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Sample records for lesser sac tumor

  1. Desmoid tumor within lesser sac

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    Čolović Radoje

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors or fibromatoses comprise a number of benign fibrous proliferative lesions that have local infiltrative growth and tendency to recur after incomplete excision. They never metastasize. The authors present a 31-year old woman who, due to epigastric pain and palpable mass detected on presentation, underwent the excision of firm tumorous mass, 210x140x115mm in diameter, from the lesser sac. Compressing the splenic vein, the tumor caused left-sided portal hypertension which subsided after the mass was removed. The recovery was uneventful. The histological examination verified typical desmoid tumor. Twelve years after surgery, the patient remained symptom-free with no signs of recurrence.

  2. Lesser sac hematoma as a sign of rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma in the caudate lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yoshie; Tani, Ichiro; Nakajima, Yasuo; Ishikawa, Tohru; Umeda, Satoshi; Kusano, Shoichi

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the caudate lobe of the liver. The CT scans of five cases of rupture of HCC in the caudate lobe of the liver were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with clinical records. All cases showed exophytic tumors in the caudate lobe of the liver and high-attenuation hematomas in the lesser sac on CT. A lesser sac hematoma may be a sentinel clot sign of rupture of HCC in the caudate lobe. (orig.)

  3. Benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac

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    Jong-Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening and are often difficult to diagnose. Among primary lacrimal sac tumors, benign mixed tumors are extremely rare. Histologically, benign mixed tumors have been classified as a type of benign epithelial tumor. Here we report a case of benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac.

  4. The value of CT in localizing primary and stomach-originated masses in the lesser sac

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    Dong Peng; Wang Bin; Zhang Shizhuang; Chang Guanghui; Sun Xihe; Cheng Xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the normal CT manifestation of the vascular arch of the gastric lesser curvature, and to further probe the value of CT in the localization diagnosis of the primary and stomach-originated masses in the lesser sac. Methods: Contrast-enhanced CT scanning was performed in 51 normal individuals. Emphasis of image observation was focused on the CT manifestations of vascular arch of the gastric lesser curvature and the relation between the vascular arch and the gastric wall. Also contrast- enhanced CT scan was performed for seventeen cases of primary and stomach-originated masses in the lesser sac subsequently proved by surgery and pathology. Image analysis was focused on the relation between the mass and the vascular arch and its branches of the gastric lesser curvature, the shape of the mass, and the relation between the mass and the gastric wall. Results: The vascular arch of the gastric lesser curvature was clearly visualized in the fifty normal individuals. The tributaries of the vascular arch near the cardiac part, gastric corpus, and pyloric part were revealed in 42, 10 and 7 cases respectively. The vascular arch was in close contact with the gastric wall in 38 cases. Among the 17 patients, 13 cases demonstrated the obliteration of the transparent fat plane between the mass and the gastric wall. In 6 patients with stomach- originated masses, 5 patients showed the stretching of vascular arch tributaries adjacent to the masses, and no vascular arch and its tributaries could be not visualized between the masses and the stomach. In 11 patients with primary masses in the lesser sac, vascular arch were showed between the masses and the stomach in 10 cases, and no stretching of vascular arch tributaries adjacent to the masses could be showed. Conclusions: CT scan can clearly depict the normal vascular arch and its branches of the gastric lesser curvature. Based on the relation between the vascular arch and the gastric wall, the presence of fat

  5. An inguinal hernia sac tumor of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma origin

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    Yamazaki Hidehiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic hernia sac tumor from biliary malignancy is extremely rare with only one such case previously reported. We herein report an additional case of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma presenting as a hernia sac tumor. Case presentation A 78-year-old man presented with an irreducible right inguinal hernia associated with a firm tumor, 2.0 cm in diameter. A computed tomography scan demonstrated a soft tissue density mass with heterogeneous enhancement within the right inguinal canal. The patient underwent a hernia repair and the hernia sac tumor was resected. Histological examination of the tumor revealed a metastatic adenocarcinoma suggesting the tumor was of pancreato-biliary origin. Further investigation using imaging studies disclosed a primary tumor in the upper bile duct. The patient died of the disease nine months after the resection. Conclusion Hernia sac tumors should be considered when an irreducible, growing mass appears within an inguinal hernia. Computed tomography may be useful for the early detection of hernia sac tumors from undiagnosed intra-abdominal malignancies.

  6. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

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    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul; Bae, Yoon Sung

    2012-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  7. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

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    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institue of Radiological Science, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yoon Sung [Dept. of Pathology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  8. Yolk sac tumor in a patient with transverse testicular ectopia

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    Zhu Yi-Ping

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is a rare anomaly in which both testes descend through a single inguinal canal. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the ectopic testis of a patient with TTE. A 24-year-old man presented to our hospital with a left inguinal-mass, right cryptorchidism and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. A left herniotomy 3 years earlier demonstrated both testes in the left scrotum, one above another positionally. Four months ago, a left scrotal mass appeared and radical orchiectomy of both testes revealed testicular yolk sac tumor of the ectopic testis. An enlarging left inguinal-mass appeared 2 months ago and he was referred to our hospital. Laboratory data showed an elevation of AFP (245.5 ng/ml and a 46 XY karyotype. He underwent bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and simultaneous left inguinal mass dissection. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of recurrent yolk sac tumor in the left inguinal mass. The retroperitoneal lymph node was not enlarged and, on histopathology, was not involved. The patient has now been followed up for 8 months without evidence of biochemical or radiological recurrence.

  9. Sporadic Endolymphatic Sac Tumor-A Very Rare Cause of Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, and Dizziness

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    Schnack, Didde Trærup; Kiss, Katalin; Hansen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic endolymphatic sac tumor is a very rare neoplasm. It is low malignant, locally destructive and expansive, but non-metastasizing. The tumor is very rare in the sporadic form, but more often associated with Von Hippel-Lindau disease. A 65-year old man with left sided tinnitus and hearing loss......-operative freeze-microscopy showed inflammation tissue, whereas subsequent microscopy showed papillary-cystic endolymphatic sac tumor. Endolymphatic sac tumor is a rare neoplasm. The tumor may present with asymmetrically sensory neural hearing loss with or without tinnitus, dizziness and facial nerve paresis...

  10. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

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    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence...... membranes in rat tissues in a manner indistinguishable from antilaminin. The presence of laminin in rat yolk sac cells, the presumed origin of our yolk sac tumor, was studied in some detail. Laminin was found to be present in normal cells of the visceral as well as the parietal yolk sac layer...

  11. Endolymphatic Sac Tumors and Papillary Adenocarcinoma of the Temporal Bone:Role of MRI and CT

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    Mahmood F. Mafee; Hemant Shah

    2003-01-01

    Adenomatous Tumors of the temporal bone are rare. Benign adenomatous neoplasms (adenoma) of the middle ear are a distinctive benign tumor based on histological and clinical observations. Papillary adenocarcinomas of the temporal bone are invasive tumors. Although, the exact site of origin of these neoplasms is not identified, owing to the local bone destruction (usually centered at posterior petromastoid plate), the general consensus favors the endolymphatic sac as being the origin of these t...

  12. Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with yolk sac and teratomatous components in a dog.

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    Robinson, Nicholas A; Manivel, J Carlos; Olson, Erik J

    2013-05-01

    Mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary have rarely been reported in veterinary species. A 3-year-old intact female Labrador Retriever dog was presented for lethargy, abdominal distention, and a midabdominal mass. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (23 cm in diameter) left ovarian tumor and multiple small (2-3 cm in diameter) pale tan masses on the peritoneum and abdominal surface of the diaphragm. Histological examination of the left ovary revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with a yolk sac component with rare Schiller-Duval bodies and a teratomatous component comprised primarily of neural differentiation. The abdominal metastases were solely comprised of the yolk sac component. The yolk sac component was diffusely immunopositive for cytokeratin with scattered cells reactive for α-fetoprotein and placental alkaline phosphatase. Within the teratomatous component, the neuropil was diffusely immunopositive for S100, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein immunopositive cells. Ovarian germ cell tumors may be pure and consist of only 1 germ cell element or may be mixed and include more than 1 germ cell element, such as teratoma and yolk sac tumor.

  13. [Lacrimal sac tumors presenting as lacrimal obstruction. Retrospective study in Mexican patients 2007-2012].

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    Coloma-González, I; Flores-Preciado, J; Ceriotto, A; Corredor-Casas, S; Salcedo-Casillas, G

    2014-06-01

    To determine the demographic and clinical data of primary tumors of the lacrimal sac presenting as lacrimal obstruction. Retrospective and descriptive study was conducted between the years 2007 to 2012 on all patients undergoing surgery for low lacrimal obstruction at Dr. Luis Sanchez Bulnes Hospital, an Association for the prevention of blindness in Mexico IAP. Primary tumors of the lacrimal sac represented 2.5% of all lacrimal obstructions, being more common in women than in men (8:1). The large majority (89%) of the cases were non-epithelial, with lymphoid lesions being the most frequent. Benign tumors were presented at a younger age (50 years old) than malignant (70 years old). One-third (33%) of cases were unexpected findings during surgery (100% benign). Just over half (55%) were malignant tumors (1.4% of obstructions), all of them lymphoproliferative lesions. The most frequent clinical tumor was in the inner edge, either with or without epiphora. The progression time varied according to the degree of aggressiveness of the lymphoma (3 months-10 years). Lacrimal sac tumors are rare, but they must be taken into account in patients with an unusual clinical presentation of lacrimal obstruction. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature.

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    Hazarika, Prabir

    2015-01-01

    I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA).

  15. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature

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    Prabir Hazarika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA.

  16. Evaluation of cloned cells, animal model, and ATRA sensitivity of human testicular yolk sac tumor

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    Zhao Junfeng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. We found biological characteristics of cloned TYST cells were similar to the yolk sac tumor and differentiated from the columnar to glandular-like or goblet cells-like cells. Chromosomes for tumor identification in each passage met nature of the primary tumor. TYST cells were more sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid which had significantly inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of TYST cells through the activation of p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl- expression. Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST.

  17. Sertoli cell tumor arising in a cryptorchid testis presenting as a content of inguinal hernial sac

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    Kusuma Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sertoli cell tumors (SCTs are rare tumors accounting for <1% of all testicular tumors. Here, we report a rare case of SCT in a 60-year-old man presenting as a painless swelling in the right groin since childhood. Clinically, he presented with right-sided inguinal hernia with absence of the right testis. He had normal left testis and had no gynecomastia or infertility. The specimen of hernial sac showed testis with a 1.6 cm × 1.5 cm nodular mass having gray tan-cut surface. Histopathologically, the testis showed atrophy and the nodular portion showed tumor cells arranged in tubular and microcystic pattern, with no solid pattern or necrosis. The diagnosis of SCT was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining for inhibin which showed fine granular cytoplasmic positivity. Cryptorchid testis having SCT and presenting as a content of inguinal hernia is a rare occurrence.

  18. CT Findings of Intrarenal Yolk Sac Tumor with Tumor Thrombus Extending into the Inferior Vena Cava: A Case Report

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    Lin, Shao Chun; Li, Xue Hua; Sun, Can Hui; Feng, Shi Ting; Peng, Zhen Peng; Huang, Si Yun; Li, Zi Ping [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-10-15

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare germ cell neoplasm of childhood that usually arises from the testis or ovary. The rare cases of YST in various extragonadal locations have been reported, but the primary intrarenal YST is even more uncommon. Here, we report a case of a primary intrarenal YST with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein in a 2-year-old boy, with an emphasis on the CT features. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intrarenal YST with intravascular involvement.

  19. Endoscopic-modified medial maxillectomy and its limitation for a solitary fibrous tumor of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct.

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    Moriyama, Munehito; Kodama, Satoru; Hirano, Takashi; Suzuki, Masashi

    2017-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon neoplasm that usually arises from the pleura. Recently, SFTs have been reported in the head and neck region located in subsites such as the orbit. SFTs of the lacrimal sac are extremely rare, with only six cases reported in the English literature. We describe a SFT arising from the right lacrimal sac and extending along the nasolacrimal duct into the nasal cavity. Although, the tumor could not be removed by endoscopic-modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) alone, combined approach with EMMM and a small external incision achieved the complete removal of the tumor. The patient has remained disease-free 24 months after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A clinicopathological analysis of papillary endolymphatic sac tumor in inner ear

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    LIN Yu-jing

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST is a rare tumor originating fromendolymphatic epithelium of inner ear. This tumor exhibits low-grade malignancy with benign histopathological appearance and clinically destructive behavior which occurs in the skull base and frequently invades the posterior petrous bone, the mastoid, semicircular canal, cerebellopontine angle structures and cranial nerve. The presence of intracranial ELST always makes the diagnosis challenge for clinicians and pathologists. Herein we describe a case of ELST in skull base. The clinicopathology of this tumor and its differential diagnosis are discussed. Methods The clinical manifestation of a patient with primary ELST occurring in right cerebellopontine angle was presented retrospectively. Resected mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako EnVision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including cytokeratin (CK, vimentin (Vim, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, synaptophysin (Syn, chromogranin A (CgA, S-100 protein (S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, thyroglobulin (TG, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1 and Ki-67. Results A 32-year-old male patient presented with 20-year history of progressive hearing loss. MRI scan revealed an expansile lytic lesion of the mastoid process of the right petrous bone, measuring 4.20 cm × 3.30 cm × 2.00 cm, occupied the right cerebellopontine angle with infiltration of surrounding dura mater. But the lesion did not break the dura mater and invade the brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed totally. Histological examination revealed a papillary, cystic or glandular architecture in mass. The papillary and glandular structures were lined by a single layer of flattened cuboidal-to-columnar cells. The stroma of the papillary fronds was richly vascularized and chronically inflamed. There

  1. Immunohistochemical demonstration of a hitherto undescribed localization of hemoglobin A and F in endodermal cells of normal human yolk sac and endodermal sinus tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U; Wimberley, P D

    1980-01-01

    In this study of 4 human yolk sacs, the presence of hemoglobin A and F (HbA and HbF) is demonstrated for the first time in epithelial cells (type 1) and erythroid-like cells (type 2) in the endodermal layer by immunoperoxidase technique. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis previously...... proposed that the red blood cells formed in the yolk sac are of endodermal origin. Tumor with yolk sac differentiation (8 endodermal sinus tumors and 1 embryonal carcinoma with vitelline areas) similarly showed HbA and HbF localisation in endodermal cells. None of 59 germ cell tumors of other types...

  2. Precocious puberty secondary to a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with an ovarian yolk sac tumor: a case report

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    Metwalley Kotb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ovarian tumors are the least common cause of sexual precocity in girls. Mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumors associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary are rare neoplasms, of which only a small number of well-documented cases have been described so far. Here, we report precocious puberty in a four-year-old Egyptian girl caused by a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Case presentation A four-year-old Egyptian girl was referred to our pediatric endocrinology unit for evaluation of bilateral breast budding, pubic hair and vaginal bleeding. On examination, we found that her breast enlargement and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner III. A thorough workup revealed a large mass in her right ovary. Magnetic resonance imaging ofher brain showed that her pituitary gland was normal. A hormonal assay revealed high levels of estradiol, 280 to 375pmol/L; progesterone, 5.3 nmol/L; testosterone 38.9 pg/mL; and androstenedione, 4.1 ng/mL. Her basal and stimulated levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were low. Tumor markers levels were high, with a total inhibin of 1,069U/L and an alpha-fetoprotein of 987 μg/L. Her chromosomes were normal (46XX. Our patient underwent an explorative laparotomy and a solid tumor localized to her right ovary was identified. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumorwith a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Postoperatively, she was started on treatment with chemotherapy. Our patient is doing well without evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis during eight months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion Although a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a prepubescent girl with an abdominal mass and precocious puberty.

  3. Endometrial carcinoma with yolk sac tumor-like differentiation and elevated serum ß-hCG: a case report and literature review

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    Ji M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mingliang Ji,1 Yan Lu,1 Lina Guo,2 Fengzhi Feng,1 Xirun Wan,1 Yang Xiang1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: Endometrial carcinoma with a germ cell tumor component is a rare event. Here we report a uterine neoplasm with a unique combination of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and mixed germ cell malignant elements. A 28-year-old woman with abnormal vaginal bleeding, an abdominal mass, and elevated alfa-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG levels had a history of biopsy of an omental mass and chemotherapy in another hospital one month before her referral to our department. Histologic examination of the mass removed from the omentum revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor-like differentiation. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, infracolic omentectomy, and removal of metastatic disease were then undertaken at our hospital. Postoperative chemotherapy was given. Eight months postoperatively, serum alfa-fetoprotein and ß-hCG rose again. Cases with primary yolk sac tumors of the endometrium or endometrial carcinoma with trophoblastic differentiation in the literature were reviewed. Keywords: endometrial carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, trophoblastic differentiation

  4. Prognostic significance of an early decline in serum alpha-fetoprotein during chemotherapy for ovarian yolk sac tumors.

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    de la Motte Rouge, Thibault; Pautier, Patricia; Genestie, Catherine; Rey, Annie; Gouy, Sébastien; Leary, Alexandra; Haie-Meder, Christine; Kerbrat, Pierre; Culine, Stéphane; Fizazi, Karim; Lhommé, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    The ovarian yolk sac tumor (OYST) is a very rare malignancy arising in young women. Our objective was to determine whether an early decline in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) during chemotherapy has a prognostic impact. This retrospective study is based on prospectively recorded OYST cases at Gustave Roussy (Cancer Treatment Center). Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The serum AFP decline was calculated with the formula previously developed and validated in male patients with poor prognosis non-seminomatous germ cell tumors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the log-rank test and logistic regression, respectively. Data on AFP were available to calculate an early AFP decline in 57 patients. All patients had undergone surgery followed by chemotherapy. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 86% (95% CI: 74%-93%) and 84% (95% CI: 73%-91%), respectively. The disease stage, presence of ascites at presentation, use of the BEP regimen, serum AFP half-life and an early AFP decline were significantly predictive factors for OS and EFS in the univariate analysis. The OS rate was 100% and 49% (95% CI: 26%-72%) in patients with a favorable AFP decline and in those with an unfavorable decline, respectively (p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, only the presence of ascites at diagnosis (RR=7.3, p=0.03) and an unfavorable early AFP decline (RR=16.9, p<0.01) were significant negative predictive factors for OS. An early AFP decline during chemotherapy is an independent prognostic factor in patients with OYSTs. No conflict of interest. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Bladder cancer in patients after previous irradiation for treatment of tumors of the organs of the lesser pelvis

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    O. S. Strel’tsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This article presents clinical cases of bladder cancer (BC developed after previous irradiation and diagnosed in flat suspicious area by cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT based on analysis of characteristics of scattered light, and with histological material confirmed by nonlinear microscopy.Objective: to present clinical cases and features of BC diagnosis in presence of radiation-induced changes.Materials and methods. Intra-vitam examination of the bladder mucosa was performed using the OKT 1300-U system (Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhniy Novgorod. Areas that appeared malignant per CP-OCT data were biopsied. Apart from traditional examination of histological samples with hematoxylin and eosin staining, tissue samples were analyzed using nonlinear microscopy in the mode of second harmonic generation (collagen state analysis and emission of two-photon fluorescence excitation (elastin state analysis.Results are presented through 2 cases of BC in patients with side effects of radiation therapy of varying severity. CP-OCT allowed in-life differentiation of areas of post-radiation inflammatory changes and malignant tumors developed as a result. Nonlinear microscopy provided information on the state of connective tissue matrix of the bladder in the context of radiation changes and transition to tumor.Conclusion. Radiation changes of the bladder mucosa, especially severe ones, can conceal development of malignant tumors. Use of optical methods helps in differential diagnosis of cancer and post-radiation changes of the bladder. CP-OCT is an optimal noninvasive method of examination of the bladder mucosa during cystoscopy. Demonstration of clinical material is aimed at practicing urologists to increase their vigilance in relation to possible BC in patients who underwent radiation therapy of the organs of the lesser pelvis.

  6. Pineal yolk sac tumor: correlation between neuroimaging and pathological findings Tumor do seio endodérmico da pineal: correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem

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    Taísa Davaus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old boy presented with somnolence and mental confusion. Physical examination demonstrated motor disturbances. Laboratorial investigation showed elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The CT scan revealed a heterogeneous mass at the pineal region. At the MRI, this lesion was hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, enhancing after contrast administration. The patient underwent a surgical biopsy, which defined the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor. We emphasize the correlation of neuroimaging and pathological findings of this rare pineal region tumor.Um menino de 17 anos de idade apresentou-se com sonolência e confusão mental. O exame físico demonstrou distúrbios motores. A investigação laboratorial revelou aumento dos níveis de alfafetoproteína no soro e no líquor. A TC de crânio revelou massa heterogênea na região pineal. À RM, a lesão era hipointensa em T1 e hiperintensa em T2, com realce após a administração de contraste. O paciente foi submetido a biópsia cirúrgica, a qual definiu o diagnóstico de tumor do seio endodérmico. Enfatizamos a correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem deste raro tumor da região pineal.

  7. Lacrimal sac lymphoproliferative lesion: case report.

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    Coloma-González, I; Ruíz-García, L; Ceriotto, A; Corredor-Casas, S; Salcedo-Casillas, G

    2015-03-01

    The case is presented of a 51 year-old woman with a firm mass at the medial canthus of the right eye of five years onset. A low-grade lymphoproliferative lesion (reactive lymphoid hyperplasia) was diagnosed from an excisional biopsy Lacrimal sac tumors are rare, with a peak incidence in the fifth decade of life. The initial clinical features are epiphora and medial canthus swelling. As it mimics nasolacrimal duct obstruction, up to 40% of these tumors are misdiagnosed until undergoing surgery. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. SAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The United Nations Scientific Advisory Committee was established by a resolution of the General Assembly in 1954 to advise the Secretary General on arrangements for the First International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held in the following year. After the Second Conference, held in 1958, the General Assembly unanimously approved a resolution recording its satisfaction with the results it had achieved, and extending the life of the Scientific Advisory Committee. This Committee was charged with the task of advising and assisting the Secretary General, at his request, on all matters relating to the peaceful uses of atomic energy with which the United Nations may be concerned. UNSAC consists today of a small group of distinguished scientists, leaders in their field. Some of them are also members of a similar Scientific Advisory Committee set up by decision of the IAEA Board of Governors to advise on the scientific programme of the Agency. Brief notes on each of these men appear on this issue. (author)

  9. Performance Analysis of Wavelength Multiplexed Sac Ocdma Codes in Beat Noise Mitigation in Sac Ocdma Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, A. M.; Badruddin, N.; Saad, N. M.; Aljunid, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of wavelength multiplexed spectral amplitude coding (WM SAC) codes in beat noise mitigation in coherent source SAC OCDMA systems. A WM SAC code is a low weight SAC code, where the whole code structure is repeated diagonally (once or more) in the wavelength domain to achieve the same cardinality as a higher weight SAC code. Results show that for highly populated networks, the WM SAC codes provide better performance than SAC codes. However, for small number of active users the situation is reversed. Apart from their promising improvement in performance, these codes are more flexible and impose less complexity on the system design than their SAC counterparts.

  10. Glycosaminoglycan-sac formation in vitro. Interactions between normal and malignant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetou-Rella, H.

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of monolayer normal human or normal rat cells with suspension Walker rat tumor cells was demonstrated cytologically, during a cocultivation period of thirty days. At ten days, Walker rat tumor cells were interiorized in the cytoplasm of the normal monolayer host cells. At twenty days, degeneration of the interiorized tumor cells followed by mucification led to glycosaminoglycan-sac formation. At thirty days, tumor nodules and protease (a,- c...

  11. Gene expression of the endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Friis-Hansen, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    that the endolymphatic sac has multiple and diverse functions in the inner ear. Objectives:The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of the genes expressed in the endolymphatic sac in the rat and perform a functional characterization based on measured mRNA abundance. Methods:Microarray technology...

  12. Experimental Hyperactivity of the Endolymphatic Sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2013-01-01

    Injury to the endolymphatic sac may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Ménière's disease, an inner ear disorder characterized by hearing loss, tinnitus and attacks of vertigo. Isoimmunization of 16 inbred Lewis rats with a crude endolymphatic sac extract and complete Freund's adjuvant...

  13. Endolymphatic sac involvement in bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The commonest sequelae of bacterial meningitis are related to the inner ear. Little is known about the inner ear immune defense. Evidence suggests that the endolymphatic sac provides some protection against infection. A potential involvement of the endolymphatic sac in bacterial meningitis...... is largely unaccounted for, and thus the object of the present study. A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was employed. Thirty adult rats were inoculated intrathecally with Streptococcus pneumoniae and received no additional treatment. Six rats were sham...... days. Bacteria invaded the inner ear through the cochlear aquaduct. On days 5-6, the bacteria invaded the endolymphatic sac through the endolymphatic duct subsequent to invasion of the vestibular endolymphatic compartment. No evidence of direct bacterial invasion of the sac through the meninges...

  14. The endolymphatic sac, a potential endocrine gland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1999-01-01

    A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells...... is described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins....

  15. The Sac Actun System, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambesis, P. N.; Coke, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Sac Actun system, located in northeast Quintana Roo, Mexico, is among the most extensive underwater cave systems located along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The cave is composed of linear phreatic conduits that have two forms. The coastal sections of the Sac Actun system are characterized by low horizontal tunnels that form mazes paralleling the coast and rudimentary conduits broken by fracture-controlled rooms. Inland passages are fault/fracture controlled, have a linear, anastomotic configuration, and align perpendicular to the coast. Access to the cave system is gained through cenotes which are the portals into the Yucatan underwater cave systems. The occurrence of drowned speleothems in many parts of the cave system, and sections of air-filled upper level passages are indicative of major fluctuations in sea level. The Sac Actun system is part of one of the most extensive and significant eogenetic karst aquifers in the world. The development of the Sac Actun system, as well as the many other caves systems along the Yucatan Caribbean Coast is controlled by the coastal hydrologic regime, driven by glacio-eustatics, and influenced by stratigraphic and structural controls. The karstic permeability of the aquifer makes it and the Sac Actun system vulnerable to the anthropogenic impacts of increased population growth, quarries, and infrastructure development associated with the burgeoning tourist industry that dominates land use in the region. (Author)

  16. Gene Expression in the Human Endolymphatic Sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    a1 sodium-bicarbonate transporter, SLC9a2 sodium-hydrogen transporter, SLC12a3 thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl transporter, and SLC34a2 sodium-phosphate transporter. CONCLUSIONS: Several important ion transporters of the SLC family are expressed in the human endolymphatic sac, including Pendrin...

  17. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project

  18. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan eSarkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4 selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV and apoplast signal peptide (aTP in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT, apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era.

  19. Pinocytosis in the rat visceral yolk sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.; Lloyd, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Low temperature, 2,4-dinitrophenol and moniodoacetate could each completely abolish the pinocytic uptake of 125 I-labelled polyvinylpyrrolidone, 125 I-labelled bovine serum albumin or colloidal 198 Au by 17.5-day rat visceral yolk sac cultured in vitro. Cytochalasin B and colchicine caused a partial and dose-dependent inhibition. It is concluded that the mechanism of pinocytic uptake of these substrates is not micropinocytosis as conventionally defined. Removal of extracellular calcium or the presence of theophylline inhibited liquid-phase pinocytosis by the rat yolk sac, whereas addition of ouabain caused a biphasic response: a slight stimulation of pinosome formation at a low concentration, and an inhibitory effect at a higher concentration. (Auth.)

  20. Classification of embryo sacs in the Eragrostis curvula Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Vorster

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available At each of 17 collecting points between Johannesburg and Brits in the Transvaal, three plants which belong to the  Eragrostis curvula Complex were collected and studied. A total o f 3 902 embryo sacs was examined in this sample. Of the embryo sacs examined, 3 306 were apomictic by means of diplospory, whereas 99 were sexual monosporic Polygonum-type embryo sacs. One hundred and nineteen embryo sacs were abnormal or divergent, and 378 were degenerated. There are indications that seasonal climatic fluctuations may be responsible for embryo sacs developing abnormally or degenerating. Simple and multiple correlations confirmed that sexual embryo sacs usually do not develop abnormally or degenerate during the later developmental stages. This finding lends credence to both the system of classification of individual embryo sacs and to the validity of the estimate of the proportion of sexuality of the plants sampled at each sampling point.

  1. The Sac Actun System, Quintana Roo, Mexico; Sistema Sac Actun, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambesis, P. N.; Coke, J. G.

    2016-07-01

    The Sac Actun system, located in northeast Quintana Roo, Mexico, is among the most extensive underwater cave systems located along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The cave is composed of linear phreatic conduits that have two forms. The coastal sections of the Sac Actun system are characterized by low horizontal tunnels that form mazes paralleling the coast and rudimentary conduits broken by fracture-controlled rooms. Inland passages are fault/fracture controlled, have a linear, anastomotic configuration, and align perpendicular to the coast. Access to the cave system is gained through cenotes which are the portals into the Yucatan underwater cave systems. The occurrence of drowned speleothems in many parts of the cave system, and sections of air-filled upper level passages are indicative of major fluctuations in sea level. The Sac Actun system is part of one of the most extensive and significant eogenetic karst aquifers in the world. The development of the Sac Actun system, as well as the many other caves systems along the Yucatan Caribbean Coast is controlled by the coastal hydrologic regime, driven by glacio-eustatics, and influenced by stratigraphic and structural controls. The karstic permeability of the aquifer makes it and the Sac Actun system vulnerable to the anthropogenic impacts of increased population growth, quarries, and infrastructure development associated with the burgeoning tourist industry that dominates land use in the region. (Author)

  2. Avulsion of the Lesser Trochanter Following a Shot Put Sport Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Grissa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Avulsion of the lesser trochanter is an uncommon injury. In children and adolescents it usually occurs as a sports injury via traumatic avulsion of the psoas major tendon. In adults, isolated fractures of the lesser trochanter are most commonly pathological due to metastatic tumor invasion of the proximal femur. This case report documents how a 14-year-old boy, who presented with an avulsion of the lesser trochanter of the proximal femur following a seemingly atraumatic shot put session at a track and field event, was diagnosed and successfully treated with a conservative approach.

  3. MRI of cul-de-sac endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, Maria A.; Martin, Eduardo; Gomez Sanetta, Santiago; De Lucas, Federico; Bruno, Claudio; Sanchez Marull, Ricardo; Villamayor, Irene

    2000-01-01

    The endometriosis is a gynecological disorder characterized by the presence of ectopic functioning endometrial tissue. According to different studies, the incidence of endometriosis in fertile women oscillates between 10% and 15%. There are many theories (Sampson or menstrual blood transport, coelomic methaplasia, lymphatic dissemination, blood, etc.) that take part in the ethiopatogenic explanation of the disease. The findings obtained by excretory urography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cytology and histology in a 31 years old patient with cul-de-sac endometriosis is presented. MRI was the imaging method of choice for diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of this condition. (author)

  4. Human papillomavirus: cause of epithelial lacrimal sac neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian; von Buchwald, Christian; Cassonnet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac are rare but important entities that may carry grave prognoses. In this study the prevalence and possible role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac were evaluated. METHODS: Five papillomas and six...... 11 RNA was demonstrated in two papillomas. CONCLUSIONS: By analysing 11 epithelial lacrimal sac papillomas and carcinomas using PCR, DNA ISH and RNA ISH, we found HPV DNA in all investigated transitional epithelium tumours of the lacrimal sac. HPV RNA was present in two of eight epithelial lacrimal...... sac tumours positive for HPV DNA. As RNA degrades fast in paraffin-embedded tissue, only a small fraction of DNA-positive tumours can be expected to be RNA-positive. We therefore suggest that HPV infection is associated with the development of lacrimal sac papillomas and carcinomas....

  5. Radiographic anatomy of the distal dural SAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, J.L.; Olsen, K.O.

    1991-01-01

    A radio-anatomical study was performed of the distal dural sac (DS) in 121 patients subjected to myelography. In 83.4% the termination of the DS was located from the upper half of the S1-segment to the lower half of the S2-segment. In the remaining patients the dural terminations were more distally located. The average location of the DS-termination was higher than that found in a previous anatomic study. The inference is that in patients with low-back pain and sciatica, the DS tends to terminate at a higher spinal level than in a non-selected anatomic material. The caudal reduction in sagittal diameter of the DS was less than that of the frontal diameter of the sac. The linear diminution in cross-sectional area of the DS from the level of L3 towards the lumbosacral junction was not correlated with the degree of caudal extension of the DS into the sacrum. Thus the length of the DS and its transverse diameters are independent of each other. These results supported the view that the location of the termination of the DS (and hence that of the spinal cord) is not related to stenosis of the central spinal canal. (orig.)

  6. On the origin of avian air sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C G

    2006-11-01

    For many vertebrates the lung is the largest and lightest organ in the body cavity and for these reasons can greatly affect an organism's shape, density, and its distribution of mass; characters that are important to locomotion. In this paper non-respiratory functions of the lung are considered along with data on the respiratory capacities and gas exchange abilities of birds and crocodilians to infer the evolutionary history of the respiratory systems of dinosaurs, including birds. From a quadrupedal ancestry theropod dinosaurs evolved a bipedal posture. Bipedalism is an impressive balancing act, especially for tall animals with massive heads. During this transition selection for good balance and agility may have helped shape pulmonary morphology. Respiratory adaptations arising for bipedalism are suggested to include a reduction in costal ventilation and the use of cuirassal ventilation with a caudad expansion of the lung into the dorsal abdominal cavity. The evolution of volant animals from bipeds required yet again a major reorganization in body form. With this transition avian air sacs may have been favored because they enhanced balance and agility in flight. Finally, I propose that these hypotheses can be tested by examining the importance of the air sacs to balance and agility in extant animals and that these data will enhance our understanding of the evolution of the respiratory system in archosaurs.

  7. Endolymphatic Sac Decompression With Intra-Sac Dexamethasone Injection in Menière's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojrab, Dennis I; LaRouere, Michael J; Bojrab, Dennis I; Babu, Seilesh C; Sargent, Eric W; Chan, Eleanor Y; Hong, Robert S

    2018-06-01

    Endolymphatic sac decompression surgery (ELSD) may be used to treat patients who have Menière's 's disease refractory to medical therapy. In this study, we investigated whether or not the injection of steroid into the endolymphatic sac at the time of ELSD provides additional benefit to patient outcomes. Randomized prospective single-blinded placebo-controlled study. Tertiary center. Patients with Menière's disease with poorly controlled vertigo despite medical therapy and serviceable hearing that were offered ELSD. Patients randomized into two groups, with control group (n = 17) undergone ELSD without steroid injection and experimental group undergone ELSD with steroid injection (n = 18) MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):: Audiogram, dizziness handicap inventory, tinnitus handicap inventory, frequency of vertigo spells, functional level scale, and quality of life were obtained at multiple intervals from preoperatively to 24 months postoperatively. ELSD resulted in a statistically significant improvement in vertigo control whether or not steroid was injected into the endolymphatic sac at the time of surgery. However, no additional benefit was observed with the addition of intra-sac steroid injection. No statistical difference in pure-tone average, tinnitus handicap inventory, dizziness handicap inventory, or quality of life was observed between the steroid and nonsteroid surgical groups up to 24 months postoperatively. ELSD is an effective treatment for Menière's disease refractory to medical therapy; however, the addition of intra-sac steroid injection at the time of surgery does not seem to result in a further improvement in patient outcomes.

  8. Endometriosis of the Vermiform Appendix within a Hernia Sac Infiltrating the Pubic Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Ziaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Appendicular endometriosis mimicking appendicitis is a rare finding. Inguinal tumor in the course of appendicular endometriosis located within an inguinal hernia sac and infiltrating the periosteum of the pubic bone has not yet been described. Case Report. This paper describes a case of a rapidly enlarging, solid, unmovable, very painful upon palpation inguinal tumor, in a 36-year-old nulliparous woman. During surgery, a hard (approximately 4 cm in diameter tumor infiltrating the periosteum of the right pubic bone and continuous with the inguinal hernia sac was dissected. The distal segment of the vermiform appendix was an element of the dissected tumor. Histological examination revealed endometriosis of the distal vermiform appendix. After 6 months of hormone treatment, she was referred for reoperation due to tumor recurrence. Once again histological examination of the resected tissue revealed endometriosis. There was no further recurrence of the disease with goserelin therapy. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the literature about endometriosis involving the vermiform appendix and the inguinal canal (Amyand’s hernia. Conclusion. This case expands the list of differential diagnoses of nodules found in the inguinal region of women.

  9. Cluster expansion of the wavefunction. Calculation of electron correlations in ground and excited states by SAC and SAC CI theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuji, H.

    1979-01-01

    The SAC and SAC CI theories are formulated for actual calculations of singlet ground states and their excited states of arbitrary spin multiplicity. Approximations are considered for the variational methods since time-consuming terms are involved. The results of test calculations for singlet states have shown, with much smaller numbers of variables (sizes of the matrices involved), excellent agreement with the full CI and close-to-full CI results. This shows the utility of the SAC theory for ground states and especially of the SAC CI theory for excited states, since the slow convergence of the CI theory is much more critical for excited states than for ground states. (Auth.)

  10. Comparative genomic and in situ hybridization of germ cell tumors of the infantile testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, M; Rosenberg, C; Stoop, H; Schuyer, M; Timmer, A; Oosterhuis, W; Looijenga, L

    Chromosomal information on germ cell tumors of the infantile testis, ie, teratomas and yolk sac tumors, is limited and controversial. We studied two teratomas and four yolk sac tumors using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and in situ hybridization. No chromosomal anomalies were found in the

  11. Chemical Aspects of Lesser Mouse Deer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment aiming for studying chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. This research explored the chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. Eight lesser mouse deer (four female and four male were used in chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat. The parameters observed included proximate analysis, amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA of the meat. The results showed that average meat chemical composition were content of water, protein, fat, ash and cholesterol were 76.33 %, 21.42 %, 0.51 %, 1.20% and 50.00 mg/100 g, respectively. Fatty acid consist of lauric acid, miristate, palmitate, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were 1.04 % 3.09%, 30.97, 0.77%., 59.41%, 3.22% and 1.12%, respectively. The total EPA and DHA was 0.13% and 0.05%,   Keywords: amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA

  12. Isolated Displaced Fracture of the Lesser Tuberosity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    publication of this report. The authors declare no competing interests. Discussion. A delay in diagnosis of a lesser tuberosity fracture may lead to significant future clinical disability (2). In one such case the patient presented with axillary nerve neuropraxia while another case reported displacement of the biceps tendon (4).

  13. The avifauna of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    The avifauna of the island of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands) is reviewed. Introductory sections, which include a chapter on the history of ornithological discovery, are followed by the main part, a systematic account in which each species and subspecies known from Flores is treated separately. A

  14. Single Assignment C (SAC): High Productivity meets High Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Zsók, V.; Horváth, Z.; Plasmeijer, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present the ins and outs of the purely functional, data parallel programming language SaC (Single Assignment C). SaC defines state- and side-effect-free semantics on top of a syntax resembling that of imperative languages like C/C++/C# or Java: functional programming with curly brackets. In

  15. Ovarian yolk sac tumour in a girl - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Charu; Shah, Hemanshi; Sisodiya Shenoy, Neha; Makhija, Deepa; Waghmare, Mukta

    2017-01-01

    Yolk sac tumours are rare ovarian malignancies accounting for less than 1% of malignant ovarian germ cell tumours. They are mostly seen in adolescents and young women and are usually unilateral making fertility preservation imperative. Raised alpha-feto protein level is the hallmark of this tumour. We describe stage III yolk sac tumour in a girl child.

  16. Transvaginal ultrasound in threatened abortions with empty gestational sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, T; Wanapirak, C; Srisomboon, J; Sirichotiyakul, S; Polsrisuthikul, T; Pongsatha, S

    1994-09-01

    To determine whether transvaginal ultrasound criteria alone can distinguish viable from non-viable gestational sacs at a single examination. A prospective descriptive study was undertaken and analysis performed on 211 pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion and empty gestation sacs diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. The main outcome measure was the final diagnosis of viable or non-viable gestation on subsequent transvaginal sonography. The study shows that a single transvaginal ultrasound examination is useful in differentiating viable from non-viable gestation sacs. The mean sac diameter (MSD) was found to be the most useful criterion for determining non-viability. An MSD of > or = 17 mm that lacked an embryo and an MSD of > or = 13 mm without visible yolk sac were reliable predictors of non-viable gestation sacs at a single examination with 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value. An MSD > or = 13 mm without visible yolk sac was the most sensitive criterion. Using MSD criteria, 73% of non-viable gestations could be reliably identified without any false-positive diagnoses. Deformed shape, low position and thin decidual reaction are strong indicators of non-viable gestations but are not 100% accurate. There is still a significant proportion of empty sacs, where no accurate distinction between viable and non-viable can be made according to one criterion at a single examination and in these cases serial examinations should be carried out before any active management is advocated. In most cases, transvaginal sonographic criteria alone can distinguish viable from non-viable empty gestational sacs at a single examination.

  17. Role of Axumin PET Scan in Germ Cell Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Testis Cancer; Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Cancer; Germ Cell Tumor of Testis; Germ Cell Tumor, Testicular, Childhood; Testicular Neoplasms; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Diseases; Germ Cell Cancer Metastatic; Germ Cell Neoplasm of Retroperitoneum; Germ Cell Cancer, Nos

  18. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    smaller in these deeper-diving species than in the spheniscid penguin of the morphometry study. If penguins do inhale to this maximum air sac volume prior to their deepest dives, the magnitude and distribution of the body O2 store would change considerably. In emperor penguins, total body O2 would increase by 75%, and the respiratory fraction would increase from 33% to 61%. We emphasize that the maximum pre-dive respiratory air volume is still unknown in penguins. However, even lesser increases in air sac volume prior to a dive would still significantly increase the O2 store. More refined evaluations of the respiratory O2 store and baroprotective mechanisms in penguins await further investigation of species-specific lung morphometry, start-of-dive air volumes and body buoyancy, and the possibility of air exhalation during dives. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Stages of Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors: Yolk sac tumors make a hormone called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). They can form in the ovary, testicle, ... are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). For ...

  20. The endolymphatic sac: a scanning and transmission electron microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Klaus; Bretlau, Poul

    2002-01-01

    A recent investigation has suggested that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium resorption in the kidneys, tentatively named saccin. In the current study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells are described...... to demonstrate that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins....

  1. Efficiency of lachrymal sac drainage in newborns with dacryocystocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakovich V.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents results of treatment of 14 newborns with unilateral dacryocystocele. Patients age was 7.2±0.5 days. In 9 newborns (64.3% dacryocystocele was complicated with lachrymal sac phlegmon; in 5 children (35.7% any complications were absent. Drainage of lachrymal sac through the lower lachrymal canaliculus, instillation of antibiotics, systemic antibiotic therapy in case of phlegmon were performed in all the children. Lachrymal sac washing was performed with a solution of the antibiotic ofloxacin till clear fluid evacuation. If necessary the drainage was repeated in 10 days. The drainage of lachrymal sac was successful in all the patients. 2-3 weeks after the drainage probing of nasolachrymal duct was perfomed in 4 children (28.6% including those 3 with lacrymal sac phlegmon. In 71.4% regression of dacryocystocele occurred itself. Any complications and side effects were not observed. Positive effect of the drainage, according to the authors, can be explained so that dilatation of lachrymal canaliculus before the procedure allows to eliminate Rosenmьller valve stenosis and evacuation of fluid, mucus and pus, being breeding ground for microorganisms from lachrymal sac, promotes inflammation subsiding. Authors also recommend to pay attention on prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele, using ultrasound investigation in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.

  2. Herder and Modernity: From Lesser-Taught Languages to Lesser-Taught Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Votruba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The typical North American curriculum of a lesser-taught Slavic language implicitly relies on the legacy of Johann Gottfried von Herder’s interpretation that language in and of itself contains national (ethnic culture. At the same time, enrolments are dwindling even in courses in the most commonly taught Slavic languages. Millennials’ understandable focus on the practicality of the courses they take make it unlikely for the lesser-taught languages to survive the slump. On the other hand, foreign culture courses are appearing to hold their ground more successfully. Slavic departments may reconsider Herder’s dictum as they try to maintain or establish programs in lesser-taught languages and cultures.

  3. Pathogenesis of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors from a Developmental Point of View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Biermann (Katharina)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCurrent classification systems of human germ cell tumors (GCTs) are based on histological composition. In the group of nonseminomas, different variants of teratoma (somatic differentiation), yolk sac tumor and choriocarcinoma (extra-embryonic differentiation), are recognized, as well

  4. Inverted papilloma of lacrimal sac invading into the orbit: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair W Hardy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverted papilloma (IP is a sinonasal tumor of benign etiology with local invasion and malignant potential. IP arising in lacrimal sac invading the orbit is extremely rare with only one case reported so far. The presented case appears to be the second such case reported in the literature. A 60-year-old Caucasian male presented with a medial canthal mass and epiphora. Incisional biopsy confirmed a transitional neoplasm. The lesion was completely excised enbloc with clear margins by using a Weber-Ferguson incision; orbital clearance and nasolacrimalfossa clearance was achieved via a medial maxillectomy. Enbloc resection of orbital and nasolacrimal parts of the tumor with clear margins is recommended.

  5. Giant seminoma case with very small yolk sac and embryo carcinoma components, detected by intensive histopathological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Nakaya, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We experienced the giant seminoma with 18 × 10 × 10 cm sized and about 2.6 kg weight of 25 year old patient. We intensively examined the histological tissue type distributions in this giant seminoma. Most of the tumor consisted of seminoma components. In addition, the tumor included the very small fragments of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma component at the root part of the seminoma mass. This shows that intensive histological examination may contribute to the finding of other embryonic component of the large seminoma. This may show that leaving the seminoma growing may generate the other embryonic tumor component, not always big enough to find out in a routine procedure, during the growth, in the different way from the original mixed cell germ tumor.

  6. Aquarius and the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aquarius is a combination L-band radiometer and scatterometer designed to map the salinity field at the ocean surface from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA space agency (NASA) and Argentine space agency (CONAE). The mission is composed of two parts: (a) The Aquarius instrument being developed as part of NASA.s Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program; and (b) SAC-D the fourth spacecraft service platform in the CONAE Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC) program. The primary focus of the mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variations of the salinity field in the open ocean. The mission also meets the needs of the Argentine space program for monitoring the environment and for hazard detection and includes several instruments related to these goals.

  7. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  8. Application and study of conjunctival sac disinfectants in ophthalmic surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fei Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative endophthalmitis is the most serious complications of ophthalmic surgeries. Conjunctival sac disinfection is currently recognized as an effectively important way to reduce the risk of endophthalmitis. At present, there are some disinfectants has been used in clinic or in the researches:mercury agent, gentamicin, povidone iodine and acid electrolytic water. All kinds of disinfectants play the role of disinfection by different ways. Povidone iodine is the most widely used conjunctival sac disinfectant. Mercurial and gentamicin have been rarely used because they pollute the environment, are easy to cause drug resistant bacteria, localized side reactions and so on. The acid electrolyte water is not used in clinic at present. With the popularization and development of the ophthalmic surgeries, the ophthalmologists have become more and more concerned about the postoperative eye comfort, the research and application of conjunctival sac disinfectant in the future will continue to be updated and developed.

  9. Determination of the inferior border of the thecal sac using magnetic resonance imaging: implications on craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, Carole B.; Goldberg, Kenneth; Paulino, Arnold C.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) is employed in medulloblastoma and other intracranial malignancies that can seed the neuro axis. Care must be taken to adequately cover the entire craniospinal axis, including the distal thecal sac. The inferior border of the craniospinal field has traditionally been placed at the bottom of the S2 vertebra. The purpose of this study is to review the level of thecal sac termination in children undergoing CSI using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: From (12(87)) to (10(95)), 22 children were treated with CSI at one institution. All underwent pre-treatment MRI of the spine with Gadolinium as part of their evaluation. The median age was 9 years (range, 31 months to 18 years), and there were 14 males and 8 females. The diagnosis was medulloblastoma in 14 patients, primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebrum in 3, germinoma in 2, pineoblastoma in 1, leptomeningeal gliomatosis in 1 and glioblastoma multiform in 1. All spinal MRIs were reviewed by both neuro radiologist and radiation oncologist to accurately determine the level of thecal sac termination which was obtained by drawing a horizontal line from the lower limit of the spinal theca to the corresponding adjacent vertebral body. Results: The thecal sac termination varied from mid S1 to lower S3. It was located at mid S1 in 1 patient, lower S1 in 3, S1-2 junction in 3, upper S2 in 5, mid S2 in 3, lower S2 in 3, S2-3 junction in 2, upper S3 in 1 and lower S3 in 1. Only (2(22)) patients (9%) had thecal sac terminations below the S2-3 junction. Eight patients had spinal axis involvement and their thecal sac terminations were all above the S2-3 junction. There was no correlation between the level of termination and age, gender or histology. Conclusions: The majority of patients (91%) will have termination of the thecal sac above S3, and therefore placement of the inferior border of the spinal field at the S2-3 junction with a 1 cm caudal margin will be

  10. Distinct antigenic characteristics of murine parietal yolk sac laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Tichy, D; Damjanov, A

    1987-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (LAM-A and LAM-B) specific for laminin from normal and neoplastic parietal yolk sac (PYS) cells were produced in rats immunized with a mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell line. Both antibodies immunoprecipitated the 400,000- and 200,000-Da chains of laminin and reacted...... with purified PYS laminin in ELISA. LAM-A reacted with mouse and rat PYS laminin, whereas LAM-B reacted only with mouse PYS laminin. Formaldehyde- and methanol-fixed adult and fetal somatic tissues were immunohistochemically unreactive with either of the two antibodies. In acetone-fixed tissue sections, both...

  11. Yolk sac mesenchymal progenitor cells from New World mice (Necromys lasiurus with multipotent differential potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelipe Oliveira Favaron

    Full Text Available Fetal membranes are abundant, ethically acceptable and readily accessible sources of stem cells. In particular, the yolk sac is a source of cell lineages that do not express MHCs and are mainly free from immunological incompatibles when transferred to a recipient. Although data are available especially for hematopoietic stem cells in mice and human, whereas other cell types and species are dramatically underrepresented. Here we studied the nature and differentiation potential of yolk sac derived mesenchymal stem cells from a New World mouse, Necromys lasiurus. Explants from mid-gestation were cultured in DMEM-High glucose medium with 10% defined fetal bovine serum. The cells were characterized by standard methods including immunophenotyping by fluorescence and flow cytometry, growth and differentiation potential and tumorigenicity assays. The first adherent cells were observed after 7 days of cell culture and included small, elongated fibroblast-like cells (92.13% and large, round epithelial-like cells with centrally located nuclei (6.5%. Only the fibroblast-like cells survived the first passages. They were positive to markers for mesenchymal stem cells (Stro-1, CD90, CD105, CD73 and pluripotency (Oct3/4, Nanog as well as precursors of hematopoietic stem cells (CD117. In differentiation assays, they were classified as a multipotent lineage, because they differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and, finally, they did not develop tumors. In conclusion, mesenchymal progenitor cells with multipotent differentiation potential and sufficient growth and proliferation abilities were able to be obtained from Necromys yolk sacs, therefore, we inferred that these cells may be promising for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine.

  12. Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Localized to the Lacrimal Sac: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Zarrabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL of the lacrimal sac in a 50-year-old male. The incidence of primary ocular lymphoma is low and it is considered a rare disease. Moreover, reports of ocular DLBCL are uncommon and the disease remains poorly characterized. Our patient presented for management of osteomyelitis and was incidentally found to have a painless swelling and cyst around his right eye. A PET/CT scan revealed hypermetabolic activity within the lacrimal sac and a subsequent excisional biopsy of the mass yielded histopathology consistent with DLBCL. Consequently, the patient underwent treatment with R-CHOP therapy. The patient responded well to chemotherapy with a substantial shrinkage in tumor burden and the disease remained localized. Herein, we present a rare case of primary ocular lymphoma, highlight the importance of early diagnosis, and review current treatment modalities.

  13. Avoiding revenue loss due to 'lesser of' contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodolak, Frederick; Gutierrez, Henry

    2014-08-01

    Finance managers seeking to avoid lost revenue attributable to lesser-of-charge-or-fixed-fee (lesser-of) clauses in their contracts should: Identify payer contracts that contain lesser-of clauses. Prepare lesser-of lost-revenue reports for non-bundled and bundled rates. For claims with covered charges below the bundled rate, identify service codes associated with the greatest proportion of total gross revenue and determine new, higher charge levels for those codes. Establish an approach for setting charges for non-bundled fee schedules to address lost-revenue-related issues. Incorporate changes into overall strategic or hospital zero-based pricing modeling and parameters.

  14. An unusual foreign body in the preputial sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, A K

    1992-01-01

    A 28 year old Indian male presented with an unusual foreign body, a penicillin bottle containing tincture of iodine, in the preputial sac. The purpose of introducing the bottle was to tickle his glans penis as a form of masturbation. The bottle was so firmly impacted that it could be removed only under general anaesthesia. Images PMID:1427809

  15. Sudden unilateral deafness with endolymphatic sac adenocarcinoma: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Minutoli, F.; Pandolfo, I. [Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Messina (Italy)

    1999-10-01

    A 30-year-old man presented with sudden left deafness and vertigo. CT showed an osteolytic retrolabyrinthine tumour of the left temporal bone. High signal from the tumour and labyrinth was seen on fat-suppressed T 1-weighted images. At surgery, a haemorrhagic papillary-cystic adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac was found. (orig.)

  16. Sudden unilateral deafness with endolymphatic sac adenocarcinoma: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Minutoli, F.; Pandolfo, I.

    1999-01-01

    A 30-year-old man presented with sudden left deafness and vertigo. CT showed an osteolytic retrolabyrinthine tumour of the left temporal bone. High signal from the tumour and labyrinth was seen on fat-suppressed T 1-weighted images. At surgery, a haemorrhagic papillary-cystic adenocarcinoma of the endolymphatic sac was found. (orig.)

  17. TMACS Test Procedure TP008: SACS Interface. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS SACS Interface functions

  18. SAC-C mission, an example of international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, F.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Nollmann, I.

    In comp liance with the objectives established in the National Space Program, Argentina in Space 1997-2008 ((Plan Espacial Nacional, Argentina en el Espacio 1997-2008), the National Commission on Space Activities (Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales - CONAE) undertook the design, construction, and launching of the SAC-C satellite in close collaboration with NASA. The purpose of this Mission is to carry out observations of interest both for the USA and Argentina, thus contributing effectively to NASA's Earth Science Program and to CONAE's National Space Program. The SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. Ten instruments on board the SAC-C perform different studies related to the ground and sea ecosystems, the atmosphere and the geomagnetic field. There are also technological experiments for determination of the satellite attitude and velocity as well as for the studies of the influence of space radiation on advanced electronic components . The inclusion of SAC-C in the AM Constellation, jointly with NASA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1 and Terra, is another example of important international cooperation which synergies the output of any single Mission. The Constellation has been working since March 2001 as a single mission and several cooperative activities have been undertaken including several jointly sponsored technical workshops and collaborative spacecraft navigation experiments. A flight campaign of the NASA AVIRIS instrument was performed in Argentine during January and February 2001, for calibration of SAC-C and EO 1 cameras and the development of joint scientific works. In Cordoba Space Center a jointly operated ground GPS reference

  19. Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric studies in parts of Almora crystalline zone, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya. Amar Agarwal, K K Agarwal, R Bali, Chandra Prakash and Gaurav Joshi. Supplementary data. Table S1. AMS data, representing mean of values from cores (N) collected from each site ...

  20. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make hormones. Yolk sac tumors make the hormone alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Mixed germ cell tumors are made of ... used to diagnose some CNS germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Blood ...

  1. Treatment Options for Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors: Yolk sac tumors make a hormone called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). They can form in the ovary, testicle, ... are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). For ...

  2. General Information about Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors: Yolk sac tumors make a hormone called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). They can form in the ovary, testicle, ... are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). For ...

  3. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. SacB-SacR gene cassette as the negative selection marker to suppress Agrobacterium overgrowth in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium overgrowth is a common problem in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transfor-mation. To suppress the Agrobacterium overgrowth, various antibiotics have been used during plant tissue culture steps. The antibiotics are expensive and may adversely affect plant cell differentiation and reduce plant transformation efficiency. The SacB-SacR proteins are toxic to most Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains when they are grown on culture medium sup¬plemented with sucrose. Therefore, SacB-SacR genes can be used as negative selection markers to suppress the overgrowth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the plant tissue culture process. We generated a mutant Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R that has the SacB-SacR cassette inserted into the bacterial genome at the recA gene locus. The mutant Agrobacterium strain is sensitive to sucrose but maintains its ability to transform plant cells in both transient and stable transformation assays. We demonstrated that the mutant strain GV2260 (recA-SacB/R can be inhibited by sucrose that reduces the overgrowth of Agrobacterium and therefore improves the plant transformation efficiency. We employed GV2260 (recA-SacB/R to generate stable transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing a CRISPR-Cas9 for knocking out a WRKY transcrip¬tion factor.

  5. Excavations at Kainapirina (SAC), Watom Island, Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.C.; Anson, D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is the final report on excavations in 1985 at the locality of Kainapirina (site SAC), situated on the Reber mission station adjacent to Rakival village on Watom Island. It backgrounds previous investigations there, the objectives of the 1985 endeavours, and the excavation strategies undertaken to achieve them. The occupation sequence based on stratigraphy, dating, and associated structural features is described and illustrated. Aspects of the human skeletal remains recovered are briefly reviewed; the economic evidence is discussed in detail. Analyses are provided of the various portable artefacts from these Lapita contexts, particularly stone adzes. obsidian, and pottery. These document an 'exotic to Watom' exchange component among the local manufactures. It is concluded that these 1985 excavations at SAC currently best enable an understanding of the significance of the entire Reber-Rakival Lapita site. (author)

  6. Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC)-OCDMA Network with 8DPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhaibani, A. O.; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Anuar, M. S.

    2013-09-01

    Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) technique is required to meet the increased demand for high speed, large capacity communications in optical networks. In this paper, the transmission performance of a spectral amplitude coding (SAC)-OCDMA network is investigated when a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF) is used as the transmission link using 8DPSK modulation. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Simulation results reveal that the transmission distance is limited mainly by the fiber dispersion when high coding chip rate is used. For a two-user SAC-OCDMA network operating with 2 Gbit/s data rate and two wavelengths for each user, the maximum allowable transmission distance is about 15 km.

  7. SAC-C Mission and the Morning Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Frulla, L.; Nollmann, I.; Milovich, J.; Kuba, J.; Ares, F.; Kalemkarian, M.

    2002-01-01

    SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, but with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. SAC-C has been designed primarily to fulfill the requirements of countries with large extension of territory or scarcely populated like Argentina. Its design is a good compromise between resolution and swath width that makes SAC-C an appropriate tool for global and high dynamic phenomena studies. There are ten instruments on board of SAC-C that will perform different studies, the Multispectral Medium Resolution Scanner (MMRS), provided by CONAE, Argentina, will help in the studies about desertification processes evaluation and their evolution in time (i.e., Patagonia, Argentina), to identify and predict agriculture production, to monitor flood areas and to make studies in coastal and fluvial areas. The MMRS will be associated with a High Resolution Technological Camera (HRTC), also provided by CONAE that will permit improvement in the MMRS resolution in the areas where it will be required. A High Sensitivity Technological Camera (HSTC) is also included in the mission. SAC-C also carries instruments to monitor the condition and dynamics of the terrestrial and marine biosphere and environment (GPS OccuLtation and Passive reflection Experiment (GOLPE)) from NASA/JPL. The Magnetic Mapping Payload, (MMP) developed by the Danish Space Research Institute helps to better understand the Earth's magnetic field and related Sun -Earth interactions .Italian Star Tracker (IST) and Italian Navigation Experiment (INES) developed by the Italian Space Agency, constitute a technological payload that will permit testing a fully autonomous system for attitude and orbit determination. Influence of space radiation on advanced

  8. Functional blood flow patterns of the endolymphatic sac in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular network under video fluorescence microscopy showed a typical microvascular organization. The microvascular arrangement and the microcirculation may reflect a functional state of the endolymphatic sac. Damage or change of the blood circul...... sac served as return paths for the microcirculation. The blood flow pattern was highly variable between rats.......Conclusion. Visualization of the endolymphatic sac vascular network under video fluorescence microscopy showed a typical microvascular organization. The microvascular arrangement and the microcirculation may reflect a functional state of the endolymphatic sac. Damage or change of the blood...

  9. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    kinematics of the LHD is in the process of being worked out .... also played a major role in the deformation process as evident from .... mation occurred at shallow crustal levels within ..... deep structure of the outer and Lesser Himalaya, Jumoan.

  10. Allium hookeri , Thw. Enum. A lesser known terrestrial perennial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A lesser known terrestrial perennial herb used as food and its ethnobotanical ... from the wilderness, for consumption and traditional healing of various ailments. ... plants, the lifestyles of the people are changed and they prefer 'junk foods'.

  11. Comparative nutritional evaluation of some lesser known non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative nutritional evaluation of some lesser known non leguminous browse ... Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF) and ash level of the ... to be useful to ruminants as dietary supplement to poor quality dry season feed ...

  12. Pit above the lesser tuberosity in axial view radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Han, Kyeong-Jin; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Chung, Nam-Su; Park, Do Young

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between the presence of a pit above the lesser tuberosity on axial view radiographs and rotator cuff tears and compared the demographic data between groups according to the presence of a pit above the lesser tuberosity. The hypothesis of this study was that the radiographic finding of a pit above the lesser tuberosity is related to rotator cuff tears. For 112 patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear, plain radiographs of the symptomatic shoulder (tear side radiographs) and plain radiographs of the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder (no-tear side radiographs) were assessed. Seventeen radiological findings, including a pit above the lesser tuberosity, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and sclerosis, were recorded by one blinded observer. Demographic data such as age, duration of symptoms, sex, arm dominance, smoking history, trauma history, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant score, and involved tendon were collected. A pit above the lesser tuberosity was noted on tear side radiographs of 40 patients (35.7 %) and on the no-tear side radiographs of 27 patients (24.1 %), representing a significant difference (P = 0.040). A pit associated with a rotator cuff tear was observed more often in the dominant arm (P = 0.040) and more often in patients with less previous trauma (P = 0.024). A pit above the lesser tuberosity on axial view radiography was associated with a rotator cuff tear and occurred more often in the dominant arm of patients who had no trauma history. Prognostic study, Level III.

  13. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Yuya, E-mail: r06118@hotmail.co.jp; Nishimura, Jun-ichi, E-mail: jun-ichi-n@nifty.com; Hase, Soichiro, E-mail: haseman@hotmail.co.jp; Yamasaki, Motoshige, E-mail: genyamasaki@gmail.com [Kawasaki Saiwai Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  14. Pyocele of the lachrymal sac: A late and unusual complication after surgery for a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Eloy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Eloy, Vincent Bachy, Véronique Grulois, Bernard BertrandDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital of Mont-Godinne, Université Catholique de Louvain, Yvoir, BelgiumAbstract: JNA (Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign but highly vascular and aggressive tumor that takes its origin in the basisphenoid region close to the sphenopalatine foramen. It occurs invariably in male teenagers. Surgery is the treatment of choice. In the past, external transfacial approaches were recommended. Nowadays endonasal endoscopic approach is performed by experienced teams even for extended tumor. The authors report a case of a pyocele of the lachrymal sac occurring 60 years after a transantral surgery for a JNA. The patient was then successfully operated with an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy using a powered instrumentation and a navigation system. This case confirms the necessity of a long follow-up for all the patients who had a transantral surgery with resection of the medial wall of the maxillary sinus and dissection of the nasolacrymal duct.Keywords: pyocele of the lachrymal sac, complication, surgery for JNA, JNA, endonasal DCR, navigation system

  15. Primary small cell carcinoma of the lesser omentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Feng Feng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although pulmonary small cell carcinoma (SCC is seen frequently, SCC that originates from the extrapulmonary organs is extremely rare. We herein report a case of a SCC located in the lesser omentum. A 61-year-old male was admitted to our department due to intermittent epigastralgia for 2 months. Ultrasonography (US revealed an irregular hypoechoic mass measuring about 58 mm × 50 mm × 45 mm under the left lobe of the liver. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed to verify the irregular mass with T1- and T2- weighted images between the left lobe of liver and the stomach. At laparotomy, the well-circumscribed neoplasm was found in the lesser omentum, and the fundus of the neoplasm was located in the root of left gastric artery. Intraoperative microscopic evaluation of frozen sections revealed malignancy of the lesser omentum. Resection of the neoplasm was performed, and the combined resection of the vagal nerve was also performed for the partial adhesion. Pyloroplasty was performed for avoiding delayed gastric emptying caused by combined resection of vagal nerve. The lymph nodes dissection at lesser curvature and right cardia was also performed with a negative result. Based on the histological findings, the final diagnosis of primary lesser omental SCC was confirmed. The pathologic staging showed locoregional disease.

  16. Embryo sac development in some representatives of the tribe Cynodonteae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Strydom

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Chloris virgata Sw., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., Harpochloa falx (L. f. Kuntze, and Tragus berteronianus Schult. have a Polygonum type of embryo sac development. Unreduced embryo sacs were found in Eustachys paspaloides (Vahl Lanza & Mattei,  Harpochloa falx, and  Rendlia altera (Rendle Chiov. Both facultative and obligate apomixis were observed. The Hieracium type of embryo sac development was observed in the aposporic specimens.

  17. Embryo sac development in some representatives of the tribe Cynodonteae (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Strydom; J. J. Spies

    1994-01-01

    Chloris virgata Sw., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Harpochloa falx (L. f.) Kuntze, and Tragus berteronianus Schult. have a Polygonum type of embryo sac development. Unreduced embryo sacs were found in Eustachys paspaloides (Vahl) Lanza & Mattei,  Harpochloa falx, and  Rendlia altera (Rendle) Chiov. Both facultative and obligate apomixis were observed. The Hieracium type of embryo sac development was observed in the aposporic specimens.

  18. A pigeon crop sac radioreceptor assay for prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, I.A.; Buntin, J.D.; Nicoll, C.S.

    1978-01-01

    Ovine prolactin, labelled with 125 I by either lactoperoxidase or a mild chloramine T method, was bound to receptors from the pigeon crop sac mucosa cells of prolactin-injected pigeons. Binding was demonstrated in a crude homogenate of mucosal cells removed from the crop by scraping and in a subcellular fraction in which 5'- nucleotidase activity was enhanced two- to three-fold. The binding was specific, dependent on time, temperature and the concentration of receptors and had a dissociation constant of 7 x 10 -10 mol/l. The binding capacity of the crop tissue was 71 fmol/mg membrane protein. Nine purified preparations of prolactin from four species were assayed by local pigeon crop sac bioassay and by radioreceptor assay. The two methods were highly correlated (r = 0.934). The regression equation was radioreceptor assay = 1.22 bioassay - 0.18 indicating a 1:1 correspondence between the two methods for prolactin purified from sheep, rat, horse and pig anterior pituitary glands. (author)

  19. The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonomov, Ognian C.; Filios, Catherine; Sbrissa, Diego; Chen, Xuequn; Shisheva, Assia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P 2 synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P 2 conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P 2 in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or indirectly the

  20. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suto C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto1,2, Masahiro Morinaga1,2, Tomoko Yagi1,2, Chieko Tsuji3, Hiroshi Toshida41Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanObjective: To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.Subjects and methods: The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis.Results: The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%, among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%, followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%. All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7% were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%, the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%. The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or

  1. Vaccine-induced canine distemper in a lesser panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M; Montali, R J; Brownstein, D; James, A E; Appel, M J

    1976-11-01

    A fatal disease occurred in a lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) 2 weeks after vaccination with modified live distemper vaccine. The disease clinically resembled canine distemper. Pathologically there was giant cell pneumonia, with canine distemper viral inclusion bodies in pulmonary and digestive tract epithelium. Viral isolates were indicative of an attenuated strain rather than virulent types.

  2. Nutrient Content of Four Lesser – Known Green Leafy Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of four lesser – known leafy vegetable species (Heinsiacrinita, Lasiantheraafricana, Colocasiaesculenta and Ipomeabatatas) used for traditional food preparations by the Efik and Ibibio ethnic groups in Nigeria were analyzed for proximate composition, amino acid profile and mineral contents. The leaves were ...

  3. Migration flyway of the Mediterranean breeding Lesser Crested Tern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis emigratus breeding population in the Mediterranean is found exclusively in Libya, on the two coastal islands of Gara and Elba and one wetland on the mainland coast at Benghazi. In order to improve knowledge of the species migration to wintering quarters in West Africa, ...

  4. An amateur botanist on the Lesser Sunda Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmutz, Erwin

    1976-01-01

    Tabula Rasa. In 1963 as a missionary I arrived in the Flora Malesiana region, notably in the Lesser Sunda Islands. A certain ’sensus botanicus’ was my only equipment for botanical surveys, and the next thing to do was to walk the arduous but occasionally quite entertaining road to discovery. I often

  5. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  6. Sex determination in the Lesser Flamingo ( Phoenicopterus minor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR amplification of the CHD-Z and CHD-W genes using DNA extracted from the blood samples was used to determine the sex of each bird. There were significant differences in mass and tarsus length among the three age groups, indicating that Lesser Flamingos continue to grow in skeletal size and mass between ...

  7. Clearance of chlamydial elementary bodies from the conjunctival sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.R.; Velez, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of disappearance of inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body (EB) preparations from the conjunctival sac was studied in monkeys. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) cytology showed that the majority of EB had been cleared from the eye within 24 hr of the inoculation of 1 X 10(6) inactivated EB, although small numbers of EB could be detected for up to 144 hr. The rate of clearance in normal and ocular immune animals did not differ, and formalin-killed and UV-inactivated EBs disappeared at a comparable rate. These studies suggest that chlamydial EB are cleared relatively quickly from the eye and support the notion that EBs detected by DFA cytology indicate the presence of current infection

  8. Involvement of Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase in the metabolism of phosphatidylserine in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

    2014-04-01

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that preferentially dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Mutation of SAC1 causes not only the accumulation of phosphoinositides but also reduction of the phosphatidylserine (PS) level in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we characterized the mechanism underlying the PS reduction in SAC1-deleted cells. Incorporation of (32) P into PS was significantly delayed in sac1∆ cells. Such a delay was also observed in SAC1- and PS decarboxylase gene-deleted cells, suggesting that the reduction in the PS level is caused by a reduction in the rate of biosynthesis of PS. A reduction in the PS level was also observed with repression of STT4 encoding phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase or deletion of VPS34 encoding phophatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, the combination of mutations of SAC1 and STT4 or VPS34 did not restore the reduced PS level, suggesting that both the synthesis and degradation of phosphoinositides are important for maintenance of the PS level. Finally, we observed an abnormal PS distribution in sac1∆ cells when a specific probe for PS was expressed. Collectively, these results suggested that Sac1 is involved in the maintenance of a normal rate of biosynthesis and distribution of PS. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Diagnostic imaging features of normal anal sacs in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yechan; Jeong, Eunseok; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Jimo; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

    2016-09-30

    This study was conducted to provide normal reference features for canine and feline anal sacs using ultrasound, low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiograph contrast as diagnostic imaging tools. A total of ten clinically normal beagle dogs and eight clinically normally cats were included. General radiography with contrast, ultrasonography and low-field MRI scans were performed. The visualization of anal sacs, which are located at distinct sites in dogs and cats, is possible with a contrast study on radiography. Most surfaces of the anal sacs tissue, occasionally appearing as a hyperechoic thin line, were surrounded by the hypoechoic external sphincter muscle on ultrasonography. The normal anal sac contents of dogs and cats had variable echogenicity. Signals of anal sac contents on low-field MRI varied in cats and dogs, and contrast medium using T1-weighted images enhanced the anal sac walls more obviously than that on ultrasonography. In conclusion, this study provides the normal features of anal sacs from dogs and cats on diagnostic imaging. Further studies including anal sac evaluation are expected to investigate disease conditions.

  10. Basement membrane components secreted by mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damjanov, A; Wewer, U M; Tuma, B

    1990-01-01

    Three new cell lines (NE, ME, LRD) were cloned from mouse-embryo-derived teratocarcinomas and characterized on the basis of developmental, ultrastructural, and cytochemical criteria as nullipotent embryonal carcinoma (EC), pure parietal yolk sac (PYS) carcinoma and mixed parieto-visceral yolk sac...

  11. Hysteroscopic Differences in the Gestational Sac in Asymptomatic Blighted Ovum and Viable Pregnancy at Early Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Tsai Kung

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: The anatomic alterations of the gestational sac reflect impending sac necrosis and abortion in early-stage pregnancy loss. There were no morphologic differences between the two groups in the pattern of capillary distribution on the endometrium or the implantation base.

  12. pH sensing via bicarbonate-regulated ‘soluble’ adenylyl cyclase (sAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawreen eRahman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC is a source of the second messenger cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP. sAC is directly regulated by bicarbonate (HCO3- ions. In living cells, HCO3- ions are in nearly instantaneous equilibrium with carbon dioxide (CO2 and pH due to the ubiquitous presence of carbonic anhydrases. Numerous biological processes are regulated by CO2, HCO3-, and/or pH, and in a number of these, sAC has been shown to function as a physiological CO2/HCO3/pH sensor. In this review, we detail the known pH sensing functions of sAC, and we discuss two highly-studied, pH-dependent pathways in which sAC might play a role.

  13. Evaluation of tsunami risk in the Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zahibo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to give the preliminary estimates of the tsunami risks for the Lesser Antilles. We investigated the available data of the tsunamis in the French West Indies using the historical data and catalogue of the tsunamis in the Lesser Antilles. In total, twenty-four (24 tsunamis were recorded in this area for last 400 years; sixteen (16 events of the seismic origin, five (5 events of volcanic origin and three (3 events of unknown source. Most of the tsunamigenic earthquakes (13 occurred in the Caribbean, and three tsunamis were generated during far away earthquakes (near the coasts of Portugal and Costa Rica. The estimates of tsunami risk are based on a preliminary analysis of the seismicity of the Caribbean area and the historical data of tsunamis. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of historical extreme runup tsunami data on Guadeloupe, and these data are revised after a survey in Guadeloupe.

  14. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-06-30

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration.

  15. Sacrococcygeal yolk sac carcinoma: imaging findings during treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaste, S.C.; Bridges, J.O.; Marina, N.M.

    1996-01-01

    Sacrococcygeal teratomas and their malignant counterparts (germ cell tumors) are the most common solid tumors in neonates. Prompt diagnosis is essential because the frequency of malignant transformation increases from 10-20 % in neonates to 67 % in patients over 2 months of age. Cross-sectional imaging has largely replaced surgical exploration for staging these tumors and assessing their response to chemotherapy. Radiologists must be familiar with changes in the imaging findings of these tumors during and after treatment so that they can advise clinicians regarding the efficacy of therapy and the presence or absence of recurrent disease. From our study, magnetic resonance imaging appears to be a better modality for assessing sacral invasion and metastases and distinguishing fibrotic masses from recurrent tumor. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Gene expression demonstrates an immunological capacity of the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to explore, demonstrate, and describe the expression of genes related to the innate immune system in the human endolymphatic sac. It is hypothesized that the endolymphatic sac has a significant immunological function in the human inner ear...... was obtained. Multiple key elements of both the cellular and humoral innate immune system were expressed, including Toll-like receptors 4 and 7, as well as beta-defensin and lactoferrin. CONCLUSIONS: The present data provides the first direct evidence of an immunological capacity of the human endolymphatic sac...... immunological entity of the inner ear. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A....

  17. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies

  18. An unusual feature of yolk sac placentation in Necromys lasiurus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favaron, P O; Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A M

    2012-01-01

    . Elsewhere it was non-villous and closely attached to the uterus. The uterine glands were shallow and wide mouthed. They were associated with vessels and filled with secretion, suggesting the release of histotroph. This feature was absent at later stages. The intimate association of the yolk sac......We studied the development of the inverted yolk sac in a New World rodent, Necromys lasiurus during early placentation. Ten implantation sites were investigated by means of histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The yolk sac was villous near its attachment to the placenta...

  19. Age and egg-sac loss determine maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Fanny; Chiara, Violette; Trabalon, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Wolf spiders' (Lycosidae) maternal behaviour includes a specific phase called "egg brooding" which consists of guarding and carrying an egg-sac throughout the incubation period. The transport of an egg-sac can restrict mothers' exploratory and locomotor activity, in particular when foraging. The present study details the ontogeny of maternal behaviour and assesses the influence of age of egg-sac (or embryos' developmental stage) on vagrant wolf spider Pardosa saltans females' exploration and locomotion. We observed these spiders' maternal behaviour in the laboratory and evaluated their locomotor activity using a digital activity recording device. Our subjects were virgin females (without egg-sac) and first time mothers (with her egg-sac) who were divided into three groups. The first group of mothers were tested on the day the egg-sac was built (day 0), and the females of the other two groups were tested 10 or 15days after they had built their egg-sac. We evaluated the effects of the presence and the loss of egg-sac on mothers' activity. Pardosa saltans females' behaviour depended on mothers' physiological state and/or age of egg-sac (developmental stage of embryos). Virgin females' behaviour was not modified by the presence of an egg-sac in their environment. Mothers' reactions to the presence, the loss and the recovery of their egg-sac varied during the maternal cycle. Maternal behaviour changed with age of egg-sac, but the levels of locomotor activity of mothers with egg-sacs was similar to those of virgin females. Loss of egg-sac modified the maternal behaviour and locomotor activity of all mothers; these modifications were greater on "day 15" when embryos had emerged from eggs. All mothers were able to retrieve their egg-sacs and to re-attach them to their spinnerets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional development of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Salamaga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Regional development includes qualitative changes in economy (e.g. in production, investments, employment as well as qualitative changes (regarding the structure of economy and society, changes in the environment. The research of regional development is important and necessary in order to make appropriate decisions at the regional and local level. The main purpose of the article is comparative analysis of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship in the area of economic, social and ecological development. Scientific aim: The scientific aims of paper are verifying the hypothesis concerning eco-development and forecasting the level of regional development in districts of Lesser Poland Voivodship. Methodology/methods: In the research of regional development the quality index of economic, social and ecological development has been proposed which has been calculated on the basis of a certain aggregation of the results of the Principal Component Analysis made on the correlation matrix of standardised variables being the components of the index. Forecasts of the regional development level in districts were calculated with the use of different econometric models as linear model, exponential model, or power model. Findings: The findings prove that the Lesser Poland Voivodship is characterised by considerable disproportions in regional development. The most favourable conditions for economic and social development are in the districts with large city agglomerations as well as extensive municipality infrastructure and transport infrastructure. The presented results demonstrate that the majority of districts have not exhibited a constant tendency to changes in the positions in successive ranking lists in terms of the economic, social and ecological development. The positions occupied by most districts are generally stable and have not changed considerably in the examined period. Conclusions: The research has confirmed the negative

  1. Studies on the abnormality of embryo sac and pollen fertility in aurotetraploid rice during different growing seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Jilanfan, S.; Changmin, W.; Peng, Z.; Xiang-dong, X.

    2010-01-01

    Auto tetraploid rice has a great genetic potential but low seed setting rate is the major encumbrance in its use. Embryo sac fertility and pollen fertility are the most important factors which affect the seed setting rate in auto tetraploid rice. Whole mount eosin B-staining confocal laser scanning microscopy (WE-CLSM) was used to study the fertility and abnormalities in embryo sacs of diploid and auto tetraploid rice during different seasons. The results indicated that the embryo sac fertility (64.5%) was much low in auto tetraploid than that in diploid rice (86%), and five main types of abnormal embryo sac were found in all 10 auto tetraploid rice. Moreover, some other type abnormal embryo sacs were also observed in auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac without female germ unit and embryo sac degeneration were the most frequent types of abnormalities in auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac fertility ranged from 49.3% to 79.3%, pollen fertility ranged from 56.2 to 85.9%, and seed setting rate varied from 12.5 to 69.01% in various genotypes of auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac and pollen fertility were found to have a significant correlation with seed setting rate. Seasons have significant effect on pollen and embryo sac fertility in both type of rice. All the auto tetraploid lines exhibited different types of embryo sac abnormalities which indicated that these might be related to different genotypes. (author)

  2. Innate immune defense in the inner ear - mucines are expressed by the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin N; Kirkeby, Svend; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2017-01-01

    The human endolymphatic sac has been shown recently to have immunological capacities and has thus been proposed as the main entity protecting the inner ear from pathogen invasion, equivalent to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Although the sac expresses molecules of the innate immune...... system, the potential expression of members of the important mucin family has not been detailed. Thus, this paper explores endolymphatic sac expression of a number of mucins and mucin precursors. Twelve fresh tissue samples from the human endolymphatic sac were obtained during translabyrinthine surgery...... immunological tissue structure of the inner ear, equivalent to MALT in other organs. The mucins may also play a role in the formation and continuous homeostasis of the inner ear fluids, as well as the pathogenesis of Meniere's disease....

  3. Development of the inverted visceral yolk sac in three species of caviids (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Caviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglino, M A; Franciolli, A L R; de Oliveira, M F; Ambrósio, C E; Bonatelli, M; Machado, M R F; Mess, A

    2008-08-01

    Guinea pig related rodents possess numerous derived placental characters. We attempt to identify diversity within the visceral yolk sac and its association with the chorioallantoic placenta in three species of caviids, two of them possessing a capsule formed by the decidua that covers the chorioallantoic placenta. The results verify that in early pregnancy all three species have an inverted yolk sac placenta. In advanced pregnancy the species differ: Galea spixii, as representative without a capsule, bear a yolk sac in apposition to the chorioallantoic placenta with signs of exchange activity until term. Galea is similar to other caviomorphs in this respect. In Dasyprocta leporina and Cuniculus paca, the representatives possessing a capsule, the yolk sac endoderm lacks signs of substance exchange. Evidently, the presence of a capsule prevents such an interaction. The variations established here must be considered if animal models for human placentation are required which have restricted access to the chorioallantoic placenta from the outside.

  4. The echoic pseudogestational sac of ectopic pregnancy simulating early intrauterine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, R M; Stein, K; Shih, Y H; Goodman, J D

    1983-05-01

    The sonographic features of ectopic pregnancy have been well documented. When an early intrauterine pregnancy is identified or an obvious extrauterine sac is visualized, diagnosis is not a problem; but often a sac is seen within the uterus that may contain a well-defined rind and even internal echoes simulating an early fetal pole. This has been mistaken for an early intrauterine pregnancy. In this review, four patients with pseudogestational sacs had internal echoes within the sac, and two of them ultimately underwent dilatation and curettage, which revealed blood clots. This supports the assertion that fetal cardiac activity and/or fetal motion should be demonstrated within a fetal pole before the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is excluded.

  5. Ultrastructure of endothelium in ovules of Penstemon gentianoides Poir. (Scrophulariaceae) at mature embryo sac phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Feruzan; Olgun, Göksel; Ekici, Nuran

    2007-06-01

    In this study ultrastructural differences between endothelial cells of different location in Penstemon gentianoides have been examined with electron microscope at mature embryo sac phase. Embryo sac is of the Polygonum type and surrounded by endothelium except the micropylar region. The cuticle is located primarily around the chalazal three-fourths of the embryo sac. Endothelium cells around the chalaza and toward the micropylar region are rich in cytoplasmic organelles. The cytoplasm of endothelial cells near the central cell has large vacuoles and few organelles. There are also plasmodesmas on the anticlinal walls of endothelial cells. The endothelium and the micropylar integumentary cells play a role in transport of metabolites into the embryo sac.

  6. Intra-gestational sac injection for tubal pregnancy: an interventional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yitang; Sun Xiaobo; Xu Xiaojun; Zhang Feiyue; Wu Ke; Song Yingxin; Han Mingjun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: It's an investigation of the procedure, effects and clinical application of the interventional intra-gestational sac injection as a treatment of tubal pregnancy. Methods: Under DSA guidance a selective salpingography was performed and MTX was injected into the gestational sac or oviduct. The procedure was performed in 13 cases with oviductal pregnancy before the gestational sac ruptured. Results: Technical success was obtained in all cases. The serum HCG began to fall in 7 days after the procedure, and dropped to normal level in 2-4 weeks of the procedure. Conclusion: Interventional selective salpingography and intra-gestational sac injection is a simple, safe and effective treatment of the un-ruptured tubal pregnancy

  7. Yolk sac development in lizards (Lacertilia: Scincidae): New perspectives on the egg of amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James R; Thompson, Michael B

    2017-04-01

    Embryos of oviparous reptiles develop on the surface of a large mass of yolk, which they metabolize to become relatively large hatchlings. Access to the yolk is provided by tissues growing outward from the embryo to cover the surface of the yolk. A key feature of yolk sac development is a dedicated blood vascular system to communicate with the embryo. The best known model for yolk sac development and function of oviparous amniotes is based on numerous studies of birds, primarily domestic chickens. In this model, the vascular yolk sac forms the perimeter of the large yolk mass and is lined by a specialized epithelium, which takes up, processes and transports yolk nutrients to the yolk sac blood vessels. Studies of lizard yolk sac development, dating to more than 100 years ago, report characteristics inconsistent with this model. We compared development of the yolk sac from oviposition to near hatching in embryonic series of three species of oviparous scincid lizards to consider congruence with the pattern described for birds. Our findings reinforce results of prior studies indicating that squamate reptiles mobilize and metabolize the large yolk reserves in their eggs through a process unknown in other amniotes. Development of the yolk sac of lizards differs from birds in four primary characteristics, migration of mesoderm, proliferation of endoderm, vascular development and cellular diversity within the yolk sac cavity. Notably, all of the yolk is incorporated into cells relatively early in development and endodermal cells within the yolk sac cavity align along blood vessels which course throughout the yolk sac cavity. The pattern of uptake of yolk by endodermal cells indicates that the mechanism of yolk metabolism differs between lizards and birds and that the evolution of a fundamental characteristic of embryonic nutrition diverged in these two lineages. Attributes of the yolk sac of squamates reveal the existence of phylogenetic diversity among amniote lineages

  8. A Giant Occipital Encephalocele in Neonate with Spontaneous Hemorrhage into the Encephalocele Sac: Surgical Management

    OpenAIRE

    Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael; Escobar-Hernandez, Nidia; Aquino-Matus, Jose; Puac-Polanco, Paulo Cesar; Hoz, Samer S; Calderon-Miranda, Willem Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    The presence of giant occipital encephalocele represents a surgical challenge. However, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging with venography can help in delineating relation of venous sinus, content of the sac and help classify occipital encephalocele into infra-torcular and torcular depending on the relation with position of torcula. However, the presence of old hemorrhage into encephalocele sac is extremely rare and in the detailed PubMed search, the authors could find one such case, rep...

  9. Comparison between Conventional OCDMA and Subcarrier Multiplexing SAC OCDMA System Based on Single Photodiode Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad N. A. A; Junita M. N; Aljunid Syed Alwi; Che Beson Mohd Rashidi; Endut Rosdisham

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the comparison between conventional OCDMA system and subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) SAC-OCDMA system by applying Recursive Combinatorial (RC) code based on single photodiode detection (SPD). SPD is used in the receiver part to reduce the effect of multiple access interference (MAI) which contributes as a dominant noise in incoherent SAC-OCDMA systems. From this analysis, the performance of SCM OCDMA network could be improved by using lower data rates and higher received...

  10. [DESIGN AND CLINICAL APPLICATION OF LESSER TROCHANTERIC REDUCTION FIXATION SYSTEM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoze; Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Jin; Xie, Huibin; Yu, Jiefeng

    2015-02-01

    To design and produce a lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system and verify its value and effectiveness. A lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system was designed and produced according to the anatomical features of the lesser trochanteric fractures. Sixty-six patients with intertrochanteric fractures of Evans type III were included between January 2010 and July 2012. Of 66 patients, 32 were treated with dynamic hip screw (DHS) assisted with the lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system (study group), and 34 cases were treated with DHS only (control group). The 2 groups were comparable with no significant difference in gender, age, the reasons, and the types of the fractures (P > 0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, neck-shaft angle, bone healing time, ratio of successful fixations, and the functional evaluation of the hip joint after operation were compared between 2 groups. The study group had shorter operation time [(58.4 ± 5.3) minutes] and less intraoperative blood loss [(186.3 ± 6.6) mL than the control group [(78.5 ± 6.2)minutes and (246.2 ± 8.7) mL], showing significant differences (t = -14.040, P = 0.000; t = -31.145, P = 0.000). There was no significant difference in neck-shaft angle between study group [(138.6 ± 3.0)] and control group [(139.4 ± 2.9) degrees] (t = -1.044, P = 0.301). The wounds healed by first intention in both groups. The 30 and 31 patients were followed up 12 to 24 months (mean, 15 months) in the study group, and 13 to 25 months (mean, 16 months) in the control group, respectively. All fractures healed well in 2 groups. The study group had significantly shorter healing time [(8.8 ± 2.0) weeks] than the control group [(10.7 ± 3.4) weeks] (t = -2.871, P = 0.006). At 12 months after operation, coxa vara happened in 2 cases of the study group with a successful fixation ratio of 93.3% and in 10 cases of the control group with a successful fixation ratio of 67.7%, showing significant difference (Χ2 = 6

  11. Expression of yeast lipid phosphatase Sac1p is regulated by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayinger Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoinositides play a central role in regulating processes at intracellular membranes. In yeast, a large number of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes use a common mechanism for transcriptional regulation. Yet, how the expression of genes encoding lipid kinases and phosphatases is regulated remains unknown. Results Here we show that the expression of lipid phosphatase Sac1p in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated in response to changes in phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI(4P concentrations. Unlike genes encoding enzymes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis, expression of the SAC1 gene is independent of inositol levels. We identified a novel 9-bp motif within the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR of SAC1 that is responsible for PI(4P-mediated regulation. Upregulation of SAC1 promoter activity correlates with elevated levels of Sac1 protein levels. Conclusion Regulation of Sac1p expression via the concentration of its major substrate PI(4P ensures proper maintenance of compartment-specific pools of PI(4P.

  12. Brain tumor and CT, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Katada, Kazuhiro; Shinomiya, Youichi; Sano, Hirotoshi; Kanno, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    It is very important for a neurosurgeon to know the consistency of a brain tumor preoperatively, since the information which is of much use in indicating the likely difficulty of the operation, which operative tools should be selected, the amount of bleeding to be expected from the tumor, and so on. The authors, therefore, tried to evaluate the consistency of brain tumors preoperatively 27 cases in which the margin of the tumor was made clear with a homogeneous stain were studied concerning the relationship between the tumor consistency and the CT findings. The results are as follows: 1) A higher CT number on a plain CT indicated a harder consistency of the tumor. 2) A lesser contrast index (CT number on enhancement CT/CT number on plain CT) showed a harder consistency of the tumor. (author)

  13. Selective Intra-procedural AAA sac Embolization During EVAR Reduces the Rate of Type II Endoleak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascoli, C; Freyrie, A; Gargiulo, M; Gallitto, E; Pini, R; Faggioli, G; Serra, C; De Molo, C; Stella, A

    2016-05-01

    The pre-treatment presence of at least six efferent patent vessels (EPV) from the AAA sac and/or AAA thrombus volume ratio (VR%) AAA sac embolization (Group A, 2012-2013) were retrospectively selected and compared with a control group of patients with the same p-MRF, who underwent EVAR without intra-procedural sac embolization (Group B, 2008-2010). The presence of ELIIp was evaluated by duplex ultrasound at 0 and 6 months, and by contrast enhanced ultrasound at 12 months. The association between AAA diameter, age, COPD, smoking, anticoagulant therapy, and AAA sac embolization with ELIIp was evaluated using multiple logistic regression. The primary endpoint was the effectiveness of the intra-procedural AAA sac embolization for ELIIp prevention. Secondary endpoints were AAA sac evolution and freedom from ELIIp and embolization related re-interventions at 6-12 months. Seventy patients were analyzed: 26 Group A and 44 Group B; the groups were homogeneous for clinical/morphological characteristics. In Group A the median number of coils positioned in AAA sac was 4.1 (IQR 1). There were no complications related to the embolization procedures. A significantly lower number of ELIIp was detected in Group A than in Group B (8/26 vs. 33/44, respectively, p AAA sac embolization was the only factor independently associated with freedom from ELIIp at 6 (OR 0.196, 95% CI 0.06-0.63; p = .007) and 12 months (OR 0.098, 95% CI 0.02-0.35; p AAA sac diameter shrinkage were detected between the two groups at 6-12 months (p = .42 and p = .58, respectively). Freedom from ELIIp related and embolization related re-interventions was 100% in both groups, at 6 and 12 months. Selective intra-procedural AAA sac embolization in patients with p-MRF is safe and could be an effective method to reduce ELIIp. Further studies are mandatory to support these results at long-term follow up. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Valuation issues in lesser developed countries: Investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Privatization has become the buzzword of the early 1990s, as all over the world governments are selling off their assets. Monopolistic utilities such as gas, water and waste disposal - but particularly electric - are prime assets for sale because their cash flows and competitive environment are reasonably predictable. Utility privatization in lesser developed countries (LDC) is giving rise to many new investment opportunities where predictions of high growth rates lead to anticipation of lucrative returns. Potential investors, however, should fully exercise the concept of caveat emptor: let the buyer beware. Coupled with these lucrative returns are risks arising from less stable political and economic conditions. possible market inefficiencies, and potentially high transaction costs. This article explores the central issues involved in valuing privatization investment opportunities in LDCs and performing requisite due diligence reviews

  15. Muon tomography: Plans for observations in the Lesser Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, Dominique; Beauducel, Francois; Lesparre, Nolwenn; Tarantola, Albert; Declais, Yves; Marteau, Jacques; Nicollin, Florence

    2010-01-01

    The application of muon tomography to monitor and image the internal structure of volcanoes in the Lesser Antilles is discussed. Particular focus is directed towards the three volcanoes that fall under the responsibility of the Institut de Physique du Globe of Paris, namely La Montagne Pelee in Martinique, La Soufriere in Guadeloupe, and the Soufriere Hills in Montserrat. The technological criteria for the design of portable muon telescopes are presented in detail for both their mechanical and electronic aspects. The detector matrices are constructed with scintillator strips, and their detection characteristics are discussed. The tomography inversion is presented, and its distinctive characteristics are briefly discussed. Details are given on the implementation of muon tomography experiments on La Soufriere in Guadeloupe. (author)

  16. The difference in cultural curriculum: for a lesser (Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo César Bueno Nunes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current time is contingent, plural, decentralized, free of old identities and permeated by the noise of voices that have never been heard. Inserted in such context, the school tries to overcome traces of the past and face the struggles of the present. Regarding physical education, the cultural curriculum seems to contribute with the new era mentality by questioning the hegemony of body practices and meanings of the privileged groups to promote the pedagogy of difference. This study analyzed the most important works on this proposal, identifying teaching principles and procedures that characterize it and submitted them to the confrontation with the notion of pure difference by Gilles Deleuze. The results indicate that the cultural curriculum takes the features of a lesser (physical education when it listens what the „different ones‟ have to say and pays attention to the cultural body repertoire that students can access

  17. Seismic Analysis Code (SAC): Development, porting, and maintenance within a legacy code base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, B.; Snoke, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) is the result of toil of many developers over almost a 40-year history. Initially a Fortran-based code, it has undergone major transitions in underlying bit size from 16 to 32, in the 1980s, and 32 to 64 in 2009; as well as a change in language from Fortran to C in the late 1990s. Maintenance of SAC, the program and its associated libraries, have tracked changes in hardware and operating systems including the advent of Linux in the early 1990, the emergence and demise of Sun/Solaris, variants of OSX processors (PowerPC and x86), and Windows (Cygwin). Traces of these systems are still visible in source code and associated comments. A major concern while improving and maintaining a routinely used, legacy code is a fear of introducing bugs or inadvertently removing favorite features of long-time users. Prior to 2004, SAC was maintained and distributed by LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Lab). In that year, the license was transferred from LLNL to IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology), but the license is not open source. However, there have been thousands of downloads a year of the package, either source code or binaries for specific system. Starting in 2004, the co-authors have maintained the SAC package for IRIS. In our updates, we fixed bugs, incorporated newly introduced seismic analysis procedures (such as EVALRESP), added new, accessible features (plotting and parsing), and improved the documentation (now in HTML and PDF formats). Moreover, we have added modern software engineering practices to the development of SAC including use of recent source control systems, high-level tests, and scripted, virtualized environments for rapid testing and building. Finally, a "sac-help" listserv (administered by IRIS) was setup for SAC-related issues and is the primary avenue for users seeking advice and reporting bugs. Attempts are always made to respond to issues and bugs in a timely fashion. For the past thirty-plus years

  18. Failure of zinc to prevent dysmorphogenesis of cultured rat conceptuses by anti-yolk sac antiserum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, R.; Freeman, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Day 10 rat conceptuses were cultured for 48h in the presence of either cadmium or anti-vesceral yolk sac antiserum (AVYS). Cadmium was embryotoxic at concentrations exceeding 0.25 ug/ml while AVYS caused embryonic dysmorphogenesis, particularly affecting the optic vesicles, at concentrations of 2 ul/ml and above. The effect of pretreatment with zinc on embryotoxicity caused by cadmium or AVYS was studied. Zinc ameliorated the effects of cadmium but had no effect on AVYS-induced embryonic abnormalities. In a second set of experiments inhibition of 125 I-labelled PVP uptake by the yolk sac of cultured whole conceptuses was studied. Cadmium and AVYS both inhibited uptake compared to control cultures. Zinc again ameliorated the effect of cadmium but had no action against AVYS-induced inhibition. These results are in contrast to their previous findings using isolated cultured yolk sacs in which zinc ameliorated the inhibitory effects on 125 I-labelled PVP uptake of both cadmium and AVYS. These data show that in experiments using the isolated cultured yolk sac and the intact cultured conceptus, a qualitatively different response in yolk sac behavior is observed under similar experimental conditions

  19. The Evolutionary Economics of Embryonic-Sac Fluids in Squamate Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Xavier; Naulleau, Guy; Shine, Richard

    2017-03-01

    The parchment-shelled eggs of squamate reptiles take up substantial water from the nest environment, enabling the conversion of yolk into neonatal tissue and buffering the embryo against the possibility of subsequent dry weather. During development, increasing amounts of water are stored in the embryonic sacs (i.e., membranes around the embryo: amnion, allantois, and chorion). The evolution of viviparity (prolonged uterine retention of developing embryos) means that embryonic-sac fluid storage now imposes a cost (increased maternal burdening), confers less benefit (because the mother buffers fetal water balance), and introduces a potential conflict among uterine siblings (for access to finite water supplies). Our data on nine species of squamate reptiles and published information on three species show that the embryonic-sac fluids comprise around 33% of neonatal mass in viviparous species versus 94% in full-term eggs of oviparous squamates. Data on parturition in 149 vipers (Vipera aspis, a viviparous species) show that larger offspring store more fluids in their fetal sacs and that an increase in litter size is associated with a decrease in fluid-sac mass per offspring. Overall, the evolutionary transition from oviparity to viviparity may have substantially altered selective forces on offspring packaging and created competition among offspring for access to water reserves during embryonic development.

  20. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus Yolk Sac Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Illing

    Full Text Available This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW. In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish.

  1. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus) Yolk Sac Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Niemax, Jan; Peck, Myron A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica) and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina) on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac) period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier) and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW). In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin) and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio) markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish.

  2. Modeling of Marine Natural Hazards in the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahibo, Narcisse; Nikolkina, Irina; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2010-05-01

    The Caribbean Sea countries are often affected by various marine natural hazards: hurricanes and cyclones, tsunamis and flooding. The historical data of marine natural hazards for the Lesser Antilles and specially, for Guadeloupe are presented briefly. Numerical simulation of several historical tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea (1755 Lisbon trans-Atlantic tsunami, 1867 Virgin Island earthquake tsunami, 2003 Montserrat volcano tsunami) are performed within the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. Numerical results demonstrate the importance of the real bathymetry variability with respect to the direction of propagation of tsunami wave and its characteristics. The prognostic tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed using various forms of seismic and hydrodynamics sources. These results are used to estimate the far-field potential for tsunami hazards at coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. The nonlinear shallow-water theory is also applied to model storm surges induced by tropical cyclones, in particular, cyclones "Lilli" in 2002 and "Dean" in 2007. Obtained results are compared with observed data. The numerical models have been tested against known analytical solutions of the nonlinear shallow-water wave equations. Obtained results are described in details in [1-7]. References [1] N. Zahibo and E. Pelinovsky, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 1, 221 (2001). [2] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, A. Yalciner, A. Kurkin, A. Koselkov and A. Zaitsev, Oceanologica Acta, 26, 609 (2003). [3] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, A. Kurkin and A. Kozelkov, Science Tsunami Hazards. 21, 202 (2003). [4] E. Pelinovsky, N. Zahibo, P. Dunkley, M. Edmonds, R. Herd, T. Talipova, A. Kozelkov and I. Nikolkina, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 22, 44 (2004). [5] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, E. Okal, A. Yalciner, C. Kharif, T. Talipova and A. Kozelkov, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 23, 25 (2005). [6] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, T. Talipova, A. Rabinovich, A. Kurkin and I

  3. Auto-inflammatory challenge of the endolymphatic sac - Cochlear damage measured by distortion product oto-acoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael; Friis, Morten; Karlsen, Charlotte Vestrup

    2015-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Twenty-five rats were challenged by an immunologic attack of the endolymphatic sac. After 6 months, distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAE) revealed a dysfunction of the outer hair cells and immunological active cells were observed in the endolymphatic sac. This information...... could contribute to the understanding of Ménière's disease. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated if an autoimmune challenge of the endolymphatic sac could affect DPOAE output measurements in rats. Also, a potential autoimmune cell infiltration of the endolymphatic sac was investigated. METHODS: Eighteen...

  4. Retroperitoneal endodermal sinus tumor patient with palliative care needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a case reflection of a personal encounter on the palliative care treatment required after the removal of a complicated case of a primary extra-gonadal retro-peritoneal endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor. This reflection is from the perspective of a recently graduated MD student who spent one month with an Indian pain management and palliative care team at the Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital (IRCH, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi

  5. The lesser evil? Initiating a benzodiazepine prescription in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthierens, Sibyl; Habraken, Hilde; Petrovic, Mirko; Christiaens, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Objective Chronic benzodiazepine (BZD) use is widespread and linked with adverse effects. There is consensus concerning the importance of initiating BZD as a crucial moment. Nevertheless specific research in this field is lacking. This paper addresses the views of GPs on why they start prescribing BZDs to first-time users. Design Qualitative study with five focus groups analysed using a systematic content analysis. Setting Regions of Ghent and Brussels in Belgium. Subjects A total of 35 general practitioners. Main outcome measure The GPs’ perspective on their initiating of BZD prescribing. Results GPs reported that they are cautious in initiating BZD usage. At the same time, GPs feel overwhelmed by the psychosocial problems of their patients. They show empathy by prescribing. They feel in certain situations there are no other solutions and they experience BZDs as the lesser evil. They admit to resorting to BZDs because of time restraint and lack of alternatives. GPs do not perceive the addictive nature of BZD consumption as a problem with first-time users. GPs do not specifically mention patients’ demand as an element for starting. Conclusion The main concern of GPs is to help the patient. GPs should be aware of the addictive nature of BZD even in low doses and a non-pharmacological approach should be seen as the best first approach. If GPs decide to prescribe a BZD they should make plain to the patient that the medication is only a “temporary” solution with clear agreements with regard to medication withdrawal. PMID:18041658

  6. Oxygenated fixation demonstrates novel and improved ultrastructural features of the human endolymphatic sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of the present study is to describe in detail the ultrastructure of the human endolymphatic sac using a new and improved method of fixation as well as a refined surgical approach in obtaining specimens. STUDY DESIGN: Transmission electron microscopy of the human...... epithelial cell lining in all 18 specimens. In general, we found very well-preserved specimens with well-defined intracellular structures. In contrast to the results in former studies, a minimum of fixation artifacts was observed in the present study. Three different cell types were observed...... endolymphatic sac, employing an oxygenated fixative. METHODS: Eighteen tissue samples of the human endolymphatic sac were obtained during surgery for vestibular schwannoma using the translabyrinthine approach. The specimens were fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in an oxygenated fluorocarbon blood substitute vehicle...

  7. Identification of recurrent chromosomal aberrations in germ cell tumors of neonates and infants using genomewide array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, I.M.; Veltman, J.; Janssen, I.M.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Oosterhuis, W.; Schneider, D.; Stoop, H.; Gillis, A.J.M.; Zahn, S.; Looijenga, L.H.J.; Gobel, U.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Human germ cell tumors (GCTs) of neonates and infants comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, including teratomas and yolk sac tumors with distinct clinical and epidemiologic features. As yet, little is known about the cytogenetic constitution of these tumors. We applied the recently developed

  8. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  9. Estrategias de desarrollo para la empresa Cal del Centro S.A.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Antón, Yovanni Patricia; Mendoza Rojas, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Cal del Centro S.A.C. es una sociedad anónima cerrada cuyo negocio gira en torno a la actividad económica de la fabricación de cemento, cal y yeso. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la posibilidad de éxito de un proyecto de inversión en una planta de cal, a través de Cal del Centro S.A.C. –como empresa autosuficiente–, para asegurar el cien por ciento del suministro de óxido de calcio en cantidad y calidad para el procesamiento de concentrados de cobre y el tratamiento de aguas indu...

  10. A Giant Occipital Encephalocele in Neonate with Spontaneous Hemorrhage into the Encephalocele Sac: Surgical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael; Escobar-Hernandez, Nidia; Aquino-Matus, Jose; Puac-Polanco, Paulo Cesar; Hoz, Samer S; Calderon-Miranda, Willem Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    The presence of giant occipital encephalocele represents a surgical challenge. However, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging with venography can help in delineating relation of venous sinus, content of the sac and help classify occipital encephalocele into infra-torcular and torcular depending on the relation with position of torcula. However, the presence of old hemorrhage into encephalocele sac is extremely rare and in the detailed PubMed search, the authors could find one such case, reported by Nath et al. The author reports a case of giant occipital encephalocele; during surgery, evidence of old bleed was noted. Pertinent literature and management are reviewed briefly. PMID:29204205

  11. Experimental demonstration of variable weight SAC-OCDMA system for QoS differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    In this paper the experimental and simulation results of variable-weight spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (VW-SAC-OCDMA) system is demonstrated. In the proposed system, three users with weights of 6, 4 and 2 each operating at data rate of 1.25 Gb/s represent video, data and voice services, respectively. Results show that for back-to-back system minimum average power of -20 dBm per chip is required to maintain the acceptable performance. Transmission up to 60 km of fiber is demonstrated. Using mathematical approximation the capacity of VW-SAC-OCDMA system is demonstrated.

  12. Planeamiento estratégico de la empresa ABR Lagos S.A.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuloeta Lagos, Bujarin Jaime

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene por finalidad desarrollar un Plan Estratégico para la empresa ABR Lagos S.A.C. para el periodo 2016-2020, con lo cual se busca consolidar su permanencia en el mercado peruano, incrementar su rentabilidad y mejorar la calidad del servicio. ABR Lagos S.A.C. es una empresa especializada en la fabricación e instalación de estructuras metálicas, la cual con casi siete años en el mercado ha mostrado un significativo crecimiento en las ventas. Para el logro del objeti...

  13. Stratigraphy of the Grande Savane Ignimbrite Sequence, Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.; Smith, A. L.; Deuerling, K.; Killingsworth, N.; Daly, G.

    2007-12-01

    The island of Dominica, located in the central part of the Lesser Antilles island arc has eight potentially active volcanoes. One of these, Morne Diablotins, is a composite stratovolcano with several superimposed stratigraphic sequences ranging in age from Pliocene (4-2 Ma) to "Younger" Pleistocene (22,000 and >40,000 years B.P. The ignimbrite sequences form four flow fans that reached both the east and west coasts of the island. One of these flow fans, the Grande Savane, on the west coast of the island, also extends off-shore for a distance of at least 14 km as a distinctive submarine fan. Stratigraphical studies of the on- shore deposits that make up this fan indicate an older sequence of block and ash flow deposits, within which occurs a distinctive vulcanian fall deposit. These are overlain, with no evidence of an intervening paleosol, by a sequence of ignimbrites containing welded horizons (ranging in thickness from around 4 m to 16m). The lack of fall deposits beneath the ignimbrites suggest they may have been formed by instantaneous continuous collapse of the eruption column. This whole succession is overlain by a series of planar and dune bedded pumiceous surge deposits with interbedded pumiceous lapilli fall and ash fall deposits, that extend laterally outside of the main area of ignimbrite deposition. Beds within this upper sequence often contain accretionary lapilli and gas cavities suggesting magma-water interaction. The youngest deposits from Morne Diablotins appear to be valley- fill deposits of both ignimbrite and block and ash flow. A comparison of the of the Grande Savane pyroclastic sequence with the Pointe Ronde (west coast) and Londonderry (east coast) pyroclastic flow fans will provide information on the eruptive history of this major Plinian episode.

  14. Predictive MRI correlates of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate tear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, Rachel L. [Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Umans, Benjamin D. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Umans, Hilary [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Elsinger, Elisabeth [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-07-15

    To identify correlated signs on non-enhanced MRI that might improve diagnostic detection of plantar plate (PP) tear. We performed an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective analysis of 100 non-contrast MRI (50 PP tear, 50 controls). All were anonymized, randomized, and reviewed; 20 were duplicated to assess consistency. One musculoskeletal radiologist evaluated qualitative variables. A trained non-physician performed measurements. Consistency and concordance were assessed. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to test the correlation between qualitative findings and PP tear status. Correlation between measurements and PP status was assessed using t tests and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test (p values < 0.05 considered significant). Classification and regression trees were utilized to identify attributes that, taken together, would consistently distinguish PP tear from controls. Quantitative measurements were highly reproducible (concordance 0.88-0.99). Elevated 2nd MT protrusion, lesser MT supination and rotational divergence of >45 between the 1st-2nd MT axis correlated with PP tear. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening correlated most strongly with PP tear, correctly classifying 95 % of cases and controls. Excluding pericapsular soft tissue thickening, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, 2nd flexor tendon subluxation, and splaying of the second and third toes accurately classified PP status in 92 %. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening most strongly correlated with PP tear. For cases in which it might be difficult to distinguish pericapsular fibrosis from neuroma, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, flexor tendon subluxation and splaying of the 2nd and 3rd toe is most helpful for optimizing accurate diagnosis of PP tear. (orig.)

  15. Boron isotope ratios of surface waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvat, Pascale, E-mail: louvat@ipgp.fr [Geochimie et Cosmochimie, IPGP, Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, UMR 7154 CNRS, 75005 Paris (France); Gaillardet, Jerome; Paris, Guillaume; Dessert, Celine [Geochimie et Cosmochimie, IPGP, Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, UMR 7154 CNRS, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Rivers outer of hydrothermal areas have d11B around 40 per mille and [B] of 10-31 {mu}g/L. > Thermal springs have d11B of 8-15 per mille and [B] between 250 and 1000 {mu}g/L. > With Na, SO{sub 4} and Cl, boron shows mixing of rain, low and high-T weathering inputs. > Guadeloupe rivers and thermal springs have d11B 20-40 per mille higher than the local rocks. > Solid-solution fractionation during weathering pathways may explain this gap of d11B. - Abstract: Large variations are reported in the B concentrations and isotopic ratios of river and thermal spring waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. Rivers have {delta}{sup 11}B values around 40 per mille and B concentrations lower than 30 {mu}g/L, while thermal springs have {delta}{sup 11}B of 8-15 per mille and B concentrations of 250-1000 {mu}g/L. River samples strongly impacted by hydrothermal inputs have intermediate {delta}{sup 11}B and B contents. None of these surface water samples have {delta}{sup 11}B comparable to the local unweathered volcanic rocks (around 0 per mille), implying that a huge isotopic fractionation of 40 per mille takes place during rock weathering, which could be explained by preferential incorporation of {sup 10}B during secondary mineral formation and adsorption on clays, during rock weathering or in the soils. The soil-vegetation B cycle could also be a cause for such a fractionation. Atmospheric B with {delta}{sup 11}B of 45 per mille represents 25-95% of the river B content. The variety of the thermal spring chemical composition renders the understanding of B behavior in Guadeloupe hydrothermal system quite difficult. Complementary geochemical tracers would be helpful.

  16. Boron isotope ratios of surface waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvat, Pascale; Gaillardet, Jerome; Paris, Guillaume; Dessert, Celine

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rivers outer of hydrothermal areas have d11B around 40 per mille and [B] of 10-31 μg/L. → Thermal springs have d11B of 8-15 per mille and [B] between 250 and 1000 μg/L. → With Na, SO 4 and Cl, boron shows mixing of rain, low and high-T weathering inputs. → Guadeloupe rivers and thermal springs have d11B 20-40 per mille higher than the local rocks. → Solid-solution fractionation during weathering pathways may explain this gap of d11B. - Abstract: Large variations are reported in the B concentrations and isotopic ratios of river and thermal spring waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. Rivers have δ 11 B values around 40 per mille and B concentrations lower than 30 μg/L, while thermal springs have δ 11 B of 8-15 per mille and B concentrations of 250-1000 μg/L. River samples strongly impacted by hydrothermal inputs have intermediate δ 11 B and B contents. None of these surface water samples have δ 11 B comparable to the local unweathered volcanic rocks (around 0 per mille), implying that a huge isotopic fractionation of 40 per mille takes place during rock weathering, which could be explained by preferential incorporation of 10 B during secondary mineral formation and adsorption on clays, during rock weathering or in the soils. The soil-vegetation B cycle could also be a cause for such a fractionation. Atmospheric B with δ 11 B of 45 per mille represents 25-95% of the river B content. The variety of the thermal spring chemical composition renders the understanding of B behavior in Guadeloupe hydrothermal system quite difficult. Complementary geochemical tracers would be helpful.

  17. Main copper-porphyry systems of the Lesser Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkonyan, R.L.; Tayan, P.N.; Goukassyan, R.Kh.; Hovakimyan, S.E.; Moritz, R.; Selbi, D.

    2013-01-01

    Two belts of porphyry-copper systems were identified the Late Jurassic Early Cretaceous Somkheto-Karabakh (S-K) island-arc belt within the same name terrain of the southern termination of the Eurasian Plate stretching for 230 km (the tonalitic model) and the Early Miocene Tsaghkounk-Zanghezour (Ts-Z) post-collision belt (Tz-Z) within the same name terrain of the northern margin of the Gondwana, stretching over 280 km (the monzonite-granodiorite model). The formation of the S-K and Ts-Z belts had proceeded in pulses and spanned intervals of 12 million years and 24 million years, respectively. The Rb-Sr isochrones and TIMS U-Pb estimations of the age of zircons from the Meghri pluton ( 1,500 km 2 ), the largest one in the Lesser Caucasus, it appeared possible to establish the three stages of its formation: the Late Eocene, Early Oligocene, and Early Miocene, each accompanied by development of deposits having similar ages. The PC deposits of the S-K and Ts-Z belts have distinct differences of age, geodynamic regime of formation, specificity of mineral composition, sources of water and sulfur of hydrothermal solutions, and formation models. The single, discrete Armenian-Iranian belt of PC deposits was identified; it has a Late Eocene-Middle Miocene age and a length of about 2,000 km, being related with intrusive complexes of the monzonite-granite-granodiorite series, the activity of which had been manifesting itself over 32 million years. This belt, including giant-deposits such as Kajaran and Sar-Cheshmeh, was identified as the special Armenian-Iranian PC province

  18. Compiling the functional data-parallel language SaC for Microgrids of Self-Adaptive Virtual Processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Herhut, S.; Jesshope, C.; Joslin, C.; Lankamp, M.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary results from compiling the high-level, functional and data-parallel programming language SaC into a novel multi-core design: Microgrids of Self-Adaptive Virtual Processors (SVPs). The side-effect free nature of SaC in conjunction with its data-parallel foundation make it an

  19. Induction of rat yolk sac carcinomas with consistent pattern of laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four yolk sac carcinomas in Lewis rats were experimentally induced by puncturing the pregnant uterine wall with a hypodermic needle at day 9-13 of gestation. Morphologically, the tumours were composed of parietal- and visceral yolk sac carcinoma and to a less degree of trophoblastic giant...

  20. Ventilation patterns of the songbird lung/air sac system during different behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Rebecca; Goller, Franz

    2013-10-01

    Unidirectional, continuous airflow through the avian lung is achieved through an elaborate air sac system with a sequential, posterior to anterior ventilation pattern. This classical model was established through various approaches spanning passively ventilated systems to mass spectrometry analysis of tracer gas flow into various air sacs during spontaneous breathing in restrained ducks. Information on flow patterns in other bird taxa is missing, and these techniques do not permit direct tests of whether the basic flow pattern can change during different behaviors. Here we use thermistors implanted into various locations of the respiratory system to detect small pulses of tracer gas (helium) to reconstruct airflow patterns in quietly breathing and behaving (calling, wing flapping) songbirds (zebra finch and yellow-headed blackbird). The results illustrate that the basic pattern of airflow in these two species is largely consistent with the model. However, two notable differences emerged. First, some tracer gas arrived in the anterior set of air sacs during the inspiration during which it was inhaled, suggesting a more rapid throughput through the lung than previously assumed. Second, differences in ventilation between the two anterior air sacs emerged during calling and wing flapping, indicating that adjustments in the flow pattern occur during dynamic behaviors. It is unclear whether this modulation in ventilation pattern is passive or active. This technique for studying ventilation patterns during dynamic behaviors proves useful for establishing detailed timing of airflow and modulation of ventilation in the avian respiratory system.

  1. A giant occipital encephalocele with spontaneous hemorrhage into the sac: A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, H. D.; Mahapatra, A. K.; Borkar, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    In giant encephalocele, head size is smaller than the encelphalocele. Occipital encephalocele is the commonest of all encephalocele. In our case, there was rare association with giant encephalocele with old hemorrhage in the sac. This was a unique presentation. In world literature, there was rare association with giant encephalocele with hemorrhage. PMID:25685207

  2. A giant occipital encephalocele with spontaneous hemorrhage into the sac: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, H. D.; Mahapatra, A. K.; Borkar, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    In giant encephalocele, head size is smaller than the encelphalocele. Occipital encephalocele is the commonest of all encephalocele. In our case, there was rare association with giant encephalocele with old hemorrhage in the sac. This was a unique presentation. In world literature, there was rare association with giant encephalocele with hemorrhage.

  3. Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in two-phase endolymphatic hydrops in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, J; Segenhout, JM; Dunnebier, EA; Albers, FWJ; Blaauw, EH; Wit, HP

    1999-01-01

    Two-phase endolymphatic hydrops is a subtle experimental model for Meniere's disease. Chronic dysfunction of the endolymphatic sac, induced by dissection of the most distal part without causing damage to the intermediate part, is combined with increased endolymph production induced by administration

  4. Fetus in fetu in the scrotal sac of newborn | Khope | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetus in fetu (FIF) in the scrotal sac is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of other scrotal swellings in infants and children. Unlike teratoma, FIF is a benign disorder. Scrotal FIF is extraordinarily rare and has been reported only twice in the international literature. We describe the case of a 15-day-old neonate who ...

  5. Clinical significance of determination of SAC/PRA value in patients with primary aldosteronism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liren; Dai Yaozong; Liu Jiumin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic significance of determining SAC/PRA valve in hyperaldosteronism. Methods: Plasma renin activity (PRA) and angiotensin (AT-II) as well as serum aldosterone contents were measured with RIA in 48 patients with primary aldosteronism and 30 controls. The SAC/PRA value was calculated. Results: Contents of PRA, AT-II and Aldo in blood of patients with primary aldosteronism were very significantly different from those in controls (p < 0.001) (PRA 0.14 ± 0.08 ng/ml/h vs 0.57 ± 0.08 ng/ml/h; AT-II 21.21 ± 7.55 ng/L vs 36.03 ± 6.11 ng/L; Aldo 1.07 ± 0.34 nmol/L vs 0.33 ± 0.04 nmol/L). Calculated SAC/PRA value was 913 ± 409 (normal upper limit 400). Conclusion: SAC/PRA value is an useful accessory diagnostic criterion for primary aldosteronism

  6. Crystal plasticity finite element analysis of deformation behaviour in SAC305 solder joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Payam

    Due to the awareness of the potential health hazards associated with the toxicity of lead (Pb), actions have been taken to eliminate or reduce the use of Pb in consumer products. Among those, tin (Sn) solders have been used for the assembly of electronic systems. Anisotropy is of significant importance in all structural metals, but this characteristic is unusually strong in Sn, making Sn based solder joints one of the best examples of the influence of anisotropy. The effect of anisotropy arising from the crystal structure of tin and large grain microstructure on the microstructure and the evolution of constitutive responses of microscale SAC305 solder joints is investigated. Insights into the effects of key microstructural features and dominant plastic deformation mechanisms influencing the measured relative activity of slip systems in SAC305 are obtained from a combination of optical microscopy, orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), slip plane trace analysis and crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) modeling. Package level SAC305 specimens were subjected to shear deformation in sequential steps and characterized using optical microscopy and OIM to identify the activity of slip systems. X-ray micro Laue diffraction and high energy monochromatic X-ray beam were employed to characterize the joint scale tensile samples to provide necessary information to be able to compare and validate the CPFE model. A CPFE model was developed that can account for relative ease of activating slip systems in SAC305 solder based upon the statistical estimation based on correlation between the critical resolved shear stress and the probability of activating various slip systems. The results from simulations show that the CPFE model developed using the statistical analysis of activity of slip system not only can satisfy the requirements associated with kinematic of plastic deformation in crystal coordinate systems (activity of slip systems) and global coordinate system (shape changes

  7. Entire lacrimal sac within the ethmoid sinus: outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Javed Ali, Swati Singh, Milind N NaikInstitute of Dacryology, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Background: The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (PEnDCR in patients with lacrimal sac within the sinus.Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent PEnDCR and were intraoperatively documented to have complete lacrimal sac in sinus. Data collected included demographics, clinical presentations, associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies, intraoperative findings, intraoperative guidance, complications, postoperative ostium behavior, and anatomical and functional success. A minimum follow-up of 6 months postsurgery was considered for final analysis.Results: A total of 17 eyes of 15 patients underwent PEnDCR using standard protocols, but with additional intraoperative guidance where required and careful maneuvering in the ethmoid sinus. The mean age of the patients was 37.2 (range 17–60 years. Of the unilateral cases, 69% (nine of 13 showed left-side predisposition; 80% of patients showed regurgitation on pressure over the lacrimal sac area. Associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies were observed in 13.3% (two of 15 and 40% (six of 15, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 6.6 months, anatomical and functional success were observed in 93.3% (14 of 15. One patient showed failure secondary to cicatricial closure of the ostium.Conclusion: An entire sac within an ethmoid sinus poses a surgical challenge. Good sinus-surgery training, thorough knowledge of endoscopic anatomy, careful maneuvering, and use of intraoperative navigation guidance result in good outcomes with PEnDCR.Keywords: lacrimal sac, ethmoid sinus, endoscopic, DCR

  8. Observations on the activity patterns of the lesser yellow house bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lesser yellow house bat, Scotophilus viridis. F.P.D. Cotterill c/o Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town,. Cape Town. S.R. Giddings·. Department of Zoology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 10 June 1986; accepted 23 July 1986. The activity pattems of the lesser yellow ...

  9. Metatarsophalangeal joint stability: A systematic review on the plantar plate of the lesser toes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, N.M.G. (Nico M.G.); M. van der Grinten (Margot); W.M. Bramer (Wichor); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Instability of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints of the lesser toes (digiti 2-5) is increasingly being treated by repair of the plantar plate (PP). This systematic review examines the anatomy of the plantar plate of the lesser toes, and the relation between the integrity

  10. Hepatic element concentrations of lesser scaup (aythya affinis) during spring migration in the upper midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillatzki, A.E.; Neiger, R.D.; Chipps, S.R.; Higgins, K.F.; Thiex, N.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of some hepatic elements might be contributing to the decline of the continental lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) population. We evaluated hepatic element concentrations of male and female lesser scaup collected from the upper Midwest (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) during the 2003 and 2004 spring migrations. We measured concentrations of 24 elements in livers of 117 lesser scaup. We found that only selenium concentrations were at levels (>3.0 ??g/g wet weight [ww)]) proposed to adversely affect reproduction. Approximately 49% of females (n = 61) had individual hepatic concentrations >3.0 ??g/g ww selenium (Se). Our observed hepatic concentration of Se was similar to that reported in lesser scaup collected from the mid-continental United States but less than Se concentrations reported from the Great Lakes region. We found that the liver cadmium (Cd) concentration for males was significantly higher than that for females. Gender differences in hepatic Cd concentrations have not been previously reported for lesser scaup, but Cd is known to have negative impacts on male reproduction. Our results indicate that lesser scaup migrating through the upper Midwest in spring have elevated Se levels and that males carry a significantly greater Cd burden than females. Moreover, elemental concentrations might be high enough to affect reproduction in both male and female lesser scaup, but controlled laboratory studies are needed to adequately assess the effects of Se and Cd on lesser scaup reproduction. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Why do lesser toes deviate laterally in hallux valgus? A radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roan, Li-Yi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Taniguchi, Akira; Tomiwa, Kiyonori; Kumai, Tsukasa; Cheng, Yuh-Min

    2015-06-01

    Hallux valgus foot with laterally deviated lesser toes is a complex condition to treat. Ignoring the laterally deviated lesser toes in hallux valgus might result in unsatisfactory foot shape. Without lateral support of the lesser toes, it might increase the risk of recurrence of hallux valgus. We sought to identify associated radiographic findings in patients where lesser toes follow the great toe in hallux valgus and deviate laterally. The weight-bearing, anteroposterior foot radiographs of 24 female hallux valgus feet with laterally deviated lesser toes (group L), 34 female hallux valgus feet with normal lesser toes (group H), and 43 normal female feet (group N) were selected for the study. A 2-dimensional coordinated system was used to analyze the shapes and angles of these feet by converting each dot made on the radiographs onto X and Y coordinates. Diagrams of the feet in each group were drawn for comparison. The hallux valgus angle, lateral deviation angle of the second toe, intermetatarsal angles, toe length, metatarsal length, and metatarsus adductus were calculated according to the coordinates of the corresponding points. The mapping showed the bases of the second, third, and fourth toe in group L shifted laterally away from their corresponding metatarsal head (P hallux valgus angles (P hallux valgus angle, more adducted first metatarsal, and divergent lateral splaying of the lesser metatarsals were associated with lateral deviation of the lesser toes in hallux valgus. Level III, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  13. Butyrate Inhibits Cancerous HCT116 Colon Cell Proliferation but to a Lesser Extent in Noncancerous NCM460 Colon Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Taussig, David P; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Johnson, LuAnn K; Hakkak, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous cells through regulating apoptosis and cellular-signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by exposing cancerous HCT116 or non-cancerous NCM460 colon cells to physiologically relevant doses of butyrate. Cellular responses to butyrate were characterized by Western analysis, fluorescent microscopy, acetylation, and DNA fragmentation analyses. Butyrate inhibited cell proliferation, and led to an induction of apoptosis, genomic DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells, but to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Although butyrate increased H3 histone deacetylation and p21 tumor suppressor expression in both cell types, p21 protein level was greater with intense expression around the nuclei in HCT116 cells when compared with that in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, butyrate treatment increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), a survival signal, in NCM460 cells while it decreased p-ERK1/2 in HCT116 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic potential in HCT116 cells may confer the increased sensitivity of cancerous colon cells to butyrate in comparison with noncancerous colon cells.

  14. Active convergence between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus in Georgia: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, G.; Floyd, M.; Godoladze, T.; King, R.; Cowgill, E. S.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Hahubia, G.; Reilinger, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present and interpret newly determined site motions derived from GPS observations made from 2008 through 2016 in the Republic of Georgia, which constrain the rate and locus of active shortening in the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision zone. Observation sites are located along two ∼160 km-long profiles crossing the Lesser-Greater Caucasus boundary zone: one crossing the Rioni Basin in western Georgia and the other crossing further east near the longitude of Tbilisi. Convergence across the Rioni Basin Profile occurs along the southern margin of the Greater Caucasus, near the surface trace of the north-dipping Main Caucasus Thrust Fault (MCTF) system, and is consistent with strain accumulation on the fault that generated the 1991 MW6.9 Racha earthquake. In contrast, convergence along the Tbilisi Profile occurs near Tbilisi and the northern boundary of the Lesser Caucasus (near the south-dipping Lesser Caucasus Thrust Fault), approximately 50-70 km south of the MCTF, which is inactive within the resolution of geodetic observations (< ± 0.5 mm/yr) at the location of the Tbilisi Profile. We suggest that the southward offset of convergence along strike of the range is related to the incipient collision of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus, and closing of the intervening Kura Basin, which is most advanced along this segment of the collision zone. The identification of active shortening near Tbilisi requires a reevaluation of seismic hazards in this area.

  15. Anatomy and histology of the newly discovered adipose sac structure within the labia majora: international original research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrzenski, Adam; Krajewski, Pawel; Davis, Kern

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether there is any new anatomical structure present within the labia majora. A case serial study was executed on eleven consecutive fresh human female cadavers. Stratum-by-stratum dissections of the labia majora were performed. Twenty-two anatomic dissections of labia majora were completed. Eosin and Hematoxylin agents were used to stain newly discovered adipose sac's tissues of the labia majora and the cylinder-like structures, which cover condensed adipose tissues. The histology of these two structures was compared. All dissected labia majora demonstrated the presence of the anatomic existence of the adipose sac structure. Just under the dermis of the labia majora, the adipose sac was located, which was filled with lobules containing condensed fatty tissues in the form of cylinders. The histological investigation established that the well-organized fibro-connective-adipose tissues represented the adipose sac. The absence of descriptions of the adipose sac within the labia majora in traditional anatomic and gynecologic textbooks was noted. In this study group, the newly discovered adipose sac is consistently present within the anatomical structure of the labia majora. The well-organized fibro-connective-adipose tissue represents microscopic characteristic features of the adipose sac.

  16. Normal measurement of spinal cord and dural sac by CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Ku Sub; Choi, Yo Won; Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1988-01-01

    The data on the normal measurement of spinal cord are essential for an objective assessment of equivocal change of spinal cord size in the various clinical settings. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate normal range of spinal cord dimensions in Koreas. CT myelography of the cervical and thoracic region was performed in 60 patients who had symptoms referable to lumbosacral region and then computed tomographic measurement of spinal cord and dural sac was performed. The results are as follows: 1. The anteroposterior diameter of spinal cord was maximum at C1 level (8.6±1.4mm) and minimum at T6 level (6.4±1.7mm). 2. The transverse diameter of spinal cord was maximum at C4 and C5 levels (13.3±1.6mm) and minimum at T8 (8.1±1.9mm) and T10 (8.1±1.3mm) levels. 3. The area of spinal cord was maximum at C5 level (76±16mm 2 ) and minimum at T6 (40±24mm 2 ) and T8 (40±23mm 2 ) levels. 4. The ratio of anteroposterior diameter/transverse diameter of spinal cord was smallest at C4 (0.57±0.11) and C5 (0.57±0.09) levels and largest at T12 (0.9±0.17) level. 5. The ratio of anteroposterior diameter of spinal cord/dural sac was maximum at C4 level (0.73±0.14) and minimum at T12 level (0.52±0.15). The ratio of transverse diameter of spinal cord/dural sac was maximum at C3 (0.66±0.10) and C4 (0.66±0.14) levels and minimum at T12 level (0.46±0.18). The ratio of area of spinal cord/dural sac was maximum at C3 level (0.48±0.13) and minimum at T12 level (0.29±0.20). 6. The location of cervical cord in dural sac was mainly ventral (56%) at C1 level, middle (40-73%) from C2 to C6 level and dorsal (44%) at C7 level. The location of thoracic cord in dural sac was chiefly middle (61%) at T2 level and lower thoracic level (T10: 60% and T12: 51%) and mainly ventral (59-84%) at other levels.

  17. Development of SAC-OCDMA in FSO with multi-wavelength laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Majid; Mamdoohi, Ghazaleh; Muhammad Noor, Ahmad Shukri; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Ahmad Anas, Siti Barirah

    2015-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate a free space optical network, based on spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) with a multi-wavelength laser source. A detailed theoretical analysis that represents the characteristics of SAC-OCDMA system was developed. In addition to the impact of turbulence, influences of several system noises such as optical beat interference (OBI), relative intensity noise, and receiver noises, have been studied. From the numerical results, it was found that the influence of OBI is more dominant, especially at higher received power. Two different codes, namely, modified quadratic congruence and modified double weight, are then compared with the latter which provides better performance. A transmission distance of 2.6 km with 10 users and an 8 cm aperture diameter is advisable whenever the turbulence is moderate. These results can be improved when a beam divergence smaller than 1 mrad is utilized.

  18. Performance analysis for the bit-error rate of SAC-OCDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Cheng, Wenqing; Chen, Fujun

    2015-09-01

    Under low power, Gaussian statistics by invoking the central limit theorem is feasible to predict the upper bound in the spectral-amplitude-coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) system. However, this case severely underestimates the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the system under high power assumption. Fortunately, the exact negative binomial (NB) model is a perfect replacement for the Gaussian model in the prediction and evaluation. Based on NB statistics, a more accurate closed-form expression is analyzed and derived for the SAC-OCDMA system. The experiment shows that the obtained expression provides a more precise prediction of the BER performance under the low and high power assumptions.

  19. A new two-code keying scheme for SAC-OCDMA systems enabling bipolar encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khafaji, Hamza M. R.; Ngah, Razali; Aljunid, S. A.; Rahman, T. A.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new two-code keying scheme for enabling bipolar encoding in a high-rate spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) system. The mathematical formulations are derived for the signal-to-noise ratio and bit-error rate (BER) of SAC-OCDMA system based on the suggested scheme using multi-diagonal (MD) code. Performance analyses are assessed considering the effects of phase-induced intensity noise, as well as shot and thermal noises in photodetectors. The numerical results demonstrated that the proposed scheme exhibits an enhanced BER performance compared to the existing unipolar encoding with direct detection technique. Furthermore, the performance improvement afforded by this scheme is verified using simulation experiments.

  20. Fungi infection in honeybee hives in regions affected by Brazilian sac brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Keller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae, which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination.

  1. An anatomic risk model to screen post endovascular aneurysm repair patients for aneurysm sac enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, Chien Yi M; Tadros, Rami O; Beckerman, William E; Han, Daniel K; Tardiff, Melissa L; Torres, Marielle R; Marin, Michael L; Faries, Peter L

    2017-09-01

    Follow-up computed tomography angiography (CTA) scans add considerable postimplantation costs to endovascular aneurysm repairs (EVARs) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). By building a risk model, we hope to identify patients at low risk for aneurysm sac enlargement to minimize unnecessary CTAs. 895 consecutive patients who underwent EVAR for AAA were reviewed, of which 556 met inclusion criteria. A Probit model was created for aneurysm sac enlargement, with preoperative aneurysm morphology, patient demographics, and operative details as variables. Our final model included 287 patients and had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 68.9%, and an accuracy of 70.4%. Ninety-nine (35%) of patients were assigned to the high-risk group, whereas 188 (65%) of patients were assigned to the low-risk group. Notably, regarding anatomic variables, our model reported that age, pulmonary comorbidities, aortic neck diameter, iliac artery length, and aneurysms were independent predictors of post-EVAR sac enlargement. With the exception of age, all statistically significant variables were qualitatively supported by prior literature. With regards to secondary outcomes, the high-risk group had significantly higher proportions of AAA-related deaths (5.1% versus 1.1%, P = 0.037) and Type 1 endoleaks (9.1% versus 3.2%, P = 0.033). Our model is a decent predictor of patients at low risk for post AAA EVAR aneurysm sac enlargement and associated complications. With additional validation and refinement, it could be applied to practices to cut down on the overall need for postimplantation CTA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of the histochemical detection of cysteine desulfhydrase in the vitellin sac of birds (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeville, F.; Khau Van Kien, L.

    1961-01-01

    We have developed a method for the histochemical detection of cysteine desulfhydrase in the vitellin sac of the chicken embryo. The enzyme is localized in the presence of a lead salt by lead sulphide formed in situ from hydrogen sulphide liberated from the cysteine. The micrographs obtained are histological and show the presence of the enzyme in the different types of endoderm cell. (authors) [fr

  3. The SAC Mentality: The Origins of Strategic Air Command’s Organizational Culture, 1948-51

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    following World War II left SAC in a dire predicament as it faced shortages in several critical areas. In May 1946, the AAF autho- rized the command...convictions. McMullen believed in cross-training crew members and assigning them to multiple billets to compensate for manpower short- ages. The constant...atomic outfit from the Pacific theater. According to LeMay, they cleaned the supply warehouses , stocked the parts and supplies the unit needed, and

  4. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Ichinose, Nobuyasu

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss. Forty consecutive patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (20 males and 20 females; age range 11-82 years), 40 age-matched control subjects, and 5 patients with Meniere's disease were examined using the same imaging protocol on a 1.5-T MR system. Pre- and post-contrast-enhanced T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence (3D SPGR; TR/TE=23/10 ms, no. of excitations=1, flip angle=30 ) images were obtained using a voxel size of 0.6 x 0.7 x 0.8 mm 3 . Contrast enhancement in the area of the endolymphatic sac was assessed by two radiologists, and the frequency of contrast enhancement was compared between the three study groups. Enhancement of the ipsilateral endolymphatic sac was observed in 30 of the 40 patients with sudden hearing loss (75%). Twenty of these 30 patients also showed enhancement on the contralateral side, and 1 patient showed enhancement only on the contralateral side. Only 1 of the 5 patients with Meniere's disease showed enhancement. Nine of the 40 control subjects (22.5%) showed enhancement (bilateral enhancement in 5 subjects, unilateral in 4). The frequency of enhancement in patients with sudden hearing loss was significantly higher than that in control subjects (P<0.0001) or patients with Meniere's disease (P<0.05). The frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac is significantly increased in patients with sudden hearing loss, but further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between this finding and the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. (orig.)

  5. Structural Organization of Muscular Elements of a Skin-Muscular Sac of Trematodes: Literature Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kanat Kambarovich Akhmetov; Irina Yurievna Chidunchi

    2015-01-01

    The issue of structural organization of muscular elements of a trematodes’ skin-muscular sac is considered in the study. Special attention is paid to an analysis of materials of preceding researches, study of foreign authors and also to additional literature reflecting peculiarities of structure of a trematodes’ body muscular system. The stated issue is insufficiently studied and calls for further researches. A comparative analysis of places of trematodes’ localization, taking into considerat...

  6. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Méndez-Lorenzo

    Full Text Available Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that

  7. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Paul; Ao, Chi On; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    The GeoForschungsZentrum's Challenging Minisatellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Application (CHAMP, Germany-US) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Especiales' Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C, Argentina-US) missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation Blackjack Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology experiment (GPS/MET). Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We show statistics of the differences as well as histograms of the differences.

  8. The efficacy of sleeve technique in primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction with a high lacrimal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Nam Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a sleeve technique during endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR in primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO patients with a high lacrimal sac. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 45 patients (49 cases undergoing endoscopic DCR for primary NLDO with a high lacrimal sac were retrospectively reviewed. In 19 patients (21 cases, the thick maxilla covering the common canalicular opening was removed using a drill and a bicanalicular silicone tube was inserted (group 1. In 26 patients (28 cases, instead of removal of the thick maxilla, a sleeve was inserted into the bicanalicular silicone tube (group 2. At 6 months postoperatively, the success rate was evaluated and the size of the intranasal mucosal ostium was measured. Results: The success rates in group 1 and 2 was 90.5% and 96.4%, respectively (P = 0.400. The intranasal mucosal ostium in group 1 and 2 measured 1.7 ± 0.7 mm and 3.1 ± 1.0 mm, respectively, and the difference was significant (P = 0.042. Conclusions: In primary NLDO patients with a high lacrimal sac, DCR inserting a silicone tube and a sleeve together had a satisfactory success rate without using a drill. In comparison with traditional surgical methods, it helped enlarge the size of the intranasal mucosal ostium.

  9. Clinical analysis of endoscopic common canaliculus opening operation for lacrimal sac anastomotic occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yang Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect and safety of endoscopic common canaliculus opening operation for lacrimal sac anastomotic occlusion, in order to guide the clinical application.METHODS:Retrospective clinical study. Sixty-six patients(70 eyeswith lacrimal sac anastomotic occlusion were selected as the research subjects. All patients were treated by endoscopic common canaliculus opening operation. The post-operation follow-up lasted for 3~24mo. Subjective feelings of patients were recorded through the collection of clinical data, out-patient follow-up and telephone follow-up. The operation effect and complications were observed, as well as the effect of treatment on complications. Meanwhile, the data was analyzed for evaluating the clinical efficacy of endoscopic common canaliculus opening operation.RESULTS:Epiphora was disappeared or obviously improved in 68 eyes(97%, with lacrimal irrigating fluently and no obstacle. The post-operative complications included:51 eyes(73%with foreign body sensation in inner canthus, 22 eyes(31%with foreign body sensation in the nose occasionally, 4 eyes(6%with granulation tissue proliferation at the opening of common canaliculus, 16 eyes(23%with localized congestion of the bulbar conjunctiva, and 3 eyes(4%with lacrimal drainage tube out.CONCLUSION: Endoscopic common canaliculus opening operation can treat the lacrimal sac anastomotic occlusion. This operation is characterized by high success rate, less complications, safe and efficient, and it is worth clinical promotion.

  10. Changes in endolymphatic hydrops visualized by magnetic resonance imaging after sac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Cui, Yong-Hua; Hu, Ying; Mao, Zhong-Yao; Wang, Qiu-Xia; Pan, Chu; Liu, Ai-Guo

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to observe changes in endolymphatic hydrops by using intratympanic injection of gadolinium and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after endolymphatic sac surgery in patients with unilateral Meniere's disease. Thirteen patients with unilateral Meniere's disease undergoing endolymphatic sac surgery were retrospectively and prospectively analyzed. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery or three-dimensional real inversion recovery MRI was performed 24 h after an intratympanic injection of gadolinium to grade the presence of endolymphatic hydrops. Among the 13 patients with hydrops confirmed by preoperative MRI, vestibular hydrops had no significant change in all patients; cochlear hydrops became negative in 2 patients, and remained unchanged in the other 11 patients after surgery. Definite vertigo attacks were substantially controlled in one patient and completely controlled in 12 patients during a follow-up period of 8-34 months after surgery. The hearing levels were improved in 3 patients, remained unchanged in 7 patients, and decreased in 3 patients. In conclusion, endolymphatic sac surgery does not always alleviate endolymphatic hydrops in patients with Meniere's disease. Relief from vertigo cannot always be attributed to the remission of hydrops. A change in hearing levels cannot be explained by hydrops status alone.

  11. CT of the lesser pelvis - normal and abnormal anatomy, indications, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrich, W.; Friedmann, G.

    1981-01-01

    385 abnormal computer tomograms of the organs in the lesser pelvis were analysed; the normal anatomy, indications for CT and its value are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the relevance of the computer tomographic information for treatment. (orig.) [de

  12. Spinal movement and dural sac compression during airway management in a cadaveric model with atlanto-occipital instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shiyao; Schneider, Niko R E; Weilbacher, Frank; Stehr, Anne; Matschke, Stefan; Grützner, Paul A; Popp, Erik; Kreinest, Michael

    2017-12-01

    To analyze the compression of the dural sac and the cervical spinal movement during performing different airway interventions in case of atlanto-occipital dislocation. In six fresh cadavers, atlanto-occipital dislocation was performed by distracting the opened atlanto-occipital joint capsule and sectioning the tectorial membrane. Airway management was done using three airway devices (direct laryngoscopy, video laryngoscopy, and insertion of a laryngeal tube). The change of dural sac's width and intervertebral angulation in stable and unstable atlanto-occipital conditions were recorded by video fluoroscopy with myelography. Three-dimensional overall movement of cervical spine was measured in a wireless human motion track system. Compared with a mean dural sac compression of - 0.5 mm (- 0.7 to - 0.3 mm) in stable condition, direct laryngoscopy caused an increased dural sac compression of - 1.6 mm (- 1.9 to - 0.6 mm, p = 0.028) in the unstable atlanto-occipital condition. No increased compression on dural sac was found using video laryngoscopy or the laryngeal tube. Moreover, direct laryngoscopy caused greater overall extension and rotation of cervical spine than laryngeal tube insertion in both stable and unstable conditions. Among three procedures, the insertion of a laryngeal tube took the shortest time. In case of atlanto-occipital dislocation, intubation using direct laryngoscopy exacerbates dural sac compression and may cause damage to the spinal cord.

  13. Diet composition of lesser kestrels in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onolragchaa Ganbold

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lesser kestrel is recognized as “Least Concern” in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List since 2011. So far, all available diet studies on the lesser kestrel were conducted in its European range or in partial African breeding and nonbreeding range. In particular, little is known about the feeding behavior of this small falcon in Asian ranges. Thus, this study can be considered as the first to examine the diet composition of the central Asian breeding populations of lesser kestrels. This study aims to provide some information about the diet composition of this species among Asian populations through biological and ecological investigations. Pellets (n = 762 dropped by lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni were collected during their breeding season from nine to 10 colony sites in Ikh Nart, between June and September of 2009 and 2010, and analyzed. A total of 1,484 prey items were identified in the pellets collected. After a measure of their weight (g and length and width (mm, we carefully examined each pellet and separated all prey remains using tweezers. Our results indicated that insects (including orthopterans and coleopterans were dominant in lesser kestrel’s diets. We found that the lesser kestrel’s diet mainly consisted of insects (69.7%, lizards (17.4%, small mammals (10%, small birds (2%, and other food (1%. Keywords: diet composition, insects, pellets, reptiles, small mammals

  14. Primary Germ Cell Tumors of the Mediastinum: 10 Years of Experience in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Yang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors occur mostly in the gonad. Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare, and most occur in the retroperitoneum and mediastinum. Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors are often found in the anterior portion of the mediastinum and include teratomas and non-teratomatous tumors. Non-teratomatous tumors include seminomas and malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (MNSGCTs. MNSGCTs include yolk sac tumors, choriocarcinomas, embryonal carcinomas, and mixed type germ cell tumors. Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumors of the mediastinum, and seminomas are the most common non-teratomatous germ cell tumors of the mediastinum. Cases of primary mediastinal MNSGCT reported in the literature are rare. In this report, we review all primary mediastinal germ cell tumors from a 10-year period at the Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital of Kaohsiung Medical University. A total of 14 cases were reviewed, including 11 patients with mature teratomas, two with yolk sac tumors, and one with seminoma. We discuss the differences in clinical presentation, histopathologic characteristics, treatment, and prognosis.

  15. Congenital occipital encephalocele with Dabska tumor: report of an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumana, M; Khursheed, N; Ramzan, A

    2012-01-01

    Encephaloceles arise from developmental defects in neural tube formation. These lesions contain brain and meninges which herniate through a defect in the skull. These may present as isolated malformations or rarely be associated with brain tumors. We hereby discuss a case of an unusual association of an occipital encephalocele with papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma or Dabska tumor arising from the sac itself. The patient underwent resection of the herniated brain tissue with repair and closure of the dural defect. Histopathological examination revealed evidence of Dabska tumor from the sac. This is the first case report of the association of an occipital encephalocele with a rare vascular tumor, i.e. papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. A tumor suppressor role of the Bub3 spindle checkpoint protein after apoptosis inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho-Santos, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Most solid tumors contain aneuploid cells, indicating that the mitotic checkpoint is permissive to the proliferation of chromosomally aberrant cells. However, mutated or altered expression of mitotic checkpoint genes accounts for a minor proportion of human tumors. We describe a Drosophila melanogaster tumorigenesis model derived from knocking down spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes and preventing apoptosis in wing imaginal discs. Bub3-deficient tumors that were also deficient in apoptosis displayed neoplastic growth, chromosomal aneuploidy, and high proliferative potential after transplantation into adult flies. Inducing aneuploidy by knocking down CENP-E and preventing apoptosis does not induce tumorigenesis, indicating that aneuploidy is not sufficient for hyperplasia. In this system, the aneuploidy caused by a deficient SAC is not driving tumorigenesis because preventing Bub3 from binding to the kinetochore does not cause hyperproliferation. Our data suggest that Bub3 has a nonkinetochore-dependent function that is consistent with its role as a tumor suppressor. PMID:23609535

  17. 78 FR 26302 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken... the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). In addition, we announce the reopening of the public comment period on the December 11, 2012, proposed rule to list the lesser prairie-chicken as a...

  18. Impacts of mesquite distribution on seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggie, Matthew A.; Strong, Cody R.; Lusk, Daniel; Carleton, Scott A.; Gould, William R.; Howard, Randy L.; Nichols, Clay T.; Falkowski, Michael J.; Hagen, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of native grasslands by anthropogenic disturbances has reduced availability and connectivity of habitat for many grassland species. A primary threat to contiguous grasslands is the encroachment of woody vegetation, which is spurred by disturbances that take on many forms from energy development, fire suppression, and grazing. These disturbances are exacerbated by natural- and human-driven cycles of changes in climate punctuated by drought and desertification conditions. Encroachment of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) into the prairies of southeastern New Mexico has potentially limited habitat for numerous grassland species, including lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). To determine the magnitude of impacts of distribution of mesquite and how lesser prairie-chickens respond to mesquite presence on the landscape in southeastern New Mexico, we evaluated seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. We derived several remotely sensed spatial metrics to characterize the distribution of mesquite. We then used these data to create population-level resource utilization functions and predict intensity of use of lesser prairie-chickens across our study area. Home ranges were smaller in the breeding season compared with the nonbreeding season; however, habitat use was similar across seasons. During both seasons, lesser prairie-chickens used areas closer to leks and largely avoided areas with mesquite. Relative to the breeding season, during the nonbreeding season habitat use suggested a marginal increase in mesquite within areas of low intensity of use, yet aversion to mesquite was strong in areas of medium to high intensity of use. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate a negative behavioral response by lesser prairie-chickens to woody encroachment in native grasslands. To mitigate one of the possible limiting factors for lesser prairie-chickens, we suggest future conservation

  19. Radiologic measurement of lesser trochanter and its clinical significance in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wei; Li, Xicheng; Song, Zhaohui; Pan, Jinshe; Zhang, Yingze; Liu, Huaijun

    2009-01-01

    Femoral fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly persons. Surgery, the main choice of treatment of femoral fracture, may result in some complications severely affecting patients' daily activities due to femoral malalignment. The lesser trochanter is an important anatomical structure of the femur which could be used as an anatomical landmark during and after operation to evaluate femoral alignment. To predict femoral rotational malalignment during surgery, the relationship between the height and width of the lesser trochanter and femoral rotation at different angles was investigated. Fifty healthy adult volunteers (25 men and 25 women) were enrolled in this study and a total of 900 radiographs of proximal femurs were taken in the following positions: neutral position, 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 internal rotation, and 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 external rotation, respectively. The cranio-caudal and transverse diameters of the lesser trochanter were obtained on a PACS Workstation. The height and width of the lesser trochanter increased with external rotation and decreased with internal rotation and the values showed statistical significance between different positions or different genders. Between 20 of internal rotation to 20 of external rotation, the mean height increased from 0.58 cm to 1.23 cm in men and from 0.44 cm to 1.19 cm in women. The corresponding mean values for width were from 2.53 cm to 4.44 cm in men, and from 2.08 cm to 3.86 cm in women, respectively. The height and width of the lesser trochanter were both highly correlated to the position of femur and the linear relationship was established approximately. The morphological alteration of lesser trochanter also changed obviously when the femurs rotated. The height and width of the lesser trochanter is linearly related to femoral rotation and could be used as a reference for prevention of femoral malalignment during surgery. (orig.)

  20. Lesser prairie-chicken avoidance of trees in a grassland landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Plumb, Reid T.; Robinson, Samantha G.; Hagen, Christian A.; Haukos, David A.; Pitman, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Grasslands are among the most imperiled ecosystems in North America. Reasons that grasslands are threatened include conversion to row-crop agriculture, fragmentation, and changes in fire regimes. The reduction of fire processes in remaining prairies has resulted in tree encroachment and establishment in grasslands, further reducing grassland quantity and quality. Grassland birds have been experiencing precipitous population declines in recent decades, commensurate with landscape changes to grasslands. The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus Ridgway) is a declining species of prairie grouse of conservation concern. We used second- and third-order habitat selection metrics to test if female lesser prairie-chickens avoid grasslands where trees were present. Our results indicated that female lesser prairie-chickens selected habitats avoiding the nearest trees by 283 m on average, nearly twice as far as would be expected at random. Lesser prairie-chickens were 40 times more likely to use habitats with tree densities of 0 trees ∙ ha− 1 than habitats with 5 trees ∙ ha− 1. Probability of use indicated that lesser prairie-chickens were 19 times more likely to use habitats 1000 m from the nearest tree when compared with using habitats 0 m from the nearest tree. Nest survival was not affected at densities 2 trees ∙ ha− 1. Avoidance of trees could be due to perceived increased predation risk, reduced habitat quality, or a combination of these potentially confounding factors. Preventing further establishment and expansion of trees in landscapes occupied by lesser prairie-chickens could contribute to the continued persistence of the species. Additionally, restoring grasslands through tree removal may facilitate conservation efforts for grassland species such as the lesser prairie-chicken by improving habitat quality and promoting expansion of occupied range.

  1. EVAR using the Nellix Sac-anchoring endoprosthesis: treatment of favourable and adverse anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krievins, D K; Holden, A; Savlovskis, J; Calderas, C; Donayre, C E; Moll, F L; Katzen, B; Zarins, C K

    2011-07-01

    The study aimed to review the results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using a novel sac-anchoring endoprosthesis in patients with favourable and adverse anatomy. This is a prospective, multicentre, clinical trial. The Nellix endoprosthesis consists of dual, balloon-expandable endoframes, surrounded by polymer-filled endobags, which obliterate the aneurysm sac and maintain endograft position. The study reviewed worldwide clinical experience and Core Lab evaluation of computed tomography (CT) scans. From 2008 to 2010, 34 patients (age 71 ± 8 years, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter 5.8 ± 0.8 cm) were treated at four clinical sites. Seventeen patients (50%) met the inclusion criteria for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved endografts (favourable anatomy); 17 (50%) had one or more adverse anatomic feature: neck length 60° (9%) and iliac diameter >23 mm (38%). Device deployment was successful in all patients; iliac aneurysm treatment preserved hypogastric patency. Perioperative mortality was 1/34 (2.9%); one patient died at 10 months of congestive heart failure (CHF); one patient had a secondary procedure at 15 months. During 15 ± 6 months follow-up, there were no differences in outcome between favourable and adverse anatomy patients. Follow-up CT extending up to 2 years revealed no change in aneurysm size or endograft position and no new endoleaks. Favourable and adverse anatomy patients can be successfully treated using the Nellix sac-anchoring endoprosthesis. Early results are promising but longer-term studies are needed. Copyright © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Drosophila DOCK family protein Sponge is required for development of the air sac primordium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Kazushge; Anh Suong, Dang Ngoc; Yoshida, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu, E-mail: myamaguc@kit.ac.jp

    2017-05-15

    Dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family genes are known as DOCK1-DOCK11 in mammals. DOCK family proteins mainly regulate actin filament polymerization and/or depolymerization and are GEF proteins, which contribute to cellular signaling events by activating small G proteins. Sponge (Spg) is a Drosophila counterpart to mammalian DOCK3/DOCK4, and plays a role in embryonic central nervous system development, R7 photoreceptor cell differentiation, and adult thorax development. In order to conduct further functional analyses on Spg in vivo, we examined its localization in third instar larval wing imaginal discs. Immunostaining with purified anti-Spg IgG revealed that Spg mainly localized in the air sac primordium (ASP) in wing imaginal discs. Spg is therefore predicted to play an important role in the ASP. The specific knockdown of Spg by the breathless-GAL4 driver in tracheal cells induced lethality accompanied with a defect in ASP development and the induction of apoptosis. The monitoring of ERK signaling activity in wing imaginal discs by immunostaining with anti-diphospho-ERK IgG revealed reductions in the ERK signal cascade in Spg knockdown clones. Furthermore, the overexpression of D-raf suppressed defects in survival and the proliferation of cells in the ASP induced by the knockdown of Spg. Collectively, these results indicate that Spg plays a critical role in ASP development and tracheal cell viability that is mediated by the ERK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Spg mainly localizes in the air sac primordium in wing imaginal discs. • Spg plays a critical role in air sac primordium development. • Spg positively regulates the ERK signal cascade.

  3. Demonstrating storage of CO2 in geological reservoirs: the Sleipner and SACS projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torp, T.A.; Gale, J.

    2004-01-01

    At the Sleipner gas field in the North Sea, CO 2 has been stripped from the produced natural gas and injected into a sand layer called the Utsira formation. Injection started in October 1996, to date nearly 8 million tonnes of CO 2 have been injected without any significant operational problems observed in the capture plant or in the injection well. The Sleipner project is the first commercial application of CO 2 storage in deep saline aquifers in the world. To monitor the injected CO 2 , a separate project called the saline aquifer CO 0 2 storage (SACS) project was established in 1998. As part of the SACS project, 3D seismic surveying has been used to successfully monitor the CO 2 in the Utsira formation, an industry first. Repeat seismic surveys have successfully imaged movement of the injected CO 2 within the reservoir. Reservoir simulation tools have been successfully adapted to describe the migration of the CO 2 in the reservoir. The simulation packages have been calibrated against the repeat seismic surveys and shown themselves to be capable of replicating the position of the CO 2 in the reservoir. The possible reactions between minerals within the reservoir sand and the injected CO 2 have been studied by laboratory experiments and simulations. The cumulative experiences of the Sleipner and SACS projects will be embodied in a Best Practice Manual to assist other organisations planning CO 2 injection projects to take advantage of the learning processes undertaken and to assist in facilitating new projects of this type. (author)

  4. The internal vertebral venous plexus prevents compression of the dural sac during atlanto-axial rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesink, E.M.; Lataster, L.M.A.; Mameren, H. van [Dept. of Anatomy/Embryology, Maastricht Univ. (Netherlands); Wilmink, J.T. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands); Kingma, H. [Dept. of ENT, University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2001-10-01

    Deformation of the extradural space and the possibility of impression upon the dural sac during atlanto-axial rotation are investigated. Atlanto-axial rotation leads to a reduction in the cross-sectional area of the bony spinal canal of approximately 40 %. Atlanto-axial rotation was recorded by endocanalar views from a video camera fixed inside the skull of six unembalmed cadavers. Axial thin-section T1-weighted MRI slice sets were acquired from three volunteers (mid-position and maximal left and right rotation of the head and cervical spine). The axial cross-sectional areas of the bony spinal canal, dural sac and spinal cord were measured. In two other persons post-gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI volume scans with fat-suppression prepulse were acquired (mid-position and rotation) to determine venous contents of the extradural space. The 50:50 ratio between left and right extradural halves in mid-position changed to an ipsilateral:contralateral ratio of 20:80 in maximum rotation at the level just above the lateral C1-C2 joints. Directly below these joints the opposite occurred. The post-contrast studies showed an enhancing internal vertebral venous plexus (IVVP), which almost completely occupied the extradural space at the atlanto-axial level. This could not be shown in the cadaver experiments, because of absence of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. During atlanto-axial rotation blood displacement in the IVVP allows major deformations of the extradural space. This prevents dural sac impression. (orig.)

  5. Radiation therapy for digestive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Levy, E.; Thirion, P.; Martin, L.; Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    This brief review of radiation therapy of digestive tumors in 1994 seeks to provide practical answers to the most commonly asked questions: What is the place of radiation therapy versus chemotherapy for the treatment of these patients ? What are the approved indications of radiation therapy and which avenues of research are being explored ? Radiation therapy is used in over two-thirds of patients referred to an oncology department for a gastrointestinal tract tumor. The main indications are reviewed: cancer of the rectum and anal canal and, to a lesser extent, cancer of the esophagus and pancreas. The main focuses of current research include radiation therapy-chemotherapy combinations, intraoperative radiation therapy, and radiation therapy of hepatobiliary tumors. (authors). 23 refs., 1 fig

  6. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  7. Initial clinical experience with a sac-anchoring endoprosthesis for aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donayre, Carlos E; Zarins, Christopher K; Krievins, Dainis K; Holden, Andrew; Hill, Andrew; Calderas, Carlos; Velez, Jaime; White, Rodney A

    2011-03-01

    All current aortic endografts depend on proximal and distal fixation to prevent migration. However, migration and rupture can occur, particularly in patients with aortic necks that are short or angulated, or both. We present our initial clinical experience with a new sac-anchoring endoprosthesis designed to anchor and seal the device within the aneurysm sac. The initial worldwide experience using a new endoprosthesis for the treatment of aortic aneurysms (Nellix Endovascular, Palo Alto, Calif) was reviewed. The endoprosthesis consists of dual balloon-expandable endoframes surrounded by polymer-filled endobags designed to obliterate the aneurysm sac and maintain endograft position. Clinical results and follow-up contrast computed tomography (CT) scans at 30 days and 6 and 12 months were reviewed. The endograft was successfully deployed in 21 patients with infrarenal aortic aneurysms measuring 5.7 ± 0.7 cm (range, 4.3-7.4 cm). Two patients with common iliac aneurysms were treated with sac-anchoring extenders that maintained patency of the internal iliac artery. Infusion of 71 ± 37 mL of polymer (range, 19-158 mL) into the aortic endobags resulted in complete aneurysm exclusion in all patients. Mean implant time was 76 ± 35 minutes, with 33 ± 17 minutes of fluoroscopy time and 180 ± 81 mL of contrast; estimated blood loss was 174 ± 116 mL. One patient died during the postoperative period (30-day mortality, 4.8%), and one died at 10 months from non-device-related causes. During a mean follow-up of 8.7 ± 3.1 months and a median of 6.3 months, there were no late aneurysm- or device-related adverse events and no secondary procedures. CT imaging studies at 6 months and 1 year revealed no increase in aneurysm size, no device migration, and no new endoleaks. One patient had a limited proximal type I endoleak at 30 days that resolved at 60 days and remained sealed. One patient has an ongoing distal type I endoleak near the iliac bifurcation, with no change in aneurysm

  8. Measurement of the uterus and gestation sac by ultrasound in early normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, M; Evans, L J; Duff, G B

    1981-01-14

    Uterine volumes measured by two different ultrasonic methods, and gestation sac volumes in early normal pregnancy are reported. The results obtained for uterine volume measurements are compared. Methods using measurements obtained from only a longitudinal scan were simpler but slightly less accurate. Uterine volumes were also calculated in a series of patients with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. The accuracy of the prediction of the outcome of the pregnancy, based solely on uterine volume was 71 percent. Uterine volume measurement is most useful in identifying cases of missed abortion where the period of gestation is known.

  9. Planeamiento estratégico para Aidisa Perú S.A.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Dileo Pinillos, Roberto Carlos; Diaz Amayo, Jorge Luis; Gordillo Andrade, Luis; Ubillús Galarreta, Eduardo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    xvii, 106 h. : il. ; 30 cm. El plan estratégico desarrollado para Aidisa Perú S.A.C. se enmarca en la industria de distribución de productos de consumo masivo, específicamente en el canal tradicional abarcando a clientes minoristas y mayoristas. Para el desarrollo del mismo se trabajó conjuntamente con un grupo de empleados de cada operación de Aidisa Perú seleccionados en base a su conocimiento de la industria y de la empresa, realizándose además una exhaustiva investigació...

  10. Presentations for the 1st muon science experimental facility advisory committee meeting (MuSAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The J-PARC Muon Science Advisory Committee, so called 'MuSAC', is organized under the J-PARC Project Director during construction period, in order to discuss the following items related to the Muon Science Facility at J-PARC and to report to the Project Director and Muon Science Facility construction team. The committee will review and advise the following subjects: 1) Project definition of the experimental facility to be constructed in Materials and Life Science Facility of J-PARC, 2) Content of the 1st phase experimental program. This issue is the collection of the documents presented at the title meeting. (J.P.N.)

  11. SACS gene-related autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Suraj Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by late infantile onset spastic ataxia and other neurological features. Initially described in the Charlevoix-Saguenay region of Quebec, Canada, it is being increasingly reported from many other countries. Here, we present the case of a 20-year-old male from South India, who presented with progressive ataxia, spasticity, and peripheral neuropathy with imaging features and genetic testing suggestive of SACS gene-related ARSACS. The phenotypic variability from other cases and occurrence in a geographically distinct region is stressed upon to alert the clinicians to consider ARSACS in progressive ataxias.

  12. Serial MR imaging studies in enlarged endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2002-01-01

    Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) is a congenital disorder characterized by progressive or fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss of unknown etiology. Serial MR examinations were performed before and after the development of hearing loss in two patients with LVAS. The signal and volume of the enlarged endolymphatic sac (EES) vary even in ears with stable hearing. In ears with fluctuating hearing, changes in EES signals were observed in only one of two patients. The finding that the EES volume and signal intensity vary dynamically independently of hearing is important for future research into the pathophysiology of hearing loss in this syndrome. (orig.)

  13. Plan estratégico Limpi Max S.A.C. 2015-2019

    OpenAIRE

    Aniceto Prado, Fabiola Virginia; Barcelona Zakimi, Antoane Andre; Tokashiki Zakimi, Javier Elias; Yutaka Yino Oshiro, Daniel Alberto

    2015-01-01

    El presente plan estratégico ha sido elaborado para la empresa Limpi Max S.A.C. para el periodo comprendido entre los años 2015 a 2019, cuya actividad económica está especializada en el cristalizado de superficies y suelos calcáreos. El mercado del cristalizado se enfoca en centros comerciales, tiendas por departamento y hoteles que cuenten con las superficies mencionadas líneas arriba. El mayor problema que enfrenta Limpi Max es la reducida o nula cultura empresarial en nuestro país de reali...

  14. Study on initial stage of diesel spray formation. Effects of the condition inside the nozzle sac; Diesel funmu no shoki keisei katei ni kansuru kenkyu. Sac nai nenryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, N.; Tsujimura, K. [Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Komori, M.

    1996-06-25

    To realize clean diesel exhaust, it is very important to clarify the atomization phenomena of the fuel spray. In this study, the initial stage of the atomization process of a diesel injection fuel spray was analyzed with a high-speed image converter camera under the conditions of atmospheric gas pressure and room temperature. As a result, it was found that the initial spray formation was greatly affected lay the condition inside the nozzle sac. In the case in which fuel existed in the sac, pin-like structure spray formation was observed at the initial injection stage. This phenomenon was not observed in the case in which no fuel was present in the sac, and a widely spread fuel spray formation was observed at the initial injection stage. The relatively low-speed fuel spray injected in the initial low-sac-pressure condition was pushed away by the subsequent fuel spray injected in the high-sac-pressure condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Assessment of lesser prairie-chicken use of wildlife water guzzlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.; Borsdorf, Philip K.; Gicklhorn, Trevor S.

    2014-01-01

    Man-made water sources have been used as a management tool for wildlife, especially in arid regions, but the value of these water sources for wildlife populations is not well understood. In particular, the value of water as a conservation tool for Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is unknown. However, this is a relevant issue due to a heightened conservation concern for the species and its occupancy of an arid landscape anticipated to experience warmer, drier springs and winters. We assessed if Lesser Prairie-Chickens would use commercially available wildlife water guzzlers and if there was any apparent selection between two design types. We confirmed that Lesser Prairie-Chickens would use bird friendly designed wildlife water guzzlers. Use was primarily during the lekking-nesting period (March–May) and the brood rearing period (June–July) and primarily by males. Although both designs were used, we found significantly greater use of a design that had a wider water trough and ramp built into the tank cover compared to a design that had a longer, narrower trough extending from the tank.Although we were unable to assess the physiological need of surface water by Lesser Prairie-Chickens, we were able to verify that they will use wildlife water guzzlers to access surface water. If it is found surface water is beneficial for Lesser Prairie-Chickens, game bird friendly designed guzzlers may be a useful conservation tool for the species.

  16. Malignant primary germ-cell tumor of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toyoshiro; Sato, Shinichi; Nakao, Satoshi; Ban, Sadahiko; Namba, Koh

    1983-01-01

    The unusual case of a 15 year old boy with three discrete paraventricular germ-cell tumors is reported.FThe first tumor was located just lateral to the left thalamus and included a massive cystic part around it, the second tumor in the paraventricular region above the head of the left caudate nucleus and the third tumor in the medial part of the left parietal lobe.FTotal removal of all tumors was successfully accomplished in stages at four separate operations, namely, the first tumor was removed through the left transsylvian approach, the second tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and the third tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and left superior parietal lobule.FHistological examination revealed that the first tumor was teratoma, the second was choriocarcinoma and the third was germinoma.FPrimary germ-cell tumors of the brain can be divided into 5 groups: 1) germinoma; 2) embryonal carcinoma; 3) choriocarcinoma; 4) yolk-sac tumor; or 5) teratoma.FIn this case, a combination of three different histological patterns was seen. If malignant germ-cell tumor is supected on CT, aggressive extirpation should be done, not only to determine the exact diagnosis, but also to provide the basis for subsequent adjunctive therapy. (author)

  17. Fine structures of the ejaculatory sac and sperm pump of the scorpionfly Panorpa liui Hua (Mecoptera: Panorpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Hua, Baozhen

    2013-08-01

    Male adults of Panorpidae possess a special sperm pump, through which the males transfer liquid sperm to the females. However, the structures of the sperm pump and the transfer mechanism have not been satisfactorily elucidated hitherto. In this paper the structures of the ejaculatory sac and sperm pump of the scorpionfly Panorpa liui Hua were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ejaculatory sac is located between the basal end of the paired vasa deferentia and the aedeagus, comprising a small anterior part and a large posterior part. The anterior part is simple and functions only as a channel for sperm transfer. The epithelial cells of the large posterior part likely have secretory functions. The sperm pump is formed by the posterior region of the ejaculatory sac and derivates of the genital field, which enclose the pumping chamber, a piston and the associated muscles. The orifice of the ejaculatory duct lies ventrad of the piston. The piston of the sperm pump is heavily sclerotized and controlled by two antagonistic muscle pairs. A pair of simple tubular accessory glands opens to the pumping chamber. Two well-developed sex pheromone glands are located on the ventral side of the ejaculatory sac, and are composed of two fan-shaped lamellae. The epithelium of the sex pheromone glands is single-layered, and forms densely filamentous processes. The ejaculation mechanism is briefly discussed based on the morphology of ejaculatory sac and sperm pump. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone histological correlates for air sacs and their implications for understanding the origin of the dinosaurian respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, Markus; Bertozzo, Filippo; Sander, P Martin

    2018-01-01

    Air sacs are an important component of the avian respiratory system, and corresponding structures also were crucial for the evolution of sauropod dinosaur gigantism. Inferring the presence of air sacs in fossils so far is restricted to bones preserving internal pneumatic cavities and foramina as osteological correlates. We here present bone histological correlates for air sacs as a new potential identification tool for these elements of the respiratory system. The analysis of several avian and non-avian dinosaur samples revealed delicate fibres in secondary trabecular and secondary endosteal bone that in the former case (birds) is known or in the latter (non-avian dinosaurs) assumed to have been in contact with air sacs, respectively. The bone histology of this 'pneumosteal tissue' is markedly different from those regions where muscles attached presenting classical Sharpey's fibres. The pneumatized bones of several non-dinosaurian taxa do not exhibit the characteristics of this 'pneumosteum'. Our new histology-based approach thus can be instrumental in reconstructing the origin of air sacs among dinosaurs and hence for our understanding of this remarkable evolutionary novelty of the respiratory system. © 2018 The Author(s).

  19. Insertion of a self-expandable metallic stent in canine lacrimal Sac : a long-term evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Young; Sung, Kyu Bo; Yoon, Hyun Ki [Univ. of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of). College of Medicine; Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Medical School; Lee, Ho Jung; Lee, In Chul; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Sang Soo; Huh, Soo Jin [Univ. of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of). College of Medicine

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and long-term outcome of the use of self-expandable metallic Z-stents in the canine lacrimal sac. Stent placement was technically successful and well tolerated in all but one lacrimal sac, in which the stent was misplaced. At three and six months after stent placement, stent wires were not encased by epithelium, but at nine months, and one, two and three years after placement, six of the 12 stents had become encased in a proliferation of this where the stent wires contacted the lacrimal sac wall. In no lacrimal system in which stent placement had been successful was migration, stenosis or obstruction of the lacrimal system observed. One misplaced stent caused obstruction of the lacrimal sac, however . In 11 of 12 case (92%), fluoroscopic placement of an expandable metallic stent in the canine lacrimal sac was successful: in 6 of 8 cases (75%), the stent wires became encased by a proliferation of mucosa, but during long-term follow-up of 9 months to 3 years, no obstruction was observed. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  20. Insertion of a self-expandable metallic stent in canine lacrimal Sac : a long-term evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho Young; Sung, Kyu Bo; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Ho Jung; Lee, In Chul; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Sang Soo; Huh, Soo Jin

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and long-term outcome of the use of self-expandable metallic Z-stents in the canine lacrimal sac. Stent placement was technically successful and well tolerated in all but one lacrimal sac, in which the stent was misplaced. At three and six months after stent placement, stent wires were not encased by epithelium, but at nine months, and one, two and three years after placement, six of the 12 stents had become encased in a proliferation of this where the stent wires contacted the lacrimal sac wall. In no lacrimal system in which stent placement had been successful was migration, stenosis or obstruction of the lacrimal system observed. One misplaced stent caused obstruction of the lacrimal sac, however . In 11 of 12 case (92%), fluoroscopic placement of an expandable metallic stent in the canine lacrimal sac was successful: in 6 of 8 cases (75%), the stent wires became encased by a proliferation of mucosa, but during long-term follow-up of 9 months to 3 years, no obstruction was observed. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  1. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. → Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca 2+ permeant SACs. → The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. → Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. → SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch ( 2+ threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  2. Conservation Reserve Program mitigates grassland loss in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Spencer, David; Hagen, Christian A.; Daniels, Melinda D.; Goodin, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the overall occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has declined by 84% commensurate with population trends. Much of this decline has been attributed to the loss and fragmentation of native grasslands throughout the lesser prairie-chicken range. However, quantification of changes in land cover in the distribution of the lesser prairie-chicken is lacking. Our objectives were to (1) document changes in the areal extent and connectivity of grasslands in the identified lesser prairie-chicken range in Kansas, USA, (>60% of extant lesser prairie-chicken population) from the 1950s to 2013 using remotely sensed data and (2) assess the potential of the Conservation Reserve Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture Program converting cropland to permanent cover; CRP) to mitigate grassland loss. Digital land cover maps were generated on a decadal time step through spectral classification of LANDSAT images and visual analysis of aerial photographs (1950s and 1960s). Landscape composition and configuration were assessed using FRAGSTATS to compute a variety of landscape metrics measuring changes in the amount of grassland present as well as changes in the size and configuration of grassland patches. With the exception of a single regional portion of the range, nearly all of the grassland converted to cropland in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas occurred prior to the 1950s. Prior to the implementation of CRP, the amount of grassland decreased 3.6% between the 1950s and 1985 from 18,455 km2 to 17,788 km2. Since 1985, the overall amount of grassland in the lesser prairie-chicken range has increased 11.9% to 19,898 km2 due to implementation of CRP, although the area of grassland decreased between 1994 and 2013 as CRP contracts were not renewed by landowners. Since 1986 grassland in Kansas became more connected and less fragmented in response to the CRP. While the CRP has been successful in

  3. Conservation Reserve Program mitigates grassland loss in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century, the overall occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus has declined by 84% commensurate with population trends. Much of this decline has been attributed to the loss and fragmentation of native grasslands throughout the lesser prairie-chicken range. However, quantification of changes in land cover in the distribution of the lesser prairie-chicken is lacking. Our objectives were to (1 document changes in the areal extent and connectivity of grasslands in the identified lesser prairie-chicken range in Kansas, USA, (>60% of extant lesser prairie-chicken population from the 1950s to 2013 using remotely sensed data and (2 assess the potential of the Conservation Reserve Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture Program converting cropland to permanent cover; CRP to mitigate grassland loss. Digital land cover maps were generated on a decadal time step through spectral classification of LANDSAT images and visual analysis of aerial photographs (1950s and 1960s. Landscape composition and configuration were assessed using FRAGSTATS to compute a variety of landscape metrics measuring changes in the amount of grassland present as well as changes in the size and configuration of grassland patches. With the exception of a single regional portion of the range, nearly all of the grassland converted to cropland in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas occurred prior to the 1950s. Prior to the implementation of CRP, the amount of grassland decreased 3.6% between the 1950s and 1985 from 18,455 km2 to 17,788 km2. Since 1985, the overall amount of grassland in the lesser prairie-chicken range has increased 11.9% to 19,898 km2 due to implementation of CRP, although the area of grassland decreased between 1994 and 2013 as CRP contracts were not renewed by landowners. Since 1986 grassland in Kansas became more connected and less fragmented in response to the CRP. While the CRP has been successful

  4. First complete genome sequence of parainfluenza virus 5 isolated from lesser panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jun-Qiong; Zhai, Shao-Lun; Lin, Tao; Liu, Jian-Kui; Wang, He-Xing; Li, Bing; Zhang, He; Zou, Shu-Zhan; Zhou, Xia; Wu, Meng-Fan; Chen, Wu; Luo, Man-Lin

    2017-05-01

    Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is widespread in mammals and humans. Up to now, there is little information about PIV5 infection in lesser pandas. In this study, a PIV5 variant (named ZJQ-221) was isolated from a lesser panda with respiratory disease in Guangzhou zoo in Guangdong province, southern China. The full-length genome of ZJQ-221 was found to be 15,246 nucleotides and consisted of seven non-overlapping genes encoding eight proteins (i.e., NP, V, P, M, F, SH, HN and L). Sequence alignment and genetic analysis revealed that ZJQ-221 shared a close relationship with a PIV5 strain of canine-origin (1168-1) from South Korea. The findings of this study confirm the presence of PIV5 in lesser panda and indicate this mammal as a possible natural reservoir. Furthermore they highlight the urgent need to strengthen viral surveillance and control of PIV5 in zoo animals.

  5. The effect of listing the lesser prairie chicken as a threatened species on rural property values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietelman, Derek C; Melstrom, Richard T

    2017-04-15

    This paper estimates the effect of Endangered Species Act protections for the lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) on rural property values in Oklahoma. The political and legal controversy surrounding the listing of imperiled species raises questions about the development restrictions and opportunity costs the Endangered Species Act imposes on private landowners. Examining parcel-level sales data before and after the listing of the endemic lesser prairie chicken, we employ difference-in-differences (DD) regression to measure the welfare costs of these restrictions. While our basic DD regression provides evidence the listing was associated with a drop in property values, this finding does not hold up in models that control for latent county and year effects. The lack of a significant price effect is confirmed by several robustness checks. Thus, the local economic costs of listing the lesser prairie chicken under the Endangered Species Act appear to have been small. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. "Mixed germ cell testicular tumor" in an adult female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasimath Shivakumarswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The androgen insensitivity (testicular feminization syndrome was described by Morris in phenotypic females with 46XY karyotype, presenting with primary amenorrhea, adequate breast development, and absent or scanty pubic or axillary hair. Gonads consist usually of seminiferous tubules without spermatogenesis. These patients have a 5-10% risk of developing germ cell tumors, usually after the complete development of secondary female sexual characteristics. We hereby report a case considered as a female with married life of 15 years, who was operated for severe abdominal pain. Phenotype characters were that of female. Microscopic examination of the tumor from the abdomen revealed germinoma and yolk sac tumor with adjacent seminiferous tubules. Karyotyping showed 46XY. Final diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumor in androgen insensitivity syndrome was made. Surveillance may be the most appropriate option when these conditions are initially diagnosed in adulthood to prevent development of germ cell tumors.

  7. Landscape composition creates a threshold influencing Lesser Prairie-Chicken population resilience to extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and degradation compound the effects of climate change on wildlife, yet responses to climate and land cover change are often quantified independently. The interaction between climate and land cover change could be intensified in the Great Plains region where grasslands are being converted to row-crop agriculture concurrent with increased frequency of extreme drought events. We quantified the combined effects of land cover and climate change on a species of conservation concern in the Great Plains, the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus  ). We combined extreme drought events and land cover change with lek count surveys in a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify changes in abundance of male Lesser Prairie-Chickens from 1978 to 2014 in Kansas, the core of their species range. Our estimates of abundance indicate a gradually decreasing population through 2010 corresponding to drought events and reduced grassland areas. Decreases in Lesser Prairie-Chicken abundance were greatest in areas with increasing row-crop to grassland land cover ratio during extreme drought events, and decreased grassland reduces the resilience of Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations to extreme drought events. A threshold exists for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in response to the gradient of cropland:grassland land cover. When moving across the gradient of grassland to cropland, abundance initially increased in response to more cropland on the landscape, but declined in response to more cropland after the threshold (δ=0.096, or 9.6% cropland). Preservation of intact grasslands and continued implementation of initiatives to revert cropland to grassland should increase Lesser Prairie-Chicken resilience to extreme drought events due to climate change.

  8. Embryo sac formation and early embryo development in Agave tequilana (Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gutiérrez, Alejandra G; Gutiérrez-Mora, Antonia; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamín

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana is an angiosperm species that belongs to the family Asparagaceae (formerly Agavaceae). Even though there is information regarding to some aspects related to the megagametogenesis of A. tequilana, this is the first report describing the complete process of megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, the early embryo and endosperm development process in detail. The objective of this work was to study and characterize all the above processes and the distinctive morphological changes of the micropylar and chalazal extremes after fertilization in this species. The agave plant material for the present study was collected from commercial plantations in the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Ovules and immature seeds, previously fixed in FAA and kept in ethanol 70%, were stained based on a tissue clarification technique by using a Mayer's-Hematoxylin solution. The tissue clarification technique was successfully used for the characterization of the megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, mature embryo sac formation, the early embryo and endosperm development processes by studying intact cells. The embryo sac of A. tequilana was confirmed to be of the monosporic Polygonum-type and an helobial endosperm formation. Also, the time-lapse of the developmental processes studied was recorded.

  9. Radiographic anatomy of the distal dural SAC; A myelographic investigation of dimensions and termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.L.; Olsen, K.O. (Haukeland Sykehus, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1991-05-01

    A radio-anatomical study was performed of the distal dural sac (DS) in 121 patients subjected to myelography. In 83.4% the termination of the DS was located from the upper half of the S1-segment to the lower half of the S2-segment. In the remaining patients the dural terminations were more distally located. The average location of the DS-termination was higher than that found in a previous anatomic study. The inference is that in patients with low-back pain and sciatica, the DS tends to terminate at a higher spinal level than in a non-selected anatomic material. The caudal reduction in sagittal diameter of the DS was less than that of the frontal diameter of the sac. The linear diminution in cross-sectional area of the DS from the level of L3 towards the lumbosacral junction was not correlated with the degree of caudal extension of the DS into the sacrum. Thus the length of the DS and its transverse diameters are independent of each other. These results supported the view that the location of the termination of the DS (and hence that of the spinal cord) is not related to stenosis of the central spinal canal. (orig.).

  10. Novel SACS mutations associated with intellectual disability, epilepsy and widespread supratentorial abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zafar; Klar, Joakim; Jameel, Mohammad; Khan, Kamal; Fatima, Ambrin; Raininko, Raili; Baig, Shahid; Dahl, Niklas

    2016-12-15

    We describe eight subjects from two consanguineous families segregating with autosomal recessive childhood onset spastic ataxia, peripheral neuropathy and intellectual disability. The degree of intellectual disability varied from mild to severe and all four affected individuals in one family developed aggressive behavior and epilepsy. Using exome sequencing, we identified two novel truncating mutations (c.2656C>T (p.Gln886*)) and (c.4756_4760delAATCA (p.Asn1586Tyrfs*3)) in the SACS gene responsible for autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS). MRI revealed typical cerebellar and pontine changes associated with ARSACS as well as multiple supratentorial changes in both families as likely contributing factors to the cognitive symptoms. Intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities have been reported in some cases of ARSACS but are not a part of the characteristic triad of symptoms that includes cerebellar ataxia, spasticity and peripheral neuropathy. Our combined findings bring further knowledge to the phenotypic spectrum, neurodegenerative changes and genetic variability associated with the SACS gene of clinical and diagnostic importance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Smc1β is required for activation of SAC during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yilong; Zhou, Changyin; Cui, Zhaokang; Dai, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Mianqun; Lu, Yajuan; Xiong, Bo

    2017-03-19

    Smc1β is a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit that is essential for sister chromatid cohesion and DNA recombination. Previous studies have shown that Smc1β-deficient mice in both sexes are sterile. Ablation of Smc1β during male meiosis leads to the blockage of spermatogenesis in pachytene stage, and ablation of Smc1β during female meiosis generates a highly error-prone oocyte although it could develop to metaphase II stage. However, the underlying mechanisms regarding how Smc1β maintains the correct meiotic progression in mouse oocytes have not been clearly defined. Here, we find that GFP-fused Smc1β is expressed and localized to the chromosomes from GV to MII stages during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Knockdown of Smc1β by microinjection of gene-specific morpholino causes the impaired spindle apparatus and chromosome alignment which are highly correlated with the defective kinetochore-microtubule attachments, consequently resulting in a prominently higher incidence of aneuploid eggs. In addition, the premature extrusion of polar bodies and escape of metaphase I arrest induced by low dose of nocodazole treatment in Smc1β-depleted oocytes indicates that Smc1β is essential for activation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activity. Collectively, we identify a novel function of Smc1β as a SAC participant beyond its role in chromosome cohesion during mouse oocyte meiosis.

  12. Metastatic anal sac carcinoma with hypercalcaemia and associated hypertrophic osteopathy in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giuliano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old male neutered Irish setter was treated for a metastatic anal sac adenocarcinoma (ASAC and hypercalcaemia by complete surgical excision of the primary tumour and partial excision of the sublumbar lymph nodes. Further enlargement of the sublumbar lymph nodes was linked to recurrent hypercalcaemia 3 months after surgical treatment. Medical treatment with Toceranib and Clodronate showed modest results in the treatment of the tumour and the hypercalcaemia. Radiotherapy of the sublumbar lymph nodes and later concurrent carboplatin chemotherapy resulted in partial tumour remission with marked reduction in size of the lymph nodes and normalization of the calcaemia. Unfortunately, concurrently with subsequent relapse of the hypercalaemia, the dog developed hypertrophic osteopathy (HO and lumbar spinal metastasis and the dog was euthanized. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the second case of metastatic apocrine gland carcinoma of the anal sac associated with HO and the first case that describe the development of HO late in the stage of the disease.

  13. Performance Analysis of SAC Optical PPM-CDMA System-Based Interference Rejection Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsowaidi, N.; Eltaif, Tawfig; Mokhtar, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we aim to theoretically analyse optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system that based on successive interference cancellation (SIC) using pulse position modulation (PPM), considering the interference between the users, imperfection cancellation occurred during the cancellation process and receiver noises. Spectral amplitude coding (SAC) scheme is used to suppress the overlapping between the users and reduce the receiver noises effect. The theoretical analysis of the multiple access interference (MAI)-limited performance of this approach indicates the influence of the size of M-ary PPM on OCDMA system. The OCDMA system performance improves with increasing M-ary PPM. Therefore, it was found that the SIC/SAC-OCDMA system using PPM technique along with modified prime (MPR) codes used as signature sequence code offers significant improvement over the one without cancellation and it can support up to 103 users at the benchmarking value of bit error rate (BER) = 10-9 with prime number p = 11 while the system without cancellation scheme can support only up to 52 users.

  14. Comparison between Conventional OCDMA and Subcarrier Multiplexing SAC OCDMA System Based on Single Photodiode Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad N. A. A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the comparison between conventional OCDMA system and subcarrier multiplexing (SCM SAC-OCDMA system by applying Recursive Combinatorial (RC code based on single photodiode detection (SPD. SPD is used in the receiver part to reduce the effect of multiple access interference (MAI which contributes as a dominant noise in incoherent SAC-OCDMA systems. From this analysis, the performance of SCM OCDMA network could be improved by using lower data rates and higher received power. The hybrid SCM OCDMA system shows better performance compare to conventional OCDMA system although the number of users involved is very high. This is because, for hybrid SCM OCDMA system, the number of users can be increased by increasing the number of subcarriers without affect the number of code length and optical codes. Increasing the number of subcarriers will enhance the power consumption by applying hybrid SCM system in OCDMA compared to the conventional OCDMA system. This is because increasing the number of users for hybrid SCM system does not affects the number of code length and the number of optical codes but only increase the number of subcarriers. Thus, hybrid SCM OCDMA system has to increase spectral efficiency and produce better performance compared to conventional of OCDMA system.

  15. A Novel Technique to Detect Code for SAC-OCDMA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Manisha; Kumar, Manoj; Sharma, Ajay K.

    2018-04-01

    The main task of optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system is the detection of code used by a user in presence of multiple access interference (MAI). In this paper, new method of detection known as XOR subtraction detection for spectral amplitude coding OCDMA (SAC-OCDMA) based on double weight codes has been proposed and presented. As MAI is the main source of performance deterioration in OCDMA system, therefore, SAC technique is used in this paper to eliminate the effect of MAI up to a large extent. A comparative analysis is then made between the proposed scheme and other conventional detection schemes used like complimentary subtraction detection, AND subtraction detection and NAND subtraction detection. The system performance is characterized by Q-factor, BER and received optical power (ROP) with respect to input laser power and fiber length. The theoretical and simulation investigations reveal that the proposed detection technique provides better quality factor, security and received power in comparison to other conventional techniques. The wide opening of eye in case of proposed technique also proves its robustness.

  16. Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemin, C.; Bosley, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing may interfere with the normal closure of the optic vesicle and normal growth of encephalic structures, possibly by disturbing developmental tissue interactions. These patients may exhibit a type of restricted primary sphenoid dysplasia, while the sphenoid dysplasia of neurofibromatosis type 1 may be secondary to orbital or ocular neurofibromas and other factors associated with that disease. (orig.)

  17. Digestibily of Some Kind of Alternative Diets on Lesser Mouse Deer (Tragulus javanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WR Farida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Four female lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus were used in this study to observe their feed consumption and digestibility given alternative diets in captive.  The results showed that 125g/head/day sweet potatoes supplementation in ration increased the consumption and digestibility of dry matter intake, ash, ether extract, and N-free extract. Supplementation of commercial concentrate in lesser mouse deer’s diet decreased the digestion of dry matter, ash, crude protein, and crude fiber. Animal Production 6(1: 17-22 (2004   Key Words: Digestibility, Consumption, Alternative Diets, Tragulus javanicus

  18. Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemin, C. [King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Radiology Dept.; Mullaney, P. [Paediatric Ophthalmology Div., King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Bosley, T.M. [Neuro-Ophthalmology Div., King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2001-02-01

    We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing may interfere with the normal closure of the optic vesicle and normal growth of encephalic structures, possibly by disturbing developmental tissue interactions. These patients may exhibit a type of restricted primary sphenoid dysplasia, while the sphenoid dysplasia of neurofibromatosis type 1 may be secondary to orbital or ocular neurofibromas and other factors associated with that disease. (orig.)

  19. Standardization and validation of a novel and simple method to assess lumbar dural sac size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, M.L.A.; Lowe, J.R.; Roy, P.; Patrone, M.V.; Conyers, J.M.; Fine, J.P.; Knowles, M.R.; Birchard, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To develop and validate a simple, reproducible method to assess dural sac size using standard imaging technology. Materials and methods: This study was institutional review board-approved. Two readers, blinded to the diagnoses, measured anterior–posterior (AP) and transverse (TR) dural sac diameter (DSD), and AP vertebral body diameter (VBD) of the lumbar vertebrae using MRI images from 53 control patients with pre-existing MRI examinations, 19 prospectively MRI-imaged healthy controls, and 24 patients with Marfan syndrome with prior MRI or CT lumbar spine imaging. Statistical analysis utilized linear and logistic regression, Pearson correlation, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: AP-DSD and TR-DSD measurements were reproducible between two readers (r = 0.91 and 0.87, respectively). DSD (L1–L5) was not different between male and female controls in the AP or TR plane (p = 0.43; p = 0.40, respectively), and did not vary by age (p = 0.62; p = 0.25) or height (p = 0.64; p = 0.32). AP-VBD was greater in males versus females (p = 1.5 × 10 −8 ), resulting in a smaller dural sac ratio (DSR) (DSD/VBD) in males (p = 5.8 × 10 −6 ). Marfan patients had larger AP-DSDs and TR-DSDs than controls (p = 5.9 × 10 −9 ; p = 6.5 × 10 −9 , respectively). Compared to DSR, AP-DSD and TR-DSD better discriminate Marfan from control subjects based on area under the curve (AUC) values from unadjusted ROCs (AP-DSD p < 0.01; TR-DSD p = 0.04). Conclusion: Individual vertebrae and L1–L5 (average) AP-DSD and TR-DSD measurements are simple, reliable, and reproducible for quantitating dural sac size without needing to control for gender, age, or height. - Highlights: • DSD (L1-L5) does not differ in the AP or TR plane by gender, height, or age. • AP- and TR-DSD measures correlate well between readers with different experience. • Height is positively correlated to AP-VBD in both males and females. • Varying

  20. Polarization and EIS studies to evaluate the effect of aluminum concentration on the corrosion behavior of SAC105 solder alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyana N. K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on corrosion behavior of Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu-XAl (X = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 by means of polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results show that addition of aluminum into SAC105 shifts the corrosion current density and passivation current density towards more positive values. It is also found that with an increase in aluminum concentration in SAC105 solder alloy, the corrosion current density increases and polarization resistance decreases. This suggests that SAC105 with the highest concentration of Al has the lowest corrosion resistance. In this case, the corrosion behavior seems to be attributed to anodic dissolution of aluminum and Sn-matrix.

  1. Determination of the inferior border of the thecal sac using magnetic resonance imaging: implications on radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, Carole B.; Paulino, Arnold C.; Goldberg, Kenneth N.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the traditional teaching of placing the caudal border of the spinal field at the S2-S3 interspace in children receiving craniospinal irradiation (CSI) is appropriate. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three children had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine with gadolinium prior to craniospinal irradiation at one institution. Thecal sac termination using MRI was determined by drawing a perpendicular line from the point of convergence of dural margins to the corresponding vertebral body. Results: Location of thecal sac termination varied from mid-S1 to low S3 vertebral body, with the most frequent site at the upper S2 vertebral level. Only 2 of 23 (8.7%) children had thecal sac terminations below the S2-S3 interspace. For the nine patients with neuraxis disease, none had thecal sac terminations below the S2-S3 interspace. In seven of the nine patients who had neuraxis seeding at initial presentation, MRI of the spine after CSI was performed and showed that thecal sac termination was lower after radiation therapy in two children, higher in one, and the same in four. Conclusions: In 2 of 23 children (8.7%), placement of the inferior border at the bottom of the S2 vertebral body would have missed the entire thecal sac. Treatment to the entire neuraxis with adequate coverage of distal spinal theca can be achieved by using MRI. Individualized spinal fields using the MRI may help minimize radiation scatter to the gonads while adequately covering the target volume

  2. Sinus Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > CONDITIONS > Sinus Tumors Adult Sinusitis Pediatric ... and they vary greatly in location, size and type. Care for these tumors is individualized to each ...

  3. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  4. Wilms tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggested. Alternative Names Nephroblastoma; Kidney tumor - Wilms Images Kidney anatomy Wilms tumor References Babaian KN, Delacroix SE, Wood CG, Jonasch E. Kidney cancer. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  5. Using skin and fascial sheath of preputial sac; A new technique for surgery for congenital buried penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreeprasad Patankar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital buried penis (CBP is a rare condition characterized by penis with normal length obscured under penopubic and penoscrotal skin and subcutaneous tissue. Though rare, this condition causes great parental anxiety because of abnormal shape and appearance of penis, dribbling of urine and poor hygiene. Abnormal distal attachment of fundiform ligament on penile shaft, large, redundant preputial sac, and severe paucity of nonpigmented penile skin are important anatomical factors responsible for CBP. We here describe a different approach for degloving of penis and achieving penile skin cover using skin and fascial sheath of preputial sac. This method is simple and easy to learn, teach and reproduce.

  6. Planeamiento estratégico de Ingeniería de Sistemas de Fluidos S.A.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Arana, Fernando; Iparraguirre, Miguel; Vásquez, Mariela

    2015-01-01

    La finalidad del presente trabajo de investigación es la elaboración de un plan estratégico para la empresa Ingeniería de Sistemas de Fluidos SAC para los siguientes tres años. Este plan se inicia analizando el entorno externo en el que se desempeña ISF SAC, tanto el entorno general como el entorno de la industria, de esta manera conocer las oportunidades y amenazas a las que se debe enfrentar la empresa. Una vez analizado el entorno externo, se realiza el análisis interno en el cual se evalú...

  7. Long distance commutes by lesser long-nosed bats (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae) to visit residential hummingbird feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbie C. Buecher; Ronnie. Sidner

    2013-01-01

    Each spring, thousands of female lesser long-nosed bats (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae) migrate from southern Mexico to northern Sonora and southern Arizona to have their young and take advantage of seasonably available forage resources, including nectar, pollen, and fruit of columnar cacti. Once the pups are volant, the population begins to disperse across the grasslands...

  8. Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Dried Synbiotics Yoghurt from Lesser Yam Tubers (Dioscoreaesculenta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarti Sri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many variations of Yam (Dioscorea spp. which spread out in the world including Indonesia. Those variations could be categorized based on their shape, size, colour, and flavour of their tuber. The genus of Dioscorea spp. has more than 600 species, such as Dioscorea hispida, Dioscorea esculenta (lesser yam, Discorea bulbifera, Dioscorea alata (purple yam, Dioscorea opposita (white yam, Dioscorea villosa (yellow yam, Dioscorea altassima, and Dioscorea elephantipes. At the present, the utilization of yam tubers is seen to be limited. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the properties/characteristics of dried synbiotics yoghurt from lesser yam tubers. The treatment on this study was performed by the number of substitution of lesser yam tubers and the fermentation time. The results show that the dried synbiotics yoghurt that most preferred by consumers was G2F3 (lesser yam 40% and fermentation time 22 hours with an average value 3.65. It is followed by the total LAB (lactic acid bacteria 8,15 log cfu/g, pH 4.27, total lactic acid 1.02%, yield of dried synbiotic yoghurt 32.30%, and total soluble protein 4.53%.

  9. The Lesser Antillean Iguana on St. Eustatius: 2012 status update and review of limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Boman, E.

    2013-01-01

    The endangered Lesser Antillean Iguana, Iguana delicatissima, is an emblematic species for the island of St. Eustatius and in Caribbean Netherlands it is only found on St. Eustatius. In this study we conducted an extensive population survey for the iguana and compared densities in different areas to

  10. European Economic Integration and the Fate of Lesser-Used Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Francois

    1993-01-01

    The consequences of economic integration for Europe's lesser-used languages are examined. Applying theoretical predictions to a set of 12 minority languages, this paper shows that 5 will likely be in a more favorable position, 4 may lose as a result of economic integration, and no clear effect can be predicted for the remaining 3. (18 references)…

  11. Documenting Sociolinguistic Variation in Lesser-Studied Indigenous Communities: Challenges and Practical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, John; Stanford, James

    2017-01-01

    Documenting sociolinguistic variation in lesser-studied languages presents methodological challenges, but also offers important research opportunities. In this paper we examine three key methodological challenges commonly faced by researchers who are outsiders to the community. We then present practical solutions for successful variationist…

  12. Theory of mind in children with 'lesser variants' of autism : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M; Loth, FL; van Geert, PLC; Hurkens, E; Minderaa, RB

    2002-01-01

    Background: The study investigated the development of theory-of-mind (ToM) knowledge in children with 'lesser variants' of autism (PDD-NOS) over a period thought to be critical for ToM development (i.e., 3 to 5 years of age). Method: The sample included 11 children with PDD-NOS; 23 normally

  13. First Evidence of Angiostrongyliasis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dard, Céline; Piloquet, Jean-Eudes; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Fox, LeAnne M.; M'kada, Helmi; Hebert, Jean-Christophe; Mattera, Didier; Harrois, Dorothée

    2017-01-01

    Infection by the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis represents the most common cause of infectious eosinophilic meningitis in humans, causing central nervous system (CNS) angiostrongyliasis. Most of CNS angiostrongyliasis cases were described in Asia, Pacific Basin, Australia, and some limited parts of Africa and America. CNS angiostrongyliasis has been reported in the Caribbean but never in the Lesser Antilles. The primary objectives of this study were to depict the first case of CNS angiostrongyliasis in the Lesser Antilles and investigate the environmental presence of A. cantonensis in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. In December 2013, a suspected case of CNS angiostrongyliasis in an 8-month-old infant in Guadeloupe was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing on cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). The environmental investigation was performed by collecting Achatina fulica molluscs from different parts of Guadeloupe and testing the occurrence of A. cantonensis by real-time PCR. CSF from the suspected case of angiostrongyliasis was positive for A. cantonensis by real-time PCR. Among 34 collected snails for environmental investigation, 32.4% were positive for A. cantonensis. In conclusion, we report the first laboratory-confirmed case of CNS-angiostrongyliasis in the Lesser Antilles. We identified the presence and high prevalence of A. cantonensis in A. fulica in Guadeloupe. These results highlight the need to increase awareness of this disease and implement public health programs in the region to prevent human cases of angiostrongyliasis and improve management of eosinophilic meningitis patients. PMID:28070007

  14. The Lesser Antillean Ameiva (Sauria, Teiidae) Re-evaluation, zoogeography and the effects of predation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskin, Jonathan N.; Williams, Ernest E.

    1966-01-01

    The Ameiva of the Lesser Antilles present an interesting case of isolated populations of related animals on a chain of islands that differ in size and proximity among themselves but form a geographic group. The situation is made still more interesting by the fact that at times in the Pleistocene the

  15. Oxygen deficiency impacts on burying habitats for lesser sandeel, Ammodytes tobianus, in the inner Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane; Ærtebjerg, Gunni; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2009-01-01

    Starting in 1980s, the inner Danish waters have yearly been exposed to seasonal oxygen deficiency (hypoxia). Through spatial–temporal interpolation of monitoring data (1998–2005), we investigated oxygen deficiency impacts on suitable burying habitats for lesser sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus...

  16. Radial variation in fiber length of some lesser used wood species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    computer

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... Variations in fibre length of ten lesser used wood species were investigated. The mean fibre length ..... the growth of coniferous trees. Can. J. Bot.45: 1359-1369 ... morphology and paper properties: a review of literature. Tappi ...

  17. A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) from Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia (Aves: Accipitridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) is described from Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands). In addition some notes are given on the distribution of A. virgatus in south-eastern Burma and adjacent parts of Thailand, supplementary to an earlier paper (Mees, 1981).

  18. Radial variation in fiber length of some lesser used wood species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in fibre length of ten lesser used wood species were investigated. The mean fibre length varied from 1.07mm in Lannea acida to 2.41mm in Sterculia setigera. Four patterns of within tree radial variations in fibre length were observed in the studied species. In pattern one, fibre length increased from the pith to the ...

  19. Spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system

  20. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  1. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  2. [Ocular surface acidity and buffering system (by studying the conjunctival sac)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S É; Safonova, T N; Novikov, I A; Pateiuk, L S; Griboedova, I G

    2014-01-01

    As any mucous membrane the conjunctiva is characterized by a definite pH value which guarantees-physiological functioning of the ocular surface. The most commonly used method of assessment is potentiometric pH measurement with ion-specific glass microelectrodes. The results, however, can be affected by such factors, as conjunctival sac zoning, tissue acidity, epithelial trauma, and reflex tear secretion. Few data and hypotheses are available on mechanisms of maintaining the acid-base balance of the conjunctival sac (bicarbonate buffering system in particular). to study spatial variability of conjunctival tear fluid pH and possible mechanisms of its maintenance using original methods of acidity measurement and mineral content assessment. Tear pH was determined in 42 healthy participants (84 eyes) by means of litmus test strips and computer- aided colorimetry. Electron probe microanalysis in combination with energy dispersive spectrometry was performed in 8 healthy participants (8 eyes, 8 samples). In the group of 42 healthy participants (84 eyes) the pH value of conjunctival tear fluid varied from 6.30 to 7.23 with the average of 6.76 and pH mode 6.74. The pH value of conjunctival mucous discharge was measured in 25 healthy participants (28 eyes) and varied from 7.00 to 8.00 with the average of 7.26 and pH mode 7.30. The main mineral components of tear fluid are chlorine, sodium, potassium, and boron. Borate buffer is regarded as a mechanism of maintaining the acid-base balance of the ocular surface. The developed method of pH measurement ensuresreliable determination of conjunctival sac acidity in accordance with zoning and heterogeneity of its media as well as the complex structure of the tear film. In a healthy population, the acidity of tear significantly differs from that of conjunctival mucous discharge. Soluble chlorine, sodium, potassium, and boron compounds are the prevailing mineral components of tear fluid. Borate buffer appears to be the most stable of

  3. Variation in Crustal Structure of the Lesser Caucasus Region from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. M.; Tseng, T. L.; Huang, B. S.; Legendre, C. P.; Karakhanian, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Caucasus, including the mountains of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, is formed by the continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. The crustal thickness for this region was mostly constrained by joint analysis of receiver functions and surface waves. Although the thickest value of 52 km was reported under the Lesser Caucasus, the resolution of earlier studies were often limited by sparse array. Large gradient across Moho also makes the definition of Moho difficult. Moreover, higher value of the Vp/Vs ratio is commonly reported in the northeastern Turkey but no estimates had been made for the Caucasus. To further investigate the detail structure around the Lesser Caucasus, we constructed a new seismic network in Georgia and Armenia. We also include other broadband stations to enhance the coverage. The average interval in the Lesser Caucasus is roughly 30 km, much denser than any previous experiments. We selected P-waveforms from teleseismic earthquakes during the operation (January 2012 - June 2016) to calculate receiver functions and then estimate the crustal thickness (H) and Vp/Vs ratio (k) with the H-k stacking technique. Our preliminary results show that Moho depth increases from 40 km under the northeastern Turkey to 50 km beneath northern Georgia, no station with Moho deeper than 50 km under the Lesser Caucasus. The Vp/Vs ratios in the northeastern Anatolian plateau are around 1.8, which is slightly higher than the average of global continents but consistent with the previous estimates. Further to the east, some stations show anomalously higher Vp/Vs ratio in central & southern Armenia that may be associated with Holocene volcanism. In the future, we plan to join locally measured dispersion curves to invert the velocity model without velocity-depth trade-off. We expect to resolve the velocity variations of the crust beneath this region in small scale that may be tied to the continental collision and surface volcanism. Keywords: Caucasus, receiver

  4. Lesser prairie-chicken fence collision risk across its northern distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samantha G.; Haukos, David A.; Plumb, Reid T.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Sullins, Daniel S.; Kraft, John D.; Lautenbach, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock fences have been hypothesized to significantly contribute to mortality of lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus); however, quantification of mortality due to fence collisions is lacking across their current distribution. Variation in fence density, landscape composition and configuration, and land use could influence collision risk of lesser prairie-chickens. We monitored fences within 3 km of known leks during spring and fall and surveyed for signs of collision occurrence within 20 m of fences in 6 study sites in Kansas and Colorado, USA during 2013 and 2014. We assessed mortality locations of radio-tagged birds (n = 286) for evidence of fence collisions and compared distance to fence relative to random points. Additionally, we quantified locations, propensity, and frequency of fences crossed by lesser prairie-chickens. We tested for landscape and vegetative characteristics that influenced fence-cross propensity and frequency of global positioning system (GPS)-marked birds. A minimum of 12,706 fence crossings occurred by GPS-marked lesser prairie-chickens. We found 3 carcasses and 12 additional possible instances of evidence of collision during >2,800 km of surveyed fences. We found evidence for a single suspected collision based on carcass evidence for 148 mortalities of transmittered birds. Mortality locations of transmittered birds were located at distances from fences 15% farther than expected at random. Our data suggested minimal biological significance and indicated that propensity and frequency of fence crossings were random processes. Lesser prairie-chickens do not appear to be experiencing significant mortality risk due to fence collisions in Kansas and Colorado. Focusing resources on other limiting factors (i.e., habitat quality) has greater potential for impact on population demography than fence marking and removal.

  5. The predicted influence of climate change on lesser prairie-chicken reproductive parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.; Davis, D.; Boydston, Kathy K.; Dixon, Charles; Heck, Willard R.

    2013-01-01

    The Southern High Plains is anticipated to experience significant changes in temperature and precipitation due to climate change. These changes may influence the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) in positive or negative ways. We assessed the potential changes in clutch size, incubation start date, and nest survival for lesser prairie-chickens for the years 2050 and 2080 based on modeled predictions of climate change and reproductive data for lesser prairie-chickens from 2001-2011 on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. We developed 9 a priori models to assess the relationship between reproductive parameters and biologically relevant weather conditions. We selected weather variable(s) with the most model support and then obtained future predicted values from climatewizard.org. We conducted 1,000 simulations using each reproductive parameter's linear equation obtained from regression calculations, and the future predicted value for each weather variable to predict future reproductive parameter values for lesser prairie-chickens. There was a high degree of model uncertainty for each reproductive value. Winter temperature had the greatest effect size for all three parameters, suggesting a negative relationship between above-average winter temperature and reproductive output. The above-average winter temperatures are correlated to La Nina events, which negatively affect lesser prairie-chickens through resulting drought conditions. By 2050 and 2080, nest survival was predicted to be below levels considered viable for population persistence; however, our assessment did not consider annual survival of adults, chick survival, or the positive benefit of habitat management and conservation, which may ultimately offset the potentially negative effect of drought on nest survival.

  6. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

  7. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  8. Modified Single Photo-diode (MSPD) Detection Technique for SAC-OCDMA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulqader, Sarah G.; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Aljunid, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new detection technique called modified single photo-diode (MSPD) detection for SAC-OCDMA system is proposed. The proposed system based on the single photo-diode (SPD) detection technique. The new detection technique is proposed to overcome the limitation of phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) in SPD detection technique. However, the proposed detection is based on an optical hard limiter (OHL) followed by a SPD and a low-pass filter (LPF) in order to suppress the phase intensity noise (PIIN) at the receiver side. The results show that the MSPD detection based on OHL has a good performance even when the transmission distance is long, which is different from the case of SPD detection technique. Therefore, the MSPD detection technique is shown to be effective to improve the bit error rate (BER<10-9) and to suppress the noise in the practical optical fiber network.

  9. Response of the pigeon crop sac to mammotrophic hormones: Comparison between relaxin and prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bani, G.; Sacchi, T.B.; Bigazzi, M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of relaxin (RLX), a hormone that has previously been demonstrated to have mammotrophic properties, were studied in the pigeon crop sac, a well-known target organ for mammotrophic and lactogenic hormones, and compared with the effects produced by prolactin (PRL). The two hormones were injected directly over the crop at different doses and the response was evaluated after differing times of exposure. RLX causes a dose-related increase in wet and dry weights and [ 3 H]thymidine and [ 3 H]uridine uptake by the crop mucosa, as well as morphological changes indicating growth and differentiation of the epithelial cells similar to those occurring during physiological activation in incubation and hatching. At the doses assayed, the effects of RLX were nearly identical to those obtained following PRL in the short-term experiments, but differences in functional responses were found in the long-term experiment

  10. Embryo sac development in yellow passion fruit Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães de Souza

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow passion fruit, Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, is one of the most important Brazilian fruit crops. It is an allogamous, diploid, and self-incompatible species. It has hermaphrodite, solitary flowers, located in the leaf axils and protected by leaf bracts. The flower has an androgynophore, which is a straight stalk supporting its reproductive parts. There are usually five anthers, located at the tip of each of the five filaments. The ovary is borne just above the filaments, at the top of the androgynophore; there are three styles that are united at their base, and at the top there are three stigmas. The objective of this research was to observe embryo sac development in yellow passion flowers. Ovaries at different stages of development were fixed in FAA (formalin, acetic acid and alcohol solution, hydrated, stained with Mayer’s hemalum, and dehydrated. Ovules were cleared by using methyl salicylate, mounted on slides, and observed through a confocal scanning laser microscope. The yellow passion fruit ovule is bitegmic, crassinucellate, and anatropous, and its gametophyte development is of the Polygonum type. After meiosis, functional megaspores under go three successive mitotic divisions, resulting in an eight-nucleate megagametophyte: the egg apparatus at the micropylar end, two polar nuclei at the cell center, and three antipodals at the chalazal end. The egg apparatus is formed by an egg cell and two synergids, each with a filiform apparatus. The mature embryo sac has an egg cell, two synergids, two polar nuclei, and three antipodes, as has been described for most angiosperms.

  11. Total column water vapor estimation over land using radiometer data from SAC-D/Aquarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epeloa, Javier; Meza, Amalia

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is retrieving atmospheric total column water vapor (CWV) over land surfaces using a microwave radiometer (MWR) onboard the Scientific Argentine Satellite (SAC-D/Aquarius). To research this goal, a statistical algorithm is used for the purpose of filtering the study region according to the climate type. A log-linear relationship between the brightness temperatures of the MWR and CWV obtained from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements was used. In this statistical algorithm, the retrieved CWV is derived from the Argentinian radiometer's brightness temperature which works at 23.8 GHz and 36.5 GHz, and taking into account CWVs observed from GNSS stations belonging to a region sharing the same climate type. We support this idea, having found a systematic effect when applying the algorithm; it was generated for one region using the previously mentioned criteria, however, it should be applied to additional regions, especially those with other climate types. The region we analyzed is in the Southeastern United States of America, where the climate type is Cfa (Köppen - Geiger classification); this climate type includes moist subtropical mid-latitude climates, with hot, muggy summers and frequent thunderstorms. However, MWR only contains measurements taken from over ocean surfaces; therefore the determination of water vapor over land is an important contribution to extend the use of the SAC-D/Aquarius radiometer measurements beyond the ocean surface. The CWVs computed by our algorithm are compared against radiosonde CWV observations and show a bias of about -0.6 mm, a root mean square (rms) of about 6 mm and a correlation of 0.89.

  12. PolySac3DB: an annotated data base of 3 dimensional structures of polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Anita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present in the living world. Their structural versatility makes them important and interesting components in numerous biological and technological processes ranging from structural stabilization to a variety of immunologically important molecular recognition events. The knowledge of polysaccharide three-dimensional (3D structure is important in studying carbohydrate-mediated host-pathogen interactions, interactions with other bio-macromolecules, drug design and vaccine development as well as material science applications or production of bio-ethanol. Description PolySac3DB is an annotated database that contains the 3D structural information of 157 polysaccharide entries that have been collected from an extensive screening of scientific literature. They have been systematically organized using standard names in the field of carbohydrate research into 18 categories representing polysaccharide families. Structure-related information includes the saccharides making up the repeat unit(s and their glycosidic linkages, the expanded 3D representation of the repeat unit, unit cell dimensions and space group, helix type, diffraction diagram(s (when applicable, experimental and/or simulation methods used for structure description, link to the abstract of the publication, reference and the atomic coordinate files for visualization and download. The database is accompanied by a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI. It features interactive displays of polysaccharide structures and customized search options for beginners and experts, respectively. The site also serves as an information portal for polysaccharide structure determination techniques. The web-interface also references external links where other carbohydrate-related resources are available. Conclusion PolySac3DB is established to maintain information on the detailed 3D structures of polysaccharides. All the data and features are available

  13. Sac-D Aquarius a Satellite for Ocean, Climate and Environment. One Year of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrusio, S.; Lagerloef, G.; Rabolli, M.; LeVine, D.

    2012-07-01

    The SAC-D/Aquarius satellite was launched in June 10, 2011. It's a joint mission between Argentina (through CONAE) and US (NASA). This satellite is a true Observatory with a suite of sensors for Earth Observation, its weight is 1400 kg, sun-synchronous orbit at 657 km (6 pm ascendant node), revisit of seven days. Other space agencies have contributed with instruments and support (facilities and ground segment), as CNES, CSI, ASI and AEB/INPE. The primary objective is to monitor global variations in ocean surface salinity (SSS) in order to improve the knowledge about ocean circulation, water cycle and climate. The SSS is performed with Aquarius instrument (NASA). Other oceanic and atmospheric parameters are measured with a MWR, from CONAE, in K and Ka band, as wind speed, rain rate, sea ice, water vapour and liquid water in clouds. The thermal camera (NIRST) estimates sea surface temperature and detect high temperature events (fires and volcanic eruptions). The High Sensitivity Camera (HSC) generates night images (very useful for fishery activity monitoring in the sea, studying of electrical storms, polar auroras and urban application). The DCS (Data Collection System, from CONAE) can receive meteorological and environmental data from ground platforms and distribute among users. The TDP (Technological Demonstration Package, from CONAE) measures different parameters of satellite position and velocity. Other two important instruments are ROSA (from Italy) and CARMEN 1 (from France). The first is an atmospheric sounder, it allows elaborating atmospheric profiles of temperature, pressure and humidity, and the second has detectors for studies of space debris and the effects of radiation on electronic devices. This work provides a review of the first year of data, including the status of calibration and validation, other finding and at the same time we want to present the progress in the active educational and outreach program including the information of SAC-D Aquarius

  14. Tumor suppressor roles of CENP-E and Nsl1 in Drosophila epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Muzzopappa, Mariana; Milán, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Depletion of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes in Drosophila epithelial tissues leads to JNK-dependent programmed cell death and additional blockade of the apoptotic program drives tumorigenesis. A recent report proposes that chromosomal instability (CIN) is not the driving force in the tumorigenic response of the SAC-deficient tissue, and that checkpoint proteins exert a SAC-independent tumor suppressor role. This notion is based on observations that the depletion of CENP-E levels or prevention of Bub3 from binding to the kinetochore in Drosophila tissues unable to activate the apoptotic program induces CIN but does not cause hyperproliferation. Here we re-examined this proposal. In contrast to the previous report, we observed that depletion of CENP-E or Nsl1-the latter mediating kinetochore targeting of Bub3-in epithelial tissues unable to activate the apoptotic program induces significant levels of aneuploidy and drives tumor-like growth. The induction of the JNK transcriptional targets Wingless, a mitogenic molecule, and MMP1, a matrix metaloproteinase 1 involved in basement membrane degradation was also observed in these tumors. An identical response of the tissue was previously detected upon depletion of several SAC genes or genes involved in spindle assembly, chromatin condensation, and cytokinesis, all of which have been described to cause CIN. All together, these results reinforce the role of CIN in driving tumorigenesis in Drosophila epithelial tissues and question the proposed SAC-independent roles of checkpoint proteins in suppressing tumorigenesis. Differences in aneuploidy rates might explain the discrepancy between the previous report and our results.

  15. Distal Regeneration Involves the Age Dependent Activity of Branchial Sac Stem Cells in the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, William R

    2015-02-01

    Tunicates have high capacities for regeneration but the underlying mechanisms and their relationship to life cycle progression are not well understood. Here we investigate the regeneration of distal structures in the ascidian tunicate Ciona intestinalis . Analysis of regenerative potential along the proximal-distal body axis indicated that distal organs, such as the siphons, their pigmented sensory organs, and the neural complex, could only be replaced from body fragments containing the branchial sac. Distal regeneration involves the formation of a blastema composed of cells that undergo cell proliferation prior to differentiation and cells that differentiate without cell proliferation. Both cell types originate in the branchial sac and appear in the blastema at different times after distal injury. Whereas the branchial sac stem cells are present in young animals, they are depleted in old animals that have lost their regeneration capacity. Thus Ciona adults contain a population of age-related stem cells located in the branchial sac that are a source of precursors for distal body regeneration.

  16. Clinical effects of conjunctival sac flushing using different concentration of povidoneiodine on corneal epithelium before cataract surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Lian Gu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine the most optimal concentration of the safe usage of povidone-iodine(PVP-Iin the flushing to disinfect the conjunctive sac before cataract surgeries, in order to provide a scientific basis for clinical eye surgery work.METHODS:Sixty-two patients with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in our hospital from October 2012 to October 2014 were randomly divided into 0.25g/L PVP-I group(Ⅰand 5g/L PVP-I group(Ⅱ. Sterilizing effect and the complications postoperative were analyzed.RESULTS:The sterilizing effects of the two groups after flushing conjunctiva sac using different concentrations of PVP-I were both remarkable, but the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant(P>0.05. No endophthalmitis occurred in the two groups. Observing the corneal condition after rinsing, no severe conjunctival hyperemia, corneal edema and other serious complications occurred. There was slightly punctate corneal epithelial shedding in groupⅡ, and the difference was statistically significant(PPCONCLUSION:Using 0.25g/L PVP-I in the conjunctiva sac rinsing before surgeries can inhibit the growth of bacteria in the conjunctival sac, reduce the impact on the corneal epithelium thereby reducing the incidence of postoperative complications and the positive rate of bacterial culture, increasing the comfort degree of patients, bringing a better area for the surgeries.

  17. Contribution to the study of the reduction of sulfate by the yolk sac of the chicken embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, Claude

    1958-11-01

    This academic reports addresses additional information obtained about the reduction of sulfate into sulphite by the yolk sac of a chicken embryo. Two important difficulties have been faced: the impossibility to isolate this reduction from reactions which immediately use the formed sulphite, and the impossibility to obtain an acellular preparation able to reduce the sulfate. Then, the problem of reduction of sulfate into sulphite by the yolk sac is associated with the problem of permeability of yolk sac cells to the studied substances. Thus, the author studied whether other animal species could provide a better material than the chicken embryo for this study of sulfate reduction. It appears that some vertebrate embryos present some evidence of sulphur metabolism similar to that of chicken embryo. However, this last one revealed to be the most favourable for the study. The author reports the study of the evolution of the reduction activity of the yolk sac sulfate with respect to the embryo age, and the effect of some metabolic inhibitors on this activity [fr

  18. Distal regeneration involves the age dependent activity of branchial sac stem cells in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tunicates have high capacities for regeneration but the underlying mechanisms and their relationship to life cycle progression are not well understood. Here we investigate the regeneration of distal structures in the ascidian tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Analysis of regenerative potential along the proximal−distal body axis indicated that distal organs, such as the siphons, their pigmented sensory organs, and the neural complex, could only be replaced from body fragments containing the branchial sac. Distal regeneration involves the formation of a blastema composed of cells that undergo cell proliferation prior to differentiation and cells that differentiate without cell proliferation. Both cell types originate in the branchial sac and appear in the blastema at different times after distal injury. Whereas the branchial sac stem cells are present in young animals, they are depleted in old animals that have lost their regeneration capacity. Thus Ciona adults contain a population of age‐related stem cells located in the branchial sac that are a source of precursors for distal body regeneration. PMID:25893097

  19. A Demonstration of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) Rev. 1 Software for the Hanford Remediation Assessment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Nichols, William E.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2006-01-01

    The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a suite of interrelated computer codes that provides the capability to conduct large-scale environmental assessments on the Hanford Site. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, SAC models the fate and transport of radioactive and chemical contaminants, starting with the inventory of those contaminants in waste sites, simulating transport through the environment, and continuing on through impacts to the environment and humans. Separate modules in the SAC address inventory, release from waste forms, water flow and mass transport in the vadose zone, water flow and mass transport in the groundwater, water flow and mass transport in the Columbia River, air transport, and human and ecological impacts. The SAC supports deterministic analyses as well as stochastic analyses using a Monte Carlo approach, enabling SAC users to examine the effect of uncertainties in a number of key parameters. The initial assessment performed with the SAC software identified a number of areas where both the software and the analysis approach could be improved. Since that time the following six major software upgrades have been made: (1) An air pathway model was added to support all-pathway analyses. (2) Models for releases from glass waste forms, buried graphite reactor cores, and buried naval reactor compartments were added. (3) An air-water dual-phase model was added to more accurately track the movement of volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. (4) The ability to run analyses was extended from 1,000 years to 10,000 years or longer after site closure. (5) The vadose zone flow and transport model was upgraded to support two-dimensional or three-dimensional analyses. (6) The ecological model and human risk models were upgraded so the concentrations of contaminants in food products consumed by humans are produced by the ecological model. This report documents the functions in the SAC software and provides a

  20. A Demonstration of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) Rev. 1 Software for the Hanford Remediation Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Nichols, William E.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2006-11-06

    The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a suite of interrelated computer codes that provides the capability to conduct large-scale environmental assessments on the Hanford Site. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, SAC models the fate and transport of radioactive and chemical contaminants, starting with the inventory of those contaminants in waste sites, simulating transport through the environment, and continuing on through impacts to the environment and humans. Separate modules in the SAC address inventory, release from waste forms, water flow and mass transport in the vadose zone, water flow and mass transport in the groundwater, water flow and mass transport in the Columbia River, air transport, and human and ecological impacts. The SAC supports deterministic analyses as well as stochastic analyses using a Monte Carlo approach, enabling SAC users to examine the effect of uncertainties in a number of key parameters. The initial assessment performed with the SAC software identified a number of areas where both the software and the analysis approach could be improved. Since that time the following six major software upgrades have been made: (1) An air pathway model was added to support all-pathway analyses. (2) Models for releases from glass waste forms, buried graphite reactor cores, and buried naval reactor compartments were added. (3) An air-water dual-phase model was added to more accurately track the movement of volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. (4) The ability to run analyses was extended from 1,000 years to 10,000 years or longer after site closure. (5) The vadose zone flow and transport model was upgraded to support two-dimensional or three-dimensional analyses. (6) The ecological model and human risk models were upgraded so the concentrations of contaminants in food products consumed by humans are produced by the ecological model. This report documents the functions in the SAC software and provides a

  1. Typical tumors of the petrous bone; Typische Tumoren des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland); Ulmer, S. [Medizinisch-Radiologisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-04-15

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. (orig.) [German] In der Region des Felsenbein, inneren Gehoerkanals und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels findet sich eine Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Gewebearten inklusive knoechernes, epitheliales, nervales und vaskulaeres Gewebe. Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Laesionen, ossaere oder vaskulaere Pathologien koennen entsprechend dort gefunden werden. Wir diskutieren verschiedene Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Pathologien inklusive angeborene Laesionen wie Muko- und Meningozelen, entzuendliche Veraenderungen wie die Osteomyelitis, Pseudotumoren, die Wegener-Granulomatose, nichtneoplastische Tumoren wie das Epidermoid, Cholesteatom oder Cholesterolgranulom und gutartige neoplastische Tumoren wie das am haeufigsten zu findende Vestibularisschwannom, das Paragangliom und das Meningeom, Gefaessprozesse/-pathologien und schliesslich maligne Laesionen wie Metastasen

  2. Iron Deficiency Anemia: Focus on Infectious Diseases in Lesser Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia G.; Friedman, Jennifer F.

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is thought to affect the health of more than one billion people worldwide, with the greatest burden of disease experienced in lesser developed countries, particularly women of reproductive age and children. This greater disease burden is due to both nutritional and infectious etiologies. Individuals in lesser developed countries have diets that are much lower in iron, less access to multivitamins for young children and pregnant women, and increased rates of fertility which increase demands for iron through the life course. Infectious diseases, particularly parasitic diseases, also lead to both extracorporeal iron loss and anemia of inflammation, which decreases bioavailability of iron to host tissues. This paper will address the unique etiologies and consequences of both iron deficiency anemia and the alterations in iron absorption and distribution seen in the context of anemia of inflammation. Implications for diagnosis and treatment in this unique context will also be discussed. PMID:21738863

  3. Oxynoemacheilus zarzianus, a new loach from the Lesser Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Geiger, Matthias

    2017-06-02

    Oxynoemacheilus zarzianus, new species, is described from the Lesser Zab River drainage, a tributary of the lower Tigris. It is distinguished from other Oxynoemacheilus species in the Tigris drainage by having a slightly emarginate caudal fin, no suborbital groove in males, a complete lateral line, the posterior process of the bony air-bladder capsule directed posteriorly, the flank and posterior part of back covered by scales, short barbels and a deep caudal peduncle. It is the fourth Oxynoemacheilus species known from the Lesser Zab drainage, where such loaches seem to be highly isolated in headwaters. Oxynoemacheilus species diversity in the Euphrates and Tigris drainage is exceptional high. Today 22 species are known from the entire Euphrates and Tigris drainage and 15 from the Tigris drainage alone.

  4. Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigeration for lesser developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1990-02-01

    The Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigerator is a solar thermal technology which provides low cost, efficient, reliable ice-making to areas without ready access to electricity. An ISAAC refrigeration system consists of a compound parabolic solar collector, two pressure vessels, a condenser, a cold box or refrigerated space, and simple connective piping -- no moving parts or electrical components. Most parts are simple construction or plumbing grade materials, locally available in many remote areas. This technology has numerous potential benefits in lesser developed countries both by providing a cheap, reliable source of ice, and, since manufacture requires only semi-skilled labor, a source of employment to the local economy. Applications include vaccine storage for health care clinics; fish, meat, and dairy product storage; and personal consumption. Importantly, this technology increases the quality of life for people in lesser developed countries without depleting fossil fuel resources or increasing the release of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and chlorofluorocarbons.

  5. Spatial differences in growth of lesser sandeel in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Wright, Peter J.; Jensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus, is a key prey to a variety of North Sea predators, including species such as single load seabirds which are highly sensitive to prey size and condition. Whilst differences in weight at age across the North Sea have been investigated previously, the scale and cause...... of this variation as well as the potential link to spatial differences in predator performance remains unknown. This study presents an analysis of spatial patterns in length and condition of the lesser sandeel in the North Sea and the relationship of these with physical and biological factors. Both mean length...... considerably both spatially and temporally, resulting in 4 fold and 1.9 fold variations in the number of sandeels required to obtain a specific weight, respectively. Hence, the value of sandeel as prey to single load predators varies considerably with values in central and northeastern North Sea being...

  6. Iron Deficiency Anemia: Focus on Infectious Diseases in Lesser Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia G. Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is thought to affect the health of more than one billion people worldwide, with the greatest burden of disease experienced in lesser developed countries, particularly women of reproductive age and children. This greater disease burden is due to both nutritional and infectious etiologies. Individuals in lesser developed countries have diets that are much lower in iron, less access to multivitamins for young children and pregnant women, and increased rates of fertility which increase demands for iron through the life course. Infectious diseases, particularly parasitic diseases, also lead to both extracorporeal iron loss and anemia of inflammation, which decreases bioavailability of iron to host tissues. This paper will address the unique etiologies and consequences of both iron deficiency anemia and the alterations in iron absorption and distribution seen in the context of anemia of inflammation. Implications for diagnosis and treatment in this unique context will also be discussed.

  7. N-cadherin Expression in Testicular Germ Cell and Gonadal Stromal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Heidenberg, Joel H. Barton, Denise Young, Michael Grinkemeyer, Isabell A. Sesterhenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural-cadherin is a member of the cadherin gene family encoding the N-cadherin protein that mediates cell adhesion. N-cadherin is a marker of Sertoli cells and is also expressed in germ cells of varying stages of maturation. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and distribution of this protein by immunohistochemistry in 105 germ cell tumors of both single and mixed histological types and 12 gonadal stromal tumors. Twenty-four germ cell tumors consisted of one cell type and the remaining were mixed. Of the 23 seminomas in either pure or mixed tumors, 74% were positive. Two spermatocytic seminomas were positive. Of the 83 cases with yolk sac tumor, 99% were positive for N-cadherin. The teratomas were positive in 73% in neuroectodermal and / or glandular components. In contrast, 87% of embryonal carcinomas did not express N-cadherin. Only 17% of the syncytiotrophoblastic cells were positive for N-cadherin. In conclusion, N-cadherin expression is very helpful in the identification of yolk sac tumors. In addition to glypican-3 and Sal-like protein 4, N-cadherin can be beneficial for the diagnosis and classification of this subtype of testicular germ cell tumor. Nine of the 12 gonadal stromal tumors were positive to a variable extent.

  8. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800) (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) from Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Shehab, Adwan; Mamkhair, Inrahim; Amr, Zuhair

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female) were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto&l...

  9. Impacts of a volcanic eruption on the forest birdcommunity of Montserrat, Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. DALSGAARD; G. M. HILTON; G. A. L. GRAY; L. AYMER; J. BOATSWAIN; J. FENTON DALEY; J. MARTIN; L. MARTIN; P. MURRAIN; W. J. ARENDT; W. OLESEN GIBBONSD

    2007-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an important and natural source of catastrophic disturbance to ecological communities. However, opportunities to study them are relatively rare. Here we report on the effects of the eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano on the forest bird community of the Lesser Antillean island of Montserrat. The island’s species-poor avifauna includes 11...

  10. Rangewide genetic analysis of Lesser Prairie-Chicken reveals population structure, range expansion, and possible introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; DeYoung, Randall W; Fike, Jennifer; Hagen, Christian A.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Larsson, Lena C.; Patten, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has been markedly reduced due to loss and fragmentation of habitat. Portions of the historical range, however, have been recolonized and even expanded due to planting of conservation reserve program (CRP) fields that provide favorable vegetation structure for Lesser Prairie-Chickens. The source population(s) feeding the range expansion is unknown, yet has resulted in overlap between Lesser and Greater Prairie-Chickens (T. cupido) increasing the potential for hybridization. Our objectives were to characterize connectivity and genetic diversity among populations, identify source population(s) of recent range expansion, and examine hybridization with the Greater Prairie-Chicken. We analyzed 640 samples from across the range using 13 microsatellites. We identified three to four populations corresponding largely to ecoregions. The Shinnery Oak Prairie and Sand Sagebrush Prairie represented genetically distinct populations (F ST > 0.034 and F ST > 0.023 respectively). The Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic and Mixed Grass ecoregions appeared admixed (F ST = 0.009). Genetic diversity was similar among ecoregions and N e ranged from 142 (95 % CI 99–236) for the Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic to 296 (95 % CI 233–396) in the Mixed Grass Prairie. No recent migration was detected among ecoregions, except asymmetric dispersal from both the Mixed Grass Prairie and to a lesser extent the Sand Sagebrush Prairie north into adjacent Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic (m = 0.207, 95 % CI 0.116–0.298, m = 0.097, 95 % CI 0.010–0.183, respectively). Indices investigating potential hybridization in the Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic revealed that six of the 13 individuals with hybrid phenotypes were significantly admixed suggesting hybridization. Continued monitoring of diversity within and among ecoregions is warranted as are actions promoting genetic connectivity and range expansion.

  11. The relative contribution of climate to changes in lesser prairie-chicken abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James

    2016-01-01

    Managing for species using current weather patterns fails to incorporate the uncertainty associated with future climatic conditions; without incorporating potential changes in climate into conservation strategies, management and conservation efforts may fall short or waste valuable resources. Understanding the effects of climate change on species in the Great Plains of North America is especially important, as this region is projected to experience an increased magnitude of climate change. Of particular ecological and conservation interest is the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), which was listed as “threatened” under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in May 2014. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to quantify the effects of extreme climatic events (extreme values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index [PDSI]) relative to intermediate (changes in El Niño Southern Oscillation) and long-term climate variability (changes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation) on trends in lesser prairie-chicken abundance from 1981 to 2014. Our results indicate that lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks responded to environmental conditions of the year previous by positively responding to wet springs (high PDSI) and negatively to years with hot, dry summers (low PDSI), but had little response to variation in the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Additionally, greater variation in abundance on leks was explained by variation in site relative to broad-scale climatic indices. Consequently, lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks in Kansas is more strongly influenced by extreme drought events during summer than other climatic conditions, which may have negative consequences for the population as drought conditions intensify throughout the Great Plains.

  12. GIS habitat analysis for lesser prairie-chickens in southeastern New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kristine; Neville, Teri B; Neville, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background We conducted Geographic Information System (GIS) habitat analyses for lesser prairie-chicken (LPCH, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) conservation planning. The 876,799 ha study area included most of the occupied habitat for the LPCH in New Mexico. The objectives were to identify and quantify: 1. suitable LPCH habitat in New Mexico, 2. conversion of native habitats, 3. potential for habitat restoration, and 4. unsuitable habitat available for oil and gas activities. Results We f...

  13. The problem of lesser evil within the context of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sytnik-Czetwertyński

    2016-10-01

    Szkoła Zdrowia Publicznego w Warszawie, Poland     Abstract   The issue of public health also includes broad ethical questions. It is here for instance that we find so-called decisions of conscience. Since medical practice is full of moral dilemmas, transferred into the domain of public health, for instance when a doctor decides to provide, in individual cases, costly medical procedures while being simultaneously aware that the funds used for these procedures, could save many more people whose ailments are less costly. These situations force the medical practitioner into making a decision, despite the fact that all the possible choices are morally reprehensible . There exist many moral dilemmas, where the person making the decision cannot find a satisfactory solution, while also being forced to make a decision. Normally, the decision maker then calls upon the category of so-called lesser evil. But this category is no justification – lesser evil is still evil. Which is why it is worth asking what the situation of lesser evil is for the decision maker . What is a moral choice within a public health policy?   Key words: public health, the ethical dilemma, naturalism

  14. Assessing range-wide habitat suitability for the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Timmer, Jennifer M.; Boal, Clint W.; Butler, Matthew; Pitman, James C.; Kyle, Sean; Klute, David; Beauprez, Grant M.; Janus, Allan; Van Pelt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Population declines of many wildlife species have been linked to habitat loss incurred through land-use change. Incorporation of conservation planning into development planning may mitigate these impacts. The threatened Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is experiencing loss of native habitat and high levels of energy development across its multijurisdictional range. Our goal was to explore relationships of the species occurrence with landscape characteristics and anthropogenic effects influencing its distribution through evaluation of habitat suitability associated with one particular habitat usage, lekking. Lekking has been relatively well-surveyed, though not consistently, in all jurisdictions. All five states in which Lesser Prairie-Chickens occur cooperated in development of a Maxent habitat suitability model. We created two models, one with state as a factor and one without state. When state was included it was the most important predictor, followed by percent of land cover consisting of known or suspected used vegetation classes within a 5000 m area around a lek. Without state, land cover was the most important predictor of relative habitat suitability for leks. Among the anthropogenic predictors, landscape condition, a measure of human impact integrated across several factors, was most important, ranking third in importance without state. These results quantify the relative suitability of the landscape within the current occupied range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens. These models, combined with other landscape information, form the basis of a habitat assessment tool that can be used to guide siting of development projects and targeting of areas for conservation.

  15. Interactions of raptors and Lesser Prairie-Chickens at leks in the Texas Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, Adam C.; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, Heather A.; Lucia, Duane R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined behavioral interactions of raptors, Chihuahuan Ravens (Corvus cryptoleucus), and Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) at leks in the Texas Southern High Plains. Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus) and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) were the most common raptors observed at leks. Only 15 of 61 (25%) raptor encounters at leks (0.09/hr) resulted in a capture attempt (0.02/hr). Mean (± SD) time for Lesser Prairie-Chickens to return to lekking behavior following a raptor encounter was 4.2 ± 5.5 min suggesting the disturbance had little influence on lekking behaviors. Lesser Prairie-Chickens engaged in different escape behaviors depending on raptor species and, generally, did not respond to ravens suggesting they are able to assess different predation risks. The raptors in our study area posed little predation risk to lekking prairie-chickens. Behavioral disturbance at leks appears minimal due to the lack of successful predation events, low raptor encounter rates, and short time to return to lekking behavior.

  16. Intramuscular Lipoma-Induced Occipital Neuralgia on the Lesser Occipital Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun Ho; Kim, Hak Soo; Rhie, Jong Won; Moon, Suk Ho

    2016-06-01

    Occipital neuralgia (ON) is commonly characterized by a neuralgiform headache accompanied by a paroxysmal burning sensation in the dermatome area of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerve. The authors report a rare case of ON caused by an intramuscular lipoma originating from the lesser occipital nerve.A 52-year-old man presented with sharp pain in the left postauricular area with a 3 × 2-cm palpable mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass suspiciously resembling an intramuscular lipoma within splenius muscle. In the operation field, a protruding mass causing stretching of the lesser occipital nerve was found. After complete resection, the neuralgiform headache symptom had resolved and the intramuscular lipoma was confirmed through histopathology.Previous studies on the causes of ON have reported that variation in normal anatomic structures results in nerve compression. Occipital neuralgia, however, caused by intramuscular lipomas in splenius muscles have not been previously reported, and the dramatic resolution following surgery makes it an interesting case worth reporting.

  17. 78 FR 75306 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken... the conservation of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). In addition, we announce... prairie-chicken as a threatened species under the Act. We also announce the availability of the final...

  18. Evaluating indices of lipid and protein content in lesser snow and Ross's geese during spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Elisabeth B.; Fowler, Drew N.; Woodall, Brendan A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.

    2018-01-01

    Assessing nutrient stores in avian species is important for understanding the extent to which body condition influences success or failure in life‐history events. We evaluated predictive models using morphometric characteristics to estimate total body lipids (TBL) and total body protein (TBP), based on traditional proximate analyses, in spring migrating lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (A. rossii). We also compared performance of our lipid model with a previously derived predictive equation for TBL developed for nesting lesser snow geese. We used external and internal measurements on 612 lesser snow and 125 Ross's geese collected during spring migration in 2015 and 2016 within the Central and Mississippi flyways to derive and evaluate predictive models. Using a validation data set, our best performing lipid model for snow geese better predicted TBL (root mean square error [RMSE] of 23.56) compared with a model derived from nesting individuals (RMSE = 48.60), suggesting the importance of season‐specific models for accurate lipid estimation. Models that included body mass and abdominal fat deposit best predicted TBL determined by proximate analysis in both species (lesser snow goose, R2 = 0.87, RMSE = 23.56: Ross's geese, R2 = 0.89, RMSE = 13.75). Models incorporating a combination of external structural measurements in addition to internal muscle and body mass best predicted protein values (R2 = 0.85, RMSE = 19.39 and R2 = 0.85, RMSE = 7.65, lesser snow and Ross's geese, respectively), but protein models including only body mass and body size were also competitive and provided extended utility to our equations for field applications. Therefore, our models indicated the importance of specimen dissection and measurement of the abdominal fat pad to provide the most accurate lipid estimates and provide alternative dissection‐free methods for estimating protein.

  19. Long-term lesser prairie-chicken nest ecology in response to grassland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Sarah R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Haukos, David A.; Boal, Clint W.; Patten, Michael; Wolfe, Don H.; Dixon, Charles; Cox, Robert D.; Heck, Willard R.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term population and range declines from habitat loss and fragmentation caused the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) to be a species of concern throughout its range. Current lesser prairie-chicken range in New Mexico and Texas is partially restricted to sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii; hereafter shinnery oak) prairies, on which cattle grazing is the main socioeconomic driver for private landowners. Cattle producers within shinnery oak prairies often focus land management on shrub eradication using the herbicide tebuthiuron to promote grass production for forage; however, herbicide application alone, and in combination with grazing, may affect nest site selection and nest survival of lesser prairie-chickens through the reduction of shinnery oak and native grasses. We used a controlled, paired, completely randomized design study to assess the influence of grazing and tebuthiuron application and their combined use on nest site selection and nest survival from 2001 to 2010 in Roosevelt County, New Mexico, USA at 2 spatial scales (i.e., treatment and microhabitat) in 4 treatments: tebuthiuron with grazing, tebuthiuron without grazing, no tebuthiuron with grazing, and a control of no tebuthiuron and no grazing. Grazing treatment was a short-duration system in which plots were grazed once during the dormant season and once during the growing season. Stocking rate was calculated each season based on measured forage production and applied to remove ≤25% of available herbaceous material per season. At the treatment scale, we compared nest site selection among treatments using 1-way χ2 tests and nest survival among treatments using a priori candidate nest survival models in Program MARK. At the microhabitat scale, we identified important habitat predictors of nest site selection and nest survival using logistic regression and a priori candidate nest survival models in Program MARK, respectively. Females typically used treatments as expected and

  20. Nonbreeding home‐range size and survival of lesser prairie‐chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samantha G.; Haukos, David A.; Plumb, Reid T.; Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Sullins, Daniel S.; Kraft, John D.; Lautenbach, Jonathan D.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    The lesser prairie‐chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a species of conservation concern with uncertain regulatory status, has experienced population declines over the past century. Most research on lesser prairie‐chickens has focused on the breeding season, with little research conducted during the nonbreeding season, a period that exerts a strong influence on demography in other upland game birds. We trapped lesser prairie‐chickens on leks and marked them with either global positioning system (GPS) satellite or very high frequency (VHF) transmitters to estimate survival and home‐range size during the nonbreeding season. We monitored 119 marked lesser prairie‐chickens in 3 study areas in Kansas, USA, from 16 September to 14 March in 2013, 2014, and 2015. We estimated home‐range size using Brownian Bridge movement models (GPS transmitters) and fixed kernel density estimators (VHF transmitters), and female survival using Kaplan–Meier known‐fate models. Average home‐range size did not differ between sexes. Estimated home‐range size was 3 times greater for individuals fitted with GPS satellite transmitters ( = 997 ha) than those with VHF transmitters ( = 286 ha), likely a result of the temporal resolution of the different transmitters. Home‐range size of GPS‐marked birds increased 2.8 times relative to the breeding season and varied by study area and year. Home‐range size was smaller in the 2013–2014 nonbreeding season ( = 495 ha) than the following 2 nonbreeding seasons ( = 1,290 ha and  = 1,158 ha), corresponding with drought conditions of 2013, which were alleviated in following years. Female survival () was high relative to breeding season estimates, and did not differ by study area or year ( = 0.73 ± 0.04 [SE]). Future management could remain focused on the breeding season because nonbreeding survival was 39–44% greater than the previous breeding season; however, considerations of total space

  1. Effects of nursing intervention models on social adaption capability development in preschool children with malignant tumors: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Mo, Lin; Tang, Yan; Huang, Xiaoyan; Tan, Juan

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study are to compare the effects of two nursing intervention models on the ability of preschool children with malignant tumors to socialize and to determine if these interventions improved their social adaption capability (SAC) and quality of life. Inpatient preschool children with malignant tumors admitted to the hospital between December 2009 and March 2012 were recruited and randomized into either the experimental or control groups. The control group received routine nursing care, and the experimental group received family-centered nursing care, including physical, psychological, and social interventions. The Infants-Junior Middle School Student's Social-Life Abilities Scale was used to evaluate SAC development of participants. Participants (n = 240) were recruited and randomized into two groups. After the intervention, the excellent and normal SAC rates were 27.5% and 55% in the experimental group, respectively, compared with 2.5% and 32.5% in the control group (p intervention, SAC in experimental group was improved compared with before intervention (54.68 ± 10.85 vs 79.9 ± 22.3, p intervention in the control group (54.70 ± 11.47 vs. 52 ± 15.8, p = 0.38). The family-centered nursing care model that included physical, psychological, and social interventions improved the SAC of children with malignancies compared with children receiving routine nursing care. Establishing a standardized family-school-community-hospital hierarchical multi-management intervention model for children is important to the efficacy of long-term interventions and to the improvement of SAC of children with malignancies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Tumoral tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Direct tumor tracers are subdivided in the following categories:metabolite tracers, antitumoral tracers, radioactive proteins and cations. Use of 67 Ga-citrate as a clinically important tumoral tracer is emphasized and gallium-67 whole-body scintigraphy is discussed in detail. (M.A.) [pt

  3. Brain tumor and CT, 1. Relationship between the consistency of a brain tumor and the CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, N.; Katada, K.; Shinomiya, Y.; Sano, H.; Kanno, T. (Fujita Gakuen Univ., School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi (Japan))

    1981-08-01

    It is very important for a neurosurgeon to know the consistency of a brain tumor preoperatively, since the information is of much use in indicating the likely difficulty of the operation, which operative tools should be selected, the amount of bleeding to be expected from the tumor, and so on. The authors, therefore, tried to evaluate the consistency of brain tumors preoperatively. Twenty-seven cases in which the margin of the tumor was made clear with a homogeneous stain were studied concerning the relationship between the tumor consistency and the CT findings. The results are as follows: 1) A higher CT number on a plain CT indicated a harder consistency of the tumor. 2) A lesser contrast index (CT number on enhancement CT/CT number on plain CT) showed a harder consistency of the tumor.

  4. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  5. Aortic aneurysm sac pressure measurements after endovascular repair using an implantable remote sensor: initial experience and short-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Hanno; Kaufman, John A.; Segall, Jocelyn A.; Liem, Timothy K.; Landry, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this single-center study was to report our initial experience with an implantable remote pressure sensor for aneurysm sac pressure measurement in patients post-endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) including short-term follow-up. A pressure sensor (EndoSure, Atlanta, GA) was implanted in 12 patients treated with different commercially available aortic endografts for EVAR. Pressure was read pre- and post-EVAR in the operating room. One-month follow-up (30 days ± 6 days) was performed including sac pressure readings and IV contrast CT scans. Variables were compared using the paired Student's t test. An intraprocedure type-I endoleak and a type-III endoleak were successfully treated resulting in decreasing sac pressures. In all patients, post-EVAR systolic sac pressure decreased by an average of 33% (P ≤ 0.005) compared to pre-EVAR measurements. One-month follow-up demonstrated a 47% decrease in systolic sac pressure (P ≤ 0.05). On follow-up CT scans, the average maximum aneurysm diameter pre-EVAR was 6.3 ± 1.6 cm and post-EVAR 6.0 ± 1.7 cm (P≤0.05). The diameter of the aneurysm sac was larger only in one patient with a type-III endoleak. Remote sac pressure measurement may provide important information in addition to imaging and may help to reduce the number of follow-up CT scans. (orig.)

  6. MR imaging features and clinical value of vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic sac in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zheming; Lou Xin; Lan Lan; Wang Hui; Wang Qiuju; Wu Nanzhou; Zhang Xiaojing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate MR imaging features of endolymphatic sac and vestibular aqueduct in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) and its correlation with hearing loss. Methods: MR imaging findings of LVAS were analyzed in 31 cases (62 ears) retrospectively. MR imaging features were grouped into 4 types. In the first type, the signals of endolymphatic and vestibular aqueduct were hypointense without any hyperintense area. In the second type, the signals of endolymphatic sac and vestibular were hyperintense which were confined within vestibular fissure. In the third type, the area from vestibular aqueduct backward out of the edge of the petrous bone was hyperintense, but its lower boundary was above posterior semicircular. In the fourth type the area which was hyperintense was below the posterior semicircular. To avoid errors in visual inspection, the hyperintense and hypointense area of endolymphatic and the signal intensity of vestibular aqueduct and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured. The differences of signal intensity among the vestibular endolymphatic sac between the high-signal areas and low signal areas were compared with paired t-test. The correlation of the endolymphatic sac MRI classification and degree of hearing loss was analyzed by corrected Chi-square test and Spearman correlation analysis. Result: Ten ears belonged to type Ⅰ (moderate hearing loss in 1 ear,severe in 4 ears,profound in 5 ears), 17 ears belonged to type Ⅱ (moderate hearing loss in 1 ear; severe in 5 ears,profound in 11 ears), 23 ears to type Ⅲ (moderate hearing loss in 3 ear, severe in 5 ears, profound in 15 ears) and 12 ears belonged to Ⅳ (mild hearing loss in 1 ear, moderate in 1 ear, severe 3 ear, profound in 7 ears). The boundary between hyperintense and hypointense area was clear, and the signal intensity ratios was 2.02 ± 0.06. The signal ratios of hyperintense and hypointense area to vestibular and CSF were 0.95 ±0.12, 0.49 ±0.10, 0.99 ± 0

  7. Endolymphatic sac tumour in von Hippel-Lindau disease: management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, E; Girasoli, L; Borsetto, D; Opocher, G; Mazzoni, A; Martini, A

    2017-10-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumour (ELST) is infrequent, as emerges from small series reported in the literature. It is a slow-growing malignancy with local aggressiveness and a low risk of distant metastases. It is often misdiagnosed because of the late onset of symptoms and difficulty in obtaining a biopsy. Its frequency is higher in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease (a genetic systemic syndrome involving multiple tumours), with a prevalence of around 25%. The diagnosis is based on radiology, with specific patterns on contrast-enhanced MRI and typical petrous bone erosion on bone CT scan. Our experience of ELST in the years between 2012-2015 concerns 7 cases, one of which was bilateral, in patients with VHL disease. Four of the 7 patients underwent 5 surgical procedures at our institution. Each case is described in detail, including clinical symptoms, and the intervals between symptom onset, diagnosis and therapy. Postoperative morbidity was low after early surgery on small tumours, whereas extensive surgery for large tumours was associated with loss of cranial nerve function (especially VII, IX, X). The critical sites coinciding with loss of neurological function were the fallopian canal, jugular foramen, petrous apex and intradural extension into the posterior cranial fossa. Early surgery on small ELST is advocated for patients with VHL disease, in whom screening enables a prompt diagnosis and consequently good prognosis. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  8. [An implantable micro-device using wireless power transmission for measuring aortic aneurysm sac pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xudong; Ge, Bin; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-08-01

    In order to detect endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), we developed an implantable micro-device based on wireless power transmission to measure aortic aneurysm sac pressure. The implantable micro-device is composed of a miniature wireless pressure sensor, an energy transmitting coil, a data recorder and a data processing platform. Power transmission without interconnecting wires is performed by a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. The coupling efficiency of wireless power transmission depends on the coupling coefficient between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil. With theoretical analysis and experimental study, we optimized the geometry of the receiving coil to increase the coupling coefficient. In order to keep efficiency balance and satisfy the maximizing conditions, we designed a closed loop power transmission circuit, including a receiving voltage feedback module based on wireless communication. The closed loop improved the stability and reliability of transmission energy. The prototype of the micro-device has been developed and the experiment has been performed. The experiments showed that the micro-device was feasible and valid. For normal operation, the distance between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil is smaller than 8cm. Besides, the distance between the micro-device and the data recorder is within 50cm.

  9. Apospory appears to accelerate onset of meiosis and sexual embryo sac formation in sorghum ovules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Estella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically unreduced (2n embryo sacs (ES form in ovules of gametophytic apomicts, the 2n eggs of which develop into embryos parthenogenetically. In many apomicts, 2n ES form precociously during ovule development. Whether meiosis and sexual ES formation also occur precociously in facultative apomicts (capable of apomictic and sexual reproduction has not been studied. We determined onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation for 569 Sorghum bicolor genotypes, many of which produced 2n ES facultatively. Results Genotype differences for onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation, relative to ovule development, were highly significant. A major source of variation in timing of sexual germline development was presence or absence of apomictic ES, which formed from nucellar cells (apospory in some genotypes. Genotypes that produced these aposporous ES underwent meiosis and sexual ES formation precociously. Aposporous ES formation was most prevalent in subsp. verticilliflorum and in breeding lines of subsp. bicolor. It was uncommon in land races. Conclusions The present study adds meiosis and sexual ES formation to floral induction, apomictic ES formation, and parthenogenesis as processes observed to occur precociously in apomictic plants. The temporally diverse nature of these events suggests that an epigenetic memory of the plants' apomixis status exists throughout its life cycle, which triggers, during multiple life cycle phases, temporally distinct processes that accelerate reproduction.

  10. Determining the Level of the Dural Sac Tip: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binokay, F.; Akgul, E.; Bicakci, K.; Soyupak, S.; Aksungur, E.; Sertdemir, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the variation in the location of the dural sac (DS) in a living adult population and to correlate this position with age and sex. Material and Methods: T2-weighted, midline, sagittal, spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 743 patients were assessed to identify the tip of the DS. This location was recorded in relation to the upper, middle, or lower third of the adjacent vertebral body or the adjacent intervertebral disk. Results: Frequency distribution for levels of termination of the DS on MRI demonstrated that the end of the DS was usually located at the upper one-third of S2 (25.2%). The mean level in females was also the upper one-third of S2 (26.5%) and in males the lower one-third of S2 (24.1%). The overall mean DS position was mostly at the upper one-third of S2. No significant differences in DS position were seen between male and female patients or with increasing age. Conclusion: It is important to know the possible range for the termination level of the DS when performing caudal anesthesia and craniospinal irradiation in some clinical situations. The distribution of DS location in a large adult population was shown to range from the L5-S1 intervertebral disk to the upper third of S3 vertebrae

  11. Development of Multi-Service (MS) for SAC-OCDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaee, Majid H.; Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Adnan Fadhil, Hilal; Barirah Ahmad Anas, Siti; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah

    2014-08-01

    A Multi-Service Optical Code Division Multiple Access (MS-OCDMA) code based on Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) is proposed in this paper. The advantage of proposed code on setting a variable number of users in a basic code matrix with a fixed code weight makes it more flexible in generating codewords. The appropriate quality of service required for various network applications can be provided by choosing a different number of users for the basic code matrix of MS code. The properties of the proposed code is compared with other OCDMA codes in terms of code length and maximum cross-correlation. The performance of the MS code mathematically analysed and probability of error for users is plotted as a function of the number of active users and optical received power. Shot, phase induced intensity and thermal noises are considered in mathematical analysis. Results show that by choosing code weight of 4 and optimizing number of users per sequence, the MS code supports up to 82 users, each operating at a bit-rate of 622 Mbps with reference to the Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

  12. Routine focal mollusciciding after chemotherapy to control Schistosoma mansoni in Cul de Sac valley, Saint Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnish, G; Jordan, P; Bartholomew, R K; Grist, E

    1982-01-01

    Concluding results of a 10-year schistosomiasis control programme in Cul de Sac valley, Saint Lucia, are described. After an area-wide mollusciciding campaign (1970-75), and a surveillance/treatment programme supplemented with selective population chemotherapy in 1975 and 1976, prevalence rates of Schistosoma mansoni were reduced to low levels. To prevent a resurgence of transmission a cost effective routine focal mollusciciding programme, suitable for public health implementation was evaluated from 1977 to 1981. Streams and main collector drains in banana fields, considered to be potential S. mansoni transmission sites, were treated every four weeks with Bayluscide 6076 emulsifiable concentrate (Clonitralide). Snail populations were effectively controlled in the treated areas but large numbers were present where no treatment was given. Only 0 X 06% of sentinel snails became infected. Prevalence of infection in the human population remained low (over-all 5%) and intensity of infection at a level not normally associated with schistosomal disease. Since control started 10 years earlier the level of potential contamination has fallen by 92% in high transmission areas. The four-year programme cost US+12,909 of which 54% was for molluscicide, 27% for labour and 19% for transport, equipment and sundries. The average annual cost per head of population was US+0 X 46.

  13. MR imaging findings of extraovarian endocervical mucinous borderline tumors arising from pelvic endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Dong Myung; Rha, Sung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Kim, Mee Ran

    2013-01-01

    We report MR imaging findings of a rare case of endocervical mucinous borderline tumor (MBT) involving the cul-de-sac and left fallopian tube arising from extensive pelvic endometriosis with pathologic correlation in a 35-year-old woman presented with vague pelvic pain. Endocervical MBT is a type of endometriosis-associated carcinoma. Imaging findings of endocervical MBT are unilocular or oligolocular cystic lesions with enhancing mural nodules, which are different from those of the more common intestinal type MBT.

  14. MR imaging findings of extraovarian endocervical mucinous borderline tumors arising from pelvic endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Dong Myung; Rha, Sung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Kim, Mee Ran [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We report MR imaging findings of a rare case of endocervical mucinous borderline tumor (MBT) involving the cul-de-sac and left fallopian tube arising from extensive pelvic endometriosis with pathologic correlation in a 35-year-old woman presented with vague pelvic pain. Endocervical MBT is a type of endometriosis-associated carcinoma. Imaging findings of endocervical MBT are unilocular or oligolocular cystic lesions with enhancing mural nodules, which are different from those of the more common intestinal type MBT.

  15. Characteristics of lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) long-distance movements across their distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Julia E.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Haukos, David A.; Tanner, Ashley M.; Elmore, Dwayne; Carleton, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance movements are important adaptive behaviors that contribute to population, community, and ecosystem connectivity. However, researchers have a poor understanding of the characteristics of long-distance movements for most species. Here, we examined long-distance movements for the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a species of conservation concern. We addressed the following questions: (1) At what distances could populations be connected? (2) What are the characteristics and probability of dispersal movements? (3) Do lesser prairie-chickens display exploratory and round-trip movements? (4) Do the characteristics of long-distance movements vary by site? Movements were examined from populations using satellite GPS transmitters across the entire distribution of the species in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. Dispersal movements were recorded up to 71 km net displacement, much farther than hitherto recorded. These distances suggest that there may be greater potential connectivity among populations than previously thought. Dispersal movements were displayed primarily by females and had a northerly directional bias. Dispersal probabilities ranged from 0.08 to 0.43 movements per year for both sexes combined, although these movements averaged only 16 km net displacement. Lesser prairie-chickens displayed both exploratory foray loops and round-trip movements. Half of round-trip movements appeared seasonal, suggesting a partial migration in some populations. None of the long-distance movements varied by study site. Data presented here will be important in parameterizing models assessing population viability and informing conservation planning, although further work is needed to identify landscape features that may reduce connectivity among populations.

  16. Evaluation of capture techniques on lesser prairie-chicken trap injury and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Mitchell, Natasia R.; Gicklhorn, Trevor S.; Borsdorf, Philip K.; Haukos, David A.; Dixon, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Ethical treatment of research animals is required under the Animal Welfare Act. This includes trapping methodologies that reduce unnecessary pain and duress. Traps used in research should optimize animal welfare conditions within the context of the proposed research study. Several trapping techniques are used in the study of lesser prairie-chickens, despite lack of knowledge of trap injury caused by the various methods. From 2006 to 2012, we captured 217, 40, and 144 lesser prairie-chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus using walk-in funnel traps, rocket nets, and drop nets, respectively, in New Mexico and Texas, to assess the effects of capture technique on injury and survival of the species. We monitored radiotagged, injured lesser prairie-chickens 7–65 d postcapture to assess survival rates of injured individuals. Injuries occurred disproportionately among trap type, injury type, and sex. The predominant injuries were superficial cuts to the extremities of males captured in walk-in funnel traps. However, we observed no mortalities due to trapping, postcapture survival rates of injured birds did not vary across trap types, and the daily survival probability of an injured and uninjured bird was ≥99%. Frequency and intensity of injuries in walk-in funnel traps are due to the passive nature of these traps (researcher cannot select specific individuals for capture) and incidental capture of individuals not needed for research. Comparatively, rocket nets and drop nets allow observers to target birds for capture and require immediate removal of captured individuals from the trap. Based on our results, trap injuries would be reduced if researchers monitor and immediately remove birds from walk-in funnels before they injure themselves; move traps to target specific birds and reduce recaptures; limit the number of consecutive trapping days on a lek; and use proper netting techniques that incorporate quick, efficient, trained handling procedures.

  17. Anti-tumor effects of nitrosylcobalamin against spontaneous tumors in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Joseph A; Frye, Gerald; Bahr, Anne; Gieg, Jennifer; Brofman, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Given the limited options available to treat canine cancers, the use of companion animals for evaluating new drugs may identify better therapies for veterinary and human oncology. The anti-tumor effects of nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), an apoptosis-inducing, vitamin B12-based carrier of nitric oxide (NO), was evaluated in four dogs with spontaneous cancer. (1) A 13 year-old female spayed Giant Schnauzer with inoperable thyroid carcinoma and hypercalcemia. (2) A 6 year-old male neutered Golden Retriever with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). (3) A ten yr-old neutered male Bichon Frise with apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGACA). (4) A 7 year-old female spayed Labrador mix with spinal meningioma following partial surgical resection. Tumor regression was measured by physical exam and verified using ultrasound (case 1) and MRI (case 2-4). Serum chemistries and hematologic parameters were monitored throughout the studies. (1) The Giant Schnauzer demonstrated a 77% reduction in tumor volume after ten weeks of daily NO-Cbl treatment. (2) The Golden Retriever demonstrated a 53% reduction in tumor volume after 15 months of daily NO-Cbl therapy. (3) The Bichon Frise demonstrated a 43% regression of the primary tumor and a 90% regression of an iliac lymph node measured by MRI after 15 months of treatment. After 61 months, the dog currently has stable disease, normal liver enzymes, CBC analysis, and no evidence of toxicity. (4) The Labrador demonstrated complete regression of the residual tumor after 6 months of treatment. We have shown previously that NO-Cbl is endocytosed by malignant cells, resulting in intra-tumoral NO release. In this study, we have shown that daily long-term use of NO-Cbl induced responses in all dogs without any signs of toxicity. The use of NO-Cbl capitalizes on the tumor-specific properties of the vitamin B12 receptor and represents a promising anti-cancer therapy.

  18. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models and field measurements, My collaborator and I investigate the acoustic environment where the Greater Sage-Grouse display. The complexities of this acoustic environment are relevant both to the birds and to the subsequent examinations of the display's properties. Finally, my collaborators and I examine a cryptic component of the acoustic display --- directionality --- which we measured simultaneously from multiple locations around free moving grouse on their mating grounds.

  19. Percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a professional football player using sublaminar epidural injection for thecal sac displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael V; Park, Andrew; Bumpass, David; Jennings, Jack W; Matava, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    A case of percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a 25-year-old professional American football player is reported. The patient presented with a 3-day history of severe left-sided back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a discal cyst effacing the left L4-L5 lateral recess, with interposed thecal sac. A sublaminar epidural injection was performed displacing the thecal sac, exposing the discal cyst, and allowing for percutaneous perforation. The patient had complete resolution of symptoms after discal cyst rupture and was able to compete in a professional football game 3 days later. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous rupture is a therapeutic modality that may be considered for treatment of a symptomatic discal cyst. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of the effects of 50g/L povidone iodine in conjuncfival sac before cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the sterilizing effects of 50g/L povidone Iodine used in conjunctival sag before cataract surgery.METHODS: Totally, 58 eyes of 45 cataract patients underwent phacoemulsification aspiration with intraocular lens implantation. The cojunctival sac secretions at three time points(admission, before and after disinfection with povidone iodinewere obtained and then cultured under the same condition and at the same time. The results were observed and identified.RESULTS: At the three points, the positive rate of bacterial culture was 79.3%, 41.9% and 3.4%, respectively. The positive rate significantly reduced gradually. CONCLUSION: The application effect of 50g/L povidone iodine in killing conjunctival sac bacteria is remarkable, which can avoid the postoperative endophthalmitis effectively.

  1. Generalized optical code construction for enhanced and Modified Double Weight like codes without mapping for SAC-OCDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Soma; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2016-07-01

    Double Weight (DW) code family is one of the coding schemes proposed for Spectral Amplitude Coding-Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. Modified Double Weight (MDW) code for even weights and Enhanced Double Weight (EDW) code for odd weights are two algorithms extending the use of DW code for SAC-OCDMA systems. The above mentioned codes use mapping technique to provide codes for higher number of users. A new generalized algorithm to construct EDW and MDW like codes without mapping for any weight greater than 2 is proposed. A single code construction algorithm gives same length increment, Bit Error Rate (BER) calculation and other properties for all weights greater than 2. Algorithm first constructs a generalized basic matrix which is repeated in a different way to produce the codes for all users (different from mapping). The generalized code is analysed for BER using balanced detection and direct detection techniques.

  2. Canine distemper virus infection in a lesser grison (Galictis cuja: first report and virus phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Megid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases in wild animals have been increasing as a result of their habitat alterations and closer contact with domestic animals. Canine distemper virus (CDV has been reported in several species of wild carnivores, presenting a threat to wildlife conservation. We described the first case of canine distemper virus infection in lesser grison (Galictis cuja. A free-ranging individual, with no visible clinical sigs, presented sudden death after one day in captivity. Molecular diagnosis for CDV infection was performed using whole blood collected by postmortem intracardiac puncture, which resulted positive. The virus phylogeny indicated that domestic dogs were the probable source of infection.

  3. Hepatic microsomal metabolism of BDE-47 and BDE-99 by lesser snow geese and Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lisa K; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the oxidative biotransformation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) by liver microsomes from wild lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Formation of hydroxy-metabolites was analyzed using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method. Incubation of BDE-47 with avian liver microsomes produced sixteen hydroxy-metabolites, eight of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites formed by liver microsomes from individual lesser snow geese were 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-42), 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (3-OH-BDE-47), and 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4'-OH-BDE-49). By comparison, 4-OH-BDE-42 and 4'-OH-BDE-49, but not 3-OH-BDE-47, were major metabolites of Japanese quail liver microsomes. Unidentified metabolites included monohydroxy- and dihydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers. Incubation of BDE-99 with avian liver microsomes produced seventeen hydroxy-metabolites, twelve of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites formed by lesser snow goose liver microsomes were 2,4,5-tribromophenol, 3-OH-BDE-47, 4'-OH-BDE-49, 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-90), and 5'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (5'-OH-BDE-99). By comparison, the major metabolites produced by liver microsomes from Japanese quail included 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47) and 2-hydroxy-2',3,4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (2-OH-BDE-123), but not 3-OH-BDE-47. Unidentified metabolites consisted of monohydroxy-pentabromodiphenyl ethers, monohydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers and dihydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers. Another difference between the two species was that formation rates of BDE-47 and BDE-99 metabolites were greater with liver

  4. Spatially explicit modeling of lesser prairie-chicken lek density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Jennifer M.; Butler, M.J.; Ballard, Warren; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    As with many other grassland birds, lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have experienced population declines in the Southern Great Plains. Currently they are proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to a history of land-uses that have resulted in habitat loss, lesser prairie-chickens now face a new potential disturbance from energy development. We estimated lek density in the occupied lesser prairie-chicken range of Texas, USA, and modeled anthropogenic and vegetative landscape features associated with lek density. We used an aerial line-transect survey method to count lesser prairie-chicken leks in spring 2010 and 2011 and surveyed 208 randomly selected 51.84-km(2) blocks. We divided each survey block into 12.96-km(2) quadrats and summarized landscape variables within each quadrat. We then used hierarchical distance-sampling models to examine the relationship between lek density and anthropogenic and vegetative landscape features and predict how lek density may change in response to changes on the landscape, such as an increase in energy development. Our best models indicated lek density was related to percent grassland, region (i.e., the northeast or southwest region of the Texas Panhandle), total percentage of grassland and shrubland, paved road density, and active oil and gas well density. Predicted lek density peaked at 0.39leks/12.96km(2) (SE=0.09) and 2.05leks/12.96km(2) (SE=0.56) in the northeast and southwest region of the Texas Panhandle, respectively, which corresponds to approximately 88% and 44% grassland in the northeast and southwest region. Lek density increased with an increase in total percentage of grassland and shrubland and was greatest in areas with lower densities of paved roads and lower densities of active oil and gas wells. We used the 2 most competitive models to predict lek abundance and estimated 236 leks (CV=0.138, 95% CI=177-306leks) for our sampling area. Our results suggest that

  5. Unique structure and optics of the lesser eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, A; Andersson, F; Nilsson, Dan-E

    2008-01-01

    mere light meters. The slit eyes, comprising four cell types, are complex and highly asymmetric. They also hold a lens-like structure, but its optical power is minute. Optical modeling suggests spatial resolution, but only in one plane. These unique and intriguing traits support strong peripheral......The visual system of box jellyfish comprises a total of 24 eyes. These are of four types and each probably has a special function. To investigate this hypothesis the morphology and optics of the lesser eyes, the pit and slit eyes, were examined. The pit eyes hold one cell type only and are probably...

  6. Archaeological Survey and Site Testing in Sloughing Easement Areas along the Sac River Downstream from Stockton Dam, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Inventories from Sites Outside of the Easement 288 28. Summary of Artifact Frequencies by Functional Category 290 29. Proportions of General Tool...farming community to that of a resort town, with its week-end and holiday crowds of skiers , fishermen, and sightseers. Also but on a more permanent...the Sac River drainage and adjacent drainages has identified a number of specific problems and gaps In our knowledge of the prehistory of the region

  7. Environmental calcium and variation in yolk sac size influence swimming performance in larval lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deslauriers, David; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Genz, Janet

    2018-01-01

    , because the yolk sac is likely to affect drag forces during swimming. Testing swimming performance of larval A. fulvescens reared in four different calcium treatments spanning the range of 4-132 mg l-1 [Ca2+], this study found no treatment effects on the sprint swimming speed. A novel test of volitional...... reduced swimming performance and could be more susceptible to predation or premature downstream drift. Our study reveals how environmental factors and phenotypic variation influence locomotor performance in a larval fish....

  8. Adrenal cortical heterotopia in an inguinal hernia sac of an adult: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S. Kassaby, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenal cortical tissue is not an infrequent incidental finding during abdominal and inguinal operations in infants; however, it is a rare finding in adults with only a few case reports described in the literature. We report a case of adrenal heterotopia as an incidental finding in a hernia sac from a 56 year-old man. We review the literature and discuss the importance of recognizing this rare finding.

  9. Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) for the Argentinian, Scout-launched satelite de Aplicaciones Cienficas-1 (SAC-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, B.R.; Crannell, C.J.; Desai, U.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Fourier Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (FIXS) is one of four instruments on SAC-1, the Argentinian satellite being proposed for launch by NASA on a Scout rocket in 1992/3. The FIXS is designed to provide solar flare images at X-ray energies between 5 and 35 keV. Observations will be made on arcsecond size scales and subsecond time scales of the processes that modify the electron spectrum and the thermal distribution in flaring magnetic structures

  10. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association (ABTA) International RadioSurgery Association National Brain Tumor Society National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ... Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  11. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the brain to reduce spinal fluid pressure. Risks of radiation therapy include damage to healthy brain cells when tumor cells are destroyed. Common side effects from chemotherapy include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and fatigue.

  12. Yolk-sac larval development of the substrate-brooding cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatus in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Vasilopoulos, Michael; Mente, Eleni; Hotos, George; Katselis, George; Vidalis, Kosmas

    2015-09-01

    In order to conserve and culture the cichlid fish Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, more information about its reproductive biology and its larval behavior and morphogenesis is necessary. Currently, temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 °C are used in ornamental aquaculture hatcheries. Lower temperatures are preferred to reduce the costs of water heating, and 23 °C is usually the selected temperature. However, there is limited information on culturing protocols for ornamental species and most of the information generated on this topic remains scarce. Thus, the present study examines the morphological development of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus during the yolk-sac period up to the age of 100 h post-hatching in relation to 2 temperature regimes used in ornamental aquaculture: a temperature of 27 °C (thermal optimum) and a decreased temperature of 23 °C (thermal tolerance). The results of this study suggest that the 27 °C temperature generates intense morphological changes in yolk-sac development in a shorter period. This has advantages as it reduces the time of yolk-sac larval development, and, thus, minimizes the transition phase to exogenous feeding and maximizes the efficiency at which yolk is converted into body tissues. The present paper provides necessary information to produce freshwater ornamental fish with better practices so as to increase larval survival and capitalize on time for growth. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. The Student Actions Coding Sheet (SACS): An instrument for illuminating the shifts toward student-centered science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim; Campbell, Todd; Hashidah Abd-Hamid, Nor

    2011-07-01

    This study describes the development of an instrument to investigate the extent to which student-centered actions are occurring in science classrooms. The instrument was developed through the following five stages: (1) student action identification, (2) use of both national and international content experts to establish content validity, (3) refinement of the item pool based on reviewer comments, (4) pilot testing of the instrument, and (5) statistical reliability and item analysis leading to additional refinement and finalization of the instrument. In the field test, the instrument consisted of 26 items separated into four categories originally derived from student-centered instruction literature and used by the authors to sort student actions in previous research. The SACS was administered across 22 Grade 6-8 classrooms by 22 groups of observers, with a total of 67 SACS ratings completed. The finalized instrument was found to be internally consistent, with acceptable estimates from inter-rater intraclass correlation reliability coefficients at the p Observation Protocol. Based on the analyses completed, the SACS appears to be a useful instrument for inclusion in comprehensive assessment packages for illuminating the extent to which student-centered actions are occurring in science classrooms.

  14. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knirsch, Walter; Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias; Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz

    2005-01-01

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  15. Enzymatic exchange of sulphur between cysteine and hydrogen sulphide in the yolk sac of an incubated bird's egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeville, F.; Fromageot, P.

    1960-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the formation of cysteic acid from sulphate in incubated hen's eggs is due to the following reactions: a) reduction of sulphate to sulphite by the yolk sac endoderm cells; b) synthesis of cysteic acid from the sulphite in the presence of cysteine with liberation of hydrogen sulphide: HS-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH + SO 3 H - → H 2 S + - O 3 S-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH (1). The enzymatic system responsible for this reaction is localized on the yolk sac endoderm and in the yolk. It may be wondered whether reaction (1) is not made up of two consecutive reactions, one of which is reversible: HS-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH ↔ H 2 S + organic chain (2) and organic chain + SO 3 H - → - O 3 S-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH (3). It would then be clear why the addition of sulphite displaces the equilibrium towards the production of cysteic acid and hydrogen sulphide. If this is the case, the addition of ordinary cysteine and of marked hydrogen sulphide to the biological medium should make it possible to detect the formation of 35 S cysteine. The present work shows that the desulphurization of the cysteine (reaction 2) by the yolk sac + the yolk is in fact a reversible reaction, and that an enzymatic exchange occurs between the sulphur of the cysteine and that of the hydrogen sulphide. (author) [fr

  16. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirsch, Walter [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  17. Characteristics of indomethacin-saccharin (IMC-SAC) co-crystals prepared by an anti-solvent crystallization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Nan-Hee; Wang, In-Chun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Jung, Yun-Taek; Lee, Sangkil; Kim, Woo-Sik; Choi, Guang J

    2013-11-01

    The creation of co-crystals of various insoluble drug substances has been extensively investigated as a promising approach to improve their pharmaceutical performance. In this study, co-crystal powders of indomethacin and saccharin (IMC-SAC) were prepared by an anti-solvent (water) addition and compared with co-crystals by evaporation method. No successful synthesis of a pharmaceutical co-crystal powder via an anti-solvent approach has been reported. Among solvents examined, methanol was practically the only one that resulted in the formation of highly pure IMC-SAC co-crystal powders by anti-solvent approach. The mechanism of a preferential formation of IMC-SAC co-crystal to IMC was explained with two aspects: phase solubility diagram and solution complexation concept. Accordingly, the anti-solvent approach can be considered as a competitive route for producing pharmaceutical co-crystal powders with acceptable properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) in monitoring slope movements in Nainital, Uttarakhand Lesser Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yhokha, Akano; Goswami, Pradeep K.; Chang, Chung-Pai; Yen, Jiun-Yee; Ching, Kuo-En; Aruche, K. Manini

    2018-02-01

    Orogenic movements and sub-tropical climate have rendered the slopes of the Himalayan region intensely deformed and weathered. As a result, the incidences of slope failure are quite common all along the Himalayan region. The Lesser Himalayan terrane is particularly vulnerable to mass-movements owing to geological fragility, and many parts of it are bearing a high-risk of associated disaster owing to the high population density. An important step towards mitigation of such disasters is the monitoring of slope movement. Towards this, the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique can be applied. In the present study, the PSI technique is employed in Lesser Himalayan town of Nainital in Uttarakhand state of India to decipher and monitor slope movements. A total of 15 multi-date ENVISAT ASAR satellite images, acquired during August 2008 to August 2010 period, were subjected to PSI, which revealed a continuous creep movement along the hillslopes located towards the eastern side of the Nainital lake. The higher reaches of the hill seem to be experiencing accelerated creep of {˜ }21 mm/year, which decreases downslope to {˜ }5 mm/year. Based on spatial pattern of varying PSI Mean LOS Velocity (MLV) values, high (H), moderate (M), low (L) and very low (S) creeping zones have been delineated in the hillslopes. Given the long history of mass movements and continuously increasing anthropogenic activities in Nainital, these results call for immediate measures to avert any future disaster in the town.

  19. A Midterm Review of Lesser Toe Arthrodesis With an Intramedullary Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, James Lee; Wilkinson, Anthony; Maher, Anthony John

    2017-10-01

    Lesser toe deformities are one of the most common conditions encountered by podiatric surgeons. When conservative treatments fail surgical correction is indicated. Many surgical options have been described to address the complex nature of these deformities but no perfect solution has been reported to date. However, with the continued advancement of internal fixation technology, interphalangeal joint (IPJ) arthrodesis with an intramedullary implant may be a good option. This retrospective study presents patient reported outcomes and complications at 6 months and 3 years following lesser toe proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) arthrodesis with a polyketone intrameduallary implant (Toe Grip, Orthosolutions, UK). Between September 2011 and November 2012, a total of 38 patients attended for second toe PIPJ arthrodesis by means of the Toe Grip device. At 6 months postoperation, 94.7% of patients and at 3 years postoperation, 92.8% of patients felt that their original complaint was better or much better. Health-related quality of life scores continued to improve overtime as measured by the Manchester Oxford Foot Questionnaire. Complications were generally observational and asymptomatic. The most common complications were floating toes (17.8%), mallet deformities (14.2%), metatarsalgia (17.8%), and transverse plane deformity of the toe (10.7%). This study demonstrates excellent patient-eported outcomes with minimal symptomatic complications making the "Toe Grip" implant a safe and effective alternative fixation device for IPJ arthrodesis when dealing with painful digital deformities. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series.

  20. Social Impact Assessment: The lesser sibling in the South African EIA process?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, L.; Sandham, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Social Impact Assessment has developed as an integral but neglected component of EIA in South Africa since it became mandatory in 1997, and has therefore been referred to as the “orphan” or “lesser sibling” of EIA, as has SIA in the UK and the US. The aim of this paper is to test this claim by reviewing the quality of a sample of SIA reports, and also to establish whether there has been any improvement in quality following the introduction of revised EIA regulations in 2006. The results confirm that SIA can be called “the lesser sibling” due to the weak grades achieved in the quality review, but also reveal that there has been a slight and consistent improvement in quality, most likely driven by best practice considerations in the absence of prescriptive regulations for SIA. Suggestions and recommendations for addressing observed weakness in SIA performance are advanced. - Highlights: • The quality of a sample of SIA reports was evaluated using a review package. • SIA reports received mostly weak grades. • Limited improvement observed from first to second regulatory regime. • Improvements most likely due to best practice considerations

  1. Temperature effects on egg development and larval condition in the lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnier, Thomas; Gibb, Fiona M.; Wright, Peter J.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the influence of temperature on egg development and larval condition in planktonic fish is a prerequisite to understanding the phenological impacts of climate change on marine food-webs. The lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus (Raitt 1934), is a key trophic link between zooplankton and many piscivorous fish, sea birds and mammals in the northeast Atlantic. Temperature-egg development relationships were determined for batches of lesser sandeel eggs. Hatching began as early as 19 days post fertilisation at 11 °C and as late as 36 days post fertilisation at 6 °C, which is faster than egg development rates reported for closely related species at the lower end of the tested temperature range. The average size of newly hatched larvae decreased with increasing incubation temperatures in early hatching larvae, but this effect was lost by the middle of the hatching period. While the study revealed important temperature effects on egg development rate, predicted variability based on the range of temperatures eggs experience in the field, suggests it is only a minor contributor to the observed inter-annual variation in hatch date.

  2. Regional Variation in mtDNA of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Wolfe, Don H.; Robel, Robel J.; Applegate, Roger D.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative loss of habitat and long-term decline in the populations of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have led to concerns for the species' viability throughout its range in the southern Great Plains. For more efficient conservation past and present distributions of genetic variation need to be understood. We examined the distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the Lesser Prairie-Chicken across Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. Throughout the range we found little genetic differentiation except for the population in New Mexico, which was significantly different from most other publications. We did, however, find significant isolation by distance at the rangewide scale (r=0.698). We found no relationship between haplotype phylogeny and geography, and our analyses provide evidence for a post-glacial population expansion within the species that is consistent with the idea that speciation within Tympanuchus is recent. Conservation actions that increase the likelihood of genetically viable populations in the future should be evaluated for implementation.

  3. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Abdul; Mazumdar, Sweety

    2009-08-01

    Understanding deformation mechanisms in Himalayan rocks is a challenging proposition due to the complex nature of the deformed rocks and their genesis. Crustal deformation in the Himalayan thrust belt typically occurs in elastico-frictional (EF) or quasi-plastic (QP) regimes at depths controlled mainly by regional strain-rate and geothermal gradient. However, material property, grain-size and their progressive changes during deformation are also important controlling factors. We present evidence of EF deformation from Gondwana rocks developed during the emplacement of one of the frontal horses (Jorthang horse) in the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) structure associated with Lesser Himalayan rocks in the footwall of the Ramgarh thrust in the Rangit window near Jorthang in the Sikkim Himalaya. The rocks in the horse exhibit systematic changes in microand meso-structures from an undeformed protolith to cataclasite suggesting that it was emplaced under elastico-frictional conditions. Meso- to micro-scale shear fractures are seen developed in Gondwana sandstone and slate while intercalated fine-grained shale-coal-carbonates are deformed by cataclastic flow suggesting that material property and grain-size have played an important role in the deformation of the Jorthang horse. In contrast, the hanging wall schists and quartzites of the Ramgarh thrust exhibit quasi-plastic deformation structures. This suggests that the Jorthang horse was emplaced under shallower crustal conditions than the antiformally folded Ramgarh thrust sheet even though the Ramgarh sheet presently overlies the Jorthang horse.

  4. Testing competing hypotheses for chronology and intensity of lesser scaup molt during winter and spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Anteau, A.C.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined chronology and intensity of molt and their relationships to nutrient reserves (lipid and protein) of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) to test predictions of two competing hypotheses. The "staggered cost" hypothesis states that contour-feather molt is nutritionally costly and should not occur during nutritionally costly periods of the annual cycle unless adequate nutrients are available. The "breeding plumage" hypothesis states that prealternate molt must be complete prior to nesting, regardless of nutrient availability. Males and females were completing prebasic molt during winter (Louisiana) and had similar molt intensities. Females underwent prealternate molt during spring migration (Illinois and Minnesota) and prebreeding (Manitoba) periods; 53% and 93% of females were in moderate to heavy molt in Minnesota and Manitoba, respectively, despite experiencing other substantial nutritional costs. Intensity of prealternate molt was not correlated with lipid reserves even though females, on average, were nutritionally stressed. Molt intensity was not negatively correlated with protein reserves at any location. Chronology and intensity of prealternate molt varied little and were not temporally staggered from other nutritionally costly events. Prealternate molt did not influence nutrient reserves, and nutrient reserves likely were not the ultimate factor influencing chronology or intensity of prealternate molt of females. We surmise that nutrients required for prealternate molt come from exogenous sources and that the "staggered cost" hypothesis does not explain chronology of prealternate molt in female Lesser Scaup; rather, it appears that molt must be complete prior to nesting, consistent with the "breeding plumage" hypothesis. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  5. A comment on “temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Boomer, G. Scott; Schmutz, Joel A.; Walker, Johann A.

    2017-01-01

    Concerns about declines in the abundance of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) have promoted a number of analyses to understand reasons for this decline. Unfortunately, most of these analyses, including that of Arnold et al. (2016 Journal of Wildlife Management 80: 850–861), are based on observational studies leading to weak inference. Although we commend the efforts of Arnold et al. (2016 Journal of Wildlife Management 80: 850–861), we think their conclusions are over-stated given their retrospective analysis. Further, we note a number of inconsistencies in their reasoning and offer alternative conclusions that can be drawn from their analysis. Given the uncertainty still surrounding management of lesser scaup, we do not believe it is prudent to abandon or greatly modify adaptive management approaches designed specifically to make optimal decisions in the face of uncertainty. The current learning-based and recursive approach to management appears to be providing adequate guidance for harvest without punctuated changes to harvest levels, as Arnold et al. (2016 Journal of Wildlife Management 80: 850–861) recommend.

  6. K-Ar geochronology and palaeomagnetism of volcanic rocks in the lesser Antilles island arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briden, J.C.; Rex, D.C.; Faller, A.M.; Tomblin, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    K-Ar age determinations on rocks and minerals from 95 locations in the Lesser Antilles. An age range of 38 - 10 million years was found for the outer arc (Limestone Caribbees) but less than 7.7 million years in the inner arc (Volcanic Caribbees). From Martinique southwards the two arcs are superimposed. These age ranges fit between discontinuities in sea floor spreading in the North Atlantic at about 38 and 9 million years and a causal connection between spreading change and relocation of arc volcanicity is suggested. Paleomagnetic directions at 108 localities in 10 islands fall into normal and reversed groups with 6 sites intermediate and 5 indeterminate. The mean dipole axis is within 2% of the present rotation axis. The data generally agrees with the established geomagnetic polarity time scale but there is some suggestion of a normal polarity event at about 1.18 million years. The paleomagnetic data suggest that in the past 10 million years the Lesser Antilles have not changed their latitude or geographical orientation and the geomagnetic field has averaged that of a central axial dipole. (author)

  7. Social Impact Assessment: The lesser sibling in the South African EIA process?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, L., E-mail: Leandri.hildebrandt@nwu.ac.za [African Centre for Disaster Studies, Research Focus Area: Social Transformation, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Sandham, L.A., E-mail: luke.sandham@nwu.ac.za [Environmental Assessment Research Group, School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa)

    2014-09-15

    Social Impact Assessment has developed as an integral but neglected component of EIA in South Africa since it became mandatory in 1997, and has therefore been referred to as the “orphan” or “lesser sibling” of EIA, as has SIA in the UK and the US. The aim of this paper is to test this claim by reviewing the quality of a sample of SIA reports, and also to establish whether there has been any improvement in quality following the introduction of revised EIA regulations in 2006. The results confirm that SIA can be called “the lesser sibling” due to the weak grades achieved in the quality review, but also reveal that there has been a slight and consistent improvement in quality, most likely driven by best practice considerations in the absence of prescriptive regulations for SIA. Suggestions and recommendations for addressing observed weakness in SIA performance are advanced. - Highlights: • The quality of a sample of SIA reports was evaluated using a review package. • SIA reports received mostly weak grades. • Limited improvement observed from first to second regulatory regime. • Improvements most likely due to best practice considerations.

  8. Testing competing hypotheses for chronology and intensity of lesser scaup molt during winter and spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Anteau, Andrea C.E.; Afton, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined chronology and intensity of molt and their relationships to nutrient reserves (lipid and protein) of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinisK/i>) to test predictions of two competing hypotheses. The "staggered cost" hypothesis states that contour-feather molt is nutritionally costly and should not occur during nutritionally costly periods of the annual cycle unless adequate nutrients are available. The "breeding plumage" hypothesis states that prealternate molt must be complete prior to nesting, regardless of nutrient availability. Males and females were completing prebasic molt during winter (Louisiana) and had similar molt intensities. Females underwent prealternate molt during spring migration (Illinois and Minnesota) and prebreeding (Manitoba) periods; 53% and 93% of females were in moderate to heavy molt in Minnesota and Manitoba, respectively, despite experiencing other substantial nutritional costs. Intensity of prealternate molt was not correlated with lipid reserves even though females, on average, were nutritionally stressed. Molt intensity was not negatively correlated with protein reserves at any location. Chronology and intensity of prealternate molt varied little and were not temporally staggered from other nutritionally costly events. Prealternate molt did not influence nutrient reserves, and nutrient reserves likely were not the ultimate factor influencing chronology or intensity of prealternate molt of females. We surmise that nutrients required for prealternate molt come from exogenous sources and that the "staggered cost" hypothesis does not explain chronology of prealternate molt in female Lesser Scaup; rather, it appears that molt must be complete prior to nesting, consistent with the "breeding plumage" hypothesis.

  9. Amino acid neurotoxins in feathers of the Lesser Flamingo, Phoeniconaias minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, J S; Banack, S A; Kotut, K; Krienitz, L; Codd, G A

    2013-01-01

    The Lesser Flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) is known to use cyanobacteria (primarily Arthrospira) as a major food source in the East African Rift Valley lakes. Periodically, mass mortalities have occurred, associated with the cyanobacterial toxins (cyanotoxins), microcystins and anatoxin-a. Deposition of these cyanotoxins into P. minor feathers has been shown to occur, consistent with the presence of cyanotoxins in the livers, stomach and faecal contents after dietary intake. As cyanobacteria have been shown to also produce the neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB), stored wing feathers, previously recovered from flamingos which had been exposed to microcystins and anatoxin-a and had subsequently died, were analysed for these neurotoxic amino acids. Trace amounts of BMAA were detected in extracts from Lake Nakuru flamingo feathers, with DAB also present at concentrations between 3.5 and 8.5 μg g(-1) dry weight in feathers from both lakes. Toxin recovery by solid-phase extraction of feather digests was tested with spiked deuterated BMAA and showed good recovery when analysed by LC-MS/MS (80-94%). This is the first report of these neurotoxic amino acids in birds. We discuss the origin and significance of DAB, alongside other cyanotoxins of dietary origin, in the feathers of the Lesser Flamingo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sero-epidemiological survey on bovine tick-borne diseases in the Lesser Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, E.; Maran, M.; Montenegro-James, S.; Accipe, A.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a tick-borne disease control programme in the Lesser Antilles, studies were undertaken to determine the prevalence of cowdriosis, babesiosis and anaplasmosis in an effort to determine what the impact of tick eradication would be. The epidemiological situation for bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis is unstable in all the islands of the Lesser Antilles, but the clinical cases are only recorded in imported breeds, which represent less than 5% of the cattle population. The native cattle population react as if naturally resistant. When the A. variegatum tick eradication campaign begins, it will be necessary, by the end of the acaricide treatment regime, to immunize all the imported cattle born during that period, and possibly all of the seronegative imported cattle already on the islands. Both Antigua and Guadeloupe have a long history of infestation with the tick and both have experienced clinical cases of cowdriosis. On the other islands, less than 6% of the sera were positive and this correlates well also with an apparent absence of clinical cases of cowdriosis. (author)

  11. 77 FR 73827 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a grassland bird known from southeastern... plants; wind energy development; petroleum production; and presence of roads and manmade vertical structures including towers, utility lines, fences, turbines, wells, and buildings. We will request peer...

  12. Forearc kinematics in obliquely convergent margins: Examples from Nicaragua and the northern Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Henry L., III

    In this study, I use surface velocities derived from GPS geodesy, elastic half-space dislocation models, and modeled Coulomb stress changes to investigate deformation in the over-riding plate at obliquely convergent margins at the leading and trailing edges of the Caribbean plate. The two principal study areas are western Nicaragua, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate, and the northern Lesser Antilles, where the North American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate. In Nicaragua, plate convergence is rapid at 84 mm yr1 with a small angle of obliquity of 10° along a slightly concave portion of the Middle America Trench. GPS velocities for the period from 2000 to 2004 from sites located in the Nicaraguan forearc confirmed forearc sliver motion on the order of ˜14 mm yr1 in close agreement with the value predicted by DeMets (2001). These results are presented here in Chapter 3 and were reported in Geophysical Research Letters (Turner et al., 2007). GPS observations made on sites located in the interior and on the eastern coast of Nicaragua during the same time period were combined with new data from eastern Honduras to help better constrain estimates of rigid Caribbean plate motion (DeMets et al., 2007). Slip approaching the plate convergence rate along the Nicaraguan and El Salvadoran sections of the Middle America Trench was quantitatively demonstrated by finite element modeling of this section of the plate interface using GPS velocities from our Nicaraguan network together with velocities from El Salvador and Honduras as model constraints (Correa-Mora, 2009). The MW 6.9 earthquake that ruptured the seismogenic zone offshore Nicaragua on October 9, 2004 resulted in coseismic displacements and post-seismic motion at GPS sites in the central part of the Nicaraguan forearc that currently prevent extension of interseismic time-series in this region. An elastic half-space dislocation model was used to estimate coseismic displacements at these

  13. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May cause excessive secretion of hormones Common among men and women in their 50s-80s Accounts for about 13 percent of all brain tumors Symptoms Headache Depression Vision loss Nausea or vomiting Behavioral and cognitive ...

  14. Lymph flux rates from various lymph sacs in the cane toad Rhinella marina: an experimental evaluation of the roles of compliance, skeletal muscles and the lungs in the movement of lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hedrick, Michael S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2010-09-15

    A new method for quantitatively determining lymph flux from various lymphatic sacs of an anuran, the cane toad, was developed. This method used the dye dilution principle of C(i)V(i)=C(f)V(f) following injection of Evans Blue into specific lymph sacs and measuring its appearance in the venous circulation. The apparent lymph volume was 57 ml kg(-1). The greatest rate of lymph return (0.5-0.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and best linear fit of Evans Blue appearance in the circulation with time followed injections into the subvertebral lymph sac, which has direct connections to both the anterior and posterior pairs of lymphatic hearts. Rate of lymph flux from the pair of posterior lymph hearts was three times greater than the anterior pair. Rates of lymph flux were only influenced by injection volume in the crural lymph sacs, implicating lymph sac compliance as the source of the pressure for lymph movement from these sacs. Femoral lymph sac fluxes were decreased by 60% following ablation of the tendons of the sphincter ani cloacalis, abdominal crenators and piriformis. This supports a role for these muscles in generating the pressure for vertical lymph movement. Femoral lymph sac fluxes were also decreased by 70% by the insertion of a coil in the subvertebral lymph sac, preventing normal compression and expansion of this sac by the lungs. This supports a role for lung ventilation in generating the pressure for vertical movement of lymph. Contrary to previous hypotheses, fluxes from the brachial sac were not influenced by insertion of the coil into the subvertebral sac. A haemorrhage equivalent to 50% of the blood volume did not change lymph flux rates from the femoral lymph sacs. These data provide the first experimental evidence that actual lymph fluxes in the cane toad Rhinella marina depend on lymph sac compliance, contraction of specific skeletal muscles and lung ventilation to move lymph laterally and vertically to the dorsally located lymphatic hearts.

  15. Estimation of organic carbon deposition into forest ecosystems by determination of the spectral absorption of rainwater in range of ultraviolet radiation (SAC254)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, U.

    1988-01-01

    Organic compounds are mostly neglected within deposition measurement programs because their determination is expensive and complicated. A very simple and rapid estimation of total organic carbon (TOC) is possible by determination of the spectral absorption coefficient in the range of ultraviolet radiation at 254 nm wave-length (SAC 254 ): TOC (mg/1) = 0,5 SAC 254 (m −1 ) - 0,15 (author) [de

  16. The rat subcutaneous air sac model. A new and simple method for in vivo screening of antiangiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, J.; Abildgaard Hansen, C.; Skak-Nielsen, T.; Bay, C.; Thing Mortensen, J.; Binderup, L.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental rat model, the Subcutaneous Air Sac (SAS) model, was developed to provide an animal model in which neo-vascularisation can be easily assessed in situ and quantified using a radiolabelled plasma marker. The SAS model was designed to replace a previous model where neo-vascularisation was induced by chemical injury of rat or rabbit cornea or by implantation of tumour cells intracorneally, a methodology which is believed to cause severe pain to the animals. In the SAS model the air sac replaces the cornea as a transparent avascular substratum in which vascularisation can be observed. The air sac is induced by injection of air subcutaneously on the back of the animal. After 8 to 10 days a sufficient air sac has been established. The animal is anaesthesized and by a minor operation the cellulose sponge is implanted upon the air sac under the skin. The vaso-proliferative effect of the cellulose sponge caused formation of new vessels which are macroscopically visible 10 days after implantation. The ability of the in vivo SAS model to show an anti-angiogenic effect of a systemically applied test compound was investigated using the fumagilline analogue TNP-470 (o-chloro-acetylcarbomoyl-fumagillol) as a positive control at dose levels of 0, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg/day given subcutaneously for 10 days. The neo-angio genesis was scored both in situ using a subjective point system and by measuring the 125 I-activity of the implant and the membrane after an intravenous injection of 125 I-labelled antibodies. The neo-angio genesis was reduced by approximately 45-50% in animals treated with 5 or 10 mg/kg/day of TNP-470 compared to animals treated with the vehicle. The animals treated with 10 mg/kg/day TNP-470 showed signs of toxicity. The SAS model is considered highly relevant for in vivo testing of potential anti-angiogenci drugs on humane grounds. The high reproducibility, the low cost and the technical simplicity of the method makes it attractive. (au)

  17. Maize EMBRYO SAC family peptides interact differentially with pollen tubes and fungal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woriedh, Mayada; Merkl, Rainer; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    EMBRYO SAC1-4 (ES1-4) peptides belong to the defensin subgroup of cysteine-rich peptides known to mediate pollen tube burst in Zea mays (maize). ES1-4 are reported here to also be capable of inhibiting germination and growth of the maize fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Ustilago maydis at higher concentrations. Dividing the peptides into smaller pieces showed that a 15-amino-acid peptide located in a highly variable loop region lacking similarity to other defensins or defensin-like peptides binds to maize pollen tube surfaces, causing swelling prior to burst. This peptide fragment and a second conserved neighbouring fragment showed suppression of fungal germination and growth. The two peptides caused swelling of fungal cells, production of reactive oxygen species, and finally the formation of big vacuoles prior to burst at high peptide concentration. Furthermore, peptide fragments were found to bind differently to fungal cells. In necrotrophic F. graminearum, a peptide fragment named ES-d bound only at cell surfaces whereas the peptide ES-c bound at cell surfaces and also accumulated inside cells. Conversely, in biotrophic U. maydis, both peptide fragments accumulated inside cells, but, if applied at higher concentration, ES-c but not ES-d accumulated mainly in vacuoles. Mapping of peptide interaction sites identified amino acids differing in pollen tube burst and fungal response reactions. In summary, these findings indicate that residues targeting pollen tube burst in maize are specific to the ES family, while residues targeting fungal growth are conserved within defensins and defensin-like peptides. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, M.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, J.R.A. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, A.C.V. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Fioretto, E.T. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Maria, D.A. [Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biofísica, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers.

  19. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aires, M.B.; Santos, J.R.A.; Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S.; Santos, A.C.V.; Fioretto, E.T.; Maria, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers

  20. Imaging and clinical findings in large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesling, Sabrina; Rasinski, Christine; Amaya, Beatrice

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Large endolymphatic duct and sac syndrome (LEDS) is known as the most common kind of inner ear malformations, which is radiologically detectable. Nevertheless, nowadays many questions are not fully cleared and LEDS is relatively unknown among general radiologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of LEDS in the own patient population and to present our experiences regarding imaging findings, clinical presentation and follow up. Materials and methods: Based on a complete recording of all patients, sent from ENT department to radiology, we identified all radiological diagnosed cases of inner ear malformations including LEDS and all patients in whom an inner ear malformation was clinically suspected. The retrospective study included clinical records, HR-CT and MRI performed between 1994 and 2002. Results: Among 169 patients (338 ear), 17 of patients (median age: 12 years) and 28 ears, respectively, had enlarged endolymphatic structures. In 10 patients - 6% - (15 ears), no other abnormalities were detected, called isolated LEDS, seven patients showed additional inner ear abnormalities. One patient showed a labyrinthine hemorrhage after sudden hearing loss. Audiometric data revealed sensorineural hearing loss in 22 ears, deafness in 5 ears and normal hearing in 1 case of 28 ears. In 10 (67%) of 15 ears with isolated LEDS, the hearing loss was downward-fluctuating progressive. Twelve patients (eight with isolated LEDS) had partly repeated sudden hearing losses. A trigger for worsening of hearing was found in five patients. A correlation between the severity of morphological changes on imaging and the degree of hearing disturbances could not be detected. Only four young patients underwent a radiological examination within the first or second year after onset of hearing loss. Three patients received a cochlear implant. Conclusions: LEDS might be the cause of progressive hearing loss and repeated acute hearing losses in children and young

  1. Spatiotemporal distributions of intestinal helminths in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis during spring migration from the upper Midwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J C; Levengood, J M; Osborn, J M; Yetter, A P; Kinsella, J M; Cole, R A; Suski, C D; Hagy, H M

    2017-07-01

    We examined the associations between intestinal helminth infracommunity structure and infection parameters and the age, size, and year and region of collection of 130 female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during their 2014-2015 spring migrations through the upper Midwest, USA. We identified a total of 647,174 individual helminths from 40 taxa, including 20 trematodes, 14 cestodes, 4 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans parasitizing lesser scaup within the study area. Lesser scaup were each infected with 2-23 helminth taxa. One digenean, Plenosoma minimum, is reported for the first time in lesser scaup and in the Midwest. Mean trematode abundance and total helminth abundance was significantly less in 2015 than 2014, and we suspect that colder weather late in 2015 impacted the intermediate host fauna and caused the observed differences. Brillouin's species diversity of helminths was greatest in the northernmost region of the study area, which coincides with the range of a non-indigenous snail that indirectly causes annual mortality events of lesser scaup. While host age and size were not determined to be influential factors of helminth infracommunity structure, non-parametric ordination and permutational analysis of co-variance revealed that year and region of collection explained differences in helminth infracommunities. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variations play an important role in the structure of intestinal helminth infracommunities found in migrating lesser scaup hosts, and may therefore impact host ability to build endogenous reserves at certain stopover locations in the Midwest.

  2. Suitability of cerebrospinal fluid as a signal-intensity reference on MRI: evaluation of signal-intensity variations in the lumbosacral dural sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luoma, E.K.; Luukkonen, R.; Riihimaeki, H.A.; Raininko, R.; Manninen, H.I.; Nummi, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    The suitability of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the lumbosacral dural sac as an internal signal-intensity reference was studied on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine using a surface coil and motion artefact suppression technique. A signal-intensity reference is needed when signal is compared between images, studies or subjects. Homogeneity of the CSF was estimated visually on T2-weighted images of 60 subjects at 1.5 T and of another 60 subjects at 0.1 T. Spines with a severely narrowed dural sac or marked scoliosis were excluded from the study to avoid partial volume effect. CSF was homogeneous in 82% and 73% of the examinations at 1.5 T and 0.1 T, respectively. The type and location of the local inhomogeneities did not relate to local narrowings of the dural sac. The signal intensity of CSF was measured in 108 examinations at 0.1 T after correcting the spatially-dependent signal-intensity nonuniformities with a phantom-based method. The signal-intensity difference between the CSF in the upper and lower lumbar dural sac was less than 10% in 73% of the examinations. The CSF in the lumbosacral dural sac can be a useful signal-intensity reference for estimation of the signal of the adjacent structures in patients without severe narrowing of the dural sac or marked scoliosis. It may contribute to assessing spinal disease processes. (orig.). With 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Tumor immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Lise, Mario; Nitti, Donato

    2007-01-01

    Advances in tumor immunology are supporting the clinical implementation of several immunological approaches to cancer in the clinical setting. However, the alternate success of current immunotherapeutic regimens underscores the fact that the molecular mechanisms underlying immune-mediated tumor rejection are still poorly understood. Given the complexity of the immune system network and the multidimensionality of tumor/host interactions, the comprehension of tumor immunology might greatly benefit from high-throughput microarray analysis, which can portrait the molecular kinetics of immune response on a genome-wide scale, thus accelerating the discovery pace and ultimately catalyzing the development of new hypotheses in cell biology. Although in its infancy, the implementation of microarray technology in tumor immunology studies has already provided investigators with novel data and intriguing new hypotheses on the molecular cascade leading to an effective immune response against cancer. Although the general principles of microarray-based gene profiling have rapidly spread in the scientific community, the need for mastering this technique to produce meaningful data and correctly interpret the enormous output of information generated by this technology is critical and represents a tremendous challenge for investigators, as outlined in the first section of this book. In the present Chapter, we report on some of the most significant results obtained with the application of DNA microarray in this oncology field.

  4. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors; Peptic ulcer - islet cell tumor; Hypoglycemia - islet cell tumor ... stomach acid. Symptoms may include: Abdominal pain Diarrhea ... and small bowel Vomiting blood (occasionally) Glucagonomas make ...

  5. Contribution to the study of the reduction of sulfate by the yolk sac of the chicken embryo; Contribution a l'etude de la reduction du sulfate par le sac vitellin de l'embryon de poulet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Claude

    1958-11-15

    This academic reports addresses additional information obtained about the reduction of sulfate into sulphite by the yolk sac of a chicken embryo. Two important difficulties have been faced: the impossibility to isolate this reduction from reactions which immediately use the formed sulphite, and the impossibility to obtain an acellular preparation able to reduce the sulfate. Then, the problem of reduction of sulfate into sulphite by the yolk sac is associated with the problem of permeability of yolk sac cells to the studied substances. Thus, the author studied whether other animal species could provide a better material than the chicken embryo for this study of sulfate reduction. It appears that some vertebrate embryos present some evidence of sulphur metabolism similar to that of chicken embryo. However, this last one revealed to be the most favourable for the study. The author reports the study of the evolution of the reduction activity of the yolk sac sulfate with respect to the embryo age, and the effect of some metabolic inhibitors on this activity [French] Dans le present travail nous avons obtenu quelques renseignements concernant la reduction du sulfate en sulfite par l'embryon de poulet. Cette etude a ete menee, a l'aide de substances marquees par le soufre {sup 35}S, par les methodes qui avaient permis anterieurement a Chapeville et Fromageot de mettre en evidence cette reaction et les reactions qui lui font suite au cours de la synthese des aminoacides soufres. Pour apprecier la reduction du sulfate {sup 35}S, nous avons mesure la quantite d'acide cysteique {sup 35}S et de taurine {sup 35}S formes a partir du sulfite {sup 35}S. Appliquant ces techniques aux embryons d'especes animales variees, nous avons constate que quelques embryons de vertebres etaient capables d'utiliser le sulfite a la synthese d'acide cysteique: les embryons de roussette et de rat avec un rendement faible, l'embryon d'un passereau de la famille des turdides, comme celui du poulet

  6. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaensler, E.H.L.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  7. Imaging of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaensler, E H.L. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.).

  8. Ancient xenocrystic zircon in young volcanic rocks of the southern Lesser Antilles island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Williams, Ian S.; Arculus, Richard; Kröner, Alfred; García-Casco, Antonio; Lázaro, Concepción; Buhre, Stephan; Wong, Jean; Geng, Helen; Echeverría, Carlos Morales; Jeffries, Teresa; Xie, Hangqian; Mertz-Kraus, Regina

    2017-10-01

    The Lesser Antilles arc is one of the best global examples in which to examine the effects of the involvement of subducted sediment and crustal assimilation in the generation of arc crust. Most of the zircon recovered in our study of igneous and volcaniclastic rocks from Grenada and Carriacou (part of the Grenadines chain) is younger than 2 Ma. Within some late Paleogene to Neogene ( 34-0.2 Ma) lavas and volcaniclastic sediments however, there are Paleozoic to Paleoarchean ( 250-3469 Ma) xenocrysts, and Late Jurassic to Precambrian zircon ( 158-2667 Ma) are found in beach and river sands. The trace element characteristics of zircon clearly differentiate between different types of magmas generated in the southern Lesser Antilles through time. The zircon population from the younger arc (Miocene, 22-19 Ma, to Present) has minor negative Eu anomalies, well-defined positive Ce anomalies, and a marked enrichment in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), consistent with crystallization from very oxidized magmas in which Eu2 + was in low abundance. In contrast, zircon from the older arc (Eocene to mid-Oligocene, 30-28 Ma) has two different REE patterns: 1) slight enrichment in the light (L)REE, small to absent Ce anomalies, and negative Eu anomalies and 2) enriched High (H)REE, positive Ce anomalies and negative Eu anomalies (a similar pattern is observed in the xenocrystic zircon population). The combination of positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies in the zircon population of the older arc indicates crystallization from magmas that were variably, but considerably less oxidized than those of the younger arc. All the igneous zircon has positive εHf(t), reflecting derivation from a predominantly juvenile mantle source. However, the εHf(t) values vary significantly within samples, reflecting considerable Hf isotopic heterogeneity in the source. The presence of xenocrystic zircon in the southern Lesser Antilles is evidence for the assimilation of intra-arc crustal sediments and

  9. A Proposed Community Network For Monitoring Volcanic Emissions In Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Robertson, R. E.; Latchman, J. L.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    Systematic geochemical monitoring of volcanic systems in the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles was initiated by the UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in 2000, as part of its volcanic surveillance programme for the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles. This programme provided the first time-series observations used for the purpose of volcano monitoring in Dominica and Saint Lucia, permitted the characterization of the geothermal fluids associated with them, and established baseline studies for understanding of the hydrothermal systems during periods of quiescence (Joseph et al., 2011; Joseph et al., 2013). As part of efforts to improve and expand the capacity of SRC to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, it is necessary to develop economically sustainable options for the monitoring of volcanic emissions/pollutants. Towards this effort we intend to work in collaboration with local authorities in Saint Lucia, to develop a monitoring network for quantifying the background exposure levels of ambient concentrations of volcanic pollutants, SO2 in air and As in waters (as health significant marker elements in the geothermal emissions) that would serve as a model for the emissions monitoring network for other volcanic islands. This programme would facilitate the building of local capacity and training to monitor the hazardous exposure, through the application and transfer of a regionally available low-cost and low-technology SO2 measurement/detection system in Saint Lucia. Existing monitoring technologies to inform evidence based health practices are too costly for small island Caribbean states, and no government policies or health services measures currently exist to address/mitigate these influences. Gases, aerosols and toxic elements from eruptive and non-eruptive volcanic activity are known to adversely affect human health and the environment (Baxter, 2000; Zhang et al., 2008). Investigations into the

  10. Reproductive parameters of tropical lesser noddies respond to local variations in oceanographic conditions and weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticelli, David; Ramos, Jaime A.; Catry, Teresa; Pedro, Patricia; Paiva, Vitor H.

    2014-02-01

    Most attempts to link seabirds and climate/oceanographic effects have concerned the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with comparatively few studies in the tropical Indian Ocean. This paper examines the reproductive response of the lesser noddy Anous tenuirostris to temporal fluctuations in oceanographic and climatic conditions using 8 years of monitoring data from Aride Island (Seychelles), tropical Western Indian Ocean. We tested the hypothesis that breeding parameters (mean hatching date, mean egg size, hatching and fledging successes) and chick growth are influenced by local, seasonal oceanographic conditions as expressed by ocean primary productivity (surface chlorophyll-a concentrations; CC), sea surface temperature (SST) and wind speed. We also examined the relationship between lesser noddy breeding parameters and climate conditions recorded at the basin-wide scale of the Indian Ocean (Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index, DMI). Our findings suggest that birds had a tendency to lay slightly larger eggs during breeding seasons (years) with higher CC during April-June (pre-laying, laying and incubation periods). Hatching date was positively related to SST in April-June, with the regression parameters suggesting that each 0.5 °C increase in SST meant a delay of approx.10 days in hatching date. A negative linear relationship was also apparent between hatching success and SST in June-August (hatching and chick-rearing periods), while the quadratic regression models detected a significant effect of wind speed in June-August on fledging success. Body mass increments of growing chicks averaged over 7-day periods were positively related with (2-week) lagged CC values and negatively related with (2-week) lagged SST values. No significant relationship between DMI and lesser noddy breeding parameters was found, but DMI indices were strongly correlated with local SST. Altogether, our results indicate that the reproduction of this top marine predator is dictated by fluctuations in

  11. Winter fidelity and apparent survival of lesser snow goose populations in the Pacific flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.K.; Samuel, M.D.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraege, Donald K.

    2008-01-01

    The Beringia region of the Arctic contains 2 colonies of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding on Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Canada, and wintering in North America. The Wrangel Island population is composed of 2 subpopulations from a sympatric breeding colony but separate wintering areas, whereas the Banks Island population shares a sympatric wintering area in California, USA, with one of the Wrangel Island subpopulations. The Wrangel Island colony represents the last major snow goose population in Russia and has fluctuated considerably since 1970, whereas the Banks Island population has more than doubled. The reasons for these changes are unclear, but hypotheses include independent population demographics (survival and recruitment) and immigration and emigration among breeding or wintering populations. These demographic and movement patterns have important ecological and management implications for understanding goose population structure, harvest of admixed populations, and gene flow among populations with separate breeding or wintering areas. From 1993 to 1996, we neckbanded molting birds at their breeding colonies and resighted birds on the wintering grounds. We used multistate mark-recapture models to evaluate apparent survival rates, resighting rates, winter fidelity, and potential exchange among these populations. We also compared the utility of face stain in Wrangel Island breeding geese as a predictor of their wintering area. Our results showed similar apparent survival rates between subpopulations of Wrangel Island snow geese and lower apparent survival, but higher emigration, for the Banks Island birds. Males had lower apparent survival than females, most likely due to differences in neckband loss. Transition between wintering areas was low (exchange between the Banks and northern Wrangel Island populations. Face staining was an unreliable indicator of wintering area. Our findings suggest that northern and southern

  12. Malignant primary germ-cell tumor of the brain: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Toyoshiro; Sato, Shinichi; Nakao, Satoshi; Ban, Sadahiko; Namba, Koh (Kobe Municipal Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-04-01

    The unusual case of a 15 year old boy with three discrete paraventricular germ-cell tumors is reported. The first tumor was located just lateral to the left thalamus and included a massive cystic part around it, the second tumor in the paraventricular region above the head of the left caudate nucleus and the third tumor in the medial part of the left parietal lobe. Total removal of all tumors was successfully accomplished in stages at four separate operations, namely, the first tumor was removed through the left transsylvian approach, the second tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and the third tumor via left superior frontal gyrus and left superior parietal lobule. Histological examination revealed that the first tumor was teratoma, the second was choriocarcinoma and the third was germinoma. Primary germ-cell tumors of the brain can be divided into 5 groups: 1) germinoma; 2) embryonal carcinoma; 3) choriocarcinoma; 4) yolk-sac tumor; or 5) teratoma. In this case, a combination of three different histological patterns was seen. If malignant germ-cell tumor is supected on CT, aggressive extirpation should be done, not only to determine the exact diagnosis, but also to provide the basis for subsequent adjunctive therapy.

  13. A virulent clone of Devriesea agamarum affects endangered Lesser Antillean iguanas (Iguana delicatissima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Questel, Karl; Pasmans, Frank; Brantegem, Leen Van; Philip, Pascal; Martel, An

    2017-10-02

    Infectious diseases affecting wildlife are drivers of global biodiversity loss. Here we report a bacterial threat to endangered wild reptiles. Since April 2011, a severe skin disease has affected free-ranging, endangered Lesser Antillean iguanas (Iguana delicatissima) on the French Caribbean island of Saint Barthélemy and we identified Devriesea agamarum as the causative agent. The presence of this bacterium was also demonstrated in healthy lizards (anoles) co-inhabiting the island. All isolates from the iguanas corresponded to a single AFLP genotype that until now has exclusively been associated with infections in lizard species in captivity. The clonal relatedness of the isolates and recent emergence of the disease suggest recent arrival of a virulent D. agamarum clone on the island. The presence of healthy but infected lizards suggests the presence of asymptomatic reservoir hosts. This is the first description of a bacterial disease that poses a conservation threat towards free-ranging squamates.

  14. Assessments of the lesser sandeel ( Ammodytes marinus ) in the North Sea based on revised stock divisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.A.; Lewy, Peter; Wright, P.

    1999-01-01

    effort, catch per unit effort, yield, fishing and natural mortality. A better understanding of sandeel growth is important for stock and catch predictions because previous studies indicate that the variability of mean weight-at-age is one of the most important factors influencing the precision......Recent investigations suggest that the current treatment of North Sea sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) as a single unit stock may have little biological basis. In order to study regional effects of the fishery on North Sea lesser sandeel it may therefore be important to assess stock dynamics...... of predictions. The Danish weight-at-age data of sandeel are re- analysed to estimate the mean weight-at-age in the catch and the stock and the precision of the estimates. The reliability of the sandeel assessments is discussed in relation to the data sources available and to the knowledge of sandeel biology...

  15. Reviewing host proteins of Rhabdoviridae: possible leads for lesser studied viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, A; Kiranmayi, M; Sreejith, R; Kumar, K; Sharma, S K; Gupta, S

    2011-12-01

    Rhabdoviridae, characterized by bullet-shaped viruses, is known for its diverse host range, which includes plants, arthropods, fishes and humans. Understanding the viral-host interactions of this family can prove beneficial in developing effective therapeutic strategies. The host proteins interacting with animal rhabdoviruses have been reviewed in this report. Several important host proteins commonly interacting with animal rhabdoviruses are being reported, some of which, interestingly, have molecular features, which can serve as potential antiviral targets. This review not only provides the generalized importance of the functions of animal rhabdovirus-associated host proteins for the first time but also compares them among the two most studied viruses, i.e. Rabies virus (RV) and Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV). The comparative data can be used for studying emerging viruses such as Chandipura virus (CHPV) and the lesser studied viruses such as Piry virus (PIRYV) and Isfahan virus (ISFV) of the Rhabdoviridae family.

  16. A projection of lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) populations range-wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathan W.; Converse, Sarah J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, Clay T.; Allan, Nathan L.; O'Meilia, Chris M.

    2017-08-09

    We built a population viability analysis (PVA) model to predict future population status of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus, LEPC) in four ecoregions across the species’ range. The model results will be used in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Species Status Assessment (SSA) for the LEPC. Our stochastic projection model combined demographic rate estimates from previously published literature with demographic rate estimates that integrate the influence of climate conditions. This LEPC PVA projects declining populations with estimated population growth rates well below 1 in each ecoregion regardless of habitat or climate change. These results are consistent with estimates of LEPC population growth rates derived from other demographic process models. Although the absolute magnitude of the decline is unlikely to be as low as modeling tools indicate, several different lines of evidence suggest LEPC populations are declining.

  17. Reproductive biology of lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (L., 1758 in the Cantabrian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rodríguez-Cabello

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines sexual maturity of the female lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (L., 1758 in the Cantabrian Sea (north of Spain. Analyses made using data collected from commercial trawlers during 1994 and 1995 showed that females reach sexual maturity at a length of 54.2 cm, and the mean egg-laying size is 56.4 ± 0.94 cm. At least one in six adult female dogfish carried egg-capsules during the study period. Sex-ratio by depth strata indicates a larger proportion of females in deeper waters. Mature and spawning females were found at depths ranging from 100 m to more than 400 m, with their proportion being larger in the deeper strata.

  18. Contrasting sedimentary processes along a convergent margin: the Lesser Antilles arc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Michel; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Boudon, Georges

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentation processes occurring in an active convergent setting are well illustrated in the Lesser Antilles island arc. The margin is related to westward subduction of the North and/or the South America plates beneath the Caribbean plate. From east to west, the arc can be subdivided into several tectono-sedimentary depositional domains: the accretionary prism, the fore-arc basin, the arc platform and inter-arc basin, and the Grenada back-arc basin. The Grenada back-arc basin, the fore-arc basin (Tobago Trough) and the accretionary prism on the east side of the volcanic arc constitute traps for particles derived from the arc platform and the South American continent. The arc is volcanically active, and provides large volumes of volcaniclastic sediments which accumulate mainly in the Grenada basin by volcaniclastic gravity flows (volcanic debris avalanches, debris flows, turbiditic flows) and minor amounts by fallout. By contrast, the eastern side of the margin is fed by ash fallout and minor volcaniclastic turbidites. In this area, the dominant component of the sediments is pelagic in origin, or derived from South America (siliciclastic turbidites). Insular shelves are the locations of carbonate sedimentation, such as large platforms which develop in the Limestone Caribbees in the northern part of the margin. Reworking of carbonate material by turbidity currents also delivers lesser amounts to eastern basins of the margin. This contrasting sedimentation on both sides of the arc platform along the margin is controlled by several interacting factors including basin morphology, volcanic productivity, wind and deep-sea current patterns, and sea-level changes. Basin morphology appears to be the most dominant factor. The western slopes of the arc platform are steeper than the eastern ones, thus favouring gravity flow processes.

  19. Chemical and sensory characteristics of frozen wheygurt with the addition of taro and lesser yam flours as thickening agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Widowati, E.; Karunawati, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Cheese whey is a waste product from cheese processing. It has low solid contents thus required the addition of a thickening agent. Lactic acid bacteria could utilize it in the fermented drink. This research aims to study the effect of taro and lesser yam flour addition as a thickening agent on chemical and sensory characteristics of frozen wheygurt. This research used Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with one factor that is variation ratio of taro and lesser yam flour F1 (4: 0), F2 (3: 1), F3 (2: 2), F4 (1: 3), F5 (0: 4). The number of lactic acid bacteria cell determined by using hemocytometer. The lactic acid content determined by the titrimetric method by using 0.1 N NaOH and phenolphthalein as indicator. pH value measured with pH meter. Sensory characteristics evaluated using hedonic test. The result showed that the addition of taro and lesser yam flour have a significant effect on the number of lactic acid bacteria in frozen wheygurt. The higher lesser yam flour addition, the higher lactic acid bacteria count on frozen wheygurt, due to lesser yam higher glucose and fructo-oligosaccharide content than taro. The higher lesser yam addition, the higher the lactic acid produced. The higher the total bacteria and higher levels of lactic acid, the lower the pH obtained. The conclusion of this study is addition ratio of taro and lesser yam flour effect on the chemical characteristics of frozen wheygurt. There is no difference in the level of acceptance of the panelists in sensory evaluation.

  20. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  1. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a child's general health and to detect any adverse side effects (such as low red or white blood cell ... medicine needed, which helps reduce long-term side effects. The most common ... can be completely removed by surgery. About 41% of all Wilms tumors are stage ...

  2. Nephrogenic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Nephroblastomas are the most common malignant renal tumors in childhood. According to the guidelines of the SIOP (Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique) and GPOH (Gesellschaft fuer Paediatrische Onkologie und Haematologie) pre-operative chemotherapy can be started without histological confirmation and thus initial imaging studies, in particular ultrasound, play an outstanding role for diagnostic purposes

  3. Evidence of the most stretchable egg sac silk stalk, of the European spider of the year Meta menardi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Lepore

    Full Text Available Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the "European spider of the year 2012", from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03 ± 0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m(3, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m is deduced to be in the range of 1.5-1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ(0 in the range of 0.33-0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R(2 = 0.97.

  4. Evidence of the most stretchable egg sac silk stalk, of the European spider of the year Meta menardi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Emiliano; Marchioro, Andrea; Isaia, Marco; Buehler, Markus J; Pugno, Nicola M

    2012-01-01

    Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the "European spider of the year 2012", from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03 ± 0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m(3), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m) is deduced to be in the range of 1.5-1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ(0)) in the range of 0.33-0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R(2) = 0.97).

  5. D22S15 - a fetal brain cDNA with BanII and SacI RFLP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouleau, G A; Kurnit, D M; Neve, R L; Bazanowsky, A; Patterson, D; Gusella, J F

    1988-02-25

    A .58 kb single copy EcoRI fragment was isolated from a human fetal brain cDNA library and cloned into pBR322. This fragment recognizes a two allele polymorphism when used to probe human genomic DNA digested with SacI. There are no constant bands. Additional polymorphisms recognized by BanII and Bsp1286 are in disequilibrium with the BanII polymorphism. It has been localized to chromosome 22 by somatic cell hybrid analysis and linkage analysis. Co-dominant segregation has been observed in 15 informative families.

  6. Clima organizacional y satisfacción laboral en la empresa f y d inversiones S.A.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Hospinal Escajadillo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    El artículo trata sobre un trabajo de investigación para determinar, i) el nivel actual de clima organizacional y satisfacción laboral, ii) la relación que existe entre ambas variables y ii) los principales factores críticos que afectan a cada una de ellas, en la empresa F y D Inversiones S.A.C. The article discusses a research project to determine i) the current level of organizational climate and job satisfaction, ii) the relationship between the two variables and ii) the main critical f...

  7. Quantitative analysis and demonstration of modified triple-branch signal detection scheme for SAC-OCDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fujun; Feng, Gang; Zhang, Siwei

    2016-10-01

    The triple-branch signal detection (TBSD) scheme can eliminate multiple-user interference (MUI) without fixed in-phase cross-correlation (IPCC) stipulation in the spectral-amplitude-coding optical code division multiple access (SACOCDMA) systems. In this paper, we modify the traditional TBSD scheme and theoretically analyze the principle of the MUI elimination. Then, the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the modified TBSD scheme is investigated under multiple transmission rates. The results show that the modified TBSD employing the codes with unfixed IPCC can achieve simultaneous optical code recognition and MUI elimination in the SAC-OCDMA.

  8. Low baseline and subsequent higher aortic abdominal aneurysm FDG uptake are associated with poor sac shrinkage post endovascular repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHRU-Nancy, Universite de Lorraine, Nuclear Medecine and Nancyclotep Platform, Nancy (France); INSERM, University of Lorraine, UMR 1116, Nancy (France); CHRU-Nancy, Hopitaux de BRABOIS, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Vandoeuvre (France); Plissonnier, Didier; Rouer, Martin [CHU-Rouen, Department of Vascular Surgery, Rouen (France); Bravetti, Stephanie [CHRU-Nancy, Universite de Lorraine, Department of Radiology, Nancy (France); Coscas, Raphael [Hopital Ambroise Pare, APHP, Chirurgie Vasculaire, Boulogne-Billancourt (France); Haulon, Stephan [CHU-Lille, Department of Vascular Surgery, Lille (France); Mandry, Damien [CHRU-Nancy, Universite de Lorraine, Department of Radiology, Nancy (France); INSERM, University of Lorraine, UMR 947, Nancy (France); Alsac, Jean-Marc [grid.414093.b, APHP, HEGP, Department of Vascular Surgery, Paris (France); Malikov, Serguei; Settembre, Nicla [CHRU-Nancy, Universite de Lorraine, Vascular Surgery, Nancy (France); Goueffic, Yann [CHU-Nantes, Department of Vascular Surgery, Nantes (France); Morel, Olivier [CHU-Besancon, Department of Nuclear Medecine, Besancon (France); Roch, Veronique [CHRU-Nancy, Universite de Lorraine, Nuclear Medecine and Nancyclotep Platform, Nancy (France); Micard, Emilien [INSERM, University of Lorraine, UMR 947, Nancy (France); INSERM, CHRU-Nancy, Universite de Lorraine, CIC-1433, FCRIN INI-CRCT, Nancy (France); Lamiral, Zohra [INSERM, CHRU-Nancy, Universite de Lorraine, CIC-1433, FCRIN INI-CRCT, Nancy (France); Michel, Jean-Baptiste [INSERM, Bichat, UMR 698, Paris (France); Rossignol, Patrick [INSERM, University of Lorraine, UMR 1116, Nancy (France); INSERM, CHRU-Nancy, Universite de Lorraine, CIC-1433, FCRIN INI-CRCT, Nancy (France)

    2018-04-15

    The growth phases of medically treated abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are frequently associated with an {sup 18}F-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) pattern involving low baseline and subsequent higher FDG uptake. However, the FDG-PET patterns associated with the endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of larger AAA are presently unknown. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serial AAA FDG uptake measurements, obtained before EVAR and 1 and 6 months post-intervention and subsequent sac shrinkage at 6 months, a well-recognized indicator of successful repair. Thirty-three AAA patients referred for EVAR (maximal diameter: 55.4 ± 6.0 mm, total volume: 205.7 ± 63.0 mL) underwent FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) before EVAR and at 1 and 6 months thereafter, with the monitoring of AAA volume and of a maximal standardized FDG uptake [SUVmax] averaged between the axial slices encompassing the AAA. Sac shrinkage was highly variable and could be stratified into three terciles: a first tercile in which shrinkage was absent or very limited (0-29 mL) and a third tercile with pronounced shrinkage (56-165 mL). SUVmax values were relatively low at baseline in the 1st tercile (SUVmax: 1.69 ± 0.33), but markedly increased at 6 months (2.42 ± 0.69, p = 0.02 vs. baseline). These SUV max values were by contrast much higher at baseline in the 3rd tercile (SUVmax: 2.53 ± 0.83 p = 0.009 vs. 1st tercile) and stable at 6 months (2.49 ± 0.80), while intermediate results were documented in the 2nd tercile. Lastly, the amount of sac shrinkage, expressed in absolute values or in percentages of baseline AAA volumes, was positively correlated with baseline SUVmax (p = 0.001 for both). A low pre-EVAR FDG uptake and increased AAA FDG uptake at 6 months are associated with reduced sac shrinkage. This sequential FDG-PET pattern is similar to that already shown to accompany growth phases of medically treated AAA. (orig.)

  9. Low baseline and subsequent higher aortic abdominal aneurysm FDG uptake are associated with poor sac shrinkage post endovascular repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, Pierre-Yves; Plissonnier, Didier; Rouer, Martin; Bravetti, Stephanie; Coscas, Raphael; Haulon, Stephan; Mandry, Damien; Alsac, Jean-Marc; Malikov, Serguei; Settembre, Nicla; Goueffic, Yann; Morel, Olivier; Roch, Veronique; Micard, Emilien; Lamiral, Zohra; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Rossignol, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    The growth phases of medically treated abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are frequently associated with an 18 F-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) pattern involving low baseline and subsequent higher FDG uptake. However, the FDG-PET patterns associated with the endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of larger AAA are presently unknown. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serial AAA FDG uptake measurements, obtained before EVAR and 1 and 6 months post-intervention and subsequent sac shrinkage at 6 months, a well-recognized indicator of successful repair. Thirty-three AAA patients referred for EVAR (maximal diameter: 55.4 ± 6.0 mm, total volume: 205.7 ± 63.0 mL) underwent FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) before EVAR and at 1 and 6 months thereafter, with the monitoring of AAA volume and of a maximal standardized FDG uptake [SUVmax] averaged between the axial slices encompassing the AAA. Sac shrinkage was highly variable and could be stratified into three terciles: a first tercile in which shrinkage was absent or very limited (0-29 mL) and a third tercile with pronounced shrinkage (56-165 mL). SUVmax values were relatively low at baseline in the 1st tercile (SUVmax: 1.69 ± 0.33), but markedly increased at 6 months (2.42 ± 0.69, p = 0.02 vs. baseline). These SUV max values were by contrast much higher at baseline in the 3rd tercile (SUVmax: 2.53 ± 0.83 p = 0.009 vs. 1st tercile) and stable at 6 months (2.49 ± 0.80), while intermediate results were documented in the 2nd tercile. Lastly, the amount of sac shrinkage, expressed in absolute values or in percentages of baseline AAA volumes, was positively correlated with baseline SUVmax (p = 0.001 for both). A low pre-EVAR FDG uptake and increased AAA FDG uptake at 6 months are associated with reduced sac shrinkage. This sequential FDG-PET pattern is similar to that already shown to accompany growth phases of medically treated AAA. (orig.)

  10. Giant cell tumor of bone: Multimodal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical behavior and treatment of giant cell tumor of bone is still perplexing. The aim of this study is to clarify the clinico-pathological correlation of tumor and its relevance in treatment and prognosis. Materials and Methods: Ninety -three cases of giant cell tumor were treated during 1980-1990 by different methods. The age of the patients varied from 18-58 yrs with male and female ratio as 5:4. The upper end of the tibia was most commonly involved (n=31, followed by the lower end of the femur(n=21, distal end of radius(n=14,upper end of fibula (n=9,proximal end of femur(n=5, upper end of the humerus(n=3, iliac bone(n=2,phalanx (n=2 and spine(n=1. The tumors were also encountered on uncommon sites like metacarpals (n=4 and metatarsal(n=1. Fifty four cases were treated by curettage and bone grafting. Wide excision and reconstruction was performed in twenty two cases . Nine cases were treated by wide excision while primary amputation was performed in four cases. One case required only curettage. Three inaccessible lesions of ilium and spine were treated by radiotherapy. Results: 19 of 54 treated by curettage and bone grafting showed a recurrence. The repeat curettage and bone grafting was performed in 18 cases while amputation was done in one. One each out of the cases treated by wide excision and reconstruction and wide excision alone recurred. In this study we observed that though curettage and bone grafting is still the most commonly adopted treatment, wide excision of tumor with reconstruction has shown lesser recurrence. Conclusion: For radiologically well-contained and histologically typical tumor, curettage and autogenous bone grafting is the treatment of choice . The typical tumors with radiologically deficient cortex, clinically aggressive tumors and tumors with histological Grade III should be treated by wide excision and reconstruction.

  11. Origins and molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Victor E

    2005-02-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors can be divided into three groups (infantile/prepubertal, adolescent/young adult and spermatocytic seminoma), each with its own constellation of clinical histology, molecular and clinical features. They originate from germ cells at different stages of development. The most common testicular cancers arise in postpubertal men and are characterized genetically by having one or more copies of an isochromosome of the short arm of chromosome 12 [i(12p)] or other forms of 12p amplification and by aneuploidy. The consistent gain of genetic material from chromosome 12 seen in these tumors suggests that it has a crucial role in their development. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type (IGCNU) is the precursor to these invasive tumors. Several factors have been associated with their pathogenesis, including cryptorchidism, elevated estrogens in utero and gonadal dysgenesis. Tumors arising in prepubertal gonads are either teratomas or yolk sac tumors, tend to be diploid and are not associated with i(12p) or with IGCNU. Spermatocytic seminoma (SS) arises in older patients. These benign tumors may be either diploid or aneuploid and have losses of chromosome 9 rather than i(12p). Intratubular SS is commonly encountered but IGCNU is not. The pathogenesis of prepubertal GCT and SS is poorly understood.

  12. "Cancer tumor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronshtehn, V. A.

    The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

  13. Long-distance multistep sediment transfer at convergent plate margins (Barbados, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, Mara; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    We present a regional provenance study of the compositional variability and long distance multicyclic transport of terrigenous sediments along the convergent and transform plate boundaries of Central America, from the northern termination of the Andes to the Lesser Antilles arc-trench system. We focus on high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral analyses of modern beach and fluvial sediments and Cenozoic sandstones of Barbados island, one of the places in the world where an active accretionary prism is subaerially exposed (Speed et al., 2012). The main source of siliciclastic sediment in the Barbados accretionary prism is off-scraped quartzose to feldspatho-litho-quartzose metasedimentaclastic turbidites, ultimately supplied from South America chiefly via the Orinoco fluvio-deltaic system. Modern sand on Barbados island is either quartzose with depleted heavy-mineral suites recycled from Cenozoic turbidites and including epidote, zircon, tourmaline, andalusite, garnet, staurolite and chloritoid, or calcareous and derived from Pleistocene coral reefs. The ubiquitous occurrence of clinopyroxene and hypersthene, associated with green-brown kaersutitic hornblende in the north or olivine in the south, points to reworking of ash-fall tephra erupted from andesitic (St. Lucia) and basaltic (St. Vincent) volcanic centers in the Lesser Antilles arc transported by the prevailing anti-trade winds in the upper troposphere. Modern sediments on Barbados island and those shed by other accretionary prisms such as the Indo- Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge (Garzanti et al., 2013) define the distinctive mineralogical signature of Subduction Complex Provenance, which is invariably composite. Detritus recycled dominantly from accreted turbidites and oceanic mudrocks is mixed in various proportions with detritus from the adjacent volcanic arc or carbonate reefs widely developed at tropical latitudes. Ophiolitic detritus may be locally prominent. Quantitative provenance

  14. Multiscaling properties of tropical rainfall: Analysis of rain gauge datasets in Lesser Antilles island environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Didier C.; Pasquier, Raphaël; Cécé, Raphaël; Dorville, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Changes in rainfall seem to be the main impact of climate change in the Caribbean area. The last conclusions of IPCC (2013), indicate that the end of this century will be marked by a rise of extreme rainfalls in tropical areas, linked with increase of the mean surface temperature. Moreover, most of the Lesser Antilles islands are characterized by a complex topography which tends to enhance the rainfall from synoptic disturbances by orographic effects. In the past five years, out of hurricanes passage, several extreme rainy events (approx. 16 mm in 6 minutes), including fatal cases, occurred in the Lesser Antilles Arc: in Guadeloupe (January 2011, May 2012 and 2013), in Martinique (May 2009, April 2011 and 2013), in Saint-Lucia (December 2013). These phenomena inducing floods, loss of life and material damages (agriculture sector and public infrastructures), inhibit the development of the islands. At this time, numerical weather prediction models as WRF, which are based on the equations of the atmospheric physics, do not show great results in the focused area (Bernard et al., 2013). Statistical methods may be used to examine explicitly local rainy updrafts, thermally and orographically induced at micro-scale. The main goal of the present insular tropical study is to characterize the multifractal symmetries occurring in the 6-min rainfall time series, registered since 2006 by the French Met. Office network weather stations. The universal multifractal model (Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991) is used to define the statistical properties of measured rainfalls at meso-scale and micro-scale. This model is parametrized by a fundamental exponents set (H,a,C1,q) which are determined and compared with values found in the literature. The first three parameters characterize the mean pattern and the last parameter q, the extreme pattern. The occurrence ranges of multifractal regime are examined. The suggested links between the internal variability of the tropical rainy events and the

  15. New Perspective of Tsunami Deposit Investigations: Insight from the 1755 Lisbon Tsunami in Martinique, Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, J.; Clouard, V.; Moizan, E.

    2014-12-01

    The recent devastating tsunamis having occurred during the last decades have highlighted the essential necessity to deploy operationnal warning systems and educate coastal populations. This could not be prepared correctly without a minimum knowledge about the tsunami history. That is the case of the Lesser Antilles islands, where a few handfuls of tsunamis have been reported over the past 5 centuries, some of them leading to notable destructions and inundations. But the lack of accurate details for most of the historical tsunamis and the limited period during which we could find written information represents an important problem for tsunami hazard assessment in this region. Thus, it is of major necessity to try to find other evidences of past tsunamis by looking for sedimentary deposits. Unfortunately, island tropical environments do not seem to be the best places to keep such deposits burried. In fact, heavy rainfalls, storms, and all other phenomena leading to coastal erosion, and associated to human activities such as intensive sugarcane cultivation in coastal flat lands, could caused the loss of potential tsunami deposits. Lots of places have been accurately investigated within the Lesser Antilles (from Sainte-Lucia to the British Virgin Islands) the last 3 years and nothing convincing has been found. That is when archeaological investigations excavated a 8-cm thick sandy and shelly layer in downtown Fort-de-France (Martinique), wedged between two well-identified layers of human origin (Fig. 1), that we found new hope: this sandy layer has been quickly attributed without any doubt to the 1755 tsunami, using on one hand the information provided by historical reports of the construction sites, and on the other hand by numerical modeling of the tsunami (wave heights, velocity fields, etc.) showing the ability of this transoceanic tsunami to wrap around the island after ~7 hours of propagation, enter Fort-de-France's Bay with enough energy to carry sediments, and

  16. Numerical Tsunami Hazard Assessment of the Only Active Lesser Antilles Arc Submarine Volcano: Kick 'em Jenny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Robertson, R. E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc has potentially been hit by prehistorical regional tsunamis generated by voluminous volcanic landslides (volume > 1 km3) among the 53 events recognized so far. No field evidence of these tsunamis are found in the vincity of the sources. Such a scenario taking place nowadays would trigger hazardous tsunami waves bearing potentially catastrophic consequences for the closest islands and regional offshore oil platforms.Here we applied a complete hazard assessment method on the only active submarine volcano of the arc Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ). KeJ is the southernmost edifice with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. From the three identified landslide episodes one is associated with a collapse volume ca. 4.4 km3. Numerical simulations considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami. An edifice current volume estimate is ca. 1.5 km3.Previous study exists in relationship to assessment of regional tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (run-up) in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. However this assessment was based on inferred volume of collapse material. We aim to firstly quantify potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA); secondly to assess first order run-ups and maximum inland inundation distance for Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, i.e. two important economic centers of the Lesser Antilles. In this framework we present for seven geomechanical models tested in the RSIA step maps of critical failure surface associated with factor of stability (Fs) for twelve sectors of 30° each; then we introduce maps of expected potential run-ups (run-up × the probability of failure at a sector) at the shoreline.The RSIA evaluates critical potential failure surface associated with Fs <1 as compared to areas of deficit/surplus of mass/volume identified on the volcanic edifice using (VolcanoFit 2

  17. Effect of Multiple Reflow Cycles and Al2O3 Nanoparticles Reinforcement on Performance of SAC305 Lead-Free Solder Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikale, Sanjay; Prabhu, K. Narayan

    2018-05-01

    The effect of Al2O3 nanoparticles reinforcement on melting behavior, microstructure evolution at the interface and joint shear strength of 96.5Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) lead-free solder alloy subjected to multiple reflow cycles was investigated. The reinforced SAC305 solder alloy compositions were prepared by adding Al2O3 nanoparticles in different weight fractions (0.05, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 wt.%) through mechanical dispersion. Cu/solder/Cu micro-lap-shear solder joint specimens were used to assess the shear strength of the solder joint. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the melting behavior of SAC305 solder nanocomposites. The solder joint interfacial microstructure was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the increase in melting temperature (T L) and melting temperature range of the SAC305 solder alloy by addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles were not significant. In comparison with unreinforced SAC305 solder alloy, the reinforcement of 0.05-0.5 wt.% of Al2O3 nanoparticles improved the solder wettability. The addition of nanoparticles in minor quantity effectively suppressed the Cu6Sn5 IMC growth, improved the solder joint shear strength and ductility under multiple reflow cycles. However, the improvement in solder properties was less pronounced on increasing the nanoparticle content above 0.1 wt.% of the solder alloy.

  18. Hallux Valgus and Lesser Toe Deformities are Highly Heritable in Adult Men and Women: the Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Marian T.; Menz, Hylton B.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cheng, Chia-Ho; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate heritability of three common disorders affecting the forefoot: hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar forefoot soft tissue atrophy in adult Caucasian men and women. Methods Between 2002-2008, a trained examiner used a validated foot exam to document presence of hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar soft tissue atrophy in 2,446 adults from the Framingham Foot Study. Among these, 1,370 participants with available pedigree structure were included. Heritability (h2) was estimated using pedigree structures by Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) package. Results were adjusted for age, sex and BMI. Results Mean age of participants was 66 years (range 39 to 99 years) and 57% were female. Prevalence of hallux valgus, lesser toe deformities and plantar soft tissue atrophy was 31%, 29.6% and 28.4%, respectively. Significant h2 was found for hallux valgus (0.29 ~ 0.89, depending on age and sex) and lesser toe deformity (0.49 ~ 0.90 depending on age and sex). The h2 for lesser toe deformity in men and women aged 70+ years was 0.65 (p= 9×10−7). Significant h2 was found for plantar soft tissue atrophy in men and women aged 70+ years (h2 = 0.37; p=3.8×10−3). Conclusion To our knowledge, these are the first findings of heritability of foot disorders in humans, and they confirm the widely-held view that hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities are highly heritable in European-descent Caucasian men and women, underscoring the importance of future work to identify genetic determinants of the underlying genetic susceptibility to these common foot disorders. PMID:23696165

  19. Distribution of the early larval stages of cod, plaice and lesser sandeel across haline fronts in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Wright, P.J.; Pihl, Niels Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    A number of commercially important fish species spawn in the coastal areas of the North Sea in the late winter, including cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus). The distribution of the early stages of these species overlap to some extent...... Influence (ROFI), predominantly in the Dogger Bank and German Bight areas. There was a high degree of overlap between the distributions of cod and plaice, while the maximal abundance of lesser sandeel was found inshore of the other species. Larval distributions were to a large extent confined by the frontal...

  20. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  1. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  2. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  3. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  4. Interfacial Reaction and IMC Growth of an Ultrasonically Soldered Cu/SAC305/Cu Structure during Isothermal Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to accelerate the growth of interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC layers in a soldering structure, Cu/SAC305/Cu was first ultrasonically spot soldered and then subjected to isothermal aging. Relatively short vibration times, i.e., 400 ms and 800 ms, were used for the ultrasonic soldering. The isothermal aging was conducted at 150 °C for 0, 120, 240, and 360 h. The evolution of microstructure, the IMC layer growth mechanism during aging, and the shear strength of the joints after aging were systemically investigated. Results showed the following. (i Formation of intermetallic compounds was accelerated by ultrasonic cavitation and streaming effects, the thickness of the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer increased with aging time, and a thin Cu3Sn layer was identified after aging for 360 h. (ii The growth of the interfacial IMC layer of the ultrasonically soldered Cu/SAC305/Cu joints followed a linear function of the square root of the aging time, revealing a diffusion-controlled mechanism. (iii The tensile shear strength of the joint decreased to a small extent with increasing aging time, owing to the combined effects of IMC grain coarsening and the increase of the interfacial IMC. (iv Finally, although the fracture surfaces and failure locations of the joint soldered with 400 ms and 800 ms vibration times show similar characteristics, they are influenced by the aging time.

  5. Endolymphatic Sac Enlargement in a Girl with a Novel Mutation for Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Severe Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rink Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA is caused by mutations of genes encoding subunits of the H+-ATPase (ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1 expressed in α-intercalated cells of the distal renal tubule and in the cochlea. We report on a 2-year-old girl with distal RTA and profound speech delay which was initially misdiagnosed as autism. Genetic analysis showed compound heterozygous mutations with one known and one novel mutation of the ATP6V1B1 gene; cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed bilateral enlargement of the endolymphatic sacs of the inner ear. With improved cooperation, audiometric testing showed that hearing loss was most profound on the right, where endolymphatic sac enlargement was greatest, demonstrating a clear link between the degree of deafness and the degree of inner ear abnormality. This case indicates the value of MRI for diagnosis of inner ear involvement in very young children with distal RTA. Although citrate therapy quickly corrects the acidosis and restores growth, early diagnosis of deafness is crucial so that hearing aids can be used to assist acquisition of speech and to provide enough auditory nerve stimulation to assure the affected infants remain candidates for cochlear implantation.

  6. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

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    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  7. Improved BER based on intensity noise alleviation using developed detection technique for incoherent SAC-OCDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khafaji, Hamza M. R.; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal A.

    2012-06-01

    The major drawback of incoherent spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) systems is their inherent intensity noise originating due to the incoherency of the broadband light sources. In this paper, we propose a developed detection technique named the modified-AND subtraction detection for incoherent SAC-OCDMA systems. This detection technique is based upon decreasing the received signal strength during the decoding process by dividing the spectrum of the utilized code sequence. The proposed technique is capable of mitigating the intensity noise effect, as well as suppressing the multiple-access interference impact. Based on modified quadratic congruence (MQC) code, the analytical results reveal that the modified-AND detection offer best bit-error rate (BER) performance and enables MQC code to support higher transmission rate up to 1.25 Gb/s compared to conventional AND detection. Furthermore, we ascertained that the proposed technique enhances the system performance using a simulation experiment.

  8. Myometrial Cystic Formation after Local Methotrexate Application into Cornual Gestational Sac: A Case Report of an Unexpected Complication

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    Zehra Sema Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornual pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy, and diverse therapeutic options exist for the management. Medical treatment despite high initial beta HCG values is not thought to be safe. We reported a 39-year-old woman with an initial beta HCG value of 22000 mIU/mL and diagnosed of a cornual pregnancy. Patient was managed successfully with the administration of combined systemic and ultrasonographically guided local injection of methotrexate into the gestational sac. During followup with serial beta hcg measurements, 27×20 mm cystic area in myometrium has been detected. Beta hcg <1 mIU/mL value was reached three months later, and this cystic area resolved spontaneously. Systemic methotrexate administration combined with ultrasound-guided local methotrexate injection into the gestational sac might be considered as the first-line treatment in the management of hemodynamically stable patients having cornual pregnancy even with high beta HCG values and risk of myometrial cystic formation.

  9. Even an old technique is suitable in the molecular world of science: the everted sac preparation turns 60 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kirk L

    2014-04-15

    An old proverb states "necessity is the mother of invention." This certainly holds true in science as one pursues research questions. Experimental techniques have evolved as scientists have asked more specific research questions. Indeed, techniques such as the Ussing chamber, the perfused renal tubule preparation, patch-clamp, polymerase chain reaction, and site-directed mutagenesis have been developed over the past 60 years. However, sometimes, simple techniques may be useful and still very informative, and this certainly applies to intestinal physiology. Indeed, Gerald Wiseman and Thomas Hastings Wilson described the intestinal everted sac preparation some 60 years ago. Since then, this technique has been used for numerous research purposes including determining ion, amino acid, water and solute transport across the intestinal epithelium; and drug metabolism, absorption, and interactions in pharmaceutical/pharmacological research and even in education. This article provides a historical review of the development of the in vitro intestinal preparation that led to the everted sac preparation and its use in science.

  10. Forced copulation results in few extrapair fertilizations in Ross's and lesser snow geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, P.O.; Afton, A.D.; Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Extrapair paternity varies from 0 to over 70% of young among various populations of birds. Comparative studies have suggested that this variation is related to nesting density, breeding synchrony and the proportion of extrapair copulations. We used minisatellite DNA fingerprinting to examine levels of extrapair paternity in Ross's geese, Chen rossi, and lesser snow geese, C. caerulescens c. (hereafter snow geese) nesting in the largest known goose colony in the world. These geese have one of the highest known percentages of extrapair copulation (46-56% of all attempted copulations), and all of these appeared to be forced. Among all successful copulations, 33 and 38% were extrapair in Ross's and snow geese, respectively. Despite the high percentage of extrapair copulations, extrapair paternity was low in both Ross's and snow geese (2-5% of young). Extrapair paternity was not related to nest density in either species. However, in snow geese, extrapair paternity was more likely to occur in nests of females that nested asynchronously, either early or late in the season. This is one of a few reported examples of a negative relationship between extrapair paternity and breeding synchrony. Extrapair young also tended to come from eggs laid later in the clutch. Although forced extrapair copulations appear to be a relatively inefficient reproductive tactic for males, they may provide a reproductive advantage for some males.

  11. Seasonal and daily variation of radon at 10 m depth in borehole, Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M., E-mail: vchoubey@wihg.res.i [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India); Arora, B.R. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India); Barbosa, S.M. [University of Lisbon, IDL, Campo Grande, Edificio C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Kumar, Naresh; Kamra, Leena [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Mostly accepted and widely reported radon (Rn{sup 222}) measurements, a tool for earthquake precursor research, is a part of multi-parametric geophysical observation in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya for earthquake related studies. Radon is being recorded continuously at an interval of 15 min at 10 m depth in a 68 m deep borehole. Three years high resolution 15 min data at 10 m depth shows a complex trend and has a strong seasonal effect along with some diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day recurring trends. A well-defined seasonal pattern is prominent with a high emanation in summer and low values in winter accounting for about a 30% decrease in count values in winter when the atmospheric temperature is very low at this station located 1.90 km above mean sea level. Diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day trends in this time-series are mainly observed during April-May and October-November. This is the period of spring and autumn when there is a high contrast in day-night atmospheric temperature. Hence the high fluctuation in Rn concentration is mainly caused by the temperature contrast between the air-column inside the borehole and the atmosphere above the earth's surface.

  12. Microbial dynamics during production of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus) for human consumption at industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynants, E; Crauwels, S; Verreth, C; Gianotten, N; Lievens, B; Claes, J; Van Campenhout, L

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the microbial dynamics during an industrial production cyle of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus), sold for human consumption, were characterised. The microbial numbers as well as the microbial diversity were generally higher for the substrate, existing of remaining feed, faeces and exuviae, than for the larvae. Most of the species-level operational taxonomic units, identified using Illumina MiSeq sequencing, that were present in the feed were also detected in the larvae and vice versa. However, bacterial diversity decreased in the larvae during rearing. These results suggested that the feed is an important determinant of the insect bacterial community, but that some bacterial species show a competitive advantage inside the insect gut and become dominant. A blanching treatment of the larvae after harvest reduced most microbial counts, but the number of aerobic endospores remained at 4.0 log cfu/g. Whereas food pathogens Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus or coagulase-positive staphylococci were not detected in our study, fungal isolates corresponding to the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium were recovered. Therefore, it cannot be excluded that mycotoxins were present. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the microbial dynamics and food safety aspects during the production of edible insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Documentary-derived chronologies of rainfall variability in Antigua, Lesser Antilles, 1770–1890

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    A. J. Berland

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first extensive reconstruction of precipitation variability in the Lesser Antilles using historical documentary sources. Over 13 250 items of documentation pertaining to Antigua from the period 1769–1890 were consulted, including missionary, plantation and governmental papers as well as contemporary scholarly publications. Based on the predominant meteorological conditions observed throughout the island, each "rain-year" (December–November was assigned one of five classifications (very wet, wet, "normal", dry and very dry. Local weather references relating to seven plantations in central-eastern Antigua were grouped according to dry (December–April and wet seasons (May–November, each of which were also categorised in the aforementioned manner. Results comprise individual island-wide and central-eastern Antiguan chronologies of relative precipitation levels, spanning the rain-years 1769–70 to 1889–90 and 1769–70 to 1853–54 respectively. The former is compared with available instrumental data for the years 1870–1890. Significant dry phases are identified in the rain-years 1775–80, 1788–91, 1820–22, 1834–37, 1844–45, 1859–60, 1862–64, 1870–74 and 1881–82, while wet episodes were 1771–74, 1833–34, 1837–38, 1841–44, 1845–46 and 1878–81. Evidence for major wet and dry spells is presented and findings are evaluated within wider historical and palaeoclimatic contexts.

  14. Genetic Diversity in the Lesser Antilles and Its Implications for the Settlement of the Caribbean Basin.

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    Jada Benn Torres

    Full Text Available Historical discourses about the Caribbean often chronicle West African and European influence to the general neglect of indigenous people's contributions to the contemporary region. Consequently, demographic histories of Caribbean people prior to and after European contact are not well understood. Although archeological evidence suggests that the Lesser Antilles were populated in a series of northward and eastern migratory waves, many questions remain regarding the relationship of the Caribbean migrants to other indigenous people of South and Central America and changes to the demography of indigenous communities post-European contact. To explore these issues, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome diversity in 12 unrelated individuals from the First Peoples Community in Arima, Trinidad, and 43 unrelated Garifuna individuals residing in St. Vincent. In this community-sanctioned research, we detected maternal indigenous ancestry in 42% of the participants, with the remainder having haplotypes indicative of African and South Asian maternal ancestry. Analysis of Y-chromosome variation revealed paternal indigenous American ancestry indicated by the presence of haplogroup Q-M3 in 28% of the male participants from both communities, with the remainder possessing either African or European haplogroups. This finding is the first report of indigenous American paternal ancestry among indigenous populations in this region of the Caribbean. Overall, this study illustrates the role of the region's first peoples in shaping the genetic diversity seen in contemporary Caribbean populations.

  15. Characteristics of Sediment Transportation in Two Contrasting Oak Forested Watersheds in the Lesser Central Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, N. U. Q.; Bruijnzeel, S., Sr.; Rai, S. P., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment transfer from mountainous areas to lowland areas is one of the most important geomorphological processes globally with the bulk of the sediment yield from such areas typically deriving from mass wastage processes. This study presents monthly, seasonal and annual variations in sediment transport (both suspended load and bedload) as well as dissolved loads over three consecutive water years (2008-2011) for two small forested watersheds with contrasting levels of forest disturbance in the Lesser Himalaya of Northwest India. Seasonal and annual suspended sediment yields were strongly influenced by amounts of rainfall and streamflow and showed a 10-63 fold range between wet and dry years. Of the annual load, some 93% was produced on average during the monsoon season (June-September). Sediment production by the disturbed forest catchment was 1.9-fold (suspended sediment) to 5.9-fold (bedload) higher than that for the well-stocked forest catchment. By contrast, dissolved loads varied much less between years, seasons (although minimal during the dry summer season), and degree of forest disturbance. Total mechanical denudation rates were 1.6 times and 4.6 times larger than chemical denudation rates for the little disturbed and the heavily disturbed forest catchment, respectively whereas overall denudation rates were estimated at 0.69 and 1.04 mm per 1000 years, respectively.

  16. Microscopic aspects of electrosensory system on the partially euryhaline lesser guitarfish

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    BIANCA S. RANGEL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The electrosensory system on elasmobranchs consists of subcutaneous electroreceptor organs known as ampullae of Lorenzini. The present study investigated the ampullae of Lorenzini morphology of the lesser guitarfish Zapteryx brevirostris, using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The pore number found in the ventral skin surface is much higher than that found in the dorsal portion, characteristic of species that inhabit the euphotic zone. Under light microscopy it was possible to observe that the wall canal consists of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells. The canal features distal expansion, where the ampullae are located with up to six alveoli. The sensory epithelium of ampullae is composed by cubic cells, with oval nucleus, restricted to the interior of the alveoli. With analysis the clusters under scanning electron microscopy, it was possible to observe the structure and the random arrangement of individual ampullae, canals and nerves. The distribution of dorsal and ventral pores and ampullae in Z. brevirostris resembled those of the same family. The number of alveoli per ampullae was similar to that found in euryhaline elasmobranchs species, suggesting that the morphological organization in Z. brevirostris is linked to its possible evolutionary transitory position among batoids.

  17. The lesser evil? Initiating a benzodiazepine prescription in general practice: a qualitative study on GPs' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthierens, Sibyl; Habraken, Hilde; Petrovic, Mirko; Christiaens, Thierry

    2007-12-01

    Chronic benzodiazepine (BZD) use is widespread and linked with adverse effects. There is consensus concerning the importance of initiating BZD as a crucial moment. Nevertheless specific research in this field is lacking. This paper addresses the views of GPs on why they start prescribing BZDs to first-time users. Qualitative study with five focus groups analysed using a systematic content analysis. Regions of Ghent and Brussels in Belgium. A total of 35 general practitioners. The GPs' perspective on their initiating of BZD prescribing. GPs reported that they are cautious in initiating BZD usage. At the same time, GPs feel overwhelmed by the psychosocial problems of their patients. They show empathy by prescribing. They feel in certain situations there are no other solutions and they experience BZDs as the lesser evil. They admit to resorting to BZDs because of time restraint and lack of alternatives. GPs do not perceive the addictive nature of BZD consumption as a problem with first-time users. GPs do not specifically mention patients' demand as an element for starting. The main concern of GPs is to help the patient. GPs should be aware of the addictive nature of BZD even in low doses and a non-pharmacological approach should be seen as the best first approach. If GPs decide to prescribe a BZD they should make plain to the patient that the medication is only a "temporary" solution with clear agreements with regard to medication withdrawal.

  18. Wetland use and feeding by lesser scaup during spring migration across the upper Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Low food availability and forage quality and concomitant decreased lipid reserves of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; hereafter scaup) during spring migration in the upper Midwest may partially explain reductions in the continental population of scaup. In springs 20042005, we examined wetland use and feeding activity of scaup on 356 randomly-selected wetlands within 6 regions in Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota. We examined wetland characteristics that favor high scaup use in 286 of these wetlands. We found that probabilities of wetland use and feeding by scaup increased with turbidity up to 45 and 30 NTU, respectively, but then declined at higher turbidity levels. Wetland use was positively correlated with size of open-water zone and amphipod densities, but was not correlated with chironomid densities. Feeding increased with amphipod density up to 26 m-3 and then declined at higher amphipod densities; scaup seemingly forage most efficiently at amphipod densities above 26 m -3. Wetland use was higher in North Dakota than in southern Minnesota and Iowa. Our results indicate that effective wetland restoration efforts to benefit scaup require maintaining abundant populations of amphipods (generally near 26 m-3 landscape geometric mean) in wetlands with large (> 500 m diameter) open-water zones throughout the upper Midwest, but especially within Iowa and southern Minnesota.

  19. Hydrologically complemented deterministic slope stability analysis in part of Indian Lesser Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mathew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a deterministic approach to evaluate the factor of safety (FS of the terrain for different hydrological conditions, in part of Indian Lesser Himalaya. The results indicate sudden increase in the percentage unstable area from 7.5% to 13.8% for rainfall intensity variation from 50 to 100 mm/day. For the rainfall intensity of 15 August 2007 which caused many landslides in the study area, 18.5% of the total area was unstable and it increases to 21.7%, 23.5% and 24.7%, respectively, for rainfall intensities corresponding to 10, 25 and 50 year return periods. This increment stagnates at about 260 mm/day, making about 25% of the area unstable. Higher rainfall intensities make progressively gentler slopes unstable, but limited to 25 degrees of slope in this area. The area underlain by granitic gneiss showed 23.1% of area as unstable for 135 mm/day of rainfall intensity, and was followed by those areas underlain by amphibolite (16%, limestone (13.7% and quartzite (10.4%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis has given 84.2% accuracy for the model. Conversion of FS to failure probability through Z scores enables identification unstable or marginally unstable areas, for planning selective slope stabilization measures.

  20. Probabilistic hurricane-induced storm surge hazard assessment in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krien, Y.; Dudon, B.; Roger, J.; Zahibo, N.

    2015-08-01

    Current storm surge hazard maps in the French West Indies are essentially based on simple statistical methods using limited historical data and early low-resolution models which do not take the effect of waves into account. In this paper, we infer new 100-year and 1000-year surge levels in Guadeloupe from the numerical modelling of storm surges induced by a large set of synthetic events that are in statistical agreement with features of historical hurricanes in the North Atlantic Basin between 1980 and 2011. Computations are performed using the wave-current coupled model ADCIRC-SWAN with high grid resolutions (up to 40-60 m) in the coastal and wave dissipation areas. This model is validated against observations during past events such as hurricane HUGO (1989). Results are generally found to be in reasonable agreement with past studies in areas where surge is essentially wind-driven, but found to differ significantly in coastal regions where the transfer of momentum from waves to the water column constitutes a non-negligible part of the total surge. The methodology, which can be applied to other islands in the Lesser Antilles, allows storm surge level maps to be obtained that can be of major interest for coastal planners and decision makers in terms of risk management.

  1. Theory of mind in children with 'lesser variants' of autism: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, M; Loth, F L; van Geert, P L C; Hurkens, E; Minderaa, R B

    2002-10-01

    The study investigated the development of theory-of-mind (ToM) knowledge in children with lesser variants' of autism (PDD-NOS) over a period thought to be critical for ToM development (i.e., 3 to 5 years of age). The sample included 11 children with PDD-NOS; 23 normally developing children were included for cross-sectional comparison and 13 normally developing children for longitudinal comparison. The groups were comparable in verbal and non-verbal mental age. Two storybooks were used for repeated assessment of various aspects of the children's theory of mind: emotion recognition, the distinction between physical and mental entities, prediction of behaviour and emotions on the basis of desires and prediction of behaviour and emotions on the basis of beliefs. The results showed that the children with PDD-NOS had specific difficulties in understanding and predicting other people's emotions on the basis of situational cues, desires and beliefs. However, their ability to predict actions from beliefs and desires were relatively intact. Compared to the normally developing children, these children achieved lower levels of theory-of-mind knowledge, both at time of initial assessment and approximately 6 months later. The data suggest that the theory-of-mind development of children with PDD-NOS is both delayed and deviant. The growth pattem of theory-of-mind skills in children with PDD-NOS seemed to be qualitatively different from the growth pattern found in the group of normally developing children.

  2. Intercontinental gene flow among western arctic populations of Lesser Snow Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Rainy I.; Scribner, Kim T.; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Samuel, Michael D.; Libants, Scot V.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial genetic structure of highly vagile species of birds is important in predicting their degree of population demographic and genetic independence during changing environmental conditions, and in assessing their abundance and distribution. In the western Arctic, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) provide an example useful for evaluating spatial population genetic structure and the relative contribution of male and female philopatry to breeding and wintering locales. We analyzed biparentally inherited microsatellite loci and maternally inherited mtDNA sequences from geese breeding at Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) to estimate gene flow among populations whose geographic overlap during breeding and winter differ. Significant differences in the frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes contrast with the homogeneity of allele frequencies for microsatellite loci. Coalescence simulations revealed high variability and asymmetry between males and females in rates and direction of gene flow between populations. Our results highlight the importance of wintering areas to demographic independence and spatial genetic structure of these populations. Male-mediated gene flow among the populations on northern Wrangel Island, southern Wrangel Island, and Banks Island has been substantial. A high rate of female-mediated gene flow from southern Wrangel Island to Banks Island suggests that population exchange can be achieved when populations winter in a common area. Conversely, when birds from different breeding populations do not share a common wintering area, the probability of population exchange is likely to be dramatically reduced.

  3. Raptor community composition in the Texas Southern High Plains lesser prairie-chicken range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, A.C.; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, Heather A.; Lucia, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Predation can be a factor in preventing prey population growth and sustainability when prey populations are small and fragmented, and when predator density is unrelated to the density of the single prey species. We conducted monthly raptor surveys from February 2007 to May 2009 in adjacent areas of the Texas Southern High Plains (USA) that do and do not support lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act. During the summer period corresponding to prairie-chicken nesting and brood-rearing, Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) were the most abundant raptor. During the lekking and overwintering period, the raptor community was diverse, with northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) being the most abundant species. Raptor abundance peaked during the early autumn and was lowest during the spring. Utility poles were a significant predictor of raptor density at survey points and Swainson's hawks and all raptors, pooled, were found in greater densities in non-prairie-chicken habitat dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). Avian predation risk on prairie-chickens, based on presence and abundance of raptors, appears to be greatest during winter when there is a more abundant and diverse raptor community, and in areas with utility poles.

  4. Isotopic composition of strontium in three basalt-andesite centers along the Lesser Antilles arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, C.E.; Lewis, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Si87/Sr86 ratios have been determined for lavas and py lastic rocks from three basalt-andesite centers along the Lesser Antilles arc-Mt. Misery on the island of St. Kitts, Soufriere on the island of St. Vincent, and Carriacou, an island of The Grenadines. The average Si87/Sr86 content of these rocks is 0.7038 for Mt. Misery, 0.7041 for Soufriere, and 0.7053 for Carriacou. All the Sr87/Sr86 values from each center are the same within analytical uncertainty (??0.0002). The constancy of strontium isotopic data within each center supports the hypothesis that basalts and andesites for each specific center investigated are generated from the same source - in agreement with petrographic and major- and minor-element data. Strontium isotopic compositions and elemental concentrations, particularly of strontium and nickel, indicate that this source was mantle peridotite and that the relationship between the respective basalts and andesites is probably fractional crystallization. ?? 1971 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Forage digestibility and intake by lesser snow geese: effects of dominance and resource heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; White, Robert G.; Sedinger, James S.; Robertson, Donna G.

    1996-01-01

    We measured forage intake, digestibility, and retention time for 11 free-ranging, human-imprinted lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) as they consumed underground stembases of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium) on an arctic staging area in northeastern Alaska. Geese fed in small patches (x̄=21.5 m2) of forage that made up ≤3% of the study area and consisted of high-quality “aquatic graminoid” and intermediate-quality “wet sedge” vegetation types. Dominant geese spent more time feeding in aquatic graminoid areas (r=0.61), but less total time feeding and more time resting than subdominant geese. Subdominant geese were displaced to areas of wet sedge where cotton-grass was a smaller proportion of underground biomass. Geese metabolized an average of 48% of the organic matter in stembases and there was a positive correlation between dominance and organic matter metabolizability (r=0.61). Total mean retention time of forage was 1.37 h and dry matter intake was 14.3 g/h. Snow geese that stage on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea likely use an extensive area because they consume a large mass of forage and exploit habitats that are patchily distributed and make up a small percentage of the landscape. Individual variation in nutrient absorption may result from agonistic interactions in an environment where resources are heterogeneously distributed.

  6. Ultra-differentiation of Sperm Tail of Lesser Egyptian Jerboa, Jaculus jaculus (Family: Dipodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Sarhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, events of sperm tail differentiation in Lesser Egyptian Jerboa, Jaculus jaculus were studied for the first time. Generally, stages of sperm tail differentiation are more or less similar to that described by other studies in other rodents. In the present species, special structures were observed. These structures include, first: the formation of a hollow large unit of microtubules that appears to surround the nuclear envelope at its equatorial plane. The manchette microtubules (MMs are re-oriented toward the longitudinal direction and attached along hollow large unit of microtubules. Second, the formation of perinuclear space filled with an electron-translucent substance surrounds the posterior third of the developing nucleus. Third, the nuclear fossa and the connecting piece were inserted in the ventrodorsal region of the nucleus. Fourth, the fibrous sheath (FS is formed of dextral spiral fibrous ribs. Finally, the sperm tail of the present species has a single outer FS, however, other rodents, having additional inner fibrous units, between the outer FS and the inner developing axoneme.

  7. Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA in the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) guano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, E; Goydadin, A-C

    2018-05-30

    Although bats are increasingly recognised as potential reservoir hosts of human zoonotic pathogens, bacteria in bats are still poorly studied. To investigate the DNA faecal prevalence of the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, we sampled 23 lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) maternity colonies located in buildings (churches, barns) in rural villages of eastern France. A total of 552 faecal samples were collected from 278 individuals. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected in the faeces of 63 individuals (22.7%). Such high prevalence might suggest persistent infection in bats and/or a frequent consumption of insect preys carrying bacteria. Faecal DNA prevalence varied highly among colonies but was not related to the colony size. Faecal DNA prevalence was the highest in the Jura Department, where the density of ticks is known to be the highest across the study area. Because the sampled bats live in close proximity to humans, we discuss how concerning the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA in bat guano is for humans frequenting places of worship that shelter bats. We also advocate future research to understand what a high faecal DNA prevalence in bat guano really implicates in terms of bacteria transmission.

  8. Endogenous contributions to egg protein formation in lesser scaup Aythya affinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Hobson, Keith A.; Rotella, Jay J.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Wainwright-de la Cruz, Susan E.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2011-01-01

    Lesser scaup Aythya affinis populations have declined throughout the North American continent for the last three decades. It has been hypothesized that the loss and degradation of staging habitats has resulted in reduced female body condition on the breeding grounds and a concomitant decline in productivity. We explored the importance of body (endogenous) reserves obtained prior to arrival on the breeding ground in egg protein formation in southwestern Montana during 2006–2008 using stable-carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analyses of scaup egg components, female tissue, and local prey items. From arrival on the breeding grounds through the egg-laying period, δ15N values of scaup red blood cells decreased while δ13C values became less variable; a pattern consistent with endogenous tissues equilibrating with local (freshwater) dietary sources. In 2006 and 2008, isotopic values for egg albumen and yolk protein indicated that most (>90%) protein used to produce these components was obtained on the breeding grounds. However, in 2007, a year with an exceptionally warm and dry spring, endogenous reserves contributed on average 41% of yolk and 29% of albumen. Results from this study suggest that female scaup can meet the protein needs of egg production largely from local dietary food sources. This highlights the importance of providing high-quality breeding habitats for scaup. Whether this pattern holds in areas with similar breeding season lengths but longer migration routes, such as those found in the western boreal forest, should be investigated.

  9. Abundance and density of lesser prairie-chickens and leks in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Jennifer M.; Butler, M.J.; Ballard, Warren; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, Heather A.

    2013-01-01

    Lesser prairie-chickens (LEPCs; Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have experienced population declines due to both direct and indirect habitat loss, including conversion of native rangeland to cropland and disturbance from energy development. Our objectives were to 1) determine the current density of LEPC leks and LEPCs within the Texas (USA) occupied range, including areas with high potential for wind-energy development; and 2) find new leks. To estimate lek and LEPC density, we employed a line-transect-based aerial survey method using a Robinson 22 helicopter to count leks. We surveyed 26,810.9 km of transect in the spring of 2010 and 2011 and we detected 96 leks. We estimated a density of 2.0 leks/100 km(2) (90% CI = 1.4-2.7 leks/100 km(2)) and 12.3 LEPCs/100 km(2) (90% CI = 8.5-17.9 LEPCs/100 km(2)) and an abundance of 293.6 leks (90% CI = 213.9-403.0 leks) and 1,822.4 LEPCs (90% CI = 1,253.7-2,649.1 LEPCs) for our sampling frame. Our best model indicated that lek size and lek type (AIC(c) wt = 0.235) influenced lek detectability. Lek detectability was greater for larger leks and natural leks versus man-made leks. Our statewide survey efforts provide wildlife managers and biologists with population estimates, new lek locations, and areas to target for monitoring and conservation.

  10. Electrophysiology and Innervation of the Photosensitive Epistellar Body in the Lesser Octopus Eledone cirrhosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, C S; Williamson, R

    1998-08-01

    The innervation and responses to light of the cephalopod epistellar body were investigated in preparations isolated from the stellate ganglia of the lesser or northern octopus, Eledone cirrhosa. Extracellular generator potentials in response to flashes of light were recorded from these photosensitive vesicles, with the amplitude of the response being found to be dependent upon the intensity of the flash and the level of ambient illumination. Intracellular recordings from photoreceptor cells of the epistellar body showed that they had resting potentials of about -49 +/- 7 mV (mean +/- SD, n = 43) and were depolarized by flashes of white, but not red (>650 nm) light. The evoked depolarization consisted of a transient component, followed by a steady plateau in which the amplitude of the depolarization was well correlated with the log of the stimulus intensity. The evoked depolarizations induced action potentials in the photoreceptor cells, with the frequency of firing being well correlated with the stimulus intensity. The morphologies of individual photoreceptor cells were visualized by intracellular injections of the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow, and the path of the epistellar nerve across the stellate ganglion, into the pallial nerve, toward the brain was traced using the lipophilic dye Di-I. This pathway was confirmed physiologically by recording light-evoked responses from the cut end of the pallial nerve.

  11. The knowledge of the inhabitants of Lesser Poland about the profession of an occupational therapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żmudzińska Urszula Ż

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A contemporary model of occupational therapy differs from the previous model which was common in Poland in previous years. Therefore, the opinions of the society concerning the profession of an occupational therapist are constantly changing. Material and methods: The research included 244 inhabitants of Lesser Poland aged between 25 and 65 employed in various professions. A questionnaire regarding occupational therapy and the profession and competences of occupational therapists was applied in the study. Results: The presented results show that the job of an occupational therapist is perceived as a needed profession both by individuals who underwent such therapy and those who did not use such services. Responses regarding competences and activities in the profession of an occupational therapist revealed differences in the opinions of the study participants. Conclusions: Taking into account only competences and activities of an occupational therapist, associations of the study participants reflected the knowledge of the model of therapy that existed before and was mainly devoted to occupational therapy workshops. The respondents would trust an occupational therapist both in adapting the house to their needs and in performing exercises connected with activities of daily living.

  12. Female reproductive tract of the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla, myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra). Anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L F; Luaces, J P; Marcos, H J Aldana; Cetica, P D; Gachen, G; Jimeno, G Pérez; Merani, M S

    2011-11-01

    The morphological and histological features of the unusual reproductive tract of the female lesser anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla (Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra), are described for the first time. The present study aimed to establish the main similarities and differences between this species and other xenarthrans. The populations of this species are declining rapidly for a number of reasons and our study is relevant to diverse programs related to its conservation. Studies were carried out on five female genital tracts of adult specimens. Ovaries were ovoid, presenting a medulla completely surrounded by the cortex, differently from that described in other xenarthans. Like in Dasypus but different from all other armadillos studied, single oocyte follicles were observed and a simple the uterus. The uterovaginal canal connects the uterus with the urogenital sinus. The simple columnar epithelium of the uterovaginal canal ends abruptly at a septum which resembles a hymen, where the transitional epithelium of the urogenital sinus appears. This ancestral feature is shared with that of other armadillos, except Tolypeutes matacus, which has a true vagina. Characteristics of the reproductive tract and sperm morphology of other Xenarthra are comparatively discussed. These observations suggest that important reproductive features are shared between the family Myrmecophagidae and the genus Dasypus, a basal group in the phylogeny of Xenarthra. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  14. Testis tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Maier, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical trials are evaluating new combinations of drugs with the goal of diminishing the toxicity associated with the current regimens while not compromising the chance for cure. The evolution of information and staging studies such as tumor markers, CT scanning and MR scanning has made possible the detection of residual metastatic disease while obviating the need for surgical staging procedures. This has made less treatment possible for a large number of patients. The regularity of follow-up studies has made early detection of recurrences a possibility, so that effective and curative treatment is generally possible

  15. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  16. The influence of age on positions of the conus medullaris, Tuffier's line, dural sac, and sacrococcygeal membrane in infants, children, adolescents, and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji-Yun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Song, In-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the distances between the conus medullaris and the Tuffier's line, and between the dural sac and the sacrococcygeal membrane (SCM) in the same pediatric population. Spinal magnetic resonance images and simple X-ray images of 350 patients aged from 1 month to 20 years were reviewed. Positions of the conus medullaris, Tuffier's line, the dural sac, and the SCM were identified. Each position was recorded in relation to the corresponding vertebral body segments. The distances between the conus medullaris and Tuffier's line, and between the dural sac and the SCM, were measured and then assessed according to age using an analysis of variance and a linear regression analysis. The median levels of the conus medullaris and Tuffier's line were in the lower third of L1 [the first lumbar vertebral body] and the middle third of L5, respectively. The levels of the conus medullaris and Tuffier's line were lower in younger populations. The distance between the conus medullaris and Tuffier's line ranged from 1.5 to 4.75 vertebral body height. However, a narrow range of 1.5-2.5 vertebral height was observed only in children younger than 2 years. The level of the dural sac did not differ greatly by age, but the upper limit of the SCM was lower in older populations. The distance between the dural sac and the upper limit of the SCM increased with age. In children, there is a distance of 1.5-4.75 vertebral body height between the conus medullaris and the Tuffier's line. However, these distances were narrower among younger populations. The distance between the dural sac and the upper limit of the SCM increased with age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Contaminated Larval and Adult Lesser Mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)can Transmit Salmonella Typhimurium in a Broiler Flock

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), commonly known as the darkling beetle, to transmit a marker strain Salmonella Typhimurium to day-of-hatch broiler chicks was evaluated, as well as the spread to non-challenged pen mates. Day-of-hatch chicks were orally gavaged wit...

  18. Synergistic effects of chlorpyrifos with piperonyl butoxide (pbo against the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akter Mst Yeasmin

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The study suggests that the mortality rate of lesser meal worm is increase with the increase of insecticide dose. The LD50 values of the insecticides are inversely related to the toxicity of the insecticides i.e. higher the LD50 value lower the toxicity of the insecticide.

  19. The impact of warming and nutrients on algae production and microcystins in seston from the iconic lake lesser Prespa, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maliaka, Valentini; Faassen, Elisabeth J.; Smolders, Alfons J.P.; Lürling, Miquel

    2018-01-01

    Lake Lesser Prespa and its adjacent pond, Vromolimni in Greece, is a shallow freshwater system and a highly protected area hosting an exceptional biodiversity. The occurrence of microcystins (MCs) producing cyanobacterial blooms in these waters during recent years can be harmful to the wildlife. We

  20. Reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of Nepal : Effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and overland flow production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghimire, C.P.; Bonell, Mike; Bruijnzeel, L. Adrian; Coles, Neil A.; Lubczynski, M.

    2013-01-01

    [1] Severely degraded hillslopes in the Lesser Himalaya challenge local communities as a result of the frequent occurrence of overland flow and erosion during the rainy season and water shortages during the dry season. Reforestation is often perceived as an effective way of restoring predisturbance

  1. Reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of Central Nepal: effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and overland flow production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghimire, C.P.; Bonell, M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Coles, N.A.; Lubczynski, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Severely degraded hillslopes in the Lesser Himalaya challenge local communities as a result of the frequent occurrence of overland flow and erosion during the rainy season and water shortages during the dry season. Reforestation is often perceived as an effective way of restoring predisturbance

  2. A lesser frigatebird (Fregata ariel) in California: a first for the state and fourth for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain L Sullivan; Marshall J. Iliff; Peter L. Ralph; C. J. Ralph; Steven T. Kelling

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the occurrence and identification of California's first Lesser Frigatebird (Fregata ariel), a subadult female photographed on 15 July 2007 at Lanphere Dunes near Arcata, Humboldt Country. This record is the fourth of this species for North America and the first in the eastern Pacific Ocean of the Western Hemisphere.

  3. Two cases of fatal necrosis of the lesser pelvis in patients treated with combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia for cervical carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggenraad, R.; Koning, C.; Westermann, C.; Jansen, C.; van der Zee, J.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports two cases of fatal necrosis of the lesser pelvis in patients with advanced cervical carcinoma, who had received combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia. The necrosis reached far from the high dose area, in one of the cases even outside the radiation portals. Both patients initially

  4. Study on the changes of properties of Myanma lesser-used timber species following gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye Thwe Kywe Aye; Win Kyi; Tin Hlaing

    2001-01-01

    The proper changes of some physical properties and mechanical properties of Leza [Laderstroemra tomentofa (PREFL.)] one of Myanmar lesser-used timber species, following radiation processing with 1 Mrad gamma-radiation has been studied. It is found that some properties of Leza-timber species are significantly changed at 95 percent confidence level. (author)

  5. Environmental pollutants in endangered vs. increasing subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull on the Norwegian Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Helberg, Morten; Strann, Karl-Birger; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) residues were measured in eggs and blood of different subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus, on the Norwegian coast: a) increasing L. f. intermedius in the North Sea; b) endangered L. f. fuscus near the Arctic Circle; c) L. f. fuscus and greyish-mantled gulls, with a L. f. intermedius appearance, in the Barents Sea region. The dominating OCs in lesser black-backed gulls were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). DDE and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) residues were higher in L. f. fuscus compared to L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds in the Barents Sea region. In the latter area, blood residues of PCB and DDE in lesser black-backed gulls were as high as in great black-backed gulls, Larus marinus, while in the other regions they were lower. The higher DDE residues in endangered L. f. fuscus compared to increasing L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds, which are invading northern Norway, suggest that OCs may have played a role in the population decline of L. f. fuscus, possibly in combination with nutrient stress. - DDE and β-HCH residues were higher in an endangered compared to an increasing subspecies of lesser black-backed gulls in Norway

  6. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, E.W.M.; Desmet, P.; Aelterman, B.; Courtens, W.; Feys, S.; Vanermen, N.; Verstraete, H.; Van de Walle, M.; Deneudt, K.; Hernandez, F.; Houthoofdt, R.; Vanhoorne, B.; Bouten, W.; Buijs, R.-J.; Kavelaars, M.M.; Müller, W.; Herman, D.; Matheve, H.; Sotillo, A.; Lens, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5

  7. Endovascular treatment of type II endoleak following thoracic endovascular aortic repair for thoracic aortic aneurysm: Case report of squeeze technique to reach the aneurysmal sac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Chang Won; Lee, Tae Hong; Song, Seung Hwan; Lee, Chung Won; Chung, Sung Woon [Pusan National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Type II endoleaks are common after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Various strategies are introduced to manage type II endoleaks, such as the use of coils, plugs, or liquid embolic agents (histoacryl, thrombin, onyx, etc.) through a transarterial approach or a direct puncture of the aneurysmal sac. We herein report a case of a type II endoleak caused by reverse blood flow through intercostal artery after TEVAR which was successfully treated with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (histoacryl)-lipiodol mixture by a squeeze technique to reach the aneurismal sac using a microcatheter.

  8. Clima organizacional y satisfacción laboral de los trabajadores de la empresa E & C Contadores S.A.C., 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Espichán Palante, Luis

    2017-01-01

    En la investigación titulada “Clima organizacional y satisfacción laboral de los trabajadores de la empresa E. & C. Contadores S.A.C., 2016”, tuvo el propósito de determinar la relación entre clima organizacional y satisfacción laboral en trabajadores de una empresa de servicios contables. El tipo de investigación fue básica, el diseño no experimental, transversal y correlacional. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 80 trabajadores de la Empresa E. & C. Contadores S.A.C. La técn...

  9. Dispersal, mating events and fine-scale genetic structure in the lesser flat-headed bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panyu Hua

    Full Text Available Population genetic structure has important consequences in evolutionary processes and conservation genetics in animals. Fine-scale population genetic structure depends on the pattern of landscape, the permanent movement of individuals, and the dispersal of their genes during temporary mating events. The lesser flat-headed bat (Tylonycteris pachypus is a nonmigratory Asian bat species that roosts in small groups within the internodes of bamboo stems and the habitats are fragmented. Our previous parentage analyses revealed considerable extra-group mating in this species. To assess the spatial limits and sex-biased nature of gene flow in the same population, we used 20 microsatellite loci and mtDNA sequencing of the ND2 gene to quantify genetic structure among 54 groups of adult flat-headed bats, at nine localities in South China. AMOVA and F(ST estimates revealed significant genetic differentiation among localities. Alternatively, the pairwise F(ST values among roosting groups appeared to be related to the incidence of associated extra-group breeding, suggesting the impact of mating events on fine-scale genetic structure. Global spatial autocorrelation analyses showed positive genetic correlation for up to 3 km, indicating the role of fragmented habitat and the specialized social organization as a barrier in the movement of individuals among bamboo forests. The male-biased dispersal pattern resulted in weaker spatial genetic structure between localities among males than among females, and fine-scale analyses supported that relatedness levels within internodes were higher among females than among males. Finally, only females were more related to their same sex roost mates than to individuals from neighbouring roosts, suggestive of natal philopatry in females.

  10. The Lesser Antillean Iguana (Iguana delicatissima) on St. Eustatius: genetically depauperate and threatened by ongoing hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Burg, Matthijs P; Meirmans, Patrick G; Wagensveld, Tim van; Kluskens, Bart; Madden, Hannah; Welch, Mark E; Breeuwer, Johannes A J

    2018-02-19

    The Lesser Antillean Iguana (Iguana delicatissima) is an endangered species threatened by habitat loss and hybridization with non-native Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana). Iguanadelicatissima has been extirpated on several islands, and the Green Iguana has invaded most islands with extant populations. Information is essential to protect this species from extinction. We collected data on 293 iguanas including 17 juveniles from St. Eustasius, one of the few remaining I. delicatissima strongholds. Genetic data was leveraged to test for hybridization presence with the Green Iguana using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, including 16 microsatellite loci. The microsatellites were also analysed to estimate genetic diversity, population structure and effective population size. Using molecular and morphological data we identified 286 I. delicatissima individuals captured during our first fieldwork effort, and seven non-native iguanas captured during a second effort, showing hybridization occurs within this population. Comparing homologous microsatellites used in studies on Dominica and Chancel, the I. delicatissima population on St. Eustatius has extremely low genetic diversity (HO=0.051; HE=0.057), suggesting this population is genetically depauperate. Furthermore, there is significant evidence for inbreeding (FIS=0.12) and weak spatial genetic structure (FST=0.021, p=0.002) within this population. Besides immediate threats including hybridization, this population's low genetic diversity, presence of physiological abnormalities and low recruitment could indicate presence of inbreeding depression that threatens its long-term survival. We conclude there is a continued region-wide threat to I. delicatissima and highlight the need for immediate conservation action to stop the continuing spread of Green Iguanas and to eliminate hybridization from St. Eustatius.

  11. Combining multiple sources of data to inform conservation of Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James

    2018-01-01

    Conservation of small populations is often based on limited data from spatially and temporally restricted studies, resulting in management actions based on an incomplete assessment of the population drivers. If fluctuations in abundance are related to changes in weather, proper management is especially important, because extreme weather events could disproportionately affect population abundance. Conservation assessments, especially for vulnerable populations, are aided by a knowledge of how extreme events influence population status and trends. Although important for conservation efforts, data may be limited for small or vulnerable populations. Integrated population models maximize information from various sources of data to yield population estimates that fully incorporate uncertainty from multiple data sources while allowing for the explicit incorporation of environmental covariates of interest. Our goal was to assess the relative influence of population drivers for the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) in the core of its range, western and southern Kansas, USA. We used data from roadside lek count surveys, nest monitoring surveys, and survival data from telemetry monitoring combined with climate (Palmer drought severity index) data in an integrated population model. Our results indicate that variability in population growth rate was most influenced by variability in juvenile survival. The Palmer drought severity index had no measurable direct effects on adult survival or mean number of offspring per female; however, there were declines in population growth rate following severe drought. Because declines in population growth rate occurred at a broad spatial scale, declines in response to drought were likely due to decreases in chick and juvenile survival rather than emigration outside of the study area. Overall, our model highlights the importance of accounting for environmental and demographic sources of variability, and provides a thorough

  12. Combining Geological and Geophysical Data in Volcanic Hazard Estimation for Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, O.; Latchman, J. L.; Connor, C.; Malservisi, R.; Connor, L.

    2014-12-01

    Risk posed by volcanic eruptions are generally quantified in a few ways; in the short term geophysical data such as seismic activity or ground deformation are used to assess the state of volcanic unrest while statistical approaches such as spatial density estimates are used for long term hazard assessment. Spatial density estimates have been used in a number of monogenetic volcanic fields for hazard map generation and utilize the age, location and volumes of previous eruptions to calculate the probability of a new event occurring at a given location within this field. In a previously unpublished study, spatial density estimates of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc showed the island of Dominica to have the highest likelihood of future vent formation. In this current study, this technique was used in combination with relocated seismic events occurring beneath Dominica within the last ~ 20 years as well as InSAR images of ground deformation to generate a hazard map which not only takes into consideration the past events but also the current state of unrest. Here, geophysical data serve as a weighting factor in the estimates with those centers showing more vigorous activity receiving stronger favorability in the assessment for future activity. In addition to this weighting, the bandwidth utilized in the 2D-radially symmetric kernel density function was optimized using the SAMSE method so as to find the value which best minimizes the error in the estimate. The end results of this study are dynamic volcanic hazards maps which will be readily updatable as changes in volcanic unrest occurs within the system.

  13. Dispersal, mating events and fine-scale genetic structure in the lesser flat-headed bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Panyu; Zhang, Libiao; Guo, Tingting; Flanders, Jon; Zhang, Shuyi

    2013-01-01

    Population genetic structure has important consequences in evolutionary processes and conservation genetics in animals. Fine-scale population genetic structure depends on the pattern of landscape, the permanent movement of individuals, and the dispersal of their genes during temporary mating events. The lesser flat-headed bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) is a nonmigratory Asian bat species that roosts in small groups within the internodes of bamboo stems and the habitats are fragmented. Our previous parentage analyses revealed considerable extra-group mating in this species. To assess the spatial limits and sex-biased nature of gene flow in the same population, we used 20 microsatellite loci and mtDNA sequencing of the ND2 gene to quantify genetic structure among 54 groups of adult flat-headed bats, at nine localities in South China. AMOVA and F(ST) estimates revealed significant genetic differentiation among localities. Alternatively, the pairwise F(ST) values among roosting groups appeared to be related to the incidence of associated extra-group breeding, suggesting the impact of mating events on fine-scale genetic structure. Global spatial autocorrelation analyses showed positive genetic correlation for up to 3 km, indicating the role of fragmented habitat and the specialized social organization as a barrier in the movement of individuals among bamboo forests. The male-biased dispersal pattern resulted in weaker spatial genetic structure between localities among males than among females, and fine-scale analyses supported that relatedness levels within internodes were higher among females than among males. Finally, only females were more related to their same sex roost mates than to individuals from neighbouring roosts, suggestive of natal philopatry in females.

  14. VoiLA: A multidisciplinary study of Volatile recycling in the Lesser Antilles Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J.; Blundy, J. D.; Goes, S. D. B.; Henstock, T.; Harmon, N.; Kendall, J. M.; Macpherson, C.; Rietbrock, A.; Rychert, C.; Van Hunen, J.; Wilkinson, J.; Wilson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Project VoiLA will address the role of volatiles in controlling geological processes at subduction zones. The study area was chosen as it subducts oceanic lithosphere formed at the slow-spreading Mid Atlantic Ridge. This should result in a different level and pattern of hydration to compare with subduction zones in the Pacific which consume oceanic lithosphere generated at faster spreading rates. In five project components, we will test (1) where volatiles are held within the incoming plate; (2) where they are transported and released below the arc; (3) how the volatile distribution and pathways relate to the construction of the arc; and (4) their relationship to seismic and volcanic hazards and the fractionation of economic metals. Finally, (5) the behaviour of the Lesser Antilles arc will be compared with that of other well-studied systems to improve our wider understanding of the role of water in subduction processes. To address these questions the project will combine seismology; petrology and numerical modelling of wedge dynamics and its consequences on dehydration and melting. So-far island-based fieldwork has included mantle xenolith collection and installation of a temporary seismometer network. In 2016 and 2017 we conducted cruises onboard the RRS James Cook that collected a network of passive-recording and active-recording ocean-bottom seismometer data within the back-arc, fore-arc and incoming plate region. A total of 175 deployments and recoveries were made with the loss of only 6 stations. The presentation will present preliminary results from the project.

  15. Assessment of lesser prairie-chicken lek density relative to landscape characteristics in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmer, Jennifer; Butler, Matthew; Ballard, Warren; Boal, Clint; Whitlaw, Heather

    2012-08-31

    My 2.5-yr Master's project accomplished the objectives of estimating lesser prairie-chicken (LPC) lek density and abundance in the Texas occupied range and modeling anthropogenic and landscape features associated with lek density by flying helicopter lek surveys for 2 field seasons and employing a line-transect distance sampling method. This project was important for several reasons. Firstly, wildlife managers and biologists have traditionally monitored LPC populations with road-based surveys that may result in biased estimates and do not provide access to privately-owned or remote property. From my aerial surveys and distance sampling, I was able to provide accurate density and abundance estimates, as well as new leks and I detected LPCs outside the occupied range. Secondly, recent research has indicated that energy development has the potential to impact LPCs through avoidance of tall structures, increased mortality from raptors perching on transmission lines, disturbance to nesting hens, and habitat loss/fragmentation. Given the potential wind energy development in the Texas Panhandle, spatial models of current anthropogenic and vegetative features (such as transmission lines, roads, and percent native grassland) influencing lek density were needed. This information provided wildlife managers and wind energy developers in Texas with guidelines for how change in landscape features could impact LPCs. Lastly, LPC populations have faced range-wide declines over the last century and they are currently listed as a candidate species under the Endangered Species Act. I was able to provide timely information on LPC populations in Texas that will be used during the listing process.

  16. GIS habitat analysis for lesser prairie-chickens in southeastern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville Paul

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted Geographic Information System (GIS habitat analyses for lesser prairie-chicken (LPCH, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus conservation planning. The 876,799 ha study area included most of the occupied habitat for the LPCH in New Mexico. The objectives were to identify and quantify: 1. suitable LPCH habitat in New Mexico, 2. conversion of native habitats, 3. potential for habitat restoration, and 4. unsuitable habitat available for oil and gas activities. Results We found 16% of suitable habitat (6% of the study area distributed in 13 patches of at least 3,200 ha and 11% of suitable habitat (4% of the study area distributed in four patches over 7,238 ha. The area converted from native vegetation types comprised 17% of the study area. Ninety-five percent of agricultural conversion occurred on private lands in the northeastern corner of the study area. Most known herbicide-related conversions (82% occurred in rangelands in the western part of the study area, on lands managed primarily by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM. We identified 88,190 ha (10% of the study area of habitats with reasonable restoration potential. Sixty-two percent of the primary population area (PPA contained occupied, suitable, or potentially suitable habitat, leaving 38% that could be considered for oil and gas development. Conclusion Although suitable LPCH habitat appears at first glance to be abundant in southeastern New Mexico, only a fraction of apparently suitable vegetation types constitute quality habitat. However, we identified habitat patches that could be restored through mesquite control or shin-oak reintroduction. The analysis also identified areas of unsuitable habitat with low restoration potential that could be targeted for oil and gas exploration, in lieu of occupied, high-quality habitats. Used in combination with GIS analysis and current LPCH population data, the habitat map represents a powerful conservation and management tool.

  17. GIS habitat analysis for lesser prairie-chickens in southeastern New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristine; Neville, Teri B; Neville, Paul

    2006-12-04

    We conducted Geographic Information System (GIS) habitat analyses for lesser prairie-chicken (LPCH, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) conservation planning. The 876,799 ha study area included most of the occupied habitat for the LPCH in New Mexico. The objectives were to identify and quantify: 1. suitable LPCH habitat in New Mexico, 2. conversion of native habitats, 3. potential for habitat restoration, and 4. unsuitable habitat available for oil and gas activities. We found 16% of suitable habitat (6% of the study area) distributed in 13 patches of at least 3,200 ha and 11% of suitable habitat (4% of the study area) distributed in four patches over 7,238 ha. The area converted from native vegetation types comprised 17% of the study area. Ninety-five percent of agricultural conversion occurred on private lands in the northeastern corner of the study area. Most known herbicide-related conversions (82%) occurred in rangelands in the western part of the study area, on lands managed primarily by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We identified 88,190 ha (10% of the study area) of habitats with reasonable restoration potential. Sixty-two percent of the primary population area (PPA) contained occupied, suitable, or potentially suitable habitat, leaving 38% that could be considered for oil and gas development. Although suitable LPCH habitat appears at first glance to be abundant in southeastern New Mexico, only a fraction of apparently suitable vegetation types constitute quality habitat. However, we identified habitat patches that could be restored through mesquite control or shin-oak reintroduction. The analysis also identified areas of unsuitable habitat with low restoration potential that could be targeted for oil and gas exploration, in lieu of occupied, high-quality habitats. Used in combination with GIS analysis and current LPCH population data, the habitat map represents a powerful conservation and management tool.

  18. Relocalizing a historical earthquake using recent methods: The 10 November 1935 Earthquake near Montserrat, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemz, P.; Amorèse, D.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis of Feuillet et al. (2011) that the hypocenter of the seismic event on November 10, 1935 near Montserrat, Lesser Antilles (MS 6 1/4) (Gutenberg and Richter, 1954) was mislocated by other authors and is actually located in the Montserrat-Havers fault zone. While this proposal was based both on a Ground Motion Prediction Equation and on the assumption that earthquakes in this region are bound to prominent fault systems, our study relies on earthquake localization methods using arrival times of the International Seismological Summary (ISS). Results of our methodology suggest that the hypocenter was really located at 16.90° N, 62.53° W. This solution is about 25 km north-west of the location proposed by Feuillet et al. (2011) within the Redonda fault system, northward of the Montserrat-Havers fault zone. As depth phases that contribute valuable insights to the focal depth are not included in the ISS data set and the reassociation of these phases is difficult, the error in depth is high. Taking into account tectonic constraints and the vertical extend of NonLinLoc's uncertainty area of the preferred solution we assume that the focus is most probably in the lower crust between 20 km and the Moho. Our approach shows that the information of the ISS can lead to a reliable solution even without an exhaustive search for seismograms and station bulletins. This is encouraging for a better assessment of seismic and tsunami hazard in the Caribbean, Mexico, South and Central America, where many moderate to large earthquakes occurred in the first half of the 20th century. The limitations during this early phase of seismology which complicate such relocations are described in detail in this study.

  19. Do Zircon age Spectra Record Magmatic Cyclicity at Soufrière (Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, A. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Lindsay, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Soufrière Volcanic Center (Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles) is a long-lived arc-volcanic system that evolved over the past 5 - 6 Ma. Its most recent volcanic activity between 20 and 40 ka was concentrated within the prominent Qualibou topographic depression and produced two voluminous pyroclastic deposits: Choiseul and the overlying Belfond. In addition, several dacitic lava domes exist within the Qualibou depression. Because evidence of earlier volcanic activity in long-lived magma systems is frequently obliterated by subsequent eruptive or volcano-tectonic events, high spatial resolution U-Th dating of zircon combined with (U-Th)/He dating is a powerful tool to identify magma crystallization episodes at depth and to link these to the eruptive record. U-Th model ages and disequilibrium corrected U-Pb ages for 56 individual zircons from Soufrière lavas (Morne Bonin, Belfond, Terre Blanche) and pumice (Choiseul, Belfond) were determined by secondary ionization mass spectrometry. The majority of results is on unpolished zircons where analysis pits integrate over the outermost ~10 μm of individual grains with a lateral spatial resolution of ~40 μm. Selected grains were subsequently analyzed by (U-Th)/He methods. Belfond and Terre Blanche (U-Th)/He zircon ages (~20 ka) agree with previous 14C charcoal ages, whereas Morne Bonin ages are much older (~250 ka). Overall, the U-Th zircon crystallization age spectrum reveals a remarkable range between ~20 and ~600 ka and displays multiple peaks, among which the most prominent are tentatively identified at ~40 ka, ~80 ka, ~130 ka, ~200 ka and ~500 ka. The distribution of rim ages indicates that most zircons lack overgrowth dating from just prior to the eruption, but the youngest ages for each sample overlap with the eruption ages. Soufrière zircons thus reveal magma intrusion, cooling, and crystallization cycles within the underlying plutonic system for which the volcanic stratigraphic record is sketchy.

  20. The parasitic eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi as a possible cause of decline in the threatened lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Dunham

    Full Text Available Lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus have been declining range wide since the early 1900's despite efforts to establish conservation and improve their habitat. In early 2014, the lesser prairie-chicken was listed as a threatened species under the U.S Endangered Species Act and the need to find out why they are declining is more important than ever. Nine hunter shot lesser prairie-chickens were donated and sampled for the presence or absence of the eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi, a known parasite that can cause damage to the eye of its host, and common environmental contaminants. Eyeworm infection was found in 7 of 9 birds (78% infection rate with an infection range between 0-16 O. petrowi per bird. Breast, liver, and fat tissue samples from the lesser prairie-chickens were analyzed for the frequency of 20 organochlorine pesticides. Femurs and livers were also tested on these birds for metal contaminants. Pesticides were found in several samples above the detection limits but were still in the low ng/g range. Notable was the ubiquitous presence of endrin aldehyde across all tissues. One femur showed 5.66 µg/g of lead (Pb but this is still relatively low. No liver samples had elevated mercury (Hg above detection limits. The presence of these organochlorines is consistent with the historic use of pesticides in this region. With pesticide and metals found in such low levels and parasitic nematode infections at rather high levels, it is recommended that these parasites be further evaluated as a contributing factor to the decline of the lesser prairie-chicken.

  1. Nesting ecology and nest survival of lesser prairie-chickens on the Southern High Plains of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Borsdorf, Philip K.; Boal, Clint W.; Boydston, Kathy K.

    2014-01-01

    The decline in population and range of lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) throughout the central and southern Great Plains has raised concerns considering their candidate status under the United States Endangered Species Act. Baseline ecological data for lesser prairie-chickens are limited, especially for the shinnery oak-grassland communities of Texas. This information is imperative because lesser prairie-chickens in shinnery oak grasslands occur at the extreme southwestern edge of their distribution. This geographic region is characterized by hot, arid climates, less fragmentation, and less anthropogenic development than within the remaining core distribution of the species. Thus, large expanses of open rangeland with less anthropogenic development and a climate that is classified as extreme for ground nesting birds may subsequently influence nest ecology, nest survival, and nest site selection differently compared to the rest of the distribution of the species. We investigated the nesting ecology of 50 radio-tagged lesser prairie-chicken hens from 2008 to 2011 in the shinnery oak-grassland communities in west Texas and found a substantial amount of inter-annual variation in incubation start date and percent of females incubating nests. Prairie-chickens were less likely to nest near unimproved roads and utility poles and in areas with more bare ground and litter. In contrast, hens selected areas dominated by grasses and shrubs and close to stock tanks to nest. Candidate models including visual obstruction best explained daily nest survival; a 5% increase in visual obstruction improved nest survival probability by 10%. The model-averaged probability of a nest surviving the incubation period was 0.43 (SE = 0.006; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.56). Our findings indicate that lesser prairie-chicken reproduction during our study period was dynamic and was correlated with seasonal weather patterns that ultimately promoted greater grass growth earlier in the

  2. Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organ...

  3. Removing cosmic rays and other randomly positioned spurious events from CCD images by taking the lesser image -statistical theory for the general case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, L.

    1992-01-01

    If two optical images of the same scene are obtained using a charged-coupled device (CCD), a third image (called the lesser image) may be formed in computer memory by taking the lesser of the two counts in each pixel. The process may be used to remove, or greatly reduce, the effect of spurious events such as cosmic rays. A complete statistical theory of the lesser image is given for the general case, thereby facilitating recovery of the true image from the lesser image. (author)

  4. Proteomic analysis of the early bovine yolk sac fluid and cells from the day 13 ovoid and elongated preimplatation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille L.; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Tonny S.

    2014-01-01

    differentiate into the hypoblast and epiblast, which remain surrounded by the trophectoderm. The formation of the hypoblast epithelium is also accompanied by a change in the fluid within the embryo, i.e., the blastocoel fluid gradually alters to become the primitive yolk sac (YS) fluid. Our previous research......The bovine blastocyst hatches 8 to 9 days after fertilization, and this is followed by several days of preimplantation development during which the embryo transforms from a spherical over an ovoid to an elongated shape. As the spherical embryo enlarges, the cells of the inner cell mass...... describes the protein composition of human and bovine blastocoel fluid, which is surrounded by the trophectoderm and undifferentiated cells of the inner cell mass. In this study, we further examine the changes in the protein composition in both the primitive YS fluid and the embryonic cells during early...

  5. Functional characterization of folic acid transport in the intestine of the laying hen using the everted intestinal sac model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Karmin, O; House, J D

    2011-01-01

    Absorption at the level of the intestine is likely a primary regulatory mechanism for the deposition of dietary supplemented folic acid into the chicken egg. Therefore, factors affecting the intestinal transport of folic acid in the laying hen may influence the level of egg folate concentrations. To this end, a series of experiments using intestinal everted sacs were conducted to characterize intestinal folic acid absorption processes in laying hens. Effects of naturally occurring folate derivatives (5-methyl and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate) as well as heme on folic acid absorption were also investigated. Folic acid absorption was measured based on the rate of uptake of (3)H-labeled folic acid in the everted sac from various segments of the small and large intestines. Folic acid concentration, incubation length, and pH condition were optimized before the performance of uptake experiments. The distribution profile of folic acid transport along the intestine was highest in the upper half of the small intestine. Maximum uptake rate (nmol·100 g tissue(-1)·min(-1)) was observed in the duodenum (20.6 ± 1.9) and jejunum (22.3 ± 2.0) and decreased significantly in the ileum (15.3 ± 1.1) and cecum (9.3 ± 0.9). Transport increased proportionately (P methyl and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate as well as heme impeded folic acid uptake, reducing intestinal folic acid absorption when added at concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 µM. Overall, these data indicated the presence of a folic acid transport system in the entire intestine of the laying hen. Uptake of folic acid in the cecum raises the likelihood of absorption of bacterial-derived folate.

  6. Lithic assemblages of Azokh Cave (Nagorno Karabagh, Lesser Caucasus: Raw materials, technology and regional context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Asryan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Azokh Cave is a Middle Pleistocene to Holocene site located in Nagorno Karabagh (Lesser Caucasus. The main entrance, Azokh 1, is a large cave that has two geological sequences (lower and upper with nine geo-archaeological units of which only the upper ones (Units I to V have a significant archaeological record.  The faunal remains and lithic artefacts in these units indicate aspects of human occupation, and exploitation of, and association with animals.     The lithic artefacts presented here were recovered from Units V, III and II during the 2002 – 2009 excavation seasons. The available chronological data indicates an age between 293 – 100 Ka for these units. The operational chain is incomplete and artefacts found in the cave are primarily end-products dominated by flake-tools. The assemblage of Unit V is composed primarily of simple, unretouched flakes with a minimal presence of retouched flakes and cores. The Unit II lithic assemblage includes a substantial Levallois component, although with fewer cores and retouched flakes. There are very few flake tools in Unit III. While it is still difficult to assign the Unit V assemblage to a techno-typological group or complex (i.e. Acheulean, Mousterian or other local techno-complexes such as the Kudarian, the Unit II assemblage is clearly associated with Mode 3 or the Mousterian techno-complex.Different local and non-local raw materials were exploited in all units for the production of lithic artefacts, although the range of raw materials is more varied in Unit II. Local chert, flint and basalt were used most commonly, probably due to their easy accessibility. Limestone, jasper and sandstone, from local and non-local sources, are present in small quantities in Units V and II. Obsidian is the only raw material that possibly originates from more distant sources. Flint and chert appear to have been preferentially exploited for flake tool production in all units, but the toolmakers show a

  7. Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, Shujaul Mulk; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Mir Ajab; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Pieroni, Andrea

    2013-12-20

    Ethnoveterinary knowledge is highly significant for persistence of traditional community-based approaches to veterinary care. This is of particular importance in the context of developing and emerging countries, where animal health (that of livestock, especially) is crucial to local economies and food security. The current survey documents the traditional veterinary uses of medicinal plants in the Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Data were collected through interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and by administering questionnaires. A total of 105 informants aged between 20-75 years old who were familiar with livestock health issues (i.e. farmers, shepherds, housewives and herbalists) participated in the study. A total of 89 botanical taxa, belonging to 46 families, were reported to have ethnoveterinary applications. The most quoted families were Poaceae (6 taxa), Fabaceae (6), Asteraceae (5), and Polygonaceae (5). Adhatoda vasica was the most cited species (43%), followed by Trachyspermum ammi (37%), and Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum (36%). About 126 medications were recorded against more than 50 veterinary conditions grouped into seven categories. The highest cultural index values were recorded for Trachyspermum ammi, Curcuma longa, Melia azedarach, Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum and Adhatoda vasica. The highest informant consensus factor was found for pathologies related to respiratory and reproductive disorders. Comparison with the local plant-based remedies used in human folk medicine revealed that many of remedies were used in similar ways in local human phytotherapy. Comparison with other field surveys conducted in surrounding areas demonstrated that approximately one-half of the recorded plants uses are novel to the ethnoveterinary literature of the Himalayas. The current survey shows a remarkable resilience of ethnoveterinary botanical knowledge in the study area. Most of the species reported for ethnoveterinary applications are wild and under

  8. Mercury concentration, speciation and budget in volcanic aquifers: Italy and Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, E.; Aiuppa, A.; Parello, F.; D'Alessandro, W.; Allard, P.; Calabrese, S.

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying the contribution of volcanism to global mercury (Hg) emissions is important to understand the pathways and the mechanisms of Hg cycling through the Earth's geochemical reservoirs and to assess its environmental impacts. While previous studies have suggested that degassing volcanoes might contribute importantly to the atmospheric budget of mercury, little is known about the amount and behaviour of Hg in volcanic aquifers. Here we report on detailed investigations of both the content and the speciation of mercury in aquifers of active volcanoes in Italy and Guadeloupe Island (Lesser Antilles). In the studied groundwaters, total Hg (THg) concentrations range from 10 to 500 ng/l and are lower than the 1000 ng/l threshold value for human health protection fixed by the World Health Organization [WHO (1993): WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality- http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/GDWQ/index.htlm]. Positive co-variations of (THg) with sulphate indicate that Hg-SO 4-rich acid groundwaters receive a direct input of magmatic/hydrothermal gases carrying mercury as Hg 0(gas). Increasing THg in a volcanic aquifer could thus be a sensitive tracer of magmatic gas input prior to an eruption. Since the complex behaviour and toxicity of mercury in waters depend on its chemical speciation, we carefully determined the different aqueous forms of this element in our samples. We find that dissolved elemental Hg 0(aq) and particulate-bound Hg (Hg P) widely prevail in volcanic aquifers, in proportions that highlight the efficiency of Hg adsorption onto colloidal particles. Moreover, we observe that dissolved Hg 0aq and Hg(II) forms coexist in comparable amount in most of the waters, in stark contrast to the results of thermodynamic equilibrium modelling. Therefore, chemical equilibrium between dissolved mercury species in volcanic waters is either prevented by natural kinetic effects or not preserved in collected waters due to sampling/storage artefacts. Finally, we

  9. Stratigraphic, Granulometric and Geochemical Studies of a Major Plinian Eruption on Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. L.; Daly, G.; Killingsworth, N.; Deuerling, K.; Schneider, S.; Fryxell, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The island of Dominica, located in the center of the Lesser Antilles island arc has witnessed, probably within the last 100,000 years, three large volume Plinian eruptions. One of these, associated with the Morne Diablotins center, forms the Grande Savane pyroclastic flow fan, that extends off shore as a distinctive submarine feature for a distance of at least 14 km. Stratigraphical studies of road cuts and well-exposed sea cliffs indicate the fan is composed of an older unit composed of reworked deposits at the base followed by at least four sequences, based on the presence of paleosols, of block and ash flow deposits. The upper unit of block and ash flows is overlain, with no evidence of an intervening paleosol, by a sequence of ignimbrites and pumiceous surges (representing the Plinian eruption). There is no evidence of an initial Plinian fall deposit, so the lowest bed in the succession is an ignimbrite with a highly irregular base that cuts into the underlying block and ash flow deposits, the upper parts of which are colored red due to thermal effects. This lowest ignimbrite is welded (minimum porosity of 15%) throughout its thickness (maximum thickness of greater than 21 m), although a few outcrops near the margins show a thin (20-30 cm) non-welded but lithified zone beneath the welded zone. The remainder of the sequence is composed of lithified ignimbrite that can be subdivided into three units separated by pumiceous surge layers. The ignimbrite succession is overlain, with no obvious break, by a thin fall deposit containing accretionary lapilli and gas cavities, followed by three pumiceous surge deposits (lower and upper show planar stratification and the middle surge shows massive bedding); towards the north the upper two surge deposits are separated by thin pumiceous lapilli fall and ash fall deposits. This surge sequence extends laterally outside of the main area of ignimbrite deposition. The pumice clasts from the ignimbrites are andesitic in

  10. Stratigraphy and Petrology of the Grande Soufriere Hills Volcano, Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, G.; Smith, A. L.; Garcia, R.; Killingsworth, N.

    2007-12-01

    The Grande Soufriere Hills volcanic center is located on the south east coast of the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles. Although the volcano is deeply dissected, a distinct circular crater that opens to the east can be observed. Within the crater is a lava dome and unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits mantle the southeast flanks of the volcano. These pyroclastic deposits are almost entirely matrix-supported block and ash flows and surges suggesting that Pelean-style eruptions have dominated its most recent activity. Within this sequence is a relatively thin (30-50 cm) clast-supported deposit that has been interpreted as a possible blast deposit. Two age dates from these younger deposits suggest that much of this activity occurred between l0,000 and 12,000 years ago. On the southeastern coast at Pointe Mulâtre and extending approximately 4 km north and at a maximum 2 km west, is a megabreccia of large (up to 3 m) flow-banded andesite clasts set in a semi-lithified medium grained ash matrix. At Pointe Mulâtre this megabreccia is overlain by unconsolidated block and ash flow deposits. To the north of the megabreccia, exposures in the sea cliffs reveal a consolidated sequence of well-bedded alternating coarse and fine deposits suggesting deltaic foreset beds; which in turn appears to be overlain by a yellow- colored relatively coarse flow deposit with an irregular upper surface. The uppermost deposits in the sea cliffs are a sequence of unconsolidated block and ash flow deposits and interbedded fluviatile conglomerates equivalent to the younger flow deposits logged inland. Volcanic rocks from the Grande Soufriere Hills are all porphyritic andesites often containing hypabyssal inclusions. Dominant phenocrysts are plagioclase often with inclusion-rich cores and well developed zoning. Mafic phenocrysts include hornblende, augite and hypersthene. Geochemically these andesites range from 58- 63% SiO2 and show trends of decreasing values for Al2O3, FeO, MgO, CaO, Ti

  11. A Multi-analytical Approach for the Characterization of Marbles from Lesser Himalayas (Northwest Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, M.; Iqbal, Y.; Riaz, M.; Ubic, R.; Redfern, S. A. T.

    2015-12-01

    The KP province of Pakistan hosts widespread deposits of thermo-metamorphic marbles that were extensively used as a building and ornamental stones since the time of earliest flourishing civilization in this region known as Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BC). The macroscopic characteristics of 22 marble varieties collected from three different areas of Lesser Himalayas (Northwest Pakistan), its chemical, mineralogical, petrographic features, temperature conditions of metamorphic re-crystallization, and the main physical properties are presented in order to provide a solid basis for possible studies on the provenance and distribution of building stones from this region. The results provide a set of diagnostic parameters that allow discriminating the investigated marbles and quarries. Studied marbles overlap in major phase assemblage, but the accessory mineral content, chemistry, the maximum grain size (MGS) and other petrographic characteristics are particularly useful in the distinction between them. On the basis of macroscopic features, the studied marbles can be classifies into four groups: (i) white (ii) grey-to-brown veined, (iii) brown-reddish to yellowish and (iv) dark-grey to blackish veined marbles. The results show that the investigated marbles are highly heterogeneous in both their geochemical parameters and minero-petrographic features. Microscopically, the white, grey-to-brown and dark-grey to blackish marbles display homeoblastic/granoblastic texture, and the brown-reddish to yellowish marbles display a heteroblastic texture with traces of slightly deformed polysynthetic twining planes. Minero-petrography, XRD, SEM and EPMA revealed that the investigated marbles chiefly consist of calcite along with dolomite, quartz, muscovite, pyrite, K-feldspar, Mg, Ti and Fe-oxides as subordinates. The magnesium content of calcite coexisting with dolomite was estimated by both XRD and EPMA/EDS, indicating the metamorphic temperature of re-crystallization from 414

  12. Magnetic mapping for structural geology and geothermal exploration in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier de Lépinay, jeanne; munschy, marc; geraud, yves; diraison, marc; navelot, vivien; verati, christelle; corsini, michel; lardeaux, jean marc; favier, alexiane

    2017-04-01

    This work is implemented through the GEOTREF program which benefits from the support of both the ADEME and the French public funds "Investments for the future". The program focuses on the exploration for geothermal resources in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, where a geothermal power plant is in production since 1986 (Bouillante, Basse Terre). In Les Saintes archipelago, in the south of Guadeloupe, the outcrop analysis of Terre-de-Haut Island allows to point out an exhumed geothermal paleo-system that is thought to be an analogue of the Bouillante active geothermal system. We show that a detailed marine magnetic survey with a quantitative interpretation can bring information about the offshore structures around Les Saintes archipelago in order to extend the geological limits and structural elements. A similar survey and workflow is also conducted offshore Basse-Terre where more geophysical data is already available. In order to correctly link the offshore and onshore structures, the magnetic survey must be close enough to the shoreline and sufficiently detailed to correctly outline the tectonic structures. An appropriate solution for such a survey is to use a three component magnetometer aboard a speedboat. Such a boat allows more navigation flexibility than a classic oceanic vessel towing a magnetometer; it can sail at higher speed on calm seas and closer to the shoreline. This kind of magnetic acquisition is only viable because the magnetic effect of the ship can be compensated using the same algorithms than those used for airborne magnetometry. The use of potential field transforms allows a large variety of structures to be highlighted, providing insights to build a general understanding of the nature and distribution of the magnetic sources. In particular, we use the tilt angle operator to better identify the magnetic lineaments offshore in order to compare them to the faults identified onshore during the outcrop analysis. All the major faults and fractures

  13. Transmission of Salmonella to broilers by contaminated larval and adult lesser mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, A J; Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Buhr, R J; Cason, J A; Fairchild, B D; Hinkle, N C

    2009-01-01

    The ability of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), commonly known as the darkling beetle, to transmit marker Salmonella Typhimurium to day-of-hatch broiler chicks was evaluated, as well as the spread to nonchallenged pen mates. In trial 1, day-of-hatch chicks were orally gavaged with 4 larval or 4 adult beetles that had been exposed to marker Salmonella-inoculated feed for 72 h. In addition, chicks were gavaged with the marker Salmonella in saline solution. These chicks were then placed into pens to serve as challenged broilers. In trial 2, all pens received 2 challenged chicks that were gavaged with larvae or beetles that had been exposed to marker Salmonella-inoculated feed for 24 h and then removed from the inoculated feed for a period of 7 d. At 3 wk of age, cecal samples from the marker Salmonella-challenged broilers and from 5 pen mates in trial 1, or 10 pen mates in trial 2, were evaluated for the presence of the marker Salmonella in their ceca, and at 6 wk of age, all remaining pen mates were sampled. To monitor the presence of the marker Salmonella within pens, stepped-on drag swab litter samples were taken weekly. For the Salmonella-saline pens, 29 to 33% of the broilers that had been challenged and 10 to 55% of the pen mates were positive at 3 wk of age, and only 2 to 6% had positive ceca at 6 wk. For the pens challenged with adult beetles, 0 to 57% of the challenged broilers and 20 to 40% of the pen mates had positive ceca at 3 wk, and 4 to 7% were positive at 6 wk. The pens challenged with larvae had the greatest percentage of marker Salmonella-positive broilers; 25 to 33% of the challenged broilers and 45 to 58% of pen mates were positive at 3 wk, and 11 to 27% were positive at 6 wk. These results demonstrated that ingestion of larval or adult beetles contaminated with a marker Salmonella could be a significant vector for transmission to broilers.

  14. Diagenesis in tephra-rich sediments from the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc: Pore fluid constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Natalie A.; McManus, James; Palmer, Martin R.; Haley, Brian; Manners, Hayley

    2018-05-01

    We present sediment pore fluid and sediment solid phase results obtained during IODP Expedition 340 from seven sites located within the Grenada Basin of the southern Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc region. These sites are generally characterized as being low in organic carbon content and rich in calcium carbonate and volcanogenic material. In addition to the typical reactions related to organic matter diagenesis, pore fluid chemistry indicates that the diagenetic reactions fall within two broad categories; (1) reactions related to chemical exchange with volcanogenic material and (2) reactions related to carbonate dissolution, precipitation, or recrystallization. For locations dominated by reaction with volcanogenic material, these sites exhibit increases in dissolved Ca with coeval decreases in Mg. We interpret this behavior as being driven by sediment-water exchange reactions from the alteration of volcanic material that is dispersed throughout the sediment package, which likely result in formation of Mg-rich secondary authigenic clays. In contrast to this behavior, sediment sequences that exhibit decreases in Ca, Mg, Mn, and Sr with depth suggest that carbonate precipitation is an active diagenetic process affecting solute distributions. The distributions of pore fluid 87Sr/86Sr reflect these competitive diagenetic reactions between volcanic material and carbonate, which are inferred by the major cation distributions. From one site where we have solid phase 87Sr/86Sr (site U1396), the carbonate fraction is found to be generally consistent with the contemporaneous seawater isotope values. However, the 87Sr/86Sr of the non-carbonate fraction ranges from 0.7074 to 0.7052, and these values likely represent a mixture of local arc volcanic sources and trans-Atlantic eolian sources. Even at this site where there is clear evidence for diagenesis of volcanogenic material, carbonate diagenesis appears to buffer pore fluid 87Sr/86Sr from the larger changes that might be

  15. Symptomatic endometriosis of the posterior cul-de-sac is associated with impaired sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Bizzarri, Nicolò; Scala, Carolina; Tafi, Emanuela; Siesto, Gabriele; Alessandri, Franco; Ferrero, Simone

    2017-02-01

    To assess the impact of endometriosis of the posterior cul-de-sac on quality of sleep, average daytime sleepiness and insomnia. This age-matched case-control study was conducted in a tertiary referral centre for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis between May 2012 and December 2013. It included 145 women with endometriosis of the posterior cul-de-sac (cases; group E) and 145 patients referred to our Institution because of routine gynaecologic consultations (controls; group C). This study investigated whether sleep is impaired in patients with endometriosis of the posterior cul-de-sac. Sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and insomnia were assessed using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Epworth sleepiness scale and the Insomnia Severity Index, respectively. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate sleep quality in the two study groups. Secondary outcomes of the study were to assess average daytime sleepiness and insomnia in the two study groups. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was significantly higher in group E (64.8%) than in group C (15.1%; pinsomnia (29.0%) and moderate clinical insomnia (16.6%) significantly more frequently than patients in group C (24.4% and 5.0%; p=0.002). A substantial proportion of women with endometriosis of the posterior cul-de-sac experiences poor sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ovule-to-seed development in Dovyalis caffra (Salicaceae: Flacourtieae with notes on the taxonomic significance of the extranucellar embryo sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. A. Steyn

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Dovyalis caffra (Hook.f. & Harv. Hook.f. is a widespread and horticulturally important southern African endemic. Here described, ovule-to-seed development represents the first embryological information on this genus of the tribe Flacourtieae, Salicaceae  sensu lato. Results are discussed in the light of data available on the embryology of the order Malpighiales in general and on the tribe Flacourtieae in particular. It is clear that Dovyalis E.Mey. ex Am. shares many characters with other members of the Flacourtieae. Ovules of D. caffra are anatropous. bitegmic and crassinucellate with both bisporic Allium- and monosporic Polygonum-type embryo sacs. One of the most characteristic embryological features of the tribe is the pres­ence of an unusual, extranucellar embryo sac that stretches halfway up into the micropyle. Since this extraordinary-shaped embryo sac also defines the embryo sacs of Salix L. and Populus L., it is suggested that the character provides strong sup­port for the proposed close phylogenetic link between tribes Flacourtieae and Saliceae of Salicaceae sensu lato.

  17. Selected Areas in Cryptography - SAC 2013 : 20th International Conference, Burnaby BC, Canada, August 14-16, 2013 : Revised Selected Papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Lauter, K.; Lisonek, P.

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Selected Areas in Cryptography, SAC 2013, held in Burnaby, Canada, in August 2013. The 26 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 98 submissions. They are organized in topical sections

  18. CM5, a pre-Swarm comprehensive geomagnetic field model derived from over 12 yr of CHAMP, Ørsted, SAC-C and observatory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Olsen, Nils; Tyler, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive magnetic field model named CM5 has been derived from CHAMP, Orsted and SAC-C satellite and observatory hourly-means data from 2000 August to 2013 January using the Swarm Level-2 Comprehensive Inversion (CI) algorithm. Swarm is a recently launched constellation of three satellites ...

  19. Dietary amino acids fed in free form or as protein do differently affect amino acid absorption in a rat everted sac model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, J.A.; Peeters, I.G.S.; Bremer, B.I.; Moorman, R.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of free amino acid (FAA) diets on the intestinal absorption rate of methionine and leucine was studied 'ex vivo' with rats adapted for different periods of time to the diets, using the everted sac method. The adaptation period to the 21% FAA diet with an amino acid

  20. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  1. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain Tumors What's in ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  2. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  3. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  4. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  5. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 01/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  6. Tension-Induced Error Correction and Not Kinetochore Attachment Status Activates the SAC in an Aurora-B/C-Dependent Manner in Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallot, Antoine; Leontiou, Ioanna; Cladière, Damien; El Yakoubi, Warif; Bolte, Susanne; Buffin, Eulalie; Wassmann, Katja

    2018-01-08

    Cell division with partitioning of the genetic material should take place only when paired chromosomes named bivalents (meiosis I) or sister chromatids (mitosis and meiosis II) are correctly attached to the bipolar spindle in a tension-generating manner. For this to happen, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) checks whether unattached kinetochores are present, in which case anaphase onset is delayed to permit further establishment of attachments. Additionally, microtubules are stabilized when they are attached and under tension. In mitosis, attachments not under tension activate the so-named error correction pathway depending on Aurora B kinase substrate phosphorylation. This leads to microtubule detachments, which in turn activates the SAC [1-3]. Meiotic divisions in mammalian oocytes are highly error prone, with severe consequences for fertility and health of the offspring [4, 5]. Correct attachment of chromosomes in meiosis I leads to the generation of stretched bivalents, but-unlike mitosis-not to tension between sister kinetochores, which co-orient. Here, we set out to address whether reduction of tension applied by the spindle on bioriented bivalents activates error correction and, as a consequence, the SAC. Treatment of oocytes in late prometaphase I with Eg5 kinesin inhibitor affects spindle tension, but not attachments, as we show here using an optimized protocol for confocal imaging. After Eg5 inhibition, bivalents are correctly aligned but less stretched, and as a result, Aurora-B/C-dependent error correction with microtubule detachment takes place. This loss of attachments leads to SAC activation. Crucially, SAC activation itself does not require Aurora B/C kinase activity in oocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MR imaging of the lumbar disk herniation : relationship between the direction of herniated disc and pressure effect on nerve root and dural sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, B. H.; Shon, M. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Lim, M. A.; Kwon, K. R; Kim, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the direction of herniated disc and pressure effect on nerve root and dural sac, as seen on MRI. We retrospectively reviewed lumbar spine MR images of 122 cases of lumbar disk herniation 75 patients MRI findings were analyzed with regard to the relationship between the direction of the herniated disc and pressure effect on nerve root and dural sac. Pressure effect on nerve root and dural sac was arbitrarily divided into three types. Type I was defined as zero or minimal compression of nerve roots or thecal sac by the herniated disc ; type II was defined as mild to moderate compression, while III was defined as severe compression or displacement of nerve roots and/or thecal sac. Of the 122 cases seen in these 75 patients, 97(80%) were observed at L4-5 and L5-S1. The central type(71cases ; 58%) was more frequently observed than the posterolateral type(48cases ; 40%) or lateral type(3cases ; 2%). The totals of types I, II, and III were 44(36%), 43(35%) and 35 cases(29%), respectively. Seventy-seven %(34/44) of type I and 65%(28/43) of type II were of the central type but for type III, the corresponding figure was only 26%(9/35). On MR imaging, most of lumbar disk herniations were observed at L4-5 and L5-S1, with a predominance of the central type rather than the posterolateral one. Most of the central types were either type I or type II

  8. Radiological evaluation of subjects submitted to vagotomy, antrectomy and gastroduodenal anastomosis at the lesser curvature in chlorydropeptic ulceration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.L.; Petroianu, A.; Ferreira, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    This work shows a radiologic study of stomachs operated for chlorydropeptic ulceration by the surgical technique of: vagotomy, antrectomy and gastroduodenal anastomosis at the lesser curvature. Our objective was to observe the gastric morphology and motility turned to its emptying. The results suggested good perspectives, mainly, in the late post-operative. The operated stomachs get a similar morphology with the normal one and its emptying, at first, slow, tended to normalize. (author) [pt

  9. Determination of the elemental composition of some lesser-used Ghanaian wood species by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Adomako, D.; Andam, A.A.B.; Addison, E.C.K.; Ofori, J.; Cobbinah, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Wood plays an undisputed socio-economic role in human endeavour. The elemental composition of wood can give an indication of the environmental pollution of the locality from which the wood sample was extracted as timber, and can influence the machining characteristics of timber. Additionally, the elemental composition can be used as an index of the nutrient uptake of plants from the soil. With the over-exploitation of timber species in Ghana, it is now imperative that lesser-used species are studied to know their characteristics for utilization. We report preliminary results of a study on the elemental composition of some lesser-used Ghanaian wood species. Ten Ghana wood species had been studied, namely: Strombosia glauscens, Lophira alata, Cynometra anata, Combretodendron macrocarpum, Sterculia rhinopetala, Celtis milbraedii, Celtis zenteri, Nesogoadonia papaverifa, Nauclea diderrichii, and Piptadeniastrum afrieana. Neutron activation analysis was carried out for this work, using the Ghana Research Reactor, (GHARRI) facility, operating between 3-15kw and at a thermal neutron flux of 1-5 x 10 15 ns -1 cm 2 . A total of twenty-five elements were identified, some at high level, others at trace levels. We discuss the implications of these results for the efficient utilization of lesser-used Ghana wood species (author)

  10. Assessing storm surge hazard and impact of sea level rise in the Lesser Antilles case study of Martinique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krien, Yann; Dudon, Bernard; Roger, Jean; Arnaud, Gael; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2017-09-01

    In the Lesser Antilles, coastal inundations from hurricane-induced storm surges pose a great threat to lives, properties and ecosystems. Assessing current and future storm surge hazards with sufficient spatial resolution is of primary interest to help coastal planners and decision makers develop mitigation and adaptation measures. Here, we use wave-current numerical models and statistical methods to investigate worst case scenarios and 100-year surge levels for the case study of Martinique under present climate or considering a potential sea level rise. Results confirm that the wave setup plays a major role in the Lesser Antilles, where the narrow island shelf impedes the piling-up of large amounts of wind-driven water on the shoreline during extreme events. The radiation stress gradients thus contribute significantly to the total surge - up to 100 % in some cases. The nonlinear interactions of sea level rise (SLR) with bathymetry and topography are generally found to be relatively small in Martinique but can reach several tens of centimeters in low-lying areas where the inundation extent is strongly enhanced compared to present conditions. These findings further emphasize the importance of waves for developing operational storm surge warning systems in the Lesser Antilles and encourage caution when using static methods to assess the impact of sea level rise on storm surge hazard.

  11. Primary Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi Khuri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET is a tumor of small round cells arising in skeletal tissues. These tumors rarely arise in the stomach. We present a 31-year-old healthy female patient who was admitted to our surgical ward due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Upper endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated bleeding mass originating from the lesser curvature. Biopsy revealed tumor cell immunoreactivity positive for CD99, vimentin, and Ki67 (an index of proliferation. These findings were compatible with gastric ES/PNET. The fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis result for the EWSR1 gene rearrangement (11: 22 translocation was positive. The patient refused neoadjuvant treatment and thus underwent an operation during which a mass at the lesser curvature of the stomach was found. The mass was adhering to the pancreatic tail and to the mesentery of the transverse and descending colon. Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy were done. The patient refused adjuvant treatment. She is free of disease 3 years after surgery.

  12. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  13. Effectivity of pazopanib treatment in orthotopic models of human testicular germ cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliachs, Mercè; Viñals, Francesc; Vidal, August; Muro, Xavier Garcia del; Piulats, Josep M; Condom, Enric; Casanovas, Oriol; Graupera, Mariona; Germà, Jose R; Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) resistance in testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) is still a clinical challenge, and one associated with poor prognosis. The purpose of this work was to test pazopanib, an anti-tumoral and anti-angiogenic multikinase inhibitor, and its combination with lapatinib (an anti-ErbB inhibitor) in mouse orthotopic models of human testicular GCTs. We used two different models of human testicular GCTs orthotopically grown in nude mice; a CDDP-sensitive choriocarcinoma (TGT38) and a new orthotopic model generated from a metastatic GCT refractory to first-line CDDP chemotherapy (TGT44). Nude mice implanted with these orthotopic tumors were treated with the inhibitors and the effect on tumoral growth and angiogenesis was evaluated. TGT44 refractory tumor had an immunohistochemical profile similar to the original metastasis, with characteristics of yolk sac tumor. TGT44 did not respond when treated with cisplatin. In contrast, pazopanib had an anti-angiogenic effect and anti-tumor efficacy in this model. Pazopanib in combination with lapatinib in TGT38, an orthotopic model of choriocarcinoma had an additive effect blocking tumor growth. We present pazopanib as a possible agent for the alternative treatment of CDDP-sensitive and CDDP-refractory GCT patients, alone or in combination with anti-ErbB therapies

  14. Lesser Antillean Arc Initiation and Migration as a Proxy of Slab Dynamics: Geothermochronology, Thermobarometry and Structure of Saint Martin Granodiorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noury, M.; Münch, P.; Philippon, M. M.; Bernet, M.; Bruguier, O.; Balvay, M.

    2017-12-01

    In subduction zones, volcanic arc initiation, cessation, migration and associated upper plate deformation -i.e faulting and vertical motions- reflect large-scale slab dynamics. At the northeastern edge of the Caribbean plate, the Greater Caribbean subduction zone waned out during the Mid Eocene, following the subduction of the Bahamas bank. This arc cessation was contemporaneous with (i) a plate boundary re-organization (evolving from subduction to transform), (ii) upper plate deformation and (iii) arc initiation in the Lesser Antilles. As part of the GAARANTI project that aims at unraveling the relationships between the evolution of terrestrial Caribbean biodiversity and vertical motions resulting from the Lesser Antilles subduction zone dynamic, we study the Saint Martin granodiorites, one of the two Oligocene plutons outcropping in the Lesser Antillean forearc. We investigate the birth and evolution of the Lesser Antillean arc and its thermo-mechanical impact on the Caribbean upper plate. In order to characterize the P,T,t path of the pluton we performed several thermochronological analyses covering a wide range of temperature (U-Pb on zircon -Tc 850°C, Ar/Ar on amphibole -Tc 550°C- and biotite -Tc 325°C-, zircon and apatite fission-tracks -Tc 250 and 110°C, respectively as well as U-Th/He on apatite -Tc 60°C) coupled with in-situ thermobarometry analyses (Al in hornblendes) and structural data. Geochronology and thermobarometry reveal that the granodiorites emplaced at ca. 28 Ma, at a depth of 5 km. Based on the age difference between amphibole and biotite Ar/Ar ages, we show that the northern pluton cooled faster than the southern one. Preliminary thermochronological results show a fast cooling between 29 and 25 Ma and then a continuous and slow cooling since 25 Ma and inverse modeling points to a 10 Ma cooling event. Our investigations give insights on the thermo-mechanical evolution of the arc-forearc region of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone

  15. Radiological diagnostics of skeletal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, M.; Herget, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    The book contains contributions concerning the following topics: 1. introduction and fundamentals: WHO classification of bone tumors, imaging diagnostics and their function; localization, typical clinical and radiological criteria, TNM classification and status classification, invasive tumor diagnostics; 2. specific tumor diagnostics: chondrogenic bone tumors, osseous tumors, connective tissue bony tumors, osteoclastoma, osteomyelogenic bone tumors, vascular bone tumors, neurogenic bone tumors, chordoma; adamantinoma of the long tubular bone; tumor-like lesions, bony metastases, bone granulomas, differential diagnostics: tumor-like lesions

  16. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  17. Effect of egg weight on composition, embryonic growth, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M X; Li, X G; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q; Gao, C Q

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of egg weight on the composition of the egg, the growth of the embryo, and the expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). A total of 240 fertilized eggs were collected and divided into two groups based on the weight of the eggs, light (LE) and heavy (HE). The composition of 20 eggs from each group was measured, and the remaining eggs were weighed and placed in an incubator. On embryonic days (E) 9, 11, 13, and 15 and day of hatch (DOH), 15 embryos/hatchlings from each group were measured for embryonic growth, and samples were collected. The HE had heavier yolk and albumen weights than the LE (P < 0.01). Compared with the LE, the HE had heavier yolk-free embryonic body and yolk sac weights from E13 to DOH (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HE had larger yolk sac membrane weights from E13 to E15 (P < 0.05) and had more residual yolk sac content on DOH than those of the LE (P < 0.01). The yolk absorption was greater for the HE than for the LE from E11 to E13 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the abundance of CAT2 and PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac membranes was greater in the HE than in the LE on E13 (P < 0.05). Compared with the LE, the gene expression of EAAT2 in the intestine on E13 was greater in the HE, whereas the expression of EAAT3 was lower in the HE (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that egg weight influenced the composition of the eggs, embryonic development, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of pigeon embryos. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. HAMLET interacts with histones and chromatin in tumor cell nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düringer, Caroline; Hamiche, Ali; Gustafsson, Lotta; Kimura, Hiroshi; Svanborg, Catharina

    2003-10-24

    HAMLET is a folding variant of human alpha-lactalbumin in an active complex with oleic acid. HAMLET selectively enters tumor cells, accumulates in their nuclei and induces apoptosis-like cell death. This study examined the interactions of HAMLET with nuclear constituents and identified histones as targets. HAMLET was found to bind histone H3 strongly and to lesser extent histones H4 and H2B. The specificity of these interactions was confirmed using BIAcore technology and chromatin assembly assays. In vivo in tumor cells, HAMLET co-localized with histones and perturbed the chromatin structure; HAMLET was found associated with chromatin in an insoluble nuclear fraction resistant to salt extraction. In vitro, HAMLET bound strongly to histones and impaired their deposition on DNA. We conclude that HAMLET interacts with histones and chromatin in tumor cell nuclei and propose that this interaction locks the cells into the death pathway by irreversibly disrupting chromatin organization.

  19. Endocrine tumors other than thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Norio; Dohi, Kiyohiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the tendency for the occurrence of tumors in the endocrine glands, other than the thyroid gland, in A-bomb survivors using both autopsy and clinical data. ABCC-RERF sample data using 4136 autopsy cases (1961-1977) revealed parathyroid tumors in 13 A-bomb survivors, including 3 with the associated hyperparathyroidism, with the suggestion of dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of tumors. Based on clinical data from Hiroshima University, 7 (46.7%) of 15 parathyroid tumors cases were A-bomb survivors. Data (1974-1987) from the Tumor Registry Committee (TRC) in Hiroshima Prefecture revealed that a relative risk of parathyroid tumors was 5.6 times higher in the entire group of A-bomb survivors and 16.2 times higher in the group of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors, suggesting the dose-dependent increase in their occurrence. Adrenal tumors were detected in 47 of 123 cases from the TRC data, and 15 (31.5%) of these 47 were A-bomb survivors. Particularly, 11 cases of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome included 6 A-bomb survivors (54.5%). The incidence of multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT) tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses; and the 1-9 rad group, the 10-99 rad group, and the 100 or more rad group had a risk of developing MEGT of 4.1, 5.7, and 7.1, respectively, relative to both the not-in the city group and the 0 rad group. These findings suggested that there is a correlation between A-bomb radiation and the occurrence of parathyroid tumors (including hyperparathyroidism), adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome and MEGT (especially, the combined thyroid and ovarian tumors and the combined thyroid and parathyroid tumors). (N.K.)

  20. [Pelvic reconstructions after bone tumor resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anract, Philippe; Biau, David; Babinet, Antoine; Tomeno, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The three more frequent primitive malignant bone tumour which concerned the iliac bone are chondrosarcoma, following Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma. Wide resection remains the most important part of the treatment associated with chemotherapy for osteosarcoma and the Ewing sarcoma. Iliac wing resections and obdurate ring don't required reconstruction. However, acetabular resections and iliac wing resection with disruption of the pelvic ring required reconstruction to provide acceptable functional result. Acetabular reconstruction remains high technical demanding challenge. After isolated acetabular resection or associated to obdurate ring, our usual method of reconstruction is homolateral proximal femoral autograft and total hip prosthesis but it is possible to also used : saddle prosthesis, Mac Minn prosthesis with auto or allograft, modular prosthesis or custom made prosthesis, massive allograft with or without prosthesis and femoro-ilac arthrodesis. After resection of the iliac wing plus acetabulum, reconstruction can be performed by femoro-obturatrice and femora-sacral arthrodesis, homolateral proximal femoral autograft and prosthesis, femoral medialisation, massive allograft and massive allograft. Carcinological results are lesser than resection for distal limb tumor, local recurrence rate range 17 to 45%. Functional results after Iliac wing and obdurate ring are good. However, acetabular reconstruction provide uncertain functional results. The lesser results arrive after hemipelvic or acetabular and iliac wing resection-reconstruction, especially when gluteus muscles were also resected. The most favourable results arrive after isolated acetabular or acetabular plus obturateur ring resection-reconstruction.