WorldWideScience

Sample records for lesser wind resource

  1. Climate Wind Power Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana M. Berdzenishvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Georgia as a whole is characterized by rather rich solar energy resources, which allows to construct alternative power stations in the close proximity to traditional power plants. In this case the use of solar energy is meant. Georgia is divided into 5 zones based on the assessment of wind power resources. The selection of these zones is based on the index of average annual wind speed in the examined area, V> 3 m / s and V> 5 m / s wind speed by the summing duration in the course of the year and V = 0. . . 2 m / s of passive wind by total and continuous duration of these indices per hour.

  2. Mongolia wind resource assessment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.; Chadraa, B.; Natsagdorj, L.

    1998-01-01

    The development of detailed, regional wind-resource distributions and other pertinent wind resource characteristics (e.g., assessment maps and reliable estimates of seasonal, diurnal, and directional) is an important step in planning and accelerating the deployment of wind energy systems. This paper summarizes the approach and methods being used to conduct a wind energy resource assessment of Mongolia. The primary goals of this project are to develop a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas of Mongolia and to establish a wind measurement program in specific regions of Mongolia to identify prospective sites for wind energy projects and to help validate some of the wind resource estimates. The Mongolian wind resource atlas will include detailed, computerized wind power maps and other valuable wind resource characteristic information for the different regions of Mongolia

  3. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  4. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  5. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  6. Wind conditions and resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib

    2012-01-01

    The development of wind power as a competitive energy source requires resource assessment of increasing accuracy and detail (including not only the long-term ‘raw’ wind resource, but also turbulence, shear, and extremes), and in areas of increasing complexity. This in turn requires the use of the...

  7. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; McCarthy, E.

    2001-03-06

    This report contains the results of a wind resource analysis and mapping study for the Philippine archipelago. The study's objective was to identify potential wind resource areas and quantify the value of those resources within those areas. The wind resource maps and other wind resource characteristic information will be used to identify prospective areas for wind-energy applications.

  8. Wind resource analysis. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D. M.

    1978-12-01

    FY78 results of the Wind Resource Analyses task of the ERAB are described. Initial steps were taken to acquire modern atmosphere models of near-surface wind flow and primary data sets used in previous studies of national and regional wind resources. Because numerous assumptions are necessary to interpret available data in terms of wind energy potential, conclusions of previous studies differ considerably. These data analyses may be improved by future SERI research. State-of-the-art atmosphere models are a necessary component of the SERI wind resource analyses capacity. However, these methods also need to be tested and verified in diverse applications. The primary data sets and principal features of the models are discussed.

  9. Connecting Communities to Wind Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, Edward I [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-18

    WINDExchange is the platform for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Energy Technologies Office to disseminate credible wind energy information on a national level. Stakeholder engagement and outreach activities are designed to enable well-informed decisions about appropriate wind energy deployment. WINDExchange focuses on wind energy outreach at the national level while managing and supporting similar regional efforts through the implementation of DOE Regional Resource Centers (RRCs). This fact sheet provides an overview of DOE's WINDExchange initiative and the RRCs. Examples of RRC activities are provided.

  10. Philippines Wind Energy Resource Atlas Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.

    2000-11-29

    This paper describes the creation of a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas for the Philippines. The atlas was created to facilitate the rapid identification of good wind resource areas and understanding of the salient wind characteristics. Detailed wind resource maps were generated for the entire country using an advanced wind mapping technique and innovative assessment methods recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  11. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-07-01

    This wind energy resource atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in the country of Armenia. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications. The maps portray the wind resource with high-resolution (1-km2) grids of wind power density at 50-m above ground. The wind maps were created at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) using a computerized wind mapping system that uses Geographic Information System (GIS) software.

  12. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  13. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Oaxaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-08-01

    The Oaxaca Wind Resource Atlas, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group, is the result of an extensive mapping study for the Mexican State of Oaxaca. This atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Oaxaca. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  14. Wind resource estimation and siting of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Landberg, L.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the natural wind is necessary for the design, planning and operational aspect of wind energy systems. Here, we shall only be concerned with those meteorological aspects of wind energy planning that are termed wind resource estimation. The estimation...... of the wind resource ranges from the overall estimation of the mean energy content of the wind over a large area - called regional assessment - to the prediction of the average yearly energy production of a specific wind turbine at a specific location - called siting. A regional assessment will most often...... lead to a so-called wind atlas. A precise prediction of the wind speed at a given site is essential because for aerodynamic reasons the power output of a wind turbine is proportional to the third power of the wind speed, hence even small errors in prediction of wind speed may result in large deviations...

  15. European Wind Atlas and Wind Resource Research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    to estimate the actual wind climate at any specific site and height within this region. The Danish and European Wind Atlases are examples of how the wind atlas methodology can be employed to estimate the wind resource potential for a country or a sub-continent. Recently, the methodology has also been used...... - from wind measurements at prospective sites to wind tunnel simulations and advanced flow modelling. Among these approaches, the wind atlas methodology - developed at Ris0 National Laboratory over the last 25 years - has gained widespread recognition and is presently considered by many as the industry......-standard tool for wind resource assessment and siting of wind turbines. The PC-implementation of the methodology, the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP), has been applied in more than 70 countries and territories world-wide. The wind atlas methodology is based on physical descriptions and models...

  16. Wind resource characterization in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew; Gunturu, Udaya; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy is expected to contribute to alleviating the rise in energy demand in the Middle East that is driven by population growth and industrial development. However, variability and intermittency in the wind resource present significant

  17. Calculation of depleted wind resources near wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Traditional wind resource maps include wind distribution, energy density and potential power production without wake effects. Adding wake effect to such maps is feasible by means of a new method based on Fourier transformation,and the extra computational work is comparable to that of the basic wind...

  18. Wind Resource Estimation using QuikSCAT Ocean Surface Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Zhang, Guosheng; Cheng, Yongcun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the offshore wind resources in the East China Sea and South China Sea were estimated from over ten years of QuikSCAT scatterometer wind products. Since the errors of these products are larger close to the coast due to the land contamination of radar backscatter signal...... and the complexity of air-sea interaction processes, an empirical relationship that adjusts QuikSCAT winds in coastal waters was first proposed based on vessel measurements. Then the shape and scale parameters of Weibull function are determined for wind resource estimation. The wind roses are also plotted. Results...

  19. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D; Schwartz, M; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2001-08-27

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) sponsored a project to help accelerate the large-scale use of wind energy technologies in Mongolia through the development of a wind energy resource atlas of Mongolia. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) administered and conducted this project in collaboration with USAID and Mongolia. The Mongolian organizations participating in this project were the Scientific, Production, and Trade Corporation for Renewable Energy (REC) and the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (IMH). The primary goals of the project were to develop detailed wind resource maps for all regions of Mongolia for a comprehensive wind resource atlas, and to establish a wind-monitoring program to identify prospective sites for wind energy projects and help validate some of the wind resource estimates.

  20. Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa Moreira, Paula [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report quantifies Alaska's offshore wind resource capacity while focusing on its unique nature. It is a supplement to the existing U.S. Offshore Wind Resource Assessment, which evaluated the offshore wind resource for all other U.S. states. Together, these reports provide the foundation for the nation's offshore wind value proposition. Both studies were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis presented herein represents the first quantitative evidence of the offshore wind energy potential of Alaska. The technical offshore wind resource area in Alaska is larger than the technical offshore resource area of all other coastal U.S. states combined. Despite the abundant wind resource available, significant challenges inhibit large-scale offshore wind deployment in Alaska, such as the remoteness of the resource, its distance from load centers, and the wealth of land available for onshore wind development. Throughout this report, the energy landscape of Alaska is reviewed and a resource assessment analysis is performed in terms of gross and technical offshore capacity and energy potential.

  1. Wind resource characterization in the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew

    2015-12-28

    Wind energy is expected to contribute to alleviating the rise in energy demand in the Middle East that is driven by population growth and industrial development. However, variability and intermittency in the wind resource present significant challenges to grid integration of wind energy systems. These issues are rarely addressed in the literature of wind resource assessment in the Middle East due to sparse meteorological observations with varying record lengths. In this study, the wind field with consistent space–time resolution for over three decades at three hub heights (50m, 80m, 140m) over the whole Arabian Peninsula is constructed using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset. The wind resource is assessed at a higher spatial resolution with metrics of temporal variations in the wind than in prior studies. Previously unrecognized locations of interest with high wind abundance and low variability and intermittency have been identified in this study and confirmed by recent on-site observations. In particular, the western mountains of Saudi Arabia experience more abundant wind resource than most Red Sea coastal areas. The wind resource is more variable in coastal areas along the Arabian Gulf than their Red Sea counterparts at a similar latitude. Persistent wind is found along the coast of the Arabian Gulf.

  2. Forage digestibility and intake by lesser snow geese: effects of dominance and resource heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; White, Robert G.; Sedinger, James S.; Robertson, Donna G.

    1996-01-01

    We measured forage intake, digestibility, and retention time for 11 free-ranging, human-imprinted lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) as they consumed underground stembases of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium) on an arctic staging area in northeastern Alaska. Geese fed in small patches (x̄=21.5 m2) of forage that made up ≤3% of the study area and consisted of high-quality “aquatic graminoid” and intermediate-quality “wet sedge” vegetation types. Dominant geese spent more time feeding in aquatic graminoid areas (r=0.61), but less total time feeding and more time resting than subdominant geese. Subdominant geese were displaced to areas of wet sedge where cotton-grass was a smaller proportion of underground biomass. Geese metabolized an average of 48% of the organic matter in stembases and there was a positive correlation between dominance and organic matter metabolizability (r=0.61). Total mean retention time of forage was 1.37 h and dry matter intake was 14.3 g/h. Snow geese that stage on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea likely use an extensive area because they consume a large mass of forage and exploit habitats that are patchily distributed and make up a small percentage of the landscape. Individual variation in nutrient absorption may result from agonistic interactions in an environment where resources are heterogeneously distributed.

  3. Wind and solar resource data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifton, Andrew; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Draxl, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    The range of resource data sets spans from static cartography showing the mean annual wind speed or solar irradiance across a region to high temporal and high spatial resolution products that provide detailed information at a potential wind or solar energy facility. These data sets are used...... to support continental-scale, national, or regional renewable energy development; facilitate prospecting by developers; and enable grid integration studies. This review first provides an introduction to the wind and solar resource data sets, then provides an overview of the common methods used...... for their creation and validation. A brief history of wind and solar resource data sets is then presented, followed by areas for future research. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website....

  4. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-08-01

    The Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Sri Lanka and the Maldives. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  5. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

  6. Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.

  7. Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Osvaldo; Del Río, Jesús A; Jaramillo, Oscar A; Martínez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.

  8. Wind power production: from the characterisation of the wind resource to wind turbine technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslin, Guy; Multon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables, this article first describes the various factors and means related to the assessment of wind resource in the World, in Europe, and the factors which characterize a local wind resource. In this last respect, the authors indicate how local topography is taken into account to calculate wind speed, how time variations are taken into account (at the yearly, seasonal or daily level), the different methods used to model a local wind resource, how to assess the power recoverable by a wind turbine with horizontal axis (notion of Betz limit). In the second part, the authors present the different wind turbines, their benefits and drawbacks: vertical axis, horizontal axis (examples of a Danish-type wind turbine, of wind turbines designed for extreme conditions). Then, they address the technology of big wind turbines: evolution of technology and of commercial offer, aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine and benefit of a varying speed (technological solutions, importance of the electric generator). They describe how to choose a wind turbine, how product lines are organised, how the power curve and energy capacity are determined. The issue of integration of wind energy into the power system is then addressed. The next part addressed the economy of wind energy production (annualized production cost, order of magnitude of wind electric power production cost). Future trends are discussed and offshore wind energy production is briefly addressed

  9. NANA Wind Resource Assessment Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-09-23

    NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) of northwest Alaska is located in an area with abundant wind energy resources. In 2007, NRC was awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17076 by the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program for funding a Wind Resource Assessment Project (WRAP) for the NANA region. The NANA region, including Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA) and Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC) have been national leaders at developing, designing, building, and operating wind-diesel hybrid systems in Kotzebue (starting in 1996) and Selawik (2002). Promising sites for the development of new wind energy projects in the region have been identified by the WRAP, including Buckland, Deering, and the Kivalina/Red Dog Mine Port Area. Ambler, Shungnak, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik & Noatak were determined to have poor wind resources at sites in or very near each community. However, all five of these communities may have better wind resources atop hills or at sites with slightly higher elevations several miles away.

  10. Wind/solar resource in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Gaines, H. [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Data are being collected at 17 sites to delineate a baseline for the wind and solar resource across Texas. Wind data are being collected at 10, 25, and 40 m (in some cases at 50 m) to determine wind shear and power at hub heights of large turbines. Many of the sites are located in areas of predicted terrain enhancement. The typical day in a month for power and wind turbine output was calculated for selected sites and combination of sites; distributed systems. Major result to date is that there is the possibility of load matching in South Texas during the summer months, even though the average values by month indicate a low wind potential.

  11. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 9. The Southwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R.L.; Norman, G.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in Nevada and California. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted is presented. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state are given. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed.

  12. Wind energy resource assessment in Madrid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migoya, Emilio; Crespo, Antonio; Jimenez, Angel; Garcia, Javier; Manuel, Fernando [Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior Ingenieros Industriales (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid (Autonomous Community of Madrid, in the following Madrid Region), is a region located at the geographical centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Its area is 8.028 km{sup 2}, and its population about five million people. The Department of Economy and Technological Innovation of the Madrid Region, together with some organizations dealing on energy saving and other research institutions have elaborated an Energy Plan for the 2004-12 period. As a part of this work, the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of the Polytechnic University of Madrid has carried out the assessment of the wind energy resources [Crespo A, Migoya E, Gomez Elvira R. La energia eolica en Madrid. Potencialidad y prospectiva. Plan energetico de la Comunidad de Madrid, 2004-2012. Madrid: Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid; 2004]; using for this task the WAsP program (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program), and the own codes, UPMORO (code to study orography effects) and UPMPARK (code to study wake effects in wind parks). Different kinds of data have been collected about climate, topography, roughness of the land, environmentally protected areas, town and village distribution, population density, main facilities and electric power supply. The Spanish National Meteorological Institute has nine wind measurement stations in the region, but only four of them have good and reliable temporary wind data, with time measurement periods that are long enough to provide representative correlations among stations. The Observed Wind Climates of the valid meteorological stations have been made. The Wind Atlas and the resource grid have been calculated, especially in the high wind resource areas, selecting appropriate measurements stations and using criteria based on proximity, similarity and ruggedness index. Some areas cannot be used as a wind energy resource mainly because they have environmental regulation or, in some cases, are very close

  13. Evaluation model of wind energy resources and utilization efficiency of wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Due to the large amount of abandoned winds in wind farms, the establishment of a wind farm evaluation model is particularly important for the future development of wind farms In this essay, consider the wind farm's wind energy situation, Wind Energy Resource Model (WERM) and Wind Energy Utilization Efficiency Model(WEUEM) are established to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the wind farm. Wind Energy Resource Model (WERM) contains average wind speed, average wind power density and turbulence intensity, which assessed wind energy resources together. Based on our model, combined with the actual measurement data of a wind farm, calculate the indicators using the model, and the results are in line with the actual situation. We can plan the future development of the wind farm based on this result. Thus, the proposed establishment approach of wind farm assessment model has application value.

  14. Wind speed forecasting in the central California wind resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind speed forecasting program was implemented in the summer seasons of 1985 - 87 in the Central California Wind Resource Area (WRA). The forecasting program is designed to use either meteorological observations from the WRA and local upper air observations or upper air observations alone to predict the daily average windspeed at two locations. Forecasts are made each morning at 6 AM and are valid for a 24 hour period. Ease of use is a hallmark of the program as the daily forecast can be made using data entered into a programmable HP calculator. The forecasting program was the first step in a process to examine whether the electrical energy output of an entire wind power generation facility or defined subsections of the same facility could be predicted up to 24 hours in advance. Analysis of the results of the summer season program using standard forecast verification techniques show the program has skill over persistence and climatology.

  15. Nebraska wind resource assessment first year results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, P.J.F.; Vilhauer, R. [RLA Consulting, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States); Stooksbury, D. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results from a wind resource assessment program in Nebraska sponsored by the Nebraska Power Association. During the first year the measured annual wind speed at 40 meters ranged from 6.5 - 7.5 m/s (14.6 - 16.8 mph) at eight stations across the state. The site selection process is discussed as well as an overview of the site characteristics at the monitoring locations. Results from the first year monitoring period including data recovery rate, directionality, average wind speeds, wind shear, and turbulence intensity are presented. Results from the eight sites are qualitatively compared with other midwest and west coast locations. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Wind Resource Assessment – Østerild National Test Centre for Large Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Brian Ohrbeck; Courtney, Michael; Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a wind resource assessment for the seven test stands at the Østerild National Test Centre for Large Wind Turbines in Denmark. Calculations have been carried out mainly using wind data from three on-site wind lidars. The generalized wind climates applied in the wind resource calculations for the seven test stands are based on correlations between a short period of on-site wind data from the wind lidars with a long-term reference. The wind resource assessment for the seven ...

  17. Wind Resource Atlas of Oaxaca (CD-ROM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-08-01

    The CD version of the Oaxaca Wind Resource Atlas, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group, is the result of an extensive mapping study for the Mexican State of Oaxaca. This atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Oaxaca. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  18. Wind resource assessment in heterogeneous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwel, C.; Placidi, M.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution particle image velocimetry data obtained in rough-wall boundary layer experiments are re-analysed to examine the influence of surface roughness heterogeneities on wind resource. Two different types of heterogeneities are examined: (i) surfaces with repeating roughness units of the order of the boundary layer thickness (Placidi & Ganapathisubramani. 2015 J. Fluid Mech. 782, 541-566. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.552)) and (ii) surfaces with streamwise-aligned elevated strips that mimic adjacent hills and valleys (Vanderwel & Ganapathisubramani. 2015 J. Fluid Mech. 774, 1-12. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.228)). For the first case, the data show that the power extraction potential is highly dependent on the surface morphology with a variation of up to 20% in the available wind resource across the different surfaces examined. A strong correlation is shown to exist between the frontal and plan solidities of the rough surfaces and the equivalent wind speed, and hence the wind resource potential. These differences are also found in profiles of graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="RSTA20160109IM1"/> and graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="RSTA20160109IM2"/> (where U is the streamwise velocity), which act as proxies for thrust and power output. For the second case, the secondary flows that cause low- and high-momentum pathways when the spacing between adjacent hills is beyond a critical value result in significant variations in wind resource availability. Contour maps of graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="RSTA20160109IM3"/> and graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="RSTA20160109IM4"/> show a large difference in thrust and power potential (over 50%) between hills and valleys (at a fixed vertical height). These variations do not seem to be present when adjacent hills are close to each other (i.e. when the spacing is much less than the boundary layer thickness). The

  19. Wind and solar resource data sets: Wind and solar resource data sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Hodge, Bri-Mathias [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Power Systems Engineering Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Badger, Jake [Department of Wind Energy, Danish Technical University, Copenhagen Denmark; Habte, Aron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Power Systems Engineering Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2017-12-05

    The range of resource data sets spans from static cartography showing the mean annual wind speed or solar irradiance across a region to high temporal and high spatial resolution products that provide detailed information at a potential wind or solar energy facility. These data sets are used to support continental-scale, national, or regional renewable energy development; facilitate prospecting by developers; and enable grid integration studies. This review first provides an introduction to the wind and solar resource data sets, then provides an overview of the common methods used for their creation and validation. A brief history of wind and solar resource data sets is then presented, followed by areas for future research.

  20. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  1. A high resolution global wind atlas - improving estimation of world wind resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Jake; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    to population centres, electrical transmission grids, terrain types, and protected land areas are important parts of the resource assessment downstream of the generation of wind climate statistics. Related to these issues of integration are the temporal characteristics and spatial correlation of the wind...... resources. These aspects will also be addressed by the Global Wind Atlas. The Global Wind Atlas, through a transparent methodology, will provide a unified, high resolution, and public domain dataset of wind energy resources for the whole world. The wind atlas data will be the most appropriate wind resource...

  2. Estimating the Wind Resource in Uttarakhand: Comparison of Dynamic Downscaling with Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, J. K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pukayastha, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, C. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Newsom, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Previous estimates of the wind resources in Uttarakhand, India, suggest minimal wind resources in this region. To explore whether or not the complex terrain in fact provides localized regions of wind resource, the authors of this study employed a dynamic down scaling method with the Weather Research and Forecasting model, providing detailed estimates of winds at approximately 1 km resolution in the finest nested simulation.

  3. Wind Resource and Feasibility Assessment Report for the Lummi Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc.; J.C. Brennan & Associates, Inc.; Hamer Environmental L.P.

    2012-08-31

    This report summarizes the wind resource on the Lummi Indian Reservation (Washington State) and presents the methodology, assumptions, and final results of the wind energy development feasibility assessment, which included an assessment of biological impacts and noise impacts.

  4. Comparison of SAR Wind Speed Retrieval Algorithms for Evaluating Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozai, K.; Ohsawa, T.; Takeyama, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Envisat/ASAR-derived offshore wind speeds and energy densities based on 4 different SAR wind speed retrieval algorithms (CMOD4, CMOD-IFR2, CMOD5, CMOD5.N) are compared with observed wind speeds and energy densities for evaluating offshore wind energy resources. CMOD4 ignores effects of atmospheri...

  5. Human resources challenges for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottingham, C. [Electricity Sector Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The potential role of the Electricity Sector Council in wind power workforce development was reviewed. Canada is a major exporter of electricity, and production of electricity in the country has grown by 10 per cent in the last 10 years. The electric industry has become increasingly interested in the development of renewable and sustainable energy sources in order to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity production and use, as well to address potential supply shortages. However, total labour force growth in Canada is expected to drop to 0.5 per cent by 2010, and is expected to keep falling. Engineering and science enrolments in post-secondary institutions are declining. Many immigrants to Canada choose to settle in metropolitan areas, and only 4 in 10 immigrants are able to achieve validation of their credentials in the Canadian education system. One-third of Canadian employees are expected to retire in the next 8 years. The wind energy sector is the fastest growing energy source sector in Canada, and there are limited training facilities available. Competency profiles for roles in the industry are not clearly defined. Many provinces have very little development to support or sustain educational services for wind power training. This presentation suggested that the wind energy sector should prepare for the anticipated workforce shortage by planning training programs and building partnerships in workforce development. Investments in wind power research and development should have contract provisions regarding labour and skills development. Retiring electricity workers may provide a source of labour support. Sector councils provide a neutral forum for employers, educators, and employees, with a focus on human resource development for specific industry sectors. The councils represent an estimated 45 to 50 per cent of the labour market, and have significant federal funding. The Electricity Sector Council offers advanced career and workforce training; youth

  6. Forecastability as a Design Criterion in Wind Resource Assessment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to include the wind power forecasting ability, or 'forecastability,' of a site as a design criterion in wind resource assessment and wind power plant design stages. The Unrestricted Wind Farm Layout Optimization (UWFLO) methodology is adopted to maximize the capacity factor of a wind power plant. The 1-hour-ahead persistence wind power forecasting method is used to characterize the forecastability of a potential wind power plant, thereby partially quantifying the integration cost. A trade-off between the maximum capacity factor and the forecastability is investigated.

  7. Offshore wind resources at Danish measurement sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R J; Courtney, M S; Lange, B; Nielsen, M; Sempreviva, A M [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Svenson, J; Olsen, F [SEAS, Haslev (Denmark); Christensen, T [Elsamprojekt, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    In order to characterise wind and turbulence characteristics at prospective offshore wind energy sites, meteorological observations from a number of purpose-built offshore monitoring sites have been analyzed and compared with long wind speed time series. New analyses have been conducted on the data sets focussing on meteorology, turbulence, extreme winds and wind and wave interactions. Relationships between wind speed, turbulence and fetch are highly complex. Minimum turbulence intensity offshore is associated with wind speeds of about 12 m/s. At lower wind speeds, stability effects are important while at higher winds speeds wind and wave interactions appear to dominate. On average, turbulence intensity offshore at 48 m height is approximately 0.08 if no coastal effects are present. However, the effect of the coastal discontinuity persists in wind speed and turbulence characteristics for considerable distances offshore. The majority of the adjustment of appears to occur within 20 km of the coast. (au)

  8. The Potential Wind Power Resource in Australia: A New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Australia’s wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia’s electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia’s energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia’s wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast’s electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it’s intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale. PMID:24988222

  9. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  10. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willow Hallgren

    Full Text Available Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  11. Wind resource assessment and wind energy system cost analysis: Fort Huachuca, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.L. [Tim Olsen Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); McKenna, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this joint DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project is to determine whether wind turbines can reduce costs by providing power to US military facilities in high wind areas. In support of this objective, one year of data on the wind resources at several Fort Huachuca sites was collected. The wind resource data were analyzed and used as input to an economic study for a wind energy installation at Fort Huachuca. The results of this wind energy feasibility study are presented in the report.

  12. Satellite SAR wind resource mapping in China (SAR-China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, M.

    2009-07-15

    The project 'Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China' is funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP) and runs for one year (August 2008 - August 2009). The project is lead by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and supported by SgurrEnergy Ltd. Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark (Risoe DTU) has been commissioned to perform a satellite based wind resource analysis as part of the project. The objective of this analysis is to map the wind resource offshore at a high spatial resolution (1 km). The detailed wind resource maps will be used, in combination with other data sets, for an assessment of potential sites for offshore wind farm development along the coastline from Fujian to Shandong in China. (au)

  13. Wind class sampling of satellite SAR imagery for offshore wind resource mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Badger, Jake; Nielsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    developed for mesoscale modeling of wind resources. Its performance in connection with sampling of SAR scenes is tested against two sets of random SAR samples and meteorological observations at three sites in the North Sea during 2005–08. Predictions of the mean wind speed and the Weibull scale parameter......High-resolution wind fields retrieved from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery are combined for mapping of wind resources offshore where site measurements are costly and sparse. A new sampling strategy for the SAR scenes is introduced, based on a method for statistical......-dynamical downscaling of large-scale wind conditions using a set of wind classes that describe representative wind situations. One or more SAR scenes are then selected to represent each wind class and the classes are weighted according to their frequency of occurrence. The wind class methodology was originally...

  14. Applicability of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrievals on Offshore Wind Resources Assessment in Hangzhou Bay, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Rui; Zhu, Rong; Badger, Merete

    2014-01-01

    In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from...... ENVISAT advanced SAR (ASAR) for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 181 collected pairs of wind data from SAR wind maps and from 13 meteorological stations in Hangzhou Bay are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a standard...... density functions are compared at one meteorological station. The SAR-based results appear not to estimate the mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and wind power density from the full in situ data set so well due to the lower number of satellite samples. Distributions calculated from...

  15. Wind power in Scotland - a critique of recent resource assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twidell, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A critical analysis of 4 recent UK official reports relating to the renewable energy resources of Scotland, particularly the large wind resource, and including institutional and economic factors. Key points are listed with comments for use in supporting wind power developments. (Author)

  16. Management of moderate wind energy coastal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanis, D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Life cycle analysis reveals the viability of moderate wind fields utilization. → Wind turbine is the greenest electricity generator at a touristic site. → Wind parks should be collective applications of small hotel-apartments owners. -- Abstract: The feasibility of wind energy utilization at moderate wind fields was investigated for a typical touristic coastal site in Western Greece. Initially, the wind speed and direction as well as its availability, duration and diurnal variation were assessed. For an analysis period of eight years, the mean wind speed at ten meters was determined as 3.8 m s -1 with a small variation in monthly average wind speeds between 3.0 (January) and 4.4 m s -1 (October). The mean wind power density was less than 200 W m -2 at 10 m indicating the limiting suitability of the site for the usual renewable energy applications. However, life cycle analysis for wind turbine generators with lower cut-in, cut-out, and rated speeds revealed that the energy yield ratio can reach a value of six for a service life of 20 years while the energy pay-back period can be 3 years with 33 kt CO 2 -e of avoided greenhouse emissions. Therefore, the recent technological turbine improvements make wind power viable even at moderate wind fields. Moreover, the study of electricity supply of typical small hotel-apartments in the region of Western Greece indicated that the installation of 300 wind turbine generators in these moderate wind fields would cover the total consumption during the open touristic period with profits during the rest of the year. According to these results, wind turbine generators are the 'greenest' way of generating electricity in touristic coastal sites, even of moderate wind speeds.

  17. Estimating near-shore wind resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Peña, Alfredo

    An evaluation and sensitivity study using the WRF mesoscale model to estimate the wind in a coastal area is performed using a unique data set consisting of scanning, profiling and floating lidars. The ability of the WRF model to represent the wind speed was evaluated by running the model for a four...... grid spacings were performed for each of the two schemes. An evaluation of the wind profile using vertical profilers revealed small differences in modelled mean wind speed between the different set-ups, with the YSU scheme predicting slightly higher mean wind speeds. Larger differences between...... the different simulations were observed when comparing the root-mean-square error (RMSE) between modelled and measured wind, with the ERA interim-based simulations having the lowest errors. The simulations with finer horizontal grid spacing had a larger MSE. Horizontal transects of mean wind speed across...

  18. Asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources in Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Gunturu, Udaya

    2017-08-14

    Wind and hydropower together constitute nearly 80% of the renewable capacity in Australia and their resources are collocated. We show that wind and hydro generation capacity factors covary negatively at the interannual time scales. Thus, the technology diversity mitigates the variability of renewable power generation at the interannual scales. The asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources is explained by the differential impact of the two modes of the El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation – canonical and Modoki – on the wind and hydro resources. Also, the Modoki El Ni˜no and the Modoki La Ni˜na phases have greater impact. The seasonal impact patterns corroborate these results. As the proportion of wind power increases in Australia’s energy mix, this negative covariation has implications for storage capacity of excess wind generation at short time scales and for generation system adequacy at the longer time scales.

  19. Asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources in Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Gunturu, Udaya; Hallgren, Willow

    2017-01-01

    Wind and hydropower together constitute nearly 80% of the renewable capacity in Australia and their resources are collocated. We show that wind and hydro generation capacity factors covary negatively at the interannual time scales. Thus, the technology diversity mitigates the variability of renewable power generation at the interannual scales. The asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources is explained by the differential impact of the two modes of the El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation – canonical and Modoki – on the wind and hydro resources. Also, the Modoki El Ni˜no and the Modoki La Ni˜na phases have greater impact. The seasonal impact patterns corroborate these results. As the proportion of wind power increases in Australia’s energy mix, this negative covariation has implications for storage capacity of excess wind generation at short time scales and for generation system adequacy at the longer time scales.

  20. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  1. Asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Hallgren, Willow

    2017-08-18

    Wind and hydropower together constitute nearly 80% of the renewable capacity in Australia and their resources are collocated. We show that wind and hydro generation capacity factors covary negatively at the interannual time scales. Thus, the technology diversity mitigates the variability of renewable power generation at the interannual scales. The asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources is explained by the differential impact of the two modes of the El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation - canonical and Modoki - on the wind and hydro resources. Also, the Modoki El Ni˜no and the Modoki La Ni˜na phases have greater impact. The seasonal impact patterns corroborate these results. As the proportion of wind power increases in Australia's energy mix, this negative covariation has implications for storage capacity of excess wind generation at short time scales and for generation system adequacy at the longer time scales.

  2. Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Nedaei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energies have potential for supplying of relatively clean and mostly local energy. Wind energy generation is expected to increase in the near future and has experienced dramatic growth over the past decade in many countries. Wind speed is the most important parameter in the design and study of wind energy conversion systems. Probability density functions such as Weibull and Rayleigh are often used in wind speed and wind energy analyses. This paper presents an assessment of wind energy at three heights during near two years based on Weibull distribution function in Abadan Airport. Extrapolation of the 10 m and 40 m data, using the power law, has been used to determine the wind speed at height of 80 m. According to the results wind speed at 80 m height in Abadan is ranged from 5.8 m/s in Nov to 8.5 m/s in Jun with average value of 7.15 m/s. In this study, different parameters such as Weibull parameters, diurnal and monthly wind speeds, cumulative distribution and turbulence intensity have been estimated and analyzed. In addition Energy production of different wind turbines at different heights was estimated. The results show that the studied site has good potential for Installation of large and commercial wind turbines at height of 80 m or higher. Keywords: Abadan, Iran, wind energy, wind resource, wind turbine, Weibull

  3. Quantifying offshore wind resources from satellite wind maps: Study area the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Christiansen, Merete B.

    2006-01-01

    Offshore wind resources are quantified from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and satellite scatterometer observations at local and regional scale respectively at the Horns Rev site in Denmark. The method for wind resource estimation from satellite observations interfaces with the wind atlas...... of the Horns Rev wind farm is quantified from satellite SAR images and compared with state-of-the-art wake model results with good agreement. It is a unique method using satellite observations to quantify the spatial extent of the wake behind large offshore wind farms. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....... analysis and application program (WAsP). An estimate of the wind resource at the new project site at Horns Rev is given based on satellite SAR observations. The comparison of offshore satellite scatterometer winds, global model data and in situ data shows good agreement. Furthermore, the wake effect...

  4. A methodology for the prediction of offshore wind energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S J; Watson, G M [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Holt, R.J. [Univ. of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom)] Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Zuylen, E.J. van [Ecofys Energy and Environment, Utrecht (Netherlands)] Cleijne, J.W. [Kema Sustainable, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    There are increasing constraints on the development of wind power on land. Recently, there has been a move to develop wind power offshore, though the amount of measured wind speed data at potential offshore wind farm sites is sparse. We present a novel methodology for the prediction of offshore wind power resources which is being applied to European Union waters. The first stage is to calculate the geostrophic wind from long-term pressure fields over the sea area of interest. Secondly, the geostrophic wind is transformed to the sea level using WA{sup s}P, taking account of near shore topography. Finally, these values are corrected for land/sea climatology (stability) effects using an analytical Coastal discontinuity Model (CDM). These values are further refined using high resolution offshore data at selected sites. The final values are validated against existing offshore datasets. Preliminary results are presented of the geostrophic wind speed validation in European Union waters. (au)

  5. Wind resource assessment and siting analysis in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, A.; Mizzoni, G.; Rossi, E.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the wind power industry has matured; consequently, in many countries a lot of wind energy applications have been programmed. Many of them are already realized and running. As such, there is a direct necessity to identify a sizeable number of wind power plant sites. Choosing the right sites to match specific Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) is also needed to harness this clean energy from the points of view of industrial viability and project financing. As a pre-requisite to install a wind turbine at a particular site, it is necessary to have knowledge of the theoretical available wind energy at the site, as well as, of the practicability of the design in matching the characteristics of the WECS. In this paper, ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) wind siting and resource assessment activities, currently on-going in different regions in Italy, along with the present status and future prospects of the wind power industry

  6. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  7. Wind Resource Assessment and Requested Wind Turbine Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ken [Municipal Civil Corporation, Gas City, IN (United States); Wolar, John [Municipal Civil Corporation, Gas City, IN (United States)

    2012-10-22

    Alternate Energy Solutions, Inc. (“AESWR”) was engaged by the Town of Brookston (“Brookston”) to assemble, erect and maintain one 60 m XHD meteorological tower manufactured by NRG Systems, Inc.; for monitoring, recording and evaluating collected wind data. It is the opinion of AESWR staff that study results support the development of a wind turbine project at the Bol Family Farm provided: a) additional land is leased for the project; b) project construction costs are controlled; and c) a prudent power purchase agreement is negotiated with a power take-off entity. We believe that a project having an aggregate nameplate rating sized from 6.0 MW to 20 MW would be appropriate for this location. We recommend 100-125 acres of land per installed MW be used as a general rule for acquiring wind energy land lease agreements, total land lease holdings to be acquired would then approach 750 acres to 2,500 acres.

  8. Session: What can we learn from developed wind resource areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Carl; Erickson, Wally

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop was composed of two parts intended to examine what existing science tells us about wind turbine impacts at existing wind project sites. Part one dealt with the Altamont Wind Resource area, one of the older wind projects in the US, with a paper presented by Carl Thelander titled ''Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part 1''. Questions addressed by the presenter included: how is avian habitat affected at Altamont and do birds avoid turbine sites; are birds being attracted to turbine strings; what factors contribute to direct impacts on birds by wind turbines at Altamont; how do use, behavior, avoidance and other factors affect risk to avian species, and particularly impacts those species listed as threatened, endangered, or of conservation concern, and other state listed species. The second part dealt with direct impacts to birds at new generation wind plants outside of California, examining such is sues as mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts from terrestrial wind projects, species and numbers killed per turbine rates/MW generated, impacts to listed threatened and endangered species, to USFWS Birds of Conservation Concern, and to state listed species. This session focused on newer wind project sites with a paper titled ''Bird Fatality and Risk at New Generation Wind Projects'' by Wally Erickson. Each paper was followed by a discussion/question and answer period.

  9. Wind resource assessment: A three year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abbadi, N.M.; Alawaji, S.H.; Eugenio, N.N. [Energy Research Institute (ERI), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of data collected from three different sites located in the central, northern and eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Each site is geographically and climatologically different from the others. Statistical moments and frequency distributions were generated for the wind speed and direction parameters to analyse the wind energy characteristics and its availability. The results of these statistical operations present the wind power and energy density estimates of the three sites. The data analysis presented a prospect of wind energy conversion and utilization. The annual extractable energy density is 488, 890, 599 kWh/m{sup 2} for the central, northern and eastern sites respectively. Also, the paper demonstrates the lessons learned from operating wind assessment stations installed in remote areas having different environmental characteristics.

  10. Terminology Guideline for Classifying Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to establish a clear and consistent vocabulary for conveying offshore wind resource potential and to interpret this vocabulary in terms that are familiar to the oil and gas (O&G) industry. This involves clarifying and refining existing definitions of offshore wind energy resource classes. The terminology developed in this guideline represents one of several possible sets of vocabulary that may differ with respect to their purpose, data availability, and comprehensiveness. It was customized to correspond with established offshore wind practices and existing renewable energy industry terminology (e.g. DOE 2013, Brown et al. 2015) while conforming to established fossil resource classification as best as possible. The developers of the guideline recognize the fundamental differences that exist between fossil and renewable energy resources with respect to availability, accessibility, lifetime, and quality. Any quantitative comparison between fossil and renewable energy resources, including offshore wind, is therefore limited. For instance, O&G resources are finite and there may be significant uncertainty associated with the amount of the resource. In contrast, aboveground renewable resources, such as offshore wind, do not generally deplete over time but can vary significantly subhourly, daily, seasonally, and annually. The intent of this guideline is to make these differences transparent and develop an offshore wind resource classification that conforms to established fossil resource classifications where possible. This guideline also provides methods to quantitatively compare certain offshore wind energy resources to O&G resource classes for specific applications. Finally, this guideline identifies areas where analogies to established O&G terminology may be inappropriate or subject to misinterpretation.

  11. Satellite based wind resource assessment over the South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    variations are clearly visible across the domain; for instance sheltering effects caused by the land masses. The satellite based wind resource maps have two shortcomings. One is the lack of information at the higher vertical levels where wind turbines operate. The other is the limited number of overlapping...... years of WRF data – specifically the parameters heat flux, air temperature, and friction velocity – are used to calculate a long-term correction for atmospheric stability effects. The stability correction is applied to the satellite based wind resource maps together with a vertical wind profile...... from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are particularly suitable for offshore wind energy applications because they offer a spatial resolution up to 500 m and include coastal seas. In this presentation, satellite wind maps are used in combination with mast observations and numerical...

  12. Total, accessible and reserve wind energy resources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Trifonova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The article is a part of the international project 'Bulgaria Country Study to Address Climate Change Inventory of the Greenhouse Gases Emission and Sinks Alternative Energy Balance and Technology Programs' sponsored by the Department of Energy, US. The 'total' average annual wind resources in Bulgaria determined on the basis wind velocity density for more than 100 meteorological stations are estimated on 125 000 TWh. For the whole territory the theoretical wind power potential is about 14200 GW. The 'accessible' wind resources are estimated on about 62000 TWh. The 'reserve' (or usable) wind resources are determined using 8 velocity intervals for WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) operation, number and disposition of turbines, and the usable (3%) part of the territory. The annual reserve resources are estimated at about 21 - 33 TWh. The 'economically beneficial' wind resources (EBWR) are those part of the reserve resources which could be included in the country energy balance using specific technologies in specific time period. It is foreseen that at year 2010 the EBWR could reach 0.028 TWh. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  13. High-altitude wind resources in the Middle East

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew; Gunturu, Udaya; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2017-01-01

    In the Middle East, near-surface wind resources are intermittent. However, high-altitude wind resources are abundant, persistent, and readily available and may provide alternative energy resources in this fossil-fuel-dependent region. Using wind field data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2), this study identifies areas favorable to the deployment of airborne wind energy (AWE) systems in the Middle East and computes the optimal heights at which such systems would best operate. AWE potential is estimated using realistic AWE system specifications and assumptions about deployment scenarios and is compared with the near-surface wind generation potential with respect to diurnal and seasonal variability. The results show the potential utility of AWE in areas in the Middle East where the energy demand is high. In particular, Oman and Saudi Arabia have a high level of the potential power generation with low annual variability.

  14. High-altitude wind resources in the Middle East

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew

    2017-08-23

    In the Middle East, near-surface wind resources are intermittent. However, high-altitude wind resources are abundant, persistent, and readily available and may provide alternative energy resources in this fossil-fuel-dependent region. Using wind field data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2), this study identifies areas favorable to the deployment of airborne wind energy (AWE) systems in the Middle East and computes the optimal heights at which such systems would best operate. AWE potential is estimated using realistic AWE system specifications and assumptions about deployment scenarios and is compared with the near-surface wind generation potential with respect to diurnal and seasonal variability. The results show the potential utility of AWE in areas in the Middle East where the energy demand is high. In particular, Oman and Saudi Arabia have a high level of the potential power generation with low annual variability.

  15. Reliability benefits of dispersed wind resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.; Artig, R.

    1998-05-01

    Generating capacity that is available during the utility peak period is worth more than off-peak capacity. Wind power from a single location might not be available during enough of the peak period to provide sufficient value. However, if the wind power plant is developed over geographically disperse locations, the timing and availability of wind power from these multiple sources could provide a better match with the utility's peak load than a single site. There are other issues that arise when considering disperse wind plant development. Singular development can result in economies of scale and might reduce the costs of obtaining multiple permits and multiple interconnections. However, disperse development can result in cost efficiencies if interconnection can be accomplished at lower voltages or at locations closer to load centers. Several wind plants are in various stages of planning or development in the US. Although some of these are small-scale demonstration projects, significant wind capacity has been developed in Minnesota, with additional developments planned in Wyoming, Iowa and Texas. As these and other projects are planned and developed, there is a need to perform analysis of the value of geographically disperse sites on the reliability of the overall wind plant.This paper uses a production-cost/reliability model to analyze the reliability of several wind sites in the state of Minnesota. The analysis finds that the use of a model with traditional reliability measures does not produce consistent, robust results. An approach based on fuzzy set theory is applied in this paper, with improved results. Using such a model, the authors find that system reliability can be optimized with a mix of disperse wind sites

  16. A detailed and verified wind resource atlas for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, N G; Landberg, L; Rathmann, O; Nielsen, M N [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Nielsen, P [Energy and Environmental Data, Aalberg (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    A detailed and reliable wind resource atlas covering the entire land area of Denmark has been established. Key words of the methodology are wind atlas analysis, interpolation of wind atlas data sets, automated generation of digital terrain descriptions and modelling of local wind climates. The atlas contains wind speed and direction distributions, as well as mean energy densities of the wind, for 12 sectors and four heights above ground level: 25, 45, 70 and 100 m. The spatial resolution is 200 meters in the horizontal. The atlas has been verified by comparison with actual wind turbine power productions from over 1200 turbines. More than 80% of these turbines were predicted to within 10%. The atlas will become available on CD-ROM and on the Internet. (au)

  17. Satellite SAR wind resource mapping in China (SAR-China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    The project ‘Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China’ is funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP) and runs for one year (August 2008 - August 2009). The project is lead by the China Meteorological Administrat...

  18. Characterization of wind power resource and its intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunturu, U. B.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Wind resource in the continental and offshore United States has been calculated and characterized using metrics that describe - apart from abundance - its availability, persistence and intermittency. The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) boundary layer flux data has been used to construct wind power density profiles at 50, 80, 100 and 120 m turbine hub heights. The wind power density estimates at 50 m are qualitatively similar to those in the US wind atlas developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), but quantitatively a class less in some regions, but are within the limits of uncertainty. We also show that for long tailed distributions like those of the wind power density, the mean is an overestimation and median is a more robust metric for summary representation of wind power resource.Generally speaking, the largest and most available wind power density resources are found in off-shore regions of the Atlantic and Pacific coastline, and the largest on-shore resource potential lies in the central United States. However, the intermittency and widespread synchronicity of on-shore wind power density are substantial, and highlights areas where considerable back-up generation technologies will be required. Generation-duration curves are also presented for the independent systems operator (ISO) zones of the U.S. to highlight the regions with the largest capacity factor (MISO, ERCOT, and SWPP) as well as the periods and extent to which all ISOs contain no wind power and the potential benefits of aggregation on wind power intermittency in each region. The impact of raising the wind turbine hub height on metrics of abundance, persistence, variability and intermittency is analyzed. There is a general increase in availability and abundance of wind resource but there is also an increase in intermittency with respect to a 'usable wind power' crossing level in low resource regions. A similar perspective of wind resource for

  19. Prediction of Wind Energy Resources (PoWER) Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ARL-TR-7573● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Prediction of Wind Energy Resources (PoWER) User’s Guide by David P Sauter...manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use thereof. Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do...not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7573 ● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Prediction of Wind Energy Resources (PoWER

  20. Applicability of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrievals on Offshore Wind Resources Assessment in Hangzhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the high cost and sparse spatial resolution of offshore meteorological observations, ocean winds retrieved from satellites are valuable in offshore wind resource assessment as a supplement to in situ measurements. This study examines satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR images from ENVISAT advanced SAR (ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 181 collected pairs of wind data from SAR wind maps and from 13 meteorological stations in Hangzhou Bay are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a standard deviation (SD of 1.99 m/s and correlation coefficient of R = 0.67. The model wind directions, which are used as input for the SAR wind speed retrieval, show a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89 but a large standard deviation (SD = 42.3° compared to in situ observations. The Weibull probability density functions are compared at one meteorological station. The SAR-based results appear not to estimate the mean wind speed, Weibull scale and shape parameters and wind power density from the full in situ data set so well due to the lower number of satellite samples. Distributions calculated from the concurrent 81 SAR and in situ samples agree well.

  1. Preliminary results of Aruba wind resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guda, M.H. [Fundashon Antiyano Pa Energia, Curacao (Netherlands Antilles)

    1996-12-31

    As part of a project to assess the possibilities for wind energy utilitization in the Dutch Antilles islands, windspeed and -direction data were collected in Aruba for two years, from March 1992 to February 1994. Five sites that were estimated to be representative for the islands` wind regimes, were monitored during this period: two sites on the windward coast, one east and one west; two inland sites, again one east and one west, and one site topping the cliffs overlooking the eastern windward coast. Additionally, twenty years worth of data were analyzed for the reference site at the airport, which is in the middle part of the island, on the leeward coast. Correlation calculations between these data and the data for the project sites were performed, in order to establish a methodology for estimating the long-term behavior of the wind regimes at these sites. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. SAR-Based Wind Resource Statistics in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Peña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean winds in the Baltic Sea are expected to power many wind farms in the coming years. This study examines satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images from Envisat ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 900 collocated pairs of wind speed from SAR wind maps and from 10 meteorological masts, established specifically for wind energy in the study area, are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a root mean square error of 1.17 m s−1, bias of −0.25 m s−1, standard deviation of 1.88 m s−1 and correlation coefficient of R2 0.783. Wind directions from a global atmospheric model, interpolated in time and space, are used as input to the geophysical model function CMOD-5 for SAR wind retrieval. Wind directions compared to mast observations show a root mean square error of 6.29° with a bias of 7.75°, standard deviation of 20.11° and R2 of 0.950. The scale and shape parameters, A and k, respectively, from the Weibull probability density function are compared at only one available mast and the results deviate ~2% for A but ~16% for k. Maps of A and k, and wind power density based on more than 1000 satellite images show wind power density values to range from 300 to 800 W m−2 for the 14 existing and 42 planned wind farms.

  3. Improved Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in Global Climate Stabilization Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Sullivan, P.; Heimiller, D.; Lopez, A.; Eurek, K.; Badger, J.; Jorgensen, H. E.; Kelly, M.; Clarke, L.; Luckow, P.

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces a technique for digesting geospatial wind-speed data into areally defined -- country-level, in this case -- wind resource supply curves. We combined gridded wind-vector data for ocean areas with bathymetry maps, country exclusive economic zones, wind turbine power curves, and other datasets and relevant parameters to build supply curves that estimate a country's offshore wind resource defined by resource quality, depth, and distance-from-shore. We include a single set of supply curves -- for a particular assumption set -- and study some implications of including it in a global energy model. We also discuss the importance of downscaling gridded wind vector data to capturing the full resource potential, especially over land areas with complex terrain. This paper includes motivation and background for a statistical downscaling methodology to account for terrain effects with a low computational burden. Finally, we use this forum to sketch a framework for building synthetic electric networks to estimate transmission accessibility of renewable resource sites in remote areas.

  4. Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the Hawaiian Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manobianco, J.; Alonge, C.; Frank, J.; Brower, M.

    2010-07-01

    In March 2009, AWS Truepower was engaged by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a set of wind resource and plant output data for the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this project was to expand the methods and techniques employed in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) to include the state of Hawaii.

  5. Wind resource assessment using the WAsP software (DTU Wind Energy E-0135)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given each year at the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to wind resource assessment and siting issues using the WAsP suite of programs....

  6. 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms: Wind resource assessment using the WAsP software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given each year at the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to wind resource assessment and siting issues using the WAsP suite of programs....

  7. Planning and Development of Wind Farms: Wind Resource Assessment and Siting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 45700 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given at the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to wind resource assessment and siting issues using the WAsP suite of programs....

  8. Planning and Development of Wind Farms: Wind Resource Assessment and Siting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given at the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to wind resource assessment and siting issues using the WAsP suite of programs....

  9. Wind resource modelling for micro-siting - Validation at a 60-MW wind farm site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J C; Gylling Mortensen, N [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Said, U S [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-03-01

    This paper investigates and validates the applicability of the WAsP-model for layout optimization and micro-siting of wind turbines at a given site for a 60-MW wind farm at Zafarana at the Gulf of Suez in Egypt. Previous investigations show large gradients in the wind climate within the area. For the design and optimization of the wind farm it was found necessary to verify the WAsP extrapolation of wind atlas results from 2 existing meteorological masts located 5 and 10 km, respectively, from the wind farm site. On-site measurements at the 3.5 x 3.5 km{sup 2} wind farm site in combination with 7 years of near-site wind atlas measurements offer significant amounts of data for verification of wind conditions for micro-siting. Wind speeds, wind directions, turbulence intensities and guests in 47.5 m a.g.l. have been measured at 9 locations across the site. Additionally, one of the site masts is equipped as a reference mast, measuring both vertical profiles of wind speed and temperature as well as air pressure and temperature. The exercise is further facilitated by the fact that winds are highly uni-directional; the north direction accounting for 80-90% of the wind resource. The paper presents comparisons of 5 months of on-site measurements and modeled predictions from 2 existing meteorological masts located at distances of 5 and 10 km, respectively, from the wind farm site. Predictions based on terrain descriptions of the Wind Atlas for the Gulf of Suez 1991-95 showed over-predictions of wind speeds of 4-10%. With calibrated terrain descriptions, made based on measured data and a re-visit to critical parts of the terrain, the average prediction error of wind speeds was reduced to about 1%. These deviations are smaller than generally expected for such wind resource modeling, clearly documenting the validity of using WAsP modeling for micro-siting and layout optimization of the wind farm. (au)

  10. Wind Tunnel Management and Resource Optimization: A Systems Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Derya, A.; Aasen, Curtis A.

    2000-01-01

    Time, money, and, personnel are becoming increasingly scarce resources within government agencies due to a reduction in funding and the desire to demonstrate responsible economic efficiency. The ability of an organization to plan and schedule resources effectively can provide the necessary leverage to improve productivity, provide continuous support to all projects, and insure flexibility in a rapidly changing environment. Without adequate internal controls the organization is forced to rely on external support, waste precious resources, and risk an inefficient response to change. Management systems must be developed and applied that strive to maximize the utility of existing resources in order to achieve the goal of "faster, cheaper, better". An area of concern within NASA Langley Research Center was the scheduling, planning, and resource management of the Wind Tunnel Enterprise operations. Nine wind tunnels make up the Enterprise. Prior to this research, these wind tunnel groups did not employ a rigorous or standardized management planning system. In addition, each wind tunnel unit operated from a position of autonomy, with little coordination of clients, resources, or project control. For operating and planning purposes, each wind tunnel operating unit must balance inputs from a variety of sources. Although each unit is managed by individual Facility Operations groups, other stakeholders influence wind tunnel operations. These groups include, for example, the various researchers and clients who use the facility, the Facility System Engineering Division (FSED) tasked with wind tunnel repair and upgrade, the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Fabrication (FAB) group which fabricates repair parts and provides test model upkeep, the NASA and LARC Strategic Plans, and unscheduled use of the facilities by important clients. Expanding these influences horizontally through nine wind tunnel operations and vertically along the NASA management structure greatly increases the

  11. State of the Art and Trends in Wind Resource Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Probst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the significant rise of the utilization of wind energy the accurate assessment of the wind potential is becoming increasingly important. Direct applications of wind assessment techniques include the creation of wind maps on a local scale (typically 5 20 km and the micrositing of wind turbines, the estimation of vertical wind speed variations, prospecting on a regional scale (>100 km, estimation of the long-term wind resource at a given site, and forecasting. The measurement of wind speed and direction still widely relies on cup anemometers, though sonic anemometers are becoming increasingly popular. Moreover, remote sensing by Doppler techniques using the backscattering of either sonic beams (SODAR or light (LIDAR allowing for vertical profiling well beyond hub height are quickly moving into the mainstream. Local wind maps are based on the predicted modification of the regional wind flow pattern by the local atmospheric boundary layer which in turn depends on both topographic and roughness features and the measured wind rose obtained from one or several measurement towers within the boundaries of the planned development site. Initial models were based on linearized versions of the Navier-Stokes equations, whereas more recently full CFD models have been applied to wind farm micrositing. Linear models tend to perform well for terrain slopes lower than about 25% and have the advantage of short execution times. Long-term performance is frequently estimated from correlations with nearby reference stations with concurrent information and continuous time series over a period of at least 10 years. Simple methods consider only point-to-point linear correlations; more advanced methods like multiple regression techniques and methods based on the theory of distributions will be discussed. Both for early prospecting in regions where only scarce or unreliable reference information is available, wind flow modeling on a larger scale (mesoscale is becoming

  12. Kaneohe, Hawaii Wind Resource Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Green, J.; Meadows, B.

    2011-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has an interagency agreement to assist the Department of Defense (DOD) in evaluating the potential to use wind energy for power at residential properties at DOD bases in Hawaii. DOE assigned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to facilitate this process by installing a 50-meter (m) meteorological (Met) tower on residential property associated with the Marine Corps Base Housing (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay in Hawaii.

  13. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2016-03-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  14. The wind resource assessment program in Quebec Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahawita, R.; Bilodeau, L.; Gaudette, M.; Gratton, Y.; Noel, R.; Quach, T.T.

    1982-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the wind resource assessment programme undertaken by the provincial power utility Hydro-Quebec, in Quebec, Canada. The methodology used in different phases of the project is enunciated and explained and the results discussed. Supplementary studies of airflow over complex terrain using numerical modelling are described and the results evaluated. Since the program is still far from completion, conclusive statements cannot, at this time, be made about the viability of the wind energy resource. However, tentative conclusions are that wind energy as an alternate source of energy for the province is likely to be commerciaally viable since two of the most important requirements viz, the presence of a good wind regime and the availability of suitable land are satisfied in many regions.

  15. Distributed Wind Resource Assessment: State of the Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tinnesand, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) goals, researchers from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are investigating the Distributed Wind Resource Assessment (DWRA) process, which includes pre-construction energy estimation as well as turbine site suitability assessment. DWRA can have a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that will help the distributed wind industry follow a similar trajectory to the low-wind-speed designs in the utility-scale industry sector. By understanding the wind resource better, the industry could install larger rotors, capture more energy, and as a result, increase deployment while lowering the LCOE. a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that

  16. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  17. Wind resource in metropolitan France: assessment methods, variability and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdier, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    France has one of the largest wind potentials in Europe, yet far from being fully exploited. The wind resource and energy yield assessment is a key step before building a wind farm, aiming at predicting the future electricity production. Any over-estimation in the assessment process puts in jeopardy the project's profitability. This has been the case in the recent years, when wind farm managers have noticed that they produced less than expected. The under-production problem leads to questioning both the validity of the assessment methods and the inter-annual wind variability. This thesis tackles these two issues. In a first part are investigated the errors linked to the assessment methods, especially in two steps: the vertical extrapolation of wind measurements and the statistical modelling of wind-speed data by a Weibull distribution. The second part investigates the inter-annual to decadal variability of wind speeds, in order to understand how this variability may have contributed to the under-production and so that it is better taken into account in the future. (author) [fr

  18. Computer modelling of the UK wind energy resource: UK wind speed data package and user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, S F; Ravenscroft, F

    1993-12-31

    A software package has been developed for IBM-PC or true compatibles. It is designed to provide easy access to the results of a programme of work to estimate the UK wind energy resource. Mean wind speed maps and quantitative resource estimates were obtained using the NOABL mesoscale (1 km resolution) numerical model for the prediction of wind flow over complex terrain. NOABL was used in conjunction with digitised terrain data and wind data from surface meteorological stations for a ten year period (1975-1984) to provide digital UK maps of mean wind speed at 10m, 25m and 45m above ground level. Also included in the derivation of these maps was the use of the Engineering Science Data Unit (ESDU) method to model the effect on wind speed of the abrupt change in surface roughness that occurs at the coast. With the wind speed software package, the user is able to obtain a display of the modelled wind speed at 10m, 25m and 45m above ground level for any location in the UK. The required co-ordinates are simply supplied by the user, and the package displays the selected wind speed. This user manual summarises the methodology used in the generation of these UK maps and shows computer generated plots of the 25m wind speeds in 200 x 200 km regions covering the whole UK. The uncertainties inherent in the derivation of these maps are also described, and notes given on their practical usage. The present study indicated that 23% of the UK land area had speeds over 6 m/s, with many hill sites having 10m speeds over 10 m/s. It is concluded that these `first order` resource estimates represent a substantial improvement over the presently available `zero order` estimates. (18 figures, 3 tables, 6 references). (author)

  19. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  20. Estimation of wind and solar resources in Mali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, J.; Kamissoko, F.; Olander Rasmussen, M.; Larsen, Soeren; Guidon, N.; Boye Hansen, L.; Dewilde, L.; Alhousseini, M.; Noergaard, P.; Nygaard, I.

    2012-11-15

    The wind resource has been estimated for all of Mali at 7.5 km resolution using the KAMM/WAsP numerical wind atlas methodology. Three domains were used to cover entire country and three sets of wind classes used to capture change in large scale forcing over country. The final output includes generalized climate statistics for any location in Mali, giving wind direction and wind speed distribution. The modelled generalized climate statistics can be used directly in the WAsP software. The preliminary results show a wind resource, which is relatively low, but which under certain conditions may be economically feasible, i.e. at favourably exposed sites, giving enhanced winds, and where practical utilization is possible, given consideration to grid connection or replacement or augmentation of diesel-based electricity systems. The solar energy resource for Mali was assessed for the period between July 2008 and June 2011 using a remote sensing based estimate of the down-welling surface shortwave flux. The remote sensing estimates were adjusted on a month-by-month basis to account for seasonal differences between the remote sensing estimates and in situ data. Calibration was found to improve the coefficient of determination as well as decreasing the mean error both for the calibration and validation data. Compared to the results presented in the ''Renewable energy resources in Mali - preliminary mapping''-report that showed a tendency for underestimation compared to data from the NASA PPOWER/SSE database, the presented results show a very good agreement with the in situ data (after calibration) with no significant bias. Unfortunately, the NASA-database only contains data up until 2005, so a similar comparison could not be done for the time period analyzed in this study, although the agreement with the historic NASA data is still useful as reference. (LN)

  1. Satellite winds as a tool for offshore wind resource assessment: The Great Lakes Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubrawa, Paula; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    and combine all scenes into one wind speed map. QuikSCAT winds undergo a seasonal correction due to lack of data during the cold season that is based on its ratio relative to buoy time series. All processing steps reduce the biases of the individual maps relative to the buoy observed wind climates. The remote...

  2. Multidimensional optimal droop control for wind resources in DC microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Kaitlyn J.

    Two important and upcoming technologies, microgrids and electricity generation from wind resources, are increasingly being combined. Various control strategies can be implemented, and droop control provides a simple option without requiring communication between microgrid components. Eliminating the single source of potential failure around the communication system is especially important in remote, islanded microgrids, which are considered in this work. However, traditional droop control does not allow the microgrid to utilize much of the power available from the wind. This dissertation presents a novel droop control strategy, which implements a droop surface in higher dimension than the traditional strategy. The droop control relationship then depends on two variables: the dc microgrid bus voltage, and the wind speed at the current time. An approach for optimizing this droop control surface in order to meet a given objective, for example utilizing all of the power available from a wind resource, is proposed and demonstrated. Various cases are used to test the proposed optimal high dimension droop control method, and demonstrate its function. First, the use of linear multidimensional droop control without optimization is demonstrated through simulation. Next, an optimal high dimension droop control surface is implemented with a simple dc microgrid containing two sources and one load. Various cases for changing load and wind speed are investigated using simulation and hardware-in-the-loop techniques. Optimal multidimensional droop control is demonstrated with a wind resource in a full dc microgrid example, containing an energy storage device as well as multiple sources and loads. Finally, the optimal high dimension droop control method is applied with a solar resource, and using a load model developed for a military patrol base application. The operation of the proposed control is again investigated using simulation and hardware-in-the-loop techniques.

  3. Climate change impacts on wind energy resources in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Kjellstroem, E.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is a fundamental human need. Heat, light and transport for individuals combined with the needs of industry have created a demand for energy which for the last 100-200 years has been met largely through consumption of fossil fuels leading to altered atmospheric composition and modification of the global climate. These effects will be realised on local scales affecting not just temperature and precipitation but also wind, radiation and other parameters. Annual mean wind speeds and wind energy density over northern Europe were significantly higher at the end of twentieth century than during the middle portion of that century, with the majority of the change being focused on the winter season. To address questions regarding possible future wind climates we employ dynamical and empirical downscaling techniques that seek to take coarse resolution output from General Circulation Models (GCM), run to provide scenarios of future climate, and develop higher resolution regional wind climates. Analyses of the wind climate during the historical record indicate that both the dynamical approach and the empirical approach are capable of generating accurate, robust and quantitative assessments of the wind climate and energy density in northern Europe, and hence that they may be of great utility to those seeking financing for, or risk management of, wind farms in the face of climate uncertainty. The synthesis of application of these downscaling tools to climate projections for northern Europe is that there is no evidence of major changes in the wind energy resource. However, more research is required to quantify the uncertainties in developing these projections and to reduce those uncertainties. Further work should also be conducted to assess the validity of these downscaling approaches in other geographical locations. (BA)

  4. Multidisciplinary exploratory study of a geothermal resource in the active volcanic arc of Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navelot, Vivien; Favier, Alexiane; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Corsini, Michel; Verati, Chrystèle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Mercier de Lépinay, Jeanne; Munschy, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The GEOTREF project (high enthalpy geothermal energy in fractured reservoirs), supported by the French government program, "Investissements d'avenir" develops a sustainable geothermal resource in the Vieux Habitants area, 8-km south of the currently exploited Bouillante geothermal field. The Basse Terre Island is a recent volcanic arc (meta-andesite. This metamorphism forms cleavage plans thanks to a pressure-solution mechanism. Mineralogical transformations associated with these cleavage planes have an impact on petrophysical properties. The solid phase density and porosity decrease. An anisotropy of permeability develops due to cleavage plans. Thermodynamics modelling based on the rock chemical composition and petrography observations emphasizes a steady-state mineral assemblage between 1.5 - 2 kbar and 280 - 320˚ C. This is consistent with an in situ measured volcanic arc conductive geothermal gradient of 70 ˚ C/km.

  5. Small scale wind power harnessing in Colombian oil industry facilities: Wind resource and technology issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldo, Mauricio; Nieto, Cesar; Escudero, Ana C.; Cobos, Juan C.; Delgado, Fernando

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Looking to improve its national and international standing, Colombia's national oil company, Ecopetrol, has set its goal on becoming involved on the production of energy from multiple sources, most importantly, on having an important percentage of its installed capacity from renewable sources. Part of this effort entices the evaluation of wind power potential on its facilities, including production, transportation and administrative, as well as identifying those technologies most suitable for the specific conditions of an equatorial country such as Colombia. Due to the lack of adequate site information, the first step consisted in superimposing national data to the facilities map of the company; this allowed for the selection of the first set of potential sites. From this set, the terminal at Covenas-Sucre was selected taking into account not only wind resource, but ease of access and power needs, as well as having a more or less representative wind potential in comparison to the rest of the country. A weather station was then installed to monitor wind variables. Measurements taken showed high variations in wind direction, and relatively low velocity profiles, making most commercially available wind turbines difficult to implement. In light of the above, a series of iterative steps were taken, first considering a range of individual Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT), given their capacity to adapt to changing wind directions. However, wind speed variations proved to be a challenge for individual VAWT's, i.e. Darriues turbines do not work well with low wind speeds, and Savonius turbines are not efficient of high wind speeds. As a result, a combined Darrieus- Savonius VAWT was selected given the capacity to adapt to both wind regimes, while at the same time modifying the size and shape of the blades in order to adapt to the lower average wind speeds present at the site. The resulting prototype is currently under construction and is scheduled to

  6. A Comparison of Wind Flow Models for Wind Resource Assessment in Wind Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Landry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the accuracy of various coupled mesoscale-microscale wind flow modeling methodologies for wind energy applications. This is achieved by examining and comparing mean wind speeds from several wind flow modeling methodologies with observational measurements from several 50 m met towers distributed across the study area. At the mesoscale level, with a 5 km resolution, two scenarios are examined based on the Mesoscale Compressible Community Model (MC2 model: the Canadian Wind Energy Atlas (CWEA scenario, which is based on standard input data, and the CWEA High Definition (CWEAHD scenario where high resolution land cover input data is used. A downscaling of the obtained mesoscale wind climate to the microscale level is then performed, where two linear microscale models, i.e., MsMicro and the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP, are evaluated following three downscaling scenarios: CWEA-WAsP, CWEA-MsMicro and CWEAHD-MsMicro. Results show that, for the territory studied, with a modeling approach based on the MC2 and MsMicro models, also known as Wind Energy Simulation Toolkit (WEST, the use of high resolution land cover and topography data at the mesoscale level helps reduce modeling errors for both the mesoscale and microscale models, albeit only marginally. At the microscale level, results show that the MC2-WAsP modeling approach gave substantially better results than both MC2 and MsMicro modeling approaches due to tweaked meso-micro coupling.

  7. Wind power in Eritrea, Africa: A preliminary resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, K.; Rosen, K. [San Jose State Univ., CA (United States); Van Buskirk, R. [Dept. of Energy, Eritrea (Ethiopia)

    1997-12-31

    The authors preliminary assessment of Eritrean wind energy potential identified two promising regions: (1) the southeastern Red Sea coast and (2) the mountain passes that channel winds between the coastal lowlands and the interior highlands. The coastal site, near the port city of Aseb, has an exceptionally good resource, with estimated average annual wind speeds at 10-m height above 9 m/s at the airport and 7 m/s in the port. Furthermore, the southern 200 km of coastline has offshore WS{sub aa} > 6 m/s. This area has strong potential for development, having a local 20 MW grid and unmet demand for the fishing industry and development. Although the highland sites contain only marginal wind resources ({approximately} 5 m/s), they warrant further investigation because of their proximity to the capital city, Asmera, which has the largest unmet demand and a larger power grid (40 MW with an additional 80 MW planned) to absorb an intermittent source without storage.

  8. Evaluation of offshore wind resources by scale of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Lonsing, Reinhard

    -economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between project size, location, costs and ownership is analysed. Two scenarios are presented, which describe a state......Offshore wind energy has developed rapidly in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... can be explained by deeper water, higher distance to shore, bottlenecks in supply or higher raw material costs. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource...

  9. Evaluation of offshore wind resources by scale of development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Lonsing, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    -economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between project size, location, costs and ownership is analysed. Two scenarios are presented, which describe a state......Offshore wind energy has developed rapidly in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... can be explained by deeper water, higher distance to shore, bottlenecks in supply or higher raw material costs. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource...

  10. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.; Heimiller, D.; Haymes, S.; Musial, W.

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes the offshore wind resource potential for the contiguous United States and Hawaii as of May 2009. The development of this assessment has evolved over multiple stages as new regional meso-scale assessments became available, new validation data was obtained, and better modeling capabilities were implemented. It is expected that further updates to the current assessment will be made in future reports.

  11. State of the art on wind resource estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1998-12-31

    With the increasing number of wind resource estimation studies carried out for regions, countries and even larger areas all over the world, the IEA finds that the time has come to stop and take stock of the various methods used in these studies. The IEA would therefore like to propose an Experts Meeting on wind resource estimation. The Experts Meeting should describe the models and databases used in the various studies. It should shed light on the strengths and shortcomings of the models and answer questions like: where and under what circumstances should a specific model be used? what is the expected accuracy of the estimate of the model? and what is the applicability? When addressing databases the main goal will be to identify the content and scope of these. Further, the quality, availability and reliability of the databases must also be recognised. In the various studies of wind resources the models and databases have been combined in different ways. A final goal of the Experts Meeting is to see whether it is possible to develop systems of methods which would depend on the available input. These systems of methods should be able to address the simple case (level 0) of a region with barely no data, to the complex case of a region with all available measurements: surface observations, radio soundings, satellite observations and so on. The outcome of the meeting should be an inventory of available models as well as databases and a map of already studied regions. (au)

  12. Development of distributed topographical forecasting model for wind resource assessment using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, P.B. [Green Life Energy Solutions LLP, Secunderabad (India); Rao, S.S. [National Institute of Technology. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Warangal (India); Reddy, K.H. [JNT Univ.. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Anantapur (India)

    2012-07-01

    Economics of wind power projects largely depend on the availability of wind power density. Wind resource assessment is a study estimating wind speeds and wind power densities in the region under consideration. The accuracy and reliability of data sets comprising of wind speeds and wind power densities at different heights per topographic region characterized by elevation or mean sea level, is important for wind power projects. Indian Wind Resource Assessment program conducted in 80's consisted of wind data measured by monitoring stations at different topographies in order to measure wind power density values at 25 and 50 meters above the ground level. In this paper, an attempt has been made to assess wind resource at a given location using artificial neural networks. Existing wind resource data has been used to train the neural networks. Location topography (characterized by longitude, latitude and mean sea level), air density, mean annual wind speed (MAWS) are used as inputs to the neural network. Mean annual wind power density (MAWPD) in watt/m{sup 2} is predicted for a new topographic location. Simple back propagation based neural network has been found to be sufficient for predicting these values with suitable accuracy. This model is closely linked to the problem of wind energy forecasting considering the variations of specific atmospheric variables with time horizons. This model will help the wind farm developers to have an initial estimation of the wind energy potential at a particular topography. (Author)

  13. Remapping of the Wind Energy Resource in the Midwestern United States: Preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.; Elliot, D.

    2001-01-01

    A recent increase in interest and development of wind energy in the Midwestern United States has focused the need for updating wind resource maps of this area. The wind resource assessment group at the National Renewable Energy Lab., a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory, has produced updated high-resolution (1-km) wind resource maps for several states in this region. This abstract describes the computerized tools and methodology used by NREL to create the higher resolution maps

  14. Tidal influence on offshore wind fields and resource predictions[Efficient Development of Offshore Windfarms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, D. [Entec UK Ltd., Doherty Innovation Centre, Penicuik (United Kingdom); Infield, D. [Loughborough Univ., Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Tecnology, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-01

    The rise and fall of the sea surface due to tides effectively moves an offshore wind turbine hub through the wind shear profile. This effect is quantified using measured data from 3 offshore UK sites. Statistical evidence of the influence of tide on mean wind speed and turbulence is presented. The implications of this effect for predicting offshore wind resource are outlined. (au)

  15. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whissel, John C. [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States); Piche, Matthew [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  16. The influence of waves on the offshore wind resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, B [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Hoejstrup, J [NEG Micon, Randers (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    With the growing interest in offshore wind resources, it has become increasingly important to establish and refine models for the interaction between wind and waves in order to obtain accurate models for the sea surface roughness. The simple Charnock relation that has been applied for open sea conditions does not work well in the shallow water near-coastal areas that are important for offshore wind energy. A model for the surface roughness of the sea has been developed based on this concept, using an expression for the Charnock constant as a function of wave age, and then relating the wave `age` to the distance to the nearest upwind coastline. The data used in developing these models originated partly from analysis of data from the Vindeby site, partly from previously published results. The scatter in the data material was considerable and consequently there is a need to test these models further by analysing data from sites exhibiting varying distances to the coast. Results from such analysis of recent data are presented for sites with distances to the coast varying from 10 km to several hundreds of km. The model shows a good agreement also with this data. (au)

  17. Offshore Wind Resources Assessment from Multiple Satellite Data and WRF Modeling over South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using accurate inputs of wind speed is crucial in wind resource assessment, as predicted power is proportional to the wind speed cubed. This study outlines a methodology for combining multiple ocean satellite winds and winds from WRF simulations in order to acquire the accurate reconstructed offshore winds which can be used for offshore wind resource assessment. First, wind speeds retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR and Scatterometer ASCAT images were validated against in situ measurements from seven coastal meteorological stations in South China Sea (SCS. The wind roses from the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS and ASCAT agree well with these observations from the corresponding in situ measurements. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based (ASCAT-based wind speed for the whole co-located samples show a standard deviation (SD of 2.09 m/s (1.83 m/s and correlation coefficient of R 0.75 (0.80. When the offshore winds (i.e., winds directed from land to sea are excluded, the comparison results for wind speeds show an improvement of SD and R, indicating that the satellite data are more credible over the open ocean. Meanwhile, the validation of satellite winds against the same co-located mast observations shows a satisfactory level of accuracy which was similar for SAR and ASCAT winds. These satellite winds are then assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF Model by WRF Data Assimilation (WRFDA system. Finally, the wind resource statistics at 100 m height based on the reconstructed winds have been achieved over the study area, which fully combines the offshore wind information from multiple satellite data and numerical model. The findings presented here may be useful in future wind resource assessment based on satellite data.

  18. Danish-Czech wind resource know-how transfer project. Interim report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, O.; Noergaerd, P.; Frandsen, S.

    2003-12-01

    The progress of the Danish-Czech Wind Resource Know-how Transfer Project is reported. The know-how transfer component of the project has consisted in performing a wind resource training workshop for about 13 individuals from the Czech Republic, ranging from scientists to wind farm project developers, and in donating modern software for evaluating wind resources. The project has also included a review of a Czech overview-study of wind speeds inside the country as well as a study of the electricity tariffs and their impact on wind energy utilization in the Czech Republic. A problematic existing Czech wind farm project, locked up in a no-production situation, was also addressed. However, this situation turned out to be related to problems with economy and owner-ship to a higher degree than to low wind resources and technical problems, and it was not possible for the project to point out a way out of this situation. (au)

  19. Where, when and how much wind is available? A provincial-scale wind resource assessment for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Gang; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    China's wind installed capacity has grown at a remarkable rate, over 80% annually average growth since 2005, reaching 91.5 GW of capacity by end of 2013, accounting for over 27% of global capacity. This rapid growth has been the result of a domestic manufacturing base and favorable national policies. Further evolution will be greatly aided with a detailed wind resource assessment that incorporates spatial and temporal variability across China. We utilized 200 representative locations for which 10 years of hourly wind speed data exist to develop provincial capacity factors from 2001 to 2010, and to build analytic wind speed profiles. From these data and analysis we find that China's annual wind generation could reach 2000 TWh to 3500 TWh. Nationally this would correspond to an average capacity factor of 0.18. The diurnal and seasonal variation shows spring and winter has better wind resources than in the summer and fall. A highly interconnected and coordinated power system is needed to effectively exploit this large but variable resource. A full economic assessment of exploitable wind resources demands a larger, systems-level analysis of China's energy options, for which this work is a core requirement. - Highlights: • We assessed China's wind resources by utilizing 10 years of hourly wind speed data of 200 sites. • We built provincial scale wind speed profiles and develop provincial capacity factors for China. • We found that China's wind generation could reach 2000 TWh to 3500 TWh annually. • We observed similar temporal variation pattern of wind availability across China

  20. Offshore Wind Resources Assessment from Multiple Satellite Data and WRF Modeling over South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Rui; Rong, Zhu; Badger, Merete

    2015-01-01

    offshore winds which can be used for offshore wind resource assessment. First, wind speeds retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Scatterometer ASCAT images were validated against in situ measurements from seven coastal meteorological stations in South China Sea (SCS). The wind roses from...... (SD) of 2.09 m/s (1.83 m/s) and correlation coefficient of R 0.75 (0.80). When the offshore winds (i.e., winds directed from land to sea) are excluded, the comparison results for wind speeds show an improvement of SD and R, indicating that the satellite data are more credible over the open ocean...

  1. Wind as a utility-grade supply resource: A planning framework for the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.S.; Litchfield, J.

    1993-12-01

    Many areas throughout the United States possess favorable wind resources that, as yet, remain undeveloped. This paper provides valuable information on the type of information developers can provide, utility interpretation of the information in regard to electric energy and capacity attributes, and wind resource characteristics of interest to utilities. The paper also reviews key utility planning contexts within which prospective wind resources may be evaluated

  2. Analysis of the potential for hydrogen production in the province of Cordoba, Argentina, from wind resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, C.R.; Santa Cruz, R.; Aisa, S. [Universidad Empresarial Siglo 21, Monsenor Pablo Cabrera s/n calle, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Riso, M.; Jimenez Yob, G.; Ottogalli, R. [Subsecretaria de Infraestructuras y Programas, Ministerio de Obras y Servicios Publicos del Gobierno de la Provincia de Cordoba, Av. Poeta Lugones 12, 2do. Piso, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Jeandrevin, G. [Instituto Universitario Aeronautico, Avenida Fuerza Aerea km 6 1/2, 5022 Cordoba (Argentina); Leiva, E.P.M. [INFIQC, Unidad de Matematica y Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre s/n, 5010 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The potential for hydrogen production from wind resources in the province of Cordoba, second consumer of fossil fuels for transportation in Argentina, is analyzed. Three aspects of the problem are considered: the evaluation of the hydrogen resource from wind power, the analysis of the production costs via electrolysis and the annual requirements of wind energy to generate hydrogen to fuel the vehicular transport of the province. Different scenarios were considered, including pure hydrogen as well as the so-called CNG plus, where hydrogen is mixed with compressed natural gas in a 20% V/V dilution of the former. The potential for hydrogen production from wind resources is analyzed for each department of the province, excluding those regions not suited for wind farms. The analysis takes into account the efficiency of the electrolyzer and the capacity factor of the wind power system. It is concluded that the automotive transportation could be supplied by hydrogen stemming from wind resources via electrolysis. (author)

  3. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Predatory Bird Research Group

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  4. Smoothing out the volatility of South Africa’s wind and solar energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, Crescent

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past, renewables were mainly driven by the US, Europe and China, but South Africa is slowly picking up. This presentation discusses South Africa's wind and solar resources as alternative energy resources....

  5. Wind energy resources assessment for Yanbo, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents long term wind data analysis in terms of annual, seasonal and diurnal variations at Yanbo, which is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia. The wind speed and wind direction hourly data for a period of 14 years between 1970 and 1983 is used in the analysis. The analysis showed that the seasonal and diurnal pattern of wind speed matches the electricity load pattern of the location. Higher winds of the order of 5.0 m/s and more were observed during the summer months of the year and noon hours (09:00 to 16:00 h) of the day. The wind duration availability is discussed as the percent of hours during which the wind remained in certain wind speed intervals or bins. Wind energy calculations were performed using wind machines of sizes 150, 250, 600, 800, 1000, 1300, 1500, 2300 and 2500 kW rated power. Wind speed is found to remain above 3.5 m/s for 69% of the time during the year at 40, 50, 60, and 80 m above ground level. The energy production analysis showed higher production from wind machines of smaller sizes than the bigger ones for a wind farm of 30 MW installed capacity. Similarly, higher capacity factors were obtained for smaller wind machines compared to larger ones

  6. Wind Energy Based Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Sitting. A GIS/Wind Resource Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Xydis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transportation sector is severely correlated with major problems in environment, citizens’ health, climate and economy. Issues such as traffic, fuel cost and parking space have make life more difficult, especially in the dense urban environment. Thus, there is a great need for the development of the electric vehicle (EV sector. The number of cars in cities has increased so much that the current transportation system (roads, parking places, traffic lights, etc. cannot accommodate them properly. The increasing number of vehicles does not affect only humans but also the environment, through air and noise pollution. According to EPA, the 39.2% of total gas emissions in 2007 was caused by transportation activities. Studies have shown that the pollutants are not only gathered in the major roads and/or highways but can travel depending on the meteorological conditions leading to generic pollution. The promotion of EVs and the charging stations are both equally required to be further developed in order EVs to move out of the cities and finally confront the range problem. In this work, a wind resource and a GIS analysis optimizes in a wider area the sitting of wind based charging stations and proposes an optimizing methodology.

  7. Atlas de Recursos Eólicos del Estado de Oaxaca (The Spanish version of Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Oaxaca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2004-04-01

    The Oaxaca Wind Resource Atlas, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group, is the result of an extensive mapping study for the Mexican State of Oaxaca. This atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Oaxaca. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  8. Review of Methodologies for Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in European Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara

    2008-01-01

    promising wind farm sites and (ii) a site specific evaluation of wind climatology and vertical profiles of wind and atmospheric turbulence, in addition to an assessment of historical and possibly future changes due to climate non-stationarity. Phase (i) of the process can involve use of in situ observations......The wind resource offshore is generally larger than at geographically nearby onshore sites, which can offset the higher installation, operation and maintenance costs associated with offshore wind parks. Successful offshore wind energy development relies to some extent on accurate prediction of wind......) of the project often still requires in situ observations (which may or may not be supplemented with ground-based remote sensing technologies) and application of tools to provide a climatological context for the resulting measurements. Current methodologies for undertaking these aspects of the resource assessment...

  9. Wind Resource Variations Over Selected Sites in the West African Sub-Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iheonu, E. E.; Akingbade, F.O A.; Ocholi, M.

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of wind characteristics and wind resource potentials at 4 locations in the West African sub-region is presented, applying data obtained at the Ibadan central station of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Ibadan, Nigeria). The study has shown that the annual variations of wind speed have coefficient of variability between 10 and 15% but the available wind power at the studied locations is generally poor with values ranging between 2 and 10 Wm2 at the standard meteorological height of 10 m. Cotonou (Lat. 6.4 0 N, Long. 2.3 0 E) Benin Republic has however been distinguished from the other three locations in Nigeria, as the most promising site for wind resource development and utilization in the sub-region. With appropriate choice of wind turbine characteristics and design efficiency, establishing wind farms at the Cotonou location for electrical energy production could be feasible

  10. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 8. The southern Rocky Mountain region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, S.R.; Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Southern Rocky Mountain atlas assimilates five collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the four states that compose the Southern Rocky Mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  11. 76 FR 36532 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind...), Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, and Horizon Wind Energy LLC (Complainants) filed a formal complaint against Bonneville Power Administration...

  12. Combining the VAS 3D interpolation method and Wind Atlas methodology to produce a high-resolution wind resource map for the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanslian, David; Hošek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, May (2015), s. 291-299 ISSN 0960-1481 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : wind resource map * wind field modelling * wind measurements * wind climatology * Czech Republic * WAsP Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.404, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148114008398#

  13. A comprehensive measure of the energy resource: Wind power potential (WPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Chowdhury, Souma; Messac, Achille

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A more comprehensive metric is developed to accurately assess the quality of wind resources at a site. • WPP exploits the joint distribution of wind speed and direction, and yields more credible estimates. • WPP investigates the effect of wind distribution on the optimal net power generation of a farm. • The results show that WPD and WPP follow different trends. - Abstract: Currently, the quality of available wind energy at a site is assessed using wind power density (WPD). This paper proposes to use a more comprehensive metric: the wind power potential (WPP). While the former accounts for only wind speed information, the latter exploits the joint distribution of wind speed and wind direction and yields more credible estimates. The WPP investigates the effect of wind velocity distribution on the optimal net power generation of a farm. A joint distribution of wind speed and direction is used to characterize the stochastic variation of wind conditions. Two joint distribution methods are adopted in this paper: bivariate normal distribution and anisotropic lognormal method. The net power generation for a particular farmland size and installed capacity is maximized for different distributions of wind speed and wind direction, using the Unrestricted Wind Farm Layout Optimization (UWFLO) framework. A response surface is constructed to represent the computed maximum wind farm capacity factor as a function of the parameters of the wind distribution. Two different response surface methods are adopted in this paper: (i) the adaptive hybrid functions (AHF), and (ii) the quadratic response surface method (QRSM). Toward this end, for any farm site, we can (i) estimate the parameters of the joint distribution using recorded wind data (for bivariate normal or anisotropic lognormal distributions) and (ii) predict the maximum capacity factor for a specified farm size and capacity using this response surface. The WPP metric is illustrated using recorded wind

  14. Offshore Wind Resource Estimation in Mediterranean Area Using SAR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with long periods of m...

  15. Assessment of wind resources and annual energy production of wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the last 17 years. In Denmark the plan is to increase to 50% share of total electricity consumption in 2020 compared to 26% in 2011. In EU this was 6.3% in 2011. In EU new installed wind power was 9 GW and 0.8 GW, onshore and offshore, respectively, in 2011. The total capacity in Europe is 96 GW......Wind energy provides a significant share of EU’s renewable energy source. It is anticipated in the European Commission (EC), the International Energy Agency (IEA), and the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) that wind energy expands further. Wind energy has had an annual growth of 15.6% during...

  16. Application of an atmospheric CFD code to wind resource assessment in complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laporte, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is organized in two parts. The first part presents the use of the atmospheric CFD code Mercure Saturne to estimate the wind resource in complex terrain. A measurement campaign was led by EDF to obtain data for validation. A methodology was developed using meso-scale profiles as boundary conditions. Clustering of meteorological situations was used to reduce the number of simulations needed to calculate the wind resource. The validation of the code on the Askervein hill, the methodology and comparisons with measurements from the complex site are presented. The second part presents the modeling of wakes with the Mercure Saturne code. Forces, generated by the blades on the wind, are modeled by source terms, calculated by the BEM method. Two comparisons are proposed to validate the method: the first compares the numerical model with wind tunnel measurements from a small wind turbine, the second with measurements made on porous disks in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel (author) [fr

  17. Wind resources at turbine height from Envisat and Sentinel-1 SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    for the standard output level of 10 m above the sea surface. This presentation demonstrates the effects of two recent improvements related to satellite-based wind resource mapping: 1) The number of satellite samples has increased dramatically since the launch of Sentinel-1A/B 2) A new method looks promising...... National Ice Center. Once the instantaneous wind maps are stored in our database, they can be organized as time series in order to calculate wind resources for any point location or area. Since the time series comprises data from both Envisat and Sentinel-1, a check of the data calibration against one....... To extrapolate the 10-m wind resource maps from SAR to higher levels within the atmospheric boundary layer, we estimate a wind profile for each grid cell in the maps. Simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are used to correct this profile for long-term atmospheric stability effects...

  18. Stochastic Prediction of Wind Generating Resources Using the Enhanced Ensemble Model for Jeju Island’s Wind Farms in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Deockho Kim; Jin Hur

    2017-01-01

    Due to the intermittency of wind power generation, it is very hard to manage its system operation and planning. In order to incorporate higher wind power penetrations into power systems that maintain secure and economic power system operation, an accurate and efficient estimation of wind power outputs is needed. In this paper, we propose the stochastic prediction of wind generating resources using an enhanced ensemble model for Jeju Island’s wind farms in South Korea. When selecting the poten...

  19. Danish-Czech wind resource know-how transfer project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, O.; Noergaerd, P.; Frandsen, S.

    2004-06-01

    The course of the Danish-Czech Wind Resource Know-how Transfer Project is reported. The know-how transfer component of the project has consisted in performing a wind resource training work-shop for about 13 individuals from the Czech Republic, ranging from scientists to wind farm project developers, and in donating modern software for evaluating wind resources. The project has also included a review of a Czech overview-study of wind speeds inside the country as well as an investigation of the electricity tariffs and their impact on wind energy utilization in the Czech Republic. A problematic existing Czech wind farm project, locked up in a no-production situation, was also addressed. Not until the purchase by a new owner-company, which initiated the necessary repair and maintenance, the wind farm resumed normal operation. As its last task, the present project assisted in consolidating future operation through a helping package consisting of a training course for the wind farm technicians and in a package of relevant spare parts. (au)

  20. COMPLEX MAPPING OF ENERGY RESOURCES FOR ALLOCATION OF SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Novakovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents developed methodology of solar and wind energy resources complex mapping at the regional level, taking into account the environmental and socio-economic factors affecting the placement of renewable energy facilities. Methodology provides a reasonable search and allocation of areas, the most promising for the placement of wind and solar power plants.

  1. Wind Resource Assessment and Forecast Planning with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolus K. Rotich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we built three types of artificial neural networks, namely: Feed forward networks, Elman networks and Cascade forward networks, for forecasting wind speeds and directions. A similar network topology was used for all the forecast horizons, regardless of the model type. All the models were then trained with real data of collected wind speeds and directions over a period of two years in the municipal of Puumala, Finland. Up to 70th percentile of the data was used for training, validation and testing, while 71–85th percentile was presented to the trained models for validation. The model outputs were then compared to the last 15% of the original data, by measuring the statistical errors between them. The feed forward networks returned the lowest errors for wind speeds. Cascade forward networks gave the lowest errors for wind directions; Elman networks returned the lowest errors when used for short term forecasting.

  2. Wind Energy Resource Atlas. Volume 11. Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, and assessments of the wind resource in each division of the region. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be inerpreted is presented. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource for each division are provided. Assessments for individual divisions are presented as separate chapters. Much of the information in the division chapters is given in graphic or tabular form. The sequences for each chapter are similar, but some presentations used for Hawaii are inappropriate or impractical for presentation with the Pacific Islands. Hawaii chapter figure and tables are cited below and appropriate Pacific Islands figure and table numbers are included in brackets ().

  3. Optimum sizing of wind-battery systems incorporating resource uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Anindita; Kedare, Shireesh B.; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2010-01-01

    The inherent uncertainty of the wind is a major impediment for successful implementation of wind based power generation technology. A methodology has been proposed in this paper to incorporate wind speed uncertainty in sizing wind-battery system for isolated applications. The uncertainty associated with the wind speed is incorporated using chance constraint programming approach. For a pre-specified reliability requirement, a deterministic equivalent energy balance equation may be derived from the chance constraint that allows time series simulation of the entire system. This results in a generation of the entire set of feasible design options, satisfying different system level constraints, on a battery capacity vs. generator rating diagram, also known as the design space. The proposed methodology highlights the trade-offs between the wind turbine rating, rotor diameter and the battery size for a given reliability of power supply. The optimum configuration is chosen on the basis of the minimum cost of energy (US$/kWh). It is shown with the help of illustrative examples that the proposed methodology is generic and flexible to incorporate alternate sub-component models. (author)

  4. Wind resource and plant output data sets for wind integration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Jaclyn D.; Manobianco, John; Alonge, Charles J.; Brower, Michael C. [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States)

    2010-07-01

    One of the first step towards understanding the impact of increasing penetrations of wind is developing data sets of wind power output over large regions. To facilitate the development of these data sets, AWS Truepower (AWST) generated wind speeds over multiple years (2-3) using the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS). These simulations were performed with high spatial resolution (1-2 km) to capture the wind flows over each area of interest. Output was saved in 10-minute interval to capture variations in wind speed so that plant output could be analyzed against utility load and system operations. This paper will describe the methodology of mesoscale modeling, site selection, conversion to power, and downscaling to high frequency output. Additionally, the generation of synthetic forecasts will be discussed. The validation results from recent studies in the eastern United States and Hawaii will be highlighted. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of available wind resources and their suitability for hydrogen production in the Sacramento area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomy, O.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at the technical, economic, environmental and regulatory barriers to the production of hydrogen from local wind resources in Sacramento, CA. Both central and distributed hydrogen generation are compared. The technical analysis uses 6 years of hourly wind data from Solano County to define the diurnal and seasonal wind resource. The impacts of a fluctuating power source on the electrolyzer are examined as well as the grid or hydrogen distribution and storage infrastructure constraints for implementation. An economic analysis comparing the price of hydrogen produced from the local wind resource is done with sensitivity analyses for capital and operating costs of both wind turbines and electrolyzers. In addition, the economic analysis includes considerations of increased demand for wind electricity by California utilities attempting to meet their Renewable Portfolio Standards. The environmental analysis compares the emissions reductions of CO 2 and criteria pollutants for different energy usage scenarios. These include comparing electricity and transportation emissions rates to optimize the use of wind energy and natural gas, as well as comparison of SULEV hybrid vehicles with FCV's and H 2 ICE's. Finally, an examination of the existing regulatory structure and policies that could prevent or encourage the use of wind to produce hydrogen in Sacramento is also included. (author)

  6. An Improved Global Wind Resource Estimate for Integrated Assessment Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gleason, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hettinger, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This paper summarizes initial steps to improving the robustness and accuracy of global renewable resource and techno-economic assessments for use in integrated assessment models. We outline a method to construct country-level wind resource supply curves, delineated by resource quality and other parameters. Using mesoscale reanalysis data, we generate estimates for wind quality, both terrestrial and offshore, across the globe. Because not all land or water area is suitable for development, appropriate database layers provide exclusions to reduce the total resource to its technical potential. We expand upon estimates from related studies by: using a globally consistent data source of uniquely detailed wind speed characterizations; assuming a non-constant coefficient of performance for adjusting power curves for altitude; categorizing the distance from resource sites to the electric power grid; and characterizing offshore exclusions on the basis of sea ice concentrations. The product, then, is technical potential by country, classified by resource quality as determined by net capacity factor. Additional classifications dimensions are available, including distance to transmission networks for terrestrial wind and distance to shore and water depth for offshore. We estimate the total global wind generation potential of 560 PWh for terrestrial wind with 90% of resource classified as low-to-mid quality, and 315 PWh for offshore wind with 67% classified as mid-to-high quality. These estimates are based on 3.5 MW composite wind turbines with 90 m hub heights, 0.95 availability, 90% array efficiency, and 5 MW/km2 deployment density in non-excluded areas. We compare the underlying technical assumption and results with other global assessments.

  7. A CASE STUDY OF CHINA ́S WIND POWER RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yanping

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, China is the largest energy producer and the second largest energy consumer in the world. With the increasing pressure to cut GHS emissions and to improve energy efficiency, China is now changing its traditional energy mix, mainly through consuming more renewable energy instead of fossil energy. This change has resulted in a policy adjustment which in turn boosts the utilization of the wind power resources. However, the development of the wind power resources in China is confronted with some significant challenges, such as greater installed electricity capacity than the electricity generation, greater electricity generation than the electricity transmission capacity and greater inland wind power generation than the offshore wind power generation. Therefore, the further development of China’s wind power electricity in the coming years depends largely on the ways these challenges will be addressed.

  8. Analysis the Transient Process of Wind Power Resources when there are Voltage Sags in Distribution Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhu Y, Do

    2018-03-01

    Vietnam has many advantages of wind power resources. Time by time there are more and more capacity as well as number of wind power project in Vietnam. Corresponding to the increase of wind power emitted into national grid, It is necessary to research and analyze in order to ensure the safety and reliability of win power connection. In national distribution grid, voltage sag occurs regularly, it can strongly influence on the operation of wind power. The most serious consequence is the disconnection. The paper presents the analysis of distribution grid's transient process when voltage is sagged. Base on the analysis, the solutions will be recommended to improve the reliability and effective operation of wind power resources.

  9. Practical Robust Optimization Method for Unit Commitment of a System with Integrated Wind Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchao Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unit commitment, one of the significant tasks in power system operations, faces new challenges as the system uncertainty increases dramatically due to the integration of time-varying resources, such as wind. To address these challenges, we propose the formulation and solution of a generalized unit commitment problem for a system with integrated wind resources. Given the prespecified interval information acquired from real central wind forecasting system for uncertainty representation of nodal wind injections with their correlation information, the proposed unit commitment problem solution is computationally tractable and robust against all uncertain wind power injection realizations. We provide a solution approach to tackle this problem with complex mathematical basics and illustrate the capabilities of the proposed mixed integer solution approach on the large-scale power system of the Northwest China Grid. The numerical results demonstrate that the approach is realistic and not overly conservative in terms of the resulting dispatch cost outcomes.

  10. The value of co-locating energy storage with wind resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the value of wind energy storage systems. The systems can be used to downsize transmission requirements and to minimize reliability and forecast uncertainty. Revenue factors in relation to wind power energy storage are determined by the amount of wind power produced each hour with the wind farm capacity and hourly electricity price. Case studies of a wind farm in Ontario over a period of 20 years were used to determine capacity and revenue factors as well as gross revenues. The maximum revenue factor was determined by multiplying the greatest wind energy output by the highest electricity prices. A hybrid wind farm energy storage system was designed to determine energy storage discharges and charges to and from the grid at pool prices. The method allowed for time-shifts in wind generation resources and downsized transmission requirements for remote resources. The mixed integer linear program model co-optimized revenues from the wind farm and the energy storage facility. Combined output was constrained to the transmission capacity. Transmission losses were neglected, and capital costs were considered. Future studies are needed to determine levelized electricity costs under different load growth scenarios. tabs., figs.

  11. Evaluation of the climate change impact on wind resources in Taiwan Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tsang-Jung; Chen, Chun-Lung; Tu, Yi-Long; Yeh, Hung-Te; Wu, Yu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new statistical downscaling framework to evaluate the climate change impact on wind resources in Taiwan Strait. • The statistical model relates Weibull distribution parameters to output of a GCM model and regression coefficients. • Validation of the simulated wind speed distribution presents an acceptable agreement with meteorological data. • Three chosen GCMs show the same tendency that the eastern half of Taiwan Strait stores higher wind resources. - Abstract: A new statistical downscaling framework is proposed to evaluate the climate change impact on wind resources in Taiwan Strait. In this framework, a two-parameter Weibull distribution function is used to estimate the wind energy density distribution in the strait. An empirically statistical downscaling model that relates the Weibull parameters to output of a General Circulation Model (GCM) and regression coefficients is adopted. The regression coefficients are calculated using wind speed results obtained from a past climate (1981–2000) simulation reconstructed by a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. These WRF-reconstructed wind speed results are validated with data collected at a weather station on an islet inside the strait. The comparison shows that the probability distributions of the monthly wind speeds obtained from WRF-reconstructed and measured wind speed data are in acceptable agreement, with small discrepancies of 10.3% and 7.9% for the shape and scale parameters of the Weibull distribution, respectively. The statistical downscaling framework with output from three chosen GCMs (i.e., ECHAM5, CM2.1 and CGCM2.3.2) is applied to evaluate the wind energy density distribution in Taiwan Strait for three future climate periods of 2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100. The results show that the wind energy density distributions in the future climate periods are higher in the eastern half of Taiwan Strait, but reduce slightly by 3% compared with that in the

  12. A Transmission-Cost-Based Model to Estimate the Amount of Market-Integrable Wind Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    are made to share the expenses in transmission derived from their integration, they may see the doors of electricity markets closed for not being competitive enough. This paper presents a model to decide the amount of wind resources that are economically exploitable at a given location from a transmission......In the pursuit of the large-scale integration of wind power production, it is imperative to evaluate plausible frictions among the stochastic nature of wind generation, electricity markets, and the investments in transmission required to accommodate larger amounts of wind. If wind producers......-cost perspective. This model accounts for the uncertain character of wind by using a modeling framework based on stochastic optimization, simulates market barriers by means of a bi-level structure, and considers the financial risk of investments in transmission through the conditional value-at-risk. The major...

  13. Results from utility wind resource assessment programs in Nebraska, Colorado, and Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapeau, C.L. [Global Energy Concepts, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Global Energy Concepts (GEC) has been retained by utilities in Colorado, Nebraska, and Arizona to site, install, and operate 21 wind monitoring stations as part of the Utility Wind Resource Assessment Program (U*WRAP). Preliminary results indicate wind speed averages at 40 meters (132 ft) of 6.5 - 7.4 m/s (14.5-16.5 mph) in Nebraska and 7.6 - 8.9 m/s (17.0-19.9 mph) in Colorado. The Arizona stations are not yet operational. This paper presents the history and current status of the 21 monitoring stations as well as preliminary data results. Information on wind speeds, wind direction, turbulence intensity, wind shear, frequency distribution, and data recovery rates are provided.

  14. On the Wind Energy Resource and Its Trend in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ayodotun Osinowo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study utilizes a 30-year (1980–2009 10 m wind field dataset obtained from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast to investigate the wind energy potential in the East China Sea (ECS by using Weibull shape and scale parameters. The region generally showed good wind characteristics. The calculated annual mean of the wind power resource revealed the potential of the region for large-scale grid-connected wind turbine applications. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal variations showed strong trends in wind power in regions surrounding Taiwan Island. These regions were evaluated with high wind potential and were rated as excellent locations for installation of large wind turbines for electrical energy generation. Nonsignificant and negative trends dominated the ECS and the rest of the regions; therefore, these locations were found to be suitable for small wind applications. The wind power density exhibited an insignificant trend in the ECS throughout the study period. The trend was strongest during spring and weakest during autumn.

  15. U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Warren, A.

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the data collected from two 60-meter meteorological towers and three sonic detection and ranging units on St. Thomas and St. Croix in 2012 and 2013. These results are an update to the previous feasibility study; the collected data are critical to the successful development of a wind project at either site.

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Regional Resource Centers Report: State of the Wind Industry in the Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, Ruth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United St; Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United St; Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United St; Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United St

    2016-03-01

    The wind industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are addressing technical challenges to increasing wind energy's contribution to the national grid (such as reducing turbine costs and increasing energy production and reliability), and they recognize that public acceptance issues can be challenges for wind energy deployment. Wind project development decisions are best made using unbiased information about the benefits and impacts of wind energy. In 2014, DOE established six wind Regional Resource Centers (RRCs) to provide information about wind energy, focusing on regional qualities. This document summarizes the status and drivers for U.S. wind energy development on regional and state levels. It is intended to be a companion to DOE's 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report, 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report, and 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis that provide assessments of the national wind markets for each of these technologies.

  17. Computer modelling of the UK wind energy resource: final overview report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, S F; Ravenscroft, F

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the results of a programme of work to estimate the UK wind energy resource. Mean wind speed maps and quantitative resource estimates were obtained using the NOABL mesoscale (1 km resolution) numerical model for the prediction of wind flow over complex terrain. NOABL was used in conjunction with digitised terrain data and wind data from surface meteorological stations for a ten year period (1975-1984) to provide digital UK maps of mean wind speed at 10m, 25m and 45m above ground level. Also included in the derivation of these maps was the use of the Engineering Science Data Unit (ESDU) method to model the effect on wind speed of the abrupt change in surface roughness that occurs at the coast. Existing isovent maps, based on standard meteorological data which take no account of terrain effects, indicate that 10m annual mean wind speeds vary between about 4.5 and 7 m/s over the UK with only a few coastal areas over 6 m/s. The present study indicated that 23% of the UK land area had speeds over 6 m/s, with many hill sites having 10m speeds over 10 m/s. It is concluded that these `first order` resource estimates represent a substantial improvement over the presently available `zero order` estimates. (20 figures, 7 tables, 10 references). (author)

  18. Computer modelling of the UK wind energy resource. Phase 2. Application of the methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, S F; Makari, M; Newton, K; Ravenscroft, F; Whittaker, J

    1993-12-31

    This report presents the results of the second phase of a programme to estimate the UK wind energy resource. The overall objective of the programme is to provide quantitative resource estimates using a mesoscale (resolution about 1km) numerical model for the prediction of wind flow over complex terrain, in conjunction with digitised terrain data and wind data from surface meteorological stations. A network of suitable meteorological stations has been established and long term wind data obtained. Digitised terrain data for the whole UK were obtained, and wind flow modelling using the NOABL computer program has been performed. Maps of extractable wind power have been derived for various assumptions about wind turbine characteristics. Validation of the methodology indicates that the results are internally consistent, and in good agreement with available comparison data. Existing isovent maps, based on standard meteorological data which take no account of terrain effects, indicate that 10m annual mean wind speeds vary between about 4.5 and 7 m/s over the UK with only a few coastal areas over 6 m/s. The present study indicates that 28% of the UK land area had speeds over 6 m/s, with many hill sites having 10m speeds over 10 m/s. It is concluded that these `first order` resource estimates represent a substantial improvement over the presently available `zero order` estimates. The results will be useful for broad resource studies and initial site screening. Detailed resource evaluation for local sites will require more detailed local modelling or ideally long term field measurements. (12 figures, 14 tables, 21 references). (Author)

  19. Integrated resource planning - a long and winding road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The separation of Croatia from former Yugoslavia and the military turbulence at its borders during the last years caused a number of problems in the Croatian energy system. Resources for improving the situation are scarce. So it is necessary to plan the rehabilitation and modernization of the Croatian energy system in a way which includes all national resources and allocates these resources where they lead to the highest benefits to the national economy. In this paper it is shown that Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) is such a method which enables the rational use of national resources. Also presented in this paper is a transparent and rational procedure which allows the energy planner to support the decision maker in developing an energy policy under consideration of interests of affected groups. This procedure is called Structured Analysis Procedure and step by step leads from the problem formulation to the decision on which action is to be applied to solve the problem. (author)

  20. Wind deployment in the United States: states, resources, policy, and discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elizabeth J; Stephens, Jennie C

    2009-12-15

    A transformation in the way the United States produces and uses energy is needed to achieve greenhouse gas reduction targets for climate change mitigation. Wind power is an important low-carbon technology and the most rapidly growing renewable energy technology in the U.S. Despite recent advances in wind deployment, significant state-by-state variation in wind power distribution cannot be explained solely by wind resource patterns nor by state policy. Other factors embedded within the state-level socio-political context also contribute to wind deployment patterns. We explore this socio-political context in four U.S. states by integrating multiple research methods. Through comparative state-level analysis of the energy system, energy policy, and public discourse as represented in the media, we examine variation in the context for wind deployment in Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, and Texas. Our results demonstrate that these states have different patterns of wind deployment, are engaged in different debates about wind power, and appear to frame the risks and benefits of wind power in different ways. This comparative assessment highlights the complex variation of the state-level socio-political context and contributes depth to our understanding of energy technology deployment processes, decision-making, and outcomes.

  1. Global assessment of onshore wind power resources considering the distance to urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Herran, Diego; Dai, Hancheng; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed global onshore wind power resources considering the distance to urban areas in terms of transmission losses and costs, and visibility (landscape impact) restrictions. Including this factor decreased the economic potential considerably depending on the level of supply cost considered (at least 37% and 16% for an economic potential below 10 and 14 US cents/kWh, respectively). Its importance compared to other factors was secondary below 15 US cents/kWh. At higher costs it was secondary only to land use, and was more important than economic and technical factors. The impact of this factor was mixed across all regions of the world, given the heterogeneity of wind resources in remote and proximal areas. Regions where available resources decreased the most included the European Union, Japan, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The supply cost chosen to evaluate the economic potential and uncertainties influencing the estimation of distance to the closest urban area are critical for the assessment. Neglecting the restrictions associated with integration into energy systems and social acceptability resulted in an overestimation of global onshore wind resources. These outcomes are fundamental for global climate policies because they help to clarify the limits of wind energy resource availability. - Highlights: • Global onshore wind resources were assessed including the distance to urban areas. • We evaluate the impact of transmission losses and cost, and visibility restrictions. • The distance to urban areas' impact was considerable, depending on the supply cost. • This factor's importance was secondary to economic, land use, and technical factors. • Neglecting this factor resulted in an overestimation of global wind resources.

  2. Stochastic Prediction of Wind Generating Resources Using the Enhanced Ensemble Model for Jeju Island’s Wind Farms in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deockho Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the intermittency of wind power generation, it is very hard to manage its system operation and planning. In order to incorporate higher wind power penetrations into power systems that maintain secure and economic power system operation, an accurate and efficient estimation of wind power outputs is needed. In this paper, we propose the stochastic prediction of wind generating resources using an enhanced ensemble model for Jeju Island’s wind farms in South Korea. When selecting the potential sites of wind farms, wind speed data at points of interest are not always available. We apply the Kriging method, which is one of spatial interpolation, to estimate wind speed at potential sites. We also consider a wind profile power law to correct wind speed along the turbine height and terrain characteristics. After that, we used estimated wind speed data to calculate wind power output and select the best wind farm sites using a Weibull distribution. Probability density function (PDF or cumulative density function (CDF is used to estimate the probability of wind speed. The wind speed data is classified along the manufacturer’s power curve data. Therefore, the probability of wind speed is also given in accordance with classified values. The average wind power output is estimated in the form of a confidence interval. The empirical data of meteorological towers from Jeju Island in Korea is used to interpolate the wind speed data spatially at potential sites. Finally, we propose the best wind farm site among the four potential wind farm sites.

  3. Wind Resource Assessment in Complex Terrain with a High-Resolution Numerical Weather Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Karin; Serafin, Stefano; Grubišić, Vanda; Dorninger, Manfred; Zauner, Rudolf; Fink, Martin

    2014-05-01

    A crucial step in planning new wind farms is the estimation of the amount of wind energy that can be harvested in possible target sites. Wind resource assessment traditionally entails deployment of masts equipped for wind speed measurements at several heights for a reasonably long period of time. Simplified linear models of atmospheric flow are then used for a spatial extrapolation of point measurements to a wide area. While linear models have been successfully applied in the wind resource assessment in plains and offshore, their reliability in complex terrain is generally poor. This represents a major limitation to wind resource assessment in Austria, where high-altitude locations are being considered for new plant sites, given the higher frequency of sustained winds at such sites. The limitations of linear models stem from two key assumptions in their formulation, the neutral stratification and attached boundary-layer flow, both of which often break down in complex terrain. Consequently, an accurate modeling of near-surface flow over mountains requires the adoption of a NWP model with high horizontal and vertical resolution. This study explores the wind potential of a site in Styria in the North-Eastern Alps. The WRF model is used for simulations with a maximum horizontal resolution of 800 m. Three nested computational domains are defined, with the innermost one encompassing a stretch of the relatively broad Enns Valley, flanked by the main crest of the Alps in the south and the Nördliche Kalkalpen of similar height in the north. In addition to the simulation results, we use data from fourteen 10-m wind measurement sites (of which 7 are located within valleys and 5 near mountain tops) and from 2 masts with anemometers at several heights (at hillside locations) in an area of 1600 km2 around the target site. The potential for wind energy production is assessed using the mean wind speed and turbulence intensity at hub height. The capacity factor is also evaluated

  4. Southward shift of the global wind energy resource under high carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    The use of wind energy resource is an integral part of many nations' strategies towards realizing the carbon emissions reduction targets set forth in the Paris Agreement, and global installed wind power cumulative capacity has grown on average by 22% per year since 2006. However, assessments of wind energy resource are usually based on today's climate, rather than taking into account that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions continue to modify the global atmospheric circulation. Here, we apply an industry wind turbine power curve to simulations of high and low future emissions scenarios in an ensemble of ten fully coupled global climate models to investigate large-scale changes in wind power across the globe. Our calculations reveal decreases in wind power across the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes and increases across the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, with substantial regional variations. The changes across the northern mid-latitudes are robust responses over time in both emissions scenarios, whereas the Southern Hemisphere changes appear critically sensitive to each individual emissions scenario. In addition, we find that established features of climate change can explain these patterns: polar amplification is implicated in the northern mid-latitude decrease in wind power, and enhanced land-sea thermal gradients account for the tropical and southern subtropical increases.

  5. Bird Mortaility at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: March 1998--September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, K. S.; Thelander, C. G.

    2005-09-01

    Over the past 15 years, research has shown that wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) kill many birds, including raptors, which are protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, and/or state and federal Endangered Species Acts. Early research in the APWRA on avian mortality mainly attempted to identify the extent of the problem. In 1998, however, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated research to address the causal relationships between wind turbines and bird mortality. NREL funded a project by BioResource Consultants to perform this research directed at identifying and addressing the causes of mortality of various bird species from wind turbines in the APWRA.With 580 megawatts (MW) of installed wind turbine generating capacity in the APWRA, wind turbines there provide up to 1 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of emissions-free electricity annually. By identifying and implementing new methods and technologies to reduce or resolve bird mortality in the APWRA, power producers may be able to increase wind turbine electricity production at the site and apply similar mortality-reduction methods at other sites around the state and country.

  6. Eight years of wind measurements from scatterometer for wind resource mapping in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furevik, Birgitte R.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Cavaleri, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    that the scatterometer is able to provide similar long-term statistics as available from buoy data, such as annual and monthly wind indexes. Such statistics is useful to give an overview of the climatology in the different areas. The correlation between QuikScat and in situ observations is degraded towards the coast...

  7. A GIS wind resource map with tabular printout of monthly and annual wind speeds for 2,000 towns in Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Factor, T. [Iowa Wind Energy Institute, Fairfield, IA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Iowa Wind Energy Institute, under a grant from the Iowa Energy Center, undertook in 1994 to map wind resources in Iowa. Fifty-meter met towers were erected at 13 locations across the state deemed promising for utility-scale wind farm development. Two years of summarized wind speed, direction, and temperature data were used to create wind resource maps incorporating effects of elevation, relative exposure, terrain roughness, and ground cover. Maps were produced predicting long-term mean monthly and annual wind speeds on a one-kilometer grid. The estimated absolute standard error in the predicted annual average wind speeds at unobstructed locations is 9 percent. The relative standard error between points on the annual map is estimated to be 3 percent. These maps and tabular data for 2,000 cities and towns in Iowa are now available on the Iowa Energy Center`s web site (http.//www.energy.iastate.edu).

  8. The role of energy storage in accessing remote wind resources in the Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, Julian; Azevedo, Inês L.; Jaramillo, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Replacing current generation with wind energy would help reduce the emissions associated with fossil fuel electricity generation. However, integrating wind into the electricity grid is not without cost. Wind power output is highly variable and average capacity factors from wind farms are often much lower than conventional generators. Further, the best wind resources with highest capacity factors are often located far away from load centers and accessing them therefore requires transmission investments. Energy storage capacity could be an alternative to some of the required transmission investment, thereby reducing capital costs for accessing remote wind farms. This work focuses on the trade-offs between energy storage and transmission. In a case study of a 200 MW wind farm in North Dakota to deliver power to Illinois, we estimate the size of transmission and energy storage capacity that yields the lowest average cost of generating and delivering electricity ($/MW h) from this farm. We find that transmission costs must be at least $600/MW-km and energy storage must cost at most $100/kW h in order for this application of energy storage to be economical. - Highlights: • We evaluate the break-even cost of energy storage to replace transmission. • We focus on a wind farm in North Dakota that must deliver power to Illinois. • Energy storage capital costs must be less than $100/kW h. • Transmission capital costs must be greater than $600/MW-km

  9. Wind energy in Vietnam: Resource assessment, development status and future implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Khanh Q.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the technical potential of wind energy in Vietnam and discuss strategies for promoting the market penetration of wind energy in the country. For the wind resource assessment, a geographical information system (GIS)- assisted approach has been developed. It is found that Vietnam has a good potential for wind energy. About 31,000 km 2 of land area can be available for wind development in which 865 km 2 equivalents to a wind power of 3572 MW has a generation cost less than 6 US cents/kWh. The study also proves that wind energy could be a good solution for about 300,000 rural non-electrified households. While wind energy brings about ecological, economic and social benefits, it is only modestly exploited in Vietnam, where the main barrier is the lack of political impetus and a proper framework for promoting renewable energy. The priority task therefore is to set a target for renewable energy development and to find instruments to achieve such a target. The main instruments proposed here are setting feed-in tariff and providing investment incentives

  10. Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.; Tom, J.; Neumann, N.; Erickson, W. P.; Strickland, M. D.; Bourassa, M.; Bay, K. J.; Sernka, K. J.

    2005-08-01

    The primary objective of this study at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area was to estimate and compare bird utilization, fatality rates, and the risk index among factors including bird taxonomic groups, wind turbine and reference areas, wind turbine sizes and types, and geographic locations. The key questions addressed to meet this objective include: (1) Are there any differences in the level of bird activity, called ''utilization rate'' or ''use'', with the operating wind plant and within the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (2) Are there any differences in the rate of bird fatalities (or avian fatality) within the operating wind plant or the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (3) Does bird use, fatality rates, or bird risk index vary according to the geographic location, type and size of wind turbine, and/or type of bird within the operating wind plant and surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; and (4) How do raptor fatality rates at San Gorgonio compare to other wind projects with comparable data?

  11. Probabilistic stability and "tall" wind profiles: theory and method for use in wind resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Troen, Ib

    2016-01-01

    A model has been derived for calculating the aggregate effects of stability and the finite height of the planetary boundary layer upon the long-term mean wind profile. A practical implementation of this probabilistic extended similarity-theory model is made, including its incorporation within...... to the methodology. Results of the modeling are shown for a number of sites, with discussion of the models’ efficacy and the relative improvement shown by the new model, for situations where a user lacks local heat flux information, as well as performance of the new model using measured flux statistics. Further...... the European Wind Atlas (EWA) methodology for site-to-site application. Theoretical and practical implications of the EWA methodology are also derived and described, including unprecedented documentation of the theoretical framework encompassing vertical extrapolation, as well as some improvement...

  12. Offshore Wind Resource, Cost, and Economic Potential in the State of Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-12

    This report provides information for decision-makers about floating offshore wind technologies in the state of Maine. It summarizes research efforts performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory between 2015 and 2017 to analyze the resource potential, cost of offshore wind, and economic potential of offshore wind from four primary reports: Musial et al. (2016); Beiter et al. (2016, 2017); and Mone et al. (unpublished). From Musial et al. (2016), Maine's technical offshore wind resource potential ranked seventh in the nation overall with more than 411 terawatt-hours/year of offshore resource generating potential. Although 90% of this wind resource is greater than 9.0-meters-per-second average velocity, most of the resource is over deep water, where floating wind technology is needed. Levelized cost of energy and levelized avoided cost of energy were computed to estimate the unsubsidized 'economic potential' for Maine in the year 2027 (Beiter et al. 2016, 2017). The studies found that Maine may have 65 gigawatts of economic potential by 2027, the highest of any U.S. state. Bottom-line costs for the Aqua Ventus project, which is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Demonstration project, were released from a proprietary report written by NREL in 2016 for the University of Maine (Mone et al. unpublished). The report findings were that economies of scale and new technology advancements lowered the cost from $300/megawatt-hour (MWh) for the two-turbine 12-megawatt (MW) Aqua Ventus 1 project, to $126/MWh for the commercial-scale, 498-MW Aqua Ventus-2 project. Further cost reductions to $77/MWh were found when new technology advancements were applied for the 1,000-MW Aqua Ventus-3 project in 2030. No new analysis was conducted for this report.

  13. Wind and Solar Energy Resource Assessment for Navy Installations in the Midwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmenova, K.; Apling, D.; Higgins, G. J.; Carnes, J.; Smith, C.

    2012-12-01

    A stable supply of energy is critical for sustainable economic development and the ever-increasing demand for energy resources drives the need for alternative weather-driven renewable energy solutions such as solar and wind-generated power. Recognizing the importance of energy as a strategic resource, the Department of the Navy has focused on energy efficient solutions aiming to increase tactical and shore energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Implementing alternative energy solutions will alleviate the Navy installations demands on the National power grid, however transitioning to renewable energy sources is a complex multi-stage process that involves initial investment in resource assessment and feasibility of building solar and wind power systems in Navy's facilities. This study focuses on the wind and solar energy resource assessment for Navy installations in the Midwestern US. We use the dynamically downscaled datasets at 12 km resolution over the Continental US generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to derive the wind climatology in terms of wind speed, direction, and wind power at 20 m above the surface for 65 Navy facilities. In addition, we derived the transmissivity of the atmosphere, diffuse radiation fraction, cloud cover and seasonal energy potential for a zenith facing surface with unobstructed horizon for each installation location based on the results of a broadband radiative transfer model and our cloud database based on 17-years of GOES data. Our analysis was incorporated in a GIS framework in combination with additional infrastructure data that enabled a synergistic resource assessment based on the combination of climatological and engineering factors.

  14. A 100% renewable electricity generation system for New Zealand utilising hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.G.; Page, S.C.; Williamson, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand electricity generation system is dominated by hydro generation at approximately 60% of installed capacity between 2005 and 2007, augmented with approximately 32% fossil-fuelled generation, plus minor contributions from geothermal, wind and biomass resources. In order to explore the potential for a 100% renewable electricity generation system with substantially increased levels of wind penetration, fossil-fuelled electricity production was removed from an historic 3-year data set, and replaced by modelled electricity production from wind, geothermal and additional peaking options. Generation mixes comprising 53-60% hydro, 22-25% wind, 12-14% geothermal, 1% biomass and 0-12% additional peaking generation were found to be feasible on an energy and power basis, whilst maintaining net hydro storage. Wind capacity credits ranged from 47% to 105% depending upon the incorporation of demand management, and the manner of operation of the hydro system. Wind spillage was minimised, however, a degree of residual spillage was considered to be an inevitable part of incorporating non-dispatchable generation into a stand-alone grid system. Load shifting was shown to have considerable advantages over installation of new peaking plant. Application of the approach applied in this research to countries with different energy resource mixes is discussed, and options for further research are outlined.

  15. Climate change implications for wind power resources in the Northwest United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailor, David J.; Smith, Michael; Hart, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Using statistically downscaled output from four general circulation models (GCMs), we have investigated scenarios of climate change impacts on wind power generation potential in a five-state region within the Northwest United States (Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming). All GCM simulations were extracted from the standardized set of runs created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Analysis of model runs for the 20th century (20c3m) simulations revealed that the direct output of wind statistics from these models is of relatively poor quality compared with observations at airport weather stations within each state. When the GCM output was statistically downscaled, the resulting estimates of current climate wind statistics are substantially better. Furthermore, in looking at the GCM wind statistics for two IPCC future climate scenarios from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES A1B and A2), there was significant disagreement in the direct model output from the four GCMs. When statistical downscaling was applied to the future climate simulations, a more coherent story unfolded related to the likely impact of climate change on the region's wind power resource. Specifically, the results suggest that summertime wind speeds in the Northwest may decrease by 5-10%, while wintertime wind speeds may decrease by relatively little, or possibly increase slightly. When these wind statistics are projected to typical turbine hub heights and nominal wind turbine power curves are applied, the impact of the climate change scenarios on wind power may be as high as a 40% reduction in summertime generation potential. (author)

  16. Impacts of climate change on wind energy resources in France: a regionalization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najac, J.

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we study the impact of climate change on surface winds in France and draw conclusions concerning wind energy resources. Because of their coarse spatial resolution, climate models cannot properly reproduce the spatial variability of surface winds. Thus, 2 down-scaling methods are developed in order to regionalize an ensemble of climate scenarios: a statistical method based on weather typing and a statistic-dynamical method that resorts to high resolution mesoscale modelling. By 2050, significant but relatively small changes are depicted with, in particular, a decrease of the wind speed in the southern and an increase in the northern regions of France. The use of other down-scaling methods enables us to study several uncertainty sources: it appears that most of the uncertainty is due to the climate models. (author)

  17. Opportunities for wind resources in the future competitive California power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezgen, O.; Marnay, C.; Bretz, S.; Markel, R.; Wiser, R.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the profitability of wind development in the future competitive California power market. The viability of possible wind sites is assessed using a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the cost of development and Elfin, an electric utility production costing and capacity expansion model, to estimate the possible revenues and profits of wind farms at the sites. This approach improves on a simple profitability calculation by using site specific development cost calculations and by taking the effect of time varying market prices on revenues into account. The first component of the work is the characterization of wind resources suitable for use in production costing and capacity expansion models such as Elfin that are capable of simulating competitive electricity markets. An improved representation of California wind resources is built, using information collected by the California Energy Commission in previous site evaluations, and by using a GIS approach to estimating development costs at 36 specific sites. These sites, which have been identified as favorable for wind development, are placed on Digital Elevation Models and development costs are calculated based on distances to roads and transmission lines. GIS is also used to develop the potential capacity at each site by making use of the physical characteristics of the terrain, such as ridge lengths. In the second part of the effort, using a previously developed algorithm for simulating competitive entry to the California electricity market, Elfin is used to gauge the viability of wind farms at the 36 sites. The results of this exercise are forecasts of profitable development levels at each site and the effects of these developments on the electricity system as a whole. Results suggest that by the year 2030, about 7.5 GW of potential wind capacity can be profitably developed assuming rising natural gas prices. This example demonstrates that an analysis based on a

  18. Bird mortality associated with wind turbines at the Buffalo Ridge wind resource area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, R.G.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.; Dieter, C.D.; Neiger, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made wind power a viable source of alternative energy production and the number of windplant facilities has increased in the United States. Construction was completed on a 73 turbine, 25 megawatt windplant on Buffalo Ridge near Lake Benton, Minnesota in Spring 1994. The number of birds killed at existing windplants in California caused concern about the potential impacts of the Buffalo Ridge facility on the avian community. From April 1994 through Dec. 1995 we searched the Buffalo Ridge windplant site for dead birds. Additionally, we evaluated search efficiency, predator scavenging rates and rate of carcass decomposition. During 20 mo of monitoring we found 12 dead birds. Collisions with wind turbines were suspected for 8 of the 12 birds. During observer efficiency trials searchers found 78.8% of carcasses. Scavengers removed 39.5% of carcasses during scavenging trials. All carcasses remained recognizable during 7 d decomposition trials. After correction for biases we estimated that approximately 36 ?? 12 birds (bird per turbine) were killed at the Buffalo Ridge windplant in 1 y. Although windplants do not appear to be more detrimental to birds than other man-made structures, proper facility sitting is an important first consideration in order to avoid unnecessary fatalities.

  19. Offshore wind power resource assessment using Oceansat-2 scatterometer data at a regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadad, Sanjeev; Deka, Paresh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Accuracy assessment of Oceansat-2 scatterometer (OSCAT) winds by the in situ real-time ship observations for study area. • OSCAT data for two years (2011 and 2012) were used to evaluate the offshore wind power potential for the Karnataka state. • Wind speed and power atlases are developed to study the spatial distribution over study area. • 9,091 MW potential was estimated using 5 MW wind turbine in the Monopile region. • Recommend development of 10% of the estimated potential, 116% of energy deficit for 2012–13 can be met. - Abstract: In the offshore region the scarcity of in situ wind data in space proves to be a major setback for wind power potential assessments. Satellite data effectively overcomes this setback by providing continuous and total spatial coverage. The study intends to assess the offshore wind power resource of the Karnataka state, which is located on the west coast of India. Oceansat-2 scatterometer (OSCAT) wind data and GIS based methodology were adopted in the study. The OSCAT data accuracy was assessed using INCOIS Realtime All Weather Station (IRAWS) data. Wind speed maps at 10 m, 90 m and wind power density maps using OSCAT data were developed to understand the spatial distribution of winds over the study area. Bathymetric map was developed based on the available foundation types and demarking various exclusion zones to help in minimizing conflicts. The wind power generation capacity estimation performed using REpower 5 MW turbine, based on the water depth classes was found to be 9,091 MW in Monopile (0–35 m), 11,709 MW in Jacket (35–50 m), 23,689 MW in Advanced Jacket (50–100 m) and 117,681 MW in Floating (100–1000 m) foundation technology. In Indian scenario major thrust for wind farm development in Monopile region is required. Therefore as first phase of development, if 10% of the estimated potential in the region can be developed then, 116% of energy deficit for FY 2011–12 could be met. Also, up to 79

  20. Analysis of the solar/wind resources in Southern Spain for optimal sizing of hybrid solar-wind power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Ruiz, S.; Pozo-Vazquez, D.; Santos-Alamillos, F. J.; Lara-Fanego, V.; Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Tovar-Pescador, J.

    2010-09-01

    A drawback common to the solar and wind energy systems is their unpredictable nature and dependence on weather and climate on a wide range of time scales. In addition, the variation of the energy output may not match with the time distribution of the load demand. This can partially be solved by the use of batteries for energy storage in stand-alone systems. The problem caused by the variable nature of the solar and wind resources can be partially overcome by the use of energy systems that uses both renewable resources in a combined manner, that is, hybrid wind-solar systems. Since both resources can show complementary characteristics in certain location, the independent use of solar or wind systems results in considerable over sizing of the batteries system compared to the use of hybrid solar-wind systems. Nevertheless, to the day, there is no single recognized method for properly sizing these hybrid wind-solar systems. In this work, we present a method for sizing wind-solar hybrid systems in southern Spain. The method is based on the analysis of the wind and solar resources on daily scale, particularly, its temporal complementary characteristics. The method aims to minimize the size of the energy storage systems, trying to provide the most reliable supply.

  1. Rooftop wind resource assessment using a three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.C.; Whale, J.; Livingston, P.O.; Chan, D. [Murdoch Univ., Murdoch, WA (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Building integrated wind turbines (BUWTs) are designed for the built environment and can be located on or next to buildings. In general, these types of urban wind turbines are less than 20 kW in rated capacity, and have the potential to contribute to the energy needs of the building and reduce overall emissions. There are currently over 32 manufacturers and 57 different urban wind turbine products available in Europe alone. The first rooftop wind system in Australia was installed in 2006. To data, 5 systems have been installed and there are plans for up to 20 more. The main problems associated with these types of systems are due to poor wind resources at the location or improper site selection for the turbine. This paper reported on a research study into initiating best practice guidelines for rooftop wind systems. There is a concern that environmentally conscious homeowners or businesses will install rooftop wind systems in support of sustainability, but without adequate consideration of safety, structural building integrity or turbine performance. The potential consequence of such projects could be the failure of the project due to underperforming turbines, noise, and vibration; or the development of a negative reputation for wind energy and the renewable energy industry. This study included 2 primary initiatives, notably a computer simulated modeling exercise and an onsite rooftop wind monitoring station. This paper focused on the methodology and justification for developing the monitoring station. An ultrasonic 3D anemometer was used to collect data and to develop a 3D wind profile. The wind regime on the rooftop in the complex terrain of the built environment was highly dynamic, turbulent, and included a strong vertical component. It was concluded that site selection for turbines must be determined by a proper feasibility study involving accurate data. Although the initial phase of the project to predict the resource and deploy the monitoring station has been

  2. Characterization of the Wind Power Resource in Europe and its Intermittency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosseron, Alexandra; Gunturu, Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam

    2013-04-01

    Thanks to incentives from the European Union and recent events, the political situation in Europe has never been so favorable towards renewables. As one of the most mature technologies among them, wind power has been chosen to be assessed over Europe, with a special care given to intermittency and variability quantifications. The goal of this study is to construct and analyze the availability and variability of the wind potential across Europe using the methodology developed in Gunturu and Schlosser (2011). The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) boundary flux data was used to construct wind profiles at 50, 80, 100 and 120 meters height over a domain spreading from Iceland to the western end of Ukraine. Comparisons and contrasts with previous works have asserted the reliability of the data and computations used in the analysis. It must be emphasized though that the data set used in this study has a thirty-year length, a time resolution of an hour and is a reconstruction of the atmospheric state by assimilating observational data from different platforms into a global model. Various metrics, such as coefficients of variation, inter-quartile ranges, capacity factors and wind episode lengths, have been introduced to assess magnitude and variability of wind power. Then, unconventional variables have been designed to further study the availability and reliability of this resource. Thus, to study the correlation between wind episodes across Europe, parameters called antiCoincidence and antiNullCoincidence have been built. Pragmatically, the seven closest grid points in each direction at every grid point have been studied to assess whether they had wind when the considered point had or had not. The analysis of these variables leads to the conclusion that wind-proponents' favorite statement, "wind always blows somewhere", may not be so true. All of these metrics have finally allowed a better understanding of wind power features over

  3. Combined wind, hydropower and photovoltaic systems for generation of electric power and control of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, M.; Karimov, K.S.; Akhmedov, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the present day energy consumption and potentialities of utilization of wind- and hydropower resources in some Central and Southern Asian Republics, in particular, in the Republic of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan are presented. The maximum consumption of electric power is observed in winter time when hydropower is the minimum, but wind power is the maximum. At the same time water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those which use water for generation of electric power. It is proposed that the utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy will facilitate the proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia. In the future in Tajikistan, wind power systems with a capacity of 30-100 MW and more will be installed, providing power balance of the country in winter; hence saving water in reservoirs, especially in drought years. This will provide the integration of electricity generated by wind, hydroelectric power and photovoltaic system in the unified energy system of the country. (author)

  4. Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsson, Simon; Grandell, Leena; Wachtmeister, Henrik; Höök, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have proposed fast transitions to energy systems based on renewable energy technology. Many of them dismiss potential physical constraints and issues with natural resource supply, and do not consider the growth rates of the individual technologies needed or how the energy systems are to be sustained over longer time frames. A case study is presented modelling potential growth rates of the wind energy required to reach installed capacities proposed in other studies, taking into account the expected service life of wind turbines. A sustained commissioning model is proposed as a theoretical foundation for analysing reasonable growth patterns for technologies that can be sustained in the future. The annual installation and related resource requirements to reach proposed wind capacity are quantified and it is concluded that these factors should be considered when assessing the feasibility, and even the sustainability, of fast energy transitions. Even a sustained commissioning scenario would require significant resource flows, for the transition as well as for sustaining the system, indefinitely. Recent studies that claim there are no potential natural resource barriers or other physical constraints to fast transitions to renewable energy appear inadequate in ruling out these concerns. - Highlights: • Growth rates and service life is important when evaluating energy transitions. • A sustained commissioning model is suggested for analysing renewable energy. • Natural resource requirements for renewable energy are connected to growth rates. • Arguments by recent studies ruling out physical constraints appear inadequate

  5. Demand side resource operation on the Irish power system with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keane, A.; Tuohy, A.; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    part of the power system plant mix and contribute to the flexible operation of a power system. A model for demand side resources is proposed here that captures its key characteristics for commitment and dispatch calculations. The model is tested on the all island Irish power system, and the operation...... of the functions of conventional peaking plant. Demand side resources are also shown to be capable of improving the reliability of the system, with reserve capability identified as a key requirement in this respect....... of the model is simulated over one year in both a stochastic and deterministic mode, to illustrate the impact of wind and load uncertainty. The results illustrate that demand side resources can contribute to the efficient, flexible operation of systems with high penetrations of wind by replacing some...

  6. A Joint Evaluation of the Wind and Wave Energy Resources Close to the Greek Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ganea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the wind and wave energy potential in the proximity of the Greek islands. Thus, by evaluating the synergy between wind and waves, a more comprehensive picture of the renewable energy resources in the target area is provided. In this study, two different data sources are considered. The first data set is provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF through the ERA-Interim project and covers an 11-year period, while the second data set is Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO and covers six years of information. Using these data, parameters such as wind speed, significant wave height (SWH and mean wave period (MWP are analyzed. The following marine areas are targeted: Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Sea of Crete, Libyan Sea and Levantine Sea, near the coastal environment of the Greek islands. Initially, 26 reference points were considered. For a more detailed analysis, the number of reference points was narrowed down to 10 that were considered more relevant. Since in the island environments the resources are in general rather limited, the proposed work provides some outcomes concerning the wind and wave energy potential and the synergy between these two natural resources in the vicinity of the Greek islands. From the analysis performed, it can be noticed that the most energetic wind conditions are encountered west of Cios Island, followed by the regions east of Tinos and northeast of Crete. In these locations, the annual average values of the wind power density (Pwind are in the range of 286–298.6 W/m2. Regarding the wave power density (Pwave, the most energetic locations can be found in the vicinity of Crete, north, south and southeast of the island. There, the wave energy potential is in the range of 2.88–2.99 kW/m.

  7. Analysis of the balancing of the wind and solar energy resources in Andalusia (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Alamillos, F. J.; Pozo-Vazquez, D.; Lara-Fanego, V.; Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Hernandez-Alvaro, J.; Tova-Pescador, J.

    2010-09-01

    A higher penetration of the renewable energy in the electric system in the future will be conditioned to a reduction of the uncertainty of the yield. A way to obtain this goal is to analyze the balancing between the productions of different sources of renewable energy, trying to combine these productions. In this work we analyze, from a meteorological point of view, the balancing between wind and solar energy resources in Andalusia (southern Iberian Peninsula). To this end, wind speed and global radiation data corresponding to an one year integration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model were analyzed. Two method of analysis were used: a point correlation analysis and a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). Results from these analyses allow obtaining, eventually, areas of local and distributed balancing between the wind and solar energy resources. The analysis was carried out separately for the different seasons of the year. Results showed, overall, a considerable balancing effect between the wind and solar resources in the mountain areas of the interior of the region, along the coast of the central part of the region and, specially, in the coastal area near the Gibraltar strait. Nevertheless, considerable differences were found between the seasons of the year, which may lead to compensating effects. Autumn proved to be the season with the most significant results.

  8. Demand side resource operation on the Irish power system with high wind power penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, A.; Tuohy, A.; Meibom, P.; Denny, E.; Flynn, D.; Mullane, A.; O'Malley, M.

    2011-01-01

    The utilisation of demand side resources is set to increase over the coming years with the advent of advanced metering infrastructure, home area networks and the promotion of increased energy efficiency. Demand side resources are proposed as an energy resource that, through aggregation, can form part of the power system plant mix and contribute to the flexible operation of a power system. A model for demand side resources is proposed here that captures its key characteristics for commitment and dispatch calculations. The model is tested on the all island Irish power system, and the operation of the model is simulated over one year in both a stochastic and deterministic mode, to illustrate the impact of wind and load uncertainty. The results illustrate that demand side resources can contribute to the efficient, flexible operation of systems with high penetrations of wind by replacing some of the functions of conventional peaking plant. Demand side resources are also shown to be capable of improving the reliability of the system, with reserve capability identified as a key requirement in this respect. - Highlights: → Demand side resource model presented for use in unit commitment and dispatch calculations. → Benefits of demand side aggregation demonstrated specifically as a peaking unit and provider of reserve. → Potential to displace or defer construction of conventional peaking units.

  9. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues

  10. Wind energy prospecting: socio-economic value of a new wind resource assessment technique based on a NASA Earth science dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvyve, E.; Magontier, P.; Vandenberghe, F. C.; Delle Monache, L.; Dickinson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is amongst the fastest growing sources of renewable energy in the U.S. and could supply up to 20 % of the U.S power production by 2030. An accurate and reliable wind resource assessment for prospective wind farm sites is a challenging task, yet is crucial for evaluating the long-term profitability and feasibility of a potential development. We have developed an accurate and computationally efficient wind resource assessment technique for prospective wind farm sites, which incorporates innovative statistical techniques and the new NASA Earth science dataset MERRA. This technique produces a wind resource estimate that is more accurate than that obtained by the wind energy industry's standard technique, while providing a reliable quantification of its uncertainty. The focus now is on evaluating the socio-economic value of this new technique upon using the industry's standard technique. Would it yield lower financing costs? Could it result in lower electricity prices? Are there further down-the-line positive consequences, e.g. job creation, time saved, greenhouse gas decrease? Ultimately, we expect our results will inform efforts to refine and disseminate the new technique to support the development of the U.S. renewable energy infrastructure. In order to address the above questions, we are carrying out a cost-benefit analysis based on the net present worth of the technique. We will describe this approach, including the cash-flow process of wind farm financing, how the wind resource assessment factors in, and will present current results for various hypothetical candidate wind farm sites.

  11. Temporal and spatial complementarity of wind and solar resources in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurasz, Jakub; Wdowikowski, Marcin; Kaźmierczak, Bartosz; Dąbek, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the concept of temporal and spatial complementarity of wind and solar resources in Lower Silesia (south-wester Poland). For the purpose of our research we have used hourly load and energy yield from photovoltaics and wind turbines covering period 2010-2014. In order to assess the spatial complementarity we have divided the considered voivodeship into 74 squared regions with maximal area of 400 km2. The obtained results indicate an existence of temporal complementarity on a monthly time scale and a positive correlation between load and wind generation patterns (also on a monthly time scale). The temporal complementarity for hourly time series in relatively low but has potential to smooth the energy generation curves.

  12. Should we build wind farms close to load or invest in transmission to access better wind resources in remote areas? A case study in the MISO region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, Julian V.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês L.; Wiser, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Wind speeds in remote areas are sometimes very high, but transmission costs to access these locations can be prohibitive. We present a conceptual model to estimate the economics of accessing high quality wind resources in remote areas to comply with renewable energy policy targets, and apply the model to the Midwestern grid (MISO) as a case study. We assess the goal of providing 40 TWh of new wind generation while minimizing costs, and include temporal aspects of wind power (variability costs and correlation to market prices) as well as total wind power produced from different farms. We find that building wind farms in North/South Dakota (windiest states) compared to Illinois (less windy, but close to load) would only be economical if the incremental transmission costs to access them were below $360/kW of wind capacity (break-even value). Historically, the incremental transmission costs for wind development in North/South Dakota compared to in Illinois are about twice this value. However, the break-even incremental transmission cost for wind farms in Minnesota/Iowa (also windy states) is $250/kW, which is consistent with historical costs. We conclude that wind development in Minnesota/Iowa is likely more economical to meet MISO renewable targets compared to North/South Dakota or Illinois. - Highlights: •We evaluate the economics of building wind farms in remote areas in MISO. •We present a conceptual wind site selection model to meet 40 TWh of new wind. •We use the model to compare remote windy sites to less windy ones closer to load. •We show break-even transmission costs that would justify remote wind development. •Comparing break-even values to historical costs, MN/IA sites are most economical.

  13. Wind resource assessment handbook: Fundamentals for conducting a successful monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, B.H.; McDonald, S.L.; Bernadett, D.W.; Markus, M.J.; Elsholz, K.V.

    1997-01-01

    This handbook presents industry-accepted guidelines for planning and conducting a wind resource measurement program to support a wind energy feasibility initiative. These guidelines, which are detailed and highly technical, emphasize the tasks of selecting, installing, and operating wind measurement equipment, as well as collecting and analyzing the associated data, once one or more measurement sites are located. The handbook's scope encompasses state-of-the-art measurement and analysis techniques at multiple heights on tall towers (e.g., 40 m) for a measurement duration of at least one year. These guidelines do not represent every possible method of conducting a quality wind measurement program, but they address the most important elements based on field-proven experience. The intended audience for this handbook is any organization or individual who desires the planning framework and detailed procedures for conducting a formally structured wind measurement program. Personnel from the management level to field technicians will find this material applicable. The organizational aspects of a measurement program, including the setting of clear program objectives and designing commensurate measurement and quality assurance plans, all of which are essential to ensuring the program's successful outcome, are emphasized. Considerable attention is also given to the details of actually conducting the measurement program in its many aspects, from selecting instrumentation that meets minimum performance standards to analyzing and reporting on the collected data. 5 figs., 15 tabs

  14. Externalities in utility resource selection: A means to formally recognize the envionmental benefits of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birner, S.

    1992-01-01

    Wind can only make its full contribution to the minimization of the total cost of energy services if it is valued for all the costs that it avoids, including avoided environmental costs. Means of incorporating environmental costs, or externalities, into utility planning decisions are described. Externalities are defined as uncompensated costs or benefits of an action borne by a party other than the one causing the costs. A simple example of the use of externalities in utility resource selection is presented, comparing costs of a coal-fired power plant and a wind farm. Externalities of wind farms are analyzed and found to be very low. An examination of some aspects of legislation in the USA and Canada shows a trend for utility commissions and other regulatory bodies to determine that including externalitites lies within their mandate. By formally recognizing and accounting for the environmental benefits of wind farms, it is seen that externalities can have a significant effect on utility demand for wind energy. A review of USA state actions regarding externalities is appended. 10 refs

  15. Assessing climate change impacts on the near-term stability of the wind energy resource over the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J

    2011-05-17

    The energy sector comprises approximately two-thirds of global total greenhouse gas emissions. For this and other reasons, renewable energy resources including wind power are being increasingly harnessed to provide electricity generation potential with negligible emissions of carbon dioxide. The wind energy resource is naturally a function of the climate system because the "fuel" is the incident wind speed and thus is determined by the atmospheric circulation. Some recent articles have reported historical declines in measured near-surface wind speeds, leading some to question the continued viability of the wind energy industry. Here we briefly articulate the challenges inherent in accurately quantifying and attributing historical tendencies and making robust projections of likely future wind resources. We then analyze simulations from the current generation of regional climate models and show, at least for the next 50 years, the wind resource in the regions of greatest wind energy penetration will not move beyond the historical envelope of variability. Thus this work suggests that the wind energy industry can, and will, continue to make a contribution to electricity provision in these regions for at least the next several decades.

  16. Wind and solar energy resources on the 'Roof of the World'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandler, Harald; Morche, Thomas; Samimi, Cyrus

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan, often referred to as 'Roof of the World', are an arid high mountain plateau characterized by severe energy poverty that may have great potential for renewable energy resources due to the prevailing natural conditions. The lack of energetic infrastructure makes the region a prime target for decentralized integration of wind and solar power. However, up to date no scientific attempt to assess the regional potential of these resources has been carried out. In this context, it is particularly important to evaluate if wind and solar energy are able to provide enough power to generate thermal energy, as other thermal energy carriers are scarce or unavailable and the existing alternative, local harvest of dwarf shrubs, is unsustainable due to the slow regeneration in this environment. Therefore, this study examines the feasibility of using wind and solar energy as thermal energy sources. Financial frame conditions were set on a maximum amount of five million Euros. This sum provides a realistic scenario as it is based on the current budget of the KfW development bank to finance the modernization of the local hydropower plant in the regions only city, Murghab, with about 1500 households. The basis for resource assessment is data of four climate stations, erected for this purpose in 2012, where wind speed, wind direction, global radiation and temperature are measured at a half hourly interval. These measurements confirm the expectation of a large photovoltaic potential and high panel efficiency with up to 84 percent of extraterrestrial radiation reaching the surface and only 16 hours of temperatures above 25°C were measured in two years at the village stations on average. As these observations are only point measurements, radiation data and the ASTER GDEM was used to train a GIS based solar radiation model to spatially extrapolate incoming radiation. With mean validation errors ranging from 5% in July (minimum) to 15% in December (maximum

  17. Assessing risk to birds from industrial wind energy development via paired resource selection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tricia A; Brooks, Robert P; Lanzone, Michael; Brandes, David; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior; Duerr, Adam; Katzner, Todd

    2014-06-01

    When wildlife habitat overlaps with industrial development animals may be harmed. Because wildlife and people select resources to maximize biological fitness and economic return, respectively, we estimated risk, the probability of eagles encountering and being affected by turbines, by overlaying models of resource selection for each entity. This conceptual framework can be applied across multiple spatial scales to understand and mitigate impacts of industry on wildlife. We estimated risk to Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from wind energy development in 3 topographically distinct regions of the central Appalachian Mountains of Pennsylvania (United States) based on models of resource selection of wind facilities (n = 43) and of northbound migrating eagles (n = 30). Risk to eagles from wind energy was greatest in the Ridge and Valley region; all 24 eagles that passed through that region used the highest risk landscapes at least once during low altitude flight. In contrast, only half of the birds that entered the Allegheny Plateau region used highest risk landscapes and none did in the Allegheny Mountains. Likewise, in the Allegheny Mountains, the majority of wind turbines (56%) were situated in poor eagle habitat; thus, risk to eagles is lower there than in the Ridge and Valley, where only 1% of turbines are in poor eagle habitat. Risk within individual facilities was extremely variable; on average, facilities had 11% (SD 23; range = 0-100%) of turbines in highest risk landscapes and 26% (SD 30; range = 0-85%) of turbines in the lowest risk landscapes. Our results provide a mechanism for relocating high-risk turbines, and they show the feasibility of this novel and highly adaptable framework for managing risk of harm to wildlife from industrial development. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Assessment of Off-shore Wind Energy Resource in China using QuikSCAT Satellite data and SAR Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiuzhi, Zhang; Yanbo, Shen; Jingwei, Xu

    2010-01-01

    From August 2008 to August 2009, the project ‘Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China’ was carried out by China Meteorological Administration (CMA), which was funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP). As one ...

  19. 78 FR 15718 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-44-006] Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America LLC Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 1, 2013...

  20. 77 FR 2286 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-44-000] Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Designation of Certain Commission Personnel as...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Annual average potential wind energy resource by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the annual average potential wind energy resource in kilowatt hours per square kilometer per day for each 12-digit Hydrologic Unit...

  2. Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Miller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power 12 ρv3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant

  3. Avian risk behavior and fatalities at the Altamont Wind Resource Area: March 1998 - February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, C.; Rugge, L.

    2000-05-08

    Since 1981, more than 7,000 wind turbines have been installed in the Altamont Wind Resource Area in north-central California. Currently, about 5,000 turbines are operating. Past research efforts demonstrated that wind turbines frequently kill birds, especially raptors. Little is known about the specific flight and perching behaviors by birds near wind turbines. A better understanding of these interactions may one day yield insights on how to minimize bird fatalities. This Phase 1 progress report summarizes research findings obtained at 20 study plots totaling 785 turbines of various configurations and conducted between March 1998 and February 1999. The authors examined bird use and behaviors and collected data on fatalities at the same turbines throughout the course of the surveys. They completed 745 30-minute point counts (1,702 bird observations) that quantified bird risk behaviors and bird use of the study plots. The four most frequently observed bird species were red-tailed hawks, common ravens, turkey vultures, and golden eagles. During the same period, the authors recorded 95 bird fatalities. Raptors represent 51% (n=49) of the kills found. The data indicate that the relative abundance of species observed does not predict the relative frequency of fatalities per species. Phase II of the research is underway.

  4. Avian risk behavior and fatalities at the Altamont Wind Resource Area: March 1998 - February 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelander, C.; Rugge, L.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1981, more than 7,000 wind turbines have been installed in the Altamont Wind Resource Area in north-central California. Currently, about 5,000 turbines are operating. Past research efforts demonstrated that wind turbines frequently kill birds, especially raptors. Little is known about the specific flight and perching behaviors by birds near wind turbines. A better understanding of these interactions may one day yield insights on how to minimize bird fatalities. This Phase 1 progress report summarizes research findings obtained at 20 study plots totaling 785 turbines of various configurations and conducted between March 1998 and February 1999. The authors examined bird use and behaviors and collected data on fatalities at the same turbines throughout the course of the surveys. They completed 745 30-minute point counts (1,702 bird observations) that quantified bird risk behaviors and bird use of the study plots. The four most frequently observed bird species were red-tailed hawks, common ravens, turkey vultures, and golden eagles. During the same period, the authors recorded 95 bird fatalities. Raptors represent 51% (n=49) of the kills found. The data indicate that the relative abundance of species observed does not predict the relative frequency of fatalities per species. Phase II of the research is underway

  5. The Use of Reanalysis Data for Wind Resource Assessment at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.

    1999-01-01

    An important component of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory wind resource assessment methodology is the use of available upper-air data to construct detailed vertical profiles for a study region. Currently, the most useful upper-air data for this type of analysis are archived observations from approximately 1800 rawinsonde and pilot balloon stations worldwide. However, significant uncertainty exists in the accuracy of the constructed profiles for many regions. The United States Reanalysis Data Set, recently created by the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, has the potential to improve the quality of the vertical profiles. The initial evaluation of the usefulness of the Reanalysis data for wind resource assessment consisted of contrasting reanalysis-derived vertical profiles of the wind characteristics to those generated from upper-air observations for comparable locations. The results indicate that, while reanalysis data can be substituted for upper-air observation data in the assessment methodology for areas of the world where observation data are limited, enough discrepancies with observation data have been noticed to warrant further studies

  6. Wind power, network congestion and hydro resource utilisation in the Norwegian power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foersund, Finn; Singh, Balbir; Jensen, Trond; Larsen, Cato

    2005-01-01

    Capacity constraints in electricity networks can have important impacts on utilization of new renewable energy (RE) capacity and incumbent generation resources. Neglect of such impacts in development of RE resources can result in crowding-out of incumbent generation. This trade-off is particularly problematic if the incumbent generation also consists of renewable sources, such as hydropower in the Norwegian electricity system. This paper presents a numerical analysis of the current wind-power development plans in North Norway and their impacts on utilization of hydropower. Policy simulations in paper are conducted using a dynamic partial equilibrium model that is calibrated to reflect the structure of the Nordic power market. The paper draws conclusion and policy implications for integration of RE resources in the Norwegian power market. (Author)

  7. Resource Sharing in the Logistics of the Offshore Wind Farm Installation Process based on a Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thies Beinke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This present contribution examines by means of a discrete event and agent-based simulation the potential of a joint use of resources in the installation phase of offshore wind energy. To this end, wind farm projects to be installed simultaneously are being examined, the impact of weather restrictions on the processes of loading, transport and installation are also taken into consideration, and both the wind farm specific resource allocation and the approach of a resource pool or resource sharing, respectively, are being implemented. This study is motivated by the large number of wind farms that will be installed in the future and by the potential savings that might be realized through resource sharing. While, so far, the main driver of the resource sharing approach has been the end consumer market, it has been applied in more and more areas, even in relatively conservative industries such as logistics. After the presentation of the backgrounds and of the underlying methodology, and the description of the prior art in this context, the network of the offshore wind energy installation phase will be described. This is the basis for the subsequent determination of the savings potential of a shared resource utilization, which is determined by the performance indicators such as the total installation time and degree of utilization of the resources. The results of the simulation show that weather restrictions have a significant effect on the installation times and the usage times of the resources as well as on their degree of utilization. In addition, the resource sharing approach, has been identified to have significant savings potential for the offshore wind energy installation.

  8. Two-Stage Coordinated Operational Strategy for Distributed Energy Resources Considering Wind Power Curtailment Penalty Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of virtual power plant (VPP has been proposed to facilitate the integration of distributed renewable energy. VPP behaves similar to a single entity that aggregates a collection of distributed energy resources (DERs such as distributed generators, storage devices, flexible loads, etc., so that the aggregated power outputs can be flexibly dispatched and traded in electricity markets. This paper presents an optimal scheduling model for VPP participating in day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. In the DA market, VPP aims to maximize the expected profit and reduce the risk in relation to uncertainties. The risk is measured by a risk factor based on the mean-variance Markowitz theory. In the RT market, VPP aims to minimize the imbalance cost and wind power curtailment by adjusting the scheduling of DERs in its portfolio. In case studies, the benefits (e.g., surplus profit and reduced wind power curtailment of aggregated VPP operation are assessed. Moreover, we have investigated how these benefits are affected by different risk-aversion levels and uncertainty levels. According to the simulation results, the aggregated VPP scheduling approach can effectively help the integration of wind power, mitigate the impact of uncertainties, and reduce the cost of risk-aversion.

  9. Performance analysis of wind resource assessment software in different wind sites in México and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorio, Nyzar

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are increasing in order to provide power with minimal envi- ronmental impact. The most commercially advanced of these at present is wind power. The production and use of wind energy opens new opportunities for Latin American coun- tries to limit the emissions of carbon dioxide. It will provide a cleaner, sustainable, efficient and competitive energy matrix. According to the Latin American Wind Energy Association (LAWEA), Latin America has an installed capacity of only...

  10. The Energy Commission's notice to the Minister of Natural Resources regarding the place of wind energy in Quebec's energy portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumais, A.; Frayne, A.; Tanguay, F.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997 Quebec's Minister of Natural Resources requested that the Energy Commission advise him on the quota given to wind energy in the future energy development plans of Hydro-Quebec. The Commission's report to the Minister includes 18 recommendations. Among these is a recommendation that an assessment of wind resources be conducted as soon as possible to identify suitable sites for the installation of wind turbines. A provincial program for the development of wind energy is also recommended, to be initiated by the year 2002, and that it should proceed over the next nine years to reach a target production capacity of 450 MW by the year 2011. This production would come from the yearly installation of 60 to 70 wind turbines of 750 kV. The Commission also recommended that in the initial years costs for this wind energy not exceed that of the Le Nordais project, i.e. 5.8 cents per kWh. Any additional costs incurred in the generation of wind electricity over conventional hydro power should be assumed by the Quebec Government. Conversely, in instances where the wind power is sold to consumers outside of the province, Hydro-Quebec should pay for the full cost of this power. 8 tabs., 1 appendix

  11. Wind versus coal: Comparing the local economic impacts of energy resource development in Appalachia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Alan R.; Hansen, Evan; Hendryx, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Two energy development scenarios were compared for the Coal River Mountain in Raleigh County, West Virginia: (1) mountaintop mining (MTM) of coal, and (2) wind energy plus underground mining of coal. Economic impact computations over the life of each energy development scenario were made on a county basis for output of goods and services, the number of jobs created, and local earnings. Externality costs were assigned monetary values for coal mining and subtracted from earnings. Premature mortality within the general population due to additional coal mining accounted for 96% of these external cost computations. The results showed that economic output over the life of each scenario was twice as high for MTM mining as wind energy plus underground coal mining. Over the short term, employment and earnings were higher for MTM mining, but towards the end of the scenario, cumulative employment and earnings became higher under scenario (2). When local externality costs were subtracted from local earnings, MTM coal production had an overall negative net social impact on the citizens of Raleigh County. The external costs of MTM coal production provide an explanation of the existence of a “resource curse” and the conflicting results of output versus income provide insights into why coal-producing counties are underdeveloped. - Highlights: ► Mountaintop mining (MTM) was compared to wind plus underground mining. ► Economic output was twice as high for MTM. ► Employment and earnings were cumulatively higher for wind energy. ► Including local externality costs, MTM had an overall negative net social impact. ► Results provide insights into why coal-producing counties are underdeveloped.

  12. Joint Evaluation of the Wave and Offshore Wind Energy Resources in the Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Rusu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to assess the global wind and wave resources in the vicinity of some developing countries by evaluating 16-year of data (2001–2016, coming from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF. Until now, not much work has been done to evaluate and use the renewable energy sources from these marine environments. This is because most of the attention was focused on more promising areas, such as the European coasts, which are more advanced in terms of technical and economical aspects. A general perspective of the current energy market from the selected target areas is first presented, indicating at the same time the progresses that have been reported in the field of the renewable energy. Besides the spatial and seasonal variations of the marine resources considered, the results also indicate the energy potential of these coastal environments as well as the performances of some offshore wind turbines, which may operate in these regions.

  13. Desmoid tumor within lesser sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors or fibromatoses comprise a number of benign fibrous proliferative lesions that have local infiltrative growth and tendency to recur after incomplete excision. They never metastasize. The authors present a 31-year old woman who, due to epigastric pain and palpable mass detected on presentation, underwent the excision of firm tumorous mass, 210x140x115mm in diameter, from the lesser sac. Compressing the splenic vein, the tumor caused left-sided portal hypertension which subsided after the mass was removed. The recovery was uneventful. The histological examination verified typical desmoid tumor. Twelve years after surgery, the patient remained symptom-free with no signs of recurrence.

  14. A study on the survey of wind energy resources for potential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Kim, Keon Hoon; Yoo, Seung Won; Choi, Chang Joon; Ahn, Jung Jong [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Among the wind energy utilization projects, the siting work for wind turbine installation is one of the most important procedure because the wind energy distribution is very different regionally and wind energy density influences greatly to the feasibility of wind energy utilization. So, the potential sites of wind generating in our country must be surveyed and analyzed the feasibility of wind energy utilization. In addition to this, the technique of wind energy prediction considered of the topography, surface roughness and obstacle condition must be established for the reliable analysis of wind energy utilization. The contents carried out in this project are shown below, 1. Determining of the measuring sites of wind data - Wyoulryung-ri, Youngrag-ri, Gapa-ri in Cheju Province - Heul-ri, Gangwon Province. 2. Analysis of wind energy at measuring sites The characteristics of wind energy at the measured sites were analysed. It will be continued to measure the wind data by wind data logger. 3. A study on wind energy prediction technique It was studied how to obtain the topographic map data for using WAsP(WIndAtlas Analysis and Application Program). (author). 21 refs., 59 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Year-to-year correlation, record length, and overconfidence in wind resource assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bodini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Interannual variability of wind speeds presents a fundamental source of uncertainty in preconstruction energy estimates. Our analysis of one of the longest and geographically most widespread extant sets of instrumental wind-speed observations (62-year records from 60 stations in Canada shows that deviations from mean resource levels persist over many decades, substantially increasing uncertainty. As a result of this persistence, the performance of each site's last 20 years diverges more widely than expected from the P50 level estimated from its first 42 years: half the sites have either fewer than 5 or more than 15 years exceeding the P50 estimate. In contrast to this 10-year-wide interquartile range, a 4-year-wide range (2.5 times narrower was found for "control" records where statistical independence was enforced by randomly permuting each station's historical values. Similarly, for sites with capacity factor of 0.35 and interannual variability of 6  %, one would expect 9 years in 10 to fall in the range 0.32–0.38; we find the actual 90  % range to be 0.27–0.43, or three times wider. The previously un-quantified effect of serial correlations favors a shift in resource-assessment thinking from a climatology-focused approach to a persistence-focused approach: for this data set, no improvement in P50 error is gained by using records longer than 4–5 years, and use of records longer than 20 years actually degrades accuracy.

  16. An analysis of wind and solar energy resources for the State of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusainan, Haya Nasser

    Kuwait is an important producer of oil and gas. Its rapid socio-economic growth has been characterized by increasing population, high rates of urbanization, and substantial industrialization, which is transforming it into a large big energy consumer as well. In addition to urbanization, climatic conditions have played an important function in increasing demand for electricity in Kuwait. Electricity for thermal cooling has become essential in the hot desert climate, and its use has developed rapidly along with the economic development, urbanization, and population growth. This study examines the long-term wind and solar resources over the Kuwait to determine the feasibility of these resources as potential sustainable and renewable energy sources. The ultimate goal of this research is to help identify the potential role of renewable energy in Kuwait. This study will examine the drivers and requirements for the deployment of these energy sources and their possible integration into the electricity generation sector to illustrate how renewable energy can be a suitable resource for power production in Kuwait and to illustrate how they can also be used to provide electricity for the country. For this study, data from sixteen established stations monitored by the meteorological department were analyzed. A solar resource map was developed that identifies the most suitable locations for solar farm development. A range of different relevant variables, including, for example, electric networks, population zones, fuel networks, elevation, water wells, streets, and weather stations, were combined in a geospatial analysis to predict suitable locations for solar farm development and placement. An analysis of recommendations, future energy targets and strategies for renewable energy policy in Kuwait are then conducted. This study was put together to identify issues and opportunities related to renewable energy in the region, since renewable energy technologies are still limited in

  17. Down-scaling wind energy resource from mesoscale to local scale by nesting and data assimilation with a CFD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraisamy Jothiprakasam, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    The development of wind energy generation requires precise and well-established methods for wind resource assessment, which is the initial step in every wind farm project. During the last two decades linear flow models were widely used in the wind industry for wind resource assessment and micro-siting. But the linear models inaccuracies in predicting the wind speeds in very complex terrain are well known and led to use of CFD, capable of modeling the complex flow in details around specific geographic features. Mesoscale models (NWP) are able to predict the wind regime at resolutions of several kilometers, but are not well suited to resolve the wind speed and turbulence induced by the topography features on the scale of a few hundred meters. CFD has proven successful in capturing flow details at smaller scales, but needs an accurate specification of the inlet conditions. Thus coupling NWP and CFD models is a better modeling approach for wind energy applications. A one-year field measurement campaign carried out in a complex terrain in southern France during 2007-2008 provides a well-documented data set both for input and validation data. The proposed new methodology aims to address two problems: the high spatial variation of the topography on the domain lateral boundaries, and the prediction errors of the mesoscale model. It is applied in this work using the open source CFD code Code-Saturne, coupled with the mesoscale forecast model of Meteo-France (ALADIN). The improvement is obtained by combining the mesoscale data as inlet condition and field measurement data assimilation into the CFD model. Newtonian relaxation (nudging) data assimilation technique is used to incorporate the measurement data into the CFD simulations. The methodology to reconstruct long term averages uses a clustering process to group the similar meteorological conditions and to reduce the number of CFD simulations needed to reproduce 1 year of atmospheric flow over the site. The assimilation

  18. Two approaches for incorporating climate change into natural resource management planning at Wind Cave National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Long, Andrew J.; Stamm, John; King, David A.; Bachelet, Dominque M.; Norton, Parker A.

    2014-01-01

    Wind Cave National Park (WICA) protects one of the world’s longest caves, has large amounts of high quality, native vegetation, and hosts a genetically important bison herd. The park’s relatively small size and unique purpose within its landscape requires hands-on management of these and other natural resources, all of which are interconnected. Anthropogenic climate change presents an added challenge to WICA natural resource management because it is characterized by large uncertainties, many of which are beyond the control of park and National Park Service (NPS) staff. When uncertainty is high and control of this uncertainty low, scenario planning is an appropriate tool for determining future actions. In 2009, members of the NPS obtained formal training in the use of scenario planning in order to evaluate it as a tool for incorporating climate change into NPS natural resource management planning. WICA served as one of two case studies used in this training exercise. Although participants in the training exercise agreed that the scenario planning process showed promise for its intended purpose, they were concerned that the process lacked the scientific rigor necessary to defend the management implications derived from it in the face of public scrutiny. This report addresses this concern and others by (1) providing a thorough description of the process of the 2009 scenario planning exercise, as well as its results and management implications for WICA; (2) presenting the results of a follow-up, scientific study that quantitatively simulated responses of WICA’s hydrological and ecological systems to specific climate projections; (3) placing these climate projections and the general climate scenarios used in the scenario planning exercise in the broader context of available climate projections; and (4) comparing the natural resource management implications derived from the two approaches. Wind Cave National Park (WICA) protects one of the world’s longest caves

  19. Controllable and affordable utility-scale electricity from intermittent wind resources and compressed air energy storage (CAES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    World wind energy resources are substantial, and in many areas, such as the US and northern Europe, could in theory supply all of the electricity demand. However, the remote or challenging location (i.e. offshore) and especially the intermittent character of the wind resources present formidable barriers to utilization on the scale required by a modern industrial economy. All of these technical challenges can be overcome. Long distance transmission is well understood, while offshore wind technology is being developed rapidly. Intermittent wind power can be transformed to a controllable power source with hybrid wind/compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The cost of electricity from such hybrid systems (including transmission) is affordable, and comparable to what users in some modern industrial economies already pay for electricity. This approach to intermittent energy integration has many advantages compared to the current strategy of forcing utilities to cope with supply uncertainty and transmission costs. Above all, it places intermittent wind on an equal technical footing with every other generation technology, including nuclear power, its most important long-term competitor

  20. A GIS-assisted approach to wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection for the state of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Hurley, P. [RLA Consulting, Bothell, WA (United States); Simon, R. [Consulting Meteorologist, Mill Valley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the methodology and results of a wide-area wind resource assessment and site selection in Colorado. This was the first phase in a three-part assessment and monitoring program conducted for the State of Colorado Office of Energy Conservation and several collaborating utilities. The objective of this phase was to identify up to 20 candidate sites for evaluation and possible long-term monitoring. This was accomplished using a geographic information system (GIS), which takes into account such factors as topography, existing wind resource data, locations of transmission lines, land cover, and land use. The resulting list of sites recommended for evaluation in Phase 2 of the study includes locations throughout Colorado, but most are in the eastern plains. The GIS wind siting model may be modified and updated in the future as additional information becomes available. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Large-scale, high-resolution wind resource mapping for wind farm planning and development in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Badger, Jake; Hansen, Jens Carsten

    2014-01-01

    estimates are designed for national and provincial planning and strategic environmental impact assessment for wind power in South Africa and the results have therefore been made available in common GIS formats. The database of results is in the public domain and can be downloaded from the WASA web site...

  2. Implementation of wind power in the Norwegian market; the reason why some of the best wind resources in Europe were not utilised by 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blindheim, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    Norway has some of the best wind resources in Europe. In 1999, the Norwegian Parliament committed to attain an annual onshore wind power production goal of 3.0 TWh by 2010; however, in 2010, onshore wind power production measured only 1.0 TWh. This article discusses the reasons that this goal was not achieved. The analysis addresses the key figures on the strategic, tactical and operational levels. This model is combined with a time line that seeks to define when different actors should have secured concessions and funding to achieve the goal. After introducing the time line, a list of questions is introduced for these key actors. The three-level model, the time line and the questions constitute the analytical framework. Explanations for the failure to achieve the goal may be identified on all three levels. However, the primary explanatory factors were political uncertainty in the support scheme and wind power's role in the energy market in general; both of these factors are identified on the strategic level. Uncertainty on the strategic level influenced the lower levels, which led to bottlenecks in the concession process and jittery investors who thought that the risk of investment in wind power was too high. - Highlights: • Implementation of wind power in the Norwegian energy system up to 2010. • The concession process, the support scheme and the marked players are considered. • Uncertainty about the support scheme slowed down the implementation process. • The concession process has been a bottleneck. • The support scheme has only to a certain degree trigged investments

  3. Statistical characterization of roughness uncertainty and impact on wind resource estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this work we relate uncertainty in background roughness length (z0) to uncertainty in wind speeds, where the latter are predicted at a wind farm location based on wind statistics observed at a different site. Sensitivity of predicted winds to roughness is derived analytically for the industry...... between mean wind speed and AEP. Following our developments, we provide guidance on approximate roughness uncertainty magnitudes to be expected in industry practice, and we also find that sites with larger background roughness incur relatively larger uncertainties.......-standard European Wind Atlas method, which is based on the geostrophic drag law. We statistically consider roughness and its corresponding uncertainty, in terms of both z0 derived from measured wind speeds as well as that chosen in practice by wind engineers. We show the combined effect of roughness uncertainty...

  4. Remotely sensed data fusion for offshore wind energy resource mapping; Fusion de donnees satellitaires pour la cartographie du potentiel eolien offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ticha, M.B

    2007-11-15

    Wind energy is a component of an energy policy contributing to a sustainable development. Last years, offshore wind parks have been installed offshore. These parks benefit from higher wind speeds and lower turbulence than onshore. To sit a wind park, it is necessary to have a mapping of wind resource. These maps are needed at high spatial resolution to show wind energy resource variations at the scale of a wind park. Wind resource mapping is achieved through the description of the spatial variations of statistical parameters characterizing wind climatology. For a precise estimation of these statistical parameters, high temporal resolution wind speed and direction measurements are needed. However, presently, there is no data source allying high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution. We propose a data fusion method taking advantage of the high spatial resolution of some remote sensing instruments (synthetic aperture radars) and the high temporal resolution of other remote sensing instruments (scatterometers). The data fusion method is applied to a case study and the results quality is assessed. The results show the pertinence of data fusion for the mapping of wind energy resource offshore. (author)

  5. Smoothing out the volatility of South Africa's wind and PV energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bofinger, S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar PV & wind are the cheapest new-build options per kWh in South Africa. By 2020, a mix of PV, wind and flexible gas (LNG-based) costs the same as new coal, even without any value given to excess wind/PV energy. South Africa has abundant solar...

  6. Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Neher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 × 10 m2 grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California’s 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  7. Map-based repowering and reorganization of a wind resource area to minimize burrowing owl and other bird fatalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, K. S. [Research Ecologist, 3108 Finch Street, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Neher, L. [Gis Specialist, Neher Consulting, 7241 34th Street, North Highlands, CA 95660 (United States); Bell, D. A. [East Bay Regional Park District, 2950 Peralta Oaks Court, Oakland, CA 94605-0381 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA) generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 x 10 m{sup 2} grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California's 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard. (author)

  8. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented

  9. Behavior of the aggregate wind resource in the ISO regions in the United States

    KAUST Repository

    Gunturu, Udaya

    2015-04-01

    The collective behavior of wind farms in seven Independent System Operator (ISO) areas has been studied. The generation duration curves for each ISO show that there is no aggregated power for some fraction of time. Aggregation of wind turbines mitigates intermittency to some extent, but in each ISO there is considerable fraction of time when there is less than 5% capacity. The hourly wind power time series show benefit of aggregation but the high and low wind events are lumped in time, thus indicating that intermittency is synchronized in each region. The timeseries show that there are instances when there is no wind power in most ISOs because of large-scale high pressure systems. An analytical consideration of the collective behavior of aggregated wind turbines shows that the benefit of aggregation saturates beyond a certain number of generating units asymptotically. Also, the benefit of aggregation falls rapidly with temporal correlation between the generating units.

  10. Behavior of the aggregate wind resource in the ISO regions in the United States

    KAUST Repository

    Gunturu, Udaya; Schlosser, Clemens Adam

    2015-01-01

    The collective behavior of wind farms in seven Independent System Operator (ISO) areas has been studied. The generation duration curves for each ISO show that there is no aggregated power for some fraction of time. Aggregation of wind turbines mitigates intermittency to some extent, but in each ISO there is considerable fraction of time when there is less than 5% capacity. The hourly wind power time series show benefit of aggregation but the high and low wind events are lumped in time, thus indicating that intermittency is synchronized in each region. The timeseries show that there are instances when there is no wind power in most ISOs because of large-scale high pressure systems. An analytical consideration of the collective behavior of aggregated wind turbines shows that the benefit of aggregation saturates beyond a certain number of generating units asymptotically. Also, the benefit of aggregation falls rapidly with temporal correlation between the generating units.

  11. Statistical characterization of roughness uncertainty and impact on wind resource estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kelly

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we relate uncertainty in background roughness length (z0 to uncertainty in wind speeds, where the latter are predicted at a wind farm location based on wind statistics observed at a different site. Sensitivity of predicted winds to roughness is derived analytically for the industry-standard European Wind Atlas method, which is based on the geostrophic drag law. We statistically consider roughness and its corresponding uncertainty, in terms of both z0 derived from measured wind speeds as well as that chosen in practice by wind engineers. We show the combined effect of roughness uncertainty arising from differing wind-observation and turbine-prediction sites; this is done for the case of roughness bias as well as for the general case. For estimation of uncertainty in annual energy production (AEP, we also develop a generalized analytical turbine power curve, from which we derive a relation between mean wind speed and AEP. Following our developments, we provide guidance on approximate roughness uncertainty magnitudes to be expected in industry practice, and we also find that sites with larger background roughness incur relatively larger uncertainties.

  12. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and

  13. Solar PV resource for higher penetration through a combined spatial aggregation with wind

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, ST

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available between wind and solar PV and how these would be reflected in the power system. The benefits of spatial distribution of renewables are well understood, but the impact of the combined spatial aggregation of wind and solar PV is central to the design...

  14. Offshore wind resource mapping for Europe by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete

    2015-01-01

    For the New European Wind Atlas (NEWA) project with 8 participating countries during5 years (March 2015 – March 2020) we will develop a new wind atlas covering most of the European countries as well as most of the offshore areas in Europe. For the offshore atlas we will rely on a combination of s...

  15. A probabilistic assessment of large scale wind power development for long-term energy resource planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Scott Warren

    A steady decline in the cost of wind turbines and increased experience in their successful operation have brought this technology to the forefront of viable alternatives for large-scale power generation. Methodologies for understanding the costs and benefits of large-scale wind power development, however, are currently limited. In this thesis, a new and widely applicable technique for estimating the social benefit of large-scale wind power production is presented. The social benefit is based upon wind power's energy and capacity services and the avoidance of environmental damages. The approach uses probabilistic modeling techniques to account for the stochastic interaction between wind power availability, electricity demand, and conventional generator dispatch. A method for including the spatial smoothing effect of geographically dispersed wind farms is also introduced. The model has been used to analyze potential offshore wind power development to the south of Long Island, NY. If natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) are the alternative generation sources, wind power exhibits a negative social benefit due to its high capacity cost and the relatively low emissions of these advanced fossil-fuel technologies. Environmental benefits increase significantly if charges for CO2 emissions are included. Results also reveal a diminishing social benefit as wind power penetration increases. The dependence of wind power benefits on natural gas and coal prices is also discussed. In power systems with a high penetration of wind generated electricity, the intermittent availability of wind power may influence hourly spot prices. A price responsive electricity demand model is introduced that shows a small increase in wind power value when consumers react to hourly spot prices. The effectiveness of this mechanism depends heavily on estimates of the own- and cross-price elasticities of aggregate electricity demand. This work makes a valuable

  16. Assessing Potential Wind Energy Resources in Saudi Arabia with a Skew-t Distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Tagle, Felipe

    2017-03-13

    Facing increasing domestic energy consumption from population growth and industrialization, Saudi Arabia is aiming to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels and to broaden its energy mix by expanding investment in renewable energy sources, including wind energy. A preliminary task in the development of wind energy infrastructure is the assessment of wind energy potential, a key aspect of which is the characterization of its spatio-temporal behavior. In this study we examine the impact of internal climate variability on seasonal wind power density fluctuations using 30 simulations from the Large Ensemble Project (LENS) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Furthermore, a spatio-temporal model for daily wind speed is proposed with neighbor-based cross-temporal dependence, and a multivariate skew-t distribution to capture the spatial patterns of higher order moments. The model can be used to generate synthetic time series over the entire spatial domain that adequately reproduces the internal variability of the LENS dataset.

  17. Assessing Potential Wind Energy Resources in Saudi Arabia with a Skew-t Distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Tagle, Felipe; Castruccio, Stefano; Crippa, Paola; Genton, Marc G.

    2017-01-01

    Facing increasing domestic energy consumption from population growth and industrialization, Saudi Arabia is aiming to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels and to broaden its energy mix by expanding investment in renewable energy sources, including wind energy. A preliminary task in the development of wind energy infrastructure is the assessment of wind energy potential, a key aspect of which is the characterization of its spatio-temporal behavior. In this study we examine the impact of internal climate variability on seasonal wind power density fluctuations using 30 simulations from the Large Ensemble Project (LENS) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Furthermore, a spatio-temporal model for daily wind speed is proposed with neighbor-based cross-temporal dependence, and a multivariate skew-t distribution to capture the spatial patterns of higher order moments. The model can be used to generate synthetic time series over the entire spatial domain that adequately reproduces the internal variability of the LENS dataset.

  18. 77 FR 73827 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a grassland bird known from southeastern... plants; wind energy development; petroleum production; and presence of roads and manmade vertical structures including towers, utility lines, fences, turbines, wells, and buildings. We will request peer...

  19. Intercomparison of state-of-the-art models for wind energy resources with mesoscale models:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Bjarke Tobias; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Badger, Jake; Joergensen, Hans E.

    2016-04-01

    1. Introduction Mesoscale models are increasingly being used to estimate wind conditions to identify perspective areas and sites where to develop wind farm projects. Mesoscale models are functional for giving information over extensive areas with various terrain complexities where measurements are scarce and measurement campaigns costly. Several mesoscale models and families of models are being used, and each often contains thousands of setup options. Since long-term integrations are expensive and tedious to carry out, only limited comparisons exist. To remedy this problem and for evaluating the capabilities of mesoscale models to estimate site wind conditions, a tailored benchmarking study has been co-organized by the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) and the European Energy Research Alliance Joint Programme Wind Energy (EERA JP WIND). EWEA hosted results and ensured that participants were anonymous. The blind evaluation was performed at the Wind Energy Department of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) with the following objectives: (1) To highlight common issues on mesoscale modelling of wind conditions on sites with different characteristics, and (2) To identify gaps and strengths of models and understand the root conditions for further evaluating uncertainties. 2. Approach Three experimental sites were selected: FINO 3 (offshore, GE), Høvsore (coastal, DK), and Cabauw (land-based, NL), and three other sites without observations based on . The three mast sites were chosen because the availability of concurrent suitable time series of vertical profiles of winds speed and other surface parameters. The participants were asked to provide hourly time series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, etc., at various vertical heights for a complete year. The methodology used to derive the time series was left to the choice of the participants, but they were asked for a brief description of their model and many other parameters (e.g., horizontal and

  20. Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory D. Johnson; Chad W. LeBeau; Ryan Nielsen; Troy Rintz; Jamey Eddy; Matt Holloran

    2012-03-27

    This study was conducted to obtain baseline data on use of the proposed Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area (SRWRA) in Carbon County, Wyoming by greater sage-grouse. The first two study years were designed to determine pre-construction seasonally selected habitats and population-level vital rates (productivity and survival). The presence of an existing wind energy facility in the project area, the PacifiCorp Seven Mile Hill (SMH) project, allowed us to obtain some information on initial sage-grouse response to wind turbines the first two years following construction. To our knowledge these are the first quantitative data on sage-grouse response to an existing wind energy development. This report presents results of the first two study years (April 1, 2009 through March 30, 2011). This study was selected for continued funding by the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative Sage-Grouse Collaborative (NWCC-SGC) and has been ongoing since March 30, 2011. Future reports summarizing results of this research will be distributed through the NWCC-SGC. To investigate population trends through time, we determined the distribution and numbers of males using leks throughout the study area, which included a 4-mile radius buffer around the SRWRA. Over the 2-year study, 116 female greater sage-grouse were captured by spotlighting and use of hoop nets on roosts surrounding leks during the breeding period. Radio marked birds were located anywhere from twice a week to once a month, depending on season. All radio-locations were classified to season. We developed predictor variables used to predict success of fitness parameters and relative probability of habitat selection within the SRWRA and SMH study areas. Anthropogenic features included paved highways, overhead transmission lines, wind turbines and turbine access roads. Environmental variables included vegetation and topography features. Home ranges were estimated using a kernel density estimator. We developed resource selection

  1. Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the Tehachapi Pass Wind Resource Area; Period of Performance: October 2, 1996--May 27, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.; Neumann, N.; Tom, J.; Erickson, W. P.; Strickland, M. D.; Bourassa, M.; Bay, K. J.; Sernka, K. J.

    2004-09-01

    Observations of dead raptors at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area triggered concerns on the parts of regulatory agencies, environmental/conservation groups, wildlife resource agencies, and wind and electric utility industries about possible impacts to birds from wind energy development. Bird fatality rates observed at most wind projects are not currently considered significant to individual bird species populations. Although many bird species have observed fatalities, raptors have received the most attention. The primary objective of this study was to estimate and compare bird utilization, fatality rates, and collision risk indices among factors such as bird taxonomic groups, turbine types, and turbine locations within the operating wind plant in the Tehachapi Pass WRA, in south-central California between October 1996 and May 1998.

  2. Performance evaluation of WAVEWATCH III model in the Persian Gulf using different wind resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeminezhad, Mohammad Hossein; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2017-07-01

    The third-generation wave model, WAVEWATCH III, was employed to simulate bulk wave parameters in the Persian Gulf using three different wind sources: ERA-Interim, CCMP, and GFS-Analysis. Different formulations for whitecapping term and the energy transfer from wind to wave were used, namely the Tolman and Chalikov (J Phys Oceanogr 26:497-518, 1996), WAM cycle 4 (BJA and WAM4), and Ardhuin et al. (J Phys Oceanogr 40(9):1917-1941, 2010) (TEST405 and TEST451 parameterizations) source term packages. The obtained results from numerical simulations were compared to altimeter-derived significant wave heights and measured wave parameters at two stations in the northern part of the Persian Gulf through statistical indicators and the Taylor diagram. Comparison of the bulk wave parameters with measured values showed underestimation of wave height using all wind sources. However, the performance of the model was best when GFS-Analysis wind data were used. In general, when wind veering from southeast to northwest occurred, and wind speed was high during the rotation, the model underestimation of wave height was severe. Except for the Tolman and Chalikov (J Phys Oceanogr 26:497-518, 1996) source term package, which severely underestimated the bulk wave parameters during stormy condition, the performances of other formulations were practically similar. However, in terms of statistics, the Ardhuin et al. (J Phys Oceanogr 40(9):1917-1941, 2010) source terms with TEST405 parameterization were the most successful formulation in the Persian Gulf when compared to in situ and altimeter-derived observations.

  3. Sustainable use of marine resources through offshore wind and mussel farm co-location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Tullio, Giacomo R.; Mariani, Patrizio; Benassai, Guido

    2018-01-01

    wind farms and open-water mussel cultivation. An index of co-location sustainability (SI) was developed based on the application of MCE technique constructed with physical and biological parameters on the basis of remote-sensing data. The relevant physical factors considered were wind velocity, depth...... range, concerning the site location for energy production, and sea surface temperature anomaly. The biological variables used were Chlorofill-a (as a measurement of the productivity) and Particle Organic Carbon(POC) concentration, in order to assess their influence on the probable benefits and complete...

  4. The Answer Is Blowing in the Wind. Investment in Training from a Human Resource Accounting Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Ulf

    1998-01-01

    Presents components of human resource accounting (HRA)--description of human resource costs, estimation of return on investment, estimation of human resource values. Reviews research on the influence of HRA on decision making, concluding that a number of factors inhibit its effective use. (SK)

  5. FY 1998 Report on development of large-scale wind power generation systems. Feasibility study on development of new technologies for wind power generation, and study on local wind resource prediction model; 1998 nendo ogata furyoku hatsuden system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Furyoku hatsuden shingijutsu kaihatsu kanosei chosa (kyokusho fukyo yosoku shuho ni kansuru chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1998 results of the study on local wind resource prediction model. The local wind resource prediction models developed so far apply the solutions based on the existing linear models (WASP and AVENU) for relatively flat terrain. These models are studied for their applicability limits. The study covers wind direction and speed patterns of the surface wind and upper winds at 3 sites in Hokkaido, Fukushima Pref. and Shizuoka Pref. The surface winds are found to be correlated with the upper winds both for wind direction and wind speed in almost all cases. Next, wind resources simulations are carried out for each of the classified weather patterns using the existing models, and the prediction errors are studied. The results show that the prediction accuracy of the existing linear models is highly dependent on inputs of observed data, and that the accuracy tends to decrease for the situations where the upper and surface wind conditions greatly differ from each other, as in the case of a land and sea breeze of thermal origin. It is also confirmed that prediction accuracy is lower on complex terrain than on flat terrain. (NEDO)

  6. Reply to the Discussion of Space-Time Modelling with Long-Memory Dependence: Assessing Ireland’s Wind Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    meteorologists’ rule-of-thumb that climatic drift manifests itself in periods greater than 30 years. For a fractionally-differenced model with our...estimates in a univariate ARIMA (p, d, q) with I d I< 0.5 has been derived by Li and McLrjd (1986). The model used by I-Iaslett an Raftery can be viewed as...Reply to the Discussion of "Space-time Modelling with Long-mnmory cDependence: Assessing Ireland’s Wind Resource" cJohn Haslett Department of

  7. Real-time energy resources scheduling considering short-term and very short-term wind forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marco; Sousa, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Vale, Zita [Polytechnic of Porto (Portugal). GECAD - Knowledge Engineering and Decision Support Research Center

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes an energy resources management methodology based on three distinct time horizons: day-ahead scheduling, hour-ahead scheduling, and real-time scheduling. In each scheduling process the update of generation and consumption operation and of the storage and electric vehicles storage status are used. Besides the new operation conditions, the most accurate forecast values of wind generation and of consumption using results of short-term and very short-term methods are used. A case study considering a distribution network with intensive use of distributed generation and electric vehicles is presented. (orig.)

  8. Wind: new wind markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2005-01-01

    The June 2005 edition of 'Wind Force 12' suggests that wind could generate 12% of global electricity requirements by 2020. But what moves a potential market into an emerging one? Geographical factors include a good wind resource, plenty of open space and the ability to get the generated electricity to end-users. A country's political framework is equally important, with fixed price systems, renewable quota systems and political will all playing a part. Some potential wind markets around the world are thought to have the conditions necessary to become key players in the wind industry. The emerging markets in countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan and the Philippines are highlighted as examples

  9. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  10. Bird Risk Behaviors and Fatalities at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance, March 1998--December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, C. G.; Smallwood, K. S.; Rugge, L.

    2003-12-01

    It has been documented that wind turbine operations at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area kill large numbers of birds of multiple species, including raptors. We initiated a study that integrates research on bird behaviors, raptor prey availability, turbine design, inter-turbine distribution, landscape attributes, and range management practices to explain the variation in avian mortality at two levels of analysis: the turbine and the string of turbines. We found that inter-specific differences in intensities of use of airspace within close proximity did not explain the variation in mortality among species. Unique suites of attributes relate to mortality of each species, so species-specific analyses are required to understand the factors that underlie turbine-caused fatalities. We found that golden eagles are killed by turbines located in the canyons and that rock piles produced during preparation of the wind tower laydown areas related positively to eagle mortality, perhaps due to the use of these rock piles as cover by desert cottontails. Other similar relationships between fatalities and environmental factors are identified and discussed. The tasks remaining to complete the project are summarized.

  11. A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis, 1994-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predatory Bird Research Group Long Marine Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    The wind industry has annually reported 28-43 turbine blade strike casualties of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, and many more carcasses have doubtless gone unnoticed. Because this species is especially sensitive to adult survival rate changes, we focused upon estimating the demographic trend of the population. In aerial surveys, we monitored survival within a sample of 179 radio-tagged eagles over a four-year period. We also obtained data on territory occupancy and reproduction of about 65 eagle pairs residing in the area. Of 61 recorded deaths of radio-tagged eagles during the four-year investigation, 23 (38%) were caused by wind turbine blade strikes. Additional fatalities were unrecorded because blade strikes sometimes destroy radio transmitters. Annual survival was estimated at 0.7867 (SE=0.0263) for non-territorial eagles and 0.8964 (SE=0.0371) for territorial ones. Annual reproduction was 0.64 (SE=0.08) young per territorial pair (0.25 per female). These parameters were used to estimate population growth rates under different modeling frameworks. At present, there are indications that a reserve of non-breeding adults still exists, i.e., there is an annual territorial re-occupancy rate of 100% and a low incidence (3%) of sub-adults as members of breeding pairs

  12. A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis, 1994-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W. G.; Jackman, R. E.; Hunt, T. L.; Driscoll, D. E.; Culp, L.

    1999-07-20

    The wind industry has annually reported 28-43 turbine blade strike casualties of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, and many more carcasses have doubtless gone unnoticed. Because this species is especially sensitive to adult survival rate changes, we focused upon estimating the demographic trend of the population. In aerial surveys, we monitored survival within a sample of 179 radio-tagged eagles over a four-year period. We also obtained data on territory occupancy and reproduction of about 65 eagle pairs residing in the area. Of 61 recorded deaths of radio-tagged eagles during the four-year investigation, 23 (38%) were caused by wind turbine blade strikes. Additional fatalities were unrecorded because blade strikes sometimes destroy radio transmitters. Annual survival was estimated at 0.7867 (SE=0.0263) for non-territorial eagles and 0.8964 (SE=0.0371) for territorial ones. Annual reproduction was 0.64 (SE=0.08) young per territorial pair (0.25 per female). These parameters were used to estimate population growth rates under different modeling frameworks. At present, there are indications that a reserve of non-breeding adults still exists, i.e., there is an annual territorial reoccupancy rate of 100% and a low incidence (3%) of subadults as members of breeding pairs.

  13. A population study of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource area. Second-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Since January 1994, the Predatory Bird Research Group, University of California, Santa Cruz, has been conducting a field investigation of the ecology of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The 190 km{sup 2} facility lies just east of San Francisco Bay in California and contains about 6,500 wind turbines. Grassland and oak savanna habitats surrounding the WRA support a substantial resident population of golden eagles. Each year, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service receivers reports from the wind industry of about 30 golden eagle casualties occurring at the WRA, and it is probable that many more carcasses go unnoticed. Over 90 percent of the casualties are attributed to collisions with wind turbines. The main purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of turbine-related mortality on the golden eagle population of the area. Assessing the impact of the WRA kills on the population requires quantification of both survival and reproduction. To estimate survival rates of both territorial and non-territorial golden eagles, we tagged 179 individuals with radio-telemetry transmitters expected to function for about four years and equipped with mortality sensors. Population segments represented in the tagged sample include 79 juveniles, 45 subadults, 17n floaters (non-territorial adults), and 38 breeders. Effective sample sizes in the older segments increase as younger eagles mature or become territorial. Since the beginning of the study, we have conducted weekly roll-call surveys by airplane to locate the tagged eagles in relation to the WRA and to monitor their survival. The surveyed area extends from the Oakland Hills southeast through the Diablo Mountain Range to San Luis Reservoir about 75 km southeast of the WRA. The surveys show that breeding eagles rarely enter the WRA while the non-territorial eagles tend to move about freely throughout the study area and often visit the WRA.

  14. Wind power generation plant installed on cargo ship and marine resources recovery by seawater electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murahara, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)]|[Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Seki, K. [Mingdao Univ., Taiwan (China)]|[Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Research Inst. of Science and Technology

    2008-07-01

    Transmission loss from offshore wind turbine arrays is directly proportional to the length of the cable that brings power onshore. In order to minimize transmission loss, wind-generated electricity needs to be stored temporarily in a different form. Seawater, rock salt, and water of saline lakes can be desalinated and then electrolyzed to produce hydrogen. This paper presented a new method of offshore sodium production in Japan by seawater electrolysis. In this technique, sodium is manufactured on site by molten-salt electrolysis as a solid fuel. Sodium is electrolytically collected from the seawater or rock salt by the wind power generation. The sodium is then transported to a hydrogen power plant on land and then is added water to generate hydrogen for operating a hydrogen combustion turbine. The sodium hydroxide by-product is then supplied to the soda industry as a raw material. In seawater electrolysis, not only sodium but also fresh water, magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium hydroxide, chlorine, oxygen, hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid are isolated and recovered as by-products. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Wind pollination and propagule formation in Rhizophora mangle L. (Rhizophoraceae: resource or pollination limitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARCILA L. NADIA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle is considered as a self-compatible mangrove, and is pollinated by wind and insects. However, there is no information about fruit production by autogamy and agamospermy and on the foraging behavior of its flower visitors. Hence, the present study analyzed the pollination and reproductive systems of R. mangle in a mangrove community in northern Pernambuco, Brazil. Floral morphology, sequence of anthesis, and behavior of flower visitors were described; the proportion of flowers that resulted in mature propagules was also recorded. Autogamy, agamospermy, and wind pollination tests were performed, and a new anemophily index is proposed. The flowers of R. mangle are hermaphrodite, protandric, and have high P/O rate. Flies were observed on flowers only during the male phase, probably feeding on mites that consume pollen. Rhizophora mangle is not agamospermic and its fruit production rate by spontaneous self-pollination is low (2.56% compared to wind pollination (19.44%. The anemophily index was high 0.98, and thus it was considered as a good indicator. Only 13.79% of the flowers formed mature propagules. The early stages of fruit development are the most critical and susceptible to predation. Rhizophora mangle is, therefore, exclusively anemophilous in the study area and the propagule dispersal seems to be limited by herbivory.

  16. Assessing risk to birds from industrial wind energy development via paired resource selection nodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricia A. Miller; Robert P. Brooks; Michael Lanzone; David Brandes; Jeff Cooper; Kieran O' malley; Charles Maisonneuve; Junior Tremblay; Adam Duerr; Todd Katzner

    2014-01-01

    When wildlife habitat overlaps with industrial development animals may be harmed. Because wildlife and people select resources to maximize biological fitness and economic return, respectively, we estimated risk, the probability of eagles encountering and being affected by turbines, by overlaying models of resource selection for each entity. This conceptual framework...

  17. Hybrid PV/Wind Power Systems Incorporating Battery Storage and Considering the Stochastic Nature of Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulwasa Bakr

    Hybrid power generation system and distributed generation technology are attracting more investments due to the growing demand for energy nowadays and the increasing awareness regarding emissions and their environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. The price fluctuation of crude oil is an additional reason for the leading oil producing countries to consider renewable resources as an alternative. Saudi Arabia as the top oil exporter country in the word announced the "Saudi Arabia Vision 2030" which is targeting to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable resources. Two of the most promising renewable technologies are wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic cells (PV). The integration or hybridization of photovoltaics and wind turbines with battery storage leads to higher adequacy and redundancy for both autonomous and grid connected systems. This study presents a method for optimal generation unit planning by installing a proper number of solar cells, wind turbines, and batteries in such a way that the net present value (NPV) is minimized while the overall system redundancy and adequacy is maximized. A new renewable fraction technique (RFT) is used to perform the generation unit planning. RFT was tested and validated with particle swarm optimization and HOMER Pro under the same conditions and environment. Renewable resources and load randomness and uncertainties are considered. Both autonomous and grid-connected system designs were adopted in the optimal generation units planning process. An uncertainty factor was designed and incorporated in both autonomous and grid connected system designs. In the autonomous hybrid system design model, the strategy including an additional amount of operation reserve as a percent of the hourly load was considered to deal with resource uncertainty since the battery storage system is the only backup. While in the grid-connected hybrid system design model, demand response was incorporated to overcome the impact of

  18. Chemical Aspects of Lesser Mouse Deer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment aiming for studying chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. This research explored the chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. Eight lesser mouse deer (four female and four male were used in chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat. The parameters observed included proximate analysis, amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA of the meat. The results showed that average meat chemical composition were content of water, protein, fat, ash and cholesterol were 76.33 %, 21.42 %, 0.51 %, 1.20% and 50.00 mg/100 g, respectively. Fatty acid consist of lauric acid, miristate, palmitate, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were 1.04 % 3.09%, 30.97, 0.77%., 59.41%, 3.22% and 1.12%, respectively. The total EPA and DHA was 0.13% and 0.05%,   Keywords: amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA

  19. Isolated Displaced Fracture of the Lesser Tuberosity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    publication of this report. The authors declare no competing interests. Discussion. A delay in diagnosis of a lesser tuberosity fracture may lead to significant future clinical disability (2). In one such case the patient presented with axillary nerve neuropraxia while another case reported displacement of the biceps tendon (4).

  20. The avifauna of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    The avifauna of the island of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands) is reviewed. Introductory sections, which include a chapter on the history of ornithological discovery, are followed by the main part, a systematic account in which each species and subspecies known from Flores is treated separately. A

  1. Onshore-offshore wind energy resource evaluation based on synergetic use of multiple satellite data and meteorological stations in Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianglin; Duan, Yuewei; Liu, Yongxue; Jin, Song; Sun, Chao

    2018-05-01

    The demand for efficient and cost-effective renewable energy is increasing as traditional sources of energy such as oil, coal, and natural gas, can no longer satisfy growing global energy demands. Among renewable energies, wind energy is the most prominent due to its low, manageable impacts on the local environment. Based on meteorological data from 2006 to 2014 and multi-source satellite data (i.e., Advanced Scatterometer, Quick Scatterometer, and Windsat) from 1999 to 2015, an assessment of the onshore and offshore wind energy potential in Jiangsu Province was performed by calculating the average wind speed, average wind direction, wind power density, and annual energy production (AEP). Results show that Jiangsu has abundant wind energy resources, which increase from inland to coastal areas. In onshore areas, wind power density is predominantly less than 200 W/m2, while in offshore areas, wind power density is concentrates in the range of 328-500 W/m2. Onshore areas comprise more than 13,573.24 km2, mainly located in eastern coastal regions with good wind farm potential. The total wind power capacity in onshore areas could be as much as 2.06 x 105 GWh. Meanwhile, offshore wind power generation in Jiangsu Province is calculated to reach 2 x 106 GWh, which is approximately four times the electricity demand of the entire Jiangsu Province. This study validates the effective application of Advanced Scatterometer, Quick Scatterometer, and Windsat data to coastal wind energy monitoring in Jiangsu. Moreover, the methodology used in this study can be effectively applied to other similar coastal zones.

  2. Wind energy program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication

  3. Corpus-based lexicography for lesser-resourced languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    MED 24 and the 100m MED 24 for Afrikaans, and the 1m PSC and 10m PSC for. Sepedi. The most basic words in English indicated with three stars (***) in MED were used as a benchmark against the 1m PEIC and 10m PEIC English corpora. There are 2,275 three-starred words in MED. Of these words 2,203 occur in the.

  4. Value of Flexible Resources, Virtual Bidding, and Self-Scheduling in Two-Settlement Electricity Markets With Wind Generation – Part I: Principles and Competitive Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    Part one of this two-part paper presents new models for evaluating flexible resources in two-settlement electricity markets (day-ahead and real-time) with uncertain net loads (demand minus wind). Physical resources include wind together with fast- and slow-start demand response and thermal...... of certain equivalencies of the four models. We show how virtual bidding enhances market performance, since, together with self-scheduling by slow-start generators, it can help deterministic day-ahead market to choose the most efficient unit commitment....

  5. Temporal and spatial variability of wind resources in the United States as derived from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the spatial and temporal variability of wind speed at 80m above ground (the average hub height of most modern wind turbines) in the contiguous United States using Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data from 1979 to 2011. The mean 80-m wind exhibits strong seasonality and large spatial variability, with higher (lower) wind speeds in the...

  6. Complex terrain wind resource estimation with the wind-atlas method: Prediction errors using linearized and nonlinear CFD micro-scale models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troen, Ib; Bechmann, Andreas; Kelly, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Using the Wind Atlas methodology to predict the average wind speed at one location from measured climatological wind frequency distributions at another nearby location we analyse the relative prediction errors using a linearized flow model (IBZ) and a more physically correct fully non-linear 3D...... flow model (CFD) for a number of sites in very complex terrain (large terrain slopes). We first briefly describe the Wind Atlas methodology as implemented in WAsP and the specifics of the “classical” model setup and the new setup allowing the use of the CFD computation engine. We discuss some known...

  7. An extensive evaluation of wind resource using new methods and strategies for development and utilizing wind power in Mah-shahr station in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedaei, Mojtaba; Assareh, Ehsanolah; Biglari, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In this research, results suggest that the Weibull distribution is the best function to model the wind data in Mah-shahr. • The compatibility of the wind data with three methods of estimating Weibull parameters was assessed. • An extreme analysis of wind in Mah-shahr was done to determine the maximum gust wind speeds over a 50-year return period. • An extensive economic evaluation of installing a wind park was performed on RETScreen® software. - Abstract: In this study, the 10-min period measured short-term wind speed data at 10 m and 40 m heights for Mah-shahr station in Iran was statistically analyzed to determine the potential of wind power generation. In addition in this paper different distribution functions are compared to each other in order to find the best distribution in Mah-shahr which is compatible with the wind data. It is found that the Weibull distribution is the best function to model the wind data in Mah-shahr. It should also be mentioned that the different methods for calculating Weibull parameters were used and compared to each other. Moreover an extreme analysis of wind data in Mah-shahr was carried out to determine the maximum gust wind speed over a 50-year return period (Ve50). Using the method of “periodic maxima” for analysis of extreme winds, it was revealed that the 50-year wind speed at 80 m in Mah-shahr which is 39.5 m/s is lower than usual values of Ve50 limits for different wind turbines. This means that the risk of extreme wind gusts in Mah-shahr might not be a problem for installation of wind turbines. From the primary evaluation of wind data in Mah-shahr it is found the studied site has an acceptable potential of wind power for electricity generation. Energy production of different wind turbines at different heights is determined. Then a simple economic evaluation carried out to determine whether studied site is suitable for development of commercial or small and residential wind turbines. It became clear

  8. Renewable Energy Potential of Greenland with emphasis on wind resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kasper Rønnow

    categories, based on the type and existing energy source. Small village systems are supplied with diesel generators with limited heat utilization. These generator units have a relatively low efficiency (0.25 - 0.35) because of obsolete technology and low-load factors. To demonstrate the optimization...... year average production cost was estimated to be less than 0.83 DKK=kWh and for a 100kW wind turbine, installed at site 2 (South-west of Sarfannguaq), the 20 year average production cost was estimated to be 0.85 DKK/kWh. Compared to the 2013 cost of goods for the diesel generators of 2.29 DKK....../kWh, there is room for system updates to obtain a high RE penetration. In the next category, named diesel cities, a large potential for waste-heat utilization was discovered, and in the city of focus, Nanortalik, updating the diesel generator unit, expanding the district heating grid, and implementing 500-1500 k...

  9. Impacts of climate change on wind energy resources in France: a regionalization study; Impacts du changement climatique sur le potentiel eolien en France: une etude de regionalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najac, J.

    2008-11-15

    In this work, we study the impact of climate change on surface winds in France and draw conclusions concerning wind energy resources. Because of their coarse spatial resolution, climate models cannot properly reproduce the spatial variability of surface winds. Thus, 2 down-scaling methods are developed in order to regionalize an ensemble of climate scenarios: a statistical method based on weather typing and a statistic-dynamical method that resorts to high resolution mesoscale modelling. By 2050, significant but relatively small changes are depicted with, in particular, a decrease of the wind speed in the southern and an increase in the northern regions of France. The use of other down-scaling methods enables us to study several uncertainty sources: it appears that most of the uncertainty is due to the climate models. (author)

  10. Herder and Modernity: From Lesser-Taught Languages to Lesser-Taught Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Votruba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The typical North American curriculum of a lesser-taught Slavic language implicitly relies on the legacy of Johann Gottfried von Herder’s interpretation that language in and of itself contains national (ethnic culture. At the same time, enrolments are dwindling even in courses in the most commonly taught Slavic languages. Millennials’ understandable focus on the practicality of the courses they take make it unlikely for the lesser-taught languages to survive the slump. On the other hand, foreign culture courses are appearing to hold their ground more successfully. Slavic departments may reconsider Herder’s dictum as they try to maintain or establish programs in lesser-taught languages and cultures.

  11. Modeling a novel CCHP system including solar and wind renewable energy resources and sizing by a CC-MOPSO algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soheyli, Saman; Shafiei Mayam, Mohamad Hossein; Mehrjoo, Mehri

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Considering renewable energy resources as the main prime movers in CCHP systems. • Simultaneous application of FEL and FTL by optimizing two probability functions. • Simultaneous optimization the equipment and penalty factors by CC-MOPSO algorithm. • Reducing fuel consumption and pollution up to 263 and 353 times, respectively. - Abstract: Due to problems, such as, heat losses of equipment, low energy efficiency, increasing pollution and the fossil fuels consumption, combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems have attracted lots of attention during the last decade. In this paper, for minimizing fossil fuel consumption and pollution, a novel CCHP system including photovoltaic (PV) modules, wind turbines, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as the prime movers is considered. Moreover, in order to minimize the excess electrical and heat energy production of the CCHP system and so reducing the need for the local power grid and any auxiliary heat production system, following electrical load (FEL) and following thermal load (FTL) operation strategies are considered, simultaneously. In order to determine the optimal number of each system component and also set the penalty factors in the used penalty function, a co-constrained multi objective particle swarm optimization (CC-MOPSO) algorithm is applied. Utilization of the renewable energy resources, the annual total cost (ATC) and the CCHP system area are considered as the objective functions. It also includes constraints such as, loss of power supply probability (LPSP), loss of heat supply probability (LHSP), state of battery charge (SOC), and the number of each CCHP component. A hypothetical hotel in Kermanshah, Iran is conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. 10 wind turbines, 430 PV modules, 11 SOFCs, 106 batteries and 2 heat storage tanks (HST) are numerical results for the spring as the best season in terms of decreasing cost and fuel consumption. Comparing the results

  12. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  13. On the spatial and temporal resolution of land cover products for applied use in wind resource mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Dellwik, Ebba

    as input for modelling the wind conditions over a Danish near-coastal region. The flow model results were compared to alternative use of USGS land cover. Significant variations in the wind speed were found between the two atmospheric flow model results. Furthermore the wind speed from the flow model...... was compared to meteorological observations taken in a tall mast and from ground based remote-sensing wind profiling lidars. It is shown that simulations using CORINE provide better wind flow results close to the surface as compared to those using USGS on the investigated site. The next step towards...... improvement of flow model inputs is to investigate in further detail applied use of satellite maps in forested areas. 75% of new land-based wind farms are planned in or near forests in Europe. In forested areas the near surface atmospheric flow is more challenging to calculate than in regions with low...

  14. Long distance commutes by lesser long-nosed bats (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae) to visit residential hummingbird feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbie C. Buecher; Ronnie. Sidner

    2013-01-01

    Each spring, thousands of female lesser long-nosed bats (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae) migrate from southern Mexico to northern Sonora and southern Arizona to have their young and take advantage of seasonably available forage resources, including nectar, pollen, and fruit of columnar cacti. Once the pups are volant, the population begins to disperse across the grasslands...

  15. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Van Zee, Justin W; Courtright, Ericha M; Hugenholtz, Ted M; Zobeck, Ted M; Okin, Gregory S.; Barchyn, Thomas E; Billings, Benjamin J; Boyd, Robert A.; Clingan, Scott D; Cooper, Brad F; Duniway, Michael C.; Derner, Justin D.; Fox, Fred A; Havstad, Kris M.; Heilman, Philip; LaPlante, Valerie; Ludwig, Noel A; Metz, Loretta J; Nearing, Mark A; Norfleet, M Lee; Pierson, Frederick B; Sanderson, Matt A; Sharrat, Brenton S; Steiner, Jean L; Tatarko, John; Tedela, Negussie H; Todelo, David; Unnasch, Robert S; Van Pelt, R Scott; Wagner, Larry

    2016-01-01

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the United States Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for a long-term research program to meet critical challenges in wind erosion research and management in the United States. The Network has three aims: (1) provide data to support understanding of basic aeolian processes across land use types, land cover types, and management practices, (2) support development and application of models to assess wind erosion and dust emission and their impacts on human and environmental systems, and (3) encourage collaboration among the aeolian research community and resource managers for the transfer of wind erosion technologies. The Network currently consists of thirteen intensively instrumented sites providing measurements of aeolian sediment transport rates, meteorological conditions, and soil and vegetation properties that influence wind erosion. Network sites are located across rangelands, croplands, and deserts of the western US. In support of Network activities, http://winderosionnetwork.org was developed as a portal for information about the Network, providing site descriptions, measurement protocols, and data visualization tools to facilitate collaboration with scientists and managers interested in the Network and accessing Network products. The Network provides a mechanism for engaging national and international partners in a wind erosion research program that addresses the need for improved understanding and prediction of aeolian processes across complex and diverse land use types and management practices.

  16. Climate and climate variability of the wind power resources in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Li; S. Zhong; X. Bian; W.E. Heilman

    2010-01-01

    The climate and climate variability of low-level winds over the Great Lakes region of the United States is examined using 30 year (1979-2008) wind records from the recently released North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), a three-dimensional, high-spatial and temporal resolution, and dynamically consistent climate data set. The analyses focus on spatial distribution...

  17. Impacts of mesquite distribution on seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggie, Matthew A.; Strong, Cody R.; Lusk, Daniel; Carleton, Scott A.; Gould, William R.; Howard, Randy L.; Nichols, Clay T.; Falkowski, Michael J.; Hagen, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of native grasslands by anthropogenic disturbances has reduced availability and connectivity of habitat for many grassland species. A primary threat to contiguous grasslands is the encroachment of woody vegetation, which is spurred by disturbances that take on many forms from energy development, fire suppression, and grazing. These disturbances are exacerbated by natural- and human-driven cycles of changes in climate punctuated by drought and desertification conditions. Encroachment of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) into the prairies of southeastern New Mexico has potentially limited habitat for numerous grassland species, including lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). To determine the magnitude of impacts of distribution of mesquite and how lesser prairie-chickens respond to mesquite presence on the landscape in southeastern New Mexico, we evaluated seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. We derived several remotely sensed spatial metrics to characterize the distribution of mesquite. We then used these data to create population-level resource utilization functions and predict intensity of use of lesser prairie-chickens across our study area. Home ranges were smaller in the breeding season compared with the nonbreeding season; however, habitat use was similar across seasons. During both seasons, lesser prairie-chickens used areas closer to leks and largely avoided areas with mesquite. Relative to the breeding season, during the nonbreeding season habitat use suggested a marginal increase in mesquite within areas of low intensity of use, yet aversion to mesquite was strong in areas of medium to high intensity of use. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate a negative behavioral response by lesser prairie-chickens to woody encroachment in native grasslands. To mitigate one of the possible limiting factors for lesser prairie-chickens, we suggest future conservation

  18. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.

  19. Avoiding revenue loss due to 'lesser of' contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodolak, Frederick; Gutierrez, Henry

    2014-08-01

    Finance managers seeking to avoid lost revenue attributable to lesser-of-charge-or-fixed-fee (lesser-of) clauses in their contracts should: Identify payer contracts that contain lesser-of clauses. Prepare lesser-of lost-revenue reports for non-bundled and bundled rates. For claims with covered charges below the bundled rate, identify service codes associated with the greatest proportion of total gross revenue and determine new, higher charge levels for those codes. Establish an approach for setting charges for non-bundled fee schedules to address lost-revenue-related issues. Incorporate changes into overall strategic or hospital zero-based pricing modeling and parameters.

  20. Distribution, nesting activities, and age-class of territorial pairs of golden eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Patrick S.; Wiens, J. David

    2017-03-22

    The substantial numbers of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed by collisions with oldgeneration wind turbines each year at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California has been well documented from previous studies. Few eagle nests have been documented in the APWRA, however, and adults and subadults 3+ years of age killed by turbines were generally not associated with nearby territories. We searched a subset of randomly selected survey plots for territorial pairs of golden eagles and associated nesting attempts within the APWRA as part of a broader investigation of population dynamics in the surrounding northern Diablo Range. In contrast to limited historical observations from 1988 to 2013, our surveys documented up to 15 territorial pairs within 3.2 kilometers (km) of wind turbines at the APWRA annually, 9 of which were not previously documented or only observed intermittently during historical surveys. We found evidence of nesting activity by adult pairs at least once during our study at six of these territories. We also determined that 23–36 percent of territories identified within 3.2 km of the APWRA had a subadult pair member, but that no pairs with a subadult member attempted to nest. These data will be useful to developers, wildlife managers, and future raptor studies in the area to evaluate and minimize the potential effects of wind energy or other development activities on previously unknown territorial pairs in the area.

  1. Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric studies in parts of Almora crystalline zone, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya. Amar Agarwal, K K Agarwal, R Bali, Chandra Prakash and Gaurav Joshi. Supplementary data. Table S1. AMS data, representing mean of values from cores (N) collected from each site ...

  2. Smoothing out the volatility of South Africa’s wind and PV energy resources for an increased share of renewables

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available wind and PV power profiles for different spatial distributions in South Africa Generate data sets that can be used for various studies (IEP, IRP, TDP, SEA etc.) Resulting in: • Confidence in integrating higher renewables shares • Optimal mix...

  3. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  4. Wind farm project economics : value of wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bills-Everett, T. [Mainstream Renewable Power, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of increasing the value of wind power projects. Appropriate turbine selection and layout is needed to ensure that wind resources are fully developed. Construction costs have a significant impact on project costs. The world turbine price index has not significantly fluctuated since 2006. Operating costs, and the value of wind power projects, are linked with OPEX fluctuations. Wind power projects can significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An increase in wind power capacity will reduce the overall cost of energy produced from wind power. Countries can use wind power as part of a renewable energy portfolio designed to reduce risks related to diminishing petroleum supplies. Wind power will help to ensure a global transition to renewable energy use. tabs., figs.

  5. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  6. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  7. Assessing the Impact of the Tunø Knob Wind Park on Sea Ducks : the Influence of Food Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemette, M.; Larsen, J. K.; Clausager, I.

    Abstract This study deals with the influence of benthos abundance when assessing the potential impact of a small wind park on wintering sea ducks. Using the Before-After-Control-Impact design, it was suggested in a recent study (Guillemette et al. 1998) that the wind park provoked a decline...... at Tunø Knob to test the hypothesis that, if food abundance increases again, we should also observe an increase in duck abundance. The methods used in this study are similar to those applied in the aforementioned study. The results showed that the average number of common eiders increased considerably...... in the abundance and a change in the distribution of common eiders Somateria mollissima and common scoters Melanitta nigra. However, the observed decline in sea duck abundance occurred con-comitantly with a decline of benthic food supplies. We measured con-comitant food and common eider abundance for a fourth year...

  8. Application Status and Problem Investigation of Distributed Generation in China: The Case of Natural Gas, Solar and Wind Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-tian Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of distributed energy systems in China is one of the important measures to promote the revolution for energy production and its utilization patterns. First of all, we analyze the present application status of China’s distributed generation from three major types: natural gas, photovoltaic, and distributed wind. Secondly, based on the analysis of the project overview, project scale, and project effect in three patterns of distributed generation, we summarize the policy deficiencies and development obstacles. Finally, aiming to promote the development of distributed energy in China, we propose some relevant policies corresponding to countermeasures on the problems existing in the development process of China’s distributed generation of natural gas, photovoltaic, and wind power.

  9. Distribution Characteristics and Assessment of Wind Energy Resources at 70 m Height over Fujian Coastal Areas%福建沿海70米高度风能资源分布特点及评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文明章; 吴滨; 林秀芳; 游立军; 杨丽慧

    2011-01-01

    Fujian Province lies in southeastern China,being rich in wind energy resources in its coastal areas due to its special geographical location.In order to evaluate wind energy resources,Fujian Meteorological Bureau built 18 wind towers in the coastal areas and observes wind speed and wind energy resources.Based on observational data at 70 m height from 18 wind towers from Jun 1,2009 to May 31,2010 in Fujian coastal areas,the reserves and distribution characteristics of wind speed and wind energy at 70 m height were analyzed using statistical methods.Results show that there are plenty of wind energy resources in Fujian coastal areas,and the wind energy resources are much richer in the area from mid-southern Fuzhou to the south of Quanzhou than other areas.The annual effective wind power density is (516.7~930.4) W/m2 in the area from mid-southern Fuzhou to the south of Quanzhou where there is the richest wind energy resources in Pingtan island with an annual effective wind power density of as much as 930.4 W/m2 in some places of Pingtan island.In addition,there are much wind energy resources in Chihu of Zhangpu County lying in the south of FuJian whose annual effective wind power density is more than 509.9 W/m2.The reserves and distribution characteristics of wind speed and wind energy are generally consistent with the simulations.Results also show that the mean annual effective hours of wind and its percent are more than 7014.4 h and 80.4%,respectively.The distributions of wind direction and wind energy density were analyzed as well.Results show that the wind direction stability is relatively high and the leading wind direction is obvious,with the northern,middle,and southern parts of Fujian coastal areas being N-NE,N-NNE,and NNE-ENE,respectively.The distribution characteristics of wind energy density are accordant with wind direction,and much more stable than wind direction.According to national standards (GB/T 18710-2002) of wind energy resources,the grade

  10. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    kinematics of the LHD is in the process of being worked out .... also played a major role in the deformation process as evident from .... mation occurred at shallow crustal levels within ..... deep structure of the outer and Lesser Himalaya, Jumoan.

  11. Allium hookeri , Thw. Enum. A lesser known terrestrial perennial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A lesser known terrestrial perennial herb used as food and its ethnobotanical ... from the wilderness, for consumption and traditional healing of various ailments. ... plants, the lifestyles of the people are changed and they prefer 'junk foods'.

  12. Comparative nutritional evaluation of some lesser known non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative nutritional evaluation of some lesser known non leguminous browse ... Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF) and ash level of the ... to be useful to ruminants as dietary supplement to poor quality dry season feed ...

  13. Assessing the impact of the Tunoe Knob wind park on sea ducks: the influence of food resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laursen, K.; Guillemette, M.; Kyed larsen, J.; Clausager, I.

    1999-02-01

    This study deals with the influence of benthos abundance when assessing the potential impact of a small wind park on wintering sea ducks. Using the Before-After-Control-Impact design, it was suggested in a recent study that the wind park provoked a decline in the abundance and a change in the distribution of common eiders Somateria mollissima and common scoters Melanitta nigra. However, the observed decline in sea duck abundance occurred concomitantly with a decline of benthic food supplies. We measured concomitant food and common eider abundance for a fourth year at Tunoe Knob to test the hypothesis that, if food abundance increases again, we should also observe an increase in duck abundance. The methods used in this study are similar to those applied in the aforementioned study. The results showed that the average number of common eiders increased considerably in 1997-98 (3,361 individuals) compared to 1996-97 (458), even surpassing the level observed during the baseline years in 1994-95 (1,821). A significant increase in the abundance of common scoters occurred in 1997-98 compared to 1995-96 and 1996-97, but not in relation to the baseline year. The abundance of food for sea ducks also increased in 1997-98 where the frequency of occurrence of most potential prey reached the level observed during the baseline year. The density of blue mussels, a preferred prey species, was 1,113 individuals m -2 in 1997-98 compared to 11,111 individuals m -2 during the baseline year and only 100 individuals m -2 in 1996-97. Computations of the amount of food supply eaten by wintering common eiders suggest that, during the baseline year, prey were superabundant. This may explain why we observed a great abundance of common eiders in 1997-98 despite the fact that mussel abundance did not reach the level observed during the baseline year. Finally, the distribution of common eiders in 1997-98 on the study site as a whole was very similar to the distribution observed during the

  14. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  15. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  16. Pit above the lesser tuberosity in axial view radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Han, Kyeong-Jin; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Chung, Nam-Su; Park, Do Young

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between the presence of a pit above the lesser tuberosity on axial view radiographs and rotator cuff tears and compared the demographic data between groups according to the presence of a pit above the lesser tuberosity. The hypothesis of this study was that the radiographic finding of a pit above the lesser tuberosity is related to rotator cuff tears. For 112 patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear, plain radiographs of the symptomatic shoulder (tear side radiographs) and plain radiographs of the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder (no-tear side radiographs) were assessed. Seventeen radiological findings, including a pit above the lesser tuberosity, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and sclerosis, were recorded by one blinded observer. Demographic data such as age, duration of symptoms, sex, arm dominance, smoking history, trauma history, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant score, and involved tendon were collected. A pit above the lesser tuberosity was noted on tear side radiographs of 40 patients (35.7 %) and on the no-tear side radiographs of 27 patients (24.1 %), representing a significant difference (P = 0.040). A pit associated with a rotator cuff tear was observed more often in the dominant arm (P = 0.040) and more often in patients with less previous trauma (P = 0.024). A pit above the lesser tuberosity on axial view radiography was associated with a rotator cuff tear and occurred more often in the dominant arm of patients who had no trauma history. Prognostic study, Level III.

  17. Critical Resources for Emerging Clean Technologies: Case study of Wind Turbines. World Resource Forum 2012; 21-23 October, 2012; Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Wenzel, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    , electric and hybrid vehicles. However, the emergence of these technologies may also be constrained by decreasing availability of resources. In the last few years, this problem has received high attention by the research academia, policy makers and the corporate sector and all of these sectors have tried...

  18. Climatic wind tunnel for wind engineering tasks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Král, Radomil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, 2-B (2015), s. 303-316 ISSN 1897-628X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S Keywords : climatic tunnel * wind tunnel * atmospheric boundary layer * flow resistance * wind tunnel contraction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i6/i6/i7/i6/r56676/KuznetsovS_ClimaticWind.pdf

  19. Lesser prairie-chicken fence collision risk across its northern distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samantha G.; Haukos, David A.; Plumb, Reid T.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Sullins, Daniel S.; Kraft, John D.; Lautenbach, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock fences have been hypothesized to significantly contribute to mortality of lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus); however, quantification of mortality due to fence collisions is lacking across their current distribution. Variation in fence density, landscape composition and configuration, and land use could influence collision risk of lesser prairie-chickens. We monitored fences within 3 km of known leks during spring and fall and surveyed for signs of collision occurrence within 20 m of fences in 6 study sites in Kansas and Colorado, USA during 2013 and 2014. We assessed mortality locations of radio-tagged birds (n = 286) for evidence of fence collisions and compared distance to fence relative to random points. Additionally, we quantified locations, propensity, and frequency of fences crossed by lesser prairie-chickens. We tested for landscape and vegetative characteristics that influenced fence-cross propensity and frequency of global positioning system (GPS)-marked birds. A minimum of 12,706 fence crossings occurred by GPS-marked lesser prairie-chickens. We found 3 carcasses and 12 additional possible instances of evidence of collision during >2,800 km of surveyed fences. We found evidence for a single suspected collision based on carcass evidence for 148 mortalities of transmittered birds. Mortality locations of transmittered birds were located at distances from fences 15% farther than expected at random. Our data suggested minimal biological significance and indicated that propensity and frequency of fence crossings were random processes. Lesser prairie-chickens do not appear to be experiencing significant mortality risk due to fence collisions in Kansas and Colorado. Focusing resources on other limiting factors (i.e., habitat quality) has greater potential for impact on population demography than fence marking and removal.

  20. Natural Gas Resources of the Greater Green River and Wind River Basins of Wyoming (Assessing the Technology Needs of Sub-economic Resources, Phase I: Greater Green River and Wind river Basins, Fall 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, Ray; Douds, Ashley; Pratt, Skip; Rose, Kelly; Pancake, Jim; Bruner, Kathy (EG& G Services); Kuuskraa, Vello; Billingsley, Randy (Advanced Resources International)

    2003-02-28

    In 2000, NETL conducted a review of the adequacy of the resource characterization databases used in its Gas Systems Analysis Model (GSAM). This review indicated that the most striking deficiency in GSAM’s databases was the poor representation of the vast resource believed to exist in low-permeability sandstone accumulations in western U.S. basins. The model’s databases, which are built primarily around the United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1995 National Assessment (for undiscovered resources), reflected an estimate of the original-gas-inplace (OGIP) only in accumulations designated “technically-recoverable” by the USGS –roughly 3% to 4% of the total estimated OGIP of the region. As these vast remaining resources are a prime target of NETL programs, NETL immediately launched an effort to upgrade its resource characterizations. Upon review of existing data, NETL concluded that no existing data were appropriate sources for its modeling needs, and a decision was made to conduct new, detailed log-based, gas-in-place assessments.

  1. Evolution of wind towards wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technology field for wind resource assessment in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons is of high importance for further applications of the data.

  2. Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigeration for lesser developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1990-02-01

    The Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigerator is a solar thermal technology which provides low cost, efficient, reliable ice-making to areas without ready access to electricity. An ISAAC refrigeration system consists of a compound parabolic solar collector, two pressure vessels, a condenser, a cold box or refrigerated space, and simple connective piping -- no moving parts or electrical components. Most parts are simple construction or plumbing grade materials, locally available in many remote areas. This technology has numerous potential benefits in lesser developed countries both by providing a cheap, reliable source of ice, and, since manufacture requires only semi-skilled labor, a source of employment to the local economy. Applications include vaccine storage for health care clinics; fish, meat, and dairy product storage; and personal consumption. Importantly, this technology increases the quality of life for people in lesser developed countries without depleting fossil fuel resources or increasing the release of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and chlorofluorocarbons.

  3. Advances in wind energy conversion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyajith, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    The technology of generating energy from wind has significantly changed during the past five years. The book brings together all the latest aspects of wind energy conversion technology - from wind resource analysis to grid integration of generated electricity.

  4. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part I: Technologies, energy resources, quantities and areas of infrastructure, and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Mark Z., E-mail: jacobson@stanford.ed [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States); Delucchi, Mark A., E-mail: madelucchi@ucdavis.ed [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Climate change, pollution, and energy insecurity are among the greatest problems of our time. Addressing them requires major changes in our energy infrastructure. Here, we analyze the feasibility of providing worldwide energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, heating/cooling, etc.) from wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). In Part I, we discuss WWS energy system characteristics, current and future energy demand, availability of WWS resources, numbers of WWS devices, and area and material requirements. In Part II, we address variability, economics, and policy of WWS energy. We estimate that {approx}3,800,000 5 MW wind turbines, {approx}49,000 300 MW concentrated solar plants, {approx}40,000 300 MW solar PV power plants, {approx}1.7 billion 3 kW rooftop PV systems, {approx}5350 100 MW geothermal power plants, {approx}270 new 1300 MW hydroelectric power plants, {approx}720,000 0.75 MW wave devices, and {approx}490,000 1 MW tidal turbines can power a 2030 WWS world that uses electricity and electrolytic hydrogen for all purposes. Such a WWS infrastructure reduces world power demand by 30% and requires only {approx}0.41% and {approx}0.59% more of the world's land for footprint and spacing, respectively. We suggest producing all new energy with WWS by 2030 and replacing the pre-existing energy by 2050. Barriers to the plan are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a WWS world should be similar to that today. - Research highlights: {yields} Replacing world energy with wind, water, and sun (WWS) reduces world power demand 30%. {yields} WWS for world requires only 0.41% and 0.51% more world land for footprint and spacing, respectively. {yields} Practical to provide 100% new energy with WWS by 2030 and replace existing energy by 2050.

  5. Primary small cell carcinoma of the lesser omentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Feng Feng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although pulmonary small cell carcinoma (SCC is seen frequently, SCC that originates from the extrapulmonary organs is extremely rare. We herein report a case of a SCC located in the lesser omentum. A 61-year-old male was admitted to our department due to intermittent epigastralgia for 2 months. Ultrasonography (US revealed an irregular hypoechoic mass measuring about 58 mm × 50 mm × 45 mm under the left lobe of the liver. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed to verify the irregular mass with T1- and T2- weighted images between the left lobe of liver and the stomach. At laparotomy, the well-circumscribed neoplasm was found in the lesser omentum, and the fundus of the neoplasm was located in the root of left gastric artery. Intraoperative microscopic evaluation of frozen sections revealed malignancy of the lesser omentum. Resection of the neoplasm was performed, and the combined resection of the vagal nerve was also performed for the partial adhesion. Pyloroplasty was performed for avoiding delayed gastric emptying caused by combined resection of vagal nerve. The lymph nodes dissection at lesser curvature and right cardia was also performed with a negative result. Based on the histological findings, the final diagnosis of primary lesser omental SCC was confirmed. The pathologic staging showed locoregional disease.

  6. Revisiting the 'Buy versus Build' decision for publicly owned utilities in California considering wind and geothermal resources; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2001-01-01

    owned utility's decision to buy or build new renewable energy capacity-specifically wind or geothermal power-in California. To examine the economic aspects of this decision, we modified and updated a 20-year financial cash-flow model to assess the levelized cost of electricity under four supply options: (1) public utility ownership of new geothermal capacity, (2) public utility ownership of new wind capacity, (3) a PPA for new geothermal capacity, and (4) a PPA for new wind capacity

  7. High-resolution multi-model projections of onshore wind resources over Portugal under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Miguel; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Tomé, Ricardo; Cardoso, Rita M.

    2018-05-01

    We present a detailed evaluation of wind energy density (WED) over Portugal, based on the EURO-CORDEX database of high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) simulations. Most RCMs showed reasonable accuracy in reproducing the observed near-surface wind speed. The climatological patterns of WED displayed large sub-regional heterogeneity, with higher values over coastal regions and steep orography. Subsequently, we investigated the future changes of WED throughout the twenty-first century, considering mid- and end-century periods, and two emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). On the yearly average, the multi-model ensemble WED changes were below 10% (15%) under RCP4.5 (RCP8.5). However, the projected WED anomalies displayed strong seasonality, dominated by low positive values in summer (< 10% for both scenarios), negative values in winter and spring (up to - 10% (- 20%) under RCP4.5 (RCP8.5)), and stronger negative anomalies in autumn (up to - 25% (- 35%) under RCP4.5 (RCP8.5)). These projected WED anomalies displayed large sub-regional variability. The largest reductions (and lowest increases) are linked to the northern and central-eastern elevated terrain, and the southwestern coast. In contrast, the largest increases (and lowest reductions) are linked to the central-western orographic features of moderate elevation. The projections also showed changes in inter-annual variability of WED, with small increases for annual averages, but with distinct behavior when considering year-to-year variability over a specific season: small increases in winter, larger increases in summer, slight decrease in autumn, and no relevant change in spring. The changes in inter-annual variability also displayed strong dependence on the underlying terrain. Finally, we found significant model spread in the magnitude of projected WED anomalies and inter-annual variability, affecting even the signal of the changes.

  8. Wind energy: Overcoming inadequate wind and modeling uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Vivek

    2010-09-15

    'Green Energy' is the call of the day, and significance of Wind Energy can never be overemphasized. But the key question here is - What if the wind resources are inadequate? Studies reveal that the probability of finding favorable wind at a given place on land is only 15%. Moreover, there are inherent uncertainties associated with wind business. Can we overcome inadequate wind resources? Can we scientifically quantify uncertainty and model it to make business sense? This paper proposes a solution, by way of break-through Wind Technologies, combined with advanced tools for Financial Modeling, enabling vital business decisions.

  9. 天津近海风能资源的高分辨率数值模拟与评估%High-Resolution Numerical Simulation and Assessment of the Offshore Wind Energy Resource in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳娟; 李明财; 任雨; 熊明明

    2011-01-01

    Wind energy is a rapidly growing alternative energy source and has been widely developed around the world over the last 10 years. Offshore wind power generation is now becoming a new trend in the development of future wind power generation because wind tends to blow faster and be more uniform over offshore areas than on the land. Accurate assessment of wind energy resource is fundamental and valuable for wind energy developers and potential wind energy users because it allows them to choose a general area of the estimated high wind resource for more detailed examination. However, it is difficult to make direct observations from meteorological variables over offshore areas, which calls for numerical simulation with high resolution so as to derive the availability and potential of wind energy. The distribution of wind energy resources with 1 km horizontal resolution and 10 m vertical resolution in Tianjin coastal areas was simulated using the numerical model MM5 and Calmet to derive wind energy potential over the offshore areas. In addition, the simulation efficiency was determined by comparing observation data with three wind-measurement towers over the same period. Results show that the annual mean wind speed and trend of daily mean wind speed were simulated well, and the relative deviations between observations and simulated values at three wind measurement towers were 7.11%, 12.99%, and 6.14%, respectively. This suggests that the models are effective in assessing the offshore wind energy resource in Tianjin. The long time wind energy resource was obtained by comparing simulated year’s and recent 20 years’ mean wind speed. It was found that annual mean wind speed is (6.6~7.0)m/s, and annual mean wind power density is above 340w/m2, which indicate that the offshore wind energy resource in Tianjin is exploitable and could be used for grid-connected power generation. The assessment shows that the MM5/Calmet model is capable of providing reasonable wind status

  10. Vaccine-induced canine distemper in a lesser panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M; Montali, R J; Brownstein, D; James, A E; Appel, M J

    1976-11-01

    A fatal disease occurred in a lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) 2 weeks after vaccination with modified live distemper vaccine. The disease clinically resembled canine distemper. Pathologically there was giant cell pneumonia, with canine distemper viral inclusion bodies in pulmonary and digestive tract epithelium. Viral isolates were indicative of an attenuated strain rather than virulent types.

  11. Nutrient Content of Four Lesser – Known Green Leafy Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of four lesser – known leafy vegetable species (Heinsiacrinita, Lasiantheraafricana, Colocasiaesculenta and Ipomeabatatas) used for traditional food preparations by the Efik and Ibibio ethnic groups in Nigeria were analyzed for proximate composition, amino acid profile and mineral contents. The leaves were ...

  12. Migration flyway of the Mediterranean breeding Lesser Crested Tern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis emigratus breeding population in the Mediterranean is found exclusively in Libya, on the two coastal islands of Gara and Elba and one wetland on the mainland coast at Benghazi. In order to improve knowledge of the species migration to wintering quarters in West Africa, ...

  13. An amateur botanist on the Lesser Sunda Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmutz, Erwin

    1976-01-01

    Tabula Rasa. In 1963 as a missionary I arrived in the Flora Malesiana region, notably in the Lesser Sunda Islands. A certain ’sensus botanicus’ was my only equipment for botanical surveys, and the next thing to do was to walk the arduous but occasionally quite entertaining road to discovery. I often

  14. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  15. Sex determination in the Lesser Flamingo ( Phoenicopterus minor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR amplification of the CHD-Z and CHD-W genes using DNA extracted from the blood samples was used to determine the sex of each bird. There were significant differences in mass and tarsus length among the three age groups, indicating that Lesser Flamingos continue to grow in skeletal size and mass between ...

  16. The relative contribution of climate to changes in lesser prairie-chicken abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James

    2016-01-01

    Managing for species using current weather patterns fails to incorporate the uncertainty associated with future climatic conditions; without incorporating potential changes in climate into conservation strategies, management and conservation efforts may fall short or waste valuable resources. Understanding the effects of climate change on species in the Great Plains of North America is especially important, as this region is projected to experience an increased magnitude of climate change. Of particular ecological and conservation interest is the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), which was listed as “threatened” under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in May 2014. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to quantify the effects of extreme climatic events (extreme values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index [PDSI]) relative to intermediate (changes in El Niño Southern Oscillation) and long-term climate variability (changes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation) on trends in lesser prairie-chicken abundance from 1981 to 2014. Our results indicate that lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks responded to environmental conditions of the year previous by positively responding to wet springs (high PDSI) and negatively to years with hot, dry summers (low PDSI), but had little response to variation in the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Additionally, greater variation in abundance on leks was explained by variation in site relative to broad-scale climatic indices. Consequently, lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks in Kansas is more strongly influenced by extreme drought events during summer than other climatic conditions, which may have negative consequences for the population as drought conditions intensify throughout the Great Plains.

  17. Offshore wind power experiences, potential and key issues for deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2009-01-15

    Wind power has been growing at spectacular rates. Today it is the largest non-hydro renewable power technology. Worldwide there is 74 GW of installed capacity which is 1.7% of power generation capacity and in 2006 it accounted for 0.82% of electricity production. However, offshore wind still only counts for a very small amount and development has only taken place in North European counties round the North Sea and the Baltic Sea over the last 15 years. Offshore wind is still some 50% more expensive than onshore wind, but more wind resources and lesser visual impacts from larger turbines are expected to compensate for the higher installation costs in the long term. Most offshore wind farms are installed in British, Swedish and Danish waters, and present-day costs of installing wind energy in the UK are between 1,200 to 1,600 GBP/kW (1,781 to 2,375 Euro/kW) offshore, while in Sweden investment costs were 1,800 Euro/kW, and in Denmark 1,200 to 1,700 Euro/kW, though investment costs for a new wind farm are expected be in the range of 2.0 to 2.2 mill. Euro/MW for a near-shore shallow depth facility. Future developments in offshore wind technology concerning aerodynamics, structural dynamics, structural design, machine elements, electrical design and grid integration could drive investment costs from present-day range of 1.9 to 2.2 mill. Euro/MW down to 1.35 - 1.54 mill.Euro/MW in 2050, which accounts for a reduction of costs of approx. 35%. In order to sum up progress and identify future research needs, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind agreement Task 11 should arrange a new meeting concerning long term research needs for reviewing 'the long term strategy for 2000 to 2020' from 2001, to come up with suggestions / recommendations on how to define and proceed with, the necessary research activities of the IEA Wind Agreement and governments involved on key wind issues related to offshore technologies. (au)

  18. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  19. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  20. Climatology and trend of wind power resources in China and its surrounding regions: a revisit using Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman

    2015-01-01

    The mean climatology, seasonal and interannual variability and trend of wind speeds at the hub height (80 m) of modern wind turbines over China and its surrounding regions are revisited using 33-year (1979–2011) wind data from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) that has many improvements including higher spatial resolution over previous global reanalysis...

  1. Monthly Wind Characteristics and Wind Energy in Rwanda | Sarari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating wind power potential for a site is indispensable before making any ... objective was to investigate the potential of wind energy resource in Rwanda. ... fit to the distribution of the measured wind data varies from a location to another. ... (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2) ...

  2. Monthly Wind Characteristics and Wind Energy in Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. Evaluating wind power potential for a site is indispensable before making any decision for the installation of wind energy infrastructures and planning for relating projects. This paper presents a branch of a composite analysis whose objective was to investigate the potential of wind energy resource in Rwanda.

  3. Blowing in the Wind: A Review of Wind Power Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of wind as a replenishable energy resource has come back into favour in recent decades. It is much promoted as a viable, clean energy option that will help towards reducing CO[subscript 2] emissions in the UK. This article examines the history of wind power and considers the development of wind turbines, together with their economic,…

  4. Evaluation of tsunami risk in the Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zahibo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to give the preliminary estimates of the tsunami risks for the Lesser Antilles. We investigated the available data of the tsunamis in the French West Indies using the historical data and catalogue of the tsunamis in the Lesser Antilles. In total, twenty-four (24 tsunamis were recorded in this area for last 400 years; sixteen (16 events of the seismic origin, five (5 events of volcanic origin and three (3 events of unknown source. Most of the tsunamigenic earthquakes (13 occurred in the Caribbean, and three tsunamis were generated during far away earthquakes (near the coasts of Portugal and Costa Rica. The estimates of tsunami risk are based on a preliminary analysis of the seismicity of the Caribbean area and the historical data of tsunamis. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of historical extreme runup tsunami data on Guadeloupe, and these data are revised after a survey in Guadeloupe.

  5. Reproductive parameters of tropical lesser noddies respond to local variations in oceanographic conditions and weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticelli, David; Ramos, Jaime A.; Catry, Teresa; Pedro, Patricia; Paiva, Vitor H.

    2014-02-01

    Most attempts to link seabirds and climate/oceanographic effects have concerned the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with comparatively few studies in the tropical Indian Ocean. This paper examines the reproductive response of the lesser noddy Anous tenuirostris to temporal fluctuations in oceanographic and climatic conditions using 8 years of monitoring data from Aride Island (Seychelles), tropical Western Indian Ocean. We tested the hypothesis that breeding parameters (mean hatching date, mean egg size, hatching and fledging successes) and chick growth are influenced by local, seasonal oceanographic conditions as expressed by ocean primary productivity (surface chlorophyll-a concentrations; CC), sea surface temperature (SST) and wind speed. We also examined the relationship between lesser noddy breeding parameters and climate conditions recorded at the basin-wide scale of the Indian Ocean (Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index, DMI). Our findings suggest that birds had a tendency to lay slightly larger eggs during breeding seasons (years) with higher CC during April-June (pre-laying, laying and incubation periods). Hatching date was positively related to SST in April-June, with the regression parameters suggesting that each 0.5 °C increase in SST meant a delay of approx.10 days in hatching date. A negative linear relationship was also apparent between hatching success and SST in June-August (hatching and chick-rearing periods), while the quadratic regression models detected a significant effect of wind speed in June-August on fledging success. Body mass increments of growing chicks averaged over 7-day periods were positively related with (2-week) lagged CC values and negatively related with (2-week) lagged SST values. No significant relationship between DMI and lesser noddy breeding parameters was found, but DMI indices were strongly correlated with local SST. Altogether, our results indicate that the reproduction of this top marine predator is dictated by fluctuations in

  6. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Extreme and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  7. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Ultimate and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  8. Anholt offshore wind farm winds investigated from satellite images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Volker, Patrick

    , i.e. before the wind farm was constructed. Based on these data the wind resource is estimated. Concurrent Sentinel-1 SAR data and available SCADA and lidar data, kindly provided by DONG Energy and partners, for the period January 2013 to June 2015 account for ~70 images, while ~300 images...... are available for Sentinel-1 from July 2015 to February 2017. The Sentinel-1 wind maps are investigated for wind farm wake effects. Furthermore the results on wind resources and wakes are compared to the SCADA and model results from WRF, Park, Fuga and RANS models....

  9. Wind erosion processes and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion continues to threaten the sustainability of our nations' soil, air, and water resources. To effectively apply conservation systems to prevent wind driven soil loss, an understanding of the fundamental processes of wind erosion is necessary so that land managers can better recognize the ...

  10. Columbia Wind Farm number-sign 1 EIS: Botanical resources technical report for the Conservation and Renewable Energy System. Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Jones and Stokes Associates conducted botanical investigations of the Conservation and Renewable Energy Systems (CARES) project site from April through July 1994. Presurvey investigations were conducted to gain information regarding potential special-status plant species and vegetation communities that might exist on the project area. Field surveys were conducted to determine the presence of special-status plant species, map and describe potential vegetation communities, and document the presence of other species onsite, including culturally important species. Field surveys also were used to identify possible mitigation measures as a means to reduce potential project impacts to botanical resources. Floristically, the project area is located in the Columbia Basin Province dominated by shrub-steppe grassland vegetation. Completion of the presurvey and field investigations documented that the project area is dominated by native bunchgrass communities. Field surveys also determined that no special-status plant species were found on the study area. Implementation of the project would result in moderately significant impacts to the vegetation resource. Impacts include the following direct impacts: removal or disturbance of approximately 38 hectares (95 acres) of vegetation, including 32 hectares (80 acres) of native, natural communities, from project construction and the initiation of development into relatively undisturbed native vegetation communities. Indirect impacts to vegetation are associated with impacts that could occur in the future. Ongoing activities that are required to maintain the site's function of producing wind power could result in vegetation trampling and removal of vegetation. This disturbance could create areas where invasive weeds could establish and provide a continual source of weed seed in the project area

  11. Wind on the moors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.

    1992-01-01

    A local town councillor describes the setting up of a wind farm in the south Pennines which plans to sell electricity to the local electricity suppliers. The Coal Clough wind farm will generate sufficient electricity to meet the average demand of 7,500 households and will be managed by a consortium known as Wind Resources Limited linking the construction company and the utilities aiming to buy the electricity produced. While wind power offers many environmental advantages over other means of power generation, local opposition was strong on the basis of the noise produced and clearly visible structures in an area designated as being of outstanding natural beauty. (UK)

  12. Wind Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, Carol

    2017-02-01

    This book takes readers inside the places where daily discoveries shape the next generation of wind power systems. Energy Department laboratory facilities span the United States and offer wind research capabilities to meet industry needs. The facilities described in this book make it possible for industry players to increase reliability, improve efficiency, and reduce the cost of wind energy -- one discovery at a time. Whether you require blade testing or resource characterization, grid integration or high-performance computing, Department of Energy laboratory facilities offer a variety of capabilities to meet your wind research needs.

  13. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    As the demand for energy increases, and fossil fuels continue to decrease, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition considers the viability of wind as an alternative renewable energy source. This book examines the wind industry from its start in the 1970s until now, and introduces all aspects of wind energy. The phenomenal growth of wind power for utilities is covered along with applications such as wind-diesel, village power, telecommunications, and street lighting.. It covers the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, turbulence, wind resource, wind

  14. Energy and Resources: A plan is outlined according to which solar and wind energy would supply Denmark's needs by the year 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, B

    1975-07-25

    Two possible futures for the industrial world may be distinguished: (i) Large amounts of low-cost energy become available and the more energy-intensive methods for extracting resources from lowergrade deposits continue to sustain industrial expansion until either the environmental impact becomes unacceptable or ultimate limits, such as climate disruptions, put an end to such growth. (ii) The cost of nonrenewable energy resources continue to rise, but a fixed amount of energy from continuous sources may be utilized at constant cost. In this case a lower production level may be set by the amount of energy that is available from renewable sources, and society may thus have to be reshaped with energy economization in focus. If it is possible to choose between these two alternatives, the choice should be based on a discussion of the pros and cons of each one, and in particular on the desirability of having to process an increasing fraction of the earth's crust in search of raw materials in order to maintain growth as long as possible. However, the availability, of the first option is far from certain and it thus seems reasonable to plan for the second alternative. I have tried to propose such a plan for a small, homogeneous geographical region, namely Denmark. The ceiling on the consumption of energy from continuous sources is chosen in accordance with the criterion of not having to convert a major part of the land area to energy-collecting systems. The proposed annual average energy consumption of 19 gigawatts by the year 2050 corresponds to solar energy collecting panels (in use only 50 percent of the time) with an area of roughly 180 square kilometers and a windmill swept area of about 150 square kilometers. These (vertical) areas constitute less than 1 percent of the total land area. The selection of solar or wind energy for different applications has been based on known technology and may be subject to adjustments. The project has been shown to be economically

  15. Financing wind projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs

  16. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) toolkit (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Draxl: NREL

    2014-01-01

    Regional wind integration studies require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high penetration scenarios. The wind datasets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as being time synchronized with available load profiles.As described in this presentation, the WIND Toolkit fulfills these requirements by providing a state-of-the-art national (US) wind resource, power production and forecast dataset.

  17. Wind turbine noise diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richarz, W.; Richarz, H.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation proposed a self-consistent model for broad-band noise emitted from modern wind turbines. The simple source model was consistent with the physics of sound generation and considered the unique features of wind turbines. Although the acoustics of wind turbines are similar to those of conventional propellers, the dimensions of wind turbines pose unique challenges in diagnosing noise emission. The general features of the sound field were deduced. Source motion and source directivity appear to be responsible for amplitude variations. The amplitude modulation is likely to make wind-turbine noise more audible, and may be partly responsible for annoyance that has been reported in the literature. Acoustic array data suggests that broad-band noise is emitted predominantly during the downward sweep of each rotor blade. Source motion and source directivity account for the observed pattern. Rotor-tower interaction effects are of lesser importance. Predicted amplitude modulation ranges from 1 dB to 6dB. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Electric car with solar and wind energy may change the environment and economy: A tool for utilizing the renewable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanhua

    2014-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues are among the most important problems of public concern. Wind and solar energy may be one of the alternative solutions to overcome energy shortage and to reduce greenhouse gaseous emission. Using electric cars in cities can significantly improve the air quality there. Through our analyses and modeling on the basis of the National Centers for Environment Prediction data we confirm that the amount of usable solar and wind energy far exceeds the world's total energy demand, considering the feasibility of the technology being used. Storing the surplus solar and wind energy and then releasing this surplus on demand is an important approach to maintaining uninterrupted solar- and wind-generated electricity. This approach requires us to be aware of the available solar and wind energy in advance in order to manage their storage. Solar and wind energy depends on weather conditions and we know weather forecasting. This implies that solar and wind energy is predictable. In this article, we demonstrate how solar and wind energy can be forecasted. We provide a web tool that can be used by all to arrive at solar and wind energy amount at any location in the world. The tool is available at http://www.renewableenergyst.org. The website also provides additional information on renewable energy, which is useful to a wide range of audiences, including students, educators, and the general public.

  19. Regional development of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Salamaga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Regional development includes qualitative changes in economy (e.g. in production, investments, employment as well as qualitative changes (regarding the structure of economy and society, changes in the environment. The research of regional development is important and necessary in order to make appropriate decisions at the regional and local level. The main purpose of the article is comparative analysis of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship in the area of economic, social and ecological development. Scientific aim: The scientific aims of paper are verifying the hypothesis concerning eco-development and forecasting the level of regional development in districts of Lesser Poland Voivodship. Methodology/methods: In the research of regional development the quality index of economic, social and ecological development has been proposed which has been calculated on the basis of a certain aggregation of the results of the Principal Component Analysis made on the correlation matrix of standardised variables being the components of the index. Forecasts of the regional development level in districts were calculated with the use of different econometric models as linear model, exponential model, or power model. Findings: The findings prove that the Lesser Poland Voivodship is characterised by considerable disproportions in regional development. The most favourable conditions for economic and social development are in the districts with large city agglomerations as well as extensive municipality infrastructure and transport infrastructure. The presented results demonstrate that the majority of districts have not exhibited a constant tendency to changes in the positions in successive ranking lists in terms of the economic, social and ecological development. The positions occupied by most districts are generally stable and have not changed considerably in the examined period. Conclusions: The research has confirmed the negative

  20. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...... ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions...... are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric...

  1. Assessing storm surge hazard and impact of sea level rise in the Lesser Antilles case study of Martinique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krien, Yann; Dudon, Bernard; Roger, Jean; Arnaud, Gael; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2017-09-01

    In the Lesser Antilles, coastal inundations from hurricane-induced storm surges pose a great threat to lives, properties and ecosystems. Assessing current and future storm surge hazards with sufficient spatial resolution is of primary interest to help coastal planners and decision makers develop mitigation and adaptation measures. Here, we use wave-current numerical models and statistical methods to investigate worst case scenarios and 100-year surge levels for the case study of Martinique under present climate or considering a potential sea level rise. Results confirm that the wave setup plays a major role in the Lesser Antilles, where the narrow island shelf impedes the piling-up of large amounts of wind-driven water on the shoreline during extreme events. The radiation stress gradients thus contribute significantly to the total surge - up to 100 % in some cases. The nonlinear interactions of sea level rise (SLR) with bathymetry and topography are generally found to be relatively small in Martinique but can reach several tens of centimeters in low-lying areas where the inundation extent is strongly enhanced compared to present conditions. These findings further emphasize the importance of waves for developing operational storm surge warning systems in the Lesser Antilles and encourage caution when using static methods to assess the impact of sea level rise on storm surge hazard.

  2. The future of wind is growing larger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    This article highlights the dramatic developments in wind turbines over the last 20 years, and notes the increase in efficiency, reduced noise emissions, improvements in manufacturing , and refined resource assessment tools. A summary of the wind turbine market is tabulated, and the increasing size of wind turbines, the assembly of the wind turbines, and current designs are discussed. (UK)

  3. Advancements in Wind Integration Study Data Modeling: The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.; Jones, W.; Searight, K.; Getman, D.; Harrold, S.; McCaa, J.; Cline, J.; Clark, C.

    2013-10-01

    Regional wind integration studies in the United States require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high-penetration scenarios. The wind data sets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as be time synchronized with available load profiles. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit described in this paper fulfills these requirements. A wind resource dataset, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts from a numerical weather prediction model run on a nationwide 2-km grid at 5-min resolution will be made publicly available for more than 110,000 onshore and offshore wind power production sites.

  4. Assessing offshore wind potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelaja, Adesoji; McKeown, Charles; Calnin, Benjamin; Hailu, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying wind potential is a pivotal initial step in developing and articulating a state’s policies and strategies for offshore wind industry development. This is particularly important in the Great Lakes States where lessons from other offshore environments are not directly applicable. This paper presents the framework developed for conducting a preliminary assessment of offshore wind potential. Information on lake bathymetry and wind resources were combined in simulating alternative scenarios of technically feasible turbine construction depths and distance concerns by stakeholders. These yielded estimates of developable offshore wind areas and potential power generation. While concerns about the visibility of turbines from shore reduce the power that can be generated, engineering solutions that increase the depths at which turbines can be sited increase such potential power output. This paper discusses the costs associated with technical limitations on depth and the social costs related to public sentiments about distance from the shoreline, as well as the possible tradeoffs. The results point to a very large untapped energy resource in the Michigan’s Great Lakes, large enough to prompt policy action from the state government. - Highlights: ▶ We build a theoretical framework for modeling offshore wind power production. ▶ Illustration of the impact of technology and social limitations on offshore wind energy development. ▶ Geospatial modeling of the offshore wind potential of the Great Lakes.

  5. [DESIGN AND CLINICAL APPLICATION OF LESSER TROCHANTERIC REDUCTION FIXATION SYSTEM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoze; Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Jin; Xie, Huibin; Yu, Jiefeng

    2015-02-01

    To design and produce a lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system and verify its value and effectiveness. A lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system was designed and produced according to the anatomical features of the lesser trochanteric fractures. Sixty-six patients with intertrochanteric fractures of Evans type III were included between January 2010 and July 2012. Of 66 patients, 32 were treated with dynamic hip screw (DHS) assisted with the lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system (study group), and 34 cases were treated with DHS only (control group). The 2 groups were comparable with no significant difference in gender, age, the reasons, and the types of the fractures (P > 0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, neck-shaft angle, bone healing time, ratio of successful fixations, and the functional evaluation of the hip joint after operation were compared between 2 groups. The study group had shorter operation time [(58.4 ± 5.3) minutes] and less intraoperative blood loss [(186.3 ± 6.6) mL than the control group [(78.5 ± 6.2)minutes and (246.2 ± 8.7) mL], showing significant differences (t = -14.040, P = 0.000; t = -31.145, P = 0.000). There was no significant difference in neck-shaft angle between study group [(138.6 ± 3.0)] and control group [(139.4 ± 2.9) degrees] (t = -1.044, P = 0.301). The wounds healed by first intention in both groups. The 30 and 31 patients were followed up 12 to 24 months (mean, 15 months) in the study group, and 13 to 25 months (mean, 16 months) in the control group, respectively. All fractures healed well in 2 groups. The study group had significantly shorter healing time [(8.8 ± 2.0) weeks] than the control group [(10.7 ± 3.4) weeks] (t = -2.871, P = 0.006). At 12 months after operation, coxa vara happened in 2 cases of the study group with a successful fixation ratio of 93.3% and in 10 cases of the control group with a successful fixation ratio of 67.7%, showing significant difference (Χ2 = 6

  6. Contrasting sedimentary processes along a convergent margin: the Lesser Antilles arc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Michel; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Boudon, Georges

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentation processes occurring in an active convergent setting are well illustrated in the Lesser Antilles island arc. The margin is related to westward subduction of the North and/or the South America plates beneath the Caribbean plate. From east to west, the arc can be subdivided into several tectono-sedimentary depositional domains: the accretionary prism, the fore-arc basin, the arc platform and inter-arc basin, and the Grenada back-arc basin. The Grenada back-arc basin, the fore-arc basin (Tobago Trough) and the accretionary prism on the east side of the volcanic arc constitute traps for particles derived from the arc platform and the South American continent. The arc is volcanically active, and provides large volumes of volcaniclastic sediments which accumulate mainly in the Grenada basin by volcaniclastic gravity flows (volcanic debris avalanches, debris flows, turbiditic flows) and minor amounts by fallout. By contrast, the eastern side of the margin is fed by ash fallout and minor volcaniclastic turbidites. In this area, the dominant component of the sediments is pelagic in origin, or derived from South America (siliciclastic turbidites). Insular shelves are the locations of carbonate sedimentation, such as large platforms which develop in the Limestone Caribbees in the northern part of the margin. Reworking of carbonate material by turbidity currents also delivers lesser amounts to eastern basins of the margin. This contrasting sedimentation on both sides of the arc platform along the margin is controlled by several interacting factors including basin morphology, volcanic productivity, wind and deep-sea current patterns, and sea-level changes. Basin morphology appears to be the most dominant factor. The western slopes of the arc platform are steeper than the eastern ones, thus favouring gravity flow processes.

  7. Endurance Wind Power : practical insights into small wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed practical issues related to purchasing and installing small wind turbines in Canada. Wind power capacity can be estimated by looking at provincial wind maps as well as by seeking wind data at local airports. Wind resources are typically measured at heights of between 20 meters and 50 m. The height of a wind turbine tower can significantly increase the turbine's wind generating capacity. Turbine rotors should always be placed 30 feet higher than obstacles within 500 feet. Many provinces have now mandated utilities to accept renewable energy resources from grid-connected wind energy plants. Net billing systems are used to determine the billing relationship between power-producing consumers and the utilities who will buy the excess power and sell it to other consumers. Utilities are not yet mandated to purchase excess power, and it is likely that federal and provincial legislation will be needed to ensure that net billing systems continue to grow. Many Canadian municipalities have no ordinances related to wind turbine placements. Consumers interested in purchasing small wind turbines should ensure that the turbine has been certified by an accredited test facility and has an adequate safety system. The noise of the turbine as well as its power performance in relation to the purchaser's needs must also be considered. It was concluded that small wind turbines can provide a means for electricity consumers to reduce their carbon footprint and hedge against the inflationary costs of fossil-fuelled energy resources. tabs., figs

  8. The effectiveness of different policy regimes for promoting wind power: Experiences from the states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C.; Vachon, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Governments at the state (and to a lesser extent, local) level in the United States have adopted an array of policies to promote wind and other types of 'green' energy, including solar, geothermal, low-impact hydropower, and certain forms of biomass. However, because of different regulatory environments, energy resource endowments, political interests, and other factors, there is considerable variation among the states in their green power policies. This paper analyzes the contribution to wind power development of several state-level policies (renewable portfolio standards (RPS), fuel generation disclosure rules, mandatory green power options, and public benefits funds), along with retail choice (RET) facilitated by electricity restructuring. The empirical results support existing anecdotal and case studies in finding a positive relationship between RPS and wind power development. We also found that requiring electricity suppliers to provide green power options to customers is positively related to development of wind energy, while there is a negative relationship between wind energy development and RET (i.e., allowing retail customers to choose their electricity source)

  9. Wind energy potential in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, S.

    1995-01-01

    Though located in the tropics, India is endowed with substantial wind resources because of its unique geographical location which gets fully exposed to both the south-west and north-east monsoon winds. The westerly winds of the south-west monsoons provide bulk of the wind potential. Areas with mean annual wind speed exceeding 18 k mph and areas with mean annual power density greater than 140 W/m 2 have been identified using the wind data collected by the wind monitoring project funded by the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES). Seasonal variations in wind speed at selected locations are discussed as also the frequency distribution of hourly wind speed. Annual capacity factors for 250 kW wind electric generators have been calculated for several typical locations. A good linear correlation has been found between mean annual wind speed and mean annual capacity factor. A method is described for assessing wind potential over an extended region where adequate data is available. It is shown that the combined wind energy potential over five selected areas of limited extent in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu alone amounts to 22,000 MW under the assumption of 20 per cent land availability for installing wind farms. For a higher percentage of land availability, the potential will be correspondingly higher. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Valuation issues in lesser developed countries: Investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Privatization has become the buzzword of the early 1990s, as all over the world governments are selling off their assets. Monopolistic utilities such as gas, water and waste disposal - but particularly electric - are prime assets for sale because their cash flows and competitive environment are reasonably predictable. Utility privatization in lesser developed countries (LDC) is giving rise to many new investment opportunities where predictions of high growth rates lead to anticipation of lucrative returns. Potential investors, however, should fully exercise the concept of caveat emptor: let the buyer beware. Coupled with these lucrative returns are risks arising from less stable political and economic conditions. possible market inefficiencies, and potentially high transaction costs. This article explores the central issues involved in valuing privatization investment opportunities in LDCs and performing requisite due diligence reviews

  11. Muon tomography: Plans for observations in the Lesser Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, Dominique; Beauducel, Francois; Lesparre, Nolwenn; Tarantola, Albert; Declais, Yves; Marteau, Jacques; Nicollin, Florence

    2010-01-01

    The application of muon tomography to monitor and image the internal structure of volcanoes in the Lesser Antilles is discussed. Particular focus is directed towards the three volcanoes that fall under the responsibility of the Institut de Physique du Globe of Paris, namely La Montagne Pelee in Martinique, La Soufriere in Guadeloupe, and the Soufriere Hills in Montserrat. The technological criteria for the design of portable muon telescopes are presented in detail for both their mechanical and electronic aspects. The detector matrices are constructed with scintillator strips, and their detection characteristics are discussed. The tomography inversion is presented, and its distinctive characteristics are briefly discussed. Details are given on the implementation of muon tomography experiments on La Soufriere in Guadeloupe. (author)

  12. The difference in cultural curriculum: for a lesser (Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo César Bueno Nunes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current time is contingent, plural, decentralized, free of old identities and permeated by the noise of voices that have never been heard. Inserted in such context, the school tries to overcome traces of the past and face the struggles of the present. Regarding physical education, the cultural curriculum seems to contribute with the new era mentality by questioning the hegemony of body practices and meanings of the privileged groups to promote the pedagogy of difference. This study analyzed the most important works on this proposal, identifying teaching principles and procedures that characterize it and submitted them to the confrontation with the notion of pure difference by Gilles Deleuze. The results indicate that the cultural curriculum takes the features of a lesser (physical education when it listens what the „different ones‟ have to say and pays attention to the cultural body repertoire that students can access

  13. Future wind deployment scenarios for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, Jarrad G

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available understood wind (and solar) resource in South Africa combined with large geographical land-area and technology cost reductions globally and domestically for wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) has made these technologies more than competitive with alternatives...

  14. Wind Generation Feasibility Study in Bethel, AK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Humphrey, YKHC; Lance Kincaid, EMCOR Energy & Technologies

    2004-07-31

    This report studies the wind resources in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Health Corporation (YKHC) region, located in southwestern Alaska, and the applicability of wind generation technologies to YKHC facilities.

  15. Renewable Energy Essentials: Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Subjects for further research, specific to wind energy technology, include more refined resource assessment; materials with higher strength to mass ratios; advanced grid integration and power quality and control technologies; standardisation and certification; development of low-wind regime turbines; improved forecasting; increased fatigue resistance of major components such as gearboxes; better models for aerodynamics and aeroelasticity; generators based on superconductor technology; deep-offshore foundations; and high-altitude 'kite' concepts.

  16. Trend in China's Wind Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Attractive prospects for wind power development Sha Yiqiang:In recent years,the development and utilization of wind energy has achieved remarkable results.To the end of 2007,the installed capacity of the wind power had reached 94 000 MW all over the world,which is distributed over 60 countries.Over the past 20 years,the wind power generation installation cost has been reduced by 50% and is closing to that of the conventional energy resources.Meanwhile,the single unit capacity,efficiency and reliability of wind power have been greatly improved.

  17. Lower Sioux Wind Feasibility & Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkel, Darin

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the process and findings of a Wind Energy Feasibility Study (Study) conducted by the Lower Sioux Indian Community (Community). The Community is evaluating the development of a wind energy project located on tribal land. The project scope was to analyze the critical issues in determining advantages and disadvantages of wind development within the Community. This analysis addresses both of the Community's wind energy development objectives: the single turbine project and the Commerical-scale multiple turbine project. The main tasks of the feasibility study are: land use and contraint analysis; wind resource evaluation; utility interconnection analysis; and project structure and economics.

  18. Financing renewables - wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the wind energy markets world-wide, in Europe and in the UK. It outlines the main methods of financing wind energy installations and discusses why different institutional structures have led to different markets in the UK and in Germany, with some concern about the state of the UK onshore industry. The paper looks ahead to the opening up of the potentially much larger offshore wind resource, concluding that in this area, existing UK development and financing structures are well suited. (Author)

  19. Accurate Short-Term Power Forecasting of Wind Turbines: The Case of Jeju Island’s Wind Farm

    OpenAIRE

    BeomJun Park; Jin Hur

    2017-01-01

    Short-term wind power forecasting is a technique which tells system operators how much wind power can be expected at a specific time. Due to the increasing penetration of wind generating resources into the power grids, short-term wind power forecasting is becoming an important issue for grid integration analysis. The high reliability of wind power forecasting can contribute to the successful integration of wind generating resources into the power grids. To guarantee the reliability of forecas...

  20. Assessment of lesser prairie-chicken lek density relative to landscape characteristics in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmer, Jennifer; Butler, Matthew; Ballard, Warren; Boal, Clint; Whitlaw, Heather

    2012-08-31

    My 2.5-yr Master's project accomplished the objectives of estimating lesser prairie-chicken (LPC) lek density and abundance in the Texas occupied range and modeling anthropogenic and landscape features associated with lek density by flying helicopter lek surveys for 2 field seasons and employing a line-transect distance sampling method. This project was important for several reasons. Firstly, wildlife managers and biologists have traditionally monitored LPC populations with road-based surveys that may result in biased estimates and do not provide access to privately-owned or remote property. From my aerial surveys and distance sampling, I was able to provide accurate density and abundance estimates, as well as new leks and I detected LPCs outside the occupied range. Secondly, recent research has indicated that energy development has the potential to impact LPCs through avoidance of tall structures, increased mortality from raptors perching on transmission lines, disturbance to nesting hens, and habitat loss/fragmentation. Given the potential wind energy development in the Texas Panhandle, spatial models of current anthropogenic and vegetative features (such as transmission lines, roads, and percent native grassland) influencing lek density were needed. This information provided wildlife managers and wind energy developers in Texas with guidelines for how change in landscape features could impact LPCs. Lastly, LPC populations have faced range-wide declines over the last century and they are currently listed as a candidate species under the Endangered Species Act. I was able to provide timely information on LPC populations in Texas that will be used during the listing process.

  1. Offshore wind power in the Aegean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    hub heights at around 100 m using a combination of satellite wind fields and the long-term climate of atmospheric stability from the mesoscale model (Badger et al. 2016). The result of the mean wind speed at hub-height for the Aegean Sea is shown in Figure 1. The map shows the stability dependent......, where the spatial variations in wind speed are very high, accurate resource mapping is of great importance as the produced wind power is proportional to the cubed wind speed. It is challenging to model the wind resource and it is costly to measure from the ground at every place of interest. Maps based...

  2. WIND ENERGY – ECOSUSTAINABILITY ENGINEERING SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Gabriela POPA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Renewables provides increased safety energy supply and limiting imports of energy resources, interms of sustainable economic development. The new requirements for sustainable development have determinedthe world to put the issue of energy production methods and increase the share of energy produced fromrenewable energy. This paper presents the history of wind power, advantages and disadvantages of renewableenergy, particularly wind energy as an alternative source of energy. Windmills can be horizontal axis or verticalaxis Savonius and Darrieus rotor. Latest innovations allow operation of variable speed wind turbines, or turbinespeed control based on wind speed. Wind energy is considered one of the most sustainable choices betweenvariants future wind resources are immense.

  3. Wind energy - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangi, R.; Oprisan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of wind technology developments in Canada and around the world was reviewed. Information regarding the level of wind turbine deployment was presented. It was shown that significant effort has been made on the national and international level to increase the capacity of this clean, non-polluting form of energy. Wind energy has become competitive with conventional sources of electricity due to lower cost, higher efficiency and improved reliability of generating equipment. The advantages and disadvantages of wind electricity generating systems and the economics and atmospheric emissions of the systems were described. At present, there is about 23 MW of wind energy generating capacity installed in Canada, but the potential is very large. It was suggested that wind energy could supply as much as 60 per cent of Canada's electricity needs if only one per cent of the land with 'good winds' were covered by wind turbines. Recently, the Canadian government has provided an accelerated capital cost allowance for certain types of renewable energies under the Income Tax Act, and the flow-through share financing legislation to include intangible expenses in certain renewable energy projects has been extended. Besides the support provided to the private sector through tax advantages, the Government also supports renewable energy development by purchasing 'green' energy for its own buildings across the country, and by funding a research and development program to identify and promote application of wind energy technologies, improve its cost effectiveness, and support Canadian wind energy industries with technology development to enhance their competitiveness at home and abroad. Details of the Wind Energy Program, operated by Natural Resources Canada, are described. 3 tabs., 5 figs

  4. Probabilistic hurricane-induced storm surge hazard assessment in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krien, Y.; Dudon, B.; Roger, J.; Zahibo, N.

    2015-08-01

    Current storm surge hazard maps in the French West Indies are essentially based on simple statistical methods using limited historical data and early low-resolution models which do not take the effect of waves into account. In this paper, we infer new 100-year and 1000-year surge levels in Guadeloupe from the numerical modelling of storm surges induced by a large set of synthetic events that are in statistical agreement with features of historical hurricanes in the North Atlantic Basin between 1980 and 2011. Computations are performed using the wave-current coupled model ADCIRC-SWAN with high grid resolutions (up to 40-60 m) in the coastal and wave dissipation areas. This model is validated against observations during past events such as hurricane HUGO (1989). Results are generally found to be in reasonable agreement with past studies in areas where surge is essentially wind-driven, but found to differ significantly in coastal regions where the transfer of momentum from waves to the water column constitutes a non-negligible part of the total surge. The methodology, which can be applied to other islands in the Lesser Antilles, allows storm surge level maps to be obtained that can be of major interest for coastal planners and decision makers in terms of risk management.

  5. Abundance and density of lesser prairie-chickens and leks in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Jennifer M.; Butler, M.J.; Ballard, Warren; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, Heather A.

    2013-01-01

    Lesser prairie-chickens (LEPCs; Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have experienced population declines due to both direct and indirect habitat loss, including conversion of native rangeland to cropland and disturbance from energy development. Our objectives were to 1) determine the current density of LEPC leks and LEPCs within the Texas (USA) occupied range, including areas with high potential for wind-energy development; and 2) find new leks. To estimate lek and LEPC density, we employed a line-transect-based aerial survey method using a Robinson 22 helicopter to count leks. We surveyed 26,810.9 km of transect in the spring of 2010 and 2011 and we detected 96 leks. We estimated a density of 2.0 leks/100 km(2) (90% CI = 1.4-2.7 leks/100 km(2)) and 12.3 LEPCs/100 km(2) (90% CI = 8.5-17.9 LEPCs/100 km(2)) and an abundance of 293.6 leks (90% CI = 213.9-403.0 leks) and 1,822.4 LEPCs (90% CI = 1,253.7-2,649.1 LEPCs) for our sampling frame. Our best model indicated that lek size and lek type (AIC(c) wt = 0.235) influenced lek detectability. Lek detectability was greater for larger leks and natural leks versus man-made leks. Our statewide survey efforts provide wildlife managers and biologists with population estimates, new lek locations, and areas to target for monitoring and conservation.

  6. Modeling of Marine Natural Hazards in the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahibo, Narcisse; Nikolkina, Irina; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2010-05-01

    The Caribbean Sea countries are often affected by various marine natural hazards: hurricanes and cyclones, tsunamis and flooding. The historical data of marine natural hazards for the Lesser Antilles and specially, for Guadeloupe are presented briefly. Numerical simulation of several historical tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea (1755 Lisbon trans-Atlantic tsunami, 1867 Virgin Island earthquake tsunami, 2003 Montserrat volcano tsunami) are performed within the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. Numerical results demonstrate the importance of the real bathymetry variability with respect to the direction of propagation of tsunami wave and its characteristics. The prognostic tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed using various forms of seismic and hydrodynamics sources. These results are used to estimate the far-field potential for tsunami hazards at coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. The nonlinear shallow-water theory is also applied to model storm surges induced by tropical cyclones, in particular, cyclones "Lilli" in 2002 and "Dean" in 2007. Obtained results are compared with observed data. The numerical models have been tested against known analytical solutions of the nonlinear shallow-water wave equations. Obtained results are described in details in [1-7]. References [1] N. Zahibo and E. Pelinovsky, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 1, 221 (2001). [2] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, A. Yalciner, A. Kurkin, A. Koselkov and A. Zaitsev, Oceanologica Acta, 26, 609 (2003). [3] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, A. Kurkin and A. Kozelkov, Science Tsunami Hazards. 21, 202 (2003). [4] E. Pelinovsky, N. Zahibo, P. Dunkley, M. Edmonds, R. Herd, T. Talipova, A. Kozelkov and I. Nikolkina, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 22, 44 (2004). [5] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, E. Okal, A. Yalciner, C. Kharif, T. Talipova and A. Kozelkov, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 23, 25 (2005). [6] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, T. Talipova, A. Rabinovich, A. Kurkin and I

  7. Wind-Climate Estimation Based on Mesoscale and Microscale Modeling: Statistical-Dynamical Downscaling for Wind Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Jake; Frank, Helmut; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a statistical dynamical method can be used to accurately estimate the wind climate at a wind farm site. In particular, postprocessing of mesoscale model output allows an efficient calculation of the local wind climate required for wind resource estimation at a wind...

  8. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  9. Wind Power in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    opportunity Screening eight sites identified in the Wind Atlas of Georgia (2004) based on a preliminary assessment of the wind power potential, feasibility and construction costs of each site, points to Skra as the most feasible area for pilot development of wind power. The Skra site in Gori/Kareli regions has good (above 7 m/s at 100m) and steady wind resources, minimal land-use and environmental conflicts and high accessibility. An 80m wind measurement mast has recently been put up on the site by a Georgian company. The Skra site is estimated to potentially hold up to 35 3MW turbines (90m rotor diameter) or 45 2MW turbines (80m rotor diameter). The total capacity of the wind farm would thus be 105MW or 90MW respectively. A preliminary estimation for the annual energy production of the wind farm using 2,500 full-load-hours, gives production estimations of 260 GWh for a 105MW and 225 GWh for a 90MW wind farm on the site. Investment cost of the wind farm is estimated to be roughly 1.5 MEuro/MW, which amounts to 158 MEuro for a 105MW farm and 135 MEuro for a 90 MW farm. Several stakeholders in Georgia have expressed interest in using second hand turbines in order to reduce investment costs. Most available used turbines on the market are of sizes less than 2MW and the prize vary significantly depending especially on the capacity, age and make of the turbine. Other interesting sites in Georgia to explore further with an aim for wind power development include Chorokhi, Kutaisi, Samgori and Yagludja.(auth)

  10. Wind Energy: Trends And Enabling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devabhaktuni, Vijay; Alam, Mansoor; Boyapati, Premchand; Chandna, Pankaj; Kumar, Ashok; Lack, Lewis; Nims, Douglas; Wang, Lingfeng

    2010-09-15

    With attention now focused on the damaging impact of greenhouse gases, wind energy is rapidly emerging as a low carbon, resource efficient, cost-effective sustainable technology in many parts of the world. Despite higher economic costs, offshore appears to be the next big step in wind energy development alternative because of the space scarcity for installation of onshore wind turbine. This paper presents the importance of off-shore wind energy, the wind farm layout design, the off-shore wind turbine technological developments, the role of sensors and the smart grid, and the challenges and future trends of wind energy.

  11. The lesser evil? Initiating a benzodiazepine prescription in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthierens, Sibyl; Habraken, Hilde; Petrovic, Mirko; Christiaens, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Objective Chronic benzodiazepine (BZD) use is widespread and linked with adverse effects. There is consensus concerning the importance of initiating BZD as a crucial moment. Nevertheless specific research in this field is lacking. This paper addresses the views of GPs on why they start prescribing BZDs to first-time users. Design Qualitative study with five focus groups analysed using a systematic content analysis. Setting Regions of Ghent and Brussels in Belgium. Subjects A total of 35 general practitioners. Main outcome measure The GPs’ perspective on their initiating of BZD prescribing. Results GPs reported that they are cautious in initiating BZD usage. At the same time, GPs feel overwhelmed by the psychosocial problems of their patients. They show empathy by prescribing. They feel in certain situations there are no other solutions and they experience BZDs as the lesser evil. They admit to resorting to BZDs because of time restraint and lack of alternatives. GPs do not perceive the addictive nature of BZD consumption as a problem with first-time users. GPs do not specifically mention patients’ demand as an element for starting. Conclusion The main concern of GPs is to help the patient. GPs should be aware of the addictive nature of BZD even in low doses and a non-pharmacological approach should be seen as the best first approach. If GPs decide to prescribe a BZD they should make plain to the patient that the medication is only a “temporary” solution with clear agreements with regard to medication withdrawal. PMID:18041658

  12. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Astrup, P.; Nielsen, M. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  13. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C B; Astrup, P; Nielsen, M [and others

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  14. A systematic approach of bottom-up assessment methodology for an optimal design of hybrid solar/wind energy resources – Case study at middle east region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifaei, Pouya; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Jacome, Gabriel; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing DaSOSaCa flowchart as a novel hybrid solar/wind assessment approach. • Calculating four key parameters to generate synthetic wind hourly data for Iran. • Proposing technical and economic hybrid solar/wind GIS maps of Iran. • Revising renewable energies management plans of Iran by macroeconomic evaluation. - Abstract: In the current study, an algorithm-based data processing, sizing, optimization, sensitivity analysis and clustering approach (DaSOSaCa) is proposed as an efficient simultaneous solar/wind assessment methodology. Accordingly, data processing is performed to obtain reliable high quality meteorological data among various datasets, which are used for hybrid photovoltaic/wind turbine/storage/converter system optimal design for consequent sites in a large region. The optimal hybrid systems are consequently simulated to meet hourly power demand in various sites. The solar/wind fraction and net present cost of the systems are then used as the technical and economic clustering variables, respectively. The clustering results are finally used as input to obtain novel hybrid solar/wind GIS maps. Iran is selected as the case study to validate the proposed methodology and detail its applicability. Ten minute annual global horizontal radiation, wind speed, and temperature data are analyzed, and the optimal, robust hybrid systems are simulated for various sites in order to classify the country. The generated GIS maps show that Iran can be efficiently clustered into four technical and five economic clusters under optimal conditions. The clustering results prove that Iran is mainly a solar country with approximately 74% solar power fraction under optimum conditions. A macroeconomic evaluation using DaSOSaCa also reveals that the nominal discount rate is recommended to be greater than 20% considering the current economic situation for the renewable energy sector in Iran. An environmental analysis results show that an average 106.68 tonCO 2

  15. Wind energy. To produce electricity with the wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareau, Helene

    2015-11-01

    This guide addresses the different aspects of wind-based power generation. It outlines the role of wind energy to meet objectives related to the share of renewable energies in the French energy mix, that wind energy is actually replacing fossil energies, that it is based on local resources within higher safety and less wastage, that current advances are made to integrate wind energy production into the grid, and that it is a solution to diversify energy production. Some figures are presented and commented, regarding onshore wind energy production in France, the location of wind farms, and wind energy production in comparison with other renewable sources. The operation of a wind turbine is described and the different types of wind turbines are evoked. The issue of wind farm planning with citizen participation is addressed: regional planning, studies of pre-feasibility for location selection, procedure, and content of the impact study (radars, fauna and flora, landscapes, safety, health). Other features are outlined: a planned dismantling, and a globally favourable perception. The next part addresses offshore wind energy: the interesting potential of stronger and more reliable wind at sea (European situation, French opportunities, elements comprised in an offshore wind farm), impacts (on marine ecosystems, on neighbouring localities, and interests for visitors). Economic aspects are then addressed: cost and profitability, economic spin-offs, and perspectives. The last part concerns individuals and the possibilities to participate to wind farm projects or to invest in small wind turbines with some prerequisites (constant and steady winds, installation assessment, required expertise, indispensable preliminary steps, costs, aids and profitability)

  16. A pan-European quantitative assessment of soil loss by wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasqualle; Lugato, Emanuele; Panagos, Panos

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion by wind is a serious environmental problem often low perceived but resulting in severe soil degradation forms. On the long-term a considerable part of topsoil - rich in nutrient and organic matters - could be removed compromising the agricultural productivity and inducing an increased use of fertilizers. Field scale studies and observations proven that wind erosion is a serious problem in many European sites. The state-of-the-art suggests a scenario where wind erosion locally affects the temperate climate areas of the northern European countries, as well as the semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean region. However, observations, field measurements and modelling assessments are extremely limited and unequally distributed across Europe. It implies a lack of knowledge about where and when wind erosion occurs, limiting policy actions aimed at mitigating land degradation. To gain a better understanding about soil degradation process, the Soil Resource Assessment working group of the Joint Research Centre carried out the first pan-European assessments of wind-erodible fraction of soil (EF) (Geoderma, 232, 471-478, 2014) and land susceptibility to wind erosion (Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2318). Today's challenge is to integrate the insights archived by these pan-European assessments, local experiments and field-scale models into a new generation of regional-scale wind erosion models. A GIS version of the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) was developed with the aim to i) move a step forward into the aforementioned challenges, and ii) evaluate the soil loss potential due to wind erosion in the agricoltural land of the EU. The model scheme was designed to describe daily soil loss potential, combining spatiotemporal conditions of soil erodibility, crust factor, soil moisture content, vegetation coverage and wind erosivity at 1 km2 resolution. The average soil loss predicted by GIS-RWEQ in the EU arable land ranges from 0 to 39.9 Mg ha-1 yr

  17. The wind power of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Escobedo, Q.; Manzano-Agugliaro, F.; Zapata-Sierra, A.

    2010-01-01

    The high price of fossil fuels and the environmental damage they cause have encouraged the development of renewable energy resources, especially wind power. This work discusses the potential of wind power in Mexico, using data collected every 10 min between 2000 and 2008 at 133 automatic weather stations around the country. The wind speed, the number of hours of wind useful for generating electricity and the potential electrical power that could be generated were estimated for each year via the modelling of a wind turbine employing a logistic curve. A linear correlation of 90.3% was seen between the mean annual wind speed and the mean annual number of hours of useful wind. Maps were constructed of the country showing mean annual wind speeds, useful hours of wind, and the electrical power that could be generated. The results show that Mexico has great wind power potential with practically the entire country enjoying more than 1700 h of useful wind per year and the potential to generate over 2000 kW of electrical power per year per wind turbine installed (except for the Chiapas's State). Indeed, with the exception of six states, over 5000 kW per year could be generated by each turbine. (author)

  18. Assessment of wind energy potential in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Rong; Zhang De; Wang Yuedong; Xing Xuhuang; Li Zechun

    2009-01-01

    China wind atlas was made by numerical simulation and the wind energy potential in China was calculated. The model system for wind energy resource assessment was set up based on Canadian Wind Energy Simulating Toolkit (WEST) and the simulating method was as follows. First, the weather classes were obtained depend on meteorological data of 30 years. Then, driven by the initial meteorological field produced by each weather class, the meso-scale model ran for the distribution of wind energy resources according each weather class condition one by one. Finally, averaging all the modeling output weighted by the occurrence frequency of each weather class, the annual mean distribution of wind energy resources was worked out. Compared the simulated wind energy potential with other results from several ac-tivities and studies for wind energy resource assessment, it is found that the simulated wind energy potential in mainland of China is 3 times that from the second and the third investigations for wind energy resources by CMA, and is similar to the wind energy potential obtained by NREL in Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project. The simulated offshore wind energy potential of China seems smaller than the true value. According to the simulated results of CMA and considering lots of limited factors to wind energy development, the final conclusion can be obtained that the wind energy availability in China is 700~1 200 GW, in which 600~1 000 GW is in mainland and 100~200 GW is on offshore, and wind power will become the important part of energy composition in future.

  19. Coordinated Multi-Objective Control of Regulating Resources in Multi-Area Power Systems with Large Penetration of Wind Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Yang, Bo; Ma, Jian

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a control algorithm for a Wide Area Energy Storage and Management System (WAEMS). The WAEMS is designed to meet the demand for fast, accurate and reliable regulation services in multi-area power systems with a significant share of wind power and other intermittent generation...

  20. Long-distance multistep sediment transfer at convergent plate margins (Barbados, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, Mara; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    We present a regional provenance study of the compositional variability and long distance multicyclic transport of terrigenous sediments along the convergent and transform plate boundaries of Central America, from the northern termination of the Andes to the Lesser Antilles arc-trench system. We focus on high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral analyses of modern beach and fluvial sediments and Cenozoic sandstones of Barbados island, one of the places in the world where an active accretionary prism is subaerially exposed (Speed et al., 2012). The main source of siliciclastic sediment in the Barbados accretionary prism is off-scraped quartzose to feldspatho-litho-quartzose metasedimentaclastic turbidites, ultimately supplied from South America chiefly via the Orinoco fluvio-deltaic system. Modern sand on Barbados island is either quartzose with depleted heavy-mineral suites recycled from Cenozoic turbidites and including epidote, zircon, tourmaline, andalusite, garnet, staurolite and chloritoid, or calcareous and derived from Pleistocene coral reefs. The ubiquitous occurrence of clinopyroxene and hypersthene, associated with green-brown kaersutitic hornblende in the north or olivine in the south, points to reworking of ash-fall tephra erupted from andesitic (St. Lucia) and basaltic (St. Vincent) volcanic centers in the Lesser Antilles arc transported by the prevailing anti-trade winds in the upper troposphere. Modern sediments on Barbados island and those shed by other accretionary prisms such as the Indo- Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge (Garzanti et al., 2013) define the distinctive mineralogical signature of Subduction Complex Provenance, which is invariably composite. Detritus recycled dominantly from accreted turbidites and oceanic mudrocks is mixed in various proportions with detritus from the adjacent volcanic arc or carbonate reefs widely developed at tropical latitudes. Ophiolitic detritus may be locally prominent. Quantitative provenance

  1. Stratigraphy of the Grande Savane Ignimbrite Sequence, Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.; Smith, A. L.; Deuerling, K.; Killingsworth, N.; Daly, G.

    2007-12-01

    The island of Dominica, located in the central part of the Lesser Antilles island arc has eight potentially active volcanoes. One of these, Morne Diablotins, is a composite stratovolcano with several superimposed stratigraphic sequences ranging in age from Pliocene (4-2 Ma) to "Younger" Pleistocene (22,000 and >40,000 years B.P. The ignimbrite sequences form four flow fans that reached both the east and west coasts of the island. One of these flow fans, the Grande Savane, on the west coast of the island, also extends off-shore for a distance of at least 14 km as a distinctive submarine fan. Stratigraphical studies of the on- shore deposits that make up this fan indicate an older sequence of block and ash flow deposits, within which occurs a distinctive vulcanian fall deposit. These are overlain, with no evidence of an intervening paleosol, by a sequence of ignimbrites containing welded horizons (ranging in thickness from around 4 m to 16m). The lack of fall deposits beneath the ignimbrites suggest they may have been formed by instantaneous continuous collapse of the eruption column. This whole succession is overlain by a series of planar and dune bedded pumiceous surge deposits with interbedded pumiceous lapilli fall and ash fall deposits, that extend laterally outside of the main area of ignimbrite deposition. Beds within this upper sequence often contain accretionary lapilli and gas cavities suggesting magma-water interaction. The youngest deposits from Morne Diablotins appear to be valley- fill deposits of both ignimbrite and block and ash flow. A comparison of the of the Grande Savane pyroclastic sequence with the Pointe Ronde (west coast) and Londonderry (east coast) pyroclastic flow fans will provide information on the eruptive history of this major Plinian episode.

  2. Predictive MRI correlates of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate tear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, Rachel L. [Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Umans, Benjamin D. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Umans, Hilary [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Elsinger, Elisabeth [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-07-15

    To identify correlated signs on non-enhanced MRI that might improve diagnostic detection of plantar plate (PP) tear. We performed an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective analysis of 100 non-contrast MRI (50 PP tear, 50 controls). All were anonymized, randomized, and reviewed; 20 were duplicated to assess consistency. One musculoskeletal radiologist evaluated qualitative variables. A trained non-physician performed measurements. Consistency and concordance were assessed. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to test the correlation between qualitative findings and PP tear status. Correlation between measurements and PP status was assessed using t tests and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test (p values < 0.05 considered significant). Classification and regression trees were utilized to identify attributes that, taken together, would consistently distinguish PP tear from controls. Quantitative measurements were highly reproducible (concordance 0.88-0.99). Elevated 2nd MT protrusion, lesser MT supination and rotational divergence of >45 between the 1st-2nd MT axis correlated with PP tear. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening correlated most strongly with PP tear, correctly classifying 95 % of cases and controls. Excluding pericapsular soft tissue thickening, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, 2nd flexor tendon subluxation, and splaying of the second and third toes accurately classified PP status in 92 %. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening most strongly correlated with PP tear. For cases in which it might be difficult to distinguish pericapsular fibrosis from neuroma, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, flexor tendon subluxation and splaying of the 2nd and 3rd toe is most helpful for optimizing accurate diagnosis of PP tear. (orig.)

  3. Boron isotope ratios of surface waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvat, Pascale, E-mail: louvat@ipgp.fr [Geochimie et Cosmochimie, IPGP, Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, UMR 7154 CNRS, 75005 Paris (France); Gaillardet, Jerome; Paris, Guillaume; Dessert, Celine [Geochimie et Cosmochimie, IPGP, Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, UMR 7154 CNRS, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Rivers outer of hydrothermal areas have d11B around 40 per mille and [B] of 10-31 {mu}g/L. > Thermal springs have d11B of 8-15 per mille and [B] between 250 and 1000 {mu}g/L. > With Na, SO{sub 4} and Cl, boron shows mixing of rain, low and high-T weathering inputs. > Guadeloupe rivers and thermal springs have d11B 20-40 per mille higher than the local rocks. > Solid-solution fractionation during weathering pathways may explain this gap of d11B. - Abstract: Large variations are reported in the B concentrations and isotopic ratios of river and thermal spring waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. Rivers have {delta}{sup 11}B values around 40 per mille and B concentrations lower than 30 {mu}g/L, while thermal springs have {delta}{sup 11}B of 8-15 per mille and B concentrations of 250-1000 {mu}g/L. River samples strongly impacted by hydrothermal inputs have intermediate {delta}{sup 11}B and B contents. None of these surface water samples have {delta}{sup 11}B comparable to the local unweathered volcanic rocks (around 0 per mille), implying that a huge isotopic fractionation of 40 per mille takes place during rock weathering, which could be explained by preferential incorporation of {sup 10}B during secondary mineral formation and adsorption on clays, during rock weathering or in the soils. The soil-vegetation B cycle could also be a cause for such a fractionation. Atmospheric B with {delta}{sup 11}B of 45 per mille represents 25-95% of the river B content. The variety of the thermal spring chemical composition renders the understanding of B behavior in Guadeloupe hydrothermal system quite difficult. Complementary geochemical tracers would be helpful.

  4. Boron isotope ratios of surface waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvat, Pascale; Gaillardet, Jerome; Paris, Guillaume; Dessert, Celine

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rivers outer of hydrothermal areas have d11B around 40 per mille and [B] of 10-31 μg/L. → Thermal springs have d11B of 8-15 per mille and [B] between 250 and 1000 μg/L. → With Na, SO 4 and Cl, boron shows mixing of rain, low and high-T weathering inputs. → Guadeloupe rivers and thermal springs have d11B 20-40 per mille higher than the local rocks. → Solid-solution fractionation during weathering pathways may explain this gap of d11B. - Abstract: Large variations are reported in the B concentrations and isotopic ratios of river and thermal spring waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. Rivers have δ 11 B values around 40 per mille and B concentrations lower than 30 μg/L, while thermal springs have δ 11 B of 8-15 per mille and B concentrations of 250-1000 μg/L. River samples strongly impacted by hydrothermal inputs have intermediate δ 11 B and B contents. None of these surface water samples have δ 11 B comparable to the local unweathered volcanic rocks (around 0 per mille), implying that a huge isotopic fractionation of 40 per mille takes place during rock weathering, which could be explained by preferential incorporation of 10 B during secondary mineral formation and adsorption on clays, during rock weathering or in the soils. The soil-vegetation B cycle could also be a cause for such a fractionation. Atmospheric B with δ 11 B of 45 per mille represents 25-95% of the river B content. The variety of the thermal spring chemical composition renders the understanding of B behavior in Guadeloupe hydrothermal system quite difficult. Complementary geochemical tracers would be helpful.

  5. Main copper-porphyry systems of the Lesser Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkonyan, R.L.; Tayan, P.N.; Goukassyan, R.Kh.; Hovakimyan, S.E.; Moritz, R.; Selbi, D.

    2013-01-01

    Two belts of porphyry-copper systems were identified the Late Jurassic Early Cretaceous Somkheto-Karabakh (S-K) island-arc belt within the same name terrain of the southern termination of the Eurasian Plate stretching for 230 km (the tonalitic model) and the Early Miocene Tsaghkounk-Zanghezour (Ts-Z) post-collision belt (Tz-Z) within the same name terrain of the northern margin of the Gondwana, stretching over 280 km (the monzonite-granodiorite model). The formation of the S-K and Ts-Z belts had proceeded in pulses and spanned intervals of 12 million years and 24 million years, respectively. The Rb-Sr isochrones and TIMS U-Pb estimations of the age of zircons from the Meghri pluton ( 1,500 km 2 ), the largest one in the Lesser Caucasus, it appeared possible to establish the three stages of its formation: the Late Eocene, Early Oligocene, and Early Miocene, each accompanied by development of deposits having similar ages. The PC deposits of the S-K and Ts-Z belts have distinct differences of age, geodynamic regime of formation, specificity of mineral composition, sources of water and sulfur of hydrothermal solutions, and formation models. The single, discrete Armenian-Iranian belt of PC deposits was identified; it has a Late Eocene-Middle Miocene age and a length of about 2,000 km, being related with intrusive complexes of the monzonite-granite-granodiorite series, the activity of which had been manifesting itself over 32 million years. This belt, including giant-deposits such as Kajaran and Sar-Cheshmeh, was identified as the special Armenian-Iranian PC province

  6. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Darko

    2003-01-01

    Wind is not only free, it is inexhaustible. Wind energy has come a very long way since the prototypes of just 20 years ago. today's wind turbines are state-of-the-art technology - modular and quick to install anywhere where there is sufficient wind potential to provide secure, centralised or distributed generation. It is a global phenomenon, the world's fastest growing energy sector, a clean and effective modern technology that completely avoids pollution and thus reducing the 'green house' effect. (Original)

  7. Wind tipping point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.

    2006-01-01

    In this article the author looks at how in five years wind energy has rapidly evolved into a mainstream industry. The United States has begun to look at wind differently - from a macroeconomic perspective.'This country is going to become increasingly committed to renewable energy, and it's not about altruism', said Alan Waxman, managing director of Goldman Sachs and Co., a financial giant that has invested $1 billion in the resource. Wind is seen not just as an environmentally benign alternative, but also as a means to solve some large problems plaguing the energy business and ultimately the United States as a whole. The last year brought record-breaking electricity rate increases, in some cases doubling consumer costs, and escalating the flight of large enterprises out of high-cost energy regions - or out of business altogether. The rate hikes were caused by hurricanes that hit the southern states and disrupted natural gas and oil operations. Adding wind power to the grid is increasingly seen as a way to limit the price shock caused by such events. Wind power reduces reliance on gas and oil-fired generation and, in particular, creates a hedge against spikes in natural gas, a fuel that increasingly sets the marginal price. Large energy users, too, are becoming aware of wind's hedging benefits. The author looks at the cost issues and how the future of wind energy in the country can be sustained as a reliable alternative fuel

  8. Wind energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesto, E.

    1992-02-01

    Interest in wind energy as a supplementary source for the production of electricity has recently gained renewed momentum due to widespread concern about environmental impacts from the large scale use of fossil fuels and nuclear energy. In addition, political unrest in the Middle East has drawn attention to the importance of national energy self-sufficiency. European government administrations, however, have not yet fully appreciated the real worth of the 'clean energy' afforded by wind energy. In this regard, the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) is acting as a strong voice to inform the public and energy planners by stimulating international wind energy R ampersand D cooperation, and organizing conferences to explain the advantages of wind energy. In October 1991, EWEA published a strategy document giving a picture of the real possibilities offered by wind energy within the geographical, social, and European economic context. This paper provides an overview of the more significant features to emerge from this document which represents a useful guideline for wind power plant technical/economic feasibility studies in that it contains brief notes on resource availability, land requirements, visual and acoustic impacts, turbine sizing, performance, interconnection to utility grids, maintenance and operating costs, safety, as well as, on marketing aspects

  9. Database on wind characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, K.S. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Courtney, M.S. [Risoe National Lab., (Denmark)

    1999-08-01

    The organisations that participated in the project consists of five research organisations: MIUU (Sweden), ECN (The Netherlands), CRES (Greece), DTU (Denmark), Risoe (Denmark) and one wind turbine manufacturer: Vestas Wind System A/S (Denmark). The overall goal was to build a database consisting of a large number of wind speed time series and create tools for efficiently searching through the data to select interesting data. The project resulted in a database located at DTU, Denmark with online access through the Internet. The database contains more than 50.000 hours of measured wind speed measurements. A wide range of wind climates and terrain types are represented with significant amounts of time series. Data have been chosen selectively with a deliberate over-representation of high wind and complex terrain cases. This makes the database ideal for wind turbine design needs but completely unsuitable for resource studies. Diversity has also been an important aim and this is realised with data from a large range of terrain types; everything from offshore to mountain, from Norway to Greece. (EHS)

  10. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Christiansen, M.

    2006-11-15

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting wind fields are valuable in offshore wind energy planning as a supplement to on site measurements, which are costly and sparse, and model wind fields, which are not fully validated. Two applications of SAR measurements in offshore wind energy planning are addressed here: the study of wind farm wake effects and the potential of using SAR winds in offshore wind resource assessment. Firstly, wind wakes behind two large offshore wind farms in Denmark Horns Rev and Nysted are identified. A region of reduced wind speed is found downstream of both wind farms from the SAR wind fields. The wake extent and magnitude depends on the wind speed, the atmospheric stability, and the fraction of turbines operating. Wind farm wake effects are detected up to 20 km downwind of the last turbine. This distance is longer than predicted by state-of-the art wake models. Wake losses are typically 10-20% near the wind farms. Secondly, the potential of using SAR wind maps in offshore wind resource assessment is investigated. The resource assessment is made through Weibull fitting to frequency observations of wind speed and requires at least 100 satellite observations per year for a given site of interest. Predictions of the energy density are very sensitive to the wind speed and the highest possible accuracy on SAR wind retrievals is therefore sought. A 1.1 m s{sup -1} deviation on the mean wind speed is found through comparison with mast measurements at Horns Rev. The accuracy on mean wind speeds and energy densities found from satellite measurements varies with different empirical model functions. Additional uncertainties are introduced by the infrequent satellite sampling at fixed times of the day. The accuracy on satellite based wind resource

  11. Social-Ecological Thresholds in a Changing Boreal Landscape: Insights from Cree Knowledge of the Lesser Slave Lake Region of Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Parlee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK of the Lesser Slave Lake Cree, this paper shares understanding of how resource development has affected water, fish, forests, and wildlife as well as the well-being of Cree communities in the Lesser Slave Lake region of Alberta, Canada. In addition to descriptive observations of change, the narratives point to social-ecological thresholds or tipping points in the relationship of Cree harvesters to local lands and resources. Specifically, the study speaks to the echoing effects of ecological loss and degradation on traditional livelihood practices over the last 100 years highlighting the complexity of cumulative effects as well as the challenges of balancing resource development in the region with alternative land uses including those valued by Alberta's Aboriginal peoples.

  12. Pronunciation dictionary development in resource-scarce environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of speech technology systems in the developing world is often hampered by the lack of appropriate linguistic resources. A suitable pronunciation dictionary is one such resource that can be difficult to obtain for lesser...

  13. SAT-WIND project. Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Astrup, Poul; Nielsen, Niels Morten

    microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data...

  14. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  15. Wind energy in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.A. van der

    1996-01-01

    Wind, in South Africa, has been a source of energy for many years but at the same time it is taking as much time and effort to receive the recognition it deserves as anywhere else in the world. The wind resource is comparable to a number of areas in the world wind is exploited as a grid connected source of electrical energy. Although the environmental impact of conventional sources of energy is not as widespread as most of the industrial nations some areas should be looked at critically. Wind as a bulk generator of energy is tentatively being looked at with some demonstration projects being planned. (author)

  16. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  17. WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS - A TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAMESH BABU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind power production has been under the main focus for the past decade in power production and tremendous amount of research work is going on renewable energy, specifically on wind power extraction. Wind power provides an eco-friendly power generation and helps to meet the national energy demand when there is a diminishing trend in terms of non-renewable resources. This paper reviews the modeling of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS, control strategies of controllers and various Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technologies that are being proposed for efficient production of wind energy from the available resource.

  18. Effects of massive wind power integration on short-term water resource management in central Chile - a grid-wide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Olivares, M. A.; Palma, R.

    2013-12-01

    In central Chile, water from reservoirs and streams is mainly used for irrigation and power generation. Hydropower reservoirs operation is particularly challenging because: i) decisions at each plant impact the entire power system, and ii) the existence of large storage capacity implies inter-temporal ties. An Independent System Operator (ISO) decides the grid-wide optimal allocation of water for power generation, under irrigation-related constraints. To account for the long-term opportunity cost of water, a future cost function is determined and used in the short term planning. As population growth and green policies demand increasing levels of renewable energy in power systems, deployment of wind farms and solar plants is rising quickly. However, their power output is highly fluctuating on short time scales, affecting the operation of power plants, particularly those fast responding units as hydropower reservoirs. This study addresses these indirect consequences of massive introduction of green energy sources on reservoir operations. Short-term reservoir operation, under different wind penetration scenarios, is simulated using a replica of Chile's ISO's scheduling optimization tools. Furthermore, an ongoing study is exploring the potential to augment the capacity the existing hydro-power plants to better cope with the balancing needs due to a higher wind power share in the system. As reservoir releases determine to a great extent flows at downstream locations, hourly time series of turbined flows for 24-hour periods were computed for selected combinations between new wind farms and increased capacity of existing hydropower plants. These time series are compiled into subdaily hydrologic alteration (SDHA) indexes (Zimmerman et al, 2010). The resulting sample of indexes is then analyzed using duration curves. Results show a clear increase in the SDHA for every reservoir of the system as more fluctuating renewables are integrated into the system. High

  19. Wind energy conversion 1994. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, G.

    1995-01-01

    At the British Wind Energy Association's 16th Annual Conference, held in Stirling, over 60 high quality papers were presented, including a session devoted to 'Wind Energy in Scotland'. Under the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) wind energy has experienced rapid growth in England and Wales and with Scotland now having its own 'Scottish Renewables Obligation' (SRO) the opportunity to tap one of Europe's most important renewable energy resources now exists. The main contemporary issues concerning wind farming today, namely technical, social, economic and environmental were examined in the Geoff Pontin Memorial Lecture, which focused on these aspects in the context of grid integrated wind energy development. The remaining conference themes included machine development, aerodynamics and control, small machines, fatigue and dynamics, public attitudes, noise emissions, electrical integration, resource measurement, and standards, safety and planning. (author)

  20. A Successful Small Wind Future: There Is Great Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2017-05-02

    Suzanne Tegen made this presentation at the 2017 Small Wind Conference in Bloomington, Minnesota. It provides an overview of DOE-sponsored small wind products, testing, and support; an example of a Regional Resource Center defending distributed wind; the recently published Distributed Wind Taxonomy; the dWind model and recent results; and other recent DOE and NREL publications related to small and distributed wind.

  1. Discussion on mass concrete construction of wind turbine generator foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Liang; Wu, Chaoxiang; Yin, Xiaoyong

    2018-04-01

    Wind power is one of the main power sources currently. China has rich wind power resources, wind power plants are developed faster and faster. However, China wind power construction started late, which is lack of relevant experience technology. It is easy to produce quality problems. The key to the construction quality of wind power plant is the construction quality of mass concrete construction. Therefore, construction technology and quality control of wind turbine generator foundation mass concrete are discussed and analyzed in the paper.

  2. Wind energy and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  3. Observations on the activity patterns of the lesser yellow house bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lesser yellow house bat, Scotophilus viridis. F.P.D. Cotterill c/o Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town,. Cape Town. S.R. Giddings·. Department of Zoology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 10 June 1986; accepted 23 July 1986. The activity pattems of the lesser yellow ...

  4. Metatarsophalangeal joint stability: A systematic review on the plantar plate of the lesser toes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, N.M.G. (Nico M.G.); M. van der Grinten (Margot); W.M. Bramer (Wichor); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Instability of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints of the lesser toes (digiti 2-5) is increasingly being treated by repair of the plantar plate (PP). This systematic review examines the anatomy of the plantar plate of the lesser toes, and the relation between the integrity

  5. Hepatic element concentrations of lesser scaup (aythya affinis) during spring migration in the upper midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillatzki, A.E.; Neiger, R.D.; Chipps, S.R.; Higgins, K.F.; Thiex, N.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of some hepatic elements might be contributing to the decline of the continental lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) population. We evaluated hepatic element concentrations of male and female lesser scaup collected from the upper Midwest (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) during the 2003 and 2004 spring migrations. We measured concentrations of 24 elements in livers of 117 lesser scaup. We found that only selenium concentrations were at levels (>3.0 ??g/g wet weight [ww)]) proposed to adversely affect reproduction. Approximately 49% of females (n = 61) had individual hepatic concentrations >3.0 ??g/g ww selenium (Se). Our observed hepatic concentration of Se was similar to that reported in lesser scaup collected from the mid-continental United States but less than Se concentrations reported from the Great Lakes region. We found that the liver cadmium (Cd) concentration for males was significantly higher than that for females. Gender differences in hepatic Cd concentrations have not been previously reported for lesser scaup, but Cd is known to have negative impacts on male reproduction. Our results indicate that lesser scaup migrating through the upper Midwest in spring have elevated Se levels and that males carry a significantly greater Cd burden than females. Moreover, elemental concentrations might be high enough to affect reproduction in both male and female lesser scaup, but controlled laboratory studies are needed to adequately assess the effects of Se and Cd on lesser scaup reproduction. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Why do lesser toes deviate laterally in hallux valgus? A radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roan, Li-Yi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Taniguchi, Akira; Tomiwa, Kiyonori; Kumai, Tsukasa; Cheng, Yuh-Min

    2015-06-01

    Hallux valgus foot with laterally deviated lesser toes is a complex condition to treat. Ignoring the laterally deviated lesser toes in hallux valgus might result in unsatisfactory foot shape. Without lateral support of the lesser toes, it might increase the risk of recurrence of hallux valgus. We sought to identify associated radiographic findings in patients where lesser toes follow the great toe in hallux valgus and deviate laterally. The weight-bearing, anteroposterior foot radiographs of 24 female hallux valgus feet with laterally deviated lesser toes (group L), 34 female hallux valgus feet with normal lesser toes (group H), and 43 normal female feet (group N) were selected for the study. A 2-dimensional coordinated system was used to analyze the shapes and angles of these feet by converting each dot made on the radiographs onto X and Y coordinates. Diagrams of the feet in each group were drawn for comparison. The hallux valgus angle, lateral deviation angle of the second toe, intermetatarsal angles, toe length, metatarsal length, and metatarsus adductus were calculated according to the coordinates of the corresponding points. The mapping showed the bases of the second, third, and fourth toe in group L shifted laterally away from their corresponding metatarsal head (P hallux valgus angles (P hallux valgus angle, more adducted first metatarsal, and divergent lateral splaying of the lesser metatarsals were associated with lateral deviation of the lesser toes in hallux valgus. Level III, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. A tall tower study of Missouri winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Neil I. [Department of Soil, Environmental and Atmospheric Sciences, 332 ABNR Building, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This paper summarizes the results of a study of wind speeds observed at heights up to 150 m above ground level around Missouri. This is an amalgamation of four projects that allowed a total of eleven tall communication towers to be instrumented with wind observation equipment across the State of Missouri. This provided an assessment of the wind resource and the characteristics of the seasonal and diurnal cycles of wind in different areas of Missouri at the heights of utility scale wind turbines. Comparisons were also made to wind speeds predicted at these levels from a previously published wind map. The main finding was that the observed winds at each tower were smaller than those presented in the wind map. The discrepancy is most likely to be due to underestimation of the surface roughness and turbulence leading to an overestimation of near-surface wind shear. However, the wind shear, as expressed by the shear parameter was consistently greater than the 'standard' value of 1.4. The reconciliation of these two apparently contradictory findings is that the shear varies with the height at which it is measured. In wind resource assessment, wind shear is usually observed below 50 m and is tacitly assumed to be constant with height when used to extrapolate winds to higher levels. The author advocates the use of the friction velocity as a measure of shear in wind power applications in preference to the shear parameter that is usually used. This is because the shear parameter has a velocity bias that can also manifest as a bias with height or season. As wind power resource assessment is starting to use taller towers than the standard 50 m, intercomparison of site resources and extrapolation to turbine heights can be compromised if the shear parameter is used. (author)

  8. Active convergence between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus in Georgia: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, G.; Floyd, M.; Godoladze, T.; King, R.; Cowgill, E. S.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Hahubia, G.; Reilinger, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present and interpret newly determined site motions derived from GPS observations made from 2008 through 2016 in the Republic of Georgia, which constrain the rate and locus of active shortening in the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision zone. Observation sites are located along two ∼160 km-long profiles crossing the Lesser-Greater Caucasus boundary zone: one crossing the Rioni Basin in western Georgia and the other crossing further east near the longitude of Tbilisi. Convergence across the Rioni Basin Profile occurs along the southern margin of the Greater Caucasus, near the surface trace of the north-dipping Main Caucasus Thrust Fault (MCTF) system, and is consistent with strain accumulation on the fault that generated the 1991 MW6.9 Racha earthquake. In contrast, convergence along the Tbilisi Profile occurs near Tbilisi and the northern boundary of the Lesser Caucasus (near the south-dipping Lesser Caucasus Thrust Fault), approximately 50-70 km south of the MCTF, which is inactive within the resolution of geodetic observations (< ± 0.5 mm/yr) at the location of the Tbilisi Profile. We suggest that the southward offset of convergence along strike of the range is related to the incipient collision of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus, and closing of the intervening Kura Basin, which is most advanced along this segment of the collision zone. The identification of active shortening near Tbilisi requires a reevaluation of seismic hazards in this area.

  9. Overview and Meteorological Validation of the Wind Integration National Dataset toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, B. M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clifton, A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCaa, J. [3TIER by VAisala, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-04-13

    The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit described in this report fulfills these requirements, and constitutes a state-of-the-art national wind resource data set covering the contiguous United States from 2007 to 2013 for use in a variety of next-generation wind integration analyses and wind power planning. The toolkit is a wind resource data set, wind forecast data set, and wind power production and forecast data set derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction model. WIND Toolkit data are available online for over 116,000 land-based and 10,000 offshore sites representing existing and potential wind facilities.

  10. Model county ordinance for wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, D.A. [Oregon Office of Energy, Portland, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Permitting is a crucial step in the development cycle of a wind project and permits affect the timing, cost, location, feasibility, layout, and impacts of wind projects. Counties often have the lead responsibility for permitting yet few have appropriate siting regulations for wind projects. A model ordinance allows a county to quickly adopt appropriate permitting procedures. The model county wind ordinance developed for use by northwest states is generally applicable across the country and counties seeking to adopt siting or zoning regulations for wind will find it a good starting place. The model includes permitting procedures for wind measurement devices and two types of wind systems. Both discretionary and nondiscretionary standards apply to wind systems and a conditional use permit would be issued. The standards, criteria, conditions for approval, and process procedures are defined for each. Adaptation examples for the four northwest states are provided along with a model Wind Resource Overlay Zone.

  11. Wind energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    British Columbia (BC) possesses significant wind energy resources, and many wind energy projects are currently in the planning phase or are already under construction. Wind power policies in the province have been designed to ensure the secure and orderly development of the wind power industry. Policies in the province include a 10-year exemption from participation rents for new projects as well as a policy that has established the maximum permissible noise levels for wind farms located near residential properties. BC's wind power development plan forms part of the province's aim to become electricity self-sufficient by 2016 while ensuring that clean or renewable energy generation accounts for at least 90 per cent of total generation. This guide provided an outline of the province's wind energy sector, and provided a listing of selected wind power operators. Details of new wind power projects were also presented. 11 fig.

  12. Bodily-material resources in CSCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Ryberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within CSCL language is often perceived as the primary vehicle for knowledge building and collaboration, whereas bodily-material resources are explored to a lesser extent. In this data session we explore the importance of gestures and body movements as bodily-material resources in relation...... and methodologically from focusing on bodily-material resources in CSCL....

  13. Database on wind characteristics - Analyses of wind turbine design loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Hansen, K.S.

    2004-06-01

    The main objective of IEA R and D Wind Annex XVII - Database on Wind Characteristics - has been to provide wind energy planners, designers and researchers, as well as the international wind engineering community in general, with a source of actual wind field data (time series and resource data) observed in a wide range of different wind climates and terrain types. Connected to an extension of the initial Annex period, the scope for the continuation was widened to include also support to the international wind turbine standardisation efforts.. The project partners are Sweden, Norway, U.S.A., The Netherlands and Denmark, with Denmark as the Operating Agent. The reporting of the continuation of Annex XVII falls in two separate parts. Part one accounts in details for the available data in the established database bank, and part two describes various data analyses performed with the overall purpose of improving the design load cases with relevance for to wind turbine structures. The present report constitutes the second part of the Annex XVII reporting. Both fatigue and extreme load aspects are dealt with, however, with the main emphasis on the latter. The work has been supported by The Ministry of Environment and Energy, Danish Energy Agency, The Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM), The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE), The Swedish National Energy Administration (STEM) and The Government of the United States of America. (au)

  14. Report on wind energy for small communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maissan, J.F. [Leading Edge Projects Inc., Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    Wind energy projects can be economically viable in the north under a range of conditions when oil prices are in the range of $60 U.S. per barrel. Some of the requirements for economic viability include locations with economies of scale, availability of local equipment, availability of local technical human resources, access to reasonable transportation, and a committed community and project proponent. This paper presented the results of a study on wind energy in small northern communities. The objective of the paper was to provide an assessment of the feasibility of wind power to community leaders in diesel-dependant remote communities. The paper provided a review of wind power technologies including wind turbines; wind turbine towers; wind-diesel integration; wind penetration levels; anti-icing technology; suppliers of wind-diesel integration systems; and wind turbine manufacturers promoting wind-diesel systems. The paper also provided a review of the historical capital costs for the installation of wind projects; recommendations from project developers; project site selection criteria; as well as a simplified economic analyses for small communities. The paper also discussed the successful Kotzebue Alaska wind-diesel project as a model to follow. It described how to start a wind energy program with reference to the roles of the federal government, territorial governments and their power utilities. It was demonstrated that wind energy can be a cost effective option to reduce diesel generation requirements in the appropriate circumstances. It was concluded that deployment of wind energy in the north still needs to proceed on a carefully planned path beginning with leader projects and branching out from there. In addition, there is a need for good quality wind resource assessment at potential wind project locations in many communities in the north. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Wind energy in the built environment : Concentrator effects of buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, S.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with wind energy conversion in the built environment. It gives a description of the wind resources in the built environment that can be converted into energy by a wind turbine. With a focus on maximum energy yield of the wind turbine, it especially deals with the integration of

  16. The future of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koughnett, K. Van

    2003-01-01

    This presentation provided a brief history of wind power through the ages, and culminated with a look at installed capacity in 2002. Vision Quest has been in the wind power business since 1980, and the first turbines were installed in 1997. The company operates 40 per cent of Canada's wind capacity. Vision Quest became part of TransAlta in December 2002, the largest non-regulated electric generation and marketing company in Canada. The reasons for investing in wind power were briefly reviewed. The author then examined the physics of wind power and wind energy resources. The key resource issues were identified as being resource availability and constancy, which is similar to oil and gas exploration. Utility scale turbines were described. The pros and cons of larger turbines were compared, and it was shown that larger turbines offer better economics, a higher capacity factor and fewer turbines to permit. Manufacturers are focused on larger machines for offshore. The various permitting authorities and their areas of responsibility were listed, from municipal, provincial and federal levels. The key drivers are: wind speed, installed cost of equipment, revenue, operating expense, and financial expense. Project risks include: power purchase agreements, technology risk, financial risk, construction risk, regulation, operating risks, dependence on third parties, and reliance on advisors. Some of the challenges facing Vision Quest are being early, permitting, electric grid interconnection, openness of markets, market supply, demand forces, and getting capital costs down. tabs., figs

  17. Determining the impact of wind on system costs via the temporal patterns of load and wind generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Clay D.; Gotham, Douglas J.; Preckel, Paul V.; Liu, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Ambitious targets have been set for expanding electricity generation from renewable sources, including wind. Expanding wind power impacts needs for other electricity generating resources. As states plan for increasing levels of wind generation in their portfolio of generation resources it is important to consider how this intermittent resource impacts the need for other generation resources. A case study for Indiana estimates the value of wind capacity and demonstrates how to optimize its level and the levels of other generation resources. Changes are driven by temporal patterns of wind power output and load. System wide impacts are calculated for energy, capacity, and costs under multiple wind expansion scenarios which highlight the geographic characteristics of a systems portfolio of wind generation. The impacts of carbon prices, as proposed in the Bingaman Bill, are considered. Finally, calculations showing the effect increasing levels of wind generation will have on end use Indiana retail rates are included. - Highlights: • We estimate the value of wind capacity. • We determine wind generation's impact on the optimal mix of non-wind generation. • Optimal levels of wind and non-wind generation are determined. • We consider the impact of a carbon price on the optimal mix of resources. • The impact of additional wind capacity on Indiana residential rates is calculated

  18. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  19. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  20. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 3 -- October 2007 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2007-10-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 3 features an interview with Andrew Dzykewicz, Commissioner of the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources.

  1. Value of flexible resources, virtual bidding, and self-scheduling in two-settlement electricity markets with wind generation - Part II: ISO Models and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    In Part II of this paper, we present formulations for three two-settlement market models: baseline cost-minimization (Stoch-Opt); and two sequential market models in which an independent system operator (ISO) runs real-time (RT) balancing markets after making day-ahead (DA) generating unit...... commitment decisions based upon deterministic wind forecasts, while virtual bidders arbitrage the two markets (Seq and SeqSS). The latter two models differ in terms of whether some slow-start generators can self-schedule in the DA market while anticipating probabilities of RT prices. Models in Seq and Seq......-SS build on components of the two-settlement equilibrium model (Stoch-MP) defined in Part I of this paper [1]. We then provide numerical results for all four models. A simple single-node case illustrates the economic impacts of flexibility, virtual bidding, and self-schedules, and is followed by a larger...

  2. Mastering the power of wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiegel, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the author deals with environmental aspects use of fossil fuels for the energy production. As a way for our planet to get back to a normal and ecologically balanced system the fossil fuels reduction and their replacement by renewable racecourses is recommended. Energetic potential of flowing sun, wind and tidal waves as power resources is discussed. The natural ecological resources are best utilised in the United States where the installed wind power output is 1600 MW. With 360 MW installed output in 1991 the Denmark took lead among European countries in utilising the wind power. The most dynamic power plant development among the European Union countries was recorded in Germany, where the installed power output of the wind power plants is 632 MW, i.e. i.e. 11.5 times higher compared to 55 MW in 1991. The economy of wind power in Germany and in Slovakia is compared. In Slovakia with annual 200 000 kWh power generation annually and the present kWh purchase price guarantee the rate of return of 10 million slovak crowns investment into a wind power plant project is in 100 years. Although the first wind power plants have already been built in the Zahorie, Kremnicke Bane, and Secovce regions, the wind exploitation status in Slovakia is still limping. According to professionals, the wind conditions in Slovakia are not ideal, but sufficient for a supplementary wind power plant system, that can be quite motivating especially for villages. Mount Chopok or mount Krizna are ideal sites to erect the three-blade tower with respect to wind speed. And also the anticipated Kremnicke vrchy site is worth considering. (author)

  3. Wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  4. Towards a generalization procedure for WRF mesoscale wind climatologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahmann, Andrea N.; Casso, P.; Campmany, E.

    We present a method for generalizing wind climatologies generated from mesoscale model output (e.g. the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.) The generalization procedure is based on Wind Atlas framework of WAsP and KAMM/WAsP, and been extensively in wind resources assessment in DTU Wind...... generalized wind climatologies estimated by the microscale model WAsP and the methodology presented here. For the Danish wind measurements the mean absolute error in the ‘raw’ wind speeds is 9.2%, while the mean absolute error in the generalized wind speeds is 4.1%. The generalization procedure has been...

  5. Avulsion of the Lesser Trochanter Following a Shot Put Sport Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Grissa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Avulsion of the lesser trochanter is an uncommon injury. In children and adolescents it usually occurs as a sports injury via traumatic avulsion of the psoas major tendon. In adults, isolated fractures of the lesser trochanter are most commonly pathological due to metastatic tumor invasion of the proximal femur. This case report documents how a 14-year-old boy, who presented with an avulsion of the lesser trochanter of the proximal femur following a seemingly atraumatic shot put session at a track and field event, was diagnosed and successfully treated with a conservative approach.

  6. Alberta wind integration. Status and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehler, John; Aksomitis, Kris; Duchesne, Jacques [Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO), Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Alberta has excellent wind resources with over 600 MW of wind generation currently operating on the Alberta Interconnected Electric System (AIES) and there continues to be strong interest in wind development. Integration of large-scale wind power, however, is still relatively new and presents new operational opportunities and challenges. The AESO currently has over 7,700 MW in potential wind power development in Alberta in our interconnection queue. The Alberta system peak load is 10, 236 MW with 12,763 MW installed generation capacity and limited interconnection capability to neighboring jurisdictions. The AESO recognizes that it is important, both to system reliability and to the successful development of renewable resources in Alberta, that the impact on power system operations and the obligations of market participants are understood as Alberta reaches higher levels of wind penetration. The paper discusses the current status and future outlook on wind integration in Alberta. (orig.)

  7. Surface Wind Gust Statistics at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    The Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) collects meteorological data for many purposes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) including weather forecasting. This study focuses on wind gusts and also, to a lesser degree, turbulence intensities that occur in fair weather conditions near the surface over time periods from 1 hour to one week (168 hours)

  8. ewec 2007 - Europe's premier wind energy event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaviaropoulos, T.

    2007-01-01

    This online collection of papers - the ewec 2007 proceedings - reflects the various sessions and lectures presented at the ewec wind-energy convention held in Milan in 2007. The first day's sessions looked at the following topics: Renewable Energy Roadmap, the changing structure of the wind industry, politics and programmes, aerodynamics and innovation in turbine design, wind resources and site characterisation (2 sessions), energy scenarios, harmonisation of incentive schemes, structural design and materials, forecasting, integration studies, integrating wind into electricity markets, wind-turbine electrical systems and components, as well as loads, noise and wakes. The second day included sessions on offshore: developments and prospects, extreme wind conditions and forecasting techniques, small wind turbines, distributed generation and autonomous systems cost effectiveness, cost effectiveness of wind energy, financing wind energy concepts, wind and turbulence, wind power plants and grid integration, offshore technology, global challenges and opportunities, aero-elasticity, loads and control, operations and maintenance, carbon trading and the emission trading schemes, investment strategies of power producers, wind power plants and grid integration, wind turbine electrical systems and components, and wakes. The third day offered sessions on environmental issues, condition monitoring, operation and maintenance, structural design and materials, the Up-Wind workshop, winning hearts and minds, offshore technology, advances in measuring methods and advancing drive-train reliability. In a closing session the conference was summarised, awards for poster contributions were made and the Poul la Cour Prize was presented

  9. Wind Powering America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. (NREL); Dougherty, P. J. (DOE)

    2001-07-07

    At the June 1999 Windpower Conference, the Secretary of Energy launched the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. The goals of the initiative are to meet 5% of the nation's energy needs with wind energy by 2020 (i.e., 80,000 megawatts installed), to double the number of states that have more than 20 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity to 16 by 2005 and triple it to 24 by 2010, and to increase wind's contribution to Federal electricity use to 5% by 2010. To achieve the Federal government's goal, DOE would take the leadership position and work with its Federal partners. Subsequently, the Secretary accelerated the DOE 5% commitment to 2005. Achieving the 80,000 MW goal would result in approximately $60 billion investment and $1.5 billion of economic development in our rural areas (where the wind resources are the greatest). The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on DOE's strategy for achieving its goals and the activities it has undertaken since the initiative was announced.

  10. Wind Powering America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, L.; Dougherty, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    At the June 1999 Windpower Conference, the Secretary of Energy launched the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. The goals of the initiative are to meet 5% of the nation's energy needs with wind energy by 2020 (i.e., 80,000 megawatts installed), to double the number of states that have more than 20 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity to 16 by 2005 and triple it to 24 by 2010, and to increase wind's contribution to Federal electricity use to 5% by 2010. To achieve the Federal government's goal, DOE would take the leadership position and work with its Federal partners. Subsequently, the Secretary accelerated the DOE 5% commitment to 2005. Achieving the 80,000 MW goal would result in approximately$60 billion investment and$1.5 billion of economic development in our rural areas (where the wind resources are the greatest). The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on DOE's strategy for achieving its goals and the activities it has undertaken since the initiative was announced

  11. CT of the lesser pelvis - normal and abnormal anatomy, indications, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrich, W.; Friedmann, G.

    1981-01-01

    385 abnormal computer tomograms of the organs in the lesser pelvis were analysed; the normal anatomy, indications for CT and its value are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the relevance of the computer tomographic information for treatment. (orig.) [de

  12. Wind energy in France: impossible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Josette, R.

    2005-01-01

    Since the end of 2004, the European Union is the first producer of wind energy in the world (34205 MW), far beyond the USA (6740 MW) and India (2110 MW). Three countries are in the pole position: Germany (16629 MW), Spain (8263 MW) and Denmark (3117 MW). On the other hand, despite a voluntarist policy, the other countries encounter administrative and local difficulties in the development of wind energy. This is the case with France which has the second biggest potential wind resource of Europe, behind the UK. The French situation is explained by its centralized energy system, by the priority given to nuclear power, by important wind variations, and by a bad image of wind turbines in general (aesthetic, environmental). This situation should change in the future with the scheduling of pluri-annual investments, with adapted tariffs and with improved administrative procedures. (J.S.)

  13. Combined wind and solar feed-in to the grid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, Crescent

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation highlights South African wind and solar resources and presents a case study on wind and solar PV combination. It also distinguishes between traditional and new philosophies regarding energy system design and the changes...

  14. Nebraska Statewide Wind Integration Study: April 2008 - January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EnerNex Corporation, Knoxville, Tennessee; Ventyx, Atlanta, Georgia; Nebraska Power Association, Lincoln, Nebraska

    2010-03-01

    Wind generation resources in Nebraska will play an increasingly important role in the environmental and energy security solutions for the state and the nation. In this context, the Nebraska Power Association conducted a state-wide wind integration study.

  15. Review of the strategic wind energy activities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Via its Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) for Electricity, the South African Government has set targets to generate electricity from a range of technologies including wind energy technology. This paper provides a strategic review of wind energy...

  16. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  17. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...... to wind speed at the height 10 m only. The extrapolation of satellite wind fields to higher heights, which are more relevant for wind energy, remains a challenge which cannot be addressed by means of satellite data alone. As part of the EU-NORSEWInD project (2008-12), a hybrid method has been developed...

  18. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  19. Diet composition of lesser kestrels in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onolragchaa Ganbold

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lesser kestrel is recognized as “Least Concern” in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List since 2011. So far, all available diet studies on the lesser kestrel were conducted in its European range or in partial African breeding and nonbreeding range. In particular, little is known about the feeding behavior of this small falcon in Asian ranges. Thus, this study can be considered as the first to examine the diet composition of the central Asian breeding populations of lesser kestrels. This study aims to provide some information about the diet composition of this species among Asian populations through biological and ecological investigations. Pellets (n = 762 dropped by lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni were collected during their breeding season from nine to 10 colony sites in Ikh Nart, between June and September of 2009 and 2010, and analyzed. A total of 1,484 prey items were identified in the pellets collected. After a measure of their weight (g and length and width (mm, we carefully examined each pellet and separated all prey remains using tweezers. Our results indicated that insects (including orthopterans and coleopterans were dominant in lesser kestrel’s diets. We found that the lesser kestrel’s diet mainly consisted of insects (69.7%, lizards (17.4%, small mammals (10%, small birds (2%, and other food (1%. Keywords: diet composition, insects, pellets, reptiles, small mammals

  20. Wind power; Die Kraft der Winde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardo, Dietrich

    2009-10-30

    Wind power plants are probably only one pillar of the bridge that is taking us into an energy future still unimaginable to us. They are extremely cost-intensive and bulky and they spoil our landscapes. Their patronage by political leaders is understandable considering our excessive dependence on oil and gas. True energy autonomy is currently still a utopian dream for a country as poor in resources as Germany. On the other hand, to reach Utopia you have to build bridges there. Seen this way all currently available types of renewable energy represent bridge technologies whose realisation is imperative.

  1. SimWIND: A geospatial infrastructure model for optimizing wind power generation and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Benjamin R.; Middleton, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Wind is a clean, enduring energy resource with the capacity to satisfy 20% or more of U.S. electricity demand. Presently, wind potential is limited by a paucity of electrical transmission lines and/or capacity between promising wind resources and primary load centers. We present the model SimWIND to address this shortfall. SimWIND is an integrated optimization model for the geospatial arrangement and cost minimization of wind-power generation–transmission–delivery infrastructure. Given a set of possible wind-farm sites, the model simultaneously determines (1) where and how much power to generate and (2) where to build new transmission infrastructure and with what capacity in order to minimize the cost for delivering a targeted amount of power to load. Costs and routing of transmission lines consider geographic and social constraints as well as electricity losses. We apply our model to the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) Interconnection, considering scenarios that deliver up to 20 GW of new wind power. We show that SimWIND could potentially reduce ERCOT's projected ∼$5B transmission network upgrade line length and associated costs by 50%. These results suggest that SimWIND's coupled generation–transmission–delivery modeling approach could play a critical role in enhancing planning efforts and reducing costs for wind energy integration. - Highlights: ► Wind power is limited by transmission capacity between resources and demands. ► SimWIND is a coupled generation-transmission-delivery model for wind infrastructure. ► The model minimizes costs considering realistic transmission routing and networking. ► We show that SimWIND could save 50% of $5B costs for expanding the Texas grid. ► Results suggest SimWIND may play a critical role in enhancings wind planning efforts.

  2. Improved diagnostic model for estimating wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endlich, R.M.; Lee, J.D.

    1983-03-01

    Because wind data are available only at scattered locations, a quantitative method is needed to estimate the wind resource at specific sites where wind energy generation may be economically feasible. This report describes a computer model that makes such estimates. The model uses standard weather reports and terrain heights in deriving wind estimates; the method of computation has been changed from what has been used previously. The performance of the current model is compared with that of the earlier version at three sites; estimates of wind energy at four new sites are also presented.

  3. Offshore winds mapped from satellite remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    the uncertainty on the model results on the offshore wind resource, it is necessary to compare model results with observations. Observations from ground-based wind lidar and satellite remote sensing are the two main technologies that can provide new types of offshore wind data at relatively low cost....... The advantages of microwave satellite remote sensing are 1) horizontal spatial coverage, 2) long data archives and 3) high spatial detail both in the coastal zone and of far-field wind farm wake. Passive microwave ocean wind speed data are available since 1987 with up to 6 observations per day with near...

  4. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  5. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At the end of 2008,the European wind power capacity had risen to 65,247 MW which is a 15,1% increase on 2007. The financial crisis does not appear to have any real consequences of the wind power sector's activity in 2008. At the end of 2008 the European Union accommodated 53,9% of the world's wind power capacity. The top ten countries in terms of installed wind capacities are: 1) Usa with 25,388 MW, 2) Germany with 23,903 MW, 3) Spain with 16,740 MW, 4) China with 12,200 MW, 5) India with 9,645 MW, 6) Italy with 3,736 MW, 7) France with 3,542 MW, 8) U.K. with 3,406 MW, 9) Denmark with 3,166 MW and 10) Portugal with 2,862 MW. (A.C.)

  6. Wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This publication describes some of the technical, economic, safety and institutional considerations involved in the selection, installation and evaluation of a wind generation system. This information is presented, where possible, in practical, non-technical terms. The first four sections provide background information, theory, and general knowledge, while the remaining six sections are of a more specific nature to assist the prospective owner of a wind generator in his calculations and selections. Meteorological information is provided relating to the wind regime in Nova Scotia. The section on cost analysis discusses some of the factors and considerations which must be examined in order to provide a logical comparison between the alternatives of electricity produced from other sources. The final two sections are brief summaries of the regulations and hazards pertaining to the use of wind generators. The cost of wind-generated electricity is high compared to present Nova Scotia Power Corporation rates, even on Sable Island, Nova Scotia's highest wind area. However, it may be observed that Sable Island is one of the areas of Nova Scotia which is not presently supplied through the power grid and, particularly if there was a significant increase in the price of diesel oil, wind-generated electricity may well be the most economical alternative in that area. Generally speaking, however, where a consumer can purchase electricity at the normal domestic rate, wind generators are not economical, and they will not become economical unless there is a great reduction in their cost, an great increase in electricity rates, or both. Includes glossary. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Wind Energy for Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2009-01-01

    The growing demand in energy and concern about depleting natural resources and global warming has led states worldwide to consider alternatives to the use of fossil fuel for energy production. Several countries especially in Europe have already increased their renewable energy share 6-10%, expected to increase to 20% by the year 2020. For Egypt excellent resources of wind and solar energy exist. The article discusses perspectives of wind energy in Egypt with projections to generate ∼ 3.5 GWe by 2022, representing ∼ 9% of the total installed power at that time (40.2 GW). Total renewable (hydro + wind + solar) are expected to provide ∼ 7.4 GWe by 2022 representing ∼ 19% of the total installed power. Such a share would reduce dependence on depleting oil and gas resources, and hence improve country's sustainable development

  8. The Romanian legislative framework for protection of terrestrial and freshwater vertebrate tetrapodes potentially affected by activities for exploitation of wind-resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÖRÖK Zsolt

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian legislation nominates for variosus conservative statuses the following terrestrial or freshwater tetrapode species which should be included in the analyses of teh studies on the potential negative impact of wind-turbines and related infrastructures or activities: 11 species of amphibians, 16 species of reptiles, 273 species of birds and 38 species of mammals that have “strictly protected species” status (according to ActNo. 13 / 1993, which enforces the Bern Convention on conservation of wildlife; 7 species of amphibians, 5 species ofreptiles, 94 species of birds and 31 species of mammals that have “protected species” status (according to the same ActNo. 13 / 1993; 6 species of amphibians, 5 species of reptiles, 54 species of mammals of which protection needs designaton of Special Areas of Conservation (Governmental Urgency Ordinance No. 57 / 2007; 11 species of amphibians, 18 species of reptiles, 48 species of mammals having “Species of Community Interest that need strictprotection” status (Governmental Urgency Ordinance No. 57 / 2007; 6 species of amphibians, 5 species of reptiles, 67 species of birds and 6 species of mammals that have “Species of National Interest that need strict protection” status (Governmental Urgency Ordinance No. 57 / 2007. At least 122 species of birds are nominated among the species of which protection needs designaton of Special Protection Areas (Governmental Urgency Ordinance No. 57 / 2007, 112migratory waterbird species are protected by Act No. 89 / 2000, 20 migratory birds are considered as being treathened on European level (Act no. 13 / 1998 and 267 species have “unfavourable status on European level” (Act no. 13 / 1998. All 30 bat species are protected by Act No. 90 / 2000, and 25 species are also nominated in Act No. 13 / 1993 (that enforces the Bonn Convention on migratory species.

  9. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  10. 78 FR 26302 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken... the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). In addition, we announce the reopening of the public comment period on the December 11, 2012, proposed rule to list the lesser prairie-chicken as a...

  11. Perspectives of China's wind energy development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Dexin; Wang Zhongying

    2009-01-01

    Wind energy is a kind of clean renewable energy, which is also relatively mature in technology, with large-scale development conditions and prospect for the commercialization. The development of wind energy is a systematic project, involving policy, law, technology, economy, society, environment, education and other aspects. The relation-ship among all the aspects should be well treated and coordinated. This paper has discussed the following relationships which should be well coordinated: relationship between wind resources and wind energy development, relationship be-tween the wind turbine generator system and the components, relationship between wind energy technology and wind en-ergy industry, relationship between off-grid wind power and grid-connected wind power, relationship between wind farm and the power grid, relationship between onshore wind power and offshore wind power, relationship between wind energy and other energies, relationship between technology introduction and self-innovation, relationship among foreign-funded, joint ventured and domestic-funded enterprises and relationship between the government guidance and the market regula-tion, as well as giving out some suggestions.

  12. Moroccan wind farm potential feasibility. Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, Abdellatif; Ait Babram, Mohamed; Elwarraki, Elmostafa; Enzili, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology for the technical feasibility of wind farm potentials is proposed. • The wind resources of two different sites in Morocco are compared. • Comparison between short and long term data using multivariate analysis is made. • Geographic information system implementation. • A 10 MW wind farm is designed and optimized. - Abstract: The subject of this paper is the elaboration of a methodology to study the technical feasibility of a wind farm potential. The implementation of this methodology allows a comparison between the wind resources of two different sites in Morocco. One site is located in the region of Essaouira, whereas the other one is located in the region of Safi. The comparison is based on real wind data collected from two masts at the heights of 30, 50, and 60 m. Each of the masts is installed at one of the mentioned potential sites over a fixed time period, lasting fifteen months for the first site, and eight months for the second one. The aim is the determination of the most applicable site presenting a good potential for a statistical study in order to predict long-term wind behaviors. Thus, the geographical situation study of the chosen site including topography, roughness and obstacles, is carried out. Furthermore, the wind resource using data, generated by the measuring masts, is evaluated. Finally, the areas which present great wind potential are located and the wind farm turbine locations are optimized by using the WAsP software.

  13. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  14. Wind Conditions for Wind Farm Hanstholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Mann, Jakob

    The net annual energy production (AEP) of the Hanstholm Wind Farm is 158 GWh per year for the Siemens SWT-3.6-120 turbine and 140 GWh for the Vestas V112-3.0 turbine. These values have an uncertainty (standard deviation) of 6%. This result is mainly based on the data for Risø DTU’s test station...... at Høvsøre where wind speeds are measured at approximately the same height as the turbines at Hanstholm and where the terrain is similar. On top of that meso-scale modeling has been used to extrapolate the climatology from Høvsøre to Hanstholm increasing the AEP by almost 6% compared to just using...... the Høvsøre climatology directly. This method of extrapolation is rather new, but several older investigations indicate that the wind resource at Hanstholm is slightly higher than at Høvsøre. The work is carried out for Grontmij-Carl Bro according to a contract dated January 18th 2011....

  15. WindPACT Reference Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rinker, Jennifer [Former National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) employee

    2018-04-02

    To fully understand how loads and turbine cost scale with turbine size, it is necessary to have identical turbine models that have been scaled to different rated powers. The report presents the WindPACT baseline models, which are a series of four baseline models that were designed to facilitate investigations into the scalings of loads and turbine cost with size. The models have four different rated powers (750 kW, 1.5 MW, 3.0 MW, and 5.0 MW), and each model was designed to its specified rated power using the same design methodology. The models were originally implemented in FAST_AD, the predecessor to NREL's open-source wind turbine simulator FAST, but have yet to be implemented in FAST. This report contains the specifications for all four WindPACT baseline models - including structural, aerodynamic, and control specifications - along with the inherent assumptions and equations that were used to calculate the model parameters. It is hoped that these baseline models will serve as extremely useful resources for investigations into the scalings of costs, loads, or optimization routines.

  16. Radiologic measurement of lesser trochanter and its clinical significance in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wei; Li, Xicheng; Song, Zhaohui; Pan, Jinshe; Zhang, Yingze; Liu, Huaijun

    2009-01-01

    Femoral fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly persons. Surgery, the main choice of treatment of femoral fracture, may result in some complications severely affecting patients' daily activities due to femoral malalignment. The lesser trochanter is an important anatomical structure of the femur which could be used as an anatomical landmark during and after operation to evaluate femoral alignment. To predict femoral rotational malalignment during surgery, the relationship between the height and width of the lesser trochanter and femoral rotation at different angles was investigated. Fifty healthy adult volunteers (25 men and 25 women) were enrolled in this study and a total of 900 radiographs of proximal femurs were taken in the following positions: neutral position, 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 internal rotation, and 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 external rotation, respectively. The cranio-caudal and transverse diameters of the lesser trochanter were obtained on a PACS Workstation. The height and width of the lesser trochanter increased with external rotation and decreased with internal rotation and the values showed statistical significance between different positions or different genders. Between 20 of internal rotation to 20 of external rotation, the mean height increased from 0.58 cm to 1.23 cm in men and from 0.44 cm to 1.19 cm in women. The corresponding mean values for width were from 2.53 cm to 4.44 cm in men, and from 2.08 cm to 3.86 cm in women, respectively. The height and width of the lesser trochanter were both highly correlated to the position of femur and the linear relationship was established approximately. The morphological alteration of lesser trochanter also changed obviously when the femurs rotated. The height and width of the lesser trochanter is linearly related to femoral rotation and could be used as a reference for prevention of femoral malalignment during surgery. (orig.)

  17. Lesser prairie-chicken avoidance of trees in a grassland landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Plumb, Reid T.; Robinson, Samantha G.; Hagen, Christian A.; Haukos, David A.; Pitman, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Grasslands are among the most imperiled ecosystems in North America. Reasons that grasslands are threatened include conversion to row-crop agriculture, fragmentation, and changes in fire regimes. The reduction of fire processes in remaining prairies has resulted in tree encroachment and establishment in grasslands, further reducing grassland quantity and quality. Grassland birds have been experiencing precipitous population declines in recent decades, commensurate with landscape changes to grasslands. The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus Ridgway) is a declining species of prairie grouse of conservation concern. We used second- and third-order habitat selection metrics to test if female lesser prairie-chickens avoid grasslands where trees were present. Our results indicated that female lesser prairie-chickens selected habitats avoiding the nearest trees by 283 m on average, nearly twice as far as would be expected at random. Lesser prairie-chickens were 40 times more likely to use habitats with tree densities of 0 trees ∙ ha− 1 than habitats with 5 trees ∙ ha− 1. Probability of use indicated that lesser prairie-chickens were 19 times more likely to use habitats 1000 m from the nearest tree when compared with using habitats 0 m from the nearest tree. Nest survival was not affected at densities 2 trees ∙ ha− 1. Avoidance of trees could be due to perceived increased predation risk, reduced habitat quality, or a combination of these potentially confounding factors. Preventing further establishment and expansion of trees in landscapes occupied by lesser prairie-chickens could contribute to the continued persistence of the species. Additionally, restoring grasslands through tree removal may facilitate conservation efforts for grassland species such as the lesser prairie-chicken by improving habitat quality and promoting expansion of occupied range.

  18. Assessment of wind power generation along the coast of Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaramola, Muyiwa S., E-mail: muyiwa.adaramola@umb.no [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås (Norway); Agelin-Chaab, Martin [Department of Automotive, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada); Paul, Samuel S. [REHAU Industries, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • The wind energy and its economic viability along the coastal region of Ghana are examined. • Wind resource along the coastal region of Ghana fall into Class 2 or less wind resource. • Wind turbine with rated speed from 9 to 11 m/s is suggested for wind power development. • The unit cost of wind generated electricity is found be between 0.0732 GH¢/kW h and 0.2905 GH¢/kW h. - Abstract: This study examined the wind energy potential and the economic viability of using wind turbine for electricity generation in selected locations along the coastal region of Ghana. The two-parameter Weibull probability density function was employed to analyze the wind speed data obtained from the Ghana Energy Commission. The energy output and unit cost of electricity generated from medium size commercial wind turbine models with rated powers ranging from 50 kW to 250 kW were determined. It was found that the wind resource along the coastal region of Ghana can be classified into Class 2 or less wind resource which indicate that this resource in this area is marginally suitable for large scale wind energy development or suitable for small scale applications and be useful as part of hybrid energy system. It was further observed that wind turbine with designed cut-in wind speed of less than 3 m/s and moderate rated wind speed between 9 and 11 m/s is more suitable for wind energy development along the coastal region of Ghana. Based on the selected wind turbine and assumptions used in this study, it was estimated that the unit cost of electricity varied between 0.0695 GH¢/kW h and 0.2817 GH¢/kW h.

  19. Assessment of wind power generation along the coast of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramola, Muyiwa S.; Agelin-Chaab, Martin; Paul, Samuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The wind energy and its economic viability along the coastal region of Ghana are examined. • Wind resource along the coastal region of Ghana fall into Class 2 or less wind resource. • Wind turbine with rated speed from 9 to 11 m/s is suggested for wind power development. • The unit cost of wind generated electricity is found be between 0.0732 GH¢/kW h and 0.2905 GH¢/kW h. - Abstract: This study examined the wind energy potential and the economic viability of using wind turbine for electricity generation in selected locations along the coastal region of Ghana. The two-parameter Weibull probability density function was employed to analyze the wind speed data obtained from the Ghana Energy Commission. The energy output and unit cost of electricity generated from medium size commercial wind turbine models with rated powers ranging from 50 kW to 250 kW were determined. It was found that the wind resource along the coastal region of Ghana can be classified into Class 2 or less wind resource which indicate that this resource in this area is marginally suitable for large scale wind energy development or suitable for small scale applications and be useful as part of hybrid energy system. It was further observed that wind turbine with designed cut-in wind speed of less than 3 m/s and moderate rated wind speed between 9 and 11 m/s is more suitable for wind energy development along the coastal region of Ghana. Based on the selected wind turbine and assumptions used in this study, it was estimated that the unit cost of electricity varied between 0.0695 GH¢/kW h and 0.2817 GH¢/kW h

  20. A new method for wind speed forecasting based on copula theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuankun; Ma, Huiqun; Wang, Dong; Wang, Guizuo; Wu, Jichun; Bian, Jinyu; Liu, Jiufu

    2018-01-01

    How to determine representative wind speed is crucial in wind resource assessment. Accurate wind resource assessments are important to wind farms development. Linear regressions are usually used to obtain the representative wind speed. However, terrain flexibility of wind farm and long distance between wind speed sites often lead to low correlation. In this study, copula method is used to determine the representative year's wind speed in wind farm by interpreting the interaction of the local wind farm and the meteorological station. The result shows that the method proposed here can not only determine the relationship between the local anemometric tower and nearby meteorological station through Kendall's tau, but also determine the joint distribution without assuming the variables to be independent. Moreover, the representative wind data can be obtained by the conditional distribution much more reasonably. We hope this study could provide scientific reference for accurate wind resource assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Current projects of the National Wind Coordinating Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, H. [National Wind Coordinating Committee, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the activities of the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), a multi-stakeholder collaborative formed in 1994 to support the responsible use of wind power in the USA. The NWCC`s vision is a self-sustaining commercial market for wind power - environmentally, economically, and politically sustainable. Current NWCC activities include: outreach initiatives, disseminating information about wind energy to regulators and legislators through the Wind Energy Issue Paper Series, researching distributed wind energy models, producing a wind facility permitting handbook, improving avian research, addressing transmission and resource assessment issues, and exploring sustainable development and marketing approaches.

  2. Current Status and Challenges in Wind Energy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss the status and challenges in the development of atlases for the assessment of the regional and global wind resources. The text more specifically describes a methodology that is under development at DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. As the wind assessment is based on mesoscale modelling,......, some of the specific challenges in mesoscale modelling for wind energy purposes are discussed such as wind profiles and long-term statistics of the wind speed time series. Solutions to these challenges will help secure an economic and effective deployment of wind energy....

  3. The value of CT in localizing primary and stomach-originated masses in the lesser sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Peng; Wang Bin; Zhang Shizhuang; Chang Guanghui; Sun Xihe; Cheng Xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the normal CT manifestation of the vascular arch of the gastric lesser curvature, and to further probe the value of CT in the localization diagnosis of the primary and stomach-originated masses in the lesser sac. Methods: Contrast-enhanced CT scanning was performed in 51 normal individuals. Emphasis of image observation was focused on the CT manifestations of vascular arch of the gastric lesser curvature and the relation between the vascular arch and the gastric wall. Also contrast- enhanced CT scan was performed for seventeen cases of primary and stomach-originated masses in the lesser sac subsequently proved by surgery and pathology. Image analysis was focused on the relation between the mass and the vascular arch and its branches of the gastric lesser curvature, the shape of the mass, and the relation between the mass and the gastric wall. Results: The vascular arch of the gastric lesser curvature was clearly visualized in the fifty normal individuals. The tributaries of the vascular arch near the cardiac part, gastric corpus, and pyloric part were revealed in 42, 10 and 7 cases respectively. The vascular arch was in close contact with the gastric wall in 38 cases. Among the 17 patients, 13 cases demonstrated the obliteration of the transparent fat plane between the mass and the gastric wall. In 6 patients with stomach- originated masses, 5 patients showed the stretching of vascular arch tributaries adjacent to the masses, and no vascular arch and its tributaries could be not visualized between the masses and the stomach. In 11 patients with primary masses in the lesser sac, vascular arch were showed between the masses and the stomach in 10 cases, and no stretching of vascular arch tributaries adjacent to the masses could be showed. Conclusions: CT scan can clearly depict the normal vascular arch and its branches of the gastric lesser curvature. Based on the relation between the vascular arch and the gastric wall, the presence of fat

  4. Improved Formulation for the Optimization of Wind Turbine Placement in a Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to fossil fuels, wind can be considered because it is a renewable and greenhouse gas-free natural resource. When wind power is generated by wind turbines in a wind farm, the optimal placement of turbines is critical because different layouts produce different efficiencies. The objective of the wind turbine placement problem is to maximize the generated power while minimizing the cost in installing the turbines. This study proposes an efficient optimization formulation for the optimal layout of wind turbine placements under the resources (e.g., number of turbines or budget limit by introducing corresponding constraints. The proposed formulation gave users more conveniences in considering resources and budget bounds. After performing the optimization, results were compared using two different methods (branch and bound method and genetic algorithm and two different objective functions.

  5. Tribal Wind Assessment by the Eastern Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete, Belvin; Perry, Jeremy W.; Stump, Raphaella Q.

    2009-08-28

    The Tribes, through its consultant and advisor, Distributed Generation Systems (Disgen) -Native American Program and Resources Division, of Lakewood CO, assessed and qualified, from a resource and economic perspective, a wind energy generation facility on tribal lands. The goal of this feasibility project is to provide wind monitoring and to engage in preproject planning activities designed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the technical, economic, social and environmental feasibility of developing a sustainable, integrated wind energy plan for the Eastern Shoshone and the Northern Arapahoe Tribes, who resides on the Wind River Indian Reservation. The specific deliverables of the feasibility study are: 1) Assessments of the wind resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation 2) Assessments of the potential environmental impacts of renewable development 3) Assessments of the transmission capacity and capability of a renewable energy project 4) Established an economic models for tribal considerations 5) Define economic, cultural and societal impacts on the Tribe

  6. Assessment of lesser prairie-chicken use of wildlife water guzzlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.; Borsdorf, Philip K.; Gicklhorn, Trevor S.

    2014-01-01

    Man-made water sources have been used as a management tool for wildlife, especially in arid regions, but the value of these water sources for wildlife populations is not well understood. In particular, the value of water as a conservation tool for Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is unknown. However, this is a relevant issue due to a heightened conservation concern for the species and its occupancy of an arid landscape anticipated to experience warmer, drier springs and winters. We assessed if Lesser Prairie-Chickens would use commercially available wildlife water guzzlers and if there was any apparent selection between two design types. We confirmed that Lesser Prairie-Chickens would use bird friendly designed wildlife water guzzlers. Use was primarily during the lekking-nesting period (March–May) and the brood rearing period (June–July) and primarily by males. Although both designs were used, we found significantly greater use of a design that had a wider water trough and ramp built into the tank cover compared to a design that had a longer, narrower trough extending from the tank.Although we were unable to assess the physiological need of surface water by Lesser Prairie-Chickens, we were able to verify that they will use wildlife water guzzlers to access surface water. If it is found surface water is beneficial for Lesser Prairie-Chickens, game bird friendly designed guzzlers may be a useful conservation tool for the species.

  7. Pricing offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, Andrew C.; Kempton, Willett; Smith, Aaron P.; Musial, Walt; Firestone, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  8. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  9. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  10. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-55-005, QF07-56-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains...

  11. Potential of Offshore Wind Energy and Extreme Wind Speed Forecasting on the West Coast of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance and urgency for Taiwan to develop offshore wind power. However, relevant data on offshore wind energy resources are limited. This study imported wind speeds measured by a tidal station and a buoy into the software WAsP to estimate the high-altitude wind speeds in the two areas. A light detection and ranging (Lidar system was set up near the tidal station and buoy. High-altitude wind speeds measured by the Lidar system were compared with the WAsP-estimated values, and it was discovered that the two data sets were consistent. Then, long-term wind speed data observed by buoys and tidal stations at various locations were imported into WAsP to forecast wind speeds at heights of 55–200 m on the west coast of Taiwan. The software WAsP Engineering was used to analyze the extreme wind speeds in the same areas. The results show that wind speeds at 100 m are approximately 9.32–11.24 m/s, which means that the coastal areas of west Taiwan are rich in wind energy resources. When a long-term 10-min average wind speed is used, the extreme wind speed on the west coast is estimated to be between 36.4 and 55.3 m/s.

  12. Conservation Reserve Program mitigates grassland loss in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Spencer, David; Hagen, Christian A.; Daniels, Melinda D.; Goodin, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the overall occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has declined by 84% commensurate with population trends. Much of this decline has been attributed to the loss and fragmentation of native grasslands throughout the lesser prairie-chicken range. However, quantification of changes in land cover in the distribution of the lesser prairie-chicken is lacking. Our objectives were to (1) document changes in the areal extent and connectivity of grasslands in the identified lesser prairie-chicken range in Kansas, USA, (>60% of extant lesser prairie-chicken population) from the 1950s to 2013 using remotely sensed data and (2) assess the potential of the Conservation Reserve Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture Program converting cropland to permanent cover; CRP) to mitigate grassland loss. Digital land cover maps were generated on a decadal time step through spectral classification of LANDSAT images and visual analysis of aerial photographs (1950s and 1960s). Landscape composition and configuration were assessed using FRAGSTATS to compute a variety of landscape metrics measuring changes in the amount of grassland present as well as changes in the size and configuration of grassland patches. With the exception of a single regional portion of the range, nearly all of the grassland converted to cropland in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas occurred prior to the 1950s. Prior to the implementation of CRP, the amount of grassland decreased 3.6% between the 1950s and 1985 from 18,455 km2 to 17,788 km2. Since 1985, the overall amount of grassland in the lesser prairie-chicken range has increased 11.9% to 19,898 km2 due to implementation of CRP, although the area of grassland decreased between 1994 and 2013 as CRP contracts were not renewed by landowners. Since 1986 grassland in Kansas became more connected and less fragmented in response to the CRP. While the CRP has been successful in

  13. Conservation Reserve Program mitigates grassland loss in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century, the overall occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus has declined by 84% commensurate with population trends. Much of this decline has been attributed to the loss and fragmentation of native grasslands throughout the lesser prairie-chicken range. However, quantification of changes in land cover in the distribution of the lesser prairie-chicken is lacking. Our objectives were to (1 document changes in the areal extent and connectivity of grasslands in the identified lesser prairie-chicken range in Kansas, USA, (>60% of extant lesser prairie-chicken population from the 1950s to 2013 using remotely sensed data and (2 assess the potential of the Conservation Reserve Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture Program converting cropland to permanent cover; CRP to mitigate grassland loss. Digital land cover maps were generated on a decadal time step through spectral classification of LANDSAT images and visual analysis of aerial photographs (1950s and 1960s. Landscape composition and configuration were assessed using FRAGSTATS to compute a variety of landscape metrics measuring changes in the amount of grassland present as well as changes in the size and configuration of grassland patches. With the exception of a single regional portion of the range, nearly all of the grassland converted to cropland in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas occurred prior to the 1950s. Prior to the implementation of CRP, the amount of grassland decreased 3.6% between the 1950s and 1985 from 18,455 km2 to 17,788 km2. Since 1985, the overall amount of grassland in the lesser prairie-chicken range has increased 11.9% to 19,898 km2 due to implementation of CRP, although the area of grassland decreased between 1994 and 2013 as CRP contracts were not renewed by landowners. Since 1986 grassland in Kansas became more connected and less fragmented in response to the CRP. While the CRP has been successful

  14. First complete genome sequence of parainfluenza virus 5 isolated from lesser panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jun-Qiong; Zhai, Shao-Lun; Lin, Tao; Liu, Jian-Kui; Wang, He-Xing; Li, Bing; Zhang, He; Zou, Shu-Zhan; Zhou, Xia; Wu, Meng-Fan; Chen, Wu; Luo, Man-Lin

    2017-05-01

    Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is widespread in mammals and humans. Up to now, there is little information about PIV5 infection in lesser pandas. In this study, a PIV5 variant (named ZJQ-221) was isolated from a lesser panda with respiratory disease in Guangzhou zoo in Guangdong province, southern China. The full-length genome of ZJQ-221 was found to be 15,246 nucleotides and consisted of seven non-overlapping genes encoding eight proteins (i.e., NP, V, P, M, F, SH, HN and L). Sequence alignment and genetic analysis revealed that ZJQ-221 shared a close relationship with a PIV5 strain of canine-origin (1168-1) from South Korea. The findings of this study confirm the presence of PIV5 in lesser panda and indicate this mammal as a possible natural reservoir. Furthermore they highlight the urgent need to strengthen viral surveillance and control of PIV5 in zoo animals.

  15. The effect of listing the lesser prairie chicken as a threatened species on rural property values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietelman, Derek C; Melstrom, Richard T

    2017-04-15

    This paper estimates the effect of Endangered Species Act protections for the lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) on rural property values in Oklahoma. The political and legal controversy surrounding the listing of imperiled species raises questions about the development restrictions and opportunity costs the Endangered Species Act imposes on private landowners. Examining parcel-level sales data before and after the listing of the endemic lesser prairie chicken, we employ difference-in-differences (DD) regression to measure the welfare costs of these restrictions. While our basic DD regression provides evidence the listing was associated with a drop in property values, this finding does not hold up in models that control for latent county and year effects. The lack of a significant price effect is confirmed by several robustness checks. Thus, the local economic costs of listing the lesser prairie chicken under the Endangered Species Act appear to have been small. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wind Extraction for Natural Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Tadeu; Yaghoobian, Neda; Kumar, Rajan; Ordonez, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the depletion of energy resources and the environmental impact of pollution and unsustainable energy resources, energy consumption has become one of the main concerns in our rapidly growing world. Natural ventilation, a traditional method to remove anthropogenic and solar heat gains, proved to be a cost-effective, alternative method to mechanical ventilation. However, while natural ventilation is simple in theory, its detailed design can be a challenge, particularly for wind-driven ventilation, which its performance highly involves the buildings' form, surrounding topography, turbulent flow characteristics, and climate. One of the main challenges with wind-driven natural ventilation schemes is due to the turbulent and unpredictable nature of the wind around the building that impose complex pressure loads on the structure. In practice, these challenges have resulted in founding the natural ventilation mainly on buoyancy (rather than the wind), as the primary force. This study is the initial step for investigating the physical principals of wind extraction over building walls and investigating strategies to reduce the dependence of the wind extraction on the incoming flow characteristics and the target building form.

  17. Landscape composition creates a threshold influencing Lesser Prairie-Chicken population resilience to extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and degradation compound the effects of climate change on wildlife, yet responses to climate and land cover change are often quantified independently. The interaction between climate and land cover change could be intensified in the Great Plains region where grasslands are being converted to row-crop agriculture concurrent with increased frequency of extreme drought events. We quantified the combined effects of land cover and climate change on a species of conservation concern in the Great Plains, the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus  ). We combined extreme drought events and land cover change with lek count surveys in a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify changes in abundance of male Lesser Prairie-Chickens from 1978 to 2014 in Kansas, the core of their species range. Our estimates of abundance indicate a gradually decreasing population through 2010 corresponding to drought events and reduced grassland areas. Decreases in Lesser Prairie-Chicken abundance were greatest in areas with increasing row-crop to grassland land cover ratio during extreme drought events, and decreased grassland reduces the resilience of Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations to extreme drought events. A threshold exists for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in response to the gradient of cropland:grassland land cover. When moving across the gradient of grassland to cropland, abundance initially increased in response to more cropland on the landscape, but declined in response to more cropland after the threshold (δ=0.096, or 9.6% cropland). Preservation of intact grasslands and continued implementation of initiatives to revert cropland to grassland should increase Lesser Prairie-Chicken resilience to extreme drought events due to climate change.

  18. Sault Tribe Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts

    2005-07-31

    The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.

  19. Network constrained wind integration on Vancouver Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddaloni, J.D.; Rowe, A.M.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the costs and carbon emissions associated with operating a hydro-dominated electricity generation system (Vancouver Island, Canada) with varying degrees of wind penetration. The focus is to match the wind resource, system demand and abilities of extant

  20. Wind energy potential of coastal Eritrea: an analysis of sparse wind data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Buskirk, R. van; Garbesi, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of historical surface wind data for the small country of Eritrea, in northeastern Africa. Winds in this region are directed by summer and winter monsoons in addition to diurnal land-sea effects. An analysis of national Eritrean and historical Italian wind records indicated marginal wind resources in the central highlands near the Eritrean capital of Asmera. An analysis of wind speed records recorded at two sites in the southern port city of Aseb indicate mean annual 10-m wind speeds of 9.5 m s -1 at the windier site. Surface wind speed records for the Red Sea suggest that similar potential may be found along the lower 200 km of the Eritrean coastline. Based on these findings, wind-generated electricity in this region should be substantially cheaper than the current supply generated from imported diesel. (author)

  1. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  2. Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemin, C.; Bosley, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing may interfere with the normal closure of the optic vesicle and normal growth of encephalic structures, possibly by disturbing developmental tissue interactions. These patients may exhibit a type of restricted primary sphenoid dysplasia, while the sphenoid dysplasia of neurofibromatosis type 1 may be secondary to orbital or ocular neurofibromas and other factors associated with that disease. (orig.)

  3. Lesser sac hematoma as a sign of rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma in the caudate lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yoshie; Tani, Ichiro; Nakajima, Yasuo; Ishikawa, Tohru; Umeda, Satoshi; Kusano, Shoichi

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the caudate lobe of the liver. The CT scans of five cases of rupture of HCC in the caudate lobe of the liver were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with clinical records. All cases showed exophytic tumors in the caudate lobe of the liver and high-attenuation hematomas in the lesser sac on CT. A lesser sac hematoma may be a sentinel clot sign of rupture of HCC in the caudate lobe. (orig.)

  4. Digestibily of Some Kind of Alternative Diets on Lesser Mouse Deer (Tragulus javanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WR Farida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Four female lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus were used in this study to observe their feed consumption and digestibility given alternative diets in captive.  The results showed that 125g/head/day sweet potatoes supplementation in ration increased the consumption and digestibility of dry matter intake, ash, ether extract, and N-free extract. Supplementation of commercial concentrate in lesser mouse deer’s diet decreased the digestion of dry matter, ash, crude protein, and crude fiber. Animal Production 6(1: 17-22 (2004   Key Words: Digestibility, Consumption, Alternative Diets, Tragulus javanicus

  5. Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemin, C. [King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Radiology Dept.; Mullaney, P. [Paediatric Ophthalmology Div., King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Bosley, T.M. [Neuro-Ophthalmology Div., King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2001-02-01

    We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing may interfere with the normal closure of the optic vesicle and normal growth of encephalic structures, possibly by disturbing developmental tissue interactions. These patients may exhibit a type of restricted primary sphenoid dysplasia, while the sphenoid dysplasia of neurofibromatosis type 1 may be secondary to orbital or ocular neurofibromas and other factors associated with that disease. (orig.)

  6. Wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portilla S, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The wind energy or eolic energy is a consequence of solar energy, the one which is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into energy of movement of large bulks of air. In this process the atmosphere acts as the filter to the solar radiation and demotes the ultraviolet beams that result fatal to life in the Earth. The ionosphere is the most external cap and this is ionized by means of absorption process of ultraviolet radiation arising to the Sun. The atmosphere also acts as a trap to the infrared radiation, it that results from the continual process of energetic degradation. In this way, the interaction between Earth - Atmospheres, is behaved as a great greenhouse, maintaining the constant temperatures, including in the dark nights. Processes as the natural convection (that occur by the thermodynamic phenomenon), equatorial calmness, trade winds and against trade winds and global distribution of the air currents are described. The other hand, techniques as the transformation of the wind into energy and its parameters also are shown

  7. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  8. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  9. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  10. Magnetic mapping for structural geology and geothermal exploration in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier de Lépinay, jeanne; munschy, marc; geraud, yves; diraison, marc; navelot, vivien; verati, christelle; corsini, michel; lardeaux, jean marc; favier, alexiane

    2017-04-01

    This work is implemented through the GEOTREF program which benefits from the support of both the ADEME and the French public funds "Investments for the future". The program focuses on the exploration for geothermal resources in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, where a geothermal power plant is in production since 1986 (Bouillante, Basse Terre). In Les Saintes archipelago, in the south of Guadeloupe, the outcrop analysis of Terre-de-Haut Island allows to point out an exhumed geothermal paleo-system that is thought to be an analogue of the Bouillante active geothermal system. We show that a detailed marine magnetic survey with a quantitative interpretation can bring information about the offshore structures around Les Saintes archipelago in order to extend the geological limits and structural elements. A similar survey and workflow is also conducted offshore Basse-Terre where more geophysical data is already available. In order to correctly link the offshore and onshore structures, the magnetic survey must be close enough to the shoreline and sufficiently detailed to correctly outline the tectonic structures. An appropriate solution for such a survey is to use a three component magnetometer aboard a speedboat. Such a boat allows more navigation flexibility than a classic oceanic vessel towing a magnetometer; it can sail at higher speed on calm seas and closer to the shoreline. This kind of magnetic acquisition is only viable because the magnetic effect of the ship can be compensated using the same algorithms than those used for airborne magnetometry. The use of potential field transforms allows a large variety of structures to be highlighted, providing insights to build a general understanding of the nature and distribution of the magnetic sources. In particular, we use the tilt angle operator to better identify the magnetic lineaments offshore in order to compare them to the faults identified onshore during the outcrop analysis. All the major faults and fractures

  11. Hourly temporal distribution of wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is essential for hydrometeorology and additionally, is one of the basic renewable energy resources. Most stochastic forecast models are limited up to daily scales disregarding the hourly scale which is significant for renewable energy management. Here, we analyze hourly wind timeseries giving emphasis on the temporal distribution of wind within the day. We finally present a periodic model based on statistical as well as hydrometeorological reasoning that shows good agreement with data. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  12. Optimal wind energy penetration in power systems: An approach based on spatial distribution of wind speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfaghari, Saeed; Riahy, Gholam H.; Abedi, Mehrdad; Golshannavaz, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chronological wind speeds at distinct locations of the wind farm are not the same. • Spatial distribution of wind speed affects wind farm’s output power expectation. • Neglecting wind speed’s spatial doubt leads to mistake in wind energy penetration. • Scenario-based method can be used for effective wind capacity penetration level. - Abstract: Contributing in power system expansions, the present study establishes an efficient scheme for optimal integration of wind energy resources. The proposed approach highly concerns the spatial distribution of wind speed at different points of a wind farm. In mathematical statements, a suitable probability distribution function (PDF) is well-designed for representing such uncertainties. In such conditions, it is likely to have dissimilar output powers for individual and identical wind turbines. Thus, the overall aggregated PDF of a wind farm remarkably influences the critical parameters including the expected power and energy, capacity factor, and the reliability metrics such as loss of load expectation (LOLE) and expected energy not supplied (EENS). Furthermore, the proposed approach is deployed for optimal allocation of wind energy in bulk power systems. Hence, two typical test systems are numerically analyzed to interrogate the performance of the proposed approach. The conducted survey discloses an over/underestimation of harvestable wind energy in the case of overlooking spatial distributions. Thus, inaccurate amounts of wind farm’s capacity factor, output power, energy and reliability indices might be estimated. Meanwhile, the number of wind turbines may be misjudged to be installed. However, the proposed approach yields in a fair judgment regarding the overall performance of the wind farm. Consequently, a reliable penetration level of wind energy to the power system is assured. Extra discussions are provided to deeply assess the promising merits of the founded approach.

  13. Site calibration for the wind turbine performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Yoon Su; Yoo, Neung Soo; Lee, Jung Wan

    2004-01-01

    The accurate wind speed information at the hub height of a wind turbine is very essential to the exact estimation of the wind turbine power performance testing. Several method on the site calibration, which is a technique to estimate the wind speed at the wind turbine's hub height based on the measured wind data using a reference meteorological mast, are introduced. A site calibration result and the wind resource assessment for the TaeKwanRyung test site are presented using three-month wind data from a reference meteorological mast and the other mast temporarily installed at the site of wind turbine. Besides, an analysis on the uncertainty allocation for the wind speed correction using site calibration is performed

  14. The Impact of Variable Wind Shear Coefficients on Risk Reduction of Wind Energy Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corscadden, Kenneth W; Thomson, Allan; Yoonesi, Behrang; McNutt, Josiah

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of wind speed at proposed hub heights is typically achieved using a wind shear exponent or wind shear coefficient (WSC), variation in wind speed as a function of height. The WSC is subject to temporal variation at low and high frequencies, ranging from diurnal and seasonal variations to disturbance caused by weather patterns; however, in many cases, it is assumed that the WSC remains constant. This assumption creates significant error in resource assessment, increasing uncertainty in projects and potentially significantly impacting the ability to control gird connected wind generators. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge relating to the evaluation and assessment of wind speed, with particular emphasis on the development of techniques to improve the accuracy of estimated wind speed above measurement height. It presents an evaluation of the use of a variable wind shear coefficient methodology based on a distribution of wind shear coefficients which have been implemented in real time. The results indicate that a VWSC provides a more accurate estimate of wind at hub height, ranging from 41% to 4% reduction in root mean squared error (RMSE) between predicted and actual wind speeds when using a variable wind shear coefficient at heights ranging from 33% to 100% above the highest actual wind measurement.

  15. A joint probability density function of wind speed and direction for wind energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, Jose A.; Ramirez, Penelope; Bueno, Celia

    2008-01-01

    A very flexible joint probability density function of wind speed and direction is presented in this paper for use in wind energy analysis. A method that enables angular-linear distributions to be obtained with specified marginal distributions has been used for this purpose. For the marginal distribution of wind speed we use a singly truncated from below Normal-Weibull mixture distribution. The marginal distribution of wind direction comprises a finite mixture of von Mises distributions. The proposed model is applied in this paper to wind direction and wind speed hourly data recorded at several weather stations located in the Canary Islands (Spain). The suitability of the distributions is judged from the coefficient of determination R 2 . The conclusions reached are that the joint distribution proposed in this paper: (a) can represent unimodal, bimodal and bitangential wind speed frequency distributions, (b) takes into account the frequency of null winds, (c) represents the wind direction regimes in zones with several modes or prevailing wind directions, (d) takes into account the correlation between wind speeds and its directions. It can therefore be used in several tasks involved in the evaluation process of the wind resources available at a potential site. We also conclude that, in the case of the Canary Islands, the proposed model provides better fits in all the cases analysed than those obtained with the models used in the specialised literature on wind energy

  16. Wind Climate in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, and Attribution of Leading Wind Driving Mechanisms through Turbulence-Resolving Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Esau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analysis of wind climate of the Kongsfjorden-Kongsvegen valley, Svalbard. The Kongsfjorden-Kongsvegen valley is relatively densely covered with meteorological observations, which facilitate joint statistical analysis of the turbulent surface layer structure and the structure of the higher atmospheric layers. Wind direction diagrams reveal strong wind channeled in the surface layer up to 300 m to 500 m. The probability analysis links strong wind channeling and cold temperature anomalies in the surface layer. To explain these links, previous studies suggested the katabatic wind flow mechanism as the leading driver responsible for the observed wind climatology. In this paper, idealized turbulence-resolving simulations are used to distinct between different wind driving mechanisms. The simulations were performed with the real surface topography at resolution of about 60 m. These simulations resolve the obstacle-induced turbulence and the turbulence in the non-stratified boundary layer core. The simulations suggest the leading roles of the thermal land-sea breeze circulation and the mechanical wind channeling in the modulation of the valley winds. The characteristic signatures of the developed down-slope gravity-accelerated flow, that is, the katabatic wind, were found to be of lesser significance under typical meteorological conditions in the valley.

  17. Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Dried Synbiotics Yoghurt from Lesser Yam Tubers (Dioscoreaesculenta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarti Sri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many variations of Yam (Dioscorea spp. which spread out in the world including Indonesia. Those variations could be categorized based on their shape, size, colour, and flavour of their tuber. The genus of Dioscorea spp. has more than 600 species, such as Dioscorea hispida, Dioscorea esculenta (lesser yam, Discorea bulbifera, Dioscorea alata (purple yam, Dioscorea opposita (white yam, Dioscorea villosa (yellow yam, Dioscorea altassima, and Dioscorea elephantipes. At the present, the utilization of yam tubers is seen to be limited. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the properties/characteristics of dried synbiotics yoghurt from lesser yam tubers. The treatment on this study was performed by the number of substitution of lesser yam tubers and the fermentation time. The results show that the dried synbiotics yoghurt that most preferred by consumers was G2F3 (lesser yam 40% and fermentation time 22 hours with an average value 3.65. It is followed by the total LAB (lactic acid bacteria 8,15 log cfu/g, pH 4.27, total lactic acid 1.02%, yield of dried synbiotic yoghurt 32.30%, and total soluble protein 4.53%.

  18. The Lesser Antillean Iguana on St. Eustatius: 2012 status update and review of limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Boman, E.

    2013-01-01

    The endangered Lesser Antillean Iguana, Iguana delicatissima, is an emblematic species for the island of St. Eustatius and in Caribbean Netherlands it is only found on St. Eustatius. In this study we conducted an extensive population survey for the iguana and compared densities in different areas to

  19. European Economic Integration and the Fate of Lesser-Used Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Francois

    1993-01-01

    The consequences of economic integration for Europe's lesser-used languages are examined. Applying theoretical predictions to a set of 12 minority languages, this paper shows that 5 will likely be in a more favorable position, 4 may lose as a result of economic integration, and no clear effect can be predicted for the remaining 3. (18 references)…

  20. Documenting Sociolinguistic Variation in Lesser-Studied Indigenous Communities: Challenges and Practical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, John; Stanford, James

    2017-01-01

    Documenting sociolinguistic variation in lesser-studied languages presents methodological challenges, but also offers important research opportunities. In this paper we examine three key methodological challenges commonly faced by researchers who are outsiders to the community. We then present practical solutions for successful variationist…