigated. The surface characteristics of HSAAC were characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The operating variables were optimized utilizing the response surface methodology (RSM) and were identified to be microwave power of 700 W, activation duration of 15 min and IR of 4, corresponding to a yield of 51.25 % and an iodine number of 2,384 mg/g. The pore structure parameters of the HSAAC, i. e., Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter were estimated to be 4,269 m2/g, 2.396 ml/g and 2.25 nm, respectively, under optimum conditions. The findings strongly support the feasibility of microwave-assisted KOH activation for preparation of HSAAC from spent phenolic resin.

  11. Adsorption of methyl orange using activated carbon prepared from lignin by ZnCl2 treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, K.; Hamdi, N.; Kriaa, A.; Srasra, E.

    2012-08-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are good and cheap precursors for the production of activated carbon. In this study, activated carbons were prepared from the lignin at different temperatures (200 to 500°C) by ZnCl2. The effects influencing the surface area of the resulting activated carbon are activation temperature, activation time and impregnation ratio. The optimum condition, are found an impregnation ratio of 2, an activation temperature of 450°C, and an activation time of 2 h. The results showed that the surface area and micropores volume of activated carbon at the experimental conditions are achieved to 587 and 0.23 cm3 g-1, respectively. The adsorption behavior of methyl orange dye from aqueous solution onto activated lignin was investigated as a function of equilibrium time, pH and concentration. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. A maximum adsorption capacity of 300 mg g-1 of methyl orange by activated carbon was achieved.

  12. Preparation of steam activated carbon from rubberwood sawdust (Hevea brasiliensis) and its adsorption kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash Kumar, B.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Shivakamy, K. [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Miranda, Lima Rose [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Velan, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)]. E-mail: velan@annauniv.edu

    2006-08-25

    Activated carbon was produced from a biowaste product, rubberwood sawdust (RWSD) using steam in a high temperature fluidized bed reactor. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of various process parameters such as activation time, activation temperature, particle size and fluidising velocity on the quality of the activated carbon. The activated carbon was characterized based on its iodine number, methylene blue number, Brauner Emmet Teller (BET) surface area and surface area obtained using the ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether (EGME) retention method. The best quality activated carbon was obtained at an activation time and temperature of 1 h and 750 deg. C for an average particle size of 0.46 mm. The adsorption kinetics shows that pseudo-second-order rate fitted the adsorption kinetics better than pseudo-first-order rate equation. The adsorption capacity of carbon produced from RWSD was found to be 1250 mg g{sup -1} for the Bismark Brown dye. The rate constant and diffusion coefficient for intraparticle transport were determined for steam activated carbon. The characteristic of the prepared activated carbon was found comparable to the commercial activated carbon.

  13. How to Analyze Routines in Teachers' Thinking Processes during Lesson Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromme, Rainer

    A justification for the study of teachers' routines, as they affect the preparation of lesson plans, prefaces this paper on teachers' thought processes during lesson planning. In focusing on the importance of research into teachers' routines, it is pointed out that lesson preparation and classroom routines permit teachers to direct attention to…

  14. St. Louis FUSRAP Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlin, J.; Williams, D.; Mueller, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learned from fours years' experience conducting Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action activities at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Many FUSRAP sites are experiencing challenges conducting Remedial Actions within forecasted volume and budget estimates. The St. Louis FUSRAP lessons learned provide insight to options for cost effective remediation at FUSRAP sites. The lessons learned are focused on project planning (budget and schedule), investigation, design, and construction

  15. [Lessons learned from Magen David Adom's activities during the 2nd Lebanon War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalowski, Chaim; Peleg, Kobi; Bin, Eli

    2010-07-01

    The activities of Magen David Adom (MDA) during the 2nd Lebanese War led to a series of conclusions (some established during the fighting) regarding the operational concept of the organization, the response to the needs of the team members, and the resource requirements. The fighting led to an update in the operational concept, moving to the smaller based operational unit--the station, creating a flexible concept, enabling response to various simultaneous scenes, quickly generating a common situational awareness, and relocation of resources to the more relevant events. TechnoLogy must support the operational concept. The response to stress-related victims should be part of the operational concept during conflict. Debriefing and learning processes are part of the response and enable adaptation to the changing reality. A comprehensive response to the needs of the team members is required, by relocation of family members, meeting the daily needs and preventing stress-related reactions among them. A rotation of leave of absence, central management of human resources and the management of volunteers--spontaneous and those who return to active work, are other components of this issue. The required resources--personal protective equipment, collective protection, command control and communications equipment, the supplies level and the different vehicles required for the operation, are important issues in the operational program of the organization. Collecting blood, maintaining a strategic stockpile and protecting the units, are all part of MDA missions.

  16. Preparation and electrochemical characterization of polyaniline/activated carbon composites as an electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Misoon; Kim, Seok

    2012-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)/activated carbon (AC) composites were prepared by a chemical oxidation polymerization. To find an optimum ratio between PANI and AC which shows superior electrochemical properties, the preparation was carried out in changing the amount of added aniline monomers. The morphology of prepared composites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The structural and thermal properties were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Composites showed a summation of capacitances that consisted of two origins. One is double-layer capacitance by ACs and the other is faradic capacitance by redox reaction of PANI. Fiber-like PANIs are coated on the surface of ACs and they contribute to the large surface for redox reaction. The vacancy among fibers provided the better diffusion and accessibility of ion. High capacitances of composites were originated from the network structure having vacancy made by PANI fibers. It was found that the composite prepared with 5 ml of aniline monomer and 0.25 g of AC showed the highest capacitance. Capacitance of 771 F/g was obtained at a scan rate of 5 mV/s.

  17. Preparation of Highly Porous Binderless Active Carbon Monoliths from Waste Aspen Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste aspen sawdust was used as a precursor to prepare binderless active carbon monoliths (ACMs with high porosities. The ACMs were prepared by activation with H3PO4 at different activation temperatures (500 to 700 °C and retention times (1 to 3 h. Their morphologies, yields, textural properties, and microcrystalline structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, an analytical balance, N2 adsorption/desorption techniques, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results indicated that waste aspen sawdust could be successfully converted into highly porous binderless ACMs. The apparent specific surface area (SSA and yield of ACMs were in the range of 688 to 951 m2/g and 26.6 to 36.2%, respectively. Highly microporous ACMs with a micropore percentage of 91.1%, apparent specific surface area of 951 m2/g, pore volume of 0.481 mL/g, and bulk density of 0.56 g/mL could be produced by activation at 700 °C for 1 h. Increasing the activation temperature or retention time increased the specific surface area, pore volume, and turbostratic degree, but decreased the yield.

  18. Preparation, Optimization and Activity Evaluation of PLGA/Streptokinase Nanoparticles Using Electrospray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Yaghoobi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: PLGA nanoparticles (NPs have been extensively investigated as carriers of different drug molecules to enhance their therapeutic effects or preserve them from the aqueous environment. Streptokinase (SK is an important medicine for thrombotic diseases. Methods: In this study, we used electrospray to encapsulate SK in PLGA NPs and evaluate its activity. This is the first paper which investigates activity of an electrosprayed enzyme. Effect of three input parameters, namely, voltage, internal diameter of needle (nozzle and concentration ratio of polymer to protein on size and size distribution (SD of NPs was evaluated using artificial neural networks (ANNs. Optimizing the SD has been rarely reported so far in electrospray. Results: From the results, to obtain lowest size of nanoparticles, ratio of polymer/enzyme and needle internal diameter (ID should be low. Also, minimum SD was obtainable at high values of voltage. The optimum preparation had mean (SD size, encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of 37 (12 nm, 90% and 8.2%, respectively. Nearly, 20% of SK was released in the first 30 minutes, followed by cumulative release of 41% during 72 h. Activity of the enzyme was also checked 30 min after preparation and 19.2% activity was shown. Conclusion: Our study showed that electrospraying could be an interesting approach to encapsulate proteins/enzymes in polymeric nanoparticles. However, further works are required to assure maintaining the activity of the enzyme/protein after electrospray.

  19. Highly Active Non-PGM Catalysts Prepared from Metal Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Barkholtz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Finding inexpensive alternatives to platinum group metals (PGMs is essential for reducing the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs. Numerous materials have been investigated as potential replacements of Pt, of which the transition metal and nitrogen-doped carbon composites (TM/Nx/C prepared from iron doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs are among the most active ones in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction based on recent studies. In this report, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of ZIF-based TM/Nx/C composites can be substantially improved through optimization of synthesis and post-treatment processing conditions. Ultimately, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR electrocatalytic activity must be demonstrated in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs of fuel cells. The process of preparing MEAs using ZIF-based non-PGM electrocatalysts involves many additional factors which may influence the overall catalytic activity at the fuel cell level. Evaluation of parameters such as catalyst loading and perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to catalyst ratio were optimized. Our overall efforts to optimize both the catalyst and MEA construction process have yielded impressive ORR activity when tested in a fuel cell system.

  20. Characterization of mesoporous carbon prepared from date stems by H3PO4 chemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadoun, H.; Sadaoui, Z.; Souami, N.; Sahel, D.; Toumert, I.

    2013-01-01

    The present work was focused on the determination of texture, morphology, crystanillity and oxygenated surface groups characteristics of an activated carbon prepared from date stems. Chemical activation of this precursor at different temperatures (450, 550 and 650 °C) was adopted using phosphoric acid as dehydrating agent at (2/1) impregnation ratio. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study was carried out to identify surface groups in date stems activated carbons. The microscopic structure was examined by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The interlayer spacing (d 200 and d 100 ), stack height (L c ), stack width (L a ) and effective dimension L of the turbostratic crystallites (microcrystallite) in the date stems activated carbons were estimated from X-ray diffraction data (XRD). Results yielded a surface area, S BET , and total pore volume of 682, 1455, 1319 m 2 /g and 0,343, 1,045 and 0.735 cm 3 /g, for the carbon prepared at 450, 550 and 650 °C, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy exhibits a highly developed porosity which is in good agreement with the porous texture derived from gas adsorption data and these results confirm that the activated carbon is dominated by network of slit-shaped mesopores morphology and in some cases by varied micropores morphologies.

  1. Novel Method of Preparation and Activity Research on Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Enbo; Han, Jiahong; Yang, Limin; Zhang, Weiyuan; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Qiulian; Guo, Meng; He, Xinhong

    2018-01-01

    Background: Arctigenin has many pharmacological activities with clinical significance and is derived from Arctium lappa L. However, the present extraction method is inefficient and does not have meaningful industrial production. Objective: A new method to directly prepare arctigenin was established by combining enzyme-assisted extraction and central composite design. Arctigenin's further pharmacological activity was also surveyed in vitro. Materials and Methods: β-D-Glucosidase, a food-grade enzyme, was added directly to the fruits of A. lappa L. to hydrolyze the arctiin to arctigenin, and the obtained samples were subsequently subjected to ethanol (30%, v/v) extraction. The pharmacological activity of the extraction and arctigenin was determined by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and scavenging nitrite. Results: The factors investigated include the enzyme concentration (0.5%–2.5%), ultrasound time (10 min−3 0 min), and extraction temperature (30°C–50°C). From the analysis of the results by Design-Expert (V8.0.6), the optimal extraction conditions were obtained: enzyme concentration (1.4%), ultrasound time (25 min), and extraction temperature (45°C). The highest yield of arctigenin, obtained under the optimal conditions was 6.39%, representing an increase of 28.15% compared to the reference extraction without enzyme processing. The IC50 values of the extraction and arctigenin, respectively, for inhibiting AChE were 0.572 mg/ml and 0.462 mg/ml, and those for nitrite-scavenging were 34.571 mg/ml and 17.49 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that using an enzyme directly in the production is an effective means for extracting arctigenin from Fructus arctii. The extraction has the activities of inhibiting AChE and scavenging nitrite, probably because there has arctigenin in it. It is implied that the extraction and arctigenin could contribute to human health in clinical applications. SUMMARY The new method of adding enzyme directly to the

  2. Preparation and characterization of uniform-sized chitosan/silver microspheres with antibacterial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jing; Ji, Zhenxing; Wang, Desong, E-mail: dswang06@126.com; Luo, Qingzhi; Li, Xueyan

    2014-03-01

    The chitosan/silver microspheres (CAgMs), which possess effective inhibitory on microorganisms, were prepared by an inverse-emulsification cross-linking method using CS/Ag sol as dispersed phase, whiteruss as continuous phase, and glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. The size and shape of CAgMs, greatly affecting their antibacterial activities, were controlled by varying the concentrations of cross-linking agent, emulsifier and CS/Ag colloid. The preparation conditions for obtaining uniform-sized microspheres were optimized. The morphology of CAgMs was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis. The spherical CAgMs with smooth surface in the mean size of ca. 5 μm exhibited a narrow particle size distribution. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) revealed the elemental composition of the microspheres. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the microspheres confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and UV–Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS) of the sample showed that AgNPs with the diameter no more than 20 nm were face-centered cubic crystallites. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that Ag-O bond existed in the microspheres. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the starting decomposition temperature of CAgMs (ca. 260 °C) was much higher than that of CS (ca. 160 °C), suggesting that the as-prepared CAgMs possessed better thermal stability than original CS did. Antimicrobial assays were performed using typical Gram bacteria and fungi. The inhibitory effect indicated that the as-prepared microspheres exerted a stronger antibacterial activity as the concentration of the AgNPs is increasing, and the microspheres in smaller size had much better antibacterial activity than those in the larger size. The antimicrobial mechanism of CAgMs was discussed. - Highlights: • CAgM was

  3. Novel Method of Preparation and Activity Research on Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Enbo; Han, Jiahong; Yang, Limin; Zhang, Weiyuan; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Qiulian; Guo, Meng; He, Xinhong

    2018-01-01

    Arctigenin has many pharmacological activities with clinical significance and is derived from Arctium lappa L. However, the present extraction method is inefficient and does not have meaningful industrial production. A new method to directly prepare arctigenin was established by combining enzyme-assisted extraction and central composite design. Arctigenin's further pharmacological activity was also surveyed in vitro . β-D-Glucosidase, a food-grade enzyme, was added directly to the fruits of A. lappa L. to hydrolyze the arctiin to arctigenin, and the obtained samples were subsequently subjected to ethanol (30%, v/v) extraction. The pharmacological activity of the extraction and arctigenin was determined by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and scavenging nitrite. The factors investigated include the enzyme concentration (0.5%-2.5%), ultrasound time (10 min -3 0 min), and extraction temperature (30°C-50°C). From the analysis of the results by Design-Expert (V8.0.6), the optimal extraction conditions were obtained: enzyme concentration (1.4%), ultrasound time (25 min), and extraction temperature (45°C). The highest yield of arctigenin, obtained under the optimal conditions was 6.39%, representing an increase of 28.15% compared to the reference extraction without enzyme processing. The IC 50 values of the extraction and arctigenin, respectively, for inhibiting AChE were 0.572 mg/ml and 0.462 mg/ml, and those for nitrite-scavenging were 34.571 mg/ml and 17.49 mg/ml. The results demonstrate that using an enzyme directly in the production is an effective means for extracting arctigenin from Fructus arctii. The extraction has the activities of inhibiting AChE and scavenging nitrite, probably because there has arctigenin in it. It is implied that the extraction and arctigenin could contribute to human health in clinical applications. The new method of adding enzyme directly to the preparation of arctigenin was carried out instead of preparing arctigenin by two

  4. Lessons learned from Action Schools! BC--an 'active school' model to promote physical activity in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Patti-Jean; Macdonald, Heather M; Zebedee, Janelle A; Reed, Katherine E; McKay, Heather A

    2006-10-01

    The 'active school' model offers promise for promoting school-based physical activity (PA); however, few intervention trials have evaluated its effectiveness. Thus, our purpose was to: (1) describe Action Schools! BC (AS! BC) and its implementation (fidelity and feasibility) and (2) evaluate the impact of AS! BC on school provision of PA. Ten elementary schools were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions: Usual Practice (UP, three schools), Liaison (LS, four schools) or Champion (CS, three schools). Teachers in LS and CS schools received AS! BC training and resources but differed on the level of facilitation provided. UP schools continued with regular PA. Delivery of PA during the 11-month intervention was assessed with weekly Activity Logs and intervention fidelity and feasibility were assessed using Action Plans, workshop evaluations, teacher surveys and focus groups with administrators, teachers, parents and students. Physical activity delivered was significantly greater in LS (+67.4 min/week; 95% CI: 18.7-116.1) and CS (+55.2 min/week; 95% CI: 26.4-83.9) schools than UP schools. Analysis of Action Plans and Activity Logs showed fidelity to the model and moderate levels of compliance (75%). Teachers were highly satisfied with training and support. Benefits of AS! BC included positive changes in the children and school climate, including provision of resources, improved communication and program flexibility. These results support the use of the 'active school' model to positively alter the school environment. The AS! BC model was effective, providing more opportunities for "more children to be more active more often" and as such has the potential to provide health benefits to elementary school children.

  5. Development of Virtual Traveller: A behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity during primary school lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Norris

    2015-09-01

    Three sources of data were used to inform the intervention development process: the existing research literature on school-based physical activity interventions, teacher interviews (N=12 and pupil focus groups (N=18 and an experimental feasibility study (N=85; Norris, Shelton, Dunsmuir, Duke-Williams, & Stamatakis, 2015b. The Behaviour Change Wheel was used as a framework to guide synthesis of evidence into the resulting intervention. Potential appropriate Behaviour Change Techniques were reviewed and embedded within the intervention. Conclusions The resulting 6-week Virtual Traveller programme with a 3-month follow-up period is currently in its final stages of evaluation in ten Greater London primary schools. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel and Behaviour Change Techniques allows development of replicable health interventions in applied settings such as schools.

  6. A video-based learning activity is effective for preparing physiotherapy students for practical examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Benjamin K; Horan, Sean A

    2013-12-01

    To examine a video-based learning activity for engaging physiotherapy students in preparation for practical examinations and determine student performance outcomes. Multi-method employing qualitative and quantitative data collection procedures. Tertiary education facility on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Physiotherapy students in their first year of a two-year graduate entry program. Questionnaire-based surveys and focus groups were used to examine student perceptions and satisfaction. Surveys were analysed based on the frequency of responses to closed questions made on a 5-pont Likert scale, while a thematic analysis was performed on focus group transcripts. t-Tests were used to compare student awarded marks and examiner awarded marks and evaluate student performance. Sixty-two physiotherapy students participated in the study. Mean response rate for questionnaires was 93% and eight students (13%) participated in the focus group. Participants found the video resources effective to support their learning (98% positive) and rating the video examples to be an effective learning activity (96% positive). Themes emergent from focus group responses were around improved understanding, reduced performance anxiety, and enjoyment. Students were, however, critical of the predictable nature of the example performances. Students in the current cohort supported by the video-based preparation activity exhibited greater practical examination marks than those from the previous year who were unsupported by the activity (mean 81.6 SD 8.7 vs. mean 78.1 SD 9.0, p=0.01). A video-based learning activity was effective for preparing physiotherapy students for practical examinations and conferred benefits of reduced anxiety and improved performance. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibacterial Characteristics and Activity of Water-Soluble Chitosan Derivatives Prepared by the Maillard Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chien Chung

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by Maillard reactions against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella typhimurium was examined. Relatively high antibacterial activity against various microorganisms was noted for the chitosan-glucosamine derivative as compared to the acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it was found that the susceptibility of the test organisms to the water-soluble chitosan derivative was higher in deionized water than in saline solution. Metal ions were also found to reduce the antibacterial activity of the water-soluble chitosan derivative on S. aureus. The marked increase in glucose level, protein content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity was observed in the cell supernatant of S. aureus exposed to the water-soluble chitosan derivative in deionized water. The results suggest that the water-soluble chitosan produced by Maillard reaction may be a promising commercial substitute for acid-soluble chitosan.

  8. Preparation of electromechanically active silicone composites and some evaluations of their suitability for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacob, Mihail; Bele, Adrian [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Patras, Xenia [“Apollonia” University, 2 Muzicii Street, 700511 Iasi (Romania); Pasca, Sorin [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi, Aleea Mihail Sadoveanu nr. 3, Iasi 700490 (Romania); Butnaru, Maria [“Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, 16 University Street, 700115 Iasi (Romania); Alexandru, Mihaela [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Ovezea, Dragos [National Institute for Research and Development in Electrical Engineering ICPE-CA, 313 Splaiul Unirii, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); Cazacu, Maria, E-mail: mcazacu@icmpp.ro [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Gr. Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania)

    2014-10-01

    Some films based on electromechanically active polymer composites have been prepared. Polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diols (PDMSs) having different molecular masses (Mv = 60 700 and Mv = 44 200) were used as matrix in which two different active fillers were incorporated: titanium dioxide in situ generated from its titanium isopropoxide precursor and silica particles functionalized with polar aminopropyl groups on surface. A reference sample based on simple crosslinked PDMS was also prepared. The composites processed as films were investigated to evaluate their ability to act as efficient electromechanical actuators for potential biomedical application. Thus, the surface morphology of interest for electrodes compliance was analysed by atomic force microscopy. Mechanical and dielectric characteristics were evaluated by tensile tests and dielectric spectroscopy, respectively. Electromechanical actuation responses were measured by interferometry. The biocompatibility of the obtained materials has been verified through tests in vitro and, for valuable films, in vivo. The experimental, clinical and anatomopathological evaluation of the in vivo tested samples did not reveal significant pathological modifications. - Highlights: • Silicone composites differing by the filler and matrix characteristics were prepared. • Stress–strain curves were registered in normal and cyclic modes for composite films. • The dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, and conductivity were determined. • Electromechanical response of the films was measured at an applied voltage. • Some biocompatibility tests, both in vitro and in vivo, were performed.

  9. The preparation and measurement of activity for 57Co standard solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingxia; Yu Yiguang; Du Hongshan; Chen Xilin

    1994-12-01

    In the preparation of 57 Co, the reactions of 56 Fe (d, n) 57 Co and 56 Fe(d,2n) 57 Co were selected by using 8.7 MeV deuteron to radiate natural iron which was electroplated on copper target. The methods of TBP-Benzene extraction and cation exchange were used for separating and purifying 57 Co. The purity of the solution was checked by HPGe γ spectrometer and the total contents of γ impurities were below 0.2%. To prepare the source, silicon gel suspension was electrosprayed on VYNS thin film which was metallized by gold to form a proper source pad. Weighing balance was used to quantitatively prepare the sources. Research on the effects of the working gas pressure and the working voltage on the plateau curve was carried on by the pressurized 4 πβ-γ coincidence equipment. Finally, efficiency extrapolation method was used to accurately measure the specific activity of 57 Co solution by means of changing the discrimination threshold. The total uncertainty is about 1.2%(3σ) . It is shown that the solution is uniform, stable and accuracy with the reliable specific activity through the domestic comparison. (6 figs.; 6 tabs.)

  10. Preparation of a high specific activity I-125 labeled styryl dye for leukocyte membrane labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, C.; Mease, R.C.; Le, T.; Sabet, H.; Avren, L.I.; McAfee, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a high specific activity radioiodinated cell membrane probe for tracking lymphocytes in-vivo to replace the nucleus localizing, cytotoxic lipophilic chelates (In-111 oxine and Tc-99m HMPAO) currently used. Alkylation of parent dye 4-[2-[-N,N-didecylamino]phenyl]ethenyl pyridine with E-1-tributylstannyl-3-tosylpropene (prepared form E-1-tributylstannyl-1-propene-3-ol), gave a tributyltin precursor 1. Radiolabeled 3-[4-[2-[4-(N,N-didecylamino)phenyl]ethenyl]pyridino] E-[I-125]-1-iodopropene (2), was prepared from 1 using peracetic acid in acetonitrile/water. Labeling yields and specific activities achieved were 26% (∼2170 Ci/mmol), 40% (1220 Ci/mmol), and 55% (200 Ci/mmol) for nca, 0.4, and 2 nanomole carrier iodide runs respectively. Canine mixed leukocytes (0.5-1.0 x 10 8 cells) were labeled with 2 (67% and 42% yields for 200 Ci/mol and 1220 Ci/mmol preparations) and showed blood clearance similar to In 111 oxine. Radioiodinated styryl dye 2 appears to be a promising leukocyte labeling agent. Imaging studies with I-131 labeled 2 are in progress

  11. Optimization of microwave-assisted rubberwood sawdust based activated carbon preparation conditions for methylene blue removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasri, Azduwin; Ahmad, Mohd Azmier

    2017-10-01

    Optimum preparation conditions of rubberwood sawdust based activated carbon (RSAC) for methylene blue (MB) dye removal was studied. RSAC was produced by applying physiochemical activation method by using potassium hydroxide as a chemical agent which accompanied by carbon dioxide gasification under microwave heating. The effects of microwave power, irradiation time and impregnation ratio on two types of responses namely MB removal and RSAC yield using the center composite design (CCD) were also included in this study. The preparation variables correlation for responses was developed by two quadratic models. Optimum preparation conditions of RSAC were obtained at microwave power, irradiation time and IR of 354 W, 4.5 minutes and 0.98, respectively, which resulted MB removal and yield of 83.79% and 28%, respectively. The average pore diameter, surface area and total pore volume of optimized RSAC were 4.12 nm, 796.33 m2/g and 0.4219 cm3/g, respectively. This sample was found to has well-developed pores on its surface and can be a promising adsorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.

  12. Novel preparation and photocatalytic activity of one-dimensional TiO2 hollow structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huogen; Yu Jiaguo; Cheng Bei; Liu Shengwei

    2007-01-01

    Usually, templated methods include two important steps: the coating of nanocrystals on the surface of the templates and the removal of the templates. In this study, one-dimensional TiO 2 hollow structures, based on the template-directed deposition and then in situ template-sacrificial reaction (or dissolution), were prepared by a one-step template method using vanadium oxide nanobelts as the templates and TiF 4 as the precursor at 60 deg. C. The coating of TiO 2 nanoparticles on the surface of the templates was accompanied with the dissolution of vanadium oxide nanobelts by HF produced during the hydrolysis of TiF 4 in the reaction solution. It was found that the prepared one-dimensional TiO 2 hollow structures with a mesoporous wall were composed of TiO 2 nanoparticles with a diameter of 10-55 nm, resulting in a large specific surface area (77.2 m 2 g -1 ) and high pore volume (0.13 cm 3 g -1 ), and the wall thickness of the TiO 2 hollow structures could be easily controlled by adjusting the precursor concentration of TiF 4 . The photocatalytic activity experiment indicated that the prepared one-dimensional TiO 2 hollow structures, which could be readily separated from a slurry system after photocatalytic reaction, exhibited obvious photocatalytic activity for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange aqueous solution

  13. Adsorption of caffeine on mesoporous activated carbon fibers prepared from pineapple plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Karla K; Cazetta, André L; de Souza, Patrícia S C; Spessato, Lucas; Silva, Taís L; Almeida, Vitor C

    2018-01-01

    The present work reports the preparation of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) from pineapple plant leaves, and its application on caffeine (CFN) removal from aqueous solution. The preparation procedure was carried out using the H 3 PO 4 as activating agent and slow pyrolysis under N 2 atmosphere. The characterization of materials was performed from the N 2 adsorption and desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Boehm titration and pH pzc method. ACFs showed high BET surface area value (S BET = 1031m 2 g -1 ), well-developed mesoporous structure (mesopore volume of 1.27cm³ g -1 ) and pores with average diameter (D M ) of 5.87nm. Additionally, ACFs showed features of fibrous material with predominance of acid groups on its surface. Adsorption studies indicated that the pseudo-second order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models were that best fitted to the experimental data. The monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 155.50mgg -1 . thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption process is spontaneous, exothermic and occurs preferably via physisorption. The pineapple leaves are an efficient precursor for preparation of ACFs, which were successful applied as adsorbent material for removal of caffeine from the aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of electromechanically active silicone composites and some evaluations of their suitability for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, Mihail; Bele, Adrian; Patras, Xenia; Pasca, Sorin; Butnaru, Maria; Alexandru, Mihaela; Ovezea, Dragos; Cazacu, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Some films based on electromechanically active polymer composites have been prepared. Polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diols (PDMSs) having different molecular masses (Mv = 60 700 and Mv = 44 200) were used as matrix in which two different active fillers were incorporated: titanium dioxide in situ generated from its titanium isopropoxide precursor and silica particles functionalized with polar aminopropyl groups on surface. A reference sample based on simple crosslinked PDMS was also prepared. The composites processed as films were investigated to evaluate their ability to act as efficient electromechanical actuators for potential biomedical application. Thus, the surface morphology of interest for electrodes compliance was analysed by atomic force microscopy. Mechanical and dielectric characteristics were evaluated by tensile tests and dielectric spectroscopy, respectively. Electromechanical actuation responses were measured by interferometry. The biocompatibility of the obtained materials has been verified through tests in vitro and, for valuable films, in vivo. The experimental, clinical and anatomopathological evaluation of the in vivo tested samples did not reveal significant pathological modifications. - Highlights: • Silicone composites differing by the filler and matrix characteristics were prepared. • Stress–strain curves were registered in normal and cyclic modes for composite films. • The dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, and conductivity were determined. • Electromechanical response of the films was measured at an applied voltage. • Some biocompatibility tests, both in vitro and in vivo, were performed

  15. Novel Cu@SiO2/bacterial cellulose nanofibers: Preparation and excellent performance in antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Bo; Huang, Yang; Zhu, Chunlin; Chen, Chuntao; Chen, Xiao; Fan, Mengmeng; Sun, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial composite based on bacterial cellulose (BC) was successfully prepared by in-situ synthesis of SiO 2 coated Cu nanoparticles (Cu@SiO 2 /BC) and its properties were characterized. Its chemical structures and morphologies were evaluated by Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results demonstrated that the SiO 2 coated Cu particles were well homogeneously precipitated on the surface of BC. The Cu@SiO 2 /BC was more resistant to oxidation than the Cu nanoparticles impregnated into BC (Cu/BC) and then Cu@SiO 2 /BC could prolong the antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the preparation of Cu@SiO 2 /BC. Due to its unique structure, the Cu@SiO 2 /BC membrane shows excellent antibacterial effects and can be used for a long time. - Highlights: • This work paves the novel way to fabricate antibacterial nanomaterial with good efficiency. • We prepare the antibacterial membrane based on bacterial cellulose by in-situ synthesis of SiO 2 -coated Cu nanoparticles. • The antibacterial membrane is more resistant to oxidation and can prolong the antimicrobial activity.

  16. Effect of Activation Temperature and Heating Duration on Physical Characteristics of Activated Carbon Prepared from Agriculture Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tham Yee Jun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the physical characteristics of activated carbon prepared from durian shell in varied heating durations from 10 min to 30 min and activation temperatures of 400C and 500C. Durian shells have been characterized in term of ultimate and proximate analysis, chemical composition and thermal behaviour with a view to be used as activated carbon precursor. Durian shell activated carbon was prepared by impregnating 10g of sample in 10% (v/v concentration of phosphoric acid for 24 h, followed by carbonization at 400C and 500C with different heating durations under nitrogen atmosphere. The results showed that various treatment conditions affect the percentage of yield, BET surface area, micropore volume, and average pore diameter. The highest surface area (SBET 1024 m2/g was obtained at 500C and 20 min of heating duration with 63% of yield and 0.21 cm3/g micropore volume.

  17. Twelve Monkeys, the Kassandra dilemma and innovation diffusion: transdisciplinary lessons for animal and environmental activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rutherford Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal activists and environmental activists believe that the world and its inhabitants face devastating consequences in the future if behaviour towards and the treatment of animals and the environment do not change. However, despite their predictions many people are not swayed to change their behaviour. This article suggests that these activists experience what is known as Kassandra’s dilemma; the conundrum of knowing what the future holds but being unable to prevent events from happening. Drawing on the film, Twelve Monkeys and Greek mythology this article explores this mythological dilemma and explains how this dilemma is a lived experience for activists. The article suggests that activists can resolve Kassandra’s dilemma by taking a transdisciplinary approach towards animal and environmental activism. Thus, in order to escape Kassandra’s dilemma the article suggests that animal and environmental activists require transdisciplinary knowledge; knowledge of the actual and potential harm done to animals and the environment and how this can be prevented as well as knowledge on how to successfully convey this knowledge to others. The article highlights innovation diffusion theory as an example of the type of transdisciplinary knowledge that could assist in escaping from Kassandra’s dilemma and in order to better advocate on behalf of animals and the environment.

  18. Solar activity during the space weather incident of Nov 4., 2015 - Complex data and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenoorth, Hermann; Pulkkinen, Antti; Buchert, Stephan; Monstein, Christian; Klein, Karl Ludwig; Marqué, Christophe; Krucker, Säm

    2016-04-01

    During the afternoon of November 4, 2015 most southern Swedish aviation radar systems experienced heavy disturbances, which eventually forced an outing of the majority of the radars. In consequence the entire southern Swedish aerospace had to be closed for incoming and leaving air traffic for about 2 hours. Immediately after the incident space weather anomalies were made responsible for the radar disturbances, but it took a very thorough investigation to differentiate disturbances from an ongoing magnetic storm caused by earlier solar activity, which had no disturbing effects on the flight radars, from a new and, indeed, extreme radio-burst on the Sun, which caused the Swedish radar anomalies. Other systems in various European countries also experienced major radio-disturbances during this extreme event, but they were not of the gravity as experienced in Sweden, or at least not causing a similar damage. One of the problems in reaching the right conclusions about the incident was that the extreme radio-burst around 1400 UT on Nov 4 (more than 50000 SFU at GHz frequencies), emerged from a medium size M3.7 Flare on the Sun, which did not trigger any immediate warnings. We will report about the analysis leading to the improved understanding of this extreme space weather event, evaluate the importance of solar radio observations, and discuss possible mitigation strategies for future events of similar nature.

  19. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2/ZnO Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of the TiO2/ZnO composite photocatalysts were prepared via sol-gel process. The crystalline structure, morphology, thermal stability, and pore structure properties of the composite photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TG-DTA, and N2 physical adsorption measurements. The photocatalytic activity of the composite catalysts was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation reaction of methyl orange (MO in aqueous solution. The best preparation parameters for the composite photocatalysts were obtained through systematical experiments. Furthermore, the photocatalytic degradation reaction of aqueous MO solution followed the first-order reaction kinetics; the relative equation can be described as ln(C0/C=0.5689t, and the calculated correlation constant (R2 is 0.9937 for the calibration curve.

  20. Photocatalytic activities of heterostructured TiO2-graphene porous microspheres prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jikai; Zhang, Xintong; Li, Bing; Liu, Hong; Sun, Panpan; Wang, Changhua; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Yichun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • USP method is used to prepare TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres. • XPS shows GO sheets in the composites has been reduced to graphene. • TiO 2 -graphene microspheres display a red-shifted absorption edge. • PL spectra indicate graphene can accept the photoexcited electrons from TiO 2 . • TiO 2 -graphene shows higher photocatalytic activity than TiO 2 under solar light. -- Abstract: TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) of aqueous suspension of graphene oxide containing TiO 2 nanoparticles (Degussa P25). The composite microspheres were characterized with SEM, XPS, photoluminescence, Raman and UV–Vis absorption spectra. TiO 2 -graphene porous microspheres displayed higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution than pristine TiO 2 microspheres under the irradiation of Xe lamp, and the highest activity was obtained at a weight percentage of graphene around 1%. The effect of graphene on photocatalytic activity of porous microsphere was discussed in terms of the enhanced charge separation by TiO 2 -graphene heterojunction, increased absorption of the visible light, as well as the possible hindrance of mass transportation in microspheres

  1. Biological Activities of Libidibia (Caesalpinia) ferrea var. parvifolia (Mart. ex Tul.) L. P. Queiroz Pod Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A C C; Ximenes, N C A; Aguiar, J S; Nascimento, S C; Lins, T U L; Magalhães, L R; Coelho, L C B B; Carneiro-da-Cunha, M G; Gonçalves-Silva, T; Correia, M T S

    2012-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea has been used in folk medicine throughout Brazil, and this study evaluated the biological activities of crude extract (CE) as well as a partially purified fraction (F80) obtained from its pods. Results from the MTT assay revealed that only F80 inhibited NCI-H292 cell growth; however, neither CE nor F80 reduced HEp-2 cell growth or sarcoma 180 tumor weight with the in vivo assay. Acute oral toxicity of the extract and fraction was evaluated following the steps of Guideline 423, using female mice; LD(50) for both preparations was determined as 2,500 mg/kg body weight. CE and F80 promoted a reduction of the leukocyte number and nitrite level in inflammatory exudates when the anti-inflammatory assay (carrageenan-induced peritonitis) was performed. CE and F80 inhibited writhing regarding antinociceptive activity (acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice). In conclusion, CE and F80 have no significant cytotoxic or antitumor activities in cell lines showing low toxicity and no action against tumors in vivo. Both preparations revealed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, corroborating the pharmacological basis of L. ferrea for ethnomedical use.

  2. Preparation and quantification of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate with high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, F.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis and quantitation of the sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate (PAP35S), prepared from inorganic [35S]sulfate and ATP, were studied. An enzymatic transfer method based upon the quantitative transfer of [35S]sulfate from PAP35S to 2-naphthol and 4-methylumbelliferone by the action of phenolsulfotransferase activity from rat brain cytosol was also developed. The 2-naphthyl[35S]sulfate or 35S-methylumbelliferone sulfate formed was isolated by polystyrene bead chromatography. This method allows the detection of between 0.1 pmol and 1 nmol/ml of PAP35S. PAP35S of high specific activity (75 Ci/mmol) was prepared by incubating ATP and carrier-free Na2 35SO4 with a 100,000g supernatant fraction from rat spleen. The product was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The specific activity and purity of PAP35S were estimated by examining the ratios of Km values for PAP35S of the tyrosyl protein sulfotransferase present in microsomes from rat cerebral cortex. The advantage and applications of these methods for the detection of femtomole amounts, and the synthesis of large scale quantities of PAP35S with high specific activity are discussed

  3. Factors Affecting the Adsorption of Trivalent Chromium Ions by Activated Carbon Prepared from Waste Rubber Tyres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia E. Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic gains are generally the outcome of industrialization and consequently urbanization. However, positive fiscal index generates a negative impact on natural environment sources heaving pollutant burden on soil, air and water. Industries throw tones of contaminated water into soil and water bodies without proper treatment and create a potential threat for both living and non-living species. Chromium in trivalent state (Cr3+ is added in water bodies and soil through waste water from tanneries, cooling water systems, chemical and pulp and paper industries. The present research work aims at the preparation of an inexpensive activated carbon prepared from non- degradable waste scrap rubber tyres. The carbon produced from scrap rubber tyres was activated by 5% solution of BaCl2 and 0.4 N solution of HCl and verified by ethylene blue solution. The adsorption capacity of the Tyre activated carbon (TAC was investigated for different parameters i.e., initial chromium (III ion concentration, activated carbon dosage, contact/ stirring time and pH. The adsorption capacity of TAC depends on the initial metal ion concentration and the TAC dose. pH of the chromium solution effects the adsorption capacity of TAC due to the formation of tetra hydroxochromate(III complexes,. The results show that TAC offers a cost effective reclamation process for the removal of Cr3+ from effluent waters.

  4. Preparation, characterization and activity evaluation of CaZrTi2O7 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shifu; Ji Mingsong; Yuang Yunguang; Liu Wei

    2012-01-01

    CaZrTi 2 O 7 photocatalyst sample was prepared by a polymerizable complex method. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, N 2 adsorption measurements, and terephthalic acid probed fluorescence technique. The photocatalytic activity of the sample was evaluated by photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange and photocatalytic reduction of Cr 2 O 7 2− and nitrobenzene. The results showed that when the reaction solution was illuminated by UV light for 50 min, the photooxidation efficiency of methyl orange and the photoreduction efficiency of Cr 2 O 7 2− were 83.1% and 87.9%, respectively. When methanol was used as the holes scavengers and the illumination time was 10 h in the photocatalytic reduction experiment of nitrobenzene, the production efficiency of aniline was 70.3%. The effect of the heat treatment conditions on the photocatalytic activity was also investigated. The optimum preparation condition for CaZrTi 2 O 7 sample is 800 °C for 12 h. The mechanisms of influence on the photocatalytic activity of the sample were also discussed with the valance band theory. - Highlights: ► CaZrTi 2 O 7 photocatalyst was prepared by a polymerizable complex method. ► The heat treatment has a significant influence on the photocatalytic activity. ► The optimal heat treatment condition is approximately 800 °C for 12 h. ► The CaZrTi 2 O 7 has the band bap of about 2.89 eV with particle size of about 80 nm.

  5. Adsorption of Acid Red 18 by Activated Carbon Prepared from Cedar Tree: Kinetic and Equilibrium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Samarghandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Textile effluents are one of the main environmental pollution sources and contain toxic compounds which threat the environment. For that reason, the activated carbon prepared from Cedar Tree was used for removal of Acid Red 18 as an Azo Dye. Material and Methods: Activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation and was used in batch system for dye removal. Effect of various experimental parameters such as pH (3 to11, initial dye concentration (50, 75 and 100 mg/L, contact time (1 to 120 min and adsorbent dosage (2 to 10 g/L were investigated. Equilibrium data was fitted onto Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. In addition, pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to investigate the kinetic of adsorption process. Results: Results shows that dye removal was increase with increase in adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial dye concentration. In addition, higher removal efficiency was observed in low pH (pH=3. At 120 min contact time, pH=3, 6 g/L adsorbent dosage and 100 mg/L of initial dye concentration, more than 95% of dye was removed. Equilibrium data was best fitted onto Freundlich isotherm model. According to Langmuir constant, maximum sorption capacity was observed to be 51/28 mg/L. in addition pseudo second order model best describe the kinetic of adsorption of Acid Red 18 onto present adsorbent. Conclusion: The results of present work well demonstrate that prepare activated carbon from Pine Tree has higher adsorption capacity toward Acid Red 18 Azo dye and can be used for removal of dyes from textile effluents.

  6. Management and integration of engineering and construction activities: Lessons learned from the AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant China project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCullough, M. C.; Ebeling-Koning, D.; Evans, M. C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The lessons learned during the early phase of design engineering and construction activities for the AP1000 China Project can be applied to any project involving multiple disciplines and multiple organizations. Implementation of a first-of-a-kind design to directly support construction activities utilizing resources assigned to design development and design delivery creates challenges with prioritization of activities, successful closure of issues, and communication between site organizations and the home office. To ensure successful implementation, teams were assigned and developed to directly support construction activities including prioritization of activities, site communication and ensuring closure of site emergent issues. By developing these teams, the organization is better suited to meet the demands of the construction schedule while continuing with design evolution of a standard plant and engineering delivery for multiple projects. For a successful project, proper resource utilization and prioritization are key for overcoming obstacles and ensuring success of the engineering organization. (authors)

  7. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions on sulfurized activated carbon prepared from nut shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouladi Tajar, Amir; Kaghazchi, Tahereh; Soleimani, Mansooreh

    2009-01-01

    Low-cost activated carbon, derived from nut shells, and its modified sample have been used as replacements for the current expensive methods of removing cadmium from aqueous solutions and waste waters. Adsorption of cadmium onto four kinds of activated carbons has been studied; prepared activated carbon (PAC), commercial activated carbon (CAC), and the sulfurized ones (SPAC and SCAC). The activated carbon has been derived, characterized, treated with sulfur and then utilized for the removal of Cd 2+ . Sulfurizing agent (SO 2 gas) was successfully used in adsorbents' modification process at the ambient temperature. Samples were then characterized and tested as adsorbents of cadmium. Effect of some parameters such as contact time, initial concentration and pH were examined. With increasing pH, the adsorption of cadmium ions was increased and maximum removal, 92.4% for SPAC, was observed in pH > 8.0 (C 0 = 100 mg/L). The H-type adsorption isotherms, obtained for the adsorbents, indicated a favorable process. Adsorption data on both prepared and commercial activated carbon, before and after sulfurization, followed both the Frendlich and Langmuir models. They were better fitted by Frendlich isotherm as compared to Langmuir. The maximum adsorption capacities were 90.09, 104.17, 126.58 and 142.86 mg/g for CAC, PAC, SCAC and SPAC, respectively. Accordingly, surface modification of activated carbons using SO 2 greatly enhanced cadmium removal. The reversibility of the process has been studied in a qualitative manner and it shows that the spent SPAC can be effectively regenerated for further use easily.

  8. How prepared were the Puerto Rico Seismic Network sites for the arrival of Hurricane Maria? Lessons learned on communications, power and infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, E. A.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano, V.; Lugo, J.; Baez-Sanchez, G.

    2017-12-01

    For exactly 85 years the island of Puerto Rico in the northeastern Caribbean was spared from catastrophic category 4 hurricane winds. Then Hurricane Maria arrived on September 20, 2017 with maximum sustained winds of up to 155 mph. The eye of the hurricane crossed the island from southeast to northwest in eight hours leaving almost a meter of rainfall on its path. Sustained winds, gusts and precipitation were most certainly going to affect the seismic and geodetic equipment the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) use for locating earthquakes in the region. PRSN relies on 35 seismic stations (velocity and strong-motion) to characterize the seismic behavior of the island and 15 geodetic (GNSS) stations to determine crustal deformation of the Puerto Rico - Virgin Islands microplate. PRSN stations have been designed to withstand earthquakes. However, the equipment suffered considerable damage due to the strong winds especially station communication towers. This coupled with catastrophic damage to the telecommunication and power grids of the island had severe effects on the network. Additionally, the level of devastation was such that it hampered the ability of PRSN staff to visit the sites for assessment and repair. Here we present the effects of category 4 hurricane had on our seismic and geodetic sites, examine the susceptibility of the PRSN stations' power and communications, and discuss future plans to recuperate and improve station resiliency for future catastrophic events. These lessons learned hopefully will help harden sites of networks, agencies and/or institutions that rely on similar infrastructure.

  9. Are we prepared for emerging and re-emerging diseases? Experience and lessons from epidemics that occurred in Tanzania during the last five decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Mboera, Leonard E G; Mbugi, Erasto; Simba, Azma; Kivaria, Fredrick M; Mmbuji, Peter; Rweyemamu, Mark M

    2011-12-01

    This paper reviews preparedness for containing and controlling emerging and re-emerging diseases drawing lessons from disease events that occurred in animal and human populations in the last five decades (1961-2011). A comprehensive analysis based on retrieval and analysis of grey and published literature as well as reported cases was carried out to document type and trend of occurrence of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in different parts of Tanzania. Overall, the majority of diseases reported in the country were viral in nature followed by bacterial diseases. The trend for the occurrence shows a number of new emerging diseases as well as re-occurrence of old diseases in both animal (domestic and wild) and human populations. In humans, the major disease epidemics reported in the last five decades include cholera, influenza A H1N1, plague and rubella. In animals, the major epidemic diseases reported were Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia, Peste des petits ruminants and Giraffe Ear and Skin Diseases. Some epidemics have been reported in both human and animal populations including Rift Valley fever and anthrax. The emergence of the 'fit-for purpose' approaches and technologies such as the discipline of One Health, use of participatory epidemiology and disease surveillance and mobile technologies offers opportunity for optimal use of limited resources to improve early detection, diagnosis and response to disease events and consequently reduced impact of such diseases in animal and human populations.

  10. Removal of lead from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from Enteromorpha prolifera by zinc chloride activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yanhui, E-mail: liyanhui@tsinghua.org.cn [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Du Qiuju [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Xiaodong [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang Pan [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Dechang [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Zonghua; Xia Yanzhi [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Activated carbon was prepared from Enteromorpha prolifera (EP) by zinc chloride activation. The physico-chemical properties of EP-activated carbon (EPAC) were characterized by thermal stability, zeta potential and Boehm titration methods. The examination showed that EPAC has a porous structure with a high surface area of 1688 m{sup 2}/g. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effect of various parameters such as initial pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature on Pb(II) ions adsorption properties by EPAC. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption data followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The isotherm analysis indicated that the adsorption data can be represented by Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  11. Removal of lead from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from Enteromorpha prolifera by zinc chloride activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanhui; Du Qiuju; Wang Xiaodong; Zhang Pan; Wang Dechang; Wang Zonghua; Xia Yanzhi

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from Enteromorpha prolifera (EP) by zinc chloride activation. The physico-chemical properties of EP-activated carbon (EPAC) were characterized by thermal stability, zeta potential and Boehm titration methods. The examination showed that EPAC has a porous structure with a high surface area of 1688 m 2 /g. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effect of various parameters such as initial pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature on Pb(II) ions adsorption properties by EPAC. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption data followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The isotherm analysis indicated that the adsorption data can be represented by Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  12. Preparation of zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites and their bioactivities and antimicrobial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Liang; Gong, Jie; Zeng, Changfeng; Zhang, Lixiong

    2013-01-01

    Zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites with zeolite contents of 20–55 wt.% were prepared by in situ transformation of silica/chitosan mixtures in a sodium aluminate alkaline solution through impregnation–gelation–hydrothermal synthesis. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and mercury penetration porosimetry. Their in vitro bioactivities were examined using as-synthesized and Ca 2+ -exchanged hybrid composites in simulated body fluid (SBF) for hydroxyapatite (HAP) growth. Their antimicrobial activities for Escherichia coli (E. coli) in trypticase soy broth (TSB) were evaluated using Ag + -exchanged hybrid composites. The zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites could be prepared as various shapes, including cylinders, plates and thin films. They possessed macropores with pore sizes ranging from 100 to 300 μm and showed compressive mechanical strength as high as 3.2 MPa when the zeolite content was 35 wt.%. Fast growth on the Ca 2+ -exchanged hybrid composites was observed with the highest weight gain of 51.4% in 30 days. The 35 wt.% Ag + -exchanged hybrid composite showed the highest antimicrobial activity, which could reduce the 9 × 10 6 CFU mL −1 E. coli concentration to zero within 4 h of incubation time with the Ag + -exchanged hybrid composite amount of 0.4 g L −1 . The bioactivity and antimicrobial activity could be combined by ion-exchanging the composites first with Ca 2+ and then with Ag + . These zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites have potential applications on tissue engineering and antimicrobial food packaging. - Graphical abstract: Zeolite A/chitosan hybrid composites were prepared by in situ transformation of precursors in the chitosan matrix, which possess macroporous structures and exhibit superior bioactivity and antimicrobial activity and potential biomedical application. Highlights: • Zeolite A

  13. Preparation of zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites and their bioactivities and antimicrobial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Liang; Gong, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zeng, Changfeng [College of Mechanic and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhang, Lixiong, E-mail: lixiongzhang@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites with zeolite contents of 20–55 wt.% were prepared by in situ transformation of silica/chitosan mixtures in a sodium aluminate alkaline solution through impregnation–gelation–hydrothermal synthesis. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and mercury penetration porosimetry. Their in vitro bioactivities were examined using as-synthesized and Ca{sup 2+}-exchanged hybrid composites in simulated body fluid (SBF) for hydroxyapatite (HAP) growth. Their antimicrobial activities for Escherichia coli (E. coli) in trypticase soy broth (TSB) were evaluated using Ag{sup +}-exchanged hybrid composites. The zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites could be prepared as various shapes, including cylinders, plates and thin films. They possessed macropores with pore sizes ranging from 100 to 300 μm and showed compressive mechanical strength as high as 3.2 MPa when the zeolite content was 35 wt.%. Fast growth on the Ca{sup 2+}-exchanged hybrid composites was observed with the highest weight gain of 51.4% in 30 days. The 35 wt.% Ag{sup +}-exchanged hybrid composite showed the highest antimicrobial activity, which could reduce the 9 × 10{sup 6} CFU mL{sup −1}E. coli concentration to zero within 4 h of incubation time with the Ag{sup +}-exchanged hybrid composite amount of 0.4 g L{sup −1}. The bioactivity and antimicrobial activity could be combined by ion-exchanging the composites first with Ca{sup 2+} and then with Ag{sup +}. These zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites have potential applications on tissue engineering and antimicrobial food packaging. - Graphical abstract: Zeolite A/chitosan hybrid composites were prepared by in situ transformation of precursors in the chitosan matrix, which possess macroporous structures and exhibit superior bioactivity and antimicrobial activity and potential biomedical

  14. CLIL in physics lessons at grammar school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefančínová, Iveta; Valovičová, Ľubomíra

    2017-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is one of the most outstanding approaches in foreign language teaching. This teaching method has promising prospects for the future of modern education as teaching subject and foreign languages are combined to offer a better preparation for life in Europe, especially when the mobility is becoming a highly significant factor of everyday life. We realized a project called Foreign languages in popularizing science at grammar school. Within the project five teachers with approbation subjects of English, French, German and Physics attended the methodological courses abroad. The teachers applied the gained experience in teaching and linking science teaching with the teaching of foreign languages. Outputs of the project (e.g. English-German-French-Slovak glossary of natural science terminology, student activity sheets, videos with natural science orientation in a foreign language, physical experiments in foreign languages, multimedia fairy tales with natural contents, posters of some scientists) are prepared for the CLIL-oriented lessons. We collected data of the questionnaire for students concerning attitude towards CLIL. The questionnaire for teachers showed data about the attitude, experience, and needs of teachers employing CLIL in their lessons.

  15. Preparation and Properties of Paraffin/TiO2/Active-carbon Composite Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Yong-gan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel composite phase change materials (PCMs of paraffin/TiO2/active-carbon was prepared by a microemulsion method, where paraffin acted as a PCM and titanium dioxide (TiO2 as matrix material, and a small amount of active carbon was added to improve the thermal conductivity. The compositions, morphology and thermal properties of the paraffin/TiO2/active-carbon composite PCMs were characterized by XRD, SEM, TGA and DSC respectively. The shape stability during phase change process of this composite was also tested. The results show that paraffin is well encapsulated by TiO2 matrix, and thus exhibiting excellent shape-stabilized phase change feature. Besides, this composite PCM also presents superhydrophobic property. Therefore, these multifunctional features will endow PCMs with important application potential in energy efficient buildings.

  16. Removal of p-Nitrophenol Using Persulfate Activated by Biochars Prepared from Different Biomass Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chenfei; LI Yumeng; FENG Haiyao; JIA Shumin; XUE Ruijie; LI Gang; WANG Guoxiang

    2018-01-01

    Three biochars from wheat straw(WSC),chicken manure(CMC) and rice husk(RHC) were prepared as persulfate(PS) activators for p-nitropheol(PNP) removal.RHC exhibitted the best adsorption performance,followed by WSC and CMC,which was consistant with the surface area value.PS addition further promoted the PNP removal,indicating that a synergistic effect existed in the biochar/PS combined system.The composition and textual properties of biochar had a significant effect on the reactivity of activator and the function groups containing oxgygen or nitrogen might play important roles in the reaction.WSC could perform efficiently over a pH range from 4.4 to 10.4.The decrease in activation performance in cycle experiments was possiblely related to the loss of oxgygen-containing groups.

  17. Preparation of gold nanoparticles using Salicornia brachiata plant extract and evaluation of catalytic and antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz Ahmed, Khan Behlol; Subramanian, Swetha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind; Veerappan, Ganapathy; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2014-09-01

    The current study deals with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Salicornia brachiata (Sb) and evaluation of their antibacterial and catalytic activity. The SbAuNPs showed purple color with a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at 532 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed polydispersed AuNPs with the size range from 22 to 35 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray and thin layer X-ray diffraction analysis clearly shows that SbAuNPs was pure and crystalline in nature. As prepared gold nanoparticles was used as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol and methylene blue to leucomethylene blue. The green synthesized nanoparticles exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria, as evidenced by their zone of inhibition. In addition, we showed that the SbAuNPs in combination with the regular antibiotic, ofloxacin, exhibit superior antibacterial activity than the individual.

  18. Preparation of self-cleaning surfaces with a dual functionality of superhydrophobicity and photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Ji; Yoon, Hye Soo; Kim, Dae Han; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Young Dok

    2014-11-01

    Thin film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was deposited on SiO2 nanoparticles by chemical vapor deposition, and SiO2 became completely hydrophobic after PDMS coating. Mixtures of TiO2 and PDMS-coated SiO2 nanoparticles with various relative ratios were prepared, and distributed on glass surfaces, and water contact angles and photocatalytic activities of these surfaces were studied. Samples consisting of TiO2 and PDMS-coated SiO2 with a ratio of 7:3 showed a highly stable superhydrophobicity under UV irradiation with a water contact angle of 165° and UV-driven photocatalytic activity for decomposition of methylene blue and phenol in aqueous solution. Our process can be exploited for fabricating self-cleaning surfaces with dual functionality of superhydrophobicity and photocatalytic activity at the same time.

  19. Is repeated exposure the holy grail for increasing children's vegetable intake? Lessons learned from a Dutch childcare intervention using various vegetable preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, Gertrude G.; Vrijhof, Milou; Kremer, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    Children's failure to eat enough vegetables highlights the need for effective interventions encouraging this behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated exposure to three a priori unfamiliar vegetables, each prepared in two ways, on children's vegetable acceptance in a

  20. Lessons learned and advice from Vietnam war nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell-Desch, Elizabeth A

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe guidance for nurses today from the lessons learned by nurses who served in the Vietnam War. There is little research focusing on nurses' experiences in the Vietnam War. Lessons learned and subsequent advice from nurses who served in Vietnam may be helpful to those serving in current and future wars. A Husserlian phenomenological approach was taken, using interviews with a purposive sample of Registered Nurses who were female, and had served in the United States of America armed forces in Vietnam during the war. Seven theme clusters described the lesson learned and guidance offered by the Vietnam War nurses: advice about journaling, training, caring for yourself, use of support systems, talking about your experiences, understanding the mission, and lack of preparation for war. Much can be learned from the lessons learned and advice given by Vietnam War nurses. These lessons stress that nurses need to take a pro-active role in preparing themselves for deployment to a war zone, and that institutional training for war needs to be intensive and realistic. The environmental, cultural, technological, clinical and psychosocial demands of war nursing need to be comprehensively addressed before nurses deploy to a war.

  1. Preparation of Activated Carbons from Waste External Thermal-Insulating Phenolic Foam Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Lijuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons (ACs were prepared by steam physical activation or KOH chemical activation with the waste external thermal-insulating phenolic foam board as the raw material. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET specific area, pore-size distribution and iodine value were used to characterize the properties of ACs. AC-1(with the method of KOH chemical activation has the iodine value of 2300mg/g, BET specific area of 1293 m2g-1, average pore-size of 2.4 nm, and mainly composed of micropore and relatively small mesopore. AC-2(with the method of steam physical activation has the iodine value of 1665mg/g. Compared with AC-2, AC-1 had a pore-size distribution with more evenly and relative concentrated, it’s belonging to the high microporosity materials. Actually, chemical activation had more significant influence on destruction of the pore wall than physical activation.

  2. Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from agricultural by-product/waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Madhava; Reddy, D H K Kumar; Venkateswarlu, Padala; Seshaiah, K

    2009-01-01

    Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from Ceiba pentandra hulls, Phaseolus aureus hulls and Cicer arietinum waste was investigated. The influence of various parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and adsorbent dose for the removal of mercury was studied using a batch process. The experiments demonstrated that the adsorption process corresponds to the pseudo-second-order-kinetic models and the equilibrium adsorption data fit the Freundlich isotherm model well. The prepared adsorbents ACCPH, ACPAH and ACCAW had removal capacities of 25.88 mg/g, 23.66 mg/g and 22.88 mg/g, respectively, at an initial Hg(II) concentration of 40 mg/L. The order of Hg(II) removal capacities of these three adsorbents was ACCPH>ACPAH>ACCAW. The adsorption behavior of the activated carbon is explained on the basis of its chemical nature. The feasibility of regeneration of spent activated carbon adsorbents for recovery of Hg(II) and reuse of the adsorbent was determined using HCl solution.

  3. Using ion-selective electrode for determining iodine-131 preparation specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnik, M.I.; Nazirova, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    A pilot facility was developed in 2000 for the production of iodine-131. The parameters of the preparation are as follows: chemical form: sodium iodide solution (NaI-131) in a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (or in 0.001M NaOH); specific activity: carrier free (> 5 Ci/mg); solution pH: 7-10; radionuclide purity: > 99.9%; radiochemical purity: > 97%; bulk activity: 0.15 Ci/ml. The experimental results of investigation aimed at the determination of the specific activity of the I-131 preparation using a iodine-selective electrode are described. The method enables the analytical concentration of iodide ions in the carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (pH = 8-11) and NaOH solution (0.01 mol/l, pH = 8-11) to be determined. A micro-cell has been developed for the analysis of the I-131 solution allowing the sample volume to be reduced to below 0.3 ml. The relative error of determination of the analytical concentration of iodide (10 -6 to 10 -1 mol/l) does not exceed 1%

  4. A Study on Recycling of Spent Mushroom Substrate to Prepare Chars and Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Ma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chars were obtained from spent mushroom substrate (SMS via pyrolysis. It was found that as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 400 to 700 °C, the char yield decreased from 45.10 to 33.79 wt.% and the higher heating value increased from 17.32 to 22.72 MJ/kg. The largest BET surface area (13 m2/g was created at 500 °C. Hydrogen atoms were continuously lost during pyrolysis, whereas oxygen atoms were difficult to eliminate. Whewellite, calcite, lime, and quartz were the minerals in the chars, and their forms and crystallinity changed with changing pyrolysis temperature. Activated carbon with a BET surface area of 1023 m2/g and a total pore volume of 0.595 cm3/g was obtained from the char prepared at 500 °C. Its characteristics were studied by N2-adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The pyrolysis and KOH-activation processes were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results showed that the pyrolysis of SMS occurred primarily between 217 and 375 °C and that the energies needed for the pyrolysis reactions were relatively low due to the prior mushroom cultivation. Furthermore, lignin was incompletely decomposed in the char prepared at 500 °C, and KOH suppressed tar evolution and reduced the energy needed to decompose the residual lignin during activation.

  5. Do culinary preparations influence 210Po activity concentration in fin fishes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Pole, R.P.; Godwin Wesley, S.; Rajan, M.P

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210, a member of the 238 U series, is a major source of internal radiation dose to marine organisms and human beings. This naturally occurring radionuclide is responsible for a considerable proportion of radiation exposure of humans, in particular, through consumption of seafood. Considering all these facts, many countries and various international agencies have carried out studies for assessing the levels of 210 Po globally. The volatile nature of 210 Po at high temperatures would significantly reduce its activity concentration in various culinary preparations of seafood. Some studies of fishes have shown no measurable reduction in 210 Po activity in culinary preparations and some authors have reported measurable increase. Based on this scenario, the present study was aimed at estimating 210 Po activity concentrations in different culinary preparations of fishes traditionally prevalent in the coastal region of southern Tamil Nadu. The commonly available fish species (Sardinella sp., Leiognathus sp., Katsuwonus sp., Stolephorus sp. and Chirocentrus sp.) consumed more by the people of this region were collected from nearby fish-landing centre (Kanyakumari and Manakudi). The samples were washed thoroughly with tap water and eviscerated. The fillets were divided into four groups. Fresh fillets analysed as such; A portion of the sample was subjected to oil-frying (with commonly used spices and salt); One portion of the sample was salt-dried; Another portion of the sample was boiled (curry) along with common spices and salt. Ten to twenty grams of each sample was subjected to wet-digestion using 70% conc. HNO 3 followed by the addition of 40% H 2 O 2

  6. Study On DPPH Free Radical - Scavenging Activity Of Antioxidant Compounds In Plants Composing BIN-5 Biological Active Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevjav Urjintseren

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been common trend among people to refuse from food and medications produced via synthetic method but try to consume natural products as much as possible instead. In this regard wild berries and medicinal plants are considered to be highly essential for human health as these kinds of plants serve as rich sources of biological active substances-phenol compounds. As a result of conducting research on source and spread of herbs which are commonly used as anti-diabetic medication we have developed a technological method to extract preparations from medicinal herbs such as Peony Paeonia lactiflora Pall Dandelion Taraxacum officinalis Wigg. Huckleberry Vaccinium myrtillus L Blueberry Vaccinium uliginosum L Cranberry Vaccinium vitisidaea L and Stinging nettles Urtica dioica accordingly studied chemical composition and antioxidant activity and conducted pharmacological study. With the use of Folin Denis amp Folin Ciocalteu reagent methodit was determined that the content of polyphenol compounds was 4.14-5.17 and 27.5 101.5mgml. The study was also aimed to investigate DPPH free radical-scavenging activity in connection with term temperature and concentration to identify the most rational technological procedure. As a result of study it was identified that free radical-scavenging activity of herbs selected for the study was generally estimated at 564.25-1750.00 mcgml whereas antioxidant activity of solvents with 2-10 mgml concentration was 417.20-1750.00 mcg ml respectively. This shows that such activity is dependent on concentration. However in temperature of 30 1000amp1057 degrees their activity has slowly been decreased by 1750 mcgml 476.7mcgml depending on temperature. Regarding the stinging nettles the activity was grown directly dependent from temperature. DPHH free radical-scavenging activity was gradually increased in 1-10 minutes but was relatively stable and active in 11-16 minutes.

  7. ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF THE ALKALI PREPARATION OF THE ROOT AND FRESH LEAF JUICE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckmani, K.; Kavimani, S.; Jayakar, B.; Anandan, R.

    1998-01-01

    The alkali preparation of the root and fresh leaf juice of Moringa oleifera possessed significant dose –depen-dent anti-ulcer activity in experimentally induced acute gastric ulcers with aspirin, the anti-ulcer effect of the alkali preparation of the root seems to be more pronounced than that of the fresh leaf juice. Te anti-ulcer activity of the alkali preparation of the root could be due to its content of alkaloids or its anticholinergic and antihistaminic activities, or a combination of these factors. PMID:22556845

  8. Target preparation and neutron activation analysis a successful story at IRMM

    CERN Document Server

    Robouch, P; Eguskiza, M; Maguregui, M I; Pommé, S; Ingelbrecht, C

    2002-01-01

    The main task of a target producer is to make well characterized and homogeneous deposits on specific supports. Alpha and/or gamma spectrometry are traditionally used to monitor the quality of actinide deposits. With the increasing demand for enriched stable isotope targets, other analytical techniques, such as ICP-MS and NAA, are needed. This paper presents the application of neutron activation analysis to quality control of 'thin' targets, 'thicker' neutron dosimeters and 'thick' bronze disks prepared by the Reference Materials Unit at the Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements.

  9. Target preparation and neutron activation analysis: a successful story at IRMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.; Arana, G.; Eguskiza, M.; Maguregui, M.I.; Pomme, S.; Ingelbrecht, C.

    2002-01-01

    The main task of a target producer is to make well characterized and homogeneous deposits on specific supports. Alpha and/or gamma spectrometry are traditionally used to monitor the quality of actinide deposits. With the increasing demand for enriched stable isotope targets, other analytical techniques, such as ICP-MS and NAA, are needed. This paper presents the application of neutron activation analysis to quality control of 'thin' targets, 'thicker' neutron dosimeters and 'thick' bronze disks prepared by the Reference Materials Unit at the Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements

  10. CZECHOSLOVAK ACTIVITY TO PREPARE EUROPEAN NORMS FOR CONTAINERS BEFORE THE SECOND WORLD WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lewandowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In many articles we can read that containers weren't in Europe before 1966, when ship SS Fariland came with 35 feet containers invented by Keith Tantlinger for Sea Land Company owned by Malcom McLean. The focus of this study is on the problem with development norms for European containers. Thus, the main definitions and briefly literature overview in the analysed research area are given. Later, the information about these constructions are developed. Article presents Czechoslovak activity to preparation of three European norms for containers, which were described before Second World War.

  11. A simple method for the preparation of activated carbon fibers coated with graphite nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Joo; Park, Soo-Jin

    2007-11-15

    A simple method is described for the preparation of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) coated with graphite nanofibers (GNFs). Low-pressure-plasma mixed-gas (Ar/O2) treatment of the ACFs led to the growth of GNFs on their surface. The growth was greater at higher power inputs, and from TEM observations the GNFs were seen to be of herringbone type. It was found that the N2 adsorption capacity of the ACFs did not sharply decrease, and that volume resistivity of the ACFs enhanced as a result of this treatment.

  12. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of B, Y co-doped nanosized TiO_2 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石中亮; 刘富梅; 姚淑华

    2010-01-01

    The catalysts of un-doped, single-doped and co-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders were prepared by sol-gel method with Ti(OC4H9)4 as a raw material. The photocatalytic decomposition of phenol in aqueous solution under UV light was used as a probe reaction to evaluate their photocatalytic activities. The effects of B, Y co-doping on the crystallite sizes, crystal pattern, surface composition, and optical property of the catalyst were investigated by thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis, X-ray d...

  13. Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  15. Protocol for the ‘Virtual Traveller’ cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. ‘Virtual Traveller’ is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. Methods and analysis This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8–9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University

  16. Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Menon

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The observed decrease in body weight, blood glucose and cholesterol level suggests that the aqueous K. pinnata preparation consumption may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on alkaline phosphatase activity may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and K. pinnata preparation administration.

  17. Remediation of anionic dye from aqueous system using bio-adsorbent prepared by microwave activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arush; Sharma, Gaurav; Naushad, Mu; Ghfar, Ayman A; Pathania, Deepak

    2018-04-01

    The present study was attempted to ascertain the possible application of activated carbon as a cost-effective and eco-friendly adsorbent prepared via microwave-assisted chemical activation. The activated carbon was characterized using different techniques. The various adsorption parameters have been optimized to examine the viability of activated carbon as a plausible sorbent for the remediation of Congo red (CR) dye from the aquatic system. The equilibrium data adequately fitted to the Langmuir isotherm with better R 2 (0.994). The maximum adsorption capacity (q m ) of activated carbon was recorded to be 68.96 mg/g. Additionally, sorptional kinetic data were examined by reaction-based and diffusion-based models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations, and Elovich, intra-particle diffusion, and Dumwald-Wagner models, respectively. The computed values of thermodynamic parameters such as free energy change (ΔG 0 ), enthalpy change (ΔH 0 ) and entropy change (ΔS 0 ) were recorded as -3.63, 42.47 and 152.07 J/mol K, respectively, at 30°C, which accounted for a favorable, spontaneous and endothermic process. The regeneration study emphasized that the percentage uptake declined from 90.35% to 83.45% after six cycles of testing. So, our findings implied that activated carbon produced from biomass must be cost-effectively used as an adsorbent for detoxifying the CR dye from industrial effluents.

  18. Physicochemical properties of carbons prepared from pecan shell by phosphoric acid activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanping; Rockstraw, David A

    2007-05-01

    Activated carbons were prepared from pecan shell by phosphoric acid activation. The pore structure and acidic surface groups of these carbons were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, Boehm titration and transmittance Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The characterization results demonstrated that the development of pore structure was apparent at temperatures 250 degrees C, and reached 1130m(2)/g and 0.34cm(3)/g, respectively, at 500 degrees C. Impregnation ratio and soaking time at activation temperature also affected the pore development and pore size distribution of final carbon products. At an impregnation ratio of 1.5, activated carbon with BET surface area and micropore volume as high as 861m(2)/g and 0.289cm(3)/g was obtained at 400 degrees C. Microporous activated carbons were obtained in this study. Low impregnation ratio (less than 1.5) and activation temperature (less than 300 degrees C) are favorable to the formation of acidic surface functional groups, which consist of temperature-sensitive (unstable at high temperature) and temperature-insensitive (stable at high temperature) two parts. The disappearance of temperature-sensitive groups was significant at temperature 300 degrees C; while the temperature-insensitive groups are stable even at 500 degrees C. FTIR results showed that the temperature-insensitive part was mostly phosphorus-containing groups as well as some carbonyl-containing groups, while carbonyl-containing groups were the main contributor of temperature-sensitive part.

  19. Enabling and sustaining the activities of lay health influencers: lessons from a community-based tobacco cessation intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Muramoto, Myra

    2010-07-01

    The authors present findings from a community-based tobacco cessation project that trained lay health influencers to conduct brief interventions. They outline four major lessons regarding sustainability. First, participants were concerned about the impact that promoting cessation might have on social relationships. "Social risk" must be addressed during training to ensure long-term sustainability. Second, formal training provided participants with an increased sense of self-efficacy, allowed them to embrace a health influencer identity, and aided in further reducing social risk. Third, material resources functioned to mediate social tensions during health intervention conversations. A variety of resources should be made available to health influencers to accommodate type of relationship, timing, and location of the interaction. Finally, project design must be attentive to the creation of a "community of practice" among health influencers as an integral part of project sustainability. These lessons have broad implications for successful health promotion beyond tobacco cessation.

  20. Preparation and characterization of uniform-sized chitosan/silver microspheres with antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Ji, Zhenxing; Wang, Desong; Luo, Qingzhi; Li, Xueyan

    2014-03-01

    The chitosan/silver microspheres (CAgMs), which possess effective inhibitory on microorganisms, were prepared by an inverse-emulsification cross-linking method using CS/Ag sol as dispersed phase, whiteruss as continuous phase, and glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. The size and shape of CAgMs, greatly affecting their antibacterial activities, were controlled by varying the concentrations of cross-linking agent, emulsifier and CS/Ag colloid. The preparation conditions for obtaining uniform-sized microspheres were optimized. The morphology of CAgMs was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis. The spherical CAgMs with smooth surface in the mean size of ca. 5 μm exhibited a narrow particle size distribution. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) revealed the elemental composition of the microspheres. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the microspheres confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) of the sample showed that AgNPs with the diameter no more than 20 nm were face-centered cubic crystallites. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that AgO bond existed in the microspheres. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the starting decomposition temperature of CAgMs (ca. 260°C) was much higher than that of CS (ca. 160°C), suggesting that the as-prepared CAgMs possessed better thermal stability than original CS did. Antimicrobial assays were performed using typical Gram bacteria and fungi. The inhibitory effect indicated that the as-prepared microspheres exerted a stronger antibacterial activity as the concentration of the AgNPs is increasing, and the microspheres in smaller size had much better antibacterial activity than those in the larger size. The antimicrobial mechanism of CAgMs was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  1. treatment of waste effluents using active carbon prepared from AGRO-residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakout, S.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    the main goal of the investigation is to improve the efficiency of adsorption of radionuclides and anions from liquid waste by modifying sorption properties of adsorbents . thus, the present study is directed towards investigating the feasibility of using agricultural wastes and locally available materials in such a manner as to treat waste effluents. activated carbons derived from rice straw were prepared by one-step steam pyrolysis. the activated rice straw was subjected to liquid-phase oxidation by different modifying agents include KOH, HNO 3 .H 2 So 4 , H 2 O 2 , and kMno 4 to obtain carbon with various surface characters. the prepared carbon samples were characterized using various techniques: x-ray diffraction, pore parameters analysis, point of zero charge pHpzc, FTIR. Boehm titration method. elemental analysis, iodine number, methylene blue, and phenol index. the prepared carbon samples were tested for removal of certain cation pollutants of nuclear interest from waste solutions such as uranium and thorium as well as anion pollutants such as fluoride, nitrate and nitrite.factors affecting the sorption behaviour e.g. carbon properties . contact time ,initial concentration of the solute, mass of adsorbent, ph of solution and temperature were studied by applying batch technique.thorium. fluoride, and nitrate sorption are better occurred at lower temperature while uranium is favoured at higher temperature. the adsorption followed the langmuir adsorption isotherm model in case of uranium and thorium while anions followed langmuir-freundlich isotherm . the ability of RS 2 /kMno 4 to remove F-from egyptian crude phosphoric acid (P 2 O 5 =48.42%) was tested and the adsorption capacity of F - in H 3 PO 4 was greater than that in distilled water due to lower ph enhances f-adsorption onto RS 2 /kMnO 4 carbon

  2. Preparation of extra-small nisin nanoparticles for enhanced antibacterial activity after autoclave treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ranran; Lu, Hao; Li, Man; Zhang, Shuangling; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2018-04-15

    Nisin is applied broadly in the food industry as an antimicrobial peptide. The objective of this study is to prepare nisin nanoparticles using free nisin by a facile nanoprecipitation technique and to investigate their antimicrobial activity after high-temperature processing. Transmission electron microscopic images showed that the size of extra-small nisin nanoparticles with different initial concentrations of nisin (0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5%) was 5, 10 and 15 nm, respectively. The nisin nanoparticles were stable at pH 5.0 with the smallest size. Moreover, nisin nanoparticles exhibited a higher antimicrobial activity than free nisin at a concentration below 2.0 mg/ml after autoclave treatment. These results suggested that nisin nanoparticles could serve as a potential food preservative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Dynamic Time Warping Approach to Real-Time Activity Recognition for Food Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Plötz, Thomas; Olivier, Patrick

    We present a dynamic time warping based activity recognition system for the analysis of low-level food preparation activities. Accelerometers embedded into kitchen utensils provide continuous sensor data streams while people are using them for cooking. The recognition framework analyzes frames of contiguous sensor readings in real-time with low latency. It thereby adapts to the idiosyncrasies of utensil use by automatically maintaining a template database. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the classification approach by a number of real-world practical experiments on a publically available dataset. The adaptive system shows superior performance compared to a static recognizer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the generalization capabilities of the system by gradually reducing the amount of training samples. The system achieves excellent classification results even if only a small number of training samples is available, which is especially relevant for real-world scenarios.

  4. Physics and operation oriented activities in preparation of the JT-60SA tokamak exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giruzzi, G.; Yoshida, M.; Artaud, J. F.; Asztalos, Ö.; Barbato, E.; Bettini, P.; Bierwage, A.; Boboc, A.; Bolzonella, T.; Clement-Lorenzo, S.; Coda, S.; Cruz, N.; Day, Chr.; De Tommasi, G.; Dibon, M.; Douai, D.; Dunai, D.; Enoeda, M.; Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Fukumoto, M.; Galazka, K.; Galdon, J.; Garcia, J.; Garcia-Muñoz, M.; Garzotti, L.; Gil, C.; Gleason-Gonzalez, C.; Goodman, T.; Granucci, G.; Hayashi, N.; Hoshino, K.; Ide, S.; Imazawa, R.; Innocente, P.; Isayama, A.; Itami, K.; Joffrin, E.; Kamada, Y.; Kamiya, K.; Kawano, Y.; Kawashima, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Kojima, A.; Kubo, H.; Lang, P.; Lauber, Ph.; de la Luna, E.; Maget, P.; Marchiori, G.; Mastrostefano, S.; Matsunaga, G.; Mattei, M.; McDonald, D. C.; Mele, A.; Miyata, Y.; Moriyama, S.; Moro, A.; Nakano, T.; Neu, R.; Nowak, S.; Orsitto, F. P.; Pautasso, G.; Pégourié, B.; Pigatto, L.; Pironti, A.; Platania, P.; Pokol, G. I.; Ricci, D.; Romanelli, M.; Saarelma, S.; Sakurai, S.; Sartori, F.; Sasao, H.; Scannapiego, M.; Shimizu, K.; Shinohara, K.; Shiraishi, J.; Soare, S.; Sozzi, C.; Stępniewski, W.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Szepesi, T.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Terranova, D.; Toma, M.; Urano, H.; Vega, J.; Villone, F.; Vitale, V.; Wakatsuki, T.; Wischmeier, M.; Zagórski, R.

    2017-08-01

    The JT-60SA tokamak, being built under the Broader Approach agreement jointly by Europe and Japan, is due to start operation in 2020 and is expected to give substantial contributions to both ITER and DEMO scenario optimisation. A broad set of preparation activities for an efficient start of the experiments on JT-60SA is being carried out, involving elaboration of the Research Plan, advanced modelling in various domains, feasibility and conception studies of diagnostics and other sub-systems in connection with the priorities of the scientific programme, development and validation of operation tools. The logic and coherence of this approach, as well as the most significant results of the main activities undertaken are presented and summarised.

  5. Preparing graduate student teaching assistants in the sciences: An intensive workshop focused on active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Julie A; Jakob, Susanne; Roehrig, Casey; Brenner, Tamara J

    2018-03-12

    In the past ten years, increasing evidence has demonstrated that scientific teaching and active learning improve student retention and learning gains in the sciences. Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), who play an important role in undergraduate education at many universities, require training in these methods to encourage implementation, long-term adoption, and advocacy. Here, we describe the design and evaluation of a two-day training workshop for first-year GTAs in the life sciences. This workshop combines instruction in current research and theory supporting teaching science through active learning as well as opportunities for participants to practice teaching and receive feedback from peers and mentors. Postworkshop assessments indicated that GTA participants' knowledge of key topics increased during the workshop. In follow-up evaluations, participants reported that the workshop helped them prepare for teaching. This workshop design can easily be adapted to a wide range of science disciplines. Overall, the workshop prepares graduate students to engage, include, and support undergraduates from a variety of backgrounds when teaching in the sciences. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2018. © 2018 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Helical polyurethane-attapulgite nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqiang; Zhou Yuming; Sun Yanqing; Fan Kai; Guo Xingxing; Jiang Xiaolei

    2009-01-01

    Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) composite was prepared after the surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). BM-ATT was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. FT-IR and XRD analyses indicate that the helical polyurethane has been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of the modified ATT without destroying the original crystalline structure of ATT. BM-ATT exhibits the rod-like structure by SEM, TEM, and HTEM photographs. BM-ATT displays obvious Cotton effect for some absorbance in VCD spectrum, and its optical activity results from the singlehanded conformation of helical polyurethane. - Graphical Abstract: Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) nanocomposite was prepared after surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). This rod-like composite is coated by the optically active polyurethane shell on the surfaces.

  7. Preparation of palladium impregnated alumina adsorbents: Thermal and neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Sumanta; Gupta, N.K.; Roy, S.P.; Dash, S.; Kumar, A.; Bamankar, Y.R.; Rao, T.V. Vittal [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, N. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Naik, Y., E-mail: ynaik@barc.gov.in [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-02-10

    Highlights: • Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite microspheres particles with high surface area were prepared sol–gel process. • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies on silver coated particle. • Content of the palladium was determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). • Decomposition study has been done by quadrupole mass analyser. - Abstract: Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite microspheres particles with high surface area were prepared sol–gel process. The decomposition of dried gel-particles was studied by TGA/DTA and FT-IR technique. TGA studies indicated that formation of palladium is marked by a broad exothermic peak with a loss of water and oxidation of trapped HMTA/Urea nitrate mixture. The main decomposition reaction took place in the temperature range of 660–1250 K in helium and relatively lower temperature of 400 K to 1250 K in oxygen. Optical microscopy indicated that the distribution of palladium is uniform. SEM studies on silver coated particle indicated that there was surface erosion of some gel spheres while in few of them micro cracks were seen at high resolution. Content of the palladium was determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Decomposition at various temperatures was studied using Residual gas analyser and decomposition species were identified using quadrupole mass analyser.

  8. Sol-gel prepared active ternary oxide coating on titanium in cathodic protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR V. PANIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of a ternary oxide coating, on titanium, which consisted of TiO2, RuO2 and IrO2 in the molar ratio 0.6:0.3:0.1, calculated on the metal atom, were investigated for potential application for cathodic protection in a seawater environment. The oxide coatings on titanium were prepared by the sol gel procedure from a mixture of inorganic oxide sols, which were obtained by forced hydrolysis of metal chlorides. The morphology of the coating was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of activated titanium anodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and polarization measurements in a H2SO4- and NaCl-containing electrolyte, as well as in seawater sampled on the Adriatic coast in Tivat, Montenegro. The anode stability during operation in seawater was investigated by the galvanostatic accelerated corrosion stability test. The morphology and electrochemical characteristics of the ternary coating are compared to that of a sol-gel-prepared binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating. The activity of the ternary coating was similar to that of the binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating in the investigated solutions. However, the corrosion stability in seawater is found to be considerably greater for the ternary coating.

  9. Preparation of electromechanically active silicone composites and some evaluations of their suitability for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Mihail; Bele, Adrian; Patras, Xenia; Pasca, Sorin; Butnaru, Maria; Alexandru, Mihaela; Ovezea, Dragos; Cazacu, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Some films based on electromechanically active polymer composites have been prepared. Polydimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diols (PDMSs) having different molecular masses (Mv=60 700 and Mv=44 200) were used as matrix in which two different active fillers were incorporated: titanium dioxide in situ generated from its titanium isopropoxide precursor and silica particles functionalized with polar aminopropyl groups on surface. A reference sample based on simple crosslinked PDMS was also prepared. The composites processed as films were investigated to evaluate their ability to act as efficient electromechanical actuators for potential biomedical application. Thus, the surface morphology of interest for electrodes compliance was analysed by atomic force microscopy. Mechanical and dielectric characteristics were evaluated by tensile tests and dielectric spectroscopy, respectively. Electromechanical actuation responses were measured by interferometry. The biocompatibility of the obtained materials has been verified through tests in vitro and, for valuable films, in vivo. The experimental, clinical and anatomopathological evaluation of the in vivo tested samples did not reveal significant pathological modifications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of various medication preparations on E. faecalis in root canal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne, Richard E; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Lesley A; Patton, William R; Buxton, Thomas B; McPherson, James C

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of several medication preparations in root canal dentin infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Roots of extracted bovine incisors were prepared to standardized cylindrical test specimens, 5 mm in height. The smear layer was removed and the samples were autoclaved and then incubated at 37 degrees C/5% CO2 for 24 h in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth containing 7.0 x 10(4) colony forming units per ml of E. faecalis. The samples were washed in phosphate buffered saline and mounted to individual culture wells with sticky wax. Test medications were applied to fill the canal lumina; medication groups were: (a) sterile H2O (positive control); (b) a 10% mixture of 1.0 g Ca(OH)2 USP in 10 ml sterile H2O; (c) 10% Ca(OH)2 in 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (Peridex); (d) Peridex; and (e) uninoculated BHI (negative control). The samples were incubated at 37 degrees C/5% CO2 for 24 h. Dentin samples for quantitative microbiology were then obtained with consecutive sterile burs (ISO 029, 035, 042). All three experimental groups demonstrated significantly greater antimicrobial activity than the positive control (p effective than Peridex or 10% Ca(OH)2 in Peridex for the elimination of E. faecalis from dentin tubules.

  11. Calcium phosphate/porous silicon biocomposites prepared by cyclic deposition methods: Spin coating vs electrochemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montelongo, J., E-mail: jacobo.hernandez@uam.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gallach, D.; Naveas, N.; Torres-Costa, V. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); García-Ruiz, J.P. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Manso-Silvan, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) provides an excellent platform for bioengineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability. However, to promote its application as bone engineering scaffold, deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in its hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase is in progress. In that sense, this work focuses on the synthesis of CaP/PSi composites by means of two different techniques for CaP deposition on PSi: Cyclic Spin Coating (CSC) and Cyclic Electrochemical Activation (CEA). Both techniques CSC and CEA consisted on alternate Ca and P deposition steps on PSi. Each technique produced specific morphologies and CaP phases using the same independent Ca and P stem-solutions at neutral pH and at room temperature. The brushite (BRU) phase was favored with the CSC technique and the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase was better synthesized using the CEA technique. Analyses by elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS) on CaP/PSi structures synthesized by CEA supported that, by controlling the CEA parameters, an HAP coating with the required Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67 can be promoted. Biocompatibility was evaluated by bone-derived progenitor cells, which grew onto CaP/PSi prepared by CSC technique with a long-shaped actin cytoskeleton. The density of adhered cells was higher on CaP/PSi prepared by CEA, where cells presented a normal morphological appearance and active mitosis. These results can be used for the design and optimization of CaP/PSi composites with enhanced biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Proposed cyclic methods produce specific morphologies and CaP phases in biocomposites. • The brushite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Spin Coating. • The hydroxyapatite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Electrochemical Activation. • The Ca/P atomic ratio of hydroxyapatite was validated by elastic backscattering spectroscopy. • Cells grown showed morphological and

  12. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex exhibits activation during task preparation but deactivation during task execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideya Koshino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC exhibits activation during some cognitive tasks, including episodic memory, reasoning, attention, multitasking, task sets, decision making, mentalizing, and processing of self-referenced information. However, the medial part of anterior PFC is part of the default mode network (DMN, which shows deactivation during various goal-directed cognitive tasks compared to a resting baseline. One possible factor for this pattern is that activity in the anterior medial PFC (MPFC is affected by dynamic allocation of attentional resources depending on task demands. We investigated this possibility using an event related fMRI with a face working memory task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixteen students participated in a single fMRI session. They were asked to form a task set to remember the faces (Face memory condition or to ignore them (No face memory condition, then they were given 6 seconds of preparation period before the onset of the face stimuli. During this 6-second period, four single digits were presented one at a time at the center of the display, and participants were asked to add them and to remember the final answer. When participants formed a task set to remember faces, the anterior MPFC exhibited activation during a task preparation period but deactivation during a task execution period within a single trial. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the anterior MPFC plays a role in task set formation but is not involved in execution of the face working memory task. Therefore, when attentional resources are allocated to other brain regions during task execution, the anterior MPFC shows deactivation. The results suggest that activation and deactivation in the anterior MPFC are affected by dynamic allocation of processing resources across different phases of processing.

  13. Calcium phosphate/porous silicon biocomposites prepared by cyclic deposition methods: Spin coating vs electrochemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Montelongo, J.; Gallach, D.; Naveas, N.; Torres-Costa, V.; Climent-Font, A.; García-Ruiz, J.P.; Manso-Silvan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) provides an excellent platform for bioengineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability. However, to promote its application as bone engineering scaffold, deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in its hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase is in progress. In that sense, this work focuses on the synthesis of CaP/PSi composites by means of two different techniques for CaP deposition on PSi: Cyclic Spin Coating (CSC) and Cyclic Electrochemical Activation (CEA). Both techniques CSC and CEA consisted on alternate Ca and P deposition steps on PSi. Each technique produced specific morphologies and CaP phases using the same independent Ca and P stem-solutions at neutral pH and at room temperature. The brushite (BRU) phase was favored with the CSC technique and the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase was better synthesized using the CEA technique. Analyses by elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS) on CaP/PSi structures synthesized by CEA supported that, by controlling the CEA parameters, an HAP coating with the required Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67 can be promoted. Biocompatibility was evaluated by bone-derived progenitor cells, which grew onto CaP/PSi prepared by CSC technique with a long-shaped actin cytoskeleton. The density of adhered cells was higher on CaP/PSi prepared by CEA, where cells presented a normal morphological appearance and active mitosis. These results can be used for the design and optimization of CaP/PSi composites with enhanced biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Proposed cyclic methods produce specific morphologies and CaP phases in biocomposites. • The brushite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Spin Coating. • The hydroxyapatite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Electrochemical Activation. • The Ca/P atomic ratio of hydroxyapatite was validated by elastic backscattering spectroscopy. • Cells grown showed morphological and

  14. Preparing activated carbon from charcoal and investigation of the selective uranium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuetahyali, C.; Eral, M.

    2001-01-01

    . Due to its selective adsorption, high radiation stability and high purity, activated carbon is often used for the separation of metal ions from solutions in nuclear industry . Using the activated carbon for separation of some fission products, radon measurements and removal of some radioisotopes has been the subject of several investigations. The preconcentration of uranium based on adsorption is important because it has found many applications in nuclear industry and from the environmental and waste disposal point of view . In view of the anticipated exhaustion of terresterial uranium reserves in the near future, further research has been made directed to recover uranium from nonconventional resources such as natural waters, seawater, industrial waste waters and in addition that other waste sources cause environmental pollution . Activated carbon can be prepared from a variety of materials such as coal, lignite and polymers. A large variety of agricultural byproducts and wastes such as rice husks, peach stones and almond shells also have been used to prepare activated carbons. Depending on the raw materials, activated carbons have different surface characteristics with surface functional groups, surface area, porosity and pore size distribution . Activation involves two fundamentally different processes: (i) Chemical activation using chemicals such as phosphoric acid and zinc chloride applied to the initial uncarbonized material (ii) Physical activation using gases such as steam, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide applied to the carbonized materials . In comparison with physical activation, advantage of chemical activation is the lower temperature in which the process is accomplished . Practically, the type of raw material and the method of activation are important parameters which may influence the type of porosity

  15. Key regulatory and safety issues emerging NEA activities. Lessons Learned from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS Accident - Key Regulatory and Safety Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakoski, John

    2013-01-01

    A presentation was provided on the key safety and regulatory issues and an update of activities undertaken by the NEA and its members in response to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power stations (NPS) on 11 March 2011. An overview of the accident sequence and the consequences was provided that identified the safety functions that were lost (electrical power, core cooling, and primary containment) that lead to units 1, 2, and 3 being in severe accident conditions with large off-site releases. Key areas identified for which activities of the NEA and member countries are in progress include accident management; defence-in-depth; crisis communication; initiating events; operating experience; deterministic and probabilistic assessments; regulatory infrastructure; radiological protection and public health; and decontamination and recovery. For each of these areas, a brief description of the on-going and planned NEA activities was provided within the three standing technical committees of the NEA with safety and regulatory mandates (the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities - CNRA, the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations - CSNI, and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health - CRPPH). On-going activities of CNRA include a review of enhancement being made to the regulatory aspects for the oversight of on-site accident management strategies and processes in light of the lessons learned from the accident; providing guidance to regulators on crisis communication; and supporting the peer review of the safety assessments of risk-significant research reactor facilities in light of the accident. Within the scope of the CSNI mandate, activities are being undertaken to better understand accident progression; characteristics of new fuel designs; and a benchmarking study of fast-running software for estimating source term under severe accident conditions to support protective measure recommendations. CSNI also has ongoing work in human

  16. Preparation high photocatalytic activity of CdS/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites with hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing Weinan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Ni Liang, E-mail: xingweinan3@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huo Pengwei; Lu Ziyang; Liu Xinlin; Luo Yingying; Yan Yongsheng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdS/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CdS/HNTs had better photocatalytic activity for degradation of tetracycline. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of halloysite nanotubes both improved its photocatalytic activity and stability. - Abstract: A novel nanocatalyst CdS/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) was synthesized by hydrothermal method with direct growth of CdS nanoparticles on the surface of HNTs. The as-prepared photocatalysts had been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and the thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic activity of the sample was evaluated by the degradation of tetracycline (TC) under visible light irradiation. Benefit from the excellent properties of CdS and HNTs, the photocatalyst exhibited good photocatalytic activity and stability. In order to find out the optimum synthesis condition to obtain the best photocatalytic activity, a series of experiments were performed with different CdS loading capacity, different sources of sulfide and different hydrothermal temperatures, etc. The best photodegradation rate could reach 93% in 60 min under visible light irradiation. Therefore, the combination of CdS nanoparticles with HNTs endowed this material with a potential use in environmental treatments in industries.

  17. Preparation high photocatalytic activity of CdS/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites with hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Weinan; Ni Liang; Huo Pengwei; Lu Ziyang; Liu Xinlin; Luo Yingying; Yan Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CdS/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ► The CdS/HNTs had better photocatalytic activity for degradation of tetracycline. ► The presence of halloysite nanotubes both improved its photocatalytic activity and stability. - Abstract: A novel nanocatalyst CdS/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) was synthesized by hydrothermal method with direct growth of CdS nanoparticles on the surface of HNTs. The as-prepared photocatalysts had been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–vis DRS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and the thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic activity of the sample was evaluated by the degradation of tetracycline (TC) under visible light irradiation. Benefit from the excellent properties of CdS and HNTs, the photocatalyst exhibited good photocatalytic activity and stability. In order to find out the optimum synthesis condition to obtain the best photocatalytic activity, a series of experiments were performed with different CdS loading capacity, different sources of sulfide and different hydrothermal temperatures, etc. The best photodegradation rate could reach 93% in 60 min under visible light irradiation. Therefore, the combination of CdS nanoparticles with HNTs endowed this material with a potential use in environmental treatments in industries.

  18. Preparation of gaseous CRMs from the primary system for "2"2"2Rn activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.J.; Kim, B.C.; Lee, K.B.; Lee, J.M.; Park, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    For disseminating the gaseous radon standard traceable to the KRISS primary system based on the defined solid angle counting method, two kinds of radon CRM (a glass ampule type and a stainless steel cylinder type) were developed. The activity of the CRM was certified by subtracting a residual activity from the measured activity by the primary system. After certification, the ampule CRM was used to calibrate a radon-monitoring instrument and the cylinder CRM to calibrate an HPGe system. We also improved the measurement procedure of the radon primary system. In a typical radon energy spectrum, the radon peak overlaps with the polonium peak. For more reliable and accurate measurement of radon activity, a fitting method was adopted for the evaluation of radon area in the alpha energy spectrum. The result of radon activity evaluated by using the fitting method is in good agreement with that by the previous integration method. - Highlights: • Preparation of gaseous Rn-222 CRMs from primary measurement system. • Convolution of 3 left-handed exponentials with a Gaussian function to count radon. • Calibration of continuous radon monitor using glass ampoule CRM. • Calibration of HPGe system as secondary standard for stainless steel cylinder CRM.

  19. Preparation of TiO2-Fullerene Composites and Their Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Katsumata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of visible light-sensitive photocatalytic materials is being investigated. In this study, the anatase and rutile-C60 composites were prepared by solution process. The characterization of the samples was conducted by using XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR, Raman, and TEM. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the decolorization of the methylene blue. From the results of the Raman, FT-IR, and XRD, the existence of the C60 was confirmed in the samples. The C60 was modified on the anatase or rutile particle as a cluster. The C60 didn't have the photocatalytic activity under UV and visible light. The anatase and rutile-C60 composites exhibited lower photocatalytic activity than the anatase and rutile under UV light. The anatase-C60 exhibited also lower activity than the anatase under visible light. On the other hand, the rutile-C60 exhibited higher activity than the rutile under visible light. It is considered that the photogenerated electrons can transfer from the C60 to the rutile under visible light irradiation.

  20. Influence of preparation conditions on porous structures of olive stone activated by H3PO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Reha; Akyildiz, Hanife; Karatepe, Nilguen; Cetinkaya, Eda

    2010-01-01

    An olive factory residue was used as a precursor in the preparation of granular activated carbon by chemical activation with H 3 PO 4 . Effects of final activation temperature, time, and H 3 PO 4 concentration used in the impregnation stage on the porous development were investigated. SO 2 adsorption experiments were also performed for some of the activated carbon samples to represent their adsorption performance. Activation at low temperature represented that micropores were developed first at early stages of the temperatures. Mesoporosity developed at around 250 C, enhanced up to 400 C, and then started to decrease due to possibly shrinking of pores. The optimum temperature for olive stone was found to be around 400 C on the basis of total pore volume and BET surface area. It was clearly demonstrated that H 3 PO 4 concentration used in the impregnation stage was not only effective for development of surface area and pore volumes but also an effective tool for tailoring the pore structure and size distribution. (author)

  1. The individual teacher in lesson study collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Charlotte Krog; Møller, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    used in lesson study research. Design/methodology/approach The authors use collective case studies. By being participant observers the authors provide detailed descriptions of two selected teachers’ lived experiences of lesson study collaboration. In addition to gain first-hand insights, the authors...... in the participation of each of the two teachers during a two-year lesson study project. By comparing these shifts the authors identify significant conditions for their individual learning. Research limitations/implications Although the study is small scale, both the insights into the different ways in which teachers...... participated and the theoretical insights might be valuable for other lesson study research approaches. Practical implications This paper provides valuable insights into conditions that might influence teachers’ participation in lesson study activities, especially in cultures with little experience of lesson...

  2. Polymeric Nanoparticles of Brazilian Red Propolis Extract: Preparation, Characterization, Antioxidant and Leishmanicidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes; da Silva, Priscilla Fonseca; Azevedo, Lais Farias; da Rocha, Louisianny Guerra; de Moraes Porto, Isabel Cristina Celerino; Lima e Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly; Basílio-Júnior, Irinaldo Diniz; Grillo, Luciano Aparecido Meireles; Dornelas, Camila Braga; Fonseca, Eduardo Jorge da Silva; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; Zhang, Alex Tong; Watson, David G.

    2016-06-01

    The ever-increasing demand for natural products and biotechnology derived from bees and ultra-modernization of various analytical devices has facilitated the rational and planned development of biotechnology products with a focus on human health to treat chronic and neglected diseases. The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize polymeric nanoparticles loaded with Brazilian red propolis extract and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of "multiple-constituent extract in co-delivery system" for antileishmanial therapies. The polymeric nanoparticles loaded with red propolis extract were prepared with a combination of poly-ɛ-caprolactone and pluronic using nanoprecipitation method and characterized by different analytical techniques, antioxidant and leishmanicidal assay. The red propolis nanoparticles in aqueous medium presented particle size (200-280 nm) in nanometric scale and zeta analysis (-20 to -26 mV) revealed stability of the nanoparticles without aggregation phenomenon during 1 month. After freeze-drying method using cryoprotectant (sodium starch glycolate), it was possible to observe particles with smooth and spherical shape and apparent size of 200 to 400 nm. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal analysis revealed the encapsulation of the flavonoids from the red propolis extract into the polymeric matrix. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) identified the flavonoids liquiritigenin, pinobanksin, isoliquiritigenin, formononetin and biochanin A in ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and nanoparticles of red propolis extract (NRPE). The efficiency of encapsulation was determinate, and median values (75.0 %) were calculated using UPLC-DAD. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl method showed antioxidant activity to EEP and red propolis nanoparticles. Compared to negative control, EEP and NRPE exhibited leishmanicidal activity with an IC50 value of ≅38.0

  3. Preparation And Characterization Of Microporous Activated Carbon From Oil Palm Shell By Physical Activation Using Purified Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allwar Allwar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Oil palm shell, a byproduct of palm oil industry was successfully used as a raw material for the production of highly porous activated carbons. Preparation of activated carbon was carried out by physical activation under nitrogen at various activation temperatures. The nitrogen isotherms show Type I characteristics of microporous activated carbon. The maximum surface areas obtained at 900oC was 936 m2g-1. The morphology structure of the activated carbon indicated the existence of the porosities with different size pores. Keywords: Oil palm shell; Micropores; Physical activation; Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm

  4. Preparation and characterization of biocomposite film based on chitosan and kombucha tea as active food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Azam; Jokar, Maryam; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2018-03-01

    An active film composed of chitosan and kombucha tea (KT) was successfully prepared using the solvent casting technique. The effect of incorporation of KT at the levels 1%-3% w/w on the physical and functional properties of chitosan film was investigated. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan/KT film against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated using agar diffusion test, and its antioxidant activity was determined using DPpH assay. The results revealed that incorporation of KT into chitosan films improved the water vapor permeability (from 256.7 to 132.1gcm -2 h -1 KPa -1 mm) and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the latter up to 59% DPpH scavenging activity. Moreover, the incorporation of KT into the chitosan film increased the protective effect of the film against ultra violet (UV). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed the chemical interactions between chitosan and the polyphenol groups of KT. In a minced beef model, chitosan/KT film effectively served as an active packaging and extended the shelf life of the minced beef as manifested in the retardation of lipid oxidation and microbial growth from 5.36 to 2.11logcfugr -1 in 4days storage. The present work demonstrates that the chitosan/KT film not only maintains the quality of the minced beef but also, retards microbial growth significantly, extending the shelf life of the minced beef meat up to 3days; thus, chitosan/KT film is a potential material for active food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation, Spectroscopic Investigation and Biological Activity of New Mixed Ligand Chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alassbaly, F.S.; Ajaily, M.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Preparation and investigation of new Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cr(III) chelates with mixed ligands including Schiff base (L1) formed from the condensation of 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde with 2-aminophenol and anthranilic acid (L2) were studied. The obtained Schiff base and mixed ligand chelates were subjected to several physiochemical techniques, in terms of CHN elemental analyses, molar conductivity, magnetic moment measurements, infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, electronic and mass spectra. The analytical data showed the formation of the Schiff base compound and the ratio of metal to ligands of the chelates are 1:1:1(M:L1:L2). The infrared spectral data exhibited that the used ligands behaving as bidentate ligands towards the metal ions. The proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data showed the signals of the active groups in the ligands which entered in chelation with Zn(II) metal ion. The electronic spectral results showed the existence of pie (phenyl ring) and n = pie (C=N) of the ligands and suggested the geometrical structures of the chelates. Meanwhile, the mass spectral data revealed the fragmentations of the Schiff base, anthranilic acid and their Ni(II) mixed ligand chelate has been preformed the only chelate conducted for justification. All the prepared mixed chelates were non-electrolyte in nature. The antibacterial activity of the Schiff base, anthranilic acid, metal salts and mixed ligand chelates were studied and found to be that mixed ligand chelates have the most biological activity in comparison to the free ligands and salts. (author)

  6. Preparation of zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites and their bioactivities and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Gong, Jie; Zeng, Changfeng; Zhang, Lixiong

    2013-10-01

    Zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites with zeolite contents of 20-55 wt.% were prepared by in situ transformation of silica/chitosan mixtures in a sodium aluminate alkaline solution through impregnation-gelation-hydrothermal synthesis. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and mercury penetration porosimetry. Their in vitro bioactivities were examined using as-synthesized and Ca(2+)-exchanged hybrid composites in simulated body fluid (SBF) for hydroxyapatite (HAP) growth. Their antimicrobial activities for Escherichia coli (E. coli) in trypticase soy broth (TSB) were evaluated using Ag(+)-exchanged hybrid composites. The zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites could be prepared as various shapes, including cylinders, plates and thin films. They possessed macropores with pore sizes ranging from 100 to 300 μm and showed compressive mechanical strength as high as 3.2 MPa when the zeolite content was 35 wt.%. Fast growth on the Ca(2+)-exchanged hybrid composites was observed with the highest weight gain of 51.4% in 30 days. The 35 wt.% Ag(+)-exchanged hybrid composite showed the highest antimicrobial activity, which could reduce the 9×10(6) CFU mL(-1)E. coli concentration to zero within 4h of incubation time with the Ag(+)-exchanged hybrid composite amount of 0.4 g L(-1). The bioactivity and antimicrobial activity could be combined by ion-exchanging the composites first with Ca(2+) and then with Ag(+). These zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites have potential applications on tissue engineering and antimicrobial food packaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sorption of lanthanum and erbium from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwad, N.S.; Gad, H.M.H.; Ahmad, M.I.; Aly, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    A biomass agricultural waste material, rice husk (RH) was used for preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation using phosphoric acid. The effect of various factors, e.g. time, ph, initial concentration and temperature of carbon on the adsorption capacity of lanthanum and erbium were quantitatively determined. It was found that the monolayer capacity is 175.4 mg/g for La(III) and 250 mg/g for Er(III) . The calculated activation energy of La(III) adsorption on the activated carbon derived from rice husk was equal to 5.84 kJ/ mol while 14.6 kJ/ mol for Er(III), which confirm that the reaction is mainly particle-diffusion controlled. The kinetics of sorption was described by a model of a pseudo-second-order. External diffusion and intra-particular diffusion were examined. The experimental data show that the external diffusion and intra-particular diffusion are significant in the determination of the sorption rate. Therefore, the developed sorbent is considered as a better replacement technology for removal of La (III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous solution due to its low cost and good efficiency, fast kinetics, as well as easy to handle and thus no or small amount of secondary sludge is obtained in this application

  8. Preparation, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of nanoemulsions incorporating citral essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Citral is a typical essential oil used in the food, cosmetic, and drug industries and has shown antimicrobial activity against microorganisms. Citral is unstable and hydrophobic under normal storage conditions, so it can easily lose its bactericide activity. Nanoemulsion technology is an excellent way to hydrophilize, microencapsulate, and protect this compound. In our studies, we used a mixed surfactant to form citral-in-water nanoemulsions, and attempted to optimize the formula for preparing nanoemulsions. Citral-in-water nanoemulsions formed at So 0.4 to 0.6 and ultrasonic power of 18 W for 120 seconds resulted in a droplet size of < 100 nm for nanoemulsions. The observed antimicrobial activities were significantly affected by the formulation of the nanoemulsions. The observed relationship between the formulation and activity can lead to the rational design of nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for essential oils, based on the desired function of antimicrobials in the food, cosmetics, and agrochemical industries.

  9. Preparation of nanoporous activated carbon and its application as nano adsorbent for CO2 storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi, Ali Morad; Kazemi, Davood; Izadi, Nosrat; Pourkhalil, Mahnaz; Jorsaraei, Abbas; Lotfi, Roghayeh; Ganji, Enseyeh

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous activated carbons, as adsorbent for CO 2 storage, were prepared from walnut shells via two chemical processes including phosphoric acid treatment and KOH activation at high temperature. Specific surface area and porosities were controlled by KOH concentration and activation temperature. The obtained adsorbents were characterized by N2 adsorption at 77.3 K. Their carbon dioxide adsorption capacities were measured at different pressures at 290 K by using volumetric adsorption equipment. The KOH-treated nanoporous carbons typically led to the production of high specific surface areas and high micropore volumes and showed better performance for CO 2 adsorptions. The maximum experimental value for adsorption capacity happened when pressure increased from 5 to 10 bar (1.861- 2.873mmol·g -1 ). It was found that in order to improve the highest capacity of CO 2 adsorption for KOH-modified carbon (9.830-18.208mmol·g -1 ), a KOH: C weight ratio of 3.5 and activation temperature of 973 K were more suitable for pore development and micro-mesopore volume enhancement.

  10. Protein Hydrolysis from Catfish Prepared by Papain Enzyme and Antioxidant Activity of Hydrolyzate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ace Baehaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to make a protein hydrolysates from catfish (Pangasius pangasius enzymatically using papain enzyme and analyzed the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates produced. The research used the method completely randomized design with two replications the treatment were the difference concentration of the papain enzyme (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6%. The parameters of research were antioxidative activity using DPPH (2,2-difenil-1–pikrilhidrazil, protein content, and molecular weight using SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The results showed that catfish protein hydrolysates prepared by papain enzyme has antioxidative activity. The highest degree of hydrolysis was 71.98% at enzyme concentration of 6%. Based on the DPPH scavenging method catfish protein hydrolysates has the antioxidative activity with the value 37.85-67.62%. The protein content of catfish protein hydrolysates were 20.86-54.47 mg/ml. The molecular weight of catfish protein hydrolyzates were 11.90-65.20 kDa.

  11. Brief review: Preparation techniques of biomass based activated carbon monolith electrode for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taer, Erman; Taslim, Rika

    2018-02-01

    The synthesis of activated carbon monolith electrode made from a biomass material using the hydrolytic pressure or the pelletization technique of pre-carbonized materials is one of standard reported methods. Several steps such as pre-carbonization, milling, chemical activation, hydraulic press, carbonization, physical activation, polishing and washing need to be accomplished in the production of electrodes by this method. This is relatively a long process that need to be simplified. In this paper we present the standard method and proceed with the introduction to several alternative methods in the synthesis of activated carbon monolith electrodes. The alternative methods were emphasized on the selection of suitable biomass materials. All of carbon electrodes prepared by different methods will be analyzed for physical and electrochemical properties. The density, degree of crystallinity, surface morphology are examples for physical study and specific capacitance was an electrochemical properties that has been analysed. This alternative method has offered a specific capacitance in the range of 10 to 171 F/g.

  12. Preparation and characterization of the perovskite catalysts : activity studies for diesel surrogate (dodecane) reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondakindi, R.; Kundu, A.; Karan, K.; Peppley, B. [Queen' s-RMC Fuel Cell Research Centre, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Canada's northern communities rely on diesel fuel for generating electricity. The process of converting diesel to electricity in internal combustion engines is not efficient and generates significant amounts of unwanted products. This paper presented an alternative process whereby diesel is reformed into hydrogen-rich reformate which can then be fed to a solid oxide fuel cell. This alternative process converts energy more efficiently and eliminates the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot. This study focused on the development of LaFeO{sub 3} based perovskite catalysts for diesel reforming. The activity of the perovskite catalysts was assessed for steam reforming of dodecane, a surrogate for diesel. In order to study the effect on catalytic activity, various perovskite materials were prepared by doping the perovskite at A-site to minimize the coke deposition and at B-site to improve the activity. Preliminary results for dodecane reforming for selected perovskites were promising. Additional testing is underway regarding catalyst activity and stability studies as well carbon and sulphur poisoning.

  13. Control of lipid oxidation by nonmigratory active packaging films prepared by photoinitiated graft polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2012-08-08

    Transition metal-promoted oxidation impacts the quality, shelf life, and nutrition of many packaged foods. Metal-chelating active packaging therefore offers a means to protect foods against oxidation. Herein, we report the development and characterization of nonmigratory metal-chelating active packaging. To prepare the films, carboxylic acids were grafted onto the surfaces of polypropylene films by photoinitiated graft polymerization of acrylic acid. Attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, and iron-chelating assay were used to characterize film properties. Graft polymerization yielded a carboxylic acid density of 68.67 ± 9.99 nmol per cm(2) film, with ferrous iron-chelating activity of 71.07 ± 12.95 nmol per cm(2). The functionalized films extended the lag phase of lipid oxidation in a soybean oil-in-water emulsion system from 2 to 9 days. The application of such nonmigratory active packaging films represents a promising approach to reduce additive use while maintaining food quality.

  14. PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM SILK COTTON WOOD AND COCONUT SHELL BY PYROLISIS WITH CERAMIC FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Haryadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of activated carbon from silk cotton wood and coconut shell has been done. Carbon was made by pyrolysis process in the Muchalal furnace with 3000 watt electric power. The electric power was increased gradually from 1000, 2000 and then 3000 watt with interval 2 hours during 7 hours. Carbon was activated in Muchalal furnace with 4000 watt electric power during 2 hours and flowed with nitrogen gas. Product of the activated carbon was compared to standart product with several analysis including the surface area, acetic acid adsorption, iod adsorption and vapour adsorption. The results of analysis showed that surface area for silk cotton wood carbon, coconut shell carbon, and E.Merck product were 288.8072 m2/g, 222.9387 m2/g and 610.5543 m2/g, respectively. Acetic acid adsorption for silk cotton wood carbon, coconut shell carbon, and standart product were 157.391 mg/g, 132.791 mg/g, and 186.911 mg/g, respectively. Iodine adsorption for cotton wood carbon, coconut shell carbon, and standart product were 251.685 mg/g, 207.270 mg/g and 310.905 mg/g, respectively. Vapour adsorption for cotton wood carbon, coconut shell carbon and standart product were 12%, 4%,and 14%., respectively Key words : Activated carbon, pyrolysis, Muchalal furnace

  15. Search for Antiprotozoal Activity in Herbal Medicinal Preparations; New Natural Leads against Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Llurba Montesino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, Leishmaniasis, and Malaria are infectious diseases caused by unicellular eukaryotic parasites (“protozoans”. The three first mentioned are classified as Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs by the World Health Organization and together threaten more than one billion lives worldwide. Due to the lack of research interest and the high increase of resistance against the existing treatments, the search for effective and safe new therapies is urgently required. In view of the large tradition of natural products as sources against infectious diseases [1,2], the aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of legally approved and marketed herbal medicinal products (HMPs as antiprotozoal agents. Fifty-eight extracts from 53 HMPs on the German market were tested by a Multiple-Target-Screening (MTS against parasites of the genera Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Plasmodium. Sixteen HMPs showed in vitro activity against at least one of the pathogens (IC50 < 10 µg/mL. Six extracts from preparations of Salvia, Valeriana, Hypericum, Silybum, Arnica, and Curcuma exhibited high activity (IC50 < 2.5 µg/mL. They were analytically characterized by UHPLC/ESI-QqTOF-MSMS and the activity-guided fractionation of the extracts with the aim to isolate and identify the active compounds is in progress.

  16. Neuromuscular activity of Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis snake venom in mouse nerve-muscle preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Durigon

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological effects of Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis venom on mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND preparations were studied. Venom (20 mug/ml irreversibly inhibited indirectly evoked twitches in PND preparations (60 ± 10% inhibition, mean ± SEM; p<0.05; n=6. At 50 mug/ml, the venom blocked indirectly and directly (curarized preparations evoked twitches in mouse hemidiaphragms. In the absence of Ca2+, venom (50 mug/ml, produced partial blockade only after an 80 min incubation, which reached 40.3 ± 7.8% (p<0.05; n=3 after 120 min. Venom (20 mug/ml increased (25 ± 2%, p< 0.05 the frequency of giant miniature end-plate potentials in 9 of 10 end-plates after 30 min and the number of miniature end-plate potentials which was maximum (562 ± 3%, p<0.05 after 120 min. During the same period, the resting membrane potential decreased from - 81 ± 1.4 mV to - 41.3 ± 3.6 mV 24 fibers; p<0.01; n=4 in the end-plate region and from - 77.4 ± 1.4 to -44.6 ± 3.9 mV (24 fibers; p<0.01; n=4 in regions distant from the end-plate. These results indicate that B. n. pauloensis venom acts primarily at presynaptic sites. They also suggest that enzymatic activity may be involved in this pharmacological action.

  17. Negatively charged silver nanoparticles with potent antibacterial activity and reduced toxicity for pharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvioni L

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lucia Salvioni,1 Elisabetta Galbiati,1 Veronica Collico,1 Giulia Alessio,1 Svetlana Avvakumova,1 Fabio Corsi,2,3 Paolo Tortora,1 Davide Prosperi,1 Miriam Colombo1 1Nanobiolab, Department of Biotechnology and Bioscience, University of Milano-Bicocca, 2Biological and Clinical Science Department, University of Milan, Milano, 3Surgery Department, Breast Unit, IRCCS S Maugeri Foundation, Pavia, Italy Background: The discovery of new solutions with antibacterial activity as efficient and safe alternatives to common preservatives (such as parabens and to combat emerging infections and drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is highly expected in cosmetics and pharmaceutics. Colloidal silver nanoparticles (NPs are attracting interest as novel effective antimicrobial agents for the prevention of several infectious diseases.Methods: Water-soluble, negatively charged silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized by reduction with citric and tannic acid and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, differential centrifuge sedimentation, and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. AgNPs were tested with model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in comparison to two different kinds of commercially available AgNPs.Results: In this work, AgNPs with higher antibacterial activity compared to the commercially available colloidal silver solutions were prepared and investigated. Bacteria were plated and the antibacterial activity was tested at the same concentration of silver ions in all samples. The AgNPs did not show any significant reduction in the antibacterial activity for an acceptable time period. In addition, AgNPs were transferred to organic phase and retained their antibacterial efficacy in both aqueous and nonaqueous media and exhibited no toxicity in eukaryotic cells.Conclusion: We developed AgNPs with a 20 nm diameter and negative zeta potential with powerful antibacterial activity and low toxicity compared

  18. Introduction of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Activities to Reflect Lessons Learned from Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongtae; Hong, Seong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gun Hong [Kyungwon E-C Co., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The Charter requires the staff to highlight potential policy issues for the Commission and provide the Commission every 6 months an update on the review work conducted under the Charter. The recent status of NRC's activities and related program to reflect the lesson-learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant's severe accident are introduced in this paper. A wide variety of the U.S. NRC's activities to reflect lessons learned from the Fukushima nuclear accidents was investigated. From the investigation, it was found that most of NRC's activities, based on the Fukushima Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) recommendations, are being implemented in a comprehensive and systematic manner. The NRC staff initially prioritized the NTTF recommendations based on its judgment of the potential and relative safety enhancement which could be realized by each. As a result of the staff's prioritization and assessment process, the NTTF recommendations were prioritized into three tiers (i.e., Tier 1, 2 and 3). Tier 1 recommendations are which the staff determined should be started without unnecessary delay and for which sufficient resource flexibility, including availability of critical skill sets, exists. Tier 2 recommendations are which could not be initiated in the near term due to factors that include the need for further technical assessment and alignment, dependence on Tier 1 issues, or availability of critical skill sets. Tier 3 recommendations are that require further staff study to support a regulatory action, have an associated shorter term action that needs to be completed to inform the longer-term action, are dependent on the availability of critical skill sets, or are dependent on the resolution of NTTF Recommendation 1. Through the implementation of each tier activities, existing layers of defense in depth are expected to be gradually bolstered, and such a regulatory approach is much similar in the other countries. It was also found that

  19. Introduction of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Activities to Reflect Lessons Learned from Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongtae; Hong, Seong-Wan; Kim, Gun Hong

    2014-01-01

    The Charter requires the staff to highlight potential policy issues for the Commission and provide the Commission every 6 months an update on the review work conducted under the Charter. The recent status of NRC's activities and related program to reflect the lesson-learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant's severe accident are introduced in this paper. A wide variety of the U.S. NRC's activities to reflect lessons learned from the Fukushima nuclear accidents was investigated. From the investigation, it was found that most of NRC's activities, based on the Fukushima Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) recommendations, are being implemented in a comprehensive and systematic manner. The NRC staff initially prioritized the NTTF recommendations based on its judgment of the potential and relative safety enhancement which could be realized by each. As a result of the staff's prioritization and assessment process, the NTTF recommendations were prioritized into three tiers (i.e., Tier 1, 2 and 3). Tier 1 recommendations are which the staff determined should be started without unnecessary delay and for which sufficient resource flexibility, including availability of critical skill sets, exists. Tier 2 recommendations are which could not be initiated in the near term due to factors that include the need for further technical assessment and alignment, dependence on Tier 1 issues, or availability of critical skill sets. Tier 3 recommendations are that require further staff study to support a regulatory action, have an associated shorter term action that needs to be completed to inform the longer-term action, are dependent on the availability of critical skill sets, or are dependent on the resolution of NTTF Recommendation 1. Through the implementation of each tier activities, existing layers of defense in depth are expected to be gradually bolstered, and such a regulatory approach is much similar in the other countries. It was also found that

  20. Removal of phenol by powdered activated carbon prepared from coal gasification tar residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiong-Lei; Shen, Jun; Niu, Yan-Xia; Wang, Yu-Gao; Liu, Gang; Sheng, Qing-Tao

    2018-03-01

    Coal gasification tar residue (CGTR) is a kind of environmentally hazardous byproduct generated in fixed-bed coal gasification process. The CGTR extracted by ethyl acetate was used to prepare powdered activated carbon (PAC), which is applied later for adsorption of phenol. The results showed that the PAC prepared under optimum conditions had enormous mesoporous structure, and the iodine number reached 2030.11 mg/g, with a specific surface area of 1981 m 2 /g and a total pore volume of 0.92 ml/g. Especially, without loading other substances, the PAC, having a strong magnetism, can be easily separated after it adsorbs phenol. The adsorption of phenol by PAC was studied as functions of contact time, temperature, PAC dosage, solution concentration and pH. The results showed a fast adsorption speed and a high adsorption capacity of PAC. The adsorption process was exothermic and conformed to the Freundlich models. The adsorption kinetics fitted better to the pseudo-second-order model. These results show that CGTR can be used as a potential adsorbent of phenols in wastewater.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x Ag = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h. PMID:24523630

  2. Activated carbon prepared from coffee pulp: potential adsorbent of organic contaminants in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maraisa; Guerreiro, Mário César; Ramos, Paulize Honorato; de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Alves; Sapag, Karim

    2013-01-01

    The processing of coffee beans generates large amounts of solid and liquid residues. The solid residues (pulp, husk and parchment) represent a serious environmental problem and do not have an adequate disposal mechanism. In this work, activated carbons (ACs) for adsorption of organic compounds were prepared from coffee pulp by controlled temperature at different pulp/Na2HPO4 ratios (4:1, 2:1, 5:4 and 1:1). The N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms showed ACs with high quantities of mesopores and micropores and specific surface areas of 140, 150, 450 and 440 m(2)g(-1) for AC 4:1, AC 2:1, AC 5:4 and AC 1:1, respectively. The prepared material AC 5:4 showed a higher removal capacity of the organic contaminants methylene blue (MB), direct red (DR) and phenol than did a Merck AC. The maximum capacities for this AC are approximately 150, 120 and 120 mg g(-1) for MB, DR and phenol, respectively. Thus, a good adsorbent was obtained from coffee pulp, an abundant Brazilian residue.

  3. The low-dose combination preparation Vertigoheel activates cyclic nucleotide pathways and stimulates vasorelaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinle, H; Tober, C; Zhang, D; Jäggi, R; Kuebler, W M

    2010-01-01

    Vertigo of various and often unknown aetiologies has been associated with and attributed to impaired microvascular perfusion in the inner ear or the vertebrobasilar system. Vertigoheel is a low-dose combination preparation of proven value in the symptomatic treatment of vertigo. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that Vertigoheel's anti-vertiginous properties may in part be due to a vasodilatory effect exerted via stimulation of the adenylate and/or guanylate cyclase pathways. Thus, the influence of Vertigoheel or its single constituents on synthesis and degradation of cyclic nucleotides was measured. Furthermore, vessel myography was used to observe the effect of Vertigoheel on the vasoreactivity of rat carotid arteries. Vertigoheel and one of its constituents, Anamirta cocculus, stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, while another constituent, Conium maculatum, inhibited phosphodiesterase 5, suggesting that the individual constituents of Vertigoheel contribute differentially to a synergistic stimulation of cyclic nucleotide signalling pathways. In rat carotid artery rings, Vertigoheel counteracted phenylephrine-induced tonic vasoconstriction. The present data demonstrate a vasorelaxant effect of Vertigoheel that goes along with a synergistic stimulation of cyclic nucleotide pathways and may provide a mechanistic basis for the documented anti-vertiginous effects of this combination preparation.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of thin solid films of silver doped hydroxyapatite prepared by sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x(Ag) = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Liliana Iconaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with xAg=0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  6. Preparation of reusable conductive activated charcoal plate as a new electrode for industrial wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoubi-Feiz, Baharak; Aber, Soheil [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A conductive activated charcoal plate (ACP) was prepared from a low-cost, abundant, and non-conductive charcoal. The prepared ACP was characterized using N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the charcoal and the ACP was 0.58m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 461.67m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The ACP was employed in textile wastewater treatment using electrosorption process. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design the experiments. The decolorization efficiency of 76% at optimum conditions of voltage=450mV, pH=4, and contact time=120 min indicated that the ACP has promising potential to decolorize textile wastewater. Moreover, the results of the kinetic analyses demonstrated that wastewater treatment followed pseudo-first order kinetic model. The ACP electrode could be regenerated and reused effectively at five successive cycles of electrosorption/electrodesorption.

  7. The preparation, characterization and actuation behavior of polyaniline and cellulose blended electro-active paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Amalraj; Mahadeva, Suresha K; Kim, Jaehwan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports polyaniline and cellulose blended electro-active paper (EAPap) that can produce large bending displacement at ambient humidity conditions with long lifetime durability. A novel solution processable polyaniline-p-toluene sulfonate (PANI–PTSA) salt was prepared by an inverted emulsion polymerization technique using benzoyl peroxide and p-toluene sulfonic acid. Cellulose solution prepared by dissolving cotton with lithium chloride/N, N-dimethylacetamide was mixed with the PANI emaraldine salt solution and a cellulose–PANI blended film was obtained. The obtained cellulose–PANI film was characterized by ultraviolet–visible (UV–visible), x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and tensile test methods. A cellulose–PANI EAPap actuator was made by depositing very thin gold electrodes on both sides of the cellulose–PANI film. When the actuator performance of the cellulose–PANI EAPap was evaluated in terms of bending displacement with respect to the actuation frequencies, voltages and relative humidity levels, a large bending displacement was shown at ambient humidity conditions with long lifetime durability

  8. Preparation, characterization, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yang; Chen, Yao; Li, Qian; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Ming; Feng, Weiwei; Takase, Mohammed; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-09-22

    Two new Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (BiHEP) complexes were prepared using Bi3+ and two purified polysaccharides from H. erinaceus (HEPs), respectively. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, CD, SEM, AFM, XRD, and TG. The anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp) activities in vitro by agar dilution assay of the complexes were evaluated. The molecular weights of HEPs were 197 and 20 kDa, respectively. All the analyses confirmed the formation of new BiHEP complexes with lower content of Bi3+ compared with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS), the most utilized bismuth preparation clinically. Furthermore, HEPs themselves have definite inhibition effects on Hp, and BiHEP complexes have lower content of Bi exhibited strong inhibition effects on Hp (MIC=20 μg/mL), similar to that of CBS with higher content of Bi. The study provides a basis for further development of multiple treatments of Hp infection or new medicines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of K2CO3-Activated Kraft Lignin Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-fa Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of activated carbons (ACs were prepared by K2CO3 activation from kraft lignin (KL that was recovered from papermaking black liquor. The effects of process parameters such as the activation temperature (AT, activated period, K2CO3 to KL mass ratio, and N2 flow rate on the characteristics of the final product were determined. The ACs were characterized using nitrogen adsorption, morphology, and fractal dimension analyses. The results showed that the AT was the main factor influencing the yield, surface area, and pore structure. The yield of ACs obviously decreased from 50.6% to 20.5% with increasing AT from 600 °C to 1000 °C, and decreased with increasing K2CO3/KL mass ratio. Activation time and N2 flow rate had slight effect on the yield of ACs. The surface area and total pore volume increased as the AT rose to 900 °C and then decreased with further increases in temperature. The maximum surface area and total pore volume were 1816.3 m2/g and 1.26 cm3/g, respectively, at a K2CO3 to KL mass ratio of 3:1, AT of 900 °C, activation time of 2 h, and N2 flow rate of 70 cm3/min. The pore structure of the ACs could be tailored by controlling the AT. As the AT was increased from 700 to 1000 °C, the mesoporosity increased from 11.6% to 95.9%. SEM images indicated that the morphology of ACs was modified by the AT. The K2CO3 was partially recycled.

  10. Activated carbon/ZnO composites prepared using hydrochars as intermediate and their electrochemical performance in supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yueming, E-mail: liyueming@ysu.edu.cn; Liu, Xi

    2014-11-14

    We report a new methodology to prepare activated carbon and activated carbons/ZnO composites from walnut shell-derived hydrothermal carbons (hydrochars), which were prepared under hydrothermal condition in presence of ZnCl{sub 2}. For this method, activated carbon/ZnO composites were prepared via heat treatment of hydrochars under inert environment and activated carbons were prepared by removing the ZnO in activated carbon/ZnO composites. The chemical structure of walnut shell, hydrochars, activated carbon/ZnO and activated carbon was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements. It is found ZnCl{sub 2} plays multiple roles, i.e., helping to remove the oxygen-containing groups during hydrothermal stage, improving the surface area of activated carbon and acting as the precursor of ZnO in heat-treatment stage. The specific surface areas up to 818.9 and 1072.7 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} have been achieved for activated carbon/ZnO composites and activated carbon, respectively. The activated carbon/ZnO as electrode materials for supercapacitors showed that specific capacitance of up to 117.4 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1} in KOH aqueous solution can be achieved and keeps stable in 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Hydrochars as intermediate to prepare activated carbon/ZnO composites. • Activated carbon/ZnO showed excellent electrochemical performance in supercapacitors. • Activated carbon with large surface area can be obtained by removing ZnO.

  11. Activated carbon/ZnO composites prepared using hydrochars as intermediate and their electrochemical performance in supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yueming; Liu, Xi

    2014-01-01

    We report a new methodology to prepare activated carbon and activated carbons/ZnO composites from walnut shell-derived hydrothermal carbons (hydrochars), which were prepared under hydrothermal condition in presence of ZnCl 2 . For this method, activated carbon/ZnO composites were prepared via heat treatment of hydrochars under inert environment and activated carbons were prepared by removing the ZnO in activated carbon/ZnO composites. The chemical structure of walnut shell, hydrochars, activated carbon/ZnO and activated carbon was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N 2 adsorption/desorption measurements. It is found ZnCl 2 plays multiple roles, i.e., helping to remove the oxygen-containing groups during hydrothermal stage, improving the surface area of activated carbon and acting as the precursor of ZnO in heat-treatment stage. The specific surface areas up to 818.9 and 1072.7 m 2  g −1 have been achieved for activated carbon/ZnO composites and activated carbon, respectively. The activated carbon/ZnO as electrode materials for supercapacitors showed that specific capacitance of up to 117.4 F g −1 at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 in KOH aqueous solution can be achieved and keeps stable in 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Hydrochars as intermediate to prepare activated carbon/ZnO composites. • Activated carbon/ZnO showed excellent electrochemical performance in supercapacitors. • Activated carbon with large surface area can be obtained by removing ZnO

  12. Optimization Of Activated Carbon Preparation From Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Via Box- Behnken Design Of Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Shuhada Md Desa; Zaidi Ab Ghani; Suhaimi Abdul-Talib; Chia-Chay, T.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on activated carbon preparation from spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) via chemical activation using Box-Behnken design (BBD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Potassium hydroxide (KOH) functions as activating reagent and it play an important role in enhancing the activated carbon porosity. Three input parameters and two responses were evaluated via this software generated experimental design. The effects of three preparation parameters of impregnation ratio, activation time and activation temperature as well as two responses of carbon yield and iodine number were investigated. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from SMFW was found at SMFW: KOH impregnation ratio of 0.25, activation time of 30 min and activation temperature of 400 degree Celsius which resulted in 28.23 % of carbon yield and 314.14 mg/ g of iodine number with desirability of 0.994. The predicted results were well corresponded with experimental results. This study is important in economical large scale SMFW activated carbon preparation for application study of adsorption process for metal treatment in wastewater with minimum chemical and energy input. (author)

  13. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  14. Machiavelli's "The Prince." [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Machiavelli's book "The Prince," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Machiavelli's enumeration of leadership qualities for a prince has always been controversial; and that leaders and followers may differ in what they identify as the qualities of a good leader. The main activity of the lesson…

  15. Methods of using exercises form tennis with different movement activities for primary school on the physical training lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuba L.V.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The problems of physical education of primary school children at the present stage in Ukraine. The question of development of new approaches, related to the differentiated programming of development of motive capabilities of students of first class in the process of the fixed from which will be instrumental in the improvement of decision tasks of physical education at school. We mark the back strength of children from experimental group (boys and girls. Scientific evidence of the elaborated innovative technology of using tennis in physical training lessons.

  16. The preparation of highly active antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by an organometallic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Eduardo J; Garcia-Barrasa, Jorge; Lopez-de-Luzuriaga, Jose M; Monge, Miguel [Departamento de Quimica Grupo de SIntesis Quimica de La Rioja, UA-CSIC, Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo CientIfico-Tecnologico, E-26004 Logrono (Spain); Laguna, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, Carmen [Departamento de Agricultura y Alimentacion, Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, E-26004 Logrono (Spain)], E-mail: eduardo.fernandez@unirioja.es

    2008-05-07

    Silver nanoparticles of small size with a high surface to volume ratio have been prepared using an organometallic approach. For this, the complex NBu{sub 4}[Ag(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2}] has been treated with AgClO{sub 4} in a 1:1 molar ratio, giving rise to the nanoparticle precursor [Ag(C{sub 6}F{sub 5})] in solution. Addition of one equivalent of hexadecylamine (HDA) and 5 h of reflux in toluene leads to a deep yellow solution containing monodisperse silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of ca. 10 nm. This approach leads to nanoparticles with almost uncontaminated surfaces which make them very reactive. Antimicrobial studies show that these nanoparticles are very active as antimicrobial agents. Very low concentrations between 12 and 25 {mu}g ml{sup -1} of Ag NPs are enough to produce bacteriostatic and bactericidal effectiveness.

  17. Preparation and Adsorption Performances of Phragmites australis Activated Carbon with High Acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Cheng-kai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For removal of heavy metals from wastewater and recycling the wetland plants, the present study investigated the viability of using silage of Phragmites australis (PA to prepare activated carbons (ACs with high acidity. BET surface area, porous texture and surface functional characteristics of ACs were analyzed by N2 adsorption/desorption, elemental analysis and Boehm titration method. ACs presented well-developed micro-porosity and favorable surface acidity. The sorption equilibrium data for Ni (Ⅱ and Cd (Ⅱ sorption onto ACs were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model was fitted well to the adsorption behavior. The properties of high surface acidity promoted the adsorption of heavy metals by the silage-treated ACs and the chemical sorption played the key role in the sorption process.

  18. Preparation of Some Eco-friendly Corrosion Inhibitors Having Antibacterial Activity from Sea Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohamed H M; El-Hady, Mohamed F; Shehata, Hassan A H; Hegazy, Mohammad A; Hefni, Hassan H H

    2013-03-01

    Chitosan is one of the important biopolymers and it is extracted from exoskeletons of crustaceans in sea food waste. It is a suitable eco-friendly carbon steel corrosion inhibitor in acid media; the deacetylation degree of prepared chitosan is more than 85.16 %, and the molecular weight average is 109 kDa. Chitosan was modified to 2-N,N-diethylbenzene ammonium chloride N-oxoethyl chitosan (compound I), and 12-ammonium chloride N-oxododecan chitosan (compound II) as soluble water derivatives. The corrosion inhibition efficiency for carbon steel of compound (I) in 1 M HCl at varying temperature is higher than for chitosan and compound (II). However, the antibacterial activity of chitosan for Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans is higher than for its derivatives, and the minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bacterial concentration of chitosan and its derivatives were carried out with the same strain.

  19. The preparation of highly active antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by an organometallic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Eduardo J; Garcia-Barrasa, Jorge; Lopez-de-Luzuriaga, Jose M; Monge, Miguel; Laguna, Antonio; Torres, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles of small size with a high surface to volume ratio have been prepared using an organometallic approach. For this, the complex NBu 4 [Ag(C 6 F 5 ) 2 ] has been treated with AgClO 4 in a 1:1 molar ratio, giving rise to the nanoparticle precursor [Ag(C 6 F 5 )] in solution. Addition of one equivalent of hexadecylamine (HDA) and 5 h of reflux in toluene leads to a deep yellow solution containing monodisperse silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of ca. 10 nm. This approach leads to nanoparticles with almost uncontaminated surfaces which make them very reactive. Antimicrobial studies show that these nanoparticles are very active as antimicrobial agents. Very low concentrations between 12 and 25 μg ml -1 of Ag NPs are enough to produce bacteriostatic and bactericidal effectiveness

  20. Preparation of a highly concentrated, completely monomeric, active sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdi, H; Hasselbach, W

    1985-11-21

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from fast skeletal muscle were partially delipidated with sodium cholate at high ionic strength and sedimented in a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Phospholipid content was reduced from 0.777 mumol/mg protein to 0.242 mumol/mg protein. As judged from gel electrophoresis and high pressure liquid gel chromatography, accessory proteins were removed during centrifugation and the Ca2+-ATPase was obtained in an almost pure form. Addition of myristoylglycerophosphocholine (1 mg/mg protein) reactivates ATPase and dinitrophenylphosphatase activity to the same degree obtained with native vesicles. Using the analytical ultracentrifuge it could be demonstrated that the reactivated Ca2+-ATPase was present exclusively in a monomeric state. These results were obtained at high and low ionic strength and up to a protein concentration of 10 mg/ml. Therefore this preparation should be very useful to investigate differences between oligomeric and monomeric Ca2+-ATPase.

  1. Preparation of Ni Doped ZnO-TiO2 Composites and Their Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, Ni doped ZnO-TiO2 composites were prepared by facile sol-gel approach and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL. The results indicated that the Ni ions can be incorporated into the lattice of TiO2 structure and replace Ti. The introduction of Ni expanded light absorption of TiO2 to visible region, increased amount of surface hydroxyl groups and physically adsorbed oxygen (as the electronic scavenges, and then enhanced separation rate of photogenerated carriers. The photodegradation test of reactive brilliant blue (KN-R under simulated solar light indicated that Ni doped ZnO-TiO2 composites have better photocatalytic activities, as compared to those of TiO2 and ZnO-TiO2.

  2. Lesson Learning at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhettinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

  3. EFFECTS OF STATINS AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS UPON ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shirinsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In this study, we evaluated effects of statins and other biological preparations upon spontaneous and stimulated activation of МАРК p38 and ERK1/2 in monocytes from the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We used peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from RA patients and healthy donors. PBMC were cultured in presence of 0, 0.1, 1 or 10 мM mevastatin, 10 мg/ml IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, 5 мg/ml infliximab, and 5 мg/ml soluble pegylated p55 TNF-receptor (r-met-Hu-sTNF-RI. To study the mechanisms of mevastatin effects upon МАРК p38 and ERK1/2 activities, L-mevalonate was added to the cultures. The cells were stained with anti-phospho-MAPK p38, or anti-phospho-ERK1/2, and analyzed with flow cytometry. We have shown that IL-1Ra and r-met-Hu-sTNF-RI inhibited spontaneous MAPK р38 activation. Mevastatin reduced spontaneous MAPK p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Mevastatininduced suppression of MAPK p38 and ERK1/2 activation was not dose-dependent. L-mevalonate completely prevented mevastatin-induced reduction of MAPK р38 phosphorylation and partially reversed inhibition of МАРК ERK1/2. In conclusion, decrease in MAPK activation represents a common mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects exerted by statins and some other biologicals.

  4. Preparation, Characterization and Activity of a Peptide-Cellulosic Aerogel Protease Sensor from Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent Edwards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulosic aerogels (NA provide a lightweight biocompatible material with structural properties, like interconnected high porosity and specific surface area, suitable for biosensor design. We report here the preparation, characterization and activity of peptide-nanocellulose aerogels (PepNA made from unprocessed cotton and designed with protease detection activity. Low-density cellulosic aerogels were prepared from greige cotton by employing calcium thiocyanate octahydrate/lithium chloride as a direct cellulose dissolving medium. Subsequent casting, coagulation, solvent exchange and supercritical carbon dioxide drying afforded homogeneous cellulose II aerogels of fibrous morphology. The cotton-based aerogel had a porosity of 99% largely dominated by mesopores (2–50 nm and an internal surface of 163 m2·g−1. A fluorescent tripeptide-substrate (succinyl-alanine-proline-alanine-4-amino-7-methyl-coumarin was tethered to NA by (1 esterification of cellulose C6 surface hydroxyl groups with glycidyl-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC, (2 deprotection and (3 coupling of the immobilized glycine with the tripeptide. Characterization of the NA and PepNA included techniques, such as elemental analysis, mass spectral analysis, attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and bioactivity studies. The degree of substitution of the peptide analog attached to the anhydroglucose units of PepNA was 0.015. The findings from mass spectral analysis and attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging indicated that the peptide substrate was immobilized on to the surface of the NA. Nitrogen adsorption revealed a high specific surface area and a highly porous system, which supports the open porous structure observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Bioactivity studies of PepNA revealed a detection sensitivity of 0.13 units/milliliter for human neutrophil elastase, a diagnostic biomarker for inflammatory

  5. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF ALKALI-ACTIVATED CEMENT CONTAINING PHOSPHOROUS SLAG AND FLY ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo You

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorous slag is an industrial waste which potentially pollutes environments. The aim of the present work is to use phosphorous slag as a raw material to produce alkali-activated cement. The influence of mix proportion of phosphorous slag and fly ash, alkali content and modulus of water glass on the properties of alkali-activated phosphorous slag and fly ash cement (AA-PS-FA-C was studied. The results show that AA-PS-FA-C with normal setting performance and desirable mechanical properties can be prepared using water glass as the activator. Changing the fly ash content in the range of 0-40 wt% has only a small influence on the setting time of AA-PS-FA-C. The strengths significantly decrease when the fly ash content exceeds 30 wt%. The carbonation resistance of AA-PS-FA-C is similar to that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC, while the frost resistance is much better. The hardened paste of AA-PS-FA-C is much more compact than OPC paste.

  6. Methods for preparing comparative standards and field samples for neutron activation analysis of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, D.C.; Dyer, F.F.; Robinson, L.

    1994-01-01

    One of the more difficult problems associated with comparative neutron activation analysis (CNAA) is the preparation of standards which are tailor-made to the desired irradiation and counting conditions. Frequently, there simply is not a suitable standard available commercially, or the resulting gamma spectrum is convoluted with interferences. In a recent soil analysis project, the need arose for standards which contained about 35 elements. In response, a computer spreadsheet was developed to calculate the appropriate amount of each element so that the resulting gamma spectrum is relatively free of interferences. Incorporated in the program are options for calculating all of the irradiation and counting parameters including activity produced, necessary flux/bombardment time, counting time, and appropriate source-to-detector distance. The result is multi-element standards for CNAA which have optimal concentrations. The program retains ease of use without sacrificing capability. In addition to optimized standard production, a novel soil homogenization technique was developed which is a low cost, highly efficient alternative to commercially available homogenization systems. Comparative neutron activation analysis for large scale projects has been made easier through these advancements. This paper contains details of the design and function of the NAA spreadsheet and innovative sample handling techniques

  7. Preparation high photocatalytic activity of CdS/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites with hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Weinan; Ni, Liang; Huo, Pengwei; Lu, Ziyang; Liu, Xinlin; Luo, Yingying; Yan, Yongsheng

    2012-10-01

    A novel nanocatalyst CdS/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) was synthesized by hydrothermal method with direct growth of CdS nanoparticles on the surface of HNTs. The as-prepared photocatalysts had been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and the thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic activity of the sample was evaluated by the degradation of tetracycline (TC) under visible light irradiation. Benefit from the excellent properties of CdS and HNTs, the photocatalyst exhibited good photocatalytic activity and stability. In order to find out the optimum synthesis condition to obtain the best photocatalytic activity, a series of experiments were performed with different CdS loading capacity, different sources of sulfide and different hydrothermal temperatures, etc. The best photodegradation rate could reach 93% in 60 min under visible light irradiation. Therefore, the combination of CdS nanoparticles with HNTs endowed this material with a potential use in environmental treatments in industries.

  8. Methods for preparing comparative standards and field samples for neutron activation analysis of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, D.C.; Dyer, F.F.; Robinson, L.

    1995-01-01

    One of the more difficult problems associated with comparative neutron activation analysis (CNAA) is the preparation of standards which are tailor-made to the desired irradiation and counting conditions. Frequently, there simply is not a suitable standard available commercially, or the resulting gamma spectrum is convoluted with interferences. In a recent soil analysis project, the need arose for standards which contained about 35 elements. In response, a computer spreadsheet was developed to calculate the appropriate amount of each element so that the resulting gamma spectrum is relatively free of interferences. Incorporated in the program are options for calculating all of the irradiation and counting parameters including activity produced, necessary flux/bombardment time, counting time, and appropriate source-to-detector distance. The result is multi-element standards for CNAA which have optimal concentrations. The program retains ease of use without sacrificing capability. In addition to optimized standard production, a novel soil homogenization technique was developed which is a low cost, highly efficient alternative to commercially available homogenization systems. Comparative neutron activation analysis for large scale projects has been made easier through these advancements. This paper contains details of the design and function of the NAA spreadsheet and innovative sample handling techniques. (author) 7 refs.; 5 tabs

  9. Kinetics of adsorption of dyes from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from waste apricot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, Yunus

    2006-01-01

    Adsorbent (WA11Zn5) has been prepared from waste apricot by chemical activation with ZnCl 2 . Pore properties of the activated carbon such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by N 2 adsorption and DFT plus software. Adsorption of three dyes, namely, Methylene Blue (MB), Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV), onto activated carbon in aqueous solution was studied in a batch system with respect to contact time, temperature. The kinetics of adsorption of MB, MG and CV have been discussed using six kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the Elovich equation, the intraparticle diffusion model, the Bangham equation, the modified Freundlich equation. Kinetic parameters and correlation coefficients were determined. It was shown that the second-order kinetic equation could describe the adsorption kinetics for three dyes. The dyes uptake process was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at earlier stages (before 5 min) and by intraparticle diffusion at later stages (after 5 min). Thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG, ΔH and ΔS, have been calculated by using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficient obtained at different temperatures and concentrations. The thermodynamics of dyes-WA11Zn5 system indicates endothermic process

  10. Preparation of Egg White Liquid Hydrolysate (ELH) and Its Radical-Scavenging Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Dong Ouk; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, an optimum protease was selected to hydrolyze the egg white liquid protein for the antioxidant peptides. Alcalase treatment yielded the highest amount of α-amino groups (15.27 mg/mL), while the control (no enzymatic hydrolysis) showed the lowest amount of α-amino groups (1.53 mg/mL). Alcalase also gave the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) value (43.2%) and was more efficient for egg white liquid hydrolysis than the other enzymes. The Alcalase hydrolysate had the highest radical-scavenging activity (82.5%) at a concentration of 5.0 mg/mL. The conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of egg white liquid with Alcalase were selected as substrate : water ratio of 2:1. Five percent Alacalse treatment did not show significant (P>0.05) increases of DH and α-amino nitrogen content after 24 h-hydrolysis. Thirty two hour-hydrolysis with 5% Alcalase is sufficient to make antioxidative egg white liquid hydrolysate from egg white liquid. DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities were significantly (P<0.05) higher after enzymatic digestion. These results suggest that active peptides released from egg-white protein are effective radical-scavengers. Thus, this approach may be useful for the preparation of potent antioxidant products. PMID:26451355

  11. Catalase-only nanoparticles prepared by shear alone: Characteristics, activity and stability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Nan; Du, Xin-Ying; Xing, Jin-Feng; Ge, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Catalase is a promising therapeutic enzyme; however, it carries risks of inactivation and rapid degradation when it is used in practical bioprocess, such as delivery in vivo. To overcome the issue, we made catalase-only nanoparticles using shear stress alone at a moderate shear rate of 217s(-1) in a coaxial cylinder flow cell. Properties of nanoparticles, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential, were characterized. The conformational changes of pre- and post-sheared catalase were determined using spectroscopy techniques. The results indicated that the conformational changes of catalase and reduction in α-helical content caused by shear alone were less significant than that by desolvation method. Catalase-only nanoparticles prepared by single shear retained over 90% of its initial activity when compared with the native catalase. Catalase nanoparticles lost only 20% of the activity when stored in phosphate buffer solution for 72h at 4°C, whereas native catalase lost 53% under the same condition. Especially, the activity of nanogranulated catalase was decreased only slightly in the simulated intestinal fluid containing α-chymotrypsin during 4h incubation at 37°C, implying that the catalase nanoparticle was more resistant to the degradation of proteases than native catalase molecules. Overall, catalase-only nanoparticles offered a great potential to stabilize enzymes for various pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Examination of antimicrobial activity of selected non-antibiotic medicinal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszewska, Hanna; Zareba, Tomasz; Tyski, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect and characterize the antimicrobial activity of non-antibiotic drugs, selected from the pharmaceutical products analyzed during the state control performed in National Medicines Institute, Warszawa, Poland. In 2010, over 90 pharmaceutical preparations have been randomly chosen from different groups of drugs. The surveillance study was performed on standard ATCC microbial strains used for drug control: S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. It was shown that the drugs listed below inhibited growth of at least one of the examined strains: Arketis 20 mg tab. (paroxetine), Buvasodil 150 mg tab. (buflomedile), Halidor 100 mg tab. (bencyclane), Hydroxyzinum espefa 25 mg tab. (hydroxyzine), Norifaz 35 mg tab. (risedronate), Strattera 60 mg cap. (atomoxetine), Tamiflu 75 mg tab. (oseltamivir), Valpro-ratiopharm Chrono 300 mg tab. with longer dissolution (valproate), Vetminth oral paste 24 g+3 g/100 mL (niclozamide, oxybendazol). Strattera cap. showed broad activity spectrum. It inhibited growth of all examined strains (MIC of active substance -- atomoxetine ranged between 2.6-13 mg/mL).

  13. Preparation of factor VII concentrate using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B immunoaffinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi Hosseini, Kamran; Nasiri, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Factor VII concentrates are used in patients with congenital or acquired factor VII deficiency or treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitors. In this research, immunoaffinity chromatography was used to purify factor VII from prothrombin complex (Prothrombin- Proconvertin-Stuart Factor-Antihemophilic Factor B or PPSB) which contains coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X. The aim of this study was to improve purity, safety and tolerability as a highly purified factor VII concentrate. PPSB was prepared using DEAE-Sephadex and was used as the starting material for purification of coagulation factor VII. Prothrombin complex was treated by solvent/detergent at 24°C for 6 h with constant stirring. The mixture of PPSB in the PBS buffer was filtered and then chromatographed using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B coupled with specific antibody. Factors II, IX, VII, X and VIIa were assayed on the fractions. Fractions of 48-50 were pooled and lyophilized as a factor VII concentrate. Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed and Tween 80 was measured in the factor VII concentrate. Specific activity of factor VII concentrate increased from 0.16 to 55.6 with a purificationfold of 347.5 and the amount of activated factor VII (FVIIa) was found higher than PPSB (4.4-fold). RESULTS of electrophoresis on agarose gel indicated higher purity of Factor VII compared to PPSB; these finding revealed that factor VII migrated as alpha-2 proteins. In order to improve viral safety, solvent-detergent treatment was applied prior to further purification and nearly complete elimination of tween 80 (2 μg/ml). It was concluded that immuonoaffinity chromatography using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B can be a suitable choice for large-scale production of factor VII concentrate with higher purity, safety and activated factor VII.

  14. ["Re-evaluation upon suspected event" is an approach for post-marketing clinical study: lessons from adverse drug events related to Bupleuri Radix preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Xin; Sun, Hong-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Long, Hong-Zhu; Ye, Zu-Guang; Ji, Shao-Liang; Zhang, Li

    2014-08-01

    We revisited the "Xiao Chaihu Decoction event (XCHDE)" occurred in late 1980s in Japan and the Bupleuri Radix related adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports in China After careful review, comparison, analysis and evaluation, we think the interstitial pneumonitis, drug induced Liver injury (DILI) and other severe adverse drug envents (ADEs) including death happened in Japan is probably results from multiple factors, including combinatory use of XCHDE with interferon, Kampo usage under modern medicine theory guidance, and use of XCHD on the basis of disease diagnosis instead of traditional Chinese syndrome complex differentiation. There are less ADE case reports related to XCHD preparation in China compared to Japan, mostly manifest with hypersensitivity responses of skin and perfuse perspiration. The symptoms of Radix Bupleuri injection related ADEs mainly manifest hypersensitivity-like response, 2 cases of intravenous infusion instead of intramuscular injection developed hypokalemia and renal failure. One case died from severe hypersensitivity shock. In Chinese literatures, there is no report of the interstitial pneumonitis and DILI associated with XCHDG in Japan. So far, there is no voluntary monitoring data and large sample clinical research data available. The author elaborated the classification of "reevaluation" and clarified "re-evaluation upon events" included the reaction to the suspected safety and efficacy events. Based on the current status of the clinical research on the Radix Bupleuri preparations, the author points out that post-marketing "re-evaluation upon suspected event" is not only a necessity of continuous evaluation of the safety, efficacy of drugs, it is also a necessity for providing objective clinical research data to share with the international and domestic drug administrations in the risk-benefit evaluation. It is also the unavoidable pathway to culture and push the excellent species and famous brands of TCM to the international market, in

  15. Preparations based on minerals extracts of Calicotome villosa roots and bovine butyrate matter: Evaluation in vitro of their antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhouchi, B; Aouadi, S; Abdi, A

    2017-06-01

    The use of preparations based on minerals extracts of Calicotome villosa and butter is born from the misuse of drugs without specific microbiological analyzes. Seventeen different preparations were performed. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined on five bacteria and two fungi strains respectively. C. villosa ashes are obtained by incineration of roots plant at 498°C for 4hours. They are analyzed to determine the shape of the particles and the mineral constituents by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques respectively. The effectiveness of preparations or tablets is measured in solid medium. It allows to measure the diameter of the inhibition zone for the antibacterial activity as well as the diameter of mycelia growth and the critical values (MIC, MFC, IC 50 and IC 90 ) for the antifungal activity. Finally, the results are compared to the activity of a commercial positive control aiming to give value of the observed activity. SEM observations reveal the presence of nanoparticles agglomerated with size of about 50nm. The EDX analyzes indicate the presence of Fe, Na, Al, Mg, Si, K, Ca, O 2 and C. Among all the results, the preparation (B s +A) or (B sd +A) can completely inhibit the growth of two fungal pathogens. The activity of the preparation is faced with the activity of the synthetic fungicide nystatin. The efficacy of the preparation (B s +A) or (B sd +A) is higher than that of nystatin against Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. The preparation could serve as natural antifungal for the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization on Preparation Condition of Propolis Flavonoids Liposome by Response Surface Methodology and Research of Its Immunoenhancement Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prepare propolis flavonoids liposome (PFL and optimize the preparation condition and to investigate further whether liposome could promote the immunoenhancement activity of propolis flavonoids (PF. PFL was prepared with ethanol injection method, and the preparation conditions of PFL were optimized with response surface methodology (RSM. Moreover, the immunoenhancement activity of PFL and PF in vitro was determined. The result showed that the optimal preparation conditions for PFL by response surface methodology were as follows: ratio of lipid to drug (w/w 9.6 : 1, ratio of soybean phospholipid to cholesterol (w/w 8.5 : 1, and speed of injection 0.8 mL·min−1. Under these conditions, the experimental encapsulation efficiency of PFL was 91.67 ± 0.21%, which was close to the predicted value. Therefore, the optimized preparation condition is very reliable. Moreover, the results indicated that PFL could not only significantly promote lymphocytes proliferation singly or synergistically with PHA, but also increase expression level of IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA. These indicated that liposome could significantly improve the immunoenhancement activity of PF. PFL demonstrates the significant immunoenhancement activity, which provides the theoretical basis for the further experiment in vivo.

  17. Lessons learned from the shut down, planning, and the preparatory activities of decommissioning the research reactor VVR-S Magurele, Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.; Copaciu, V.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear research reactor type VVR was shut down in December 1997 after forty years of operation. The main characteristics of this reactor are: Thermal power 2 MW, Thermal energy - 9.59 GWhd, Average flux of thermal neutrons-10 13 n/cm 2 .s, nine horizontal channels, sixteen vertical exposure channels, three biological channels, reactor type tank, water used as a moderator, coolant and reflector. The reactor was used in research and radioisotope production. The reactor has been permanently shut down since April 2002, when the decommissioning was officially announced. Discussions regarding funding mechanisms for the conservation phase, and decommissioning (planning, preparatory activities, spent nuclear fuel management), have taken place since five years ago when the final decision of permanent shut down was taken. Quality management includes procedures for recording and archiving the lessons learned. The planning of decommissioning started in 1990 when the reactor was still operational. After fifteen years the regulatory body has not yet approved the decommissioning plan for the reactor. In this paper the following aspects are discussed: decommissioning strategy from safe enclosure to immediate dismantling, specific features of the site (treatment of radioactive waste near reactor) and state of decommissioning, use of the lessons learned in the planning of decommissioning for the other two small nuclear facilities situated in the same area with VVR-reactor: Sub critical Assembly 'HELEN' and Zero Power Critical Reactor RP-0, AFR ponds for spent nuclear fuel, other radiological facilities for radioisotopes production facilities radiation processing and accelerators. Preparatory activities for decommissioning have included: elaboration of a plan (inter alia, justification of the selected strategy, management of the radioactive waste in accordance with the waste acceptance criteria), reactor storage in parallel with the removal of the equipment and materials used in

  18. Preparation of activated carbon hollow fibers from ramie at low temperature for electric double-layer capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xuan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Chengyang; Chen, Mingming; Qi, Tao; Hua, Chao; Ma, Mingguo

    2013-12-01

    Activated carbon hollow fibers (ACHFs) with high surface area were prepared from inexpensive, renewable ramie fibers (RFs) by a single-step activation method under lower temperature than that of other reports. The effects of activation conditions on the pore structure and turbostratic structure of ACHFs were investigated systematically. The results show that ACHFs surface area decreased but micropore volume and conductivity increased as the increase of activation temperature and activation time. The electrochemical measurements of supercapacitors fabricated from these ACHFs electrodes reveal that the electrochemical properties improved with the enhancing of activation degree. However, too high activation temperature can make the ion diffusion resistance increase. It suggests that pore structure and conductivity are as important as surface area to decide the electrochemical performances of ACHFs electrode materials. A maximum capacity of 287 F g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) was obtained for the ACHFs electrode prepared under suitable conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies on recycling and utilization of spent catalysts. Preparation of active hydrodemetallization catalyst compositions from spent residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, Meena; Stanislaus, Antony [Petroleum Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat (Kuwait)

    2007-02-15

    Spent catalysts form a major source of solid wastes in the petroleum refining industries. Due to environmental concerns, increasing emphasis has been placed on the development of recycling processes for the waste catalyst materials as much as possible. In the present study the potential reuse of spent catalysts in the preparation of active new catalysts for residual oil hydrotreating was examined. A series of catalysts were prepared by mixing and extruding spent residue hydroprocessing catalysts that contained C, V, Mo, Ni and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with boehmite in different proportions. All prepared catalysts were characterized by chemical analysis and by surface area, pore volume, pore size and crushing strength measurements. The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodemetallization (HDM) activities of the catalysts were evaluated by testing in a high pressure fixed-bed microreactor unit using Kuwait atmospheric residue as feed. A commercial HDM catalyst was also tested under similar operating conditions and their HDS and HDM activities were compared with that of the prepared catalysts. The results revealed that catalyst prepared with addition of up to 40 wt% spent catalyst to boehmite had fairly high surface area and pore volume together with large pores. The catalyst prepared by mixing and extruding about 40 wt% spent catalyst with boehmite was relatively more active for promoting HDM and HDS reactions than a reference commercial HDM catalyst. The formation of some kind of new active sites from the metals (V, Mo and Ni) present in the spent catalyst is suggested to be responsible for the high HDM activity of the prepared catalyst. (author)

  20. Is repeated exposure the holy grail for increasing children's vegetable intake? Lessons learned from a Dutch childcare intervention using various vegetable preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinstra, Gertrude G; Vrijhof, Milou; Kremer, Stefanie

    2018-02-01

    Children's failure to eat enough vegetables highlights the need for effective interventions encouraging this behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated exposure to three a priori unfamiliar vegetables, each prepared in two ways, on children's vegetable acceptance in a childcare setting. Two hundred fifty children (mean age 25 months; 57% boys) participated in a pre-test and a post-test, where they were offered pumpkin, courgette, and white radish. The intervention group (N = 125) participated in a 5-month exposure period, where they were exposed repeatedly (∼12x) to the vegetables: pumpkin blanched and as a cracker spread; courgette blanched and as soup; white radish raw and as a cracker spread. The control group (N = 125) maintained their normal routine. Mixed model analyses were used to analyse intake data and Chi-square analyses for willingness to taste. At pre-test, children ate about 20 g of pumpkin and courgette, whereas white radish intake was approximately 10 g. There was a significant positive effect of the intervention for pumpkin (+15 g; p < 0.001) and white radish (+16 g; p = 0.01). Results for willingness to taste were in the same direction. There was no repeated exposure effect for courgette (p = 0.54); this may have been due to its less distinct taste profile or familiarity with boiled courgette. From our findings, we conclude that repeated exposure to multiple unfamiliar vegetable tastes within the daily routine of a childcare setting is effective in improving children's willingness to taste and intake of some of these vegetables. However, repeated exposure may not be sufficient for more familiar or blander tasting vegetables. This implies that one size does not fit all and that additional strategies are needed to increase children's intake of these vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Cu/Cu2O Nanoparticles Prepared in Aqueous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Badawy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper/Copper oxide (Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles were synthesized by modified chemical reduction method in an aqueous medium using hydrazine as reducing agent and copper sulfate pentahydrate as precursor. The Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM. The analysis revealed the pattern of face-centered cubic (fcc crystal structure of copper Cu metal and cubic cuprites structure for Cu2O. The SEM result showed monodispersed and agglomerated particles with two micron sizes of about 180 nm and 800 nm, respectively. The TEM result showed few single crystal particles of face-centered cubic structures with average particle size about 11-14 nm. The catalytic activity of Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was investigated and compared with manganese oxide MnO2. The results showed that the second-order equation provides the best correlation for the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 on Cu/Cu2O. The catalytic activity of hydrogen peroxide by Cu/Cu2O is less than the catalytic activity of MnO2 due to the presence of copper metal Cu with cuprous oxide Cu2O. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th January 2015; Revised: 14th March 2015; Accepted: 15th March 2015How to Cite: Badawy, S.M., El-Khashab, R.A., Nayl, A.A. (2015. Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Cu/Cu2O Nanoparticles Prepared in Aqueous Medium. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 169-174. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7984.169-174 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7984.169-174  

  2. Facile pyrolysis preparation of rosin-derived biochar for supporting silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jian Fei; Shi, Qing Shan; Feng, Jin

    2017-01-01

    -step preparation process and a low loading capacity of nanoparticles. A facile preparation route for the preparation of antibacterial metallic nanocomposites would be especially beneficial for industrial fabrication. In this study, we provided a facile strategy for the preparation of a rosin-derived biochar matrix...... loaded with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as the fillers. The results demonstrated that the preparation of these rosin-derived biochar silver nanocomposites (Rc/Ag nanocomposites) was achieved by a rapid pyrolysis process and a large amount of Ag NPs were in-situ obtained and homogeneously dispersed...

  3. Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of infrared emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Zhou, Yuming; Ge, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silane coupling agent of KH550 was used to connect the ITO and polyurethanes. ► Infrared emissivity values of the hybrids were compared and analyzed. ► Interfacial synergistic action and orderly secondary structure were the key factors. -- Abstract: Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide and racemic polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposites (LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO) were prepared by grafting the organics onto the surfaces of modified ITO nanoparticles. LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO composites based on the chiral and racemic tyrosine were characterized by FT-IR, UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the infrared emissivity values (8–14 μm) were investigated in addition. The results indicated that the polyurethanes had been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of ITO without destroying the crystalline structure. Both composites possessed the lower infrared emissivity values than the bare ITO nanoparticles, which indicated that the interfacial interaction had great effect on the infrared emissivity. Furthermore, LPU@ITO based on the optically active polyurethane had the virtue of regular secondary structure and more interfacial synergistic actions between organics and inorganics, thus it exhibited lower infrared emissivity value than RPU@ITO based on the racemic polyurethane.

  4. Removal of Chloramphenicol from Aqueous Solution Using Low-Cost Activated Carbon Prepared from Typha orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost and efficient activated carbon (AC was prepared from Typha orientalis via phosphoric acid activation for chloramphenicol (CAP removal. The adsorption capacity and mechanisms of CAP on AC were investigated. The physicochemical properties of AC were characterized by an N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, elemental analysis, Boehm’s titration and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The effects of experimental parameters were investigated to study the adsorption behaviors of CAP on AC, including contact time, initial concentration, ionic strength, and initial pH. AC had a micro-mesoporous structure with a relatively large surface area (794.8 m2/g. The respective contents of acidic and basic functional groups on AC were 2.078 and 0.995 mmol/g. The adsorption kinetic that was well described by a pseudo-second-order rate model implied a chemical controlling step. The adsorption isotherm was well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model, and the maximum CAP adsorption capacity was 0.424 mmol/g. The ionic strength and pH had minimal effects on CAP adsorption. The dominant CAP adsorption mechanisms on AC were evaluated and attributed to π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA interaction, hydrophobic interaction, in conjunction with hydrogen-bonding interaction. Additionally, AC exhibited an efficient adsorption performance of CAP in a realistic water environment.

  5. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of hollow ZnSe microspheres via Ostwald ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lihui; Yang Heqing; Xie Xiaoli; Zhang Fenghua; Li Li

    2009-01-01

    Hollow ZnSe microspheres were prepared via a facile hydrothermal reaction of Zn(AC) 2 .2H 2 O with Na 2 SeO 3 and ethylene glycol in NaOH solution at 180 deg. C for 12 h. The products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectrum. The hollow microspheres with the diameters of about 2 μm are constructed from ZnSe nanoparticles with the cubic zinc blende structure, the size of hollow interiors and constituent ZnSe nanodots can be tuned by changing the reaction time. The hollow microspheres are formed via an Ostwald ripening process. Photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity of the hollow ZnSe microspheres were studied at room temperature. The results indicate that the hollow microspheres constructed from ZnSe nanoparticles display a strong near-band edge emission at 479 nm and a very weak deep defect (DD) related emission at 556 nm and a high photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of methyl orange. The photodegradation of methyl orange catalyzed by the ZnSe microspheres is a pseudo first-order reaction

  6. Preparation of Size-Controlled Silver Nanoparticles and Chitin-Based Composites and Their Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinh Quang Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for the preparation of size-controlled spherical silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs was reported for their generation by autoclaving a mixture of silver-containing glass powder and glucose. The particle size is regulated by the glucose concentration, with concentrations of 0.25, 1.0, and 4.0 wt% glucose providing small (3.48±1.83 nm in diameter, medium (6.53±1.78 nm, and large (12.9±2.5 nm particles, respectively. In this study, Ag NP/chitin composites were synthesized by mixing each of these three Ag NP suspensions with a <5% deacetylated (DAc chitin powder (pH 7.0 at room temperature. The Ag NPs were homogenously dispersed and stably adsorbed onto the chitin. The Ag NP/chitin composites were obtained as yellow or brown powders. Approximately 5, 15, and 20 μg of the small, medium, and large Ag NPs, respectively, were estimated to maximally adsorb onto 1 mg of chitin. The bactericidal and antifungal activities of the Ag NP/chitin composites increased as the amount of Ag NPs in the chitin increased. Furthermore, smaller Ag NPs (per weight in the chitin composites provided higher bactericidal and anti-fungal activities.

  7. Visible light active TiO2 films prepared by electron beam deposition of noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xinggang; Ma Jun; Liu Andong; Li Dejun; Huang Meidong; Deng Xiangyun

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 films prepared by sol-gel method were modified by electron beam deposition of noble metals (Pt, Pd, and Ag). Effects of noble metals on the chemical and surface characteristics of the films were studied using XPS, TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. Photocatalytic activity of modified TiO 2 films was evaluated by studying the degradation of methyl orange dye solution under visible light UV irradiation. The result of TEM reveals that most of the surface area of TiO 2 is covered by tiny particles of noble metals with diameter less than 1 nm. Broad red shift of UV-Visible absorption band of modified photocatalysts was observed. The catalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solutions under visible light illumination demonstrates a significant enhancement of photocatalytic activity of these films compared with the un-loaded films. The photocatalytic efficiency of modified TiO 2 films by this method is affected by the concentration of impregnating solution.

  8. Colloidally stable surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and anti-tumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macková, Hana [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Horák, Daniel, E-mail: horak@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Donchenko, Georgiy Viktorovich; Andriyaka, Vadim Ivanovich; Palyvoda, Olga Mikhailovna; Chernishov, Vladimir Ivanovich [Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NASU, 9 Leontovich St., 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Chekhun, Vasyl Fedorovich; Todor, Igor Nikolaevich [R. E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, NASU, 45 Vasylkivska St., 03022 Kiev (Ukraine); Kuzmenko, Oleksandr Ivanovich [Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NASU, 9 Leontovich St., 01601 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-04-15

    Maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were obtained by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides and subsequent oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and coated with poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [P(DMAAm-AA)]. They were characterized by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The effect of superparamagnetic P(DMAAm-AA)-γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles on oxidation of blood lipids, glutathione and proteins in blood serum was detected using 2-thiobarbituric acid and the ThioGlo fluorophore. Finally, mice received magnetic nanoparticles administered per os and the antitumor activity of the particles was tested on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male mice line C57BL/6 as an experimental in vivo metastatic tumor model; the tumor size was measured and the number of metastases in lungs was determined. Surface-modified γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles showed higher antitumor and antimetastatic activities than commercial CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles and the conventional antitumor agent cisplatin. - Highlights: • Maghemite nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. • Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) coating was synthetized. • Blood lipid, glutathione and protein peroxidation/oxidation was determined. • Antitumor effect of coated particles on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice was observed.

  9. Preparation of activated carbon aerogels with hierarchically porous structures for electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dong; Shen, Jun; Liu, Nianping; Yang, Huiyu; Du, Ai

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbon aerogels (ACAs) with hierarchically porous structures and high specific surface area have been prepared via CO 2 and KOH activation processes. The pore structures of ACAs are characterized by N 2 adsorption/desorption and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the ACAs contain three types of pores: micropores with diameters below 2 nm, small mesopores with diameters from 2 to 4 nm and large pores or channels with diameters over 30 nm. The typical sample ACAs-4, which possess pore volume of 2.73 cm 3 g −1 and specific surface area of 2119 m 2 g −1 , exhibits high specific capacitances of 250 F g −1 and 198 F g −1 at the current densities of 0.5 A g −1 and 20 A g −1 respectively in 6 M KOH aqueous solution. Furthermore, the resultant ACAs electrode materials also exhibit high power density, good cycling stability and long lifetime. With these features, ACAs are expected to be promising electrode materials for electrical double layer capacitors

  10. Preparation, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial activity of liposomal ceftazidime and cefepime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ieda Maria Sapateiro; Bento, Etiene Barbosa; Almeida, Larissa da Cunha; de Sá, Luisa Zaiden Carvalho Martins; Lima, Eliana Martins

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism with the ability to respond to a wide variety of environmental changes, exhibiting a high intrinsic resistance to a number of antimicrobial agents. This low susceptibility to antimicrobial substances is primarily due to the low permeability of its outer membrane, efflux mechanisms and the synthesis of enzymes that promote the degradation of these drugs. Cephalosporins, particularty ceftazidime and cefepime are effective against P. aeruginosa, however, its increasing resistance has limited the usage of these antibiotics. Encapsulating antimicrobial drugs into unilamellar liposomes is an approach that has been investigated in order to overcome microorganism resistance. In this study, antimicrobial activity of liposomal ceftazidime and cefepime against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and P. aeruginosa SPM-1 was compared to that of the free drugs. Liposomal characterization included diameter, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined for free and liposomal forms of both drugs. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined at concentrations 1, 2 and 4 times MIC. Average diameter of liposomes was 131.88 nm and encapsulation efficiency for cefepime and ceftazidime were 2.29% end 5.77%, respectively. Improved stability was obtained when liposome formulations were prepared with a 50% molar ratio for cholesterol in relation to the phospholipid. MIC for liposomal antibiotics for both drugs were 50% lower than that of the free drug, demonstrating that liposomal drug delivery systems may contribute to increase the antibacterial activity of these drugs. PMID:24031917

  11. The learning teacher in a collaborative lesson study team within the context of mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goei, Sui Lin; Verhoef, Neeltje Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises results of two studies on teachers’ learning when participating in a collaborative Lesson Study team within the context of mathematics teaching. In study one, Lesson Study was used in the classic way of preparing, designing, executing and reflecting on the research lesson.

  12. From Autopsy to Biopsy: A Metacognitive View of Lesson Planning and Teacher Trainees in ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Indika; Bartlett, Brendan John

    2010-01-01

    Lesson planning and implementation of those plans are complex and cognitively demanding for English Language Teacher trainees preparing for the profession. Many find it difficult to develop a lesson holistically and to maintain alignment across aims, procedural steps, and evaluation when planning and implementing a lesson. We attempted to address…

  13. Preparation of thermosensitive magnetic liposome encapsulated recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for targeted thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hao-Lung [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jyh-Ping, E-mail: jpchen@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Health Industry and Technology, Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Tai-Shan, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML) prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, distearolyphosphatidyl ethanolamine-N-poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, cholesterol and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles by solvent evaporation/sonication and freeze-thaw cycles method. Response surface methodology was proved to be a powerful tool to predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release. Validation experiments verified the accuracy of the model that provides a simple and effective method for fabricating TML with controllable encapsulation efficiency and predictable temperature-sensitive drug release behavior. The prepared samples were characterized for physico-chemical properties by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA could be confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. A thrombolytic drug delivery system using TML could be proposed for magnetic targeted delivery of rtPA to the site of thrombus followed by temperature-triggered controlled drug release in an alternating magnetic field. - Highlights: • rtPA and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNP were encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML). • RSM could predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release from TML. • Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA was confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. • TML-rtPA will be useful as a magnetic targeted nanodrug to improve clinical thrombolytic therapy.

  14. [AgBr colloids prepared by electrolysis and their SERS activity research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Fang, Yan; Dong, Gang; Zhang, Peng-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Ivory-white AgBr colloids were prepared by means of electrolysis. Two silver rods 1.0 cm in diameter and 10.0 cm long were respectively used as the negative and positive electrodes, the aqueous solution of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide was used as the electrolyte, and a 7 V direct current was applied on the silver rods for three hours. The obtained AgBr colloids were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and SERS using a 514. 5 nm laser line on Renishaw 2000 Raman spectrometer. These particles are about nanometer size and their shapes are as spherical or elliptic, with a slight degree of particle aggregation. The UV-Vis spectra exhibit a large plasmon resonance band at about 292.5 nm, similar to that reported in the literature. The AgBr colloids were very stable at room temperature for months. In order to test if these AgBr colloids can be used for SERS research, methyl orange, Sudan red and pyridine were used. It was found that AgBr colloids have SERS activity to these three molicules. For methyl orange, the intense Raman peaks are at 1 123, 1 146, 1 392, 1 448 and 1 594 cm(-1); for Sudan red, the intense Raman peaks are at 1 141, 1 179, 1 433 and 1 590 cm(-1); and for pyridine, the intense Raman peaks are at 1 003, 1 034 and 1 121 cm(-1). It is noticeable that SERS of methyl orange was observed on AgBr colloids, but not on the gray and yellow silver colloids prepared by traditional means. The possible reason was explained. One major advantage of this means is the absence of the spectral interference such as citrate, BH4- arising from reaction products of the colloids formation process. On AgBr colloids, one can get some molecular SERS impossible to get on the gray and yellow silver colloids.

  15. Implementation of lesson study in physics teaching by group of teachers in Solok West Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurnetti, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This article based of collaborative classroom action research with science teachers group or MGMP at Solok West Sumatera; based on their willingness to implementation of lesson study by this group. The study started by discussing some problems according to the implementation of the lesson study, establishing the teaching materials, developing learning tools, defining the model teachers, conducting classroom activities, and reflecting by discussions. The preparation of this study includes some learning material according to temperature and heat; the observation form that led by observer teachers; teachers’s model impression and open questionnaire implementation of lesson study that applied to the students and teachers. This research got some information about the strengths and weaknesses of learning using lesson study from the students involved. To conclude, the implementation of lesson study should be able to support the principle of collaborative in learning. The challenge of this study is how to make a condition to gather some teachers in one school at a certain time because they have the schedule at their own school.

  16. PENINGKATAN KOMPETENSI PEDAGOGIK GURU DAN KEMAMPUAN AKADEMIK SISWA MELALUI LESSON STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Andriani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to improve teachers' pedagogical competence and academic achievement of students through lesson study based learning. The design of this study is classroom action research method of observation and written tests. The data were analyzed by quantitative descriptive. The research was conducted on a geography teacher and students of class XI social science programe specialization courses in high school. The results showed an increase pedagogical competence of teachers of the first cycle to the second cycle. This can be seen from the ability of teachers prepare lesson plans and implementing learning. Based learning lesson study also impact on improving the academic skills of students in the form of activity and learning outcomes. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kompetensi pedagogik guru dan prestasi akademik siswa melalui pembelajaran berbasis lesson study. Rancangan penelitian ini adalah penelitian tindakan kelas dengan metode observasi dan tes tertulis. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif kuantitatif. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada guru Geografi dan siswa kelas XI program peminatan ilmu sosial di SMA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya peningkatan kompetensi pedagogik guru dari siklus I ke siklus II. Hal ini bisa dilihat dari kemampuan guru menyusun RPP dan melaksanakan pembelajaran. Pembelajaran berbasis lesson study juga berdampak pada peningkatan kemampuan akademis siswa berupa aktivitas dan hasil belajar.

  17. Protocol for the 'Virtual Traveller' cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2016-06-27

    Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. 'Virtual Traveller' is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8-9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (reference number: 3500

  18. Platelet-rich preparations to improve healing. Part II: platelet activation and enrichment, leukocyte inclusion, and other selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Vicki L; Abukabda, Alaeddin B; Radio, Nicholas M; Witt-Enderby, Paula A; Clafshenkel, William P; Cairone, J Vito; Rutkowski, James L

    2014-08-01

    Multiple platelet-rich preparations have been reported to improve wound and bone healing, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet rich fibrin (PRF). The different methods employed during their preparation are important, as they influence the quality of the product applied to a wound or surgical site. Besides the general protocol for preparing the platelet-rich product (discussed in Part 1 of this review), multiple choices need to be considered during its preparation. For example, activation of the platelets is required for the release and enmeshment of growth factors, but the method of activation may influence the resulting matrix, growth factor availability, and healing. Additionally, some methods enrich leukocytes as well as platelets, but others are designed to be leukocyte-poor. Leukocytes have many important roles in healing and their inclusion in PRP results in increased platelet concentrations. Platelet and growth factor enrichment reported for the different types of platelet-rich preparations are also compared. Generally, TGF-β1 and PDGF levels were higher in preparations that contain leukocytes compared to leukocyte-poor PRP. However, platelet concentration may be the most reliable criterion for comparing different preparations. These and other criteria are described to help guide dental and medical professionals, in large and small practices, in selecting the best procedures for their patients. The healing benefits of platelet-rich preparations along with the low risk and availability of simple preparation procedures should encourage more clinicians to incorporate platelet-rich products in their practice to accelerate healing, reduce adverse events, and improve patient outcomes.

  19. Amine-functionalized, silver-exchanged zeolite NaY: Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanim, Siti Aishah Mohd; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik, E-mail: niknizam@fbb.utm.my; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Functionalization of Ag-exchanged zeolite NaY with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane APTES (ZSA) as antibacterial agent. • Antibacterial assay of ZSA was performed against Escherichia coli ATCC11229 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538. • Functionalization of Ag-exchanged zeolite NaY with APTES significantly increased the antibacterial agent. • Different mechanisms of bacterial death were suggested for each bacteria type by the functionalized Ag-exchanged zeolite NaY. - Abstract: Amine-functionalized, silver-exchanged zeolite NaY (ZSA) were prepared with three different concentrations of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) (0.01, 0.20 and 0.40 M) and four different concentrations of silver ions (25%, 50%, 100% and 200% from zeolite cation exchange capacity (CEC)). The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and zeta potential (ZP) analysis. The FTIR results indicated that the zeolite was functionalized by APTES and that the intensity of the peaks corresponding to APTES increased as the concentration of APTES used was increased. The antibacterial activities of the silver-exchanged zeolite NaY (ZS) and ZSA were studied against Escherichia coli ATCC11229 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 using the disc diffusion technique (DDT) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The antibacterial activity of ZSA increased with the increase in APTES on ZS, and E. coli was more susceptible towards the sample compared to S. aureus. The FESEM micrographs of the bacteria after contact with the ZSA suggested different mechanisms of bacterial death for these two bacteria due to exposure to the studied sample. The functionalization of ZS with APTES improved the antibacterial activity of the silver-zeolite, depending on the concentration of silver

  20. Preparation of crosslinked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) of acid urease with urethanase activity and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zha, Xiaohong; Zhou, Nandi; Tian, Yaping

    2016-04-01

    An acid urease from Providencia rettgeri JN-B815 was purified via ultrasonication, ethanol precipitation, and DEAE ion-exchange column chromatography. It was found that the enzyme exhibits not only urease activity, but also urethanase activity, which made it possible to reduce EC already existed or would produce and its precursor urea at the same time. Then, crosslinked enzyme aggregates of P. rettgeri urease (PRU-CLEAs) were prepared using genipin as crosslinking agent. The purification process of acid urease, the effects of genipin concentration, and crosslinking time on PRU-CLEAs activity were investigated. The crosslinking was performed at pH 4.5 for 2.5 h, using 0.3% genipin as crosslinking agent, and 0.3 g · L(-1) bovine serum albumin as protein feeder. Using the obtained PRU-CLEAs, the removal rate of urea was up to 9.31 mg · L(-1) · h(-1). The removal rate of urea was still up to 7.56 mg · L(-1) · h(-1) after PRU-CLEAs was re-used for 6 times. When PRU-CLEAs were applied in a batch stirred and membrane reactor, the removal rate of urea in rice wine reached 5.16 mg · L(-1) · h(-1) and the removal rate of EC was 9.21 μg · L(-1) · h(-1). Furthermore, the treatment with PRU-CLEAs revealed no significant change of volatile flavor substances in Chinese rice wine. Thus PRU-CLEAs have great potential in the elimination of EC in Chinese rice wine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Optimized Expression and Purification for High-Activity Preparations of Algal [FeFe]-Hydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacoby, I.; Tegler, L. T.; Pochekailov, S.; Zhang, S.; King, P. W.

    2012-04-01

    Recombinant expression and purification of metallo-enzymes, including hydrogenases, at high-yields is challenging due to complex, and enzyme specific, post-translational maturation processes. Low fidelities of maturation result in preparations containing a significant fraction of inactive, apo-protein that are not suitable for biophysical or crystallographic studies. We describe the construction, overexpression and high-yield purification of a fusion protein consisting of the algal [2Fe2S]-ferredoxin PetF (Fd) and [FeFe]-hydrogenase HydA1. The maturation of Fd-HydA1 was optimized through improvements in culture conditions and media components used for expression. We also demonstrated that fusion of Fd to the N-terminus of HydA1, in comparison to the C-terminus, led to increased expression levels that were 4-fold higher. Together, these improvements led to enhanced HydA1 activity and improved yield after purification. The strong binding-affinity of Fd for DEAE allowed for two-step purification by ion exchange and StrepTactin affinity chromatography. In addition, the incorporation of a TEV protease site in the Fd-HydA1 linker allowed for the proteolytic removal of Fd after DEAE step, and purification of HydA1 alone by StrepTactin. In combination, this process resulted in HydA1 purification yields of 5 mg L{sup -1} of culture from E. coli with specific activities of 1000 U (U = 1 {micro}mol hydrogen evolved mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}). The [FeFe]-hydrogenases are highly efficient enzymes and their catalytic sites provide model structures for synthetic efforts to develop robust hydrogen activation catalysts. In order to characterize their structure-function properties in greater detail, and to use hydrogenases for biotechnological applications, reliable methods for rapid, high-yield expression and purification are required.

  2. Lessons Learned from the Construction of Upgrades to the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel and Re-activation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, David W.; Andracchio, Charles R.; Krivanek, Thomas M.; Spera, David A.; Austinson, Todd A.

    2001-01-01

    Major upgrades were made in 1999 to the 6- by 9-Foot (1.8- by 2.7-m) Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. These included replacement of the electronic controls for the variable-speed drive motor, replacement of the heat exchanger, complete replacement and enlargement of the leg of the tunnel containing the new heat-exchanger, the addition of flow-expanding and flow-contracting turning vanes upstream and downstream of the heat exchanger, respectively, and the addition of fan outlet guide vanes (OGV's). This paper presents an overview of the construction and reactivation testing phases of the project. Important lessons learned during the technical and contract management work are documented.

  3. Preparation and characterization of high surface area activated carbon from Fox nut (Euryale ferox shell by chemical activation with H3PO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar

    Full Text Available Activated carbons were prepared from Fox nutshell by chemical activation with H3PO4 in N2 atmosphere and their characteristics were studied. The effects of activation temperature and impregnation ratio were examined. N2 adsorption isotherms characterized the surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume and pore size distribution of activated carbons. Activated carbon was produced at 700 °C with a 1.5 impregnation ratio and one hour of activation time has found 2636 m2/g and 1.53 cm3/g of highest BET surface area and total pore volume, respectively. The result of Fourier-infrared spectroscopy analysis of the prepared activated carbon confirmed that the carbon has abundant functional groups on the surface. Field emission scanning electron micrographs of the prepared activated carbon showed that a porous structure formed during activation. Keywords: Activated carbons, Fox nutshell, Chemical activation, H3PO4, Activated carbon, Surface chemistry, Porous structure

  4. Optimization of Preparation Program for Biomass Based Porous Active Carbon by Response Surface Methodology Based on Adsorptive Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With waste walnut shell as raw material, biomass based porous active carbon was made by microwave oven method. The effects of microwave power, activation time and mass fraction of phosphoric acid on adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon in the process of physical activation of active carbon precursor were studied by response surface method and numerical simulation method, the preparation plan of biomass based porous active carbon was optimized, and the optimal biomass based porous active carbon property was characterized. The results show that three factors affect the adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon, but the effect of microwave power is obviously more significant than that of mass fraction of phosphoric acid, and the effect of mass fraction of phosphoric acid is more significant than that of activation time. The optimized preparation conditions are:microwave power is 746W, activation time is 11.2min and mass fraction of phosphoric acid is 85.9% in the process of physical activation of activated carbon precursor by microwave heating method. For the optimal biomass based porous active carbon, the adsorption value of iodine is 1074.57mg/g, adsorption value of methylene blue is 294.4mL/g and gain rate is 52.1%.

  5. Learning to observe mathematical learning in lesson studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus; Østergaard, Camilla Hellsten; Foss, Kristian Kildemoes

    2016-01-01

    This poster deals with lesson study (LS) in pre-service teacher education. In particular how to prepare for, carry out, and reflect upon, observations of pupil learning. Observation is of crucial importance to the lesson study process, and here we present a study of observation features which ena...... enable or hinder fruitful lesson study. While substantial research has been carried out in the general field of bserving pupils’ learning processes and teachers’ pedagogical practice, little is known about this in the particular setting of lesson study....

  6. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A.; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A.

    2016-01-01

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies. PMID:27672209

  7. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei; Liu, Xiufeng; Min, Huihua; Dong, Guanghui; Feng, Qingyuan; Zuo, Songlin

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we report a facile and green approach to prepare a uniform silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite (GO-Ag). The nanocomposite was fully characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which demonstrated that AgNPs with a diameter of approximately 22 nm were uniformly and compactly deposited on GO. To investigate the silver ion release behaviors, HEPES buffers with different pH (5.5, 7, and 8.5) were selected and the mechanism of release actions was discussed in detail. The cytotoxicity of GO-Ag nanocomposite was also studied using HEK 293 cells. GO-Ag nanocomposite displayed good cytocompatibility. Furthermore, the antibacterial properties of GO-Ag nanocomposite were studied using Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 25922 and Gram-positive S. aureus ATCC 6538 by both the plate count method and disk diffusion method. The nanocomposite showed excellent antibacterial activity. These results demonstrated that GO-Ag nanocomposite, as a kind of antibacterial material, had a great promise for application in a wide range of biomedical applications.

  8. Preparation of BiVO4-Graphene Nanocomposites and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We prepared BiVO4-graphene nanocomposites by using a facile single-step method and characterized the material by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse-reflection spectroscopy, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. The results show that graphene oxide in the catalyst was thoroughly reduced. The BiVO4 is densely dispersed on the graphene sheets, which facilitates the transport of electrons photogenerated in BiVO4, thereby leading to an efficient separation of photogenerated carriers in the coupled graphene-nanocomposite system. For degradation of rhodamine B dye under visible-light irradiation, the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanocomposites was over ∼20% faster than for pure BiVO4 catalyst. To study the contribution of electrons and holes in the degradation reaction, silver nitrate and potassium sodium tartrate were added to the BiVO4-graphene photocatalytic reaction system as electron-trapping agent and hole-trapping agent, respectively. The results show that holes play the main role in the degradation of rhodamine B.

  9. Hydroforming simulation and preparation of low activation martensitic steel Y-shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X.Z.; Tao, J.; Yuan, Z.; Tang, Q.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We hydroformed CLAM Y-shapes successfully after optimizing important parameters. → The feed of left punch decreased with the increasing protrusion angle. → The axial feed of the right punch increased with increasing the angle. → To obtain the highest protrusion, loading path 3 was the optimum. → The friction coefficient value of 0.07 is relatively superior. - Abstract: The hydroforming process to prepare China low activation Martensitic steel (CLAM) Y-shapes with desired protrusion height and uniform thinning rate was studied in this work. The axial feed distances for Y-shapes of the different protrusion angles were determined. Then, the effects of the loading path and the friction coefficient on the protrusion height and the distribution of thinning rate of the 45 o Y-shapes were investigated by numerical simulation, respectively. The optimized parameters were obtained: left axial feed 79 mm, right axial feed 60 mm and friction coefficient 0.07. In addition, the optimal loading path with the maximum rise rate of the internal pressure was determined. Subsequently, CLAM Y-shapes were hydroformed successfully based on the simulation results. The experimental results were approximately accordant with the simulative ones. It was indicated that the qualified CLAM Y-shapes could be obtained by the optimized hydroforming process.

  10. The Adsorption Efficiency of Chemically Prepared Activated Carbon from Cola Nut Shells by on Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Ndi Nsami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from cola nut shell has been investigated under batch mode. The influence of major parameters governing the efficiency of the process such as, solution pH, sorbent dose, initial concentration, and contact time on the removal process was investigated. The time-dependent experimental studies showed that the adsorption quantity of methylene blue increases with initial concentration and decreasing adsorbent dosage. The equilibrium time of 180 min was observed and maximum adsorption was favoured at pH 3.5. The dye removal using 0.1 g of adsorbent was more than 90%. This dosage (0.1 g was considered as the optimum dosage to remove methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. The kinetics of methylene blue solution was discussed by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich models. The adsorption process follows the Elovich rate kinetic model, having a correlation coefficient in the range between 0.9811 and 1.

  11. Removal of some metal ions by activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Madhava; Ramana, D K; Seshaiah, K; Wang, M C; Chien, S W Chang

    2009-07-30

    Removal of lead [Pb(II)], zinc [Zn(II)], copper [Cu(II)], and cadmium [Cd(II)] from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls (ACPAH), an agricultural waste was studied. The influence of various parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial concentration of metal ions on the removal was evaluated by batch method. The removal of metal ions by ACPAH was pH dependent and the optimum pH values were 7.0, 8.0, 7.0 and 6.0 for Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The sorption isotherms were studied using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and Temkin isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity values of ACPAH for metal ions were 21.8 mg g(-1) for Pb(II), 21.2 mg g(-1) for Zn(II), 19.5 mg g(-1) for Cu(II), and 15.7 mg g(-1) for Cd(II). The experiments demonstrated that the removal of metal ions followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption experiments were carried out using HCl solution with a view to regenerate the spent adsorbent and to recover the adsorbed metal ions.

  12. Removal of some metal ions by activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, M. Madhava; Ramana, D.K.; Seshaiah, K.; Wang, M.C.; Chien, S.W. Chang

    2009-01-01

    Removal of lead [Pb(II)], zinc [Zn(II)], copper [Cu(II)], and cadmium [Cd(II)] from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls (ACPAH), an agricultural waste was studied. The influence of various parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial concentration of metal ions on the removal was evaluated by batch method. The removal of metal ions by ACPAH was pH dependent and the optimum pH values were 7.0, 8.0, 7.0 and 6.0 for Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The sorption isotherms were studied using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and Temkin isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity values of ACPAH for metal ions were 21.8 mg g -1 for Pb(II), 21.2 mg g -1 for Zn(II), 19.5 mg g -1 for Cu(II), and 15.7 mg g -1 for Cd(II). The experiments demonstrated that the removal of metal ions followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption experiments were carried out using HCl solution with a view to regenerate the spent adsorbent and to recover the adsorbed metal ions.

  13. The antispasmodic activity of Buddleja scordioides and Buddleja perfoliata on isolated intestinal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Alma Rosa; Delgadillo, Alba Jady; Hurtado, Marcela; Domínguez-Ramírez, Adriana Miriam; Medina, José Raúl; Aoki, Kazuko

    2006-06-01

    The antispasmodic activity of extracts from the aerial parts of Buddleja scordioides and Buddleja perfoliata (family: Scrophulariaceae) was studied on isolated tissue preparations from rabbit and guinea pig intestine. The chloroformic extract from the plants exhibited a significant relaxation on the spontaneous contraction of isolated rabbit jejunum at concentrations ranging from 1 to 400 microg/ml, and also caused an inhibitory effect on both K+ and Ca2+ induced contractions in the same tissue. The extracts at moderate doses (50 microg/ml) reduced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), acetylcholine and histamine induced contractions on isolated guinea pig ileum. Therefore, B. scordioides and B. perfoliata possess similar relaxant mechanism of action, in view of the fact that both inhibit K+ induce contraction and act through serotoninic, muscarinic and histaminic receptors. So, these data support the idea that the extracts may interfere either with calcium mobilization from intracellular stores, or with calcium interaction with regulatory proteins (e.g., calmodulin), or in other steps in the calcium signaling pathway. This leads us to suggest that the spasmolytic effect of both Buddleja species on smooth muscular contractility are due to the same or similar compounds occurring in these two species, which might be present in similar quantities.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline/activated carbon composites and preparation of conductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zengin, Huseyin; Kalayci, Guellue

    2010-01-01

    Polyaniline was synthesized via polyaniline/activated carbon (PANI/AC) composites by in situ polymerization and ex situ solution mixing. PANI and PANI/AC composite films were prepared by drop-by-drop and spin coating methods. The electrical conductivities of HCl doped PANI film and PANI/AC composite films were measured according to the standard four-point-probe technique. The composite films exhibited an increase in electrical conductivity over neat PANI. PANI and PANI/AC composites were investigated by spectroscopic methods including UV-vis, FTIR and photoluminescence. UV-vis and FTIR studies showed that AC particles affect the quinoid units along the polymer backbone and indicate strong interactions between AC particles and quinoidal sites of PANI. The photoluminescence properties of PANI and PANI/AC composites were studied and the photoluminescence intensity of PANI/AC composites was higher than that of neat PANI. The increase of conductivity of PANI/AC composites may be partially due to the doping or impurity effect of AC, where the AC competes with chloride ions. The amount of weight loss and the thermostability of PANI and PANI/AC composites were determined from thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology of particles and films were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM measurements indicated that the AC particles were well dispersed and isolated in composite films.

  15. Mullite fibres preparation by aqueous sol-gel process and activation energy of mullitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hongbin; Ding Yaping; Yang Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Mullite fibres were prepared by sol-gel process using aluminum carboxylates (ACs) and silica sol. ACs was synthesized from dissolving aluminum powder in a mixture of formic acid and oxalic acid using aluminum chloride hexahydrate as catalyst. A molar ratio of 1:2:1 for aluminum, formic acid and oxalic acid was optimized to obtain clear solution and viscous ACs sol for fibres synthesis. Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were used to characterize the properties of the gel and ceramic fibres. The gel fibres completely transformed to mullite at 1200 o C, with a smooth surface and uniform diameter. The activation energy for mullite formation in precursor gel fibres was determined by means of differential thermal analysis. The value obtained, E a = 741.4 kJ/mol, was lower than most data reported in the literatures, which was attributed to the silica-alumina micro-phase separation when organic acids decomposed during gel fibres heating.

  16. [Preparation and catalytic activity of surface-modification CNTs/TiO2 composite photocatalysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan-Ying; Li, Wen-Jun; Chang, Zhi-Dong; Zhou, Hua-Lei; Guo, Hui-Chao

    2011-09-01

    A novel kind of carbon nanotubes/titanium dioxide (CNTs/TiO2) composite photocatalyst was prepared by a modified sol-gel method in which the nanoscaled TiO2 particles were uniformly deposited on the CNTs modified with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). The composites were characterized by a range of analytical techniques including high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show the successful covering of the CNTs with PVP, forming core-shell structure. The nanoscaled TiO2 particles were uniformly deposited on the surface of CNTs reducing the bare CNTs which avoid losing the absorption and scattering of photons. The combination of CNTs and TiO2 particles imply the enhanced interactions between the CNTs and TiO2 interface which possibly becomes heterojunction. The composites become mesoporous crystalline TiO2 (anatase) clusters after annealing at 500 degrees C, and the surface area increases obviously. The photocatalytic activities of surface modification CNTs/TiO2 (smCNTs/TiO2) composites are extremely enhanced from the results of the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB).

  17. Preparation of amino-functionalized regenerated cellulose membranes with high catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Qian; Liang, Tao; Bai, Huiyu; Liu, Xiaoya

    2017-09-01

    The modification of regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes was carried out by using silane coupling agents presenting primary and secondary amino-groups. The grafting of the amino groups onto the modified cellulose molecule was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. The crystallinity of the cellulose membranes (CM) decreased after chemical modification as indicated by the X-ray diffraction results. Moreover, a denser structure was observed at the surface and cross section of the modified membranes by SEM images. The contact angle measurements showed that the silane coupling treatment enhanced the hydrophobicity of the obtained materials. Then the catalytic properties of two types of modified membranes were studied in a batch process by evaluating their catalytic performance in a Knoevenagel condensation. The results indicated that the cellulose membrane grafted with many secondary amines exhibited a better catalytic activity compared to the one grafted only by primary amines. In addition, the compact structure of the modified membranes permitted their application in a pervaporation catalytic membrane reactor. Therefore, functional CM that prepared in this paper represented a promising material in the field of industrial catalysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Experiences and Mediational Activities in Urban Teacher Preparation: Learning and Critical Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Willey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a longitudinal design experiment conducted within an urban teacher preparation program, we employed ethnographic and auto-ethnographic methods to investigate the following questions: 1 In what ways do clinical experiences (CEs support prospective teachers’ (PTs development of knowledge, skills, and dispositions necessary for urban teaching? 2 How is it determined that adjustments need to be made to the design and facilitation of CEs, and what did these adjustments yield in terms of student learning outcomes? The program centers and leverages CEs in order for PTs to connect theory and practice, particularly an awareness of, and skills associated with, equitable teaching practices. In our two-year field-based program, CEs included community explorations, one-on-one and small group work with children, two student teaching practicums, and various school-community events. We describe the process undertaken to maximize the benefits yielded from CEs. After working with three cohorts of PTs for their entire professional training, we found that: 1 focusing attention on the intentional design and assessment of the mediational activities coupled with CEs leads to more nuanced understandings and enactments of culturally relevant teaching among PTs; and 2 CEs afford PTs abundant opportunities to shape complex identities as urban teachers. Specifically, we found that clinical experiences and corresponding mediational activities support PTs’ understanding of families of color, allow them to recognize and address problematic schooling practices, and strengthen PTs’ otherwise fragile critical consciousness. We conclude that strategic interventions can provide clarity for PTs around what has been learned, and what is left to be developed

  19. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Ethyl-Linked Anthocyanin-Flavanol Pigments from Model Wine Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxi; Zhang, Minna; Zhang, Shuting; Cui, Yan; Sun, Baoshan

    2018-05-03

    Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers), are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. However, knowledge of their biological activities is lacking. This is probably due to the structural diversity and complexity of these molecules, which makes the large-scale separation and isolation of the individual compounds very difficult, thus restricting their further study. In this study, anthocyanins (i.e., malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside) and (⁻)-epicatechin were first isolated at a preparative scale by high-speed counter-current chromatography. The condensation reaction between each of the isolated anthocyanins and (⁻)-epicatechin, mediated by acetaldehyde, was conducted in model wine solutions to obtain ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. The effects of pH, molar ratio, and temperature on the reaction rate were investigated, and the reaction conditions of pH 1.7, molar ratio 1:6:10 (anthocyanin/(⁻)-epicatechin/acetaldehyde), and reaction temperature of 35 °C were identified as optimal for conversion of anthocyanins to ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. Six ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments were isolated in larger quantities and collected under optimal reaction conditions, and their chemical structures were identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS and ECD analyses. Furthermore, DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays indicate that ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments show stronger antioxidant activities than their precursor anthocyanins.

  20. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Ethyl-Linked Anthocyanin-Flavanol Pigments from Model Wine Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxi Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers, are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. However, knowledge of their biological activities is lacking. This is probably due to the structural diversity and complexity of these molecules, which makes the large-scale separation and isolation of the individual compounds very difficult, thus restricting their further study. In this study, anthocyanins (i.e., malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside and (–-epicatechin were first isolated at a preparative scale by high-speed counter-current chromatography. The condensation reaction between each of the isolated anthocyanins and (–-epicatechin, mediated by acetaldehyde, was conducted in model wine solutions to obtain ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. The effects of pH, molar ratio, and temperature on the reaction rate were investigated, and the reaction conditions of pH 1.7, molar ratio 1:6:10 (anthocyanin/(–-epicatechin/acetaldehyde, and reaction temperature of 35 °C were identified as optimal for conversion of anthocyanins to ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. Six ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments were isolated in larger quantities and collected under optimal reaction conditions, and their chemical structures were identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS and ECD analyses. Furthermore, DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays indicate that ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments show stronger antioxidant activities than their precursor anthocyanins.

  1. Adsorption kinetics of malachite green onto activated carbon prepared from Tuncbilek lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, Y.; Akmil-Basar, C.; Eren, Didem; Sarici-Ozdemir, Cigdem; Depci, Tolga

    2006-01-01

    Adsorbent (T 3 K618) has been prepared from Tuncbilek lignite by chemical activation with KOH. Pore properties of the activated carbon such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by t-plot based on N 2 adsorption isotherm. The N 2 adsorption isotherm of malachite green on T 3 K618 is type I. The BET surface area of the adsorbent which was primarily contributed by micropores was determined 1000 m 2 /g. T 3 K618 was used to adsorb malachite green (MG) from an aqueous solution in a batch reactor. The effects of initial dye concentration, agitation time, initial pH and adsorption temperature have been studied. It was also found that the adsorption isotherm followed both Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. However, the Freundlich gave a better fit to all adsorption isotherms than the Dubinin-Radushkevich. The kinetics of adsorption of MG has been tested using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. Results show that the adsorption of MG from aqueous solution onto micropores T 3 K618 proceeds according to the pseudo-second-order model. The intraparticle diffusion of MG molecules within the carbon particles was identified to be the rate-limiting step. The adsorption of the MG was endothermic (ΔH o = 6.55-62.37 kJ/mol) and was accompanied by an increase in entropy (ΔS o = 74-223 J/mol K) and a decrease in mean value of Gibbs energy (ΔG o = -6.48 to -10.32 kJ/mol) in the temperature range of 20-50 deg. C

  2. Clinical Experiences and Mediational Activities in Urban Teacher Preparation: Learning and Critical Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Willey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a longitudinal design experiment conducted within an urban teacher preparation program, we employed ethnographic and auto-ethnographic methods to investigate the following research questions: 1 In what ways do clinical experiences (CEs support prospective teachers’ (PTs development of knowledge, skills, and dispositions necessary for urban teaching? 2 How is it determined that adjustments need to be made to the design and facilitation of CEs, and what did these adjustments yield in terms of student learning outcomes? The program centers and leverages CEs in order for PTs to connect theory and practice, particularly an awareness of, and skills associated with, equitable teaching practices. In our two-year field-based program, CEs include community explorations, one-on-one and small group work with children, two student teaching practicums, and various school-community events. We describe the iterative design process undertaken to maximize the benefits yielded from CEs. After working with three cohorts of PTs for their entire professional training, we found that: 1 focusing attention on the intentional design and assessment of the mediational activities coupled with CEs leads to more nuanced understandings and enactments of culturally relevant teaching among PTs; and 2 CEs afford PTs abundant opportunities to shape complex identities as urban teachers. Specifically, we found that clinical experiences and corresponding mediational activities support PTs’ understanding of families of color, allow them to recognize and address problematic schooling practices, and strengthen PTs’ otherwise fragile critical consciousness. We conclude that strategic interventions can provide clarity for PTs around what has, indeed, been learned at particular intervals in the program, and what is left to be developed in the final practicum and beyond.

  3. Field observations and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Joh B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    This presentation outlines observations and lessons learned from the Megaports program. It provides: (1) details of field and technical observations collected during LANL field activities at ports around the world and details of observations collected during radiation detections system testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory; (2) provides suggestions for improvement and efficiency; and (3) discusses possible program execution changes for more effective operations.

  4. For Sale: Your Lesson Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The last several years has seen an increasingly popular trend of teachers buying and selling their lesson plans and other self-created classroom materials in online marketplaces. The leader in this space is a website called Teachers Pay Teachers, which boasts 3.8 million active users. In this article, the author examines why these sites became…

  5. Lessons learned in crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper will explore lessons learned following a series of natural and man-made disasters affecting the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company and/or its subsidiaries. The company employs a team of certified continuity professionals who are charged with overseeing resilience on behalf of the enterprise and leading recovery activities wherever and whenever necessary.

  6. "Pride and Prejudice". [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Jane Austen's novel "Pride and Prejudice," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that classics are those pieces of literature that continue to be popular long after they were written; classics tend to have universal themes; and Austen's writing has been updated and dramatized and, most likely, will…

  7. The 'Amistad' Case. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Teaching about the Amistad case provides correlations to the National Standards for History, and Civics and Government. An overview of the events of 1839 is given in this lesson plan. Seven student activities include reading and using primary source documents, writing journal articles, viewing the movie "Amistad," and giving…

  8. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  9. ICT AND TEACHERS' PERFORMANCE IN TERMS OF LESSON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    Delivery Questionnaire (ICTTPLIDO) Developed by the researcher. The reliability estimate of ... teachers' performance in lesson preparation and delivery through the use of Information and ... information to accomplish the task, and evaluating ...

  10. Antioxidant Activity, Colour and Mineral Content Of Herbal Tea Prepared From Cosmos Caudatus Leaves at Different Maturity Stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dian Nashiela Fatanah; Noriham Abdullah; Nooraain Hashim; Azizah Abd Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increasing consumption of herbal tea is a worldwide trend because of their refreshing taste, positive potential health effect, convenience, abundant resources and also cheaper in price. However, different maturity stages of plants being used as raw material could affect the antioxidant activity, colour and mineral content in herbal tea. Thus, this present study was aimed at determining antioxidant activity, colour and mineral content of herbal tea prepared from Cosmos caudatus (C. caudatus) leaves at three different maturity stages namely young, mature and old. All prepared herbal tea were analysed for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, colour and mineral content. The results demonstrated that herbal tea prepared from young leaves had strong (p<0.05) antioxidant activity compared to mature and old leaves for all assays tested. Pearsons correlation coefficient also revealed that TPC and TFC exhibited a strong positive correlation with reducing power but negatively correlated with DPPH scavenging activity indicating that these compounds are major contributors to the antioxidant activity. In fact, the darker (p<0.05) colour of C. caudatus herbal tea prepared from young leaves relates to their higher antioxidant activity as compared to mature and old leaves. However, C. caudatus herbal tea prepared from old leaves showed significantly higher in mineral content compared to mature and young leaves. Hence, it can be concluded that, as maturity increased, antioxidant activity and colour in C. caudatus herbal tea decreased and vice-versa for mineral content. (author)

  11. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF STRONTIUM FLUORIDE POWDERS ACTIVATED BY NEODYMIUM FLUORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kuznetsov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The paper deals with preparation processes of ultradisperse, homogeneous powder Sr1-хNdхF2+х (х= 0.003-0.2, with use of ammonium fluoride as the fluorinating agent taken over 114-120 % from stoichiometry. Method. Nitrate of strontium, neodymium nitrate hexahydrate, with the content equal to 99. 99 % of the basic substance and ammonium fluoride were used as the source of substances. Activated powders of strontium fluoride were obtained by the method of deposition from aqueous solutions by washing the precipitate with a solution of ammonium fluoride, taken over 114 - 120% from stoichiometry. The washed precipitate was centrifuged for 5-7 min, dried in the air at 30-350 C. Heat treatment of the dried precipitate was carried out in two stages: the first stage at the temperature of 200- 2500 C for 0.5-1 hour, the second one at 550- 6000 C for 2-3 hours. X-ray analysis of the synthesized samples was carried out on a Bruker D8 Advance diffractometer, radiation Cu K. The size and shape measuring of the particles of activated strontium fluoride was carried out by means of electron microscope Carl Zeiss NVision 40. The content of neodymium in activated powders of strontium fluoride was determined by the method of spectral emission analysis on the device LEA - S500. Chemical analysis for determination of ammonium ion (NH4+ content in the obtained samples was performed by the method of Kjeldahl. Calculations of lattice parameters, size of coherent scattering regions and the values of micro-deformations were carried out by TOPAS program. Main Results. Preparation processes of ultradisperse, homogeneous powder Sr1-хNdхF2+х (х= 0.003-0.2, with use of ammonium fluoride as the fluorinating agent taken over 114-120 % from stoichiometry, provides obtaining the firm solution Sr1-x-yNdx(NH4yF2+x-y of the cubic fluorite structure. It has been found out that the morphology and size of the resulting product depend on the quantity of

  12. Preparation and catalytic activities for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition of Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haijun, E-mail: zhanghaijun@wust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Bayan Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Refractory and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Deng, Xiangong; Jiao, Chengpeng; Lu, Lilin; Zhang, Shaowei [The State Key Laboratory of Refractory and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: PVP-protected Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) were prepared by using hydrogen sacrificial reduction method, the activity of Rh80Au20 BNPs were about 3.6 times higher than that of Rh NPs. - Highlights: • Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) of 3∼5 nm in diameter were prepared. • Activity for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition of BNPs is 3.6 times higher than that of Rh NPs. • The high activity of BNPs was caused by the existence of charged Rh atoms. • The apparent activation energy for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition over the BNPs was calculated. - Abstract: PVP-protected Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) were prepared by using hydrogen sacrificial reduction method and characterized by UV–vis, XRD, FT-IR, XPS, TEM, HR-TEM and DF-STEM, the effects of composition on their particle sizes and catalytic activities for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition were also studied. The as-prepared Rh/Au BNPs possessed a high catalytic activity for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition, and the activity of the Rh{sub 80}Au{sub 20} BNPs with average size of 2.7 nm were about 3.6 times higher than that of Rh monometallic nanoparticles (MNPs) even the Rh MNPs possess a smaller particle size of 1.7 nm. In contrast, Au MNPs with size of 2.7 nm show no any activity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation as well as XPS results showed that charged Rh and Au atoms formed via electronic charge transfer effects could be responsible for the high catalytic activity of the BNPs.

  13. Exploring Osmosis and Diffusion in Cells: A Guided-Inquiry Activity for Biology Classes, Developed through the Lesson-Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Lauren; Myerowitz, Lindsay; Sampson, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Guided inquiry is an instructional technique that requires students to answer a teacher-proposed research question, design an investigation, collect and analyze data, and then develop a conclusion (Bell, Smetana, and Binns 2005; NRC 2000). In this article, the authors describe a guided-inquiry lesson developed through the lesson-study process…

  14. Hierarchical porous carbon materials prepared using nano-ZnO as a template and activation agent for ultrahigh power supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoran; Yu, Shukai; Xu, Bin

    2016-09-20

    Hierarchical porous carbon materials with high surface areas and a localized graphitic structure were simply prepared from sucrose using nano-ZnO as a hard template, activation agent and graphitization catalyst simultaneously, which exhibit an outstanding high-rate performance and can endure an ultrafast scan rate of 20 V s -1 and ultrahigh current density of 1000 A g -1 .

  15. Preparation and photoluminescence properties of Mn2+-activated M2Si5N8 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, C.J.; Otten, W.M.; Delsing, A.C.A.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mn2+-doped M2Si5N8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors have been prepared by a solid-state reaction method at high temperature and their photoluminescence properties were investigated. The Mn2+-activated M2Si5N8 phosphors exhibit narrow emission bands in the wavelength range of 500–700 nm with peak center at

  16. Platelet activation during preparation of platelet concentrates: a comparison of the platelet-rich plasma and the buffy coat methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, R.; Pietersz, R. N.; de Korte, D.; Gouwerok, C. W.; Dekker, W. J.; Reesink, H. W.; Roos, D.

    1990-01-01

    The activation of platelets during the preparation of platelet concentrates (PCs) by two methods was compared. To eliminate interdonor differences, 2 units of whole blood were pooled and subsequently divided into two batches. From one batch, the platelets were harvested as pelleted platelets from

  17. Experience, Intersubjectivity, and Reflection: A Human Science Perspective on Preparation of Future Professionals in Adaptive Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F.; Rugseth, Gro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show that and how philosophy and philosophical thinking can be of relevance for the preparation of future professionals in adaptive physical activity. To this end we utilize philosophical insights from the human science perspective on two central issues, namely experience and intersubjectivity, which are weaved…

  18. Constellation Program Lessons Learned. Volume 2; Detailed Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Neubek, Deborah J.; Thomas, L. Dale

    2011-01-01

    These lessons learned are part of a suite of hardware, software, test results, designs, knowledge base, and documentation that comprises the legacy of the Constellation Program. The context, summary information, and lessons learned are presented in a factual format, as known and described at the time. While our opinions might be discernable in the context, we have avoided all but factually sustainable statements. Statements should not be viewed as being either positive or negative; their value lies in what we did and what we learned that is worthy of passing on. The lessons include both "dos" and "don ts." In many cases, one person s "do" can be viewed as another person s "don t"; therefore, we have attempted to capture both perspectives when applicable and useful. While Volume I summarizes the views of those who managed the program, this Volume II encompasses the views at the working level, describing how the program challenges manifested in day-to-day activities. Here we see themes that were perhaps hinted at, but not completely addressed, in Volume I: unintended consequences of policies that worked well at higher levels but lacked proper implementation at the working level; long-term effects of the "generation gap" in human space flight development, the need to demonstrate early successes at the expense of thorough planning, and the consequences of problems and challenges not yet addressed because other problems and challenges were more immediate or manifest. Not all lessons learned have the benefit of being operationally vetted, since the program was cancelled shortly after Preliminary Design Review. We avoid making statements about operational consequences (with the exception of testing and test flights that did occur), but we do attempt to provide insight into how operational thinking influenced design and testing. The lessons have been formatted with a description, along with supporting information, a succinct statement of the lesson learned, and

  19. Effect of preparation conditions on the characteristics and photocatalytic activity of TiO2/purified diatomite composite photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhiming; Hu, Zhibo; Yan, Yang; Zheng, Shuilin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 /purified diatomite composites were synthesized under different conditions. • The optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. • The obtained photocatalyst showed good photocatalytic activity. • The dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO 2 NPs are the critical factors. - Abstract: TiO 2 /purified diatomite composite materials were prepared through a modified hydrolysis-deposition method under low temperature using titanium tetrachloride as precursor combined with a calcination crystallization process. The microstructure and crystalline phases of the obtained composites prepared under different preparation conditions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 /purified diatomite composites was evaluated by Rhodamine B as the target pollutant under UV irradiation, and the optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. The TiO 2 crystal form in composites prepared under optimum conditions was anatase, the grain size of which was 34.12 nm. The relationships between structure and property of composite materials were analyzed and discussed. It is indicated that the TiO 2 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on the surface of diatoms, and the photocatalytic performance of the composite materials was mainly determined by the dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO 2 nanoparticles

  20. Effect of preparation conditions on the characteristics and photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}/purified diatomite composite photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhiming, E-mail: szmcumtb@hotmail.com; Hu, Zhibo; Yan, Yang; Zheng, Shuilin, E-mail: shuilinzh@sina.com

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/purified diatomite composites were synthesized under different conditions. • The optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. • The obtained photocatalyst showed good photocatalytic activity. • The dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO{sub 2} NPs are the critical factors. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/purified diatomite composite materials were prepared through a modified hydrolysis-deposition method under low temperature using titanium tetrachloride as precursor combined with a calcination crystallization process. The microstructure and crystalline phases of the obtained composites prepared under different preparation conditions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2}/purified diatomite composites was evaluated by Rhodamine B as the target pollutant under UV irradiation, and the optimum preparation conditions of composites were obtained. The TiO{sub 2} crystal form in composites prepared under optimum conditions was anatase, the grain size of which was 34.12 nm. The relationships between structure and property of composite materials were analyzed and discussed. It is indicated that the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on the surface of diatoms, and the photocatalytic performance of the composite materials was mainly determined by the dispersity and grain size of loaded TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  1. The influence of vitamin preparations on the activity of some enzymes of protein metabolism in the irradiated organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitskij, I V; Savitskij, V I [Odesskij Meditsinskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1975-01-01

    The effects of vitamin B/sub 6/; B/sub 6/ and ATP; B/sub 1/, B/sub 6/, FMN, PP, and ATP on the enzymatic activity of GOT, GPT, GDH, and OCT in liver cells of rabbits following whole-body irradiation with 450 R of X-rays were studied. Depending on the subcellular organization of the enzymes, on the time after irradiation and on the preparations administered changes of the enzymatic activity were found.

  2. A case study of illicit preparation of antirheumatic analgesic with phenylbutazone as active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, C E; Huat, L B

    1989-06-01

    The abuse of phenylbutazone among rheumatoid arthritis patients has recently become a subject of interest. Unscrupulous manufacturers take advantage of the miraculous analgesic property of phenylbutazone and deliberately add this toxic drug in their preparations without declaring its presence on the label. In a recent survey, many such illicit preparations were seized from Chinese medical halls in Johor and sent to the Department of Chemistry, Johor Bahru for analysis. Here a Gas Chromatograph Mass Selective Detector (GC-MSD) method was developed for the determination of phenylbutazone in illicit traditional preparations.

  3. Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Phelan BNS, MSc, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The public health nurses’ scope of practice explicitly includes child protection within their role, which places them in a prime position to identify child protection concerns. This role compliments that of other professions and voluntary agenices who work with children. Public health nurses are in a privileged position as they form a relationship with the child’s parent(s/guardian(s and are able to see the child in its own environment, which many professionals cannot. Child protection in Ireland, while influenced by other countries, has progressed through a distinct pathway that streamlined protocols and procedures. However, despite the above serious failures have occurred in the Irish system, and inquiries over the past 20 years persistently present similar contributing factors, namely, the lack of standardized and comprehensive service responses. Moreover, poor practice is compounded by the lack of recognition of the various interactional processes taking place within and between the different agencies of child protection, leading to psychological barriers in communication. This article will explore the lessons learned for public health nurses practice in safeguarding children in the Republic of Ireland.

  4. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-11-18

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Preparation and characterization of CeO2 highly dispersed on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano-Ruiz, J.C.; Ramos-Fernandez, E.V.; Silvestre-Albero, J.; Sepulveda-Escribano, A.; Rodriguez-Reinoso, F.

    2008-01-01

    A new material constituted by cerium dioxide highly dispersed on activated carbon (CeO 2 /AC) was prepared by an impregnation method using cerium(III) nitrate as CeO 2 precursor. In order to evaluate the degree of ceria dispersion on the carbon support, CeO 2 /AC was characterized by a number of techniques: thermogravimetry coupled with a mass spectrometer (TG-MS), N 2 adsorption at 77 K, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis of the decomposition process under inert atmosphere indicated that cerium nitrate decomposes at 440-460 K, with the evolution of NO. Furthermore, this process produces an additional oxidation of the carbon surface (with evolution of N 2 O) and the subsequent onset of new oxygen surface groups, detected by means of temperature-programmed desorption. The ceria deposition process takes place with a decrease in the N 2 adsorption capacity of the starting carbon support, and the analysis of the pore size distribution showed that the majority of ceria particles are situated at the most internal part of the carbon porosity. The temperature-programmed reduction profile of CeO 2 /AC was very different to that shown by unsupported CeO 2 , with only one continuous reduction process at low temperatures (800-900 K). Finally, TEM pictures gave direct evidence that ceria is highly dispersed on the carbon surface, with a narrow CeO 2 particle distribution centred around 3 nm

  6. Environmental impact associated with activated carbon preparation from olive-waste cake via life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjaila, K; Baccar, R; Sarrà, M; Gasol, C M; Blánquez, P

    2013-11-30

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental tool was implemented to quantify the potential environmental impacts associated with the activated carbon (AC) production process from olive-waste cakes in Tunisia. On the basis of laboratory investigations for AC preparation, a flowchart was developed and the environmental impacts were determined. The LCA functional unit chosen was the production of 1 kg of AC from by-product olive-waste cakes. The results showed that impregnation using H3PO4 presented the highest environmental impacts for the majority of the indicators tested: acidification potential (62%), eutrophication (96%), ozone depletion potential (44%), human toxicity (64%), fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (90%) and terrestrial ecotoxicity (92%). One of the highest impacts was found to be the global warming potential (11.096 kg CO2 eq/kg AC), which was equally weighted between the steps involving impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC. The cumulative energy demand of the AC production process from the by-product olive-waste cakes was 167.63 MJ contributed by impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC steps. The use of phosphoric acid and electricity in the AC production were the main factors responsible for the majority of the impacts. If certain modifications are incorporated into the AC production, such as implementing synthesis gas recovery and reusing it as an energy source and recovery of phosphoric acid after AC washing, additional savings could be realized, and environmental impacts could be minimized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation, characterization and antitumor activity evaluation of apigenin nanoparticles by the liquid antisolvent precipitation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Li; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Huimei; Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Mingfang; Zhao, Xiuhua; Fu, Yujie

    2017-11-01

    The present work aimed to apply the liquid antisolvent precipitation (LAP) method for preparing the apigenin nanoparticles and thereby improving the solubility and bioavailability of apigenin. The different experimental parameters on particle size were optimized through central composite design (CCD) using the Design-Expert ® software. Under the optimum conditions, the particle size of the apigenin nanosuspension was about 159.2 nm. In order to get apigenin nanoparticles, the freeze-drying method was selected and the mannitol was used as a cryoprotectant. Then the solid state properties of the apigenin nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo gravimetric (TG), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results obtained displayed that the apigenin nanoparticles exhibited near-spherical shape and could be transformed into an amorphous form. In addition, the dissolving test, the bioavailability in rats, and the antitumor activity were also studied. The experimental results showed that the solubility of the apigenin nanoparticles were about 29.61 times and 64.81 times of raw apigenin in artificial gastric juice and in artificial intestinal juice, respectively, and the apigenin nanoparticles showed higher dissolution rates compared to raw apigenin, and was about 6.08 times and 6.14 times than that of raw apigenin in artificial gastric juice and in artificial intestinal juice. The oral bioavailability of apigenin nanoparticles was about 4.96 times higher than that of the raw apigenin, but the apigenin nanoparticles had no toxic effect on the organs of rats. In addition, the apigenin nanoparticles had a higher inhibition to HepG2 cells by lower IC50 than that of raw apigenin.

  8. Electrochemical preparation of photoelectrochemically active CuI thin films from room temperature ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hsin-Yi; Chien, Da-Jean; Huang, Genin-Gary; Chen, Po-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CuI film can be formed by anodization of Cu in ionic liquid containing iodide. ► Coordinating strength of anion in ionic liquid determine the formation of CuI. ► Photocurrent of the CuI film can be observed in aqueous solution and in ionic liquid. ► Cu layer coated on conductive substrates can be converted to CuI. - Abstract: Cuprous iodide (CuI) thin films with photoelectrochemical activity were prepared by anodizing copper wire or copper-electrodeposited tungsten wire in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMI-PF 6 RTIL) containing N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium iodide (BMP-I). A copper coating was formed on the tungsten wire by potentiostatic electrodeposition in BMP-dicyanamide (BMP-DCA) RTIL containing copper chloride (CuCl). The CuI films formed using this method were compact, fine-grained and exhibited good adhesion. The characteristic diffraction signals of CuI were observed by powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also confirmed the formation of a CuI compound semiconductor. The CuI films demonstrated an apparent and stable photocurrent under white light illumination in aqueous solutions and in a RTIL. This method has enabled the electrochemical formation of CuI from a RTIL for the first time, and the first observation of a photocurrent produced from CuI in a RTIL. The coordinating strength of the anions of the RTIL is the key to the successful formation of the CuI thin film. If the coordinating strength of the anions of the RTIL is too strong, no CuI formation is observed.

  9. Utilization of surface active sites on gold in preparation of highly reactive interfaces for alcohols electrooxidation in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherevko, Serhiy; Kulyk, Nadiia; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Pt/Au and Pd/Au surface interfaces show very high activity in electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols in alkaline media. In this work, we present a method for preparation of such structures, which is based on galvanic displacement of the more noble gold with the less noble elements, and investigate their electrocatalytic properties. We propose that active states atoms on the surface of gold may be replaced with Pt and Pd. The generation of active sites on gold is achieved by cathodization in acidic solution. We show that depending on the cathodization time (active sites amount) gold surface electrochemistry changes from that resembling Au to the one typical for pure Pt. The Pt/Au structures prepared with a trace amount of platinum show extremely high electrocatalytic activity. The peak current of methanol oxidation on the Pt/Au electrode is more than an order of magnitude higher than that of the platinum film electrode and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that on the gold unactivated electrode. The difference in the peak current of ethanol oxidation between the Pt/Au and Pt electrodes is ca. 25 times. Moreover, similar deposition of Pt and Pd on active sites on high surface area gold prepared by hydrogen evolution assisted deposition and improved electrocatalytic properties of such structures toward alcohols oxidation is shown.

  10. The Knitting Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pamela

    1987-01-01

    Based on Jean-Francois Millet's 1869 painting, "The Knitting Lesson," this lesson's goal is to introduce students in grades seven through nine to genre (everyday life) painting the nineteenth century. The lesson is also designed to show that some aspects of genre may be timeless. (BSR)

  11. Preparation of powders Ag3PO4 and study of their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badurova, K.

    2014-01-01

    In our thesis we dealt with preparing powders of Ag 3 PO 4 by using Na 2 HPO 4 ·12H 2 O and Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O as two different precursors. Samples were prepared by precipitation and mechanochemical methods. Photocatalytic efficiency of individual samples was studied by irradiation of suspensions of prepared powders with methylene blue (MB) solution and with phenol solution using source of light similar to solar light. Photocatalytic efficiency was determined via method of determination of total organic carbon (TOC) as the time dependence of phenol concentration and also via monitoring spectrophotometric parameters of solution as the time dependence of MB solution colouring intensity. Effect of sample preparation method on photocatalytic efficiency and morphology of particles was studied. After that, samples were characterised by X-ray powder diffraction method (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy (authors)

  12. Role of Pullulan in preparation of ceria nanoparticles and investigation of their biological activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Mohammad Bagher; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Pasdar, Alireza; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Darroudi, Majid

    2018-04-01

    Throughout this work, a facile, environmental-friendly, and "green" method is delineated for preparing ceria nanoparticles (CNPs), which utilizes nontoxic and renewable degraded polysaccharide polymer including pullulan as a natural matrix. Pullulan behaves as a suitable stabilizing (capping) agent for CNPs that are effectively formed at various high temperatures, while they are structurally analyzed through different techniques such as TGA/DTG, XRD, FESEM, and FTIR instruments. This procedure was found to be comparable to the ones that were acquired from conventional preparation methods that employ hazardous materials, which confirms this approach to be an exquisite alternative in preparing CNPs through the benefit of bioorganic materials. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies on Neuro2A cells have mentioned nontoxic particles in a range of concentrations (0.97-125 μg/ml) and thus, we reckon that the prepared particular CNPs will have persistent utilization in various fields of biology and medicine.

  13. Legal Regulation of Trade Activity during Sochi Preparation of XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Ivneva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the topical issues of legal regulation of social trade relations in the Russian Federation during Sochi preparation and hosting of XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic Games.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of a coumarin library towards the inhibitory activity of the enzyme gGAPDH from Trypanosoma cruzi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvim Junior, Joel; Dias, Ricardo L.A.; Correa, Arlene G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: agcorrea@power.ufscar.br; Castilho, Marcelo S.; Oliva, Glaucius [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2005-07-15

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in 15 countries in Latin America. In this work a library of 38 coumarins was prepared in solution phase and evaluated against T. cruzi glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (gGAPDH). The synthetic route was based on the Knoevenagel condensation of different 2-hydroxybenzaldehydes with Meldrum's acid or diethyl malonate, followed by O-alkylation and/or transesterification reactions. Among the prepared coumarins, the best values obtained to inhibit 50% of the enzymatic activity range from 80 to 130 {mu}M. (author)

  15. Preparation and evaluation of a coumarin library towards the inhibitory activity of the enzyme gGAPDH from Trypanosoma cruzi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvim Junior, Joel; Dias, Ricardo L.A.; Correa, Arlene G.; Castilho, Marcelo S.; Oliva, Glaucius

    2005-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in 15 countries in Latin America. In this work a library of 38 coumarins was prepared in solution phase and evaluated against T. cruzi glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (gGAPDH). The synthetic route was based on the Knoevenagel condensation of different 2-hydroxybenzaldehydes with Meldrum's acid or diethyl malonate, followed by O-alkylation and/or transesterification reactions. Among the prepared coumarins, the best values obtained to inhibit 50% of the enzymatic activity range from 80 to 130 μM. (author)

  16. Controlling morphology, mesoporosity, crystallinity, and photocatalytic activity of ordered mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films prepared at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgh, Björn; Yuan, Ning; Palmqvist, Anders E. C. [Applied Surface Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Cho, Hae Sung; Terasaki, Osamu [Graduate School of EEWS (WCU), KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Magerl, David; Philipp, Martine; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter [Lehrstuhl für Funktionelle Materialien, Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Roth, Stephan V. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Yoon, Kyung Byung [Department of Chemistry, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Partly ordered mesoporous titania films with anatase crystallites incorporated into the pore walls were prepared at low temperature by spin-coating a microemulsion-based reaction solution. The effect of relative humidity employed during aging of the prepared films was studied using SEM, TEM, and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering to evaluate the mesoscopic order, porosity, and crystallinity of the films. The study shows unambiguously that crystal growth occurs mainly during storage of the films and proceeds at room temperature largely depending on relative humidity. Porosity, pore size, mesoscopic order, crystallinity, and photocatalytic activity of the films increased with relative humidity up to an optimum around 75%.

  17. Characteristic of New Solid-Phase Extraction Sorbent: Activated Carbon Prepared from Rice Husks under Base Treated Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Afrida Kurnia Putri; Wang-Hsien Ding; Han-Wen Kuo

    2012-01-01

    A characterization of activated carbon (ACs) prepared from rice husks (RHs) under base treated condition as a new sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) to extract 4-nonylphenol isomers (4-NPs) in water samples has been done. The ACs prepared from RHs usually exhibits low specific surface area due to its high ash content, but in case of its application for SPE, there are other factors need to be considered, such as the existence of functional groups inside the sorbent, that can enhance inte...

  18. Facile preparation and visible light photocatalytic activity of CdIn2S4 monodispersed spherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Jin; Wei Qinglian; Yao Pingping; Zhao Xueling; Kang Shizhao; Li Xiangqing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CdIn 2 S 4 monodispersed spherical particles were prepared by a soft solution method. ► Mercaptoacetic acid was used as capping agent to hinder the fast crystal growth. ► Thioacetamide as sulfur source resulted in the slow growth of particles. ► CdIn 2 S 4 spheres showed high visible light photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: We developed a facile method to prepare CdIn 2 S 4 monodispersed spherical particles by using mercaptoacetic acid as capping agent and thioacetamide as sulfur source. The results indicated that the size and morphology of CdIn 2 S 4 particles were related to reaction time. The CdIn 2 S 4 spherical particles with an average size of about 236 nm and a narrow size distribution were formed after reacting for 7 h. The photocatalytic activity of as-synthesized CdIn 2 S 4 spherical particles was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under visible light illumination. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity increased with prolonging reaction time in the preparation of CdIn 2 S 4 spherical particles. The CdIn 2 S 4 spherical particles prepared after reacting for 7 h exhibited a 98% degradation efficiency of methyl orange after 15 min visible light irradiation.

  19. Sorption study of methylene blue on activated carbon prepared from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Olalekan Saheed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work targets the effectiveness of the prepared activated carbon from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats for the sorption of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solution. The prepared Jatropha activated carbon (JAC and Terminalia activated carbon (TAC were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Branauer- Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analysis. Effect of initial concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature on the sorption experiments were studied and the adsorption capacity of these adsorbents were found to be 37.84 mg/g and 17.44 mg/g for methylene blue uptake by JAC and TAC respectively. The experimental data were analysed using Langmuir, Fruendlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data fitted best into Langmuir isotherm for Methylene blue-JAC and Methylene blue-TAC systems. The kinetic studies fitted into pseudo second order kinetics model. The process chemistry was exothermic.

  20. Controlled preparation of Ag–Cu2O nanocorncobs and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Siyuan; Zhang, Shengsen; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao; Fang, Yueping; Peng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The corncob-like Ag–Cu 2 O nanostructure with suitably exposed Ag surface exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than Ag@Cu 2 O nanocables and Cu 2 O nanowires. - Highlights: • Ag–Cu 2 O nanocorncobs have been controllably prepared by a simple synthesis. • The possible formation mechanism of Ag–Cu 2 O has been studied. • Ag–Cu 2 O exhibits noticeable improved photocurrent compared with the pure Cu 2 O NWs. • Ag–Cu 2 O with suitably exposed Ag surface shows much higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Novel corncob-like nano-heterostructured Ag–Cu 2 O photocatalyst has been controllably prepared by adjusting the synthetic parameters, and the possible formation mechanism has been also studied. The photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances demonstrated that the as-prepared Ag–Cu 2 O nanocorncobs exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than both pure Cu 2 O nanowires and cable-like Ag@Cu 2 O nano-composites. It was concluded that Ag–Cu 2 O nanocorncobs with suitably exposed Ag surface not only effectively inhibit the recombination of electron–hole pairs but also suitably increase the active sites of electronic conduction, and thus increasing the photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

  1. Preparation of thiol-functionalized activated carbon from sewage sludge with coal blending for heavy metal removal from contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Xing, Xing; Li, Jiao; Shi, Mei; Lin, Aijun; Xu, Congbin; Zheng, Jianzhong; Li, Ronghua

    2018-03-01

    Sewage sludge produced from wastewater treatment is a pressing environmental issue. Mismanagement of the massive amount of sewage sludge would threat our valuble surface and shallow ground water resources. Use of activated carbon prepared from carbonization of these sludges for heavy metal removal can not only minimize and stabilize these hazardous materials but also realize resources reuse. In this study, thiol-functionalized activated carbon was synthesized from coal-blended sewage sludge, and its capacity was examined for removing Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from water. Pyrolysis conditions to prepare activated carbons from the sludge and coal mixture were examined, and the synthesized material was found to achieve the highest BET surface area of 1094 m 2 /g under 500 °C and 30 min. Batch equilibrium tests indicated that the thiol-functionalized activated carbon had a maximum sorption capacity of 238.1, 96.2, 87.7 and 52.4 mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) removal from water, respectively. Findings of this study suggest that thiol-functionalized activated carbon prepared from coal-blended sewage sludge would be a promising sorbent material for heavy metal removal from waters contaminated with Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation of thermally stable anatase TiO2 photocatalyst from TiOF2 precursor and its photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Kangle; Yu Jiaguo; Cui Longzhe; Chen Shulin; Li Mei

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The prepared anatase TiO 2 from TiOF 2 shows very high thermal stability (up to 1000 o C) and the 700 o C-calcined sample showed the highest photocatalytic activity. Display Omitted Research highlights: → TiOF 2 was prepared by a simple microwave assisted hydrothermal rout. → Anatase TiO 2 prepared by calcination of TiOF 2 shows high thermal stability. → F - play an important role in the improvement thermal stability of anatase TiO 2 . → The 700 o C-calcined sample shows the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Preparation of anatase TiO 2 with high themal stability is of great importance for its environmental application. In this work, TiOF 2 was first synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal route using tetrabutyl titanate and hydrofluoric acid as precursors at 200 o C for 20 min. Then the resulted precipitates were calcined at different temperatures (300-1000 o C) for 2 h. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated using Brilliant Red X3B, an anionic azo dye, as the target organic molecule under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the prepared TiOF 2 exhibited weak or no photocatalytic activity. The phase transformation of TiOF 2 to anatase TiO 2 occurred at about 300 o C. The prepared anatase TiO 2 from TiOF 2 showed very high thermal stability and the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation temperature was up to 1000 o C. Fluoride ions played an important role in the improvement of thermal stability of anatase TiO 2 by strongly adsorbing on the crystal planes of anatase to stabilize the anatase structure. The 700 o C-calcined sample showed the highest photocatalytic activity due to its relative good crystallization and high specific surface areas.

  3. Preparation of TiC/W core–shell structured powders by one-step activation and chemical reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xiao-Yu; Luo, Lai-Ma; Huang, Li-Mei; Luo, Guang-Nan; Zhu, Xiao-Yong; Cheng, Ji-Gui; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel wet chemical method was used to prepare TiC/W core–shell structure powders. • TiC nanoparticles were well-encapsulated by W shells. • TiC phase was present in the interior of tungsten grains. - Abstract: In the present study, one-step activation and chemical reduction process as a novel wet-chemical route was performed for the preparation of TiC/W core–shell structured ultra-fine powders. The XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and EDS results demonstrated that the as-synthesized powders are of high purity and uniform with a diameter of approximately 500 nm. It is also found that the TiC nanoparticles were well-encapsulated by W shells. Such a unique process suggests a new method for preparing X/W (X refers the water-insoluble nanoparticles) core–shell nanoparticles with different cores

  4. Teaching Norwegian to Beginners: Six Principles to Guide Lesson Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Krulatz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching a foreign language is no simple task. There are several factors to consider, from curriculum design, to material selection and lesson implementation, to assessment. The challenge, however, is even greater, if you are teaching a less commonly taught language such as Norwegian – a language spoken by fewer than six million native speakers, used almost exclusively in one country, and with a limited number of available pedagogical materials. Under such circumstances, the task of preparing high quality communicative lessons is immense, even for an experienced language instructor. The goal of this article is to present how a successful language lesson can be developed even if one is using a textbook that does not foster communicative competence. As an example, I am using a unit from a Norwegian textbook for beginners: På vei, often used in Norwegian as a second language course for adults in Norway. The lesson focuses on routines and times of the day, and it concludes with the students comparing and contrasting their daily routines with a partner. Prior to this lesson, students have learned to provide basic information about themselves (where they come from, what languages they speak, what they do for work, expressions for greetings and goodbyes, basic verbs relating to daily activities such as ‘snakker’ (to speak, ‘kjører’ (to drive, ‘kjøpper’ (to buy, ‘jobber’ (to work, ‘leser’ (to read, ‘scriver’ (to write, ordinal numerals, meals, some food items, some basic prepositions and locations, words for family members, and subject and object pronouns for all persons. If you were to closely follow the textbook in teaching this unit, you would begin by teaching the students how to tell time, then briefly go over some verbs to express daily routines, listen to and read a text titled ‘Jeg står opp klokka seks,’ a narrative about Monica’s day (Monica is one of the characters in the book, and finally ask the students

  5. Utilization of oil palm biodiesel solid residue as renewable sources for preparation of granular activated carbon by microwave induced KOH activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2013-02-01

    In this work, preparation of granular activated carbon from oil palm biodiesel solid residue, oil palm shell (PSAC) by microwave assisted KOH activation has been attempted. The physical and chemical properties of PSAC were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, volumetric adsorption analyzer and elemental analysis. The adsorption behavior was examined by performing batch adsorption experiments using methylene blue as dye model compound. Equilibrium data were simulated using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Kinetic modeling was fitted to the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich kinetic models, while the adsorption mechanism was determined using the intraparticle diffusion and Boyd equations. The result was satisfactory fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 343.94mg/g at 30°C. The findings support the potential of oil palm shell for preparation of high surface area activated carbon by microwave assisted KOH activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative study of biological activity of four botulinum toxin type A preparations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Myung Eun; Song, Dae Heon; Park, Joo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Units of available botulinum toxin preparations are not interchangeable, and the dose-conversion ratios between such preparations remain controversial. To compare the efficacy and safety of four botulinum toxin type A preparations. Murine gastrocnemius compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were recorded before and after injecting the four botulinum toxin preparations (onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, new botulinum toxin, and incobotulinumtoxinA). In all preparations, CMAP amplitudes decreased until 4 days after receiving the injection and then gradually recovered. On postinjection day 84, the amplitudes returned to baseline in all groups except the high-dose groups. CMAP amplitude in the contralateral limb also decreased up to postinjection days 4 to 7 and then gradually returned to baseline by postinjection day 28. The dose-conversion ratio between onabotulinumtoxinA and abobotulinumtoxinA was determined to be 1:2.6; previous reports of 1:3 were considered too high. A dose-conversion ratio between onabotulinumtoxinA and new botulinum toxin of 1:1 was deemed appropriate. OnabotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA demonstrated a dose-conversion ratio of 1:1.07. The efficacy of incobotulinumtoxinA was slightly lower than that of onabotulinumtoxinA. These dose-conversion ratios are applicable solely from an efficacy standpoint and not for safety. This study was conducted in mice, so it may not translate perfectly to human applications. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mechanical properties of 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel weldment prepared by electron beam welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, C.R., E-mail: chitta@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Albert, S.K. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India); Mastanaiah, P. [Defense Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Chaitanya, G.M.S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Murthy, C.V.S. [Defense Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Kumar, E. Rajendra [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Width of HAZ is smaller in the 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process compared to that reported for TIG weldments in literature. • Weld joint is stronger than that of the base metal. • Toughness of weld metal prepared by EB welding process is comparable to that (in PWHT condition) prepared by TIG process. • DBTT of as-welded 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process is comparable to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition. - Abstract: Microstructure and mechanical properties of the weldments prepared from 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel using electron beam welding (EBW) process were studied. Microstructure consists of tempered lath martensite where precipitates decorating the boundaries in post weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. Lath and precipitate sizes were found to be finer in the weld metal than in base metal. Accordingly, hardness of the weld metal was found to be higher than the base metal. Tensile strength of the cross weldment specimen was 684 MPa, which was comparable with the base metal tensile strength of 670 MPa. On the other hand, DBTT of 9Cr–1W weld metal in as-welded condition is similar to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition.

  8. Mechanical properties of 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel weldment prepared by electron beam welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, C.R.; Albert, S.K.; Sam, Shiju; Mastanaiah, P.; Chaitanya, G.M.S.K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Murthy, C.V.S.; Kumar, E. Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Width of HAZ is smaller in the 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process compared to that reported for TIG weldments in literature. • Weld joint is stronger than that of the base metal. • Toughness of weld metal prepared by EB welding process is comparable to that (in PWHT condition) prepared by TIG process. • DBTT of as-welded 9Cr–1W RAFM weldment prepared by EB process is comparable to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition. - Abstract: Microstructure and mechanical properties of the weldments prepared from 9Cr–1W reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel using electron beam welding (EBW) process were studied. Microstructure consists of tempered lath martensite where precipitates decorating the boundaries in post weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. Lath and precipitate sizes were found to be finer in the weld metal than in base metal. Accordingly, hardness of the weld metal was found to be higher than the base metal. Tensile strength of the cross weldment specimen was 684 MPa, which was comparable with the base metal tensile strength of 670 MPa. On the other hand, DBTT of 9Cr–1W weld metal in as-welded condition is similar to that reported for TIG weld metal in PWHT condition

  9. Preparing electrochemical active hierarchically porous carbons for detecting nitrite in drinkable water

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Baojun

    2016-01-13

    A class of hierarchically porous carbons were prepared by a facile dual-templating approach. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Brunaner-Emmett-Teller measurement and electrochemical work station, respectively. The porous carbons could possess large specific surface area, interconnected pore structures, high conductivity and graphitizing degree. The resulting materials were used to prepare integrated modified electrodes. Based on the experimental results, the as-prepared hierarchically porous graphite (HPG) modified electrode showed the best electroactive performances toward the detection of nitrite with a detection limit of 8.1 × 10-3 mM. This HPG electrode was also repeatable and stable for 6 weeks. Moreover, this electrode was used for the determination of nitrite in drinkable water, and had acceptable recoveries. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  10. Studies on Thorium Adsorption Characteristics upon Activated Titanium Hydroxide Prepared from Rosetta Ilmenite Concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M; Zaki, S

    2016-01-01

    The titanium hydroxide prepared from Rosetta ilmenite concentrate has been applied for Th (IV) adsorption from its acid aqueous solutions. The prepared hydroxide is first characterized by both Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum and thermogravimetric analysis. The relevant factors affecting the adsorption process have been studied. The obtained equilibrium data fits well with the Langmuir isotherm rather than Freundlich isotherm, while the adsorption kinetic data follow the pseudo-second order model. The different thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated and indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous

  11. Preparation and evaluation of coal-derived activated carbons for removal of mercury vapor from simulated coal combustion flue fases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, H.-C.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Richardson, C.F.; Carey, T.R.; Chang, R.

    1998-01-01

    Coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) were tested for their suitability in removing trace amounts of vapor-phase mercury from simulated flue gases generated by coal combustion. CDACs were prepared in bench-scale and pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactors with a three-step process, including coal preoxidation, carbonization, and then steam activation. CDACs from high-organicsulfur Illinois coals had a greater equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity than activated carbons prepared from a low-organic-sulfur Illinois coal. When a low-organic-sulfur CDAC was impregnated with elemental sulfur at 600 ??C, its equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity was comparable to the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon prepared from the high-organicsulfur coal. X-ray diffraction and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure examinations showed that the sulfur in the CDACs was mainly in organic forms. These results suggested that a portion of the inherent organic sulfur in the starting coal, which remained in the CDACs, played an important role in adsorption of Hg0. Besides organic sulfur, the BET surface area and micropore area of the CDACs also influenced Hg0 adsorption capacity. The HgCl2 adsorption capacity was not as dependent on the surface area and concentration of sulfur in the CDACs as was adsorption of Hg0. The properties and mercury adsorption capacities of the CDACs were compared with those obtained for commercial Darco FGD carbon.

  12. Adsorption of Zn(II) in aqueous solution by activated carbons prepared from evergreen oak (Quercus rotundifolia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tamayo, M del Mar; Macías-García, Antonio; Díaz Díez, M Angeles; Cuerda-Correa, Eduardo M

    2008-05-01

    In the present work activated carbons have been prepared from evergreen oak wood. Different samples have been prepared varying the concentration of the activating agent (H(3)PO(4)) and the treatment temperature. The yield of the process decreases with increasing phosphoric acid concentrations. Furthermore, high concentrations of activating agent lead to mainly mesoporous activated carbons to the detriment of the microporous texture. Treatment temperatures up to 450 degrees C lead to a progressive increase of the micro- and mesopore volumes. Values of specific surface area (S(BET)) as high as 1723 m(2) g(-1)have been obtained using appropriate phosphoric acid concentrations and treatment temperatures. The samples prepared have been successfully used in the removal of Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. From the adsorption kinetic data it may be stated that the equilibrium time is, in all cases, below 170 h. The adsorption process as a rule becomes faster as the mesopore volume and specific surface area of the samples increase. The adsorption isotherms in liquid phase point out that the adsorption capacity (n(0)(s)) and the affinity towards the solute (K(ci)) are higher for the sample showing the most developed mesoporous texture and surface area as well.

  13. Preparation and characterization of carbons from β-cyclodextrin dehydration and from olive pomace activation and their application for boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Jaouadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An activated carbon was prepared by phosphoric activation of olive pomace and further oxidation by nitric acid. Another carbon was obtained from β-cyclodextrin dehydration in concentrated sulfuric acid. A composite of the oxidized activated carbon and the carbon from β-cyclodextrin was prepared. The four materials were characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption measurements, X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, elemental analysis, “Boehm” titration and measurements of pH of the point zero charge. The obtained adsorbents were tested for boron adsorption in aqueous solution. Despite their lowest specific surface areas, the composite carbon and the amorphous carbon from cyclodextrin dehydration showed the highest boron adsorption uptake (1.41 and 1.68 mg·g−1 compared to the raw (1.05 mg·g−1 and oxidized (0.95 mg·g−1 activated carbons. The surface chemistry particularly rich in phenolic groups was responsible for the high boron adsorption uptake of the carbon composite and the amorphous carbon, both prepared through cyclodextrin dehydration.

  14. Hydrotreating NiMo/sepiolite catalysts: influence of catalyst preparation on activity for HDS, hydrogenation and chain isomerization reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, F.V.; Sanz, E.; Corma, A.; Mifsud, A.

    1987-01-01

    A series of NiMo catalysts supported on a sepiolite: a) in its natural state, b) modified by acid leaching, and c) modified by cation exchange, have been prepared. The preparation variables studied were: Method of metal deposition, amount of active phase, sepiolite pretreatment, and temperature and time of sulfurization. The catalytic activity for HDS, hydrogenation, and cracking-isomerization has been studied by feeding a thiophene-cyclohexene-cyclohexane mixture and carrying out the reaction in the following conditions: 300 0 and 400 0 C reaction temperature, 20 Kg.cm -2 total pressure, and 3 to 1 molar ratio of H 2 to hydrocarbons. An optimium for HDS and hydrogenation activity was found for a 12% wt MoO 3 , and 5% wt NiO, prepared by simultaneous impregnation by the pore volume method at Ph = 5.0. The optimum conditions with these catalysts are 400 0 C and 3 hours of sulfurization. An increase in the acidity of the support produces a decrease of HDS and hydrogenation and an increase of the cracking-isomerization activities. A good correlation between HDS and the concentration of an XNiO.MoO 3 phase is found. The XNiO.MoO 3 phase is completely sulfurized to a modified MoS 2 , while NiMoO 4 and MoO 3 are only slightly sulfurized. 31 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 table

  15. Preparing for Decommissioning During Operation and After Final Shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostova, Milena; Papaz, Dan; Pottelberg, Paul; Clement, Gilles; Falcone, Jean-Luc; Gouhier, Eric; Laurent, Gerard; Rondeau, Jean-Marie; Siefridt, Camille; Brendebach, Boris; Knaack, Michael; Ahn, Sangmyeon; Correa Sainz, Cristina; Carroll, Simon; Larsson, Arne; Norberg, Thomas; Stridsman, Henrik; Minges, Juergen; Boniface, Simon; Dunlop, Alister; Jassal, Raj; Moakes, Joanna; Abu-Eid, Rateb; Watson, Bruce; Devgun, Jas; McGrath, Richard; Glorennec, Christian; ); Weber, Inge; )

    2018-01-01

    The transition from an operating nuclear facility to the decommissioning phase is critical in the life cycle of every facility. A number of organisational and technical modifications are needed in order for the facility to meet new objectives and requirements, and a certain number of activities must be initiated to support the transition and preparation for the dismantling of the facility. Thorough preparation and planning is key for the success of global decommissioning and dismantling projects, both to minimise delays and undue costs and to ensure a safe and efficient decommissioning process. The aim of this report is to inform regulatory bodies, policy makers and planners about the relevant aspects and activities that should begin during the last years of operation and following the end of operation. Compiling lessons learnt from experiences and good practices in NEA member countries, the report supports the further optimisation of transition strategies, activities and measures that will ensure adequate preparation for decommissioning and dismantling

  16. Large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 in E. coli by designing its thrombin-activatable precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3, a principal apoptotic effector that cleaves the majority of cellular substrates, is an important medicinal target for the treatment of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Large amounts of the protein are required for drug discovery research. However, previous efforts to express the full-length caspase-3 gene in E. coli have been unsuccessful. Results Overproducers of thrombin-activatable full-length caspase-3 precursors were prepared by engineering the auto-activation sites of caspase-3 precursor into a sequence susceptible to thrombin hydrolysis. The engineered precursors were highly expressed as soluble proteins in E. coli and easily purified by affinity chromatography, to levels of 10–15 mg from 1 L of E. coli culture, and readily activated by thrombin digestion. Kinetic evaluation disclosed that thrombin digestion enhanced catalytic activity (kcat/KM of the precursor proteins by two orders of magnitude. Conclusion A novel method for a large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 was developed by a strategic engineering to lack auto-activation during expression with amino acid sequences susceptible to thrombin, facilitating high-level expression in E. coli. The precursor protein was easily purified and activated through specific cleavage at the engineered sites by thrombin, generating active caspase-3 in high yields.

  17. USING LITERATURE IN GEOGRAPHY LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA HOBAI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Including in a novel information about relief, climate, vegetation, fauna and various aspects of socio-economic life can make literature a real source of geographical information. Using realistic literary works in Geography lessons has multiple benefits, which are not limited only to geographical knowledge. In this paper there are some fragments from literature, suggestions of activities about how to integrate the fragments during Geography lessons and the results of these activities. The activities are from fifth to twelfth grade, passing through a first example of water pollution resulting from a Hercules labour, through the lyricism of the aurora borealis description, through the dramatic life of a refugee from Darfur, through the Dobrudgea winter landscape, through the grey urban landscape of Bucharest in the 90s and so on. Students were put into learning situations that stimulated their creativity, developed communication competencies and enriched their general knowledge.

  18. Latina Mothers' School Preparation Activities and Their Relation to Children's Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the link between children's early school achievement and parents' at-home practices exclusively among Latino groups. This study examined the relation between Latina mothers' reported at-home practices regarding school preparation and their children's literacy skills. Participants included 56 kindergarten children and…

  19. The Mathematics Education Debates: Preparing Students to Become Professionally Active Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Mika

    2010-01-01

    The Mathematics Education Debate is an assignment designed for and implemented in an undergraduate mathematics methods course for prospective secondary school mathematics teachers. For the assignment, students read and analyze current research and policy reports related to mathematics education, prepare and present their positions, offer…

  20. Spatiotemporal overlap between brain activation related to saccade preparation and attentional orienting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.; Verleger, Rolf; Kenemans, J. Leon

    2006-01-01

    Recent brain imaging studies provided evidence that the brain areas involved with attentional orienting and the preparation of saccades largely overlap, which may indicate that focusing attention at a specific location can be considered as an unexecuted saccade towards that location (i.e. the