WorldWideScience

Sample records for lesser grain borers

  1. efficacy of rice husk ash against rice weevil and lesser grain borer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-05-05

    May 5, 2017 ... this study was to determine efficacy of RHA from “Mr. Harry” rice variety against Rhyzopertha dominica and. Sitophilus oryzae. ..... Spectroscopy, following lithium metaborate/ ..... feasibility of using RHA to treat grains meant.

  2. Gamma irradiation effects on the adult stage, mating competitiveness and sperm activity of the lesser grain borer beetle, Rhizopertha Dominica F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; Salem, Y.S.; El-Kady, E.A.; Gharib, O.H.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation dosages between 4 and 22 Krad on the adult stage of the lesser grain borer beetle, Rhizopertha Dominica F. were studied. Adult females were more sensitive to the sterilizing effects of gamma radiation than were males. Males of R. Dominica irradiated (I) as full grown pupae with 20 Krad were sterile. Males treated similarly and confined with unirradiated (U) males and females at a ratio of 1:1:1 caused 42.2% of the eggs produced to be infertile; increasing the ratio 20:1:1 caused 97.1% infertile eggs. Males and females both treated with a sterilizing dose (20 Krad) as pupae and confined with U adults at a ratio of 1:1:1 caused 43.3% infertility in the resulting eggs. When the ratio of sterile males and females was increased to 5:5:1:1, 10:10:1:1 or 15:15:1 (I:U:U), the percentage infertility reached 83.8, 93.9 and 100.0% respectively. The percentage of actual infertility was less than the expected infertility for the ratios 1:1:1:1, 5:5:1:1 and 10:10:1:1 but was exceeded with the highest ratio used (15:15:1:1). The competitiveness value for this flooding ratio was 1.00. Replacing U male by I male decreased the egg hatchability, which indicates that I male were able to negate previous insemination by U male. Insemination by U female could nullify insemination by I males

  3. Seed-Specific Stable Expression of the α-AI1 Inhibitor in Coffee Grains and the In Vivo Implications for the Development of the Coffee Berry Borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Érika V S; Bezerra, Caroline A; Romero, Juan V; Valencia, Jorge W A; Valencia-Jiménez, Arnubio; Pimenta, Lucas M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Silva, Maria C M; Meneguim, Ana M; Sá, Maria Eugênia L; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F

    Genetic transformation of coffee ( Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the α-amylase inhibitor-1 ( α-AI1 ) gene. The α-AI1 inhibitor shows considerable activity toward digestive enzymes of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei . This insect pest expends its life cycle almost entirely in coffee berries. Transgene containment in the fruit is important to meeting food and environmental safety requirements for releasing genetically modified (GM) crops. PCR analysis of T2 coffee plants showed a Mendelian single-copy segregation pattern. Ectopic transgene expression was only detected in coffee grains, as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR analysis of different plant tissues. An intense immunocytochemical signal associated with α-AI1 protein expression was localized to endospermic cells. In addition, a delay in the larval development of CBB was observed after challenging transgenic coffee seeds with the insect. These results indicate that the PHA-L promoter might be a useful tool in coffee for the seed-specific expression of genes related to coffee bean productivity, quality and pest protection. The biotechnological applicability of the α-AI1 gene for controlling CBB is also discussed. This work is the first report showing a seed-specific transgene expression in coffee plants.

  4. HOW to Identify and Control Sugar Maple Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Hoffard; Philip T. Marshall

    1978-01-01

    The sugar maple borer, Glycobius speciosus (Say), a long-horned wood boring beetle, is a common pest of sugar maple (the only known host) throughout the range of the tree. Although borer-caused mortality is rare, infestations lead to value loss through lumber defect caused by larval galleries, discoloration, decay, and twisted grain.

  5. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage percentage by stem borer was up to 18.11%. Length of the feeding tunnel in maize stem was significantly higher in January than July. In case of exit holes made by borer counted more than four holes per plant that were planted in the month of January. All in all, except the tunnel length measurement per plant, we observed similar pattern in other borer damage parameters such as exit whole counts and plant damage percentage within the tested varieties. Stem borer damage was not significantly affect on grain yield.

  6. Emerald ash borer flight potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Taylor; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robert A. Haack

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) that is rapidly spreading from the probable introduction site in Detroit, Michigan. The rapid spread to areas outside Michigan is undoubtedly due to phoretic transport on nursery stock, logs, and...

  7. Emerald ash borer life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Deborah L. Miller; Toby R. Petrice; Houping Liu

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was discovered in southeastern Michigan and nearby Ontario in June of 2002. EAB was identified as the cause of extensive ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in approximately 2,500 mi2, and...

  8. Emerald ash borer biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah Bauer; Juli Gould; Jian Duan; Mike. Ulyshen

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid from northeast Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus) tree mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Ontario, Canada. This destructive beetle apparently arrived in North America via infested solid wood packaging materials from...

  9. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  10. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami; Santa Bahadur BK; Ghana Shyam Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage per...

  11. Rejoinder to Borer on the NAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Borer (2010 launches a spirited attack on my own promulgation and defense of the non aggression principle (NAP as the lynchpin of libertarianism, as adumbrated in several of my published papers (Block, 2009A, 2010. The two of us, Borer and me, in my opinion, achieve real disagreement, a goal not always reached in the libertarian debates. That is, Borer (2010 is succinct, on point, and offers a real challenge to those of us in the Rothbardian tradition, who see the NAP as the very basis of the libertarian philosophy. The present paper is an attempt to refute each and every one of the challenges offered by Borer

  12. Goldspotted oak borer: Field identification guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hishinuma; T.W. Coleman; M.L. Flint; S.J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a flatheaded borer new to California that poses a significant threat to oak trees. The pest is native to southeastern Arizona, although a related species occurs in southern Mexico and northern Guatemala. GSOB was first collected and identified in California in 2004 in San Diego County...

  13. Maize Cob Rot in Kenya and Its Association with Stalk Borer Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanga, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    Cob rots are a major cause of crop loss in areas such as western Kenya that experience prolonged rainfall during the period of crop maturation. Cob rot fungi cause spoilage of the grain and some of them produce mycotoxins which can pose a health risk to humans and animals consuming foods prepared from contaminate grain. survey conducted in western Kenya in 1998 showed that cob rot incidence exceeded 20%. In the following year when rainfall was greater around the harvest period, cob rot fungi affected 68% of cobs. in 1998 stalk borer larvae (mainly Busseola fusca) damaged 20% of the cobs and there was a strong correlation (R= 0.87) between cob rot incidence and borer damage. In 1999 almost half of the cobs sampled showed evidence of borer damage. The result indicate that the high cob rot incidence in this pert of Kenya is due to stalk bore damage, which predisposes the cobs to fungal infection, and that management of the borer would greatly decrease cob rot incidence

  14. Rice stem borers in Malaya. A proposal to use mutation breeding for their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vohra, F C [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1970-03-01

    . Various factors pertaining to the morphology, physiology and chemical nature of the rice plant are possibly responsible for the stem borer resistance. Carefully planned experiments have to evaluate their contribution to resistance before successful breeding programs can be undertaken. A wild species of rice in Malaya, Oryza ridleyi Hook. is said to be highly resistant. Similarly, several cultivated varieties are claimed to offer considerable resistance, but none of them can be recommended for commercial planting because of unsatisfactory yield, grain size and appearance, and nutrient and cooking value. Therefore, in order to develop a valuable resistant variety one would have to improve all the above characteristics. Mutation breeding with a high standard variety maybe more promising than a long-term cross-breeding program and should, in the opinion of the author, also be attempted in other countries. Through the co-operation of the authorities of the Serdang Agriculture College, the use of their paddy fields for observation and experimentation has been secured. Preliminary work to assess the type of borer and infestation in the most common rice-varieties namely Mahsuri, Malinja and Ria is already in progress. This is essential because most of the previous work on stem borers in Malaya has been carried out on older varieties which are not much favoured either by the government or by the people. All the four species mentioned earlier have been found attacking the new varieties at Serdang. At present, the data are too meagre to warrant any definite conclusions, but the following possibilities are indicated by the field observation. (a) Some species of borers are more common in one locality than other species, (b) In a particular locality there seems to be a quantitative host variety preference, (c) There is no indication of a relationship between the borer infestation and the habit of the plants, (d) Some varieties are possibly more vulnerable during younger stages. (e

  15. Desmoid tumor within lesser sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors or fibromatoses comprise a number of benign fibrous proliferative lesions that have local infiltrative growth and tendency to recur after incomplete excision. They never metastasize. The authors present a 31-year old woman who, due to epigastric pain and palpable mass detected on presentation, underwent the excision of firm tumorous mass, 210x140x115mm in diameter, from the lesser sac. Compressing the splenic vein, the tumor caused left-sided portal hypertension which subsided after the mass was removed. The recovery was uneventful. The histological examination verified typical desmoid tumor. Twelve years after surgery, the patient remained symptom-free with no signs of recurrence.

  16. Movement and Orientation Decision Modeling of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in the Grain Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Erick M G; Campbell, James F; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-04-01

    Grain stored in bins is initially a relatively homogenous resource patch for stored-product insects, but over time, spatial pattern in insect distribution can form, due in part to insect movement patterns. However, the factors that influence stored-product insect movement patterns in grain are not well-understood. This research focused on the movement of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), within a simulated wheat grain mass (vertical monolayer of wheat) and the identification of factors that contribute to overall and upward movement (age since adult emergence from an infested kernel [1, 7, and 14 d], sex, strain, and different levels of environment quality). We also used the model selection approach to select the most relevant factors and determine the relationships among them. Three-week-old adults tended to stay closer to the surface compared with 1- or 2-wk-old insects. Also, females tended to be more active and to explore a larger area compared with males. Explored area and daily displacement were also significantly strain-dependent, and increasing grain infestation level decreased daily displacement and explored area. Variation in movement pattern is likely to influence the formation of spatial pattern and affect probability to disperse. Understanding movement behavior within a grain bin is crucial to designing better strategies to implement and interpret monitoring programs and to target control tactics. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Dispersal, phenology and predicted abundance of the larger grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenology and dispersal of the larger grain borer (LGB) in Africa is described, and comparisons are made between prediction of LGB numbers from laboratory studies and predictions from multiple linear models derived from trapping data in the field. The models were developed in Mexico and Kenya, using ...

  18. Flight potential of the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robin A.J. Taylor; Robert A. Haack

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Native to several Asian countries, EAB was discovered in six southeastern Michigan counties and southwestern Ontario in 2002. EAB presumably emerged from infested solid wood...

  19. Biology of emerald ash borer parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Jian J. Duan; Jonathan P. Lelito; Houping Liu; Juli R. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle introduced from China (Bray et al., 2011), was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in southeast Michigan and nearby Ontario in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002; Federal Register, 2003; Cappaert et al., 2005)....

  20. Laboratory rearing of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Deborah L. Miller; Houping Liu; Toby Petrice

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality throughout southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario. More isolated infestations continue to be found throughout Lower Michigan, northern...

  1. Emerald ash borer genetics: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, samples were collected from introduced sites in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ontario, Canada, as well as native sites in China, Japan, and South Korea with the help of a network of collaborators. The beetles were analyzed using DNA sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome...

  2. Emerald ash borer survival in firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to Asia and was first discovered in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. As of October 2004, EAB was only found to breed in ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. EAB is spreading naturally through adult flight as well as artificially through...

  3. Emerald ash borer biology and invasion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Yuri Baranchikov; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to eastern Asia and is primarily a pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees (Fig. 1). Established populations of EAB were first detected in the United States and Canada in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002), and based on a dendrochronology study by Siegert...

  4. Tolerance of different rice genotypes (oryza sativa l.) against the infestation of rice stem borers under natural field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Nasrullah; Tofique, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present studies report the genotypic responses of 61 rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes (35 aromatic and 26 non aromatic) against the infestation of rice stem borers under natural field conditions. The data obtained on these genotypes on larval infestation in combination with yield were the criteria to assess the resistance depicted by them. The studies showed that among aromatic genotypes, 'Khushboo-95' gave the best yield of grain and harboured the least pest infestation (2.81% dead hearts and 1.85% white heads); on the other hand variety 'Sonahri Sugdasi (P)' harboured the highest borers attack (10.37% and 19.30%) and yielded the lowest grain yield. Regarding non-aromatic genotypes, IR8-2.5-11 received least infestation (1.32% and 0.26% dead hearts and white heads, respectively) generating highest yield showing its tolerance to borer's attack, in contrast, genotype IR6-252 harboured the highest infestation (5.65%, 4.28%) and yielded minimum grain indicating its susceptibility. These results demonstrate the expression of resistance gene in the genome of tolerant rice genotypes that can provide season-long protection from the natural infestation of insect pests. (author)

  5. RF and microwave dielectric properties of stored-grain insects and their implications for potential insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.O.; Bartley, P.G. Jr.; Lawrence, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    The permittivities of bulk samples of adult insects of the rice weevil, red flour beetle, sawtoothed grain beetle, and lesser grain borer were measured at single frequencies of 9.4 and 11.7 Ghz in X-band waveguide at about 23 degrees C, and permittivities of homogenized samples of the same species were measured from 0.2 to 20 GHz at temperatures from 10 to 70 degrees C with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer. Sample densities for the coaxial-line probe measurements were determined from the X-band measurements with a linear relationship between the cube root of the dielectric constant and sample bulk density determined from permittivity measurements on bulk samples of the adult insects in a waveguide sample holder taken with the short-circuited line technique. Since linearity of the cube root of the dielectric constant with bulk density is consistent with the Landau and Lifshitz, Looyenga dielectric mixture equation, this equation was used to calculate estimated dielectric constants and loss factors of the insects from measured permittivities and volume fractions determined from measured bulk density and adult insect density determined by air-comparison pycnometer measurements. Estimated dielectric constants and loss factors of the insects are presented graphically for temperatures from 10 to 70 degrees C, and tabulated data are provided for range information and comparative purposes

  6. A Dendrochronological Analysis of Red Oak Borer Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Richard P. Guyette

    2004-01-01

    Unprecedented outbreaks of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus Haldemann) have occurred in the lower Midwestern United States. Although generally not a mortality agent, red oak borer appears to contribute to general oak decline and mortality. The objective of this project was to explore dendrochronology as a means of determining the role of tree age,...

  7. Population dynamics and distribution of the coffee berry borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population dynamics and distribution of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were studied on Coffea arabica L. in southwestern region of Ethiopia. Thirty coffee trees were sampled at weekly intervals from 2000 to 2001. Findings of this study showed that coffee berry borer population ...

  8. Overwintering physiology of the rice stem borer larvae, Chilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a major rice pest around the world. A strong ability of the rice stem borer to adapt/resist cold temperature (cold hardiness) contributes to its survival through winter. However, the physiological mechanism of its cold hardiness is poorly understood. In this study, we ...

  9. (Zea mays L.) GENOTYPES BY LEPIDOPTEROUS STEM BORERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The three maize endosperm types used in the experiment were susceptible to stem borer infestation, but there was no statistical difference with respect to stem borer infestation and severity of damage for July and August cropping, although, sweet corn tended to be more susceptible than the other endosperm types (flint and.

  10. Control of Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus stem borers by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous testing of several public Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-maize events did not show control of the African stem borer (Busseola fusca Fuller), an important stem borer species, without which stewardship would be compromised by the possibility of rapid development of resistance to Bt deltaendotoxins. This study was ...

  11. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize varieties were ...

  12. Protecting black ash from the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les Benedict

    2010-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an important resource for Tribes in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the North American continent. Ash in North America is being threatened with widespread destruction as a result of the introduction of emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis) in 2002. Measures are being taken to slow the spread of emerald ash borer beetle....

  13. Gamma radiation in the control of important storage pests of three grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Prasad, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    A dose of 1 kGy of gamma radiation completely killed adult pulse beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis Linn) within a week, but the dose of 0.5 kGy required two weeks to achieve the same level of mortality. For six month storage, 1.0 kGy dose was effective for control of natural infestation of mung beans and gram by C. Chinensis alone. The dose was also sufficient for the management of weevilling in gram and lentil, which were additionally infested with C. chinensis, rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst), and lesser grain borer (Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius). For short (one and half months) storage of mung bean and lentil, a dose of 0.25 kGy was adequate. The test of significance for doses of radiation, storage periods and their interactions, however, indicated that 1.0 kGy is the preferred dose for the control of weevilling during storage upto 6 months. (author). 13 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Chemical Aspects of Lesser Mouse Deer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment aiming for studying chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. This research explored the chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. Eight lesser mouse deer (four female and four male were used in chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat. The parameters observed included proximate analysis, amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA of the meat. The results showed that average meat chemical composition were content of water, protein, fat, ash and cholesterol were 76.33 %, 21.42 %, 0.51 %, 1.20% and 50.00 mg/100 g, respectively. Fatty acid consist of lauric acid, miristate, palmitate, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were 1.04 % 3.09%, 30.97, 0.77%., 59.41%, 3.22% and 1.12%, respectively. The total EPA and DHA was 0.13% and 0.05%,   Keywords: amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA

  15. Isolated Displaced Fracture of the Lesser Tuberosity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    publication of this report. The authors declare no competing interests. Discussion. A delay in diagnosis of a lesser tuberosity fracture may lead to significant future clinical disability (2). In one such case the patient presented with axillary nerve neuropraxia while another case reported displacement of the biceps tendon (4).

  16. The avifauna of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    The avifauna of the island of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands) is reviewed. Introductory sections, which include a chapter on the history of ornithological discovery, are followed by the main part, a systematic account in which each species and subspecies known from Flores is treated separately. A

  17. Emerald ash borer dispersal in Maryland: go forth young pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Sargent; Dick Bean; Michael Raupp; Alan J. Sawyer

    2009-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive pest from Asia, was introduced into Maryland in April 2003 via infested nursery stock shipped from Michigan to a nursery in southern...

  18. Control of Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus stem borers by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... 1International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, P.O. Box 1041 ... Key words: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize, cry1A (b) proteins, stem borers, transgenic. ... including conservation agriculture on insect pests, can only be ...

  19. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... Forages, sorghum and maize varieties were evaluated for stem borer preference and survivorship in the .... ecologies in Kenya to estimate the potential of natural refugia ..... teria such as fodder biomass, stem size, colour of.

  20. Emerald ash borer infestation rates in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric L. Smith; Andrew J. Storer; Bryan K. Roosien

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain an estimate of the infestation rate of ash trees with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Fairmaire; Coleoptera; Buprestidae), across its primary infestation zone of...

  1. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  2. Preliminary Studies on the Occurrence of Stem Borers and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out to study the occurrence of stem-borers and the incidence of stalk rot under varying population densities (64,000, 32,000, and 21,333 plants/ha) of two common cultivars (TZSR-Y and DMRZ-Y) of maize. Whereas the percentage of plants with stem borers infestation and those with stem ...

  3. Herder and Modernity: From Lesser-Taught Languages to Lesser-Taught Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Votruba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The typical North American curriculum of a lesser-taught Slavic language implicitly relies on the legacy of Johann Gottfried von Herder’s interpretation that language in and of itself contains national (ethnic culture. At the same time, enrolments are dwindling even in courses in the most commonly taught Slavic languages. Millennials’ understandable focus on the practicality of the courses they take make it unlikely for the lesser-taught languages to survive the slump. On the other hand, foreign culture courses are appearing to hold their ground more successfully. Slavic departments may reconsider Herder’s dictum as they try to maintain or establish programs in lesser-taught languages and cultures.

  4. Giant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  5. Effects of Different Planting Times of Different Rice Cultivars on Control of the Striped Stem Borer (Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Oskou

    2016-06-01

    measured on 10 sample hills on each plot after the end of growth germination and before harvesting respectively. Rice yields were measured on 80 sample hills (5 m2 on each plot. Sample hills were chosen diagonally. Effect of planting times and rice cultivars on striped stem borer infestation were determined by analyzing of variance using by two-way Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA and the mean difference were tested using Tukey test. Parameters were analyzed using the SAS software. Results and Discussion: Analyses of variance showed that there was significant difference between stem borer infestation at three planting time, cultivars and their interaction. Stem borer infestation in the third planting time was significantly higher than the other two planting times. The most degree of dead hearts (11.9% and white heads (31.23% infestation were belonged to Tarom cultivar in the first planting time and Fajr cultivar in third planting time, respectively. The least degree of dead hearts (0.6% and white heads (4.56% infestation was observed on Neda in the first planting time. Also, grain yield of all rice cultivars grown at the first and second planting was higher than that of the third planting time. As earlier discussed, rice crop of the first planting time was heavily infested with stem borer during early vegetative stage. Although affected rice plants had been replaced and recovery of replanted tillers was good, they grew slower. Yield potential of all six cultivars was significantly different. Yield of a cultivar depends upon its yield potential. However, biotic and abiotic threats could reduce its yield potential. The present study showed that stem borers are potential threat when their population is higher as shown in the third planting time. The least mean rice yield (3.875 t/h occurred in the third planting time compared to those found at the first and second planting time, i.e. 5.356t/h and 5.321 t/h respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that adjustment of planting time

  6. Development of kairomone based control programs for cocoa pod borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cocoa Pod Borer moth presents a unique opportunity to develop host volatile attractants for control strategies for the following reasons. First, knowing what volatiles are critical for host finding by females will allow for development of mass trapping and/or attract and kill strategies to cont...

  7. Correlation between agronomic and stem borer resistant traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GY had significant relationship with days to 50% pollen shed, (DTA) (rg = 0.49**), plant height (PH) (rg ... that either days to 50% pollen shed or plant height could be considered in selection for stem borer resistance. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  8. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  9. Progress on biological control of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Juli Gould

    2008-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, a buprestid native to northeastern Asia, was determined as the cause of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in areas of southern Michigan and Ontario, Canada, in 2002. Infestations have been found since in Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia....

  10. Evaluating rapid response to a goldspotted oak borer diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Scott; Kevin Turner

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the goldspotted oak borer (Agrilus auroguttatus, GSOB) was discovered in the mountain community of Idyllwild, 56.3 km north of its known area of infestation. This was the third time that a point of outbreak was discovered >32.2 km from the GSOB infestation area, suggesting that human transport of GSOB has substantially expanded the...

  11. Invasion genetics of emerald ash borer in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) was first detected in Michigan and Canada in 2002. Efforts to eradicate this destructive pest by federal and state regulatory agencies continue. Knowledge of EAB genetics will be useful in understanding the invasion dynamics of the beetle and to help identify geographic localities of potential biocontrol agents.

  12. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  13. Avoiding revenue loss due to 'lesser of' contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodolak, Frederick; Gutierrez, Henry

    2014-08-01

    Finance managers seeking to avoid lost revenue attributable to lesser-of-charge-or-fixed-fee (lesser-of) clauses in their contracts should: Identify payer contracts that contain lesser-of clauses. Prepare lesser-of lost-revenue reports for non-bundled and bundled rates. For claims with covered charges below the bundled rate, identify service codes associated with the greatest proportion of total gross revenue and determine new, higher charge levels for those codes. Establish an approach for setting charges for non-bundled fee schedules to address lost-revenue-related issues. Incorporate changes into overall strategic or hospital zero-based pricing modeling and parameters.

  14. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Abdul; Mazumdar, Sweety

    2009-08-01

    Understanding deformation mechanisms in Himalayan rocks is a challenging proposition due to the complex nature of the deformed rocks and their genesis. Crustal deformation in the Himalayan thrust belt typically occurs in elastico-frictional (EF) or quasi-plastic (QP) regimes at depths controlled mainly by regional strain-rate and geothermal gradient. However, material property, grain-size and their progressive changes during deformation are also important controlling factors. We present evidence of EF deformation from Gondwana rocks developed during the emplacement of one of the frontal horses (Jorthang horse) in the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) structure associated with Lesser Himalayan rocks in the footwall of the Ramgarh thrust in the Rangit window near Jorthang in the Sikkim Himalaya. The rocks in the horse exhibit systematic changes in microand meso-structures from an undeformed protolith to cataclasite suggesting that it was emplaced under elastico-frictional conditions. Meso- to micro-scale shear fractures are seen developed in Gondwana sandstone and slate while intercalated fine-grained shale-coal-carbonates are deformed by cataclastic flow suggesting that material property and grain-size have played an important role in the deformation of the Jorthang horse. In contrast, the hanging wall schists and quartzites of the Ramgarh thrust exhibit quasi-plastic deformation structures. This suggests that the Jorthang horse was emplaced under shallower crustal conditions than the antiformally folded Ramgarh thrust sheet even though the Ramgarh sheet presently overlies the Jorthang horse.

  15. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  16. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  17. Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric studies in parts of Almora crystalline zone, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya. Amar Agarwal, K K Agarwal, R Bali, Chandra Prakash and Gaurav Joshi. Supplementary data. Table S1. AMS data, representing mean of values from cores (N) collected from each site ...

  18. Interstellar grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1980-11-01

    Interstellar extinction of starlight was observed and plotted as a function of inverse wavelength. Agreement with the calculated effects of the particle distribution is shown. The main kinds of grain distinguished are: (1) graphite spheres of radius 0.02 microns, making up 10% of the total grain mass (2) small dielectric spheres of radius 0.04 microns making up 25% and (3) hollow dielectric cylinders containing metallic iron, with diameters of 2/3 microns making up 45%. The remaining 20% consists of other metals, metal oxides, and polysiloxanes. Absorption factor evidence suggests that the main dielectric component of the grains is organic material.

  19. Biotechnology for cocoa pod borer resistance in cocoa

    OpenAIRE

    Chaidamsari, T.

    2005-01-01

    The cocoa tree ( Theobroma cacao L.) produces the beans that are the source of cacao, the basis for chocolate production, and an important commodity crop in South America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia.Cocoa Pod Borer (CPB,( Conopomorpha cramerella)has been the single most important limiting factor for cacao production in Southeast Asia.So far, there has been no single cost effective and environmentally safe way to control this pest.This thesis describes the first steps in a biotechnologica...

  20. The impact of predators on maize stem borers in coastal Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonhof, M.

    2000-01-01

    Damage caused by Lepidopteran stem borers is one of the most important constraints to maize production in East and southern Africa. Of the stem borer complex, Chilo partellus Swinhoe is the most abundant species in lowland areas. Although control strategies exist, many

  1. Field host range testing of Spathius agrili, a parasitoid of emerald ash borer: evaluating nontarget impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Strazanac; Juli R. Gould; Robert A. Haack; Ivich Fraser

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilis planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), into the Midwest from Asia has had a devastating affect on ash (Fraxinus spp.). As the emerald ash borer's ability to spread became better understood and its distribution in the Midwest increased, biocontrol became an increasingly...

  2. Population genetics and biological control of goldspotted oak borer, an invasive pest of California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanessa Lopez; Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Richard Stouthamer; Mark Hoddle

    2015-01-01

    California’s oak woodlands are threatened by the recent introduction of goldspotted oak borer (Agrilus auroguttatus). This invasive wood-borer is indigenous to mountain ranges in southern Arizona where its low population densities may be due to the presence of co-evolved, host-specific natural enemies. Reuniting A. auroguttatus...

  3. Levels of control of Chilo partellus stem borer in segregating tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya, stem borers destroy an estimated 400,000 metric tons, or 13.5%, of farmers' annual maize harvest costing about US$80 millions. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize controls stem borers without harming humans, livestock and the environment and was sown to 140m ha-1 globally in 2009. Two public Bt maize lines of ...

  4. Guide to insect borers in North American broadleaf trees and shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Solomon

    1995-01-01

    This book is an illustrated guide to 300 species of inset borers that attack hardwood trees, shrubs, and other woody angiosperms in North America. The major purposes of this guide are to identify insect borers and theri damage to provide information for controlling them. Readers most likely to find this guide useful are practiving foresters, entomologists, and others...

  5. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    kinematics of the LHD is in the process of being worked out .... also played a major role in the deformation process as evident from .... mation occurred at shallow crustal levels within ..... deep structure of the outer and Lesser Himalaya, Jumoan.

  6. Allium hookeri , Thw. Enum. A lesser known terrestrial perennial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A lesser known terrestrial perennial herb used as food and its ethnobotanical ... from the wilderness, for consumption and traditional healing of various ailments. ... plants, the lifestyles of the people are changed and they prefer 'junk foods'.

  7. Comparative nutritional evaluation of some lesser known non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative nutritional evaluation of some lesser known non leguminous browse ... Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF) and ash level of the ... to be useful to ruminants as dietary supplement to poor quality dry season feed ...

  8. Pit above the lesser tuberosity in axial view radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Han, Kyeong-Jin; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Chung, Nam-Su; Park, Do Young

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between the presence of a pit above the lesser tuberosity on axial view radiographs and rotator cuff tears and compared the demographic data between groups according to the presence of a pit above the lesser tuberosity. The hypothesis of this study was that the radiographic finding of a pit above the lesser tuberosity is related to rotator cuff tears. For 112 patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear, plain radiographs of the symptomatic shoulder (tear side radiographs) and plain radiographs of the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder (no-tear side radiographs) were assessed. Seventeen radiological findings, including a pit above the lesser tuberosity, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and sclerosis, were recorded by one blinded observer. Demographic data such as age, duration of symptoms, sex, arm dominance, smoking history, trauma history, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant score, and involved tendon were collected. A pit above the lesser tuberosity was noted on tear side radiographs of 40 patients (35.7 %) and on the no-tear side radiographs of 27 patients (24.1 %), representing a significant difference (P = 0.040). A pit associated with a rotator cuff tear was observed more often in the dominant arm (P = 0.040) and more often in patients with less previous trauma (P = 0.024). A pit above the lesser tuberosity on axial view radiography was associated with a rotator cuff tear and occurred more often in the dominant arm of patients who had no trauma history. Prognostic study, Level III.

  9. EFFICIENCY OF THE CHEMICAL TREATMENT AGAINST THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN SEED MAIZE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Raspudić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a chemical treatment against larvae of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner. The experiment was set up in 2010 and 2011 in Čepin (eastern Croatia in two treatments: control treatment and insecticide treatment. The trial involved two hybrids of FAO group 400: PR37N01 and PR37F73. Biology of pests was monitored in order to determine population size and larvae development stage as well as the optimal time of insecticide application. After determination of thresholds, maize was treated with chemical formulations of active substance dimethoate. Towards the end of vegetation, length of stem damage, number of larvae in maize stalk and ear as well as grain yield were recorded by dissection of maize stalks. Statistical analysis shows that year, hybrid and chemical treatment significantly influenced the incidence of this pest and justified the use of chemical preparations with mandatory monitoring biology of this pest.

  10. Primary small cell carcinoma of the lesser omentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Feng Feng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although pulmonary small cell carcinoma (SCC is seen frequently, SCC that originates from the extrapulmonary organs is extremely rare. We herein report a case of a SCC located in the lesser omentum. A 61-year-old male was admitted to our department due to intermittent epigastralgia for 2 months. Ultrasonography (US revealed an irregular hypoechoic mass measuring about 58 mm × 50 mm × 45 mm under the left lobe of the liver. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed to verify the irregular mass with T1- and T2- weighted images between the left lobe of liver and the stomach. At laparotomy, the well-circumscribed neoplasm was found in the lesser omentum, and the fundus of the neoplasm was located in the root of left gastric artery. Intraoperative microscopic evaluation of frozen sections revealed malignancy of the lesser omentum. Resection of the neoplasm was performed, and the combined resection of the vagal nerve was also performed for the partial adhesion. Pyloroplasty was performed for avoiding delayed gastric emptying caused by combined resection of vagal nerve. The lymph nodes dissection at lesser curvature and right cardia was also performed with a negative result. Based on the histological findings, the final diagnosis of primary lesser omental SCC was confirmed. The pathologic staging showed locoregional disease.

  11. Varietal role of in the management of the larger grain borer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    the weight losses were highest in ZM 521 and lowest in LOCAL 2. ANOVA indicated ... regard, an evaluation of effects of some more maize genotypes ... effects of the applied measures ... in jars with maize (moisture content 11.84% to 12.75%) ...

  12. Vaccine-induced canine distemper in a lesser panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M; Montali, R J; Brownstein, D; James, A E; Appel, M J

    1976-11-01

    A fatal disease occurred in a lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) 2 weeks after vaccination with modified live distemper vaccine. The disease clinically resembled canine distemper. Pathologically there was giant cell pneumonia, with canine distemper viral inclusion bodies in pulmonary and digestive tract epithelium. Viral isolates were indicative of an attenuated strain rather than virulent types.

  13. Nutrient Content of Four Lesser – Known Green Leafy Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of four lesser – known leafy vegetable species (Heinsiacrinita, Lasiantheraafricana, Colocasiaesculenta and Ipomeabatatas) used for traditional food preparations by the Efik and Ibibio ethnic groups in Nigeria were analyzed for proximate composition, amino acid profile and mineral contents. The leaves were ...

  14. Migration flyway of the Mediterranean breeding Lesser Crested Tern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis emigratus breeding population in the Mediterranean is found exclusively in Libya, on the two coastal islands of Gara and Elba and one wetland on the mainland coast at Benghazi. In order to improve knowledge of the species migration to wintering quarters in West Africa, ...

  15. An amateur botanist on the Lesser Sunda Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmutz, Erwin

    1976-01-01

    Tabula Rasa. In 1963 as a missionary I arrived in the Flora Malesiana region, notably in the Lesser Sunda Islands. A certain ’sensus botanicus’ was my only equipment for botanical surveys, and the next thing to do was to walk the arduous but occasionally quite entertaining road to discovery. I often

  16. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  17. Sex determination in the Lesser Flamingo ( Phoenicopterus minor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR amplification of the CHD-Z and CHD-W genes using DNA extracted from the blood samples was used to determine the sex of each bird. There were significant differences in mass and tarsus length among the three age groups, indicating that Lesser Flamingos continue to grow in skeletal size and mass between ...

  18. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  19. Factors that influence emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) adult longevity and oviposition under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Juli Gould; Leah S. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a nonnative insect from Asia that threatens ash trees in the urban and natural forests of North America. Research on this invasive insect and rearing parasitoids for...

  20. Study on the growth and development of brinjal shoot and fruit borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... 2Department of Crop Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. ... various aspects of the insect's life and activity with a view to evolving .... of brinjal shoot and fruit borer is still a difficult job. Many.

  1. Visualizing the mesothoracic spiracles in a bark beetle: The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study aimed at determining whether the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) possesses mycangia, we fortuitously detected the mesothoracic spiracles, which are usually concealed. The mesothoracic s...

  2. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  3. Optimization of visual trapping methodology for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Francese; Damon J. Crook; Ivich Fraser; David R. Lance; Alan J. Sawyer; Victor C. Mastro

    2009-01-01

    As the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), spreads throughout the range of North American ash species, better tools are needed for the detection and delimitation of new infestations...

  4. Parasitoids attacking emerald ash borers in western Pennsylvania and their potential use in biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Duan; R.W. Fuester; J. Wildonger; P.B. Taylor; S. Barth; S-E. Spichiger

    2009-01-01

    Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin....

  5. Slowing ash mortality: a potential strategy to slam emerald ash borer in outlier sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Nathan W. Siegert; John Bedford

    2009-01-01

    Several isolated outlier populations of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) were discovered in 2008 and additional outliers will likely be found as detection surveys and public outreach activities...

  6. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis SDS-502 on adult emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Diana K. Londo& #241; o

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, an intermittent pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in northeastern Asia, was discovered in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In North America, infestations of EAB are now known in 13 states and 2 provinces.

  7. Foliar nutrients explain goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, adult feeding preference among four California oak species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Tom. W. Coleman; Michael. I. Jones; Mary. L. Flint; Steven. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Adults of the invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), consumed foliar weight in no-choice feeding tests of, in descending order, California black oak Quercus kelloggii Newb., Engelmann oak, Quercus engelmannii Greene, coast live oak, Quercus...

  8. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  9. Evaluation of tsunami risk in the Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zahibo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to give the preliminary estimates of the tsunami risks for the Lesser Antilles. We investigated the available data of the tsunamis in the French West Indies using the historical data and catalogue of the tsunamis in the Lesser Antilles. In total, twenty-four (24 tsunamis were recorded in this area for last 400 years; sixteen (16 events of the seismic origin, five (5 events of volcanic origin and three (3 events of unknown source. Most of the tsunamigenic earthquakes (13 occurred in the Caribbean, and three tsunamis were generated during far away earthquakes (near the coasts of Portugal and Costa Rica. The estimates of tsunami risk are based on a preliminary analysis of the seismicity of the Caribbean area and the historical data of tsunamis. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of historical extreme runup tsunami data on Guadeloupe, and these data are revised after a survey in Guadeloupe.

  10. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed.

  11. Susceptibility of The Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin CRY1AC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Kyawt Kyawt Ei

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The larval susceptibility of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, to a Bacillus thuringiensis protein (Cry1Ac was evaluated using insect feeding bioassays. The founding population of O. furnacalis was originally collected from the experimental station of UGM at Kalitirto and had been reared in the laboratory for three generations using an artificial diet “InsectaLf”. The tested instars were exposed on diets treated with a series of concentrations of Cry1Ac for one week. The LC50 values on the seventh day after treatment for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars were 7.79, 21.12, 113.66, and 123.17 ppm, respectively, showing that the higher the instars the lesser the susceptibility to Cry1Ac. When the neonates were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cry1Ac (0.0583, 0.116, and 0.5830 ppm, growth and development of the surviving larvae were inhibited. The fecundity and viability of females produced from treated larvae decreased with increasing the concentrations. These findings indicate that Cry1Ac is toxic to larva of O. furnacalis and has chronic effects to larvae surviving from Cry1Ac ingestion.   Kepekaan larva penggerek batang jagung Asia, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, terhadap protein Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac diuji dengan metode celup pakan. Larva berasal dari pertanaman jagung di KP-4, UGM di Kalitirto dan telah dikembangbiakkan di laboratorium menggunakan pakan buatan (InsectaLF selama tiga generasi sebelum digunakan untuk pengujian. Larva O. furnacalis yang diuji dipaparkan pada pakan buatan yang telah dicelupkan pada seri konsentrasi Cry1Ac. Nilai LC50 pada hari ketujuh setelah perlakukan untuk instar 1, 2, 3, dan 4 berturut-turut adalah 0,79; 21,12; 113,66; dan 123,17 ppm. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa instar yang semakin tinggi tingkat kepekaannya terhadap Cry1Ac semakin menurun. Larva yang baru menetas dan diberi pakan yang telah dicelupkan pada konsentrasi sublethal Cry1Ac

  12. Regional development of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Salamaga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Regional development includes qualitative changes in economy (e.g. in production, investments, employment as well as qualitative changes (regarding the structure of economy and society, changes in the environment. The research of regional development is important and necessary in order to make appropriate decisions at the regional and local level. The main purpose of the article is comparative analysis of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship in the area of economic, social and ecological development. Scientific aim: The scientific aims of paper are verifying the hypothesis concerning eco-development and forecasting the level of regional development in districts of Lesser Poland Voivodship. Methodology/methods: In the research of regional development the quality index of economic, social and ecological development has been proposed which has been calculated on the basis of a certain aggregation of the results of the Principal Component Analysis made on the correlation matrix of standardised variables being the components of the index. Forecasts of the regional development level in districts were calculated with the use of different econometric models as linear model, exponential model, or power model. Findings: The findings prove that the Lesser Poland Voivodship is characterised by considerable disproportions in regional development. The most favourable conditions for economic and social development are in the districts with large city agglomerations as well as extensive municipality infrastructure and transport infrastructure. The presented results demonstrate that the majority of districts have not exhibited a constant tendency to changes in the positions in successive ranking lists in terms of the economic, social and ecological development. The positions occupied by most districts are generally stable and have not changed considerably in the examined period. Conclusions: The research has confirmed the negative

  13. Strategic removal of host trees in isolated, satellite infestations of emerald ash borer can reduce population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel J. Fahrner; Mark Abrahamson; Robert C. Venette; Brian H. Aukema

    2017-01-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive beetle causing significant mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and western Russia. The invasive range has expanded to more than half of the states in the United States since the initial detection in Michigan, USA in 2002. Emerald ash borer is typically managed with a combination of techniques...

  14. Introgression between divergent corn borer species in a region of sympatry: implications on the evolution and adaptation of pest arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, and European corn borer, O. nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) cause damage to cultivated maize in spatially distinct geographies, and have evolved divergent hydrocarbons as the basis of sexual communication. The Yili area of Xinjiang Province China repres...

  15. Monitoring the establishment and abundance of introduced parasitoids of emerald ash borer larvae in Maryland, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical biological control can be an important tool for managing invasive species such as emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Emerald ash borer is now widespread throughout the United States, and was first detected in Maryland in 2003. The biological control program to manage emera...

  16. Ecological and physiological aspects of aestivation-diapause in the larvae of two Pyralid stalk borers of maize in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Stalk borers are highly destructive to a large number of important graminaceous crops all over the world. Some examples of economically important stalk borers and a general description of their life-cycle are mentioned in chapter 1. In the same chapter difficulties in controlling the insects are

  17. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Xing; Cheng, Jia-An

    2008-07-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

  18. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-hua; Jiang, Ming-xing; Cheng, Jia-an

    2008-01-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

  19. White Fringetree as a Novel Larval Host for Emerald Ash Borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don

    2015-02-01

    Emerald ash borer is an invasive Asian pest of ash species in North America. All North American species of ash tested so far are susceptible to it, but there are no published reports of this insect developing fully in non-ash hosts in the field in North America. I report here evidence that emerald ash borer can attack and complete development in white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus L., a species native to the southeastern United States that is also planted ornamentally. Four of 20 mature ornamental white fringetrees examined in the Dayton, Ohio area showed external symptoms of emerald ash borer attack, including the presence of adult exit holes, canopy dieback, and bark splitting and other deformities. Removal of bark from one of these trees yielded evidence of at least three generations of usage by emerald ash borer larvae, several actively feeding live larvae, and a dead adult confirmed as emerald ash borer. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The relationship between trees and human health: evidence from the spread of the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Butry, David T; Michael, Yvonne L; Prestemon, Jeffrey P; Liebhold, Andrew M; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Mao, Megan Y

    2013-02-01

    Several recent studies have identified a relationship between the natural environment and improved health outcomes. However, for practical reasons, most have been observational, cross-sectional studies. A natural experiment, which provides stronger evidence of causality, was used to test whether a major change to the natural environment-the loss of 100 million trees to the emerald ash borer, an invasive forest pest-has influenced mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory diseases. Two fixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and county-level mortality from 1990 to 2007 in 15 U.S. states, while controlling for a wide range of demographic covariates. Data were collected from 1990 to 2007, and the analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. There was an increase in mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness in counties infested with the emerald ash borer. The magnitude of this effect was greater as infestation progressed and in counties with above-average median household income. Across the 15 states in the study area, the borer was associated with an additional 6113 deaths related to illness of the lower respiratory system, and 15,080 cardiovascular-related deaths. Results suggest that loss of trees to the emerald ash borer increased mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness. This finding adds to the growing evidence that the natural environment provides major public health benefits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. [DESIGN AND CLINICAL APPLICATION OF LESSER TROCHANTERIC REDUCTION FIXATION SYSTEM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoze; Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Jin; Xie, Huibin; Yu, Jiefeng

    2015-02-01

    To design and produce a lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system and verify its value and effectiveness. A lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system was designed and produced according to the anatomical features of the lesser trochanteric fractures. Sixty-six patients with intertrochanteric fractures of Evans type III were included between January 2010 and July 2012. Of 66 patients, 32 were treated with dynamic hip screw (DHS) assisted with the lesser trochanteric reduction fixation system (study group), and 34 cases were treated with DHS only (control group). The 2 groups were comparable with no significant difference in gender, age, the reasons, and the types of the fractures (P > 0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, neck-shaft angle, bone healing time, ratio of successful fixations, and the functional evaluation of the hip joint after operation were compared between 2 groups. The study group had shorter operation time [(58.4 ± 5.3) minutes] and less intraoperative blood loss [(186.3 ± 6.6) mL than the control group [(78.5 ± 6.2)minutes and (246.2 ± 8.7) mL], showing significant differences (t = -14.040, P = 0.000; t = -31.145, P = 0.000). There was no significant difference in neck-shaft angle between study group [(138.6 ± 3.0)] and control group [(139.4 ± 2.9) degrees] (t = -1.044, P = 0.301). The wounds healed by first intention in both groups. The 30 and 31 patients were followed up 12 to 24 months (mean, 15 months) in the study group, and 13 to 25 months (mean, 16 months) in the control group, respectively. All fractures healed well in 2 groups. The study group had significantly shorter healing time [(8.8 ± 2.0) weeks] than the control group [(10.7 ± 3.4) weeks] (t = -2.871, P = 0.006). At 12 months after operation, coxa vara happened in 2 cases of the study group with a successful fixation ratio of 93.3% and in 10 cases of the control group with a successful fixation ratio of 67.7%, showing significant difference (Χ2 = 6

  2. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  3. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  4. The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis fairmaire (coleoptera: buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Valuation issues in lesser developed countries: Investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Privatization has become the buzzword of the early 1990s, as all over the world governments are selling off their assets. Monopolistic utilities such as gas, water and waste disposal - but particularly electric - are prime assets for sale because their cash flows and competitive environment are reasonably predictable. Utility privatization in lesser developed countries (LDC) is giving rise to many new investment opportunities where predictions of high growth rates lead to anticipation of lucrative returns. Potential investors, however, should fully exercise the concept of caveat emptor: let the buyer beware. Coupled with these lucrative returns are risks arising from less stable political and economic conditions. possible market inefficiencies, and potentially high transaction costs. This article explores the central issues involved in valuing privatization investment opportunities in LDCs and performing requisite due diligence reviews

  6. Muon tomography: Plans for observations in the Lesser Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, Dominique; Beauducel, Francois; Lesparre, Nolwenn; Tarantola, Albert; Declais, Yves; Marteau, Jacques; Nicollin, Florence

    2010-01-01

    The application of muon tomography to monitor and image the internal structure of volcanoes in the Lesser Antilles is discussed. Particular focus is directed towards the three volcanoes that fall under the responsibility of the Institut de Physique du Globe of Paris, namely La Montagne Pelee in Martinique, La Soufriere in Guadeloupe, and the Soufriere Hills in Montserrat. The technological criteria for the design of portable muon telescopes are presented in detail for both their mechanical and electronic aspects. The detector matrices are constructed with scintillator strips, and their detection characteristics are discussed. The tomography inversion is presented, and its distinctive characteristics are briefly discussed. Details are given on the implementation of muon tomography experiments on La Soufriere in Guadeloupe. (author)

  7. The difference in cultural curriculum: for a lesser (Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo César Bueno Nunes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current time is contingent, plural, decentralized, free of old identities and permeated by the noise of voices that have never been heard. Inserted in such context, the school tries to overcome traces of the past and face the struggles of the present. Regarding physical education, the cultural curriculum seems to contribute with the new era mentality by questioning the hegemony of body practices and meanings of the privileged groups to promote the pedagogy of difference. This study analyzed the most important works on this proposal, identifying teaching principles and procedures that characterize it and submitted them to the confrontation with the notion of pure difference by Gilles Deleuze. The results indicate that the cultural curriculum takes the features of a lesser (physical education when it listens what the „different ones‟ have to say and pays attention to the cultural body repertoire that students can access

  8. Predicting stem borer density in maize using RapidEye data and generalized linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Landmann, Tobias; Kyalo, Richard; Ong'amo, George; Mwalusepo, Sizah; Sulieman, Saad; Ru, Bruno Le

    2017-05-01

    Average maize yield in eastern Africa is 2.03 t ha-1 as compared to global average of 6.06 t ha-1 due to biotic and abiotic constraints. Amongst the biotic production constraints in Africa, stem borers are the most injurious. In eastern Africa, maize yield losses due to stem borers are currently estimated between 12% and 21% of the total production. The objective of the present study was to explore the possibility of RapidEye spectral data to assess stem borer larva densities in maize fields in two study sites in Kenya. RapidEye images were acquired for the Bomet (western Kenya) test site on the 9th of December 2014 and on 27th of January 2015, and for Machakos (eastern Kenya) a RapidEye image was acquired on the 3rd of January 2015. Five RapidEye spectral bands as well as 30 spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were utilized to predict per field maize stem borer larva densities using generalized linear models (GLMs), assuming Poisson ('Po') and negative binomial ('NB') distributions. Root mean square error (RMSE) and ratio prediction to deviation (RPD) statistics were used to assess the models performance using a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. The Zero-inflated NB ('ZINB') models outperformed the 'NB' models and stem borer larva densities could only be predicted during the mid growing season in December and early January in both study sites, respectively (RMSE = 0.69-1.06 and RPD = 8.25-19.57). Overall, all models performed similar when all the 30 SVIs (non-nested) and only the significant (nested) SVIs were used. The models developed could improve decision making regarding controlling maize stem borers within integrated pest management (IPM) interventions.

  9. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.

  10. Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-08-01

    The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies.

  11. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J. Haavik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae, with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus. On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface, yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2. In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus, exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative.

  12. Do Zircon age Spectra Record Magmatic Cyclicity at Soufrière (Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, A. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Lindsay, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Soufrière Volcanic Center (Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles) is a long-lived arc-volcanic system that evolved over the past 5 - 6 Ma. Its most recent volcanic activity between 20 and 40 ka was concentrated within the prominent Qualibou topographic depression and produced two voluminous pyroclastic deposits: Choiseul and the overlying Belfond. In addition, several dacitic lava domes exist within the Qualibou depression. Because evidence of earlier volcanic activity in long-lived magma systems is frequently obliterated by subsequent eruptive or volcano-tectonic events, high spatial resolution U-Th dating of zircon combined with (U-Th)/He dating is a powerful tool to identify magma crystallization episodes at depth and to link these to the eruptive record. U-Th model ages and disequilibrium corrected U-Pb ages for 56 individual zircons from Soufrière lavas (Morne Bonin, Belfond, Terre Blanche) and pumice (Choiseul, Belfond) were determined by secondary ionization mass spectrometry. The majority of results is on unpolished zircons where analysis pits integrate over the outermost ~10 μm of individual grains with a lateral spatial resolution of ~40 μm. Selected grains were subsequently analyzed by (U-Th)/He methods. Belfond and Terre Blanche (U-Th)/He zircon ages (~20 ka) agree with previous 14C charcoal ages, whereas Morne Bonin ages are much older (~250 ka). Overall, the U-Th zircon crystallization age spectrum reveals a remarkable range between ~20 and ~600 ka and displays multiple peaks, among which the most prominent are tentatively identified at ~40 ka, ~80 ka, ~130 ka, ~200 ka and ~500 ka. The distribution of rim ages indicates that most zircons lack overgrowth dating from just prior to the eruption, but the youngest ages for each sample overlap with the eruption ages. Soufrière zircons thus reveal magma intrusion, cooling, and crystallization cycles within the underlying plutonic system for which the volcanic stratigraphic record is sketchy.

  13. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

    2010-10-01

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the

  14. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively.

  15. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood.

  16. Modeling of Marine Natural Hazards in the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahibo, Narcisse; Nikolkina, Irina; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2010-05-01

    The Caribbean Sea countries are often affected by various marine natural hazards: hurricanes and cyclones, tsunamis and flooding. The historical data of marine natural hazards for the Lesser Antilles and specially, for Guadeloupe are presented briefly. Numerical simulation of several historical tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea (1755 Lisbon trans-Atlantic tsunami, 1867 Virgin Island earthquake tsunami, 2003 Montserrat volcano tsunami) are performed within the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. Numerical results demonstrate the importance of the real bathymetry variability with respect to the direction of propagation of tsunami wave and its characteristics. The prognostic tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed using various forms of seismic and hydrodynamics sources. These results are used to estimate the far-field potential for tsunami hazards at coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. The nonlinear shallow-water theory is also applied to model storm surges induced by tropical cyclones, in particular, cyclones "Lilli" in 2002 and "Dean" in 2007. Obtained results are compared with observed data. The numerical models have been tested against known analytical solutions of the nonlinear shallow-water wave equations. Obtained results are described in details in [1-7]. References [1] N. Zahibo and E. Pelinovsky, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 1, 221 (2001). [2] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, A. Yalciner, A. Kurkin, A. Koselkov and A. Zaitsev, Oceanologica Acta, 26, 609 (2003). [3] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, A. Kurkin and A. Kozelkov, Science Tsunami Hazards. 21, 202 (2003). [4] E. Pelinovsky, N. Zahibo, P. Dunkley, M. Edmonds, R. Herd, T. Talipova, A. Kozelkov and I. Nikolkina, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 22, 44 (2004). [5] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, E. Okal, A. Yalciner, C. Kharif, T. Talipova and A. Kozelkov, Science of Tsunami Hazards, 23, 25 (2005). [6] N. Zahibo, E. Pelinovsky, T. Talipova, A. Rabinovich, A. Kurkin and I

  17. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  18. The lesser evil? Initiating a benzodiazepine prescription in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthierens, Sibyl; Habraken, Hilde; Petrovic, Mirko; Christiaens, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Objective Chronic benzodiazepine (BZD) use is widespread and linked with adverse effects. There is consensus concerning the importance of initiating BZD as a crucial moment. Nevertheless specific research in this field is lacking. This paper addresses the views of GPs on why they start prescribing BZDs to first-time users. Design Qualitative study with five focus groups analysed using a systematic content analysis. Setting Regions of Ghent and Brussels in Belgium. Subjects A total of 35 general practitioners. Main outcome measure The GPs’ perspective on their initiating of BZD prescribing. Results GPs reported that they are cautious in initiating BZD usage. At the same time, GPs feel overwhelmed by the psychosocial problems of their patients. They show empathy by prescribing. They feel in certain situations there are no other solutions and they experience BZDs as the lesser evil. They admit to resorting to BZDs because of time restraint and lack of alternatives. GPs do not perceive the addictive nature of BZD consumption as a problem with first-time users. GPs do not specifically mention patients’ demand as an element for starting. Conclusion The main concern of GPs is to help the patient. GPs should be aware of the addictive nature of BZD even in low doses and a non-pharmacological approach should be seen as the best first approach. If GPs decide to prescribe a BZD they should make plain to the patient that the medication is only a “temporary” solution with clear agreements with regard to medication withdrawal. PMID:18041658

  19. Lethal trap trees: a potential option for emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Phillip A. Lewis

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Economic and ecological impacts of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality resulting from emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) invasion are severe in forested, residential and urban areas. Management options include girdling ash trees to attract ovipositing adult beetles and then destroying infested trees...

  20. Dendrochronological reconstruction of the epicenter and early spread of emerald ash borer in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough; Andrew M. Liebhold; Frank W. Telewski

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis was identified in 2002 as the cause of extensive ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and mortality in Detroit, Michigan, and has since killed millions of ash trees in the US and Canada. When discovered, it was not clear how long it had been present or at what location the invading colony started....

  1. Reconstructing the temporal and spatial dynamics of emerald ash borer adults through dendrochronological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough; Andrew M. Liebhold; Frank W. Telewski

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae) was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in southeastern lower Michigan and Windsor, Ontario. Localized outlier populations have since been discovered across much of lower Michigan and in areas of Indiana, Ohio and...

  2. Recent development and advances in survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. ​Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Taylor Scarr; Joseph Francese; Damon Crook; Michael Domingue; Harold Thistle; Brian Strom; Laura Blackburn; Daniel A. Herms; Krista Ryall; Patrick. Tobin

    2016-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was discovered near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario in 2002 (www.emeraldashborer. info 2016) and continues to spread in North America. Canadian and U.S. federal, provincial, and state regulatory agencies have used artificial traps...

  3. Three-year progression of emerald ash borer-induced decline and mortality in southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Annemarie Smith; Robert P. Long; Robin A.J. Taylor; Daniel A. Herms

    2008-01-01

    We monitored the progression of ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and mortality due to emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, in 38 forest stands in the upper Huron River watershed region of southeastern Michigan from 2004-2007. Black ash (F. nigra), green ash (F. pennsylvanica), and white ash...

  4. The Hawaii protocol for scientific monitoring of coffee berry borer: a model for coffee agroecosystems worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...

  5. Goldspotted oak borer in California: Invasion history, biology, impact, management, and implications for Mediterranean forests worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Coleman; Steven Seybold

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was fi rst linked to elevated levels of oak mortality in southern California (CA), but it appears to have impacted oak woodlands and mixed conifer forests across all land ownerships in this region for nearly two decades. This unexpectedly damaging...

  6. Modeling potential movements of the emerald ash borer: the model framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Jonathan Bossenbroek; Davis Sydnor; Mark W. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is threatening to decimate native ashes (Fraxinus spp.) across North America and, so far, has devastated ash populations across sections of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario. We are attempting to develop a computer model that will predict EAB future movement by adapting...

  7. Outreach and education efforts to counter the spread and impact of goldspotted oak borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis G. Gonzales; Thomas A. Scott; Kevin W. Turner; Lorin L. Lima

    2015-01-01

    The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB) Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed over 80,000 oaks across all land ownerships, costing over $8 million in public and private funds for mitigation and response. Linked to oak mortality in San Diego County in 2008, this exotic beetle likely arrived in California through infested firewood from...

  8. Population biology of emerald ash borer and its natural enemies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Tonghai Zhao; Ruitong Gao

    2008-01-01

    Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), also known as emerald ash borer (EAB), was first discovered in Michigan and Ontario, Canada, in 2002 following investigations of declining and dying ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Agrilus planipennis has also spread to Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia,...

  9. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  10. Genetic transformation of Fraxinus spp. for resistance to the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Rochelle R. Beasley; Kaitlin J. Palla

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera; Buprestidae) is a wood-boring beetle that poses substantial risk to the ash resource in North America. Ash species native to the United States and known to be susceptible to EAB are Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash), F. americana (white ash...

  11. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  12. Emerald Ash Borer Microbial Control with the Entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana GHA formulated as Botanigard®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Lui; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a sporadic wood-boring pest native to northeastern Asia, was found attacking ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in southeastern Michigan in 2002. Despite regulatory efforts to quarantine and eradicate EAB, this invasive beetle has continued to spread...

  13. Heat treatment of Firewood for Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire): Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Richard D. Bergman; Brian K. Brashaw; Scott W. Myers

    2014-01-01

    The movement of firewood within emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB)-infested states and into adjoining areas has been a contributor to its spread throughout the United States and Canada. In an effort to prevent further human-aided spread of EAB and to facilitate interstate commerce, the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and cooperating...

  14. Imidacloprid concentration effects on adult emerald ash borer: a greenhouse study

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Cappaert; Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Phil Lewis; John Molongoski

    2008-01-01

    Imidacloprid is the active ingredient of many widely used products applied to control the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in valuable urban trees. Systemic treatment with imidacloprid is typically made in the spring to reduce the number of larvae that would otherwise be generated by oviposition during the summer. Substantial...

  15. Prospects for long-term ash survival in the core emerald ash borer mortality zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan M. Marshall; Andrew J. Storer; Roger Mech; Steven A. Katovich

    2011-01-01

    Attacking all North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.), emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has caused significant mortality within its introduced range. For other forest pests, host bark plays an important role in infestation density and oviposition behavior. The objectives of this study were to (1) locate...

  16. Detection of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, at low population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Porter; Michael D. Hyslop; Andrew J. Storer

    2011-01-01

    The exotic emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was first discovered in North America in Detroit, MI, in 2002. This beetle has killed millions of ash trees in several states in the United States and in Canada, and populations of this insect continue to be detected. EAB is difficult to detect when it invades new...

  17. Biological control of emerald ash borer in North America: current progress and potential for success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Jonathan P. Lelito

    2012-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), a buprestid native to north-east Asia, was first discovered in North America near Detroit in 2002. EAB has since spread to at least 15 U.S. States and two Canadian provinces, threatening the existence of native ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). A classical biocontrol program was initiated...

  18. Contribution of pod borer pests to soybean crop production (case in Pondidaha, Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, M.; Bande, LOS; Hasan, A.; Yuswana, A.; Rinambo, F.

    2018-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one of the most important crops which production continues to be improved in all areas of soybean cultivation centers in an effort to maintain the availability of soybean foods, including Southeast Sulawesi. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of pod borer pests to soybean crop production. Methods of direct observation were made on observed variables, including species and population of pest pod borer, intensity, and crop production. The result that found four types of pod borer pests are Nezara viridula, Riptortus linearis, Etiella zinckenella, and Leptocorisa acuta, each with a different population and contribution to the intensity of pod damage. The result of path analysis showed that directly population of N. viridula (61.14) and E. zinckenella (66.44) gave positive contribution in increasing pod damage, by 0.332 and 0.502 respectively, while the negative contribution was shown by population of R. linearis and L. acuta. Damage of the pod causes increased production of low soybean is only about 0.202, therefore required appropriate control techniques to control pod borer pests populations in soybean crops.

  19. Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah McCullough; Therese Poland; David. Cappaert

    2009-01-01

    New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are difficult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennis to ash trees stressed by girdling (bark and phloem removed...

  20. Monitoring ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) symptoms in infested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Britton P. Flash; Rachel H. Kappler; Joel A. Throckmorton; Bernadette Grafton; Charles E. Flower

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common...

  1. Using Dutch elm disease-tolerant elm to restore floodplains impacted by emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; James M. Slavicek; Rachel Kappler; Elizabeth Pisarczyk; Bernadette Wiggin; Karen. Menard

    2012-01-01

    American elm (Ulmus Americana L.) was a dominant species in floodplains and swamps of the Midwest before Dutch elm disease (DED) (Ophiostoma ulmi and O.novo-ulmi) reduced its populations. In many areas, ash (Fraxinus spp.) became dominant in these ecosystems. Emerald ash borer (EAB) (...

  2. Patterns among the ashes: Exploring the relationship between landscape pattern and the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2010-01-01

    Landscape metrics, including host abundance and population density, were calculated using forest inventory and land cover data to assess the relationship between landscape pattern and the presence or absence of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). The Random Forests classification algorithm in the R statistical environment was...

  3. An assessment of the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and landscape pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2009-01-01

    Six years after its 2002 detection near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has spread hundreds of miles across the Upper Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Human-assisted transportation of infested ash materials is the primary mechanism of EAB dispersal over long distances. Natural spread...

  4. Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent F. Kovacs; Robert G. Haight; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert

    2010-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered near Detroit, MI, and Windsor, ON, in 2002. As of March 2009, isolated populations of EAB have been detected in nine additional states and Quebec. EAB is a highly invasive forest pest that has the potential to spread and kill native ash...

  5. Evaluation of firewood bagging and vacuum treatment for regulatory control of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Kuhn; Chen Zhangjing; Andrea Diss-Torrance; Erin L. Clark

    2008-01-01

    Since its discovery in Detroit, Michigan, in 2002, the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has caused extensive mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) as it has spread across southeast Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario, Canada (Haack et al. 2002, Poland and McCullough 2006). In addition to this core...

  6. Evaluation of recovery and monitoring methods for parasitoids released against Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) is an invasive insect pest, and the target of an extensive biological control campaign designed to mitigate EAB driven ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality. Since 2007, environmental releases of three species of hymenopteran parasitoids of EA...

  7. Dispersal of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, in newly-colonized sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo J. Mercader; Andrew M. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough

    2009-01-01

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive forest insect pest threatening more than 8 billion ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America. Development of effective survey methods and strategies to slow the spread of A. planipennis requires an understanding of dispersal...

  8. The Role of Biocontrol of Emerald Ash Borer in Protecting Ash Regeneration after Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive Asian beetle that is destroying ash in forests over much of eastern North America because of the high susceptibility of our native ash and a lack of effective natural enemies. To increase mortality of EAB larvae and eggs, the USDA (FS, ARS and APHIS) is carryin...

  9. Exploring the molecular and biochemical basis of ash resistance to emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin G.A. Whitehill; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) feed on phloem of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. It is hypothesized that the resistance of Asian species of ash (e.g., Manchurian ash, F. mandshurica) to EAB is due to endogenous defenses present in phloem tissues in the form of defensive proteins and/or...

  10. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...

  11. Factors affecting the survival of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees infested by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; John P. Brown; Robert P. Long

    2013-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB), an Asian woodboring beetle accidentally introduced in North America, has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees and is spreading rapidly. This study examined the effects of tree- and site-level factors on the mortality of ash trees in stands infested by EAB in OH, USA. Our data...

  12. 76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 [Docket No. APHIS-2008-0072] Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri..., Japan, Mongolia, the Russian Far East, Taiwan, and Canada, eventually kills healthy ash trees after it...

  13. Testing public Bt maize events for control of stem borers in the first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic maize (Zea mays L), developed using modified genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), controls stem borers without observable negative effects to humans, livestock or the environment, and is now sown on 134 million hectares globally. Bt maize could contribute to increasing maize production in ...

  14. Emerald ash borer in North America: a research and regulatory challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Cappaert; Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Nathan W. Siegert

    2005-01-01

    The saga of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmare (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in North America began on 25 June 2002, when five entomologists representing Michigan State University (MSU), the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA APHIS)...

  15. Use of unwounded ash trees for the detection of emerald ash borer adults: EAB landing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan M. Marshall; Melissa J. Porter; Andrew J. Storer

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of multiple trapping techniques and sites within a survey program is essential to adequately identify the range of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestation. Within natural forests, EAB lands on stick band traps wrapped around girdled ash trees at a rate similar to that on unwounded ash trees. The objective of...

  16. Emerald ash borer impacts on visual preferences for urban forest recreation settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arne Arnberger; Ingrid E. Schneider; Martin Ebenberger; Renate Eder; Robert C. Venette; Stephanie A. Snyder; Paul H. Gobster; Ami Choi; Stuart Cottrell

    2017-01-01

    Extensive outbreaks of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis; EAB), an invasive forest insect, are having serious impacts on the cultural ecosystem services of urban forests in the United States and other countries. Limited experience with how such outbreaks might affect recreational opportunities prompted this investigation of visitors to a...

  17. Breeding strategies for the development of emerald ash borer - resistant North American ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Kathleen S. Knight; Therese Poland; Daniel A. Herms; Mary E. Mason

    2012-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus plannipennis; EAB) is a phloem-feeding beetle that is endemic to Asia. It was discovered in North America in 2002, found almost simultaneously near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Adult beetles feed on ash (Fraxinus spp.) foliage, but larval feeding on phloem, cambium, and...

  18. Survey for tolerance to emerald ash borer within North American ash species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; Mary E. Mason; David W. Carey; Kathleen Knight; Therese Poland; Daniel A. Herms

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of the emerald ash borer (EAB) near Detroit, MI, in 2002, more than 40 million ash trees have been killed and another 7.5 billion are at risk in the United States. When the EAB outbreak was initially discovered, our native ash species appeared to have no resistance to the pest.

  19. Intraspecific variation in Fraxinus pennsylvanica responses to emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Koch; D.W. Carey; M.E. Mason; T.M. Poland; K.S. Knight

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is a bark and wood boring beetle native to east Asia that was first discovered in North America in 2002. Since then, entire stands of highly susceptible green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) have been killed within a few years of infestation. We have identified a...

  20. Stratigraphy of the Grande Savane Ignimbrite Sequence, Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.; Smith, A. L.; Deuerling, K.; Killingsworth, N.; Daly, G.

    2007-12-01

    The island of Dominica, located in the central part of the Lesser Antilles island arc has eight potentially active volcanoes. One of these, Morne Diablotins, is a composite stratovolcano with several superimposed stratigraphic sequences ranging in age from Pliocene (4-2 Ma) to "Younger" Pleistocene (22,000 and >40,000 years B.P. The ignimbrite sequences form four flow fans that reached both the east and west coasts of the island. One of these flow fans, the Grande Savane, on the west coast of the island, also extends off-shore for a distance of at least 14 km as a distinctive submarine fan. Stratigraphical studies of the on- shore deposits that make up this fan indicate an older sequence of block and ash flow deposits, within which occurs a distinctive vulcanian fall deposit. These are overlain, with no evidence of an intervening paleosol, by a sequence of ignimbrites containing welded horizons (ranging in thickness from around 4 m to 16m). The lack of fall deposits beneath the ignimbrites suggest they may have been formed by instantaneous continuous collapse of the eruption column. This whole succession is overlain by a series of planar and dune bedded pumiceous surge deposits with interbedded pumiceous lapilli fall and ash fall deposits, that extend laterally outside of the main area of ignimbrite deposition. Beds within this upper sequence often contain accretionary lapilli and gas cavities suggesting magma-water interaction. The youngest deposits from Morne Diablotins appear to be valley- fill deposits of both ignimbrite and block and ash flow. A comparison of the of the Grande Savane pyroclastic sequence with the Pointe Ronde (west coast) and Londonderry (east coast) pyroclastic flow fans will provide information on the eruptive history of this major Plinian episode.

  1. Predictive MRI correlates of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate tear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, Rachel L. [Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Umans, Benjamin D. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Umans, Hilary [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Elsinger, Elisabeth [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-07-15

    To identify correlated signs on non-enhanced MRI that might improve diagnostic detection of plantar plate (PP) tear. We performed an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective analysis of 100 non-contrast MRI (50 PP tear, 50 controls). All were anonymized, randomized, and reviewed; 20 were duplicated to assess consistency. One musculoskeletal radiologist evaluated qualitative variables. A trained non-physician performed measurements. Consistency and concordance were assessed. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to test the correlation between qualitative findings and PP tear status. Correlation between measurements and PP status was assessed using t tests and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test (p values < 0.05 considered significant). Classification and regression trees were utilized to identify attributes that, taken together, would consistently distinguish PP tear from controls. Quantitative measurements were highly reproducible (concordance 0.88-0.99). Elevated 2nd MT protrusion, lesser MT supination and rotational divergence of >45 between the 1st-2nd MT axis correlated with PP tear. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening correlated most strongly with PP tear, correctly classifying 95 % of cases and controls. Excluding pericapsular soft tissue thickening, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, 2nd flexor tendon subluxation, and splaying of the second and third toes accurately classified PP status in 92 %. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening most strongly correlated with PP tear. For cases in which it might be difficult to distinguish pericapsular fibrosis from neuroma, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, flexor tendon subluxation and splaying of the 2nd and 3rd toe is most helpful for optimizing accurate diagnosis of PP tear. (orig.)

  2. Boron isotope ratios of surface waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvat, Pascale, E-mail: louvat@ipgp.fr [Geochimie et Cosmochimie, IPGP, Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, UMR 7154 CNRS, 75005 Paris (France); Gaillardet, Jerome; Paris, Guillaume; Dessert, Celine [Geochimie et Cosmochimie, IPGP, Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, UMR 7154 CNRS, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Rivers outer of hydrothermal areas have d11B around 40 per mille and [B] of 10-31 {mu}g/L. > Thermal springs have d11B of 8-15 per mille and [B] between 250 and 1000 {mu}g/L. > With Na, SO{sub 4} and Cl, boron shows mixing of rain, low and high-T weathering inputs. > Guadeloupe rivers and thermal springs have d11B 20-40 per mille higher than the local rocks. > Solid-solution fractionation during weathering pathways may explain this gap of d11B. - Abstract: Large variations are reported in the B concentrations and isotopic ratios of river and thermal spring waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. Rivers have {delta}{sup 11}B values around 40 per mille and B concentrations lower than 30 {mu}g/L, while thermal springs have {delta}{sup 11}B of 8-15 per mille and B concentrations of 250-1000 {mu}g/L. River samples strongly impacted by hydrothermal inputs have intermediate {delta}{sup 11}B and B contents. None of these surface water samples have {delta}{sup 11}B comparable to the local unweathered volcanic rocks (around 0 per mille), implying that a huge isotopic fractionation of 40 per mille takes place during rock weathering, which could be explained by preferential incorporation of {sup 10}B during secondary mineral formation and adsorption on clays, during rock weathering or in the soils. The soil-vegetation B cycle could also be a cause for such a fractionation. Atmospheric B with {delta}{sup 11}B of 45 per mille represents 25-95% of the river B content. The variety of the thermal spring chemical composition renders the understanding of B behavior in Guadeloupe hydrothermal system quite difficult. Complementary geochemical tracers would be helpful.

  3. Boron isotope ratios of surface waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvat, Pascale; Gaillardet, Jerome; Paris, Guillaume; Dessert, Celine

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rivers outer of hydrothermal areas have d11B around 40 per mille and [B] of 10-31 μg/L. → Thermal springs have d11B of 8-15 per mille and [B] between 250 and 1000 μg/L. → With Na, SO 4 and Cl, boron shows mixing of rain, low and high-T weathering inputs. → Guadeloupe rivers and thermal springs have d11B 20-40 per mille higher than the local rocks. → Solid-solution fractionation during weathering pathways may explain this gap of d11B. - Abstract: Large variations are reported in the B concentrations and isotopic ratios of river and thermal spring waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. Rivers have δ 11 B values around 40 per mille and B concentrations lower than 30 μg/L, while thermal springs have δ 11 B of 8-15 per mille and B concentrations of 250-1000 μg/L. River samples strongly impacted by hydrothermal inputs have intermediate δ 11 B and B contents. None of these surface water samples have δ 11 B comparable to the local unweathered volcanic rocks (around 0 per mille), implying that a huge isotopic fractionation of 40 per mille takes place during rock weathering, which could be explained by preferential incorporation of 10 B during secondary mineral formation and adsorption on clays, during rock weathering or in the soils. The soil-vegetation B cycle could also be a cause for such a fractionation. Atmospheric B with δ 11 B of 45 per mille represents 25-95% of the river B content. The variety of the thermal spring chemical composition renders the understanding of B behavior in Guadeloupe hydrothermal system quite difficult. Complementary geochemical tracers would be helpful.

  4. Main copper-porphyry systems of the Lesser Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkonyan, R.L.; Tayan, P.N.; Goukassyan, R.Kh.; Hovakimyan, S.E.; Moritz, R.; Selbi, D.

    2013-01-01

    Two belts of porphyry-copper systems were identified the Late Jurassic Early Cretaceous Somkheto-Karabakh (S-K) island-arc belt within the same name terrain of the southern termination of the Eurasian Plate stretching for 230 km (the tonalitic model) and the Early Miocene Tsaghkounk-Zanghezour (Ts-Z) post-collision belt (Tz-Z) within the same name terrain of the northern margin of the Gondwana, stretching over 280 km (the monzonite-granodiorite model). The formation of the S-K and Ts-Z belts had proceeded in pulses and spanned intervals of 12 million years and 24 million years, respectively. The Rb-Sr isochrones and TIMS U-Pb estimations of the age of zircons from the Meghri pluton ( 1,500 km 2 ), the largest one in the Lesser Caucasus, it appeared possible to establish the three stages of its formation: the Late Eocene, Early Oligocene, and Early Miocene, each accompanied by development of deposits having similar ages. The PC deposits of the S-K and Ts-Z belts have distinct differences of age, geodynamic regime of formation, specificity of mineral composition, sources of water and sulfur of hydrothermal solutions, and formation models. The single, discrete Armenian-Iranian belt of PC deposits was identified; it has a Late Eocene-Middle Miocene age and a length of about 2,000 km, being related with intrusive complexes of the monzonite-granite-granodiorite series, the activity of which had been manifesting itself over 32 million years. This belt, including giant-deposits such as Kajaran and Sar-Cheshmeh, was identified as the special Armenian-Iranian PC province

  5. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessments by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard W. Mankin; Yigen Chen; Jian J. Duan; Therese M. Poland; Leah S. Bauer

    2011-01-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  6. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  7. Lambda-cyhalothrin efficiency on fruit borer control and quali-quantitative spraying aspects in a pinecone crop

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Lavinscky Costa Morais; Maria Aparecida Castellani; Carlos Gilberto Raetano; Juliana Alves de Macêdo; Moisés Silva Nery; Gabriela Luz Pereira Moreira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Brazil, the state of Bahia is one of the largest pinecone (Annona squamosa L.) growers; nevertheless, fruit borer (Cerconota anonella L.) presence limits production. This research aimed to test the efficiency of lambda-cyhalothrin in controlling fruit borer using different spray volumes; additionally, this research tested qualitative and quantitative operational aspects. Trials were carried out in pinecone orchards in Caraíbas-BA, Brazil. Pesticide efficiency was tested by a rando...

  8. Compaction of cereal grain

    OpenAIRE

    Wychowaniec, J.; Griffiths, I.; Gay, A.; Mughal, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simple shaking experiments to measure the compaction of a column of Firth oat grain. Such grains are elongated anisotropic particles with a bimodal polydispersity. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical shaking evolve to a dense state with evidence of nematic-like structure at the surface of the confining tube. This is accompanied by an increase in the packing fraction of the grain.

  9. Evolution of interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The principal aim of this chapter is to derive the properties of interstellar grains as a probe of local physical conditions and as a basis for predicting such properties as related to infrared emissivity and radiative transfer which can affect the evolution of dense clouds. The first sections will develop the criteria for grain models based directly on observations of gas and dust. A summary of the chemical evolution of grains and gas in diffuse and dense clouds follows. (author)

  10. Microbiota of kefir grains

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Šinko; Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija

    2013-01-01

    Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities f...

  11. Grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, O.

    1975-01-01

    Well-established aspects of grain-boundary migration are first briefly reviewed (influences of driving force, temperature, orientation and foreign atoms). Recent developments of the experimental methods and results are then examined, by considering the various driving of resistive forces acting on grain boundaries. Finally, the evolution in the theoretical models of grain-boundary motion is described, on the one hand for ideally pure metals and, on the other hand, in the presence of solute impurity atoms [fr

  12. Correlation between agronomic and stem borer resistant traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-06-30

    Jun 30, 2015 ... Resistant traits had negative correlations with most agronomic traits including grain yield. (GY). .... on a scale of 1-9 with 1 = clean plant without leaf defoliation and 9 .... Negative signs indicate direction of relationship. Table 3 ...

  13. Observations on the activity patterns of the lesser yellow house bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lesser yellow house bat, Scotophilus viridis. F.P.D. Cotterill c/o Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town,. Cape Town. S.R. Giddings·. Department of Zoology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 10 June 1986; accepted 23 July 1986. The activity pattems of the lesser yellow ...

  14. Metatarsophalangeal joint stability: A systematic review on the plantar plate of the lesser toes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, N.M.G. (Nico M.G.); M. van der Grinten (Margot); W.M. Bramer (Wichor); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Instability of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints of the lesser toes (digiti 2-5) is increasingly being treated by repair of the plantar plate (PP). This systematic review examines the anatomy of the plantar plate of the lesser toes, and the relation between the integrity

  15. Hepatic element concentrations of lesser scaup (aythya affinis) during spring migration in the upper midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillatzki, A.E.; Neiger, R.D.; Chipps, S.R.; Higgins, K.F.; Thiex, N.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of some hepatic elements might be contributing to the decline of the continental lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) population. We evaluated hepatic element concentrations of male and female lesser scaup collected from the upper Midwest (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) during the 2003 and 2004 spring migrations. We measured concentrations of 24 elements in livers of 117 lesser scaup. We found that only selenium concentrations were at levels (>3.0 ??g/g wet weight [ww)]) proposed to adversely affect reproduction. Approximately 49% of females (n = 61) had individual hepatic concentrations >3.0 ??g/g ww selenium (Se). Our observed hepatic concentration of Se was similar to that reported in lesser scaup collected from the mid-continental United States but less than Se concentrations reported from the Great Lakes region. We found that the liver cadmium (Cd) concentration for males was significantly higher than that for females. Gender differences in hepatic Cd concentrations have not been previously reported for lesser scaup, but Cd is known to have negative impacts on male reproduction. Our results indicate that lesser scaup migrating through the upper Midwest in spring have elevated Se levels and that males carry a significantly greater Cd burden than females. Moreover, elemental concentrations might be high enough to affect reproduction in both male and female lesser scaup, but controlled laboratory studies are needed to adequately assess the effects of Se and Cd on lesser scaup reproduction. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Why do lesser toes deviate laterally in hallux valgus? A radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roan, Li-Yi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Taniguchi, Akira; Tomiwa, Kiyonori; Kumai, Tsukasa; Cheng, Yuh-Min

    2015-06-01

    Hallux valgus foot with laterally deviated lesser toes is a complex condition to treat. Ignoring the laterally deviated lesser toes in hallux valgus might result in unsatisfactory foot shape. Without lateral support of the lesser toes, it might increase the risk of recurrence of hallux valgus. We sought to identify associated radiographic findings in patients where lesser toes follow the great toe in hallux valgus and deviate laterally. The weight-bearing, anteroposterior foot radiographs of 24 female hallux valgus feet with laterally deviated lesser toes (group L), 34 female hallux valgus feet with normal lesser toes (group H), and 43 normal female feet (group N) were selected for the study. A 2-dimensional coordinated system was used to analyze the shapes and angles of these feet by converting each dot made on the radiographs onto X and Y coordinates. Diagrams of the feet in each group were drawn for comparison. The hallux valgus angle, lateral deviation angle of the second toe, intermetatarsal angles, toe length, metatarsal length, and metatarsus adductus were calculated according to the coordinates of the corresponding points. The mapping showed the bases of the second, third, and fourth toe in group L shifted laterally away from their corresponding metatarsal head (P hallux valgus angles (P hallux valgus angle, more adducted first metatarsal, and divergent lateral splaying of the lesser metatarsals were associated with lateral deviation of the lesser toes in hallux valgus. Level III, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Origins of GEMS Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  18. Active convergence between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus in Georgia: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, G.; Floyd, M.; Godoladze, T.; King, R.; Cowgill, E. S.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Hahubia, G.; Reilinger, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present and interpret newly determined site motions derived from GPS observations made from 2008 through 2016 in the Republic of Georgia, which constrain the rate and locus of active shortening in the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision zone. Observation sites are located along two ∼160 km-long profiles crossing the Lesser-Greater Caucasus boundary zone: one crossing the Rioni Basin in western Georgia and the other crossing further east near the longitude of Tbilisi. Convergence across the Rioni Basin Profile occurs along the southern margin of the Greater Caucasus, near the surface trace of the north-dipping Main Caucasus Thrust Fault (MCTF) system, and is consistent with strain accumulation on the fault that generated the 1991 MW6.9 Racha earthquake. In contrast, convergence along the Tbilisi Profile occurs near Tbilisi and the northern boundary of the Lesser Caucasus (near the south-dipping Lesser Caucasus Thrust Fault), approximately 50-70 km south of the MCTF, which is inactive within the resolution of geodetic observations (< ± 0.5 mm/yr) at the location of the Tbilisi Profile. We suggest that the southward offset of convergence along strike of the range is related to the incipient collision of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus, and closing of the intervening Kura Basin, which is most advanced along this segment of the collision zone. The identification of active shortening near Tbilisi requires a reevaluation of seismic hazards in this area.

  19. Status and potential of F1 sterility for control of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, I.; Barbulescu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In certain lepidopterous insects partially gamma-ray-sterilized males mated with normal females produce progeny which are more sterile than their male parents. Inherited sterility has been observed in numerous pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb. The most important discoveries contributing the development of this techniques are reviewed. The studies on the European corn borer have revealed a dramatic inherited sterility effect when pupae have been irradiated with a low dose of 100 or 150 Gy. Data on the growth, development and behaviour of F 1 individuals indicate that the treated insects are highly competitive with the normal insects. Field tests of the inherited sterility technique in isolated O. nubilalis infestations have indicated that this method is effective and a small eradication has been done. These studies are continuing. (author)

  20. Feeding and Development of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on Cultivated Olive, Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M; Peterson, Donnie L

    2017-08-01

    We examined the suitability of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L., as a host for emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. In a bioassay using cut stems from a field-grown olive tree (cv. 'Manzanilla') we found that 45% of larvae that had emerged from eggs used to inoculate stems, were recovered alive, many as larvae or prepupae, during periodic debarking of a subset of stems. Three intact stems that 19 larvae successfully entered were exposed to a simulated overwintering treatment. Four live adults emerged afterwards, and an additional pupa and several prepupae were discovered after debarking these stems. Cultivated olive joins white fringetree as one of the two species outside of the genus Fraxinus capable of supporting the development of emerald ash borer from neonate to adult. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites.

  2. Outlook for ash in your forest: results of emerald ash borer research and implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction near Detroit, Michigan, in the mid-1990s, emerald ash borer (EAB) has rapidly spread through much of the U.S. and adjacent Canada, leaving millions of dead ash trees in Midwestern states (4,11). Unfortunately, EAB attacks trees as small as an inch in stem diameter and it attacks all five ash species native to the region - white, green...

  3. The parasitoids of the African white rice borer, Maliarpha separatella Ragonot (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Polaszek, A.; Fitton, M.G.; Bianchi, G.; Huddleston, T.

    2017-01-01

    A key is provided for the recognition of the hymenopterous parasitoids of the African white rice borer, Maliarpha separatella Ragonot, a pest of rice in Africa and Madagascar. Five species are described as new: Braconidae: Chelonus maudae Huddleston, Rhacanotus carinafus Polaszek; Ichneumonidae: Prisfomerus bullis Fitton, Prisfomerus caris Fitton, Venturia jordanae Fitton. The following synonyms are proposed: Goniozus indicus Muesebeck, G. natalensis Gordh and G. procerae Risbec are synonymiz...

  4. Differential resistance reaction of maize genotypes to maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe at Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Bhandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize stem borer (MSB, Chilo partellus Swinhoe, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the most important insect pest of maize in Nepal. Host plant resistance is the cost-effective, ecologically sound and stable approach to reduce damage by stem borers. Forty four maize genotypes were screened for resistance to maize stem borer at the research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur during spring seasons (March to June of two consecutive years 2013 and 2014. The maize genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications and data were collected on foliar damage rating, tunnel length and number of exit holes made by the borer. The foliar damage and tunnel length damage were significant for genotypes for both the years. The exit holes were not significant in 2013 but significant in 2014 ranging from 2-6 scale. The foliar rating ranged from 2 to 5.5 in 2013 and 1.1 to 4.5 in 2014 on a 1-9 rating scale. The highly resistant genotypes (10 cm scale. The least susceptible genotypes (<5 cm were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18. The genotypes having least exit holes (2.0 in 2014 were RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02, RampurS10F18. Thus less damage parameters were observed in R-POP-2, RML-5/RML-8, RampurSO3F8, RampurSO3FQ02 and RampurS10F18 and therefore they can be used as parents or as sources of resistance in breeding program.

  5. Progress and future directions in research on the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland

    2014-01-01

    When the emerald ash borer (EAB) was discovered near Detroit, Michigan in July 2002, very little was known about it other than the fact that it was killing large numbers of ash trees throughout a widespread area in southeast Michigan (Poland and McCullough 2006). Ash mortality in the area had been noted for a few years, but was attributed to ash decline until damage...

  6. Screening of tomato genotypes for resistance to tomato fruit borer (helicoverpa armiger hubner) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.; Ashfaq, M.; Suhail, A.

    2011-01-01

    Tomato genotypes viz., Roma Local, Rio Grande, Tanja, Chico III, Long Tipped, Red-Top, FS-8001, FS-8002, Tropic, Pakit, Peelo, NARC-1, Roma VFN, Pant Bahr, Ebein, Nova Mech, Rockingham, Nagina, Shalkot-96, Pomodoro, Manik, Gressilesse, Nadir, Early Mech, Tommy, Pusha Rubi, Tropic boy, Big Long, Sahil, Sun 6002, Money-Maker and Royesta were evaluated to screen out the suitable resistant/susceptible genotypes against the fruit borer in Pakistan. The results imparted that the percentage of fruit infestation and larval population per plant on tested genotypes of tomato varied significantly. Roma VF, NARC-1 and FS-8002 were categorized as susceptible genotypes with fruit infestation (37.69%, 37.08% and 36.41%, respectively) and larval population per plant (1.02%, 1.02% and 0.84 %, respectively). Whereas, the genotypes Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb had fruit infestation (12.30%, 13.14% and 13.96%, respectively) and larval population per plant (0.42%, 0.42% and 0.43%, respectively) and declared as resistant genotypes to tomato fruit borer. Lower values of host plant susceptibility indices (HPSI) were recorded on resistant genotypes. Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb could be used as a source of resistance for developing tomato genotypes resistant to tomato fruit borer. (author)

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN CORN BORER FEEDING ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN LEAF CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.

  8. Differential fipronil susceptibility and metabolism in two rice stem borers from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qi; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Ye, Gong-Yin; Yao, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Jia-An; Akhtar, Zunnu-Raen

    2008-08-01

    The susceptibilities of larvae of two rice stem borers, namely, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Nocutidae) to fipronil and its metabolites were investigated, and then the activities of microsomal O-demethylase, and glutathione transferase (GST) in two species were measured. The metabolism of fipronil in both stem borers was determined in vivo and in vitro. The LD50 value of fipronil to S. inferens was 118.5-fold higher than that of C. suppressalis. The bioassay results offipronil metabolites showed that the toxicities of sulfone and sulfide were higher than fipronil for both species, and the differential toxicity between sulfone and fipronil was remarkable. Alternatively, the activities of microsomal O-demethylase and GST of C. suppressalis were 1.35- and 2.06-fold higher than S. inferens, respectively. The in vivo and in vitro studies on metabolism of fipronil showed that all of fipronil, sulfone, and sulfide were detected and the content of sulfone was higher than sulfide in both stem borers. The residue of sulfone in C. suppressalis was significantly higher than that in S. inferens. These results suggest that the higher activity of mixed function oxidases may cause the higher capacity of C. suppressalis to produce fipronil-sulfone, which is more toxic than fipronil leading to the higher susceptibility of this species.

  9. Infestation of the banana root borer among different banana plant genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, we aimed to investigate Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae infestation among different banana genotypes in a commercial banana orchard over the course of 30 months. Banana root borer infestation was compared in 20 banana genotypes, including five varieties and 15 hybrids. Overall, we observed that 94.17% of pest infestation cases occurred in the cortex region, and only 5.83% occurred in the central cylinder. Genotypes least sensitive to infestation were the Prata Anã (AAB and Pacovan (AAB varieties, where no damage was recorded. Among the hybrid genotypes, PV 9401 and BRS Fhia 18 showed intermediate levels of sensitivity, while BRS Tropical hybrids (AAAB, PA 9401 (AAAB, BRS Vitoria (AAAB, YB 4203 (AAAB, and Bucaneiro (AAAA were the most sensitive to attack by banana root borer. This study demonstrated that the infestation of the banana root borer varies according banana plant genotype, and the utilization of less susceptible genotypes could reduce infestation rates of C. sordidus.

  10. The relationship between the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree decline: Using visual canopy condition assessments and leaf isotope measurements to assess pest damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Flower; Kathleen S. Knight; Joanne Rebbeck; Miquel A. Gonzalez-Meler

    2013-01-01

    Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America are being severely impacted by the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) which was inadvertently introduced to the US in the 1990s from Asia. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is a phloem boring beetle which relies exclusively on ash trees to complete its life cycle. Larvae...

  11. Avulsion of the Lesser Trochanter Following a Shot Put Sport Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Grissa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Avulsion of the lesser trochanter is an uncommon injury. In children and adolescents it usually occurs as a sports injury via traumatic avulsion of the psoas major tendon. In adults, isolated fractures of the lesser trochanter are most commonly pathological due to metastatic tumor invasion of the proximal femur. This case report documents how a 14-year-old boy, who presented with an avulsion of the lesser trochanter of the proximal femur following a seemingly atraumatic shot put session at a track and field event, was diagnosed and successfully treated with a conservative approach.

  12. Kansas Agents Study Grain Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeff, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    Author is an extension specialist in feed and grain marketing for Kansas State University. He describes a tour set up to educate members of the Kansas Grain and Feed Dealers' Association in the area of grain marketing and exporting. (GB)

  13. Stratigraphy and Petrology of the Grande Soufriere Hills Volcano, Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, G.; Smith, A. L.; Garcia, R.; Killingsworth, N.

    2007-12-01

    The Grande Soufriere Hills volcanic center is located on the south east coast of the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles. Although the volcano is deeply dissected, a distinct circular crater that opens to the east can be observed. Within the crater is a lava dome and unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits mantle the southeast flanks of the volcano. These pyroclastic deposits are almost entirely matrix-supported block and ash flows and surges suggesting that Pelean-style eruptions have dominated its most recent activity. Within this sequence is a relatively thin (30-50 cm) clast-supported deposit that has been interpreted as a possible blast deposit. Two age dates from these younger deposits suggest that much of this activity occurred between l0,000 and 12,000 years ago. On the southeastern coast at Pointe Mulâtre and extending approximately 4 km north and at a maximum 2 km west, is a megabreccia of large (up to 3 m) flow-banded andesite clasts set in a semi-lithified medium grained ash matrix. At Pointe Mulâtre this megabreccia is overlain by unconsolidated block and ash flow deposits. To the north of the megabreccia, exposures in the sea cliffs reveal a consolidated sequence of well-bedded alternating coarse and fine deposits suggesting deltaic foreset beds; which in turn appears to be overlain by a yellow- colored relatively coarse flow deposit with an irregular upper surface. The uppermost deposits in the sea cliffs are a sequence of unconsolidated block and ash flow deposits and interbedded fluviatile conglomerates equivalent to the younger flow deposits logged inland. Volcanic rocks from the Grande Soufriere Hills are all porphyritic andesites often containing hypabyssal inclusions. Dominant phenocrysts are plagioclase often with inclusion-rich cores and well developed zoning. Mafic phenocrysts include hornblende, augite and hypersthene. Geochemically these andesites range from 58- 63% SiO2 and show trends of decreasing values for Al2O3, FeO, MgO, CaO, Ti

  14. A Multi-analytical Approach for the Characterization of Marbles from Lesser Himalayas (Northwest Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, M.; Iqbal, Y.; Riaz, M.; Ubic, R.; Redfern, S. A. T.

    2015-12-01

    The KP province of Pakistan hosts widespread deposits of thermo-metamorphic marbles that were extensively used as a building and ornamental stones since the time of earliest flourishing civilization in this region known as Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BC). The macroscopic characteristics of 22 marble varieties collected from three different areas of Lesser Himalayas (Northwest Pakistan), its chemical, mineralogical, petrographic features, temperature conditions of metamorphic re-crystallization, and the main physical properties are presented in order to provide a solid basis for possible studies on the provenance and distribution of building stones from this region. The results provide a set of diagnostic parameters that allow discriminating the investigated marbles and quarries. Studied marbles overlap in major phase assemblage, but the accessory mineral content, chemistry, the maximum grain size (MGS) and other petrographic characteristics are particularly useful in the distinction between them. On the basis of macroscopic features, the studied marbles can be classifies into four groups: (i) white (ii) grey-to-brown veined, (iii) brown-reddish to yellowish and (iv) dark-grey to blackish veined marbles. The results show that the investigated marbles are highly heterogeneous in both their geochemical parameters and minero-petrographic features. Microscopically, the white, grey-to-brown and dark-grey to blackish marbles display homeoblastic/granoblastic texture, and the brown-reddish to yellowish marbles display a heteroblastic texture with traces of slightly deformed polysynthetic twining planes. Minero-petrography, XRD, SEM and EPMA revealed that the investigated marbles chiefly consist of calcite along with dolomite, quartz, muscovite, pyrite, K-feldspar, Mg, Ti and Fe-oxides as subordinates. The magnesium content of calcite coexisting with dolomite was estimated by both XRD and EPMA/EDS, indicating the metamorphic temperature of re-crystallization from 414

  15. Whole Grains and Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... grains. When grocery shopping, an easy way to identify healthy food choices is to look for the ...

  16. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  17. CT of the lesser pelvis - normal and abnormal anatomy, indications, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrich, W.; Friedmann, G.

    1981-01-01

    385 abnormal computer tomograms of the organs in the lesser pelvis were analysed; the normal anatomy, indications for CT and its value are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the relevance of the computer tomographic information for treatment. (orig.) [de

  18. Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or western bean cutworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Erin; Hellmich, Richard; Munkvold, Gary

    2014-07-09

    Field trials were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against manual infestations of European corn borer (ECB) and Western bean cutworm (WBC). HPLC and ELISA were used to measure fumonisin levels. Results of the methods were highly correlated, but ELISA estimates were higher. Bt hybrids experienced less insect injury, Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin contamination compared to non-Bt hybrids. WBC infestation increased fumonisin content compared to natural infestation in non-Bt and hybrids expressing Cry1Ab protein in five of eight possible comparisons; in Cry1F hybrids, WBC did not impact fumonisins. These results indicate that WBC is capable of increasing fumonisin levels in maize. Under WBC infestation, Cry1F mitigated this risk more consistently than Cry1Ab or non-Bt hybrids. Transgenically expressed Bt proteins active against multiple lepidopteran pests can provide broad, consistent reductions in the risk of fumonisin contamination.

  19. Diet composition of lesser kestrels in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onolragchaa Ganbold

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lesser kestrel is recognized as “Least Concern” in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List since 2011. So far, all available diet studies on the lesser kestrel were conducted in its European range or in partial African breeding and nonbreeding range. In particular, little is known about the feeding behavior of this small falcon in Asian ranges. Thus, this study can be considered as the first to examine the diet composition of the central Asian breeding populations of lesser kestrels. This study aims to provide some information about the diet composition of this species among Asian populations through biological and ecological investigations. Pellets (n = 762 dropped by lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni were collected during their breeding season from nine to 10 colony sites in Ikh Nart, between June and September of 2009 and 2010, and analyzed. A total of 1,484 prey items were identified in the pellets collected. After a measure of their weight (g and length and width (mm, we carefully examined each pellet and separated all prey remains using tweezers. Our results indicated that insects (including orthopterans and coleopterans were dominant in lesser kestrel’s diets. We found that the lesser kestrel’s diet mainly consisted of insects (69.7%, lizards (17.4%, small mammals (10%, small birds (2%, and other food (1%. Keywords: diet composition, insects, pellets, reptiles, small mammals

  20. Optimizing Use of Girdled Ash Trees for Management of Low-Density Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Heyd, Robert L

    2017-06-01

    Effective survey methods to detect and monitor recently established, low-density infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), remain a high priority because they provide land managers and property owners with time to implement tactics to slow emerald ash borer population growth and the progression of ash mortality. We evaluated options for using girdled ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees for emerald ash borer detection and management in a low-density infestation in a forested area with abundant green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Across replicated 4-ha plots, we compared detection efficiency of 4 versus 16 evenly distributed girdled ash trees and between clusters of 3 versus 12 girdled trees. We also examined within-tree larval distribution in 208 girdled and nongirdled trees and assessed adult emerald ash borer emergence from detection trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site. Overall, current-year larvae were present in 85-97% of girdled trees and 57-72% of nongirdled trees, and larval density was 2-5 times greater on girdled than nongirdled trees. Low-density emerald ash borer infestations were readily detected with four girdled trees per 4-ha, and 3-tree clusters were as effective as 12-tree clusters. Larval densities were greatest 0.5 ± 0.4 m below the base of the canopy in girdled trees and 1.3 ± 0.7 m above the canopy base in nongirdled trees. Relatively few adult emerald ash borer emerged from trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site through the following summer, suggesting removal or destruction of girdled ash trees may be unnecessary. This could potentially reduce survey costs, particularly in forested areas with poor accessibility. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  2. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

    2011-02-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important.

  3. Effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on mortality and feeding behavior of rice stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Guoan; Zhang, Qifa; Lin, Yongjun

    2008-02-01

    Ten transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Bt rice, Oryza sativa L., lines with different Bt genes (two Cry1Ac lines, three Cry2A lines, and five Cry9C lines) derived from the same variety Minghui 63 were evaluated in both the laboratory and the field. Bioassays were conducted by using the first instars of two main rice lepidopteran insect species: yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) and Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All transgenic lines exhibited high toxicity to these two rice borers. Field evaluation results also showed that all transgenic lines were highly insect resistant with both natural infestation and manual infestation of the neonate larvae of S. incertulas compared with the nontransformed Minghui63. Bt protein concentrations in leaves of 10 transgenic rice lines were estimated by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cry9C gene had the highest expression level, next was cry2A gene, and the cry1Ac gene expressed at the lowest level. The feeding behavior of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer to three classes of Bt transgenic rice lines also was detected by using rice culm cuttings. The results showed that 7-d-old larvae of Asiatic rice borer have the capacity to distinguish Bt and non-Bt culm cuttings and preferentially fed on non-Bt cuttings. When only Bt culm cuttings with three classes of different Bt proteins (CrylAc, Cry2A, and Cry9C) were fed, significant distribution difference of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer in culm cuttings of different Bt proteins also was found. In the current study, we evaluate different Bt genes in the same rice variety in both the laboratory and the field, and also tested feeding behavior of rice insect to these Bt rice. These data are valuable for the further development of two-toxin Bt rice and establishment of appropriate insect resistance management in the future.

  4. Film grain synthesis and its application to re-graining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallauer, Peter; Mörzinger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Digital film restoration and special effects compositing require more and more automatic procedures for movie regraining. Missing or inhomogeneous grain decreases perceived quality. For the purpose of grain synthesis an existing texture synthesis algorithm has been evaluated and optimized. We show that this algorithm can produce synthetic grain which is perceptually similar to a given grain template, which has high spatial and temporal variation and which can be applied to multi-spectral images. Furthermore a re-grain application framework is proposed, which synthesises based on an input grain template artificial grain and composites this together with the original image content. Due to its modular approach this framework supports manual as well as automatic re-graining applications. Two example applications are presented, one for re-graining an entire movie and one for fully automatic re-graining of image regions produced by restoration algorithms. Low computational cost of the proposed algorithms allows application in industrial grade software.

  5. 78 FR 26302 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken... the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). In addition, we announce the reopening of the public comment period on the December 11, 2012, proposed rule to list the lesser prairie-chicken as a...

  6. Impacts of mesquite distribution on seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggie, Matthew A.; Strong, Cody R.; Lusk, Daniel; Carleton, Scott A.; Gould, William R.; Howard, Randy L.; Nichols, Clay T.; Falkowski, Michael J.; Hagen, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of native grasslands by anthropogenic disturbances has reduced availability and connectivity of habitat for many grassland species. A primary threat to contiguous grasslands is the encroachment of woody vegetation, which is spurred by disturbances that take on many forms from energy development, fire suppression, and grazing. These disturbances are exacerbated by natural- and human-driven cycles of changes in climate punctuated by drought and desertification conditions. Encroachment of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) into the prairies of southeastern New Mexico has potentially limited habitat for numerous grassland species, including lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). To determine the magnitude of impacts of distribution of mesquite and how lesser prairie-chickens respond to mesquite presence on the landscape in southeastern New Mexico, we evaluated seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. We derived several remotely sensed spatial metrics to characterize the distribution of mesquite. We then used these data to create population-level resource utilization functions and predict intensity of use of lesser prairie-chickens across our study area. Home ranges were smaller in the breeding season compared with the nonbreeding season; however, habitat use was similar across seasons. During both seasons, lesser prairie-chickens used areas closer to leks and largely avoided areas with mesquite. Relative to the breeding season, during the nonbreeding season habitat use suggested a marginal increase in mesquite within areas of low intensity of use, yet aversion to mesquite was strong in areas of medium to high intensity of use. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate a negative behavioral response by lesser prairie-chickens to woody encroachment in native grasslands. To mitigate one of the possible limiting factors for lesser prairie-chickens, we suggest future conservation

  7. Radiologic measurement of lesser trochanter and its clinical significance in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wei; Li, Xicheng; Song, Zhaohui; Pan, Jinshe; Zhang, Yingze; Liu, Huaijun

    2009-01-01

    Femoral fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly persons. Surgery, the main choice of treatment of femoral fracture, may result in some complications severely affecting patients' daily activities due to femoral malalignment. The lesser trochanter is an important anatomical structure of the femur which could be used as an anatomical landmark during and after operation to evaluate femoral alignment. To predict femoral rotational malalignment during surgery, the relationship between the height and width of the lesser trochanter and femoral rotation at different angles was investigated. Fifty healthy adult volunteers (25 men and 25 women) were enrolled in this study and a total of 900 radiographs of proximal femurs were taken in the following positions: neutral position, 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 internal rotation, and 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 external rotation, respectively. The cranio-caudal and transverse diameters of the lesser trochanter were obtained on a PACS Workstation. The height and width of the lesser trochanter increased with external rotation and decreased with internal rotation and the values showed statistical significance between different positions or different genders. Between 20 of internal rotation to 20 of external rotation, the mean height increased from 0.58 cm to 1.23 cm in men and from 0.44 cm to 1.19 cm in women. The corresponding mean values for width were from 2.53 cm to 4.44 cm in men, and from 2.08 cm to 3.86 cm in women, respectively. The height and width of the lesser trochanter were both highly correlated to the position of femur and the linear relationship was established approximately. The morphological alteration of lesser trochanter also changed obviously when the femurs rotated. The height and width of the lesser trochanter is linearly related to femoral rotation and could be used as a reference for prevention of femoral malalignment during surgery. (orig.)

  8. Lesser prairie-chicken avoidance of trees in a grassland landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Plumb, Reid T.; Robinson, Samantha G.; Hagen, Christian A.; Haukos, David A.; Pitman, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Grasslands are among the most imperiled ecosystems in North America. Reasons that grasslands are threatened include conversion to row-crop agriculture, fragmentation, and changes in fire regimes. The reduction of fire processes in remaining prairies has resulted in tree encroachment and establishment in grasslands, further reducing grassland quantity and quality. Grassland birds have been experiencing precipitous population declines in recent decades, commensurate with landscape changes to grasslands. The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus Ridgway) is a declining species of prairie grouse of conservation concern. We used second- and third-order habitat selection metrics to test if female lesser prairie-chickens avoid grasslands where trees were present. Our results indicated that female lesser prairie-chickens selected habitats avoiding the nearest trees by 283 m on average, nearly twice as far as would be expected at random. Lesser prairie-chickens were 40 times more likely to use habitats with tree densities of 0 trees ∙ ha− 1 than habitats with 5 trees ∙ ha− 1. Probability of use indicated that lesser prairie-chickens were 19 times more likely to use habitats 1000 m from the nearest tree when compared with using habitats 0 m from the nearest tree. Nest survival was not affected at densities 2 trees ∙ ha− 1. Avoidance of trees could be due to perceived increased predation risk, reduced habitat quality, or a combination of these potentially confounding factors. Preventing further establishment and expansion of trees in landscapes occupied by lesser prairie-chickens could contribute to the continued persistence of the species. Additionally, restoring grasslands through tree removal may facilitate conservation efforts for grassland species such as the lesser prairie-chicken by improving habitat quality and promoting expansion of occupied range.

  9. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of our knowledge of these fundamentals is given. Included are the following: (1) structure of ideal perfect boundaries; (2) defect structure of grain boundaries; (3) diffusion at grain boundaries; (4) grain boundaries as sources/sinks for point defects; (5) grain boundary migration; (6) dislocation phenomena at grain boundaries; (7) atomic bonding and cohesion at grain boundaries; (8) non-equilibrium properties of grain boundaries; and (9) techniques for studying grain boundaries

  10. Efficacy of insecticides in fruit borer control and residues on sugar apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro da Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bahia is the Brazilian state with the largest production of sugar apple fruits (Annona squamosa L., and fruit borer (Cerconota anonella, Sepp. 1830 is a key crop pest. Insecticides are the main strategy for pest control even though there are no pesticides registered for this crop. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of insecticides to control fruit borer and determine the levels of insecticide residues in sugar apple fruits aiming at requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticide products in this crop. The experiment was conducted in an eight-year-old irrigated orchard (2 × 4 m located in Anagé, Bahia, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 10 treatments (three insecticides with three doses and a control with water and 5 replications. Each plot was composed of four plants but only the two central ones were assessed. Insecticides and doses (g a.i. 100 L−1 water were Bacillus thuringiensis: 0.8, 1.7, and 2.5; triflumuron: 2.4, 3.6, and 4.8; and imidacloprid: 4.0, 10.0, and 16.0. Nine sprayings were carried out at fortnightly intervals with a costal sprayer with constant pressure, JA-2 nozzle, and with jet directed to the fruits. Ten assessments were performed in order to observe fruit borer presence in 30 previously marked fruits per plot. Imidacloprid, at the highest studied dose, was the only effective treatment. Analyses of imidacloprid residues, at 21 and 30 days after the highest dose application, indicated levels higher than the maximum limit allowed. Insecticides under the conditions tested do not meet the norms for requesting the extension of authorization to use insecticides for citrus in sugar apple fruits.

  11. Pest Management Strategies Against the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Francisco

    2018-03-22

    Coffee ( Coffea arabica and C. canephora) is one of the most widely traded agricultural commodities and the main cash crop in ∼80 tropical countries. Among the factors that limit coffee production, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) has been considered the main insect pest, causing losses of over U.S. $500 million dollars annually. Control of this pest has been hindered by two main factors: the cryptic nature of the insect (i.e., protected inside the coffee berry) and the availability of coffee berries in the field allowing the survival of the pest from one generation to the next. Coffee berry borer control has primarily been based on the use of synthetic insecticides. Management strategies have focused on the use of African parasitoids ( Cephalonomia stephanoderis, Prorops nasuta, and Phymastichus coffea), fungal entomopathogens ( Beauveria bassiana), and insect traps. These approaches have had mixed results. Recent work on the basic biology of the insect has provided novel insights that might be useful in developing novel pest management strategies. For example, the discovery of symbiotic bacteria responsible for caffeine breakdown as part of the coffee berry borer microbiome opens new possibilities for pest management via the disruption of these bacteria. Some chemicals with repellent propieties have been identified, and these have a high potential for field implementation. Finally, the publication of the CBB genome has provided insights on the biology of the insect that will help us to understand why it has been so successful at exploiting the coffee plant. Here I discuss the tools we now have against the CBB and likely control strategies that may be useful in the near future.

  12. Management of stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe in maize using conventional pesticides in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswati Neupane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe is one of the most destructive pests of maize crop. Research experimentations were carried out on maize to control stem borer using conventional pesticides under field condition during summer season of two consecutive years from 2015 to 2016 at Rampur, Chitwan. All used pesticides had significant effect (P≤0.05 on percent damage and crop yield over control. In 2015, the lower percent damage (5.3% with higher crop yield (4.52 t ha-1 and lowest insect score (1.00 was observed in plot sprayed with spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water followed by plot treated with chloropyriphos 50% EC+cypermethrin 5%EC @1.5ml L-1 of water with percent damage of 6.60%, crop yield (4.23 t ha-1 and insect score of 1.60. Almost similar trend of insect incidence along with damage percentage and yield data were observed in 2016. The higher percent damage control (79.06% was observed at the plot sprayed after spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water with higher crop yield (4.58 t ha-1 and lowest insect score (1.00 followed by the plot treated with imidacloprid 17.8% @ 0.5 ml L-1 of water with percent damage control of 73.10 %, crop yield (3.38 t/ha and insect sore 1.50. The highest percent damage (20.63% was observed in the control plot with lower yield (0.95 t ha-1 and highest insect score (6.00. Over the years, spinosad 45% EC at 0.5 ml L-1 of water was effective bio-pesticide to control maize stem borer damage and also increase the yield.

  13. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap.

  14. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Systemic Insecticides to Emerald Ash Borer Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Therese M; Ciaramitaro, Tina M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2016-04-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, threatens at least 16 North American ash (Fraxinus) species and has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in landscapes and forests. We conducted laboratory bioassays to assess the relative efficacy of systemic insecticides to control emerald ash borer larvae in winter 2009 and 2010. Second- and third-instar larvae were reared on artificial diet treated with varying doses of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA), imidacloprid (Imicide, J. J Mauget Co., Arcadia, CA), dinotefuran (Safari, Valent Professional Products, Walnut Creek, CA), and azadirachtin (TreeAzin, BioForest Technologies, Inc., Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and Azasol, Arborjet, Inc., Woburn, MA). All of the insecticides were toxic to emerald ash borer larvae, but lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% of the larvae (LC50), standardized by larval weight, varied with insecticide and time. On the earliest date with a significant fit of the probit model, LC50 values were 0.024 ppm/g at day 29 for TREE-äge, 0.015 ppm/g at day 63 for Imicide, 0.030 ppm/g at day 46 for Safari, 0.025 ppm/g at day 24 for TreeAzin, and 0.027 ppm/g at day 27 for Azasol. The median lethal time to kill 50% (LT50) of the tested larvae also varied with insecticide product and dose, and was longer for Imicide and Safari than for TREE-äge or the azadirachtin products. Insecticide efficacy in the field will depend on adult and larval mortality as well as leaf and phloem insecticide residues.

  15. Spatial distribution of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in Virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

    2014-06-01

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ≍2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ≍1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations.

  16. The value of CT in localizing primary and stomach-originated masses in the lesser sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Peng; Wang Bin; Zhang Shizhuang; Chang Guanghui; Sun Xihe; Cheng Xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the normal CT manifestation of the vascular arch of the gastric lesser curvature, and to further probe the value of CT in the localization diagnosis of the primary and stomach-originated masses in the lesser sac. Methods: Contrast-enhanced CT scanning was performed in 51 normal individuals. Emphasis of image observation was focused on the CT manifestations of vascular arch of the gastric lesser curvature and the relation between the vascular arch and the gastric wall. Also contrast- enhanced CT scan was performed for seventeen cases of primary and stomach-originated masses in the lesser sac subsequently proved by surgery and pathology. Image analysis was focused on the relation between the mass and the vascular arch and its branches of the gastric lesser curvature, the shape of the mass, and the relation between the mass and the gastric wall. Results: The vascular arch of the gastric lesser curvature was clearly visualized in the fifty normal individuals. The tributaries of the vascular arch near the cardiac part, gastric corpus, and pyloric part were revealed in 42, 10 and 7 cases respectively. The vascular arch was in close contact with the gastric wall in 38 cases. Among the 17 patients, 13 cases demonstrated the obliteration of the transparent fat plane between the mass and the gastric wall. In 6 patients with stomach- originated masses, 5 patients showed the stretching of vascular arch tributaries adjacent to the masses, and no vascular arch and its tributaries could be not visualized between the masses and the stomach. In 11 patients with primary masses in the lesser sac, vascular arch were showed between the masses and the stomach in 10 cases, and no stretching of vascular arch tributaries adjacent to the masses could be showed. Conclusions: CT scan can clearly depict the normal vascular arch and its branches of the gastric lesser curvature. Based on the relation between the vascular arch and the gastric wall, the presence of fat

  17. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-10-15

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  18. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  19. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  20. Assessment of lesser prairie-chicken use of wildlife water guzzlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.; Borsdorf, Philip K.; Gicklhorn, Trevor S.

    2014-01-01

    Man-made water sources have been used as a management tool for wildlife, especially in arid regions, but the value of these water sources for wildlife populations is not well understood. In particular, the value of water as a conservation tool for Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is unknown. However, this is a relevant issue due to a heightened conservation concern for the species and its occupancy of an arid landscape anticipated to experience warmer, drier springs and winters. We assessed if Lesser Prairie-Chickens would use commercially available wildlife water guzzlers and if there was any apparent selection between two design types. We confirmed that Lesser Prairie-Chickens would use bird friendly designed wildlife water guzzlers. Use was primarily during the lekking-nesting period (March–May) and the brood rearing period (June–July) and primarily by males. Although both designs were used, we found significantly greater use of a design that had a wider water trough and ramp built into the tank cover compared to a design that had a longer, narrower trough extending from the tank.Although we were unable to assess the physiological need of surface water by Lesser Prairie-Chickens, we were able to verify that they will use wildlife water guzzlers to access surface water. If it is found surface water is beneficial for Lesser Prairie-Chickens, game bird friendly designed guzzlers may be a useful conservation tool for the species.

  1. DURABILTY OF 25 LOCAL SPECIFIC WOOD SPECIES FROM JAVA PRESERVED WITH CCB AGAINST MARINE BORERS ATTACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide basis information of the 25 local specific wood species indigenous from Java treated by copper bichromated boron (CCB. The full-cell process for 2 hours and 150 psi during the pressure-keeping period was employed. The IUFRO method was applied for the determination of wood treatability class. The treated and untreated wood specimens were tied together using plastic cord, arranged into a raft like assembly, and then exposed for 3, 6, and 12 months to the brackish water situated at Rambut Island’s coastal area. The Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC standard No.1.4.2.2/75 was used to determine the intensity of marine borer infestation. The results revealed that 19 out of those 25 species were classified as easy to be preser ved, four species as moderate, and the remaining two were difficult to be preser ved. Those 19 species, i.e. Tamarindus indica L., Diplodiscus sp., Ficus variegate R .Br., Ehretia acuminata R .Br., Meliocope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn T.G. Hartley, Colona javanica B.L., Pouteria duclitanBachni., Stercularia oblongata R .Br., Ficus vasculosa Wall ex Miq., Callophyllum grandiflorum JJS., Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk., Neolitsea triplinervia Merr., Acer niveum Bl., Sloanea sigun Szysz., Castanopsis acuminatissima A.DC., Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Ex Blume., Litsea angulata Bl., Ficus nervosa Heyne., and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. were more permeable implying that the CCB retention and penetration were greater and deeper. Hymeneaecarboril.L., LitseaodoriferaVal., Gironniera subasqualisPlanch., and LinderapolyanthaBoerl. were moderately permeable. Castanopsis tunggurut A.DC. and Azadirachta indica Juss. were the least permeable judging that the CCB retention and penetration were lowest and shallowest. The treated wood specimens in this regard were able to prevent marine borers attack. Meanwhile, the untreated specimens were susceptible to marine borers attack, except Azadirachta indica. The attacking

  2. Isolation, identification and field tests of the sex pheromone of the carambola fruit borer, Eucosma notanthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C C; Hwang, J S; Hung, M D; Yen, Y P; Hou, R F

    2001-09-01

    Two components, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate (Z8-12:Ac) and (Z)-8-dodecenol (Z8-12:OH), were isolated from sex pheromone glands of the carambola fruit borer, Eucosma notanthes, and were identified by GC, and GC-MS, chemical derivatization, and comparison of retention times. The ratio of the alcohol to acetate in the sex pheromone extracts was 2.7. However, synthetic mixtures (1 mg) in ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 were more effective than other blends in trapping male moths in field tests.

  3. Conservation Reserve Program mitigates grassland loss in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Spencer, David; Hagen, Christian A.; Daniels, Melinda D.; Goodin, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the overall occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has declined by 84% commensurate with population trends. Much of this decline has been attributed to the loss and fragmentation of native grasslands throughout the lesser prairie-chicken range. However, quantification of changes in land cover in the distribution of the lesser prairie-chicken is lacking. Our objectives were to (1) document changes in the areal extent and connectivity of grasslands in the identified lesser prairie-chicken range in Kansas, USA, (>60% of extant lesser prairie-chicken population) from the 1950s to 2013 using remotely sensed data and (2) assess the potential of the Conservation Reserve Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture Program converting cropland to permanent cover; CRP) to mitigate grassland loss. Digital land cover maps were generated on a decadal time step through spectral classification of LANDSAT images and visual analysis of aerial photographs (1950s and 1960s). Landscape composition and configuration were assessed using FRAGSTATS to compute a variety of landscape metrics measuring changes in the amount of grassland present as well as changes in the size and configuration of grassland patches. With the exception of a single regional portion of the range, nearly all of the grassland converted to cropland in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas occurred prior to the 1950s. Prior to the implementation of CRP, the amount of grassland decreased 3.6% between the 1950s and 1985 from 18,455 km2 to 17,788 km2. Since 1985, the overall amount of grassland in the lesser prairie-chicken range has increased 11.9% to 19,898 km2 due to implementation of CRP, although the area of grassland decreased between 1994 and 2013 as CRP contracts were not renewed by landowners. Since 1986 grassland in Kansas became more connected and less fragmented in response to the CRP. While the CRP has been successful in

  4. Conservation Reserve Program mitigates grassland loss in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century, the overall occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus has declined by 84% commensurate with population trends. Much of this decline has been attributed to the loss and fragmentation of native grasslands throughout the lesser prairie-chicken range. However, quantification of changes in land cover in the distribution of the lesser prairie-chicken is lacking. Our objectives were to (1 document changes in the areal extent and connectivity of grasslands in the identified lesser prairie-chicken range in Kansas, USA, (>60% of extant lesser prairie-chicken population from the 1950s to 2013 using remotely sensed data and (2 assess the potential of the Conservation Reserve Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture Program converting cropland to permanent cover; CRP to mitigate grassland loss. Digital land cover maps were generated on a decadal time step through spectral classification of LANDSAT images and visual analysis of aerial photographs (1950s and 1960s. Landscape composition and configuration were assessed using FRAGSTATS to compute a variety of landscape metrics measuring changes in the amount of grassland present as well as changes in the size and configuration of grassland patches. With the exception of a single regional portion of the range, nearly all of the grassland converted to cropland in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas occurred prior to the 1950s. Prior to the implementation of CRP, the amount of grassland decreased 3.6% between the 1950s and 1985 from 18,455 km2 to 17,788 km2. Since 1985, the overall amount of grassland in the lesser prairie-chicken range has increased 11.9% to 19,898 km2 due to implementation of CRP, although the area of grassland decreased between 1994 and 2013 as CRP contracts were not renewed by landowners. Since 1986 grassland in Kansas became more connected and less fragmented in response to the CRP. While the CRP has been successful

  5. First complete genome sequence of parainfluenza virus 5 isolated from lesser panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jun-Qiong; Zhai, Shao-Lun; Lin, Tao; Liu, Jian-Kui; Wang, He-Xing; Li, Bing; Zhang, He; Zou, Shu-Zhan; Zhou, Xia; Wu, Meng-Fan; Chen, Wu; Luo, Man-Lin

    2017-05-01

    Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is widespread in mammals and humans. Up to now, there is little information about PIV5 infection in lesser pandas. In this study, a PIV5 variant (named ZJQ-221) was isolated from a lesser panda with respiratory disease in Guangzhou zoo in Guangdong province, southern China. The full-length genome of ZJQ-221 was found to be 15,246 nucleotides and consisted of seven non-overlapping genes encoding eight proteins (i.e., NP, V, P, M, F, SH, HN and L). Sequence alignment and genetic analysis revealed that ZJQ-221 shared a close relationship with a PIV5 strain of canine-origin (1168-1) from South Korea. The findings of this study confirm the presence of PIV5 in lesser panda and indicate this mammal as a possible natural reservoir. Furthermore they highlight the urgent need to strengthen viral surveillance and control of PIV5 in zoo animals.

  6. The effect of listing the lesser prairie chicken as a threatened species on rural property values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietelman, Derek C; Melstrom, Richard T

    2017-04-15

    This paper estimates the effect of Endangered Species Act protections for the lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) on rural property values in Oklahoma. The political and legal controversy surrounding the listing of imperiled species raises questions about the development restrictions and opportunity costs the Endangered Species Act imposes on private landowners. Examining parcel-level sales data before and after the listing of the endemic lesser prairie chicken, we employ difference-in-differences (DD) regression to measure the welfare costs of these restrictions. While our basic DD regression provides evidence the listing was associated with a drop in property values, this finding does not hold up in models that control for latent county and year effects. The lack of a significant price effect is confirmed by several robustness checks. Thus, the local economic costs of listing the lesser prairie chicken under the Endangered Species Act appear to have been small. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Moniliformin in Norwegian grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Torp, M.; Jarp, J.; Parich, A.; Gutleb, A.C.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    Norwegian grain samples (73 oats, 75 barley, 83 wheat) from the 2000-02 growing seasons were examined for contamination with moniliformin, and the association between the fungal metabolite and the number of kernels infected with common Fusaria was investigated. Before quantification of moniliformin

  8. Why do interstellar grains exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Hollenbach, D.J.; Mckee, C.F.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    There exists a discrepancy between calculated destruction rates of grains in the interstellar medium and postulated sources of new grains. This problem was examined by modelling the global life cycle of grains in the galaxy. The model includes: grain destruction due to supernovae shock waves; grain injection from cool stars, planetary nebulae, star formation, novae, and supernovae; grain growth by accretion in dark clouds; and a mixing scheme between phases of the interstellar medium. Grain growth in molecular clouds is considered as a mechanism or increasing the formation rate. To decrease the shock destruction rate, several new physical processes, such as partial vaporization effects in grain-grain collisions, breakdown of the small Larmor radius approximation for betatron acceleration, and relaxation of the steady-state shock assumption are included

  9. Landscape composition creates a threshold influencing Lesser Prairie-Chicken population resilience to extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and degradation compound the effects of climate change on wildlife, yet responses to climate and land cover change are often quantified independently. The interaction between climate and land cover change could be intensified in the Great Plains region where grasslands are being converted to row-crop agriculture concurrent with increased frequency of extreme drought events. We quantified the combined effects of land cover and climate change on a species of conservation concern in the Great Plains, the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus  ). We combined extreme drought events and land cover change with lek count surveys in a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify changes in abundance of male Lesser Prairie-Chickens from 1978 to 2014 in Kansas, the core of their species range. Our estimates of abundance indicate a gradually decreasing population through 2010 corresponding to drought events and reduced grassland areas. Decreases in Lesser Prairie-Chicken abundance were greatest in areas with increasing row-crop to grassland land cover ratio during extreme drought events, and decreased grassland reduces the resilience of Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations to extreme drought events. A threshold exists for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in response to the gradient of cropland:grassland land cover. When moving across the gradient of grassland to cropland, abundance initially increased in response to more cropland on the landscape, but declined in response to more cropland after the threshold (δ=0.096, or 9.6% cropland). Preservation of intact grasslands and continued implementation of initiatives to revert cropland to grassland should increase Lesser Prairie-Chicken resilience to extreme drought events due to climate change.

  10. Ecology of the cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a major pest for the cocoa industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conopomorpha cramerella, the cocoa pod borer (CPB), has been known to damage cocoa pods for more than 100 years, but information on the ecology of this species is scant in the scientific literature. That which does exist is scattered in obscure local journals, not readily accessible, and often unve...

  11. Coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, susceptibility and response to goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, injury in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom W. Coleman; Nancy E. Grulke; Miles Daly; Cesar Godinez; Susan L. Schilling; Philip J. Riggan; Steven J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    Oak mortality is often associated with a complex of decline factors. We describe the morphological and physiological responses of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, in California to an invasive insect, the goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and evaluate drought as a...

  12. Repellence of the red bud borer (Resseliella oculiperda) to grafted apple trees by impregnation of budding tape with essential oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Linden, van der A.; Swarts, H.J.; Visser, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely

  13. Modeling emerald ash borer dispersal using percolation theory: estimating the rate of range expansion in a fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. J. Taylor; Daniel A. Herms; Louis R. Iverson

    2008-01-01

    The dispersal of organisms is rarely random, although diffusion processes can be useful models for movement in approximately homogeneous environments. However, the environments through which all organisms disperse are far from uniform at all scales. The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is obligate on ash (Fraxinus spp...

  14. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Taylor; Jian J. Duan; Roger. Fuester

    2011-01-01

    Classical biological control efforts against emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America primarily have focused on introduction and releases of exotic parasitoid species collected from northern parts of China. Recently, field surveys in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Ontario also indicate that some existing parasitoids...

  15. Water table response to harvesting and simulated emerald ash borer mortality in black ash wetlands in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Christian F. Lenhart; Kenneth N. Brooks; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2014-01-01

    Black ash wetlands are seriously threatened because of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB). Wetland hydrology is likely to be modified following ash mortality, but the magnitude of hydrological impact following loss via EAB and alternative mitigation harvests is not clear. Our objective was to assess the water table response to simulated EAB and harvesting to...

  16. Evaluating the use of plastic bags to prevent escape of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Tina M. Ciaramitaro; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Andrea Diss-Torrance

    2008-01-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a highly destructive exotic pest of ash (Fraxinus) in North America. Human movement of infested logs, primarily pieces of firewood, is a major pathway for long distance spread of the beetle. Firewood may be confiscated at campgrounds, rest-areas, and...

  17. Microsatellite population genetics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire): comparisons between Asian and North American populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson C. Keever; Christal Nieman; Larissa Ramsay; Carol E. Ritland; Leah S. Bauer; D. Barry Lyons; Jenny S. Cory

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera; Buprestidae), is an invasive wood-boring beetle native to northeast Asia. This species was first detected in Michigan USA in 2002, and is a significant threat to native and ornamental ash tree species (Fraxinus spp.) throughout North America. We...

  18. Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against...

  19. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  20. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  1. Infestation by Coffee White Stem Borer, Xylotrechus quadripes, in Relation to Soil and Plant Nutrient Content and Associated Quality Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2016-01-01

    Infestation by coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is becoming severe in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in North and South America. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the severity of

  2. Coffee berry borer in conilon coffee in the Brazilian Cerrado: an ancient pest in a new environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C M; Santos, M J; Amabile, R F; Frizzas, M R; Bartholo, G F

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to evaluate the population fluctuation of the pest in the Brazilian Cerrado (Federal District). The study was conducted, between November 2014 and October 2015, at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF, Brazil) in an irrigated conilon coffee production area. In November 2014, 120 samples (ten berries/sample) were collected from berries that had fallen on the ground from the previous harvest. Between November 2014 and October 2015, insects were collected weekly, using traps (polyethylene terephthalate bottles) baited with ethyl alcohol (98 GL), ethyl alcohol (98 GL) with coffee powder, or molasses. Between January and July 2015, samples were collected fortnightly from 92 plants (12 berries per plant). All samples were evaluated for the presence of adult coffee berry borers. Samples from the previous harvest had an attack incidence of 72.4%. The baited traps captured 4062 H. hampei adults, and showed no statistical difference in capture efficiency among the baits. Pest population peaked in the dry season, with the largest percentage of captured adults occurring in July (31.0%). An average of 18.6% of the collected berries was attacked by the borer and the highest percentage incidence was recorded in July (33.2%). Our results suggest that the coffee berry borer, if not properly managed, could constitute a limiting factor for conilon coffee production in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  3. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

  4. Karnyothrips flavipes, a previously unreported predatory thrips of the coffee berry borer: DNA-based gut content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new predator of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was found in the coffee growing area of Kisii in Western Kenya. Field observations, laboratory trials and gut content analysis using molecular tools have confirmed the role of the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Phlaeothrip...

  5. Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

  6. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations in West Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Coates, Brad Steven; Kim, Kyungseok; Forgacs, D.; Margam, Venu; Murdock, Larry L.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabiré , Clé mentine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim B.; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Tamò , Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert

    2012-01-01

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa. The application of population genetic tools is important in the management of insect pests but such data on M

  7. Review of ecosystem level impacts of emerald ash borer on black ash wetlands: What does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Anthony W. D' Amato; Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Robert A. Slesak; Thomas G. Pypker; Melissa B. Youngquist; Alexis R. Grinde; Brian J. Palik

    2018-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) is rapidly spreading throughout eastern North America and devastating ecosystems where ash is a component tree. This rapid and sustained loss of ash trees has already resulted in ecological impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and is projected to be even more severe as EAB invades black ash-dominated wetlands of the western...

  8. Screening of different insecticides against maize shoot fly atherigona soccata (Rond.) and maize borer. chilo partellus (swinh.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Rana, Z.A.; Haq, I.; Tariq, H.

    2010-01-01

    Field studies were carried out in the research area of the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad to determine the most effective maize seed treatment against maize shoot fly Atherigona soccata (Rond.) and insecticide against maize borer Chilo partellus (Swinh.) Trials were conducted following RCBD and replicated three times during 2005-2006. Two seed treatments Confider (imidacloprid) 70 WS and pensidor 72% WP (5 and 7 mg/kg seed) along with Confider (imidaclorid) 200 SC at the rate 40 ml/acre in the trial against maize shoot fly whereas, flubendiamide 48%, emamection 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC. carbofuran 3 G, indoxacarb 150 SC, alphacypermethrine 20 EC, monomehypo 5 G, bifenthrin 10 EC, cartap 4G, cyhalothrine 2.5 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC at the rate 20 ml, 150 ml, 40 ml, 8 kg, 150 ml, 200 ml, 5 kg, 150 ml, 6 kg. 250 ml and 300 ml per acre against maize borer were treated keeping one plo ast untreated check. Treatments were repeated as borer infestation reached above 5% level. All the seed treatments showed significant control of maize shoot fly in spite of dose 5 or 7 mg/kg seed along with foliar spray of confider 200 SC. The insecticides viz. flubendiamide 48% SC. emamectin 1.9 EC, spinosad 240 EC and carbofuran 3 G. indoxacarb 150 SC. alpha cypermethrin 20 EC, not only responded highest yield 5765, 5294, 5289, 5215, 5168 and 5025 kg/ha respectively but also manage the maize borer below ETL. (author)

  9. Effects of trap type, placement and ash distribution on emerald ash borer captures in a low density site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Nathan W. Siegert; Therese M. Poland; Steven J. Pierce; Su Zie. Ahn

    2011-01-01

    Effective methods for early detection of newly established, low density emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestations are critically needed in North America. We assessed adult A. planipennis captures on four types of traps in a 16-ha site in central Michigan. The site was divided into 16 blocks, each comprised of...

  10. Evaluating the economic costs and benefits of slowing the spread of emerald ash borer in Ohio and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Bossenbroek; Audra Croskey; David Finnoff; Louis Iverson; Shana M. McDermott; Anantha Prasad; Charles Sims; Davis. Sydnor

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis; EAB) is poised to wipe out native ashes (Fraxinus spp.) in North America with expected catastrophic losses to ash tree forestry (MacFarlane and Meyer 2005). EAB was first discovered in Detroit in 2002. Most scientists hypothesize that it entered the United States through solid wood...

  11. Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael I. Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Andrew D. Graves; Mary Louise. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle...

  12. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for resistance to fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer leaf-feeding damage in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and southwestern corn borer (SWCB), Diatraea grandiosella Dyar are damaging insect pests of maize resulting in significant yield and economic losses. A previous study identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to reduced leaf-fe...

  13. Methods to Improve Survival and Growth of Planted Alternative Species Seedlings in Black Ash Ecosystems Threatened by Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Bolton; Joseph Shannon; Joshua Davis; Matthew Grinsven; Nam Noh; Shon Schooler; Randall Kolka; Thomas Pypker; Joseph Wagenbrenner

    2018-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) continues to spread across North America, infesting native ash trees and changing the forested landscape. Black ash wetland forests are severely affected by EAB. As black ash wetland forests provide integral ecosystem services, alternative approaches to maintain forest cover on the landscape are needed. We implemented simulated EAB infestations...

  14. Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on the community composition of arthropods associated with ash tree boles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is an invasive non-native wood-boring beetle that has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America, and threatens to extirpate the ecological services provided by the genus. Identifying the arthropod community assoc...

  15. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: the potential for early stage recovery of North American ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many parts of North America, ash stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees and young basal sprouts, saplings, and seedlings. Without a seed bank, ash tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these younger cohorts...

  16. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Mike Ulyshen; Leah Bauer; Ivich. Fraser

    2011-01-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yong, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, is one of three hymenopteran parasitoids being released in the U.S. for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, EAB), an invasive beetle from Asia causing mortality of the ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North...

  17. A new species of genus Oobius (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from the Russian Far East that parasitizes eggs of Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described from the Vladivostok, Russia, Oobius primorskyensis Yao & Duan n. sp. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from t...

  18. Can ash communities and their dependent species be partially protected through biological control of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002 and has been detected in 32 U.S. states and two Canadian pro...

  19. Exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and its natural enemies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2003-01-01

    An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was conducted in China during October and November 2003. We examined 29 field plots in six provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. pennsylvanica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina...

  20. Development of a web-based tool for projecting costs of managing emerald ash borer in municipal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford S. Sadof

    2009-01-01

    City managers faced with the invasion of emerald ash borer into their urban forests need to plan for the invasion in order to obtain the resources they need to protect the public from harm caused by dying ash trees. Currently, city...

  1. The parasites of cereal stem borers (Lepidoptera: Cossidae, Crambidae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae) in Africa, belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Polaszek, A.

    1996-01-01

    A review is given of the parasites (parasitoids) of the African cereal stem borers (including introduced species) belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera); 38 species belonging to 19 genera are keyed and treated. Three new species are described: Macrocentrus sesamivorus spec. nov. from

  2. Progress and challenges of protecting North American ash trees from the emerald ash borer using biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian Duan; Leah Bauer; Roy van Driesche; Juli. Gould

    2018-01-01

    After emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, was discovered in the United States, a classical biological control program was initiated against this destructive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). This biocontrol program began in 2007 after federal regulatory agencies and the state of Michigan approved release of...

  3. Planning for and implementing an emerald ash borer-induced forest restoration program in municipal woodlands in Oakville, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter A. Williams; Candace. Karandiuk

    2017-01-01

    Oakville is an urban municipality with 846 ha of woodland. Management priorities are to maintain forest health, environmental health, and safety; wood production is a minor objective. The town developed a comprehensive strategy to plan for emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) induced ash mortality and forest restoration. Oakville has begun...

  4. Micro-CT unveils the secret life of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera, Curculionidae: Scolytinae) inside coffee berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide, and due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. In this pap...

  5. Development of a sprayable slow-release formulation for the sex pheromone of the Mediterranean Corn Borer, Sesamia nonagroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieger, J.J. de

    2008-01-01

    In the FAIR project "Pheromaize", CT96-1302, the main objective is to provide European growers with a reliable, cost effective and environmentally friendly technology based on pest mating disruption. The project is mainly focused on Mediterranean Corn Borer (MCB), Sesamia nonagroides, the key pest

  6. Can Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), emerge from logs two summers after infested trees are cut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Much of EAB's range expansion has been attributed to human-assisted movement of infested items such as ash logs and firewood. It is unclear the amount of time that logs cut...

  7. Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemin, C.; Bosley, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing may interfere with the normal closure of the optic vesicle and normal growth of encephalic structures, possibly by disturbing developmental tissue interactions. These patients may exhibit a type of restricted primary sphenoid dysplasia, while the sphenoid dysplasia of neurofibromatosis type 1 may be secondary to orbital or ocular neurofibromas and other factors associated with that disease. (orig.)

  8. Lesser sac hematoma as a sign of rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma in the caudate lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yoshie; Tani, Ichiro; Nakajima, Yasuo; Ishikawa, Tohru; Umeda, Satoshi; Kusano, Shoichi

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the caudate lobe of the liver. The CT scans of five cases of rupture of HCC in the caudate lobe of the liver were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with clinical records. All cases showed exophytic tumors in the caudate lobe of the liver and high-attenuation hematomas in the lesser sac on CT. A lesser sac hematoma may be a sentinel clot sign of rupture of HCC in the caudate lobe. (orig.)

  9. Digestibily of Some Kind of Alternative Diets on Lesser Mouse Deer (Tragulus javanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WR Farida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Four female lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus were used in this study to observe their feed consumption and digestibility given alternative diets in captive.  The results showed that 125g/head/day sweet potatoes supplementation in ration increased the consumption and digestibility of dry matter intake, ash, ether extract, and N-free extract. Supplementation of commercial concentrate in lesser mouse deer’s diet decreased the digestion of dry matter, ash, crude protein, and crude fiber. Animal Production 6(1: 17-22 (2004   Key Words: Digestibility, Consumption, Alternative Diets, Tragulus javanicus

  10. Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemin, C. [King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Radiology Dept.; Mullaney, P. [Paediatric Ophthalmology Div., King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Bosley, T.M. [Neuro-Ophthalmology Div., King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2001-02-01

    We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing may interfere with the normal closure of the optic vesicle and normal growth of encephalic structures, possibly by disturbing developmental tissue interactions. These patients may exhibit a type of restricted primary sphenoid dysplasia, while the sphenoid dysplasia of neurofibromatosis type 1 may be secondary to orbital or ocular neurofibromas and other factors associated with that disease. (orig.)

  11. Cloning and expression of an endo-1,4-β-xylanase from the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla-Hurtado Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS. The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-β-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10. The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was

  12. Effects of rearing conditions on reproduction of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-04-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) can be successfully reared on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), larvae feeding in chambers drilled in small ash twigs that are wrapped with floral tape. Females maintained in groups with males for one week can receive enough sperm for production of female progeny throughout their lives. Volatiles released by emerald ash borer adults feeding on ash foliage increased parasitoid fecundity over ash foliage alone or no stimulus. The temperature at which the parasitoids were reared ranged from 20 to 25 degrees C in a daily cycle; however, raising the daily maximum temperature to 28 degrees C did not affect parasitoid longevity or fecundity. Adult females lived between 12 and 127 d, with an average of 60.8 +/- 4.5 d. Males lived slightly longer, with an average of 66 +/- 4.5 d. The first clutch of eggs was laid when the female was between 2 and 42 d old, with the average preoviposition period lasting 11.4 +/- 1.4 or 19.5 +/- 2.0 d in 2007 and 2009 trials, respectively. A higher proportion of the emerald ash borer larvae were feeding and thus attractive to parasitoids in the 2009 trial, and female S. agrili laid an average of 9.5 +/- 1.0 clutches containing 5.4 +/- 0.2 eggs, for an average of 51.2 eggs per female. Approximately three quarters of the progeny were female. The number of eggs per clutch was significantly greater when deposited on larger emerald ash borer larvae, further highlighting the need for quality larvae in rearing. Chilling S. agrili pupae at 10 degrees C to stockpile them for summer release was not successful; chilling resulted in lower survival and lower fecundity of emerging progeny. Female S. agrili proved capable of attacking emerald ash borer larvae through even the thickest bark of an ash tree that was 30-cm diameter at breast height. Even emerald ash borer larvae that were creating overwintering chambers in the outer sapwood of the tree were successfully

  13. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  14. Grain destruction in interstellar shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the principal methods for removing grains from the Interstellar Medium is to destroy them in shock waves. Previous theoretical studies of shock destruction have generally assumed only a single size and type of grain; most do not account for the effect of the grain destruction on the structure of the shock. Earlier calculations have been improved in three ways: first, by using a ''complete'' grain model including a distribution of sizes and types of grains; second, by using a self-consistent shock structure that incorporates the changing elemental depletions as the grains are destroyed; and third, by calculating the shock-processed ultraviolet extinction curves for comparison with observations. (author)

  15. Dust grain charging in a wake of other grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloch, W. J.; Block, D.

    2012-01-01

    The charging of dust grain in the wake of another grains in sonic and supersonic collisionless plasma flows is studied by numerical simulations. We consider two grains aligned with the flow, as well as dust chains and multiple grain arrangements. It is found that the dust charge depends significantly on the flow speed, distance between the grains, and the grain arrangement. For two and three grains aligned, the charges on downstream grains depend linearly on the flow velocity and intergrain distance. The simulations are carried out with DiP3D, a three dimensional particle-in-cell code with both electrons and ions represented as numerical particles [W. J. Miloch et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010)].

  16. Interaction between N-fertilizer and water availability on borer-rot complex in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo da Rocha Pannuti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrogen availability in fertigation and rainfed management, as well as their interactions with the incidence of and damage caused by D. saccharalis and red rot in sugarcane. The experiment consisted of four treatments (0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer with irrigation; 0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer in rainfed management in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The evaluated parameters were the number of holes and internodes with red rot per meter of cultivation, stalk yield and sugar content. In the laboratory (T = 25 ± 2 °C; R.H. = 70 ± 10%: 12:12-L:D, we evaluated the attractiveness and consumption of fragments of stalks from the different treatments for fourth instar larvae through choice and no-choice tests in a randomized complete block design with ten replications. Nitrogen fertilization via irrigation has favorable effects on borer-rot complex and leads to higher gains in stalk and sugar yields when compared to rainfed management. The increments of stalk and sugar yields due to nitrogen fertilization compensates for the increase in borer-rot complex infestation. In laboratory tests, D. saccharalis larvae were similarly attracted to all treatments regardless of the doses of N-fertilizer or the water regimes evaluated. However, fragments of sugarcane stalks produced with nitrogen fertilization were consumed more by D. saccharalis in both water regimes.

  17. Overwintering biology and limits of cold tolerance in larvae of pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, M; Izadi, H; Šimek, P; Koštál, V

    2016-08-01

    Pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella is an important pest of pistachio trees. It has an univoltine life-cycle and its larvae tunnel and feed inside pistachio twigs for almost 10 months each year. The last larval instars overwinter inside the twigs. Survival/mortality associated with low temperatures during overwintering stage is currently unknown. We found that overwintering larvae of the Rafsanjan (Iran) population of K. pistaciella rely on maintaining a stably high supercooling capacity throughout the cold season. Their supercooling points (SCPs) ranged between -19.4 and -22.7°C from October to February. Larvae were able to survive 24 h exposures to -15°C anytime during the cold season. During December and January, larvae were undergoing quiescence type of dormancy caused probably by low ambient temperatures and/or changes in host tree physiology (tree dormancy). Larvae attain highest cold tolerance (high survival at -20°C) during dormancy, which offers them sufficient protection against geographically and ecologically relevant cold spells. High cold tolerance during dormancy was not associated with accumulation of any low-molecular mass cryoprotective substances. The SCP sets the limit of cold tolerance in pistachio twig borer, meaning that high mortality of overwintering populations can be expected only in the regions or years where or when the temperatures fall below the average larval SCP (i.e., below -20°C). Partial mortality can be expected also when temperatures repeatedly drop close to the SCP on a diurnal basis.

  18. Relationships of Reproductive Traits with the Phylogeny of the African Noctuid Stem Borers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-André Calatayud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B. nairobica, B . sp. nr. segeta, Manga melanodonta, M . sp. nr. nubifera, Pirateolea piscator, Sesamia calamistis , and S. nonagrioides . For each species, the adult emergence period, the mating time, and the oviposition period were estimated, referred as biological traits. The components of the sex pheromones emitted by the females of each species were also analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the biological traits measured, only those linked to the oviposition pattern (timing and egg loads per night were significantly correlated with the phylogeny of these species. For the sex pheromone components, among the 13 components identified in all species, only four, namely, Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-TDA, Z11-TDA, E11-TDA, and Z11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-HDA, showed the highest significant correlations with the phylogeny. These results suggest that among the different reproductive traits evaluated, only few are phylogenetically constrained. Their involvement in the reinforcement of ecological speciation in noctuid stem borers is discussed.

  19. The Biology and Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan

    2010-01-01

    The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

  20. Responses of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from Taiwan to a range of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuan; Chang, Cheng; Dai, Shu-Mei

    2010-07-01

    Information on the insecticide susceptibility of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is essential for an effective pest management programme. An early detection of resistance development can prompt the modification of current control methods and increase the lifespan of insecticides through the rotation of chemicals with different modes of action. In this study, the susceptibility of this pest in Taiwan to four classes of insecticides has been examined. Over 1000-fold resistance to carbofuran was detected in C. suppressalis collected from Chiayi and Changhua prefectures, with estimated LC(50) values of > 3 mg cm(-2). In addition, 61-fold resistance to cartap was found in the Chiayi population. On the other hand, all tested populations of rice stem borer were still relatively susceptible to chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, with LC(50) values ranging from 30 to 553 ng cm(-2). Chilo suppressalis populations collected from the central parts of Taiwan have a higher degree of resistance to the tested insecticides than those from northern areas. The occurrence of high resistance to carbofuran in the Chiayi and Changhua areas suggests that this compound should be replaced with chemicals having a different mode of action, such as chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, to which low cross-resistance has been detected. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on different phases of coffee borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Silva, A.L. da.

    1974-10-01

    Two experiments carried out in order to determine immediate lethal doses (LD sub(I)) for gamma irradiation of larvae, pupae and adults hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867) are presented. One experiment aimed only the determination of LD sub(I) for the adults of the coffee borer-outside the coffee-berries. The other to obtain the equivalent data for insects inside the coffee-berry, for all phases of the development cycle of the insect. It was found that LD sub(I) for larvae was around 350 Krad and for pupae around 400 Krad. For the adults, the LD sub(I) for insects outside the coffee-berry was 475 Krad and 525 for insects inside the coffee-berry. It was found that smaller doses caused a pronunced decrease in the insect lifetime, lifetime decrease proportionally as the irradiation dose increase. According to the results obtained, is postulated that this species of coffee-borer may be considered resistant to gamma radiation [pt

  2. Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance.

  3. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan by using sentinel eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristopher J. Abell; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Jian J. Duan; Roy G. Van Driesche

    2016-01-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoid species, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera:...

  4. Comparison of emerald ash borer preference for ash of different species, sun exposure, age, and stress treatments in relation to foliar volatiles and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Yigen Chen

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the host selection behavior and feeding preference of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on six different species of ash including Manchurian ash (F...

  5. Biaxial magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staines, M.; Genoud, J.-Y.; Mawdsley, A.; Manojlovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe a dynamic magnetic grain alignment technique which can be used to produce YBCO thick films with a high degree of biaxial texture. The technique is, however, generally applicable to preparing ceramics or composite materials from granular materials with orthorhombic or lower crystal symmetry and is therefore not restricted to superconducting applications. Because magnetic alignment is a bulk effect, textured substrates are not required, unlike epitaxial coated tape processes such as RABiTS. We have used the technique to produce thick films of Y-247 on untextured silver substrates. After processing to Y-123 the films show a clear enhancement of critical current density relative to identically prepared untextured or uniaxially textured samples. We describe procedures for preparing materials using magnetic biaxial grain alignment with the emphasis on alignment in epoxy, which can give extremely high texture. X-ray rocking curves with FWHM of as little as 1-2 degrees have been measured

  6. Long distance commutes by lesser long-nosed bats (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae) to visit residential hummingbird feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbie C. Buecher; Ronnie. Sidner

    2013-01-01

    Each spring, thousands of female lesser long-nosed bats (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae) migrate from southern Mexico to northern Sonora and southern Arizona to have their young and take advantage of seasonably available forage resources, including nectar, pollen, and fruit of columnar cacti. Once the pups are volant, the population begins to disperse across the grasslands...

  7. Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Dried Synbiotics Yoghurt from Lesser Yam Tubers (Dioscoreaesculenta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarti Sri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many variations of Yam (Dioscorea spp. which spread out in the world including Indonesia. Those variations could be categorized based on their shape, size, colour, and flavour of their tuber. The genus of Dioscorea spp. has more than 600 species, such as Dioscorea hispida, Dioscorea esculenta (lesser yam, Discorea bulbifera, Dioscorea alata (purple yam, Dioscorea opposita (white yam, Dioscorea villosa (yellow yam, Dioscorea altassima, and Dioscorea elephantipes. At the present, the utilization of yam tubers is seen to be limited. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the properties/characteristics of dried synbiotics yoghurt from lesser yam tubers. The treatment on this study was performed by the number of substitution of lesser yam tubers and the fermentation time. The results show that the dried synbiotics yoghurt that most preferred by consumers was G2F3 (lesser yam 40% and fermentation time 22 hours with an average value 3.65. It is followed by the total LAB (lactic acid bacteria 8,15 log cfu/g, pH 4.27, total lactic acid 1.02%, yield of dried synbiotic yoghurt 32.30%, and total soluble protein 4.53%.

  8. The Lesser Antillean Iguana on St. Eustatius: 2012 status update and review of limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Boman, E.

    2013-01-01

    The endangered Lesser Antillean Iguana, Iguana delicatissima, is an emblematic species for the island of St. Eustatius and in Caribbean Netherlands it is only found on St. Eustatius. In this study we conducted an extensive population survey for the iguana and compared densities in different areas to

  9. European Economic Integration and the Fate of Lesser-Used Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Francois

    1993-01-01

    The consequences of economic integration for Europe's lesser-used languages are examined. Applying theoretical predictions to a set of 12 minority languages, this paper shows that 5 will likely be in a more favorable position, 4 may lose as a result of economic integration, and no clear effect can be predicted for the remaining 3. (18 references)…

  10. Documenting Sociolinguistic Variation in Lesser-Studied Indigenous Communities: Challenges and Practical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, John; Stanford, James

    2017-01-01

    Documenting sociolinguistic variation in lesser-studied languages presents methodological challenges, but also offers important research opportunities. In this paper we examine three key methodological challenges commonly faced by researchers who are outsiders to the community. We then present practical solutions for successful variationist…

  11. Theory of mind in children with 'lesser variants' of autism : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M; Loth, FL; van Geert, PLC; Hurkens, E; Minderaa, RB

    2002-01-01

    Background: The study investigated the development of theory-of-mind (ToM) knowledge in children with 'lesser variants' of autism (PDD-NOS) over a period thought to be critical for ToM development (i.e., 3 to 5 years of age). Method: The sample included 11 children with PDD-NOS; 23 normally

  12. First Evidence of Angiostrongyliasis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dard, Céline; Piloquet, Jean-Eudes; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Fox, LeAnne M.; M'kada, Helmi; Hebert, Jean-Christophe; Mattera, Didier; Harrois, Dorothée

    2017-01-01

    Infection by the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis represents the most common cause of infectious eosinophilic meningitis in humans, causing central nervous system (CNS) angiostrongyliasis. Most of CNS angiostrongyliasis cases were described in Asia, Pacific Basin, Australia, and some limited parts of Africa and America. CNS angiostrongyliasis has been reported in the Caribbean but never in the Lesser Antilles. The primary objectives of this study were to depict the first case of CNS angiostrongyliasis in the Lesser Antilles and investigate the environmental presence of A. cantonensis in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. In December 2013, a suspected case of CNS angiostrongyliasis in an 8-month-old infant in Guadeloupe was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing on cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). The environmental investigation was performed by collecting Achatina fulica molluscs from different parts of Guadeloupe and testing the occurrence of A. cantonensis by real-time PCR. CSF from the suspected case of angiostrongyliasis was positive for A. cantonensis by real-time PCR. Among 34 collected snails for environmental investigation, 32.4% were positive for A. cantonensis. In conclusion, we report the first laboratory-confirmed case of CNS-angiostrongyliasis in the Lesser Antilles. We identified the presence and high prevalence of A. cantonensis in A. fulica in Guadeloupe. These results highlight the need to increase awareness of this disease and implement public health programs in the region to prevent human cases of angiostrongyliasis and improve management of eosinophilic meningitis patients. PMID:28070007

  13. The Lesser Antillean Ameiva (Sauria, Teiidae) Re-evaluation, zoogeography and the effects of predation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskin, Jonathan N.; Williams, Ernest E.

    1966-01-01

    The Ameiva of the Lesser Antilles present an interesting case of isolated populations of related animals on a chain of islands that differ in size and proximity among themselves but form a geographic group. The situation is made still more interesting by the fact that at times in the Pleistocene the

  14. Oxygen deficiency impacts on burying habitats for lesser sandeel, Ammodytes tobianus, in the inner Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane; Ærtebjerg, Gunni; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2009-01-01

    Starting in 1980s, the inner Danish waters have yearly been exposed to seasonal oxygen deficiency (hypoxia). Through spatial–temporal interpolation of monitoring data (1998–2005), we investigated oxygen deficiency impacts on suitable burying habitats for lesser sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus...

  15. Radial variation in fiber length of some lesser used wood species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    computer

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... Variations in fibre length of ten lesser used wood species were investigated. The mean fibre length ..... the growth of coniferous trees. Can. J. Bot.45: 1359-1369 ... morphology and paper properties: a review of literature. Tappi ...

  16. A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) from Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia (Aves: Accipitridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) is described from Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands). In addition some notes are given on the distribution of A. virgatus in south-eastern Burma and adjacent parts of Thailand, supplementary to an earlier paper (Mees, 1981).

  17. Radial variation in fiber length of some lesser used wood species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in fibre length of ten lesser used wood species were investigated. The mean fibre length varied from 1.07mm in Lannea acida to 2.41mm in Sterculia setigera. Four patterns of within tree radial variations in fibre length were observed in the studied species. In pattern one, fibre length increased from the pith to the ...

  18. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 challenging from a scientific perspective, but it can also be very technologically rewarding , given the...energy) is a competing explanation that remains to be explored. Strategies to drive the grain boundary energy toward zero have produced some success...Thompson AM, Soni KK, Chan HM, Harmer MP, Williams DB, Chabala JM, et al. J Am Ceram Soc 1997;80:373. [172] Behera SK. PhD dissertation, Materials Science

  19. Predictive coarse-graining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schöberl, Markus, E-mail: m.schoeberl@tum.de [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zabaras, Nicholas [Institute for Advanced Study, Technical University of Munich, Lichtenbergstraße 2a, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, 365 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Koutsourelakis, Phaedon-Stelios [Continuum Mechanics Group, Technical University of Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We propose a data-driven, coarse-graining formulation in the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In contrast to existing techniques which are based on a fine-to-coarse map, we adopt the opposite strategy by prescribing a probabilistic coarse-to-fine map. This corresponds to a directed probabilistic model where the coarse variables play the role of latent generators of the fine scale (all-atom) data. From an information-theoretic perspective, the framework proposed provides an improvement upon the relative entropy method and is capable of quantifying the uncertainty due to the information loss that unavoidably takes place during the coarse-graining process. Furthermore, it can be readily extended to a fully Bayesian model where various sources of uncertainties are reflected in the posterior of the model parameters. The latter can be used to produce not only point estimates of fine-scale reconstructions or macroscopic observables, but more importantly, predictive posterior distributions on these quantities. Predictive posterior distributions reflect the confidence of the model as a function of the amount of data and the level of coarse-graining. The issues of model complexity and model selection are seamlessly addressed by employing a hierarchical prior that favors the discovery of sparse solutions, revealing the most prominent features in the coarse-grained model. A flexible and parallelizable Monte Carlo – Expectation–Maximization (MC-EM) scheme is proposed for carrying out inference and learning tasks. A comparative assessment of the proposed methodology is presented for a lattice spin system and the SPC/E water model.

  20. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  1. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  2. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  3. Origins of amorphous interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of amorphous interstellar grains has been suggested from infrared observations. Some carbon stars show the far infrared emission with a lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Far infrared emission supposed to be due to silicate grains often show the lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Mid infrared spectra around 10 μm have broad structure. These may be due to the amorphous silicate grains. The condition that the condensed grains from the cosmic gas are amorphous is discussed. (author)

  4. Photoelectric charging of dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Photoemission from the surface of a dust grain in vacuum is considered. It is shown that the cutoff in the energy spectrum of emitted electrons leads to the formation of a steady-state electron cloud. The equation describing the distribution of the electric potential in the vicinity of a dust grain is solved numerically. The dust grain charge is found as a function of the grain size.

  5. Variation in Crustal Structure of the Lesser Caucasus Region from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. M.; Tseng, T. L.; Huang, B. S.; Legendre, C. P.; Karakhanian, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Caucasus, including the mountains of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, is formed by the continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. The crustal thickness for this region was mostly constrained by joint analysis of receiver functions and surface waves. Although the thickest value of 52 km was reported under the Lesser Caucasus, the resolution of earlier studies were often limited by sparse array. Large gradient across Moho also makes the definition of Moho difficult. Moreover, higher value of the Vp/Vs ratio is commonly reported in the northeastern Turkey but no estimates had been made for the Caucasus. To further investigate the detail structure around the Lesser Caucasus, we constructed a new seismic network in Georgia and Armenia. We also include other broadband stations to enhance the coverage. The average interval in the Lesser Caucasus is roughly 30 km, much denser than any previous experiments. We selected P-waveforms from teleseismic earthquakes during the operation (January 2012 - June 2016) to calculate receiver functions and then estimate the crustal thickness (H) and Vp/Vs ratio (k) with the H-k stacking technique. Our preliminary results show that Moho depth increases from 40 km under the northeastern Turkey to 50 km beneath northern Georgia, no station with Moho deeper than 50 km under the Lesser Caucasus. The Vp/Vs ratios in the northeastern Anatolian plateau are around 1.8, which is slightly higher than the average of global continents but consistent with the previous estimates. Further to the east, some stations show anomalously higher Vp/Vs ratio in central & southern Armenia that may be associated with Holocene volcanism. In the future, we plan to join locally measured dispersion curves to invert the velocity model without velocity-depth trade-off. We expect to resolve the velocity variations of the crust beneath this region in small scale that may be tied to the continental collision and surface volcanism. Keywords: Caucasus, receiver

  6. Lesser prairie-chicken fence collision risk across its northern distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samantha G.; Haukos, David A.; Plumb, Reid T.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Sullins, Daniel S.; Kraft, John D.; Lautenbach, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock fences have been hypothesized to significantly contribute to mortality of lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus); however, quantification of mortality due to fence collisions is lacking across their current distribution. Variation in fence density, landscape composition and configuration, and land use could influence collision risk of lesser prairie-chickens. We monitored fences within 3 km of known leks during spring and fall and surveyed for signs of collision occurrence within 20 m of fences in 6 study sites in Kansas and Colorado, USA during 2013 and 2014. We assessed mortality locations of radio-tagged birds (n = 286) for evidence of fence collisions and compared distance to fence relative to random points. Additionally, we quantified locations, propensity, and frequency of fences crossed by lesser prairie-chickens. We tested for landscape and vegetative characteristics that influenced fence-cross propensity and frequency of global positioning system (GPS)-marked birds. A minimum of 12,706 fence crossings occurred by GPS-marked lesser prairie-chickens. We found 3 carcasses and 12 additional possible instances of evidence of collision during >2,800 km of surveyed fences. We found evidence for a single suspected collision based on carcass evidence for 148 mortalities of transmittered birds. Mortality locations of transmittered birds were located at distances from fences 15% farther than expected at random. Our data suggested minimal biological significance and indicated that propensity and frequency of fence crossings were random processes. Lesser prairie-chickens do not appear to be experiencing significant mortality risk due to fence collisions in Kansas and Colorado. Focusing resources on other limiting factors (i.e., habitat quality) has greater potential for impact on population demography than fence marking and removal.

  7. The predicted influence of climate change on lesser prairie-chicken reproductive parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.; Davis, D.; Boydston, Kathy K.; Dixon, Charles; Heck, Willard R.

    2013-01-01

    The Southern High Plains is anticipated to experience significant changes in temperature and precipitation due to climate change. These changes may influence the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) in positive or negative ways. We assessed the potential changes in clutch size, incubation start date, and nest survival for lesser prairie-chickens for the years 2050 and 2080 based on modeled predictions of climate change and reproductive data for lesser prairie-chickens from 2001-2011 on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. We developed 9 a priori models to assess the relationship between reproductive parameters and biologically relevant weather conditions. We selected weather variable(s) with the most model support and then obtained future predicted values from climatewizard.org. We conducted 1,000 simulations using each reproductive parameter's linear equation obtained from regression calculations, and the future predicted value for each weather variable to predict future reproductive parameter values for lesser prairie-chickens. There was a high degree of model uncertainty for each reproductive value. Winter temperature had the greatest effect size for all three parameters, suggesting a negative relationship between above-average winter temperature and reproductive output. The above-average winter temperatures are correlated to La Nina events, which negatively affect lesser prairie-chickens through resulting drought conditions. By 2050 and 2080, nest survival was predicted to be below levels considered viable for population persistence; however, our assessment did not consider annual survival of adults, chick survival, or the positive benefit of habitat management and conservation, which may ultimately offset the potentially negative effect of drought on nest survival.

  8. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  9. Rheological analysis of fine-grained natural debris-flow material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on large samples of fine-grained material (???2mm) from a natural debris flow using a wide-gap concentric-cylinder viscometer. The rheological behavior of this material is compatible with a Bingham model at shear rates in excess of 5 sec. At lesser shear rates, rheological behavior of the material deviates from the Bingham model, and when sand concentration of the slurry exceeds 20 percent by volume, particle interaction between sand grains dominates the mechanical behavior. Yield strength and plastic viscosity are extremely sensitive to sediment concentration.

  10. Composition of forage and grain from second-generation insect-protected corn MON 89034 is equivalent to that of conventional corn (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Suzanne M; Reynolds, Tracey L; Ridley, William P; Bogdanova, Natalia; Riordan, Susan; Nemeth, Margaret A; Sorbet, Roy; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L

    2008-06-25

    Insect-protected corn hybrids containing Cry insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis have protection from target pests and provide effective management of insect resistance. MON 89034 hybrids have been developed that produce both the Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins, which provide two independent modes of insecticidal action against the European corn borer ( Ostrinia nubilalis ) and other lepidopteran insect pests of corn. The composition of MON 89034 corn was compared to conventional corn by measuring proximates, fiber, and minerals in forage and by measuring proximates, fiber, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, antinutrients, and secondary metabolites in grain collected from 10 replicated field sites across the United States and Argentina during the 2004-2005 growing seasons. Analyses established that the forage and grain from MON 89034 are compositionally comparable to the control corn hybrid and conventional corn reference hybrids. These findings support the conclusion that MON 89034 is compositionally equivalent to conventional corn hybrids.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF ABIOTIC FACTORS ON THE PRESENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments with natural population of European corn borer (ECB were conducted in three vegetation seasons (2012-2014 at Agricultural Institute in Osijek. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design as split-split plot method, with three repetitions. This plot has been constantly maize - soybean rotation for already 15 years. It was a 3x3x4 factorial experiment with three irrigation levels (A1- non-irrigated (only natural precipitation, A2-from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3-from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1-0, B2-100 and B3-200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1-0SSK 596; C2-0SSK 617; C3-0SSK 602 and C4-0SSK 552.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different levels of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and genotypes on occurrence and damage of maize plants by the European corn borer larvae and relation between leaf feeding larvae with nitrogen and silicon concentration as well as C/N ratio. At the end of each growing season, ten maize plants from each variant were cut. Ear weight for each specific plant (g, tunnel length (cm, number of larvae in stalk, number of larvae in the ear shank, ear shank damage (cm and total number of larvae in maize plantwere determined. In silking stage (middle of July ten leaves (below the ear, from 10 maize plants were sampled on each variant. Nitrogen, carbon and silicon concentrations were determined in maize leaf (% and C/N ratio calculated. In 2014, a significantly lower ECB attack was determined taking into account lower temperatures and higher amount of precipitate compared to the previous years. Dominance of Z-type European corn borer on pheromone traps in the area of eastern Slavonia was confirmed. Increasing the level of soil water content, damage from larvae was reduced and increasing the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. We have confirmed different hybrid resistance in regards to damage from larvae

  12. Grain Interactions in Crystal Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, K.P.; Curtin, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The plastic response of a sheet metal is governed by the collective response of the underlying grains. Intragranular plasticity depends on intrinsic variables such as crystallographic orientation and on extrinsic variables such as grain interactions; however, the role of the latter is not well understood. A finite element crystal plasticity formulation is used to investigate the importance of grain interactions on intragranular plastic deformation in initially untextured polycrystalline aggregates. A statistical analysis reveals that grain interactions are of equal (or more) importance for determining the average intragranular deviations from the applied strain as compared to the orientation of the grain itself. Furthermore, the influence of the surrounding grains is found to extend past nearest neighbor interactions. It is concluded that the stochastic nature of the mesoscale environment must be considered for a proper understanding of the plastic response of sheet metals at the grain-scale

  13. Iron Deficiency Anemia: Focus on Infectious Diseases in Lesser Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia G.; Friedman, Jennifer F.

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is thought to affect the health of more than one billion people worldwide, with the greatest burden of disease experienced in lesser developed countries, particularly women of reproductive age and children. This greater disease burden is due to both nutritional and infectious etiologies. Individuals in lesser developed countries have diets that are much lower in iron, less access to multivitamins for young children and pregnant women, and increased rates of fertility which increase demands for iron through the life course. Infectious diseases, particularly parasitic diseases, also lead to both extracorporeal iron loss and anemia of inflammation, which decreases bioavailability of iron to host tissues. This paper will address the unique etiologies and consequences of both iron deficiency anemia and the alterations in iron absorption and distribution seen in the context of anemia of inflammation. Implications for diagnosis and treatment in this unique context will also be discussed. PMID:21738863

  14. Oxynoemacheilus zarzianus, a new loach from the Lesser Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Geiger, Matthias

    2017-06-02

    Oxynoemacheilus zarzianus, new species, is described from the Lesser Zab River drainage, a tributary of the lower Tigris. It is distinguished from other Oxynoemacheilus species in the Tigris drainage by having a slightly emarginate caudal fin, no suborbital groove in males, a complete lateral line, the posterior process of the bony air-bladder capsule directed posteriorly, the flank and posterior part of back covered by scales, short barbels and a deep caudal peduncle. It is the fourth Oxynoemacheilus species known from the Lesser Zab drainage, where such loaches seem to be highly isolated in headwaters. Oxynoemacheilus species diversity in the Euphrates and Tigris drainage is exceptional high. Today 22 species are known from the entire Euphrates and Tigris drainage and 15 from the Tigris drainage alone.

  15. Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigeration for lesser developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1990-02-01

    The Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigerator is a solar thermal technology which provides low cost, efficient, reliable ice-making to areas without ready access to electricity. An ISAAC refrigeration system consists of a compound parabolic solar collector, two pressure vessels, a condenser, a cold box or refrigerated space, and simple connective piping -- no moving parts or electrical components. Most parts are simple construction or plumbing grade materials, locally available in many remote areas. This technology has numerous potential benefits in lesser developed countries both by providing a cheap, reliable source of ice, and, since manufacture requires only semi-skilled labor, a source of employment to the local economy. Applications include vaccine storage for health care clinics; fish, meat, and dairy product storage; and personal consumption. Importantly, this technology increases the quality of life for people in lesser developed countries without depleting fossil fuel resources or increasing the release of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and chlorofluorocarbons.

  16. Spatial differences in growth of lesser sandeel in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Wright, Peter J.; Jensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus, is a key prey to a variety of North Sea predators, including species such as single load seabirds which are highly sensitive to prey size and condition. Whilst differences in weight at age across the North Sea have been investigated previously, the scale and cause...... of this variation as well as the potential link to spatial differences in predator performance remains unknown. This study presents an analysis of spatial patterns in length and condition of the lesser sandeel in the North Sea and the relationship of these with physical and biological factors. Both mean length...... considerably both spatially and temporally, resulting in 4 fold and 1.9 fold variations in the number of sandeels required to obtain a specific weight, respectively. Hence, the value of sandeel as prey to single load predators varies considerably with values in central and northeastern North Sea being...

  17. Iron Deficiency Anemia: Focus on Infectious Diseases in Lesser Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia G. Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is thought to affect the health of more than one billion people worldwide, with the greatest burden of disease experienced in lesser developed countries, particularly women of reproductive age and children. This greater disease burden is due to both nutritional and infectious etiologies. Individuals in lesser developed countries have diets that are much lower in iron, less access to multivitamins for young children and pregnant women, and increased rates of fertility which increase demands for iron through the life course. Infectious diseases, particularly parasitic diseases, also lead to both extracorporeal iron loss and anemia of inflammation, which decreases bioavailability of iron to host tissues. This paper will address the unique etiologies and consequences of both iron deficiency anemia and the alterations in iron absorption and distribution seen in the context of anemia of inflammation. Implications for diagnosis and treatment in this unique context will also be discussed.

  18. Evaluation of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) rice varieties against stem borer (Chilo suppressalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Ghaffar; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Ghareyazie, Behzad; Sattari, Majid

    2008-02-15

    Three transgenic rice varieties namely Khazar, Neda and Nemat, all containing a cry1Ab gene, were evaluated through PCR analysis and field examinations for their resistance at natural infestation of insect pests during 2007. The results showed that all transgenic varieties produced 1.2 kb PCR product derived from application of cry1Ab gene. In field conditions, transgenic varieties exhibited high levels of resistance against natural infestation of stem borer and the damaged plants based on dead heart or white heat for them were less than 1%. Moreover, in stem-cut bioassay 100% of released larvae died within four days after infestation. These results demonstrate that expression of cry1Ab gene in the genome of transgenic varieties provided season-long protection from the natural infestation of lepidopteran insects.

  19. Some effects of gamma irradiation on adults males of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgrillo, R.B.; Wiendl, F.M.

    1981-01-01

    With the objective of checking some effects of gamma radiation on the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis (F.)), one-day ald adult males were irradiated with doses from 0-50 krad at 5 krad intervals. The insects were submitted to gamma irradiation in a 60 Co source, with a dose rate of 350 krad/hour. No significant difference was found in male longevity between treatments. Also no significant difference as found in sexual activity, represented by number of spermatophores per female, and in fertility. Fertility and egg viability decreased significantly with the dose, the viability reaching 0 at 50 krad. Occurrence of dominant lethal mutation, induced by radiation, was noted, which resulted in the death of the embryo before larvae emergence. (Author) [pt

  20. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora effect on coffe berry borer in the Algarrobo locality, Trinidad, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvis Valdés Zayas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, coffee berry borer is considered the pest that bigger causes damage, to coffee production all over the world. It is an insect of difficult handling with the traditional control methods by mean of insecticides. For this reason the Strategy of Integrated Handling of this Plague take into consideration since manual collection of the insect up the employment of biological controls. The last alternative is one of the more appealed by coffee farmers due to the minor cost. That’s why with the realization of this work the levels of effectiveness of several doses of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on the control of H. hampei were evaluated. There were not significant differences between the three doses evaluated so it is suggested the employment of the dose of 500 million for hectare for the control of the plague because it is the most economic dose.

  1. Field dispersal ability and taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 male Asian corn borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huasong; Liu Qiongru; Lu Daguang; Wang Endong; Kang Wen; Li Yongjun; He Qiulan; Hu Jianguo

    1998-01-01

    The dispersal ability of F-1 male Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy Separately in parental generation were tested by marking (with Calco oil red or Sudan blue internally)-releasing-recapturing (with synthesized sex pheromone) method in the field where the farthest distance from release point to pheromone trap was 550 m. The results showed that, as compared with the normal male moths, despite of the fact that a part of the irradiated F-1 males had lost dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone, there was no significant difference between the captured rates of irradiated F-1 males and normal males in the trap 550 m from release point, indicated that the dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 males arrived at 550 m from release point are still well matched with the normal ones

  2. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.

  3. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800) (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) from Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Shehab, Adwan; Mamkhair, Inrahim; Amr, Zuhair

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female) were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto&l...

  4. Impacts of a volcanic eruption on the forest birdcommunity of Montserrat, Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. DALSGAARD; G. M. HILTON; G. A. L. GRAY; L. AYMER; J. BOATSWAIN; J. FENTON DALEY; J. MARTIN; L. MARTIN; P. MURRAIN; W. J. ARENDT; W. OLESEN GIBBONSD

    2007-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are an important and natural source of catastrophic disturbance to ecological communities. However, opportunities to study them are relatively rare. Here we report on the effects of the eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano on the forest bird community of the Lesser Antillean island of Montserrat. The island’s species-poor avifauna includes 11...

  5. Rangewide genetic analysis of Lesser Prairie-Chicken reveals population structure, range expansion, and possible introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; DeYoung, Randall W; Fike, Jennifer; Hagen, Christian A.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Larsson, Lena C.; Patten, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has been markedly reduced due to loss and fragmentation of habitat. Portions of the historical range, however, have been recolonized and even expanded due to planting of conservation reserve program (CRP) fields that provide favorable vegetation structure for Lesser Prairie-Chickens. The source population(s) feeding the range expansion is unknown, yet has resulted in overlap between Lesser and Greater Prairie-Chickens (T. cupido) increasing the potential for hybridization. Our objectives were to characterize connectivity and genetic diversity among populations, identify source population(s) of recent range expansion, and examine hybridization with the Greater Prairie-Chicken. We analyzed 640 samples from across the range using 13 microsatellites. We identified three to four populations corresponding largely to ecoregions. The Shinnery Oak Prairie and Sand Sagebrush Prairie represented genetically distinct populations (F ST > 0.034 and F ST > 0.023 respectively). The Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic and Mixed Grass ecoregions appeared admixed (F ST = 0.009). Genetic diversity was similar among ecoregions and N e ranged from 142 (95 % CI 99–236) for the Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic to 296 (95 % CI 233–396) in the Mixed Grass Prairie. No recent migration was detected among ecoregions, except asymmetric dispersal from both the Mixed Grass Prairie and to a lesser extent the Sand Sagebrush Prairie north into adjacent Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic (m = 0.207, 95 % CI 0.116–0.298, m = 0.097, 95 % CI 0.010–0.183, respectively). Indices investigating potential hybridization in the Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic revealed that six of the 13 individuals with hybrid phenotypes were significantly admixed suggesting hybridization. Continued monitoring of diversity within and among ecoregions is warranted as are actions promoting genetic connectivity and range expansion.

  6. The relative contribution of climate to changes in lesser prairie-chicken abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James

    2016-01-01

    Managing for species using current weather patterns fails to incorporate the uncertainty associated with future climatic conditions; without incorporating potential changes in climate into conservation strategies, management and conservation efforts may fall short or waste valuable resources. Understanding the effects of climate change on species in the Great Plains of North America is especially important, as this region is projected to experience an increased magnitude of climate change. Of particular ecological and conservation interest is the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), which was listed as “threatened” under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in May 2014. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to quantify the effects of extreme climatic events (extreme values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index [PDSI]) relative to intermediate (changes in El Niño Southern Oscillation) and long-term climate variability (changes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation) on trends in lesser prairie-chicken abundance from 1981 to 2014. Our results indicate that lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks responded to environmental conditions of the year previous by positively responding to wet springs (high PDSI) and negatively to years with hot, dry summers (low PDSI), but had little response to variation in the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Additionally, greater variation in abundance on leks was explained by variation in site relative to broad-scale climatic indices. Consequently, lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks in Kansas is more strongly influenced by extreme drought events during summer than other climatic conditions, which may have negative consequences for the population as drought conditions intensify throughout the Great Plains.

  7. GIS habitat analysis for lesser prairie-chickens in southeastern New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kristine; Neville, Teri B; Neville, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background We conducted Geographic Information System (GIS) habitat analyses for lesser prairie-chicken (LPCH, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) conservation planning. The 876,799 ha study area included most of the occupied habitat for the LPCH in New Mexico. The objectives were to identify and quantify: 1. suitable LPCH habitat in New Mexico, 2. conversion of native habitats, 3. potential for habitat restoration, and 4. unsuitable habitat available for oil and gas activities. Results We f...

  8. Sugarcane giant borer transcriptome analysis and identification of genes related to digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; de Sousa Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; de Góis, Luiz Avelar Brandão; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus), a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB) transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN) cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect's biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control.

  9. Sugarcane giant borer transcriptome analysis and identification of genes related to digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campos de Assis Fonseca

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus, a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect's biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control.

  10. RESISTANCE OF SOME GROUNDNUT CULTIVARS TO SOYBEAN POD BORER, ETIELLA ZINCKENELLA TREIT. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwinardi Apriyanto, Edi Gunawan, dan Tri Sunardi .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of some groundnut cultivars to soybean pod borer, Etiella zinckenella Treit. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.  Five groundnut cultivars: Badak, Panther, Sima, Gajah, and Simpai, were grown in field in June-August, 2006 to determine their resistance/susceptibility to Etiella zinckenella Treit.  Two local cultivars (big and small seeds were included as comparison (controls. All cultivars were grown in experimental plots arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD, replicated three times. The incidence of soybean pod borer and damaged pods were observed at 9, 11, 13 weeks after sowing (WAS at 10 sample plants taken randomly from each plot. All cultivars were harvested at 13 WAS. Number of damaged pods was counted and percentages per plant were calculated. Larvae observed inside pod or in the soil were counted and collected. The seed yield per plant and weight of 100 seeds from 100 sample plants taken randomly at harvest were weighted to nearest gram at 10% water content. Pod toughness (hardness was measured with penetrometer. Resistance level of each cultivar was determined based on cultivar’s means and overall mean and standard deviation of the percentages of damaged pods. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA and means were separated with DMRT. The result revealed that mean percentages of damaged pod differed significantly between cultivars. Seed yield of cultivar Panther, Sima and Badak were significantly higher than those of the other two and local cultivars. Cultivar Panther was categorized as resistant, cultivar Sima and Badak as moderately resistant, while the others as susceptible. The relative resistance of groundnut cultivar seems, at least in part, to correlate with the structural hardness of pod.

  11. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  12. [Diagnosing Low Health and Wood Borer Attacked Trees of Chinese Arborvitae by Using Thermography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wu, De-jun; Zhai, Guo-feng; Zang, Li-peng

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy metabolism of plants is very important actions in their lives. Although the studies about these actions by using thermography were often reported, seldom were found in detecting the health status of forest trees. In this study, we increase the measurement accuracy and comparability of thermo-images by creating the difference indices. Based on it, we exam the water and energy status in stem of Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) by detecting the variance of far infrared spectrum between sap-wood and heart-wood of the cross-section of felling trees and the cores from an increment borer using thermography. The results indicate that the sap rate between sapwood and heartwood is different as the variance of the vigor of forest trees. Meanwhile, the image temperature of scale leaves from Chinese arborvitae trees with different vigor is also dissimilar. The far infrared spectrum more responds the sap status not the wood percentage in comparing to the area rate between sapwood and heartwood. The image temperature rate can be used in early determining the health status of Chinese arborvitae trees. The wood borers such as Phloeosinus aubei Perris and Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky are the pests which usually attack the low health trees, dying trees, wilted trees, felled trees and new cultivated trees. This measuring technique may be an important index to diagnose the health and vigor status after a large number of measurements for Chinese arborvitae trees. Therefore, there is potential to be an important index to check the tree vigor and pest damage status by using this technique. It will be a key in the tending and management of ecological and public Chinese arborvitae forest.

  13. The problem of lesser evil within the context of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sytnik-Czetwertyński

    2016-10-01

    Szkoła Zdrowia Publicznego w Warszawie, Poland     Abstract   The issue of public health also includes broad ethical questions. It is here for instance that we find so-called decisions of conscience. Since medical practice is full of moral dilemmas, transferred into the domain of public health, for instance when a doctor decides to provide, in individual cases, costly medical procedures while being simultaneously aware that the funds used for these procedures, could save many more people whose ailments are less costly. These situations force the medical practitioner into making a decision, despite the fact that all the possible choices are morally reprehensible . There exist many moral dilemmas, where the person making the decision cannot find a satisfactory solution, while also being forced to make a decision. Normally, the decision maker then calls upon the category of so-called lesser evil. But this category is no justification – lesser evil is still evil. Which is why it is worth asking what the situation of lesser evil is for the decision maker . What is a moral choice within a public health policy?   Key words: public health, the ethical dilemma, naturalism

  14. Assessing range-wide habitat suitability for the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Timmer, Jennifer M.; Boal, Clint W.; Butler, Matthew; Pitman, James C.; Kyle, Sean; Klute, David; Beauprez, Grant M.; Janus, Allan; Van Pelt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Population declines of many wildlife species have been linked to habitat loss incurred through land-use change. Incorporation of conservation planning into development planning may mitigate these impacts. The threatened Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is experiencing loss of native habitat and high levels of energy development across its multijurisdictional range. Our goal was to explore relationships of the species occurrence with landscape characteristics and anthropogenic effects influencing its distribution through evaluation of habitat suitability associated with one particular habitat usage, lekking. Lekking has been relatively well-surveyed, though not consistently, in all jurisdictions. All five states in which Lesser Prairie-Chickens occur cooperated in development of a Maxent habitat suitability model. We created two models, one with state as a factor and one without state. When state was included it was the most important predictor, followed by percent of land cover consisting of known or suspected used vegetation classes within a 5000 m area around a lek. Without state, land cover was the most important predictor of relative habitat suitability for leks. Among the anthropogenic predictors, landscape condition, a measure of human impact integrated across several factors, was most important, ranking third in importance without state. These results quantify the relative suitability of the landscape within the current occupied range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens. These models, combined with other landscape information, form the basis of a habitat assessment tool that can be used to guide siting of development projects and targeting of areas for conservation.

  15. Interactions of raptors and Lesser Prairie-Chickens at leks in the Texas Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, Adam C.; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, Heather A.; Lucia, Duane R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined behavioral interactions of raptors, Chihuahuan Ravens (Corvus cryptoleucus), and Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) at leks in the Texas Southern High Plains. Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus) and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) were the most common raptors observed at leks. Only 15 of 61 (25%) raptor encounters at leks (0.09/hr) resulted in a capture attempt (0.02/hr). Mean (± SD) time for Lesser Prairie-Chickens to return to lekking behavior following a raptor encounter was 4.2 ± 5.5 min suggesting the disturbance had little influence on lekking behaviors. Lesser Prairie-Chickens engaged in different escape behaviors depending on raptor species and, generally, did not respond to ravens suggesting they are able to assess different predation risks. The raptors in our study area posed little predation risk to lekking prairie-chickens. Behavioral disturbance at leks appears minimal due to the lack of successful predation events, low raptor encounter rates, and short time to return to lekking behavior.

  16. Intramuscular Lipoma-Induced Occipital Neuralgia on the Lesser Occipital Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun Ho; Kim, Hak Soo; Rhie, Jong Won; Moon, Suk Ho

    2016-06-01

    Occipital neuralgia (ON) is commonly characterized by a neuralgiform headache accompanied by a paroxysmal burning sensation in the dermatome area of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerve. The authors report a rare case of ON caused by an intramuscular lipoma originating from the lesser occipital nerve.A 52-year-old man presented with sharp pain in the left postauricular area with a 3 × 2-cm palpable mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass suspiciously resembling an intramuscular lipoma within splenius muscle. In the operation field, a protruding mass causing stretching of the lesser occipital nerve was found. After complete resection, the neuralgiform headache symptom had resolved and the intramuscular lipoma was confirmed through histopathology.Previous studies on the causes of ON have reported that variation in normal anatomic structures results in nerve compression. Occipital neuralgia, however, caused by intramuscular lipomas in splenius muscles have not been previously reported, and the dramatic resolution following surgery makes it an interesting case worth reporting.

  17. 78 FR 75306 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken... the conservation of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). In addition, we announce... prairie-chicken as a threatened species under the Act. We also announce the availability of the final...

  18. Evaluating indices of lipid and protein content in lesser snow and Ross's geese during spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Elisabeth B.; Fowler, Drew N.; Woodall, Brendan A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.

    2018-01-01

    Assessing nutrient stores in avian species is important for understanding the extent to which body condition influences success or failure in life‐history events. We evaluated predictive models using morphometric characteristics to estimate total body lipids (TBL) and total body protein (TBP), based on traditional proximate analyses, in spring migrating lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (A. rossii). We also compared performance of our lipid model with a previously derived predictive equation for TBL developed for nesting lesser snow geese. We used external and internal measurements on 612 lesser snow and 125 Ross's geese collected during spring migration in 2015 and 2016 within the Central and Mississippi flyways to derive and evaluate predictive models. Using a validation data set, our best performing lipid model for snow geese better predicted TBL (root mean square error [RMSE] of 23.56) compared with a model derived from nesting individuals (RMSE = 48.60), suggesting the importance of season‐specific models for accurate lipid estimation. Models that included body mass and abdominal fat deposit best predicted TBL determined by proximate analysis in both species (lesser snow goose, R2 = 0.87, RMSE = 23.56: Ross's geese, R2 = 0.89, RMSE = 13.75). Models incorporating a combination of external structural measurements in addition to internal muscle and body mass best predicted protein values (R2 = 0.85, RMSE = 19.39 and R2 = 0.85, RMSE = 7.65, lesser snow and Ross's geese, respectively), but protein models including only body mass and body size were also competitive and provided extended utility to our equations for field applications. Therefore, our models indicated the importance of specimen dissection and measurement of the abdominal fat pad to provide the most accurate lipid estimates and provide alternative dissection‐free methods for estimating protein.

  19. Long-term lesser prairie-chicken nest ecology in response to grassland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Sarah R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Haukos, David A.; Boal, Clint W.; Patten, Michael; Wolfe, Don H.; Dixon, Charles; Cox, Robert D.; Heck, Willard R.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term population and range declines from habitat loss and fragmentation caused the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) to be a species of concern throughout its range. Current lesser prairie-chicken range in New Mexico and Texas is partially restricted to sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii; hereafter shinnery oak) prairies, on which cattle grazing is the main socioeconomic driver for private landowners. Cattle producers within shinnery oak prairies often focus land management on shrub eradication using the herbicide tebuthiuron to promote grass production for forage; however, herbicide application alone, and in combination with grazing, may affect nest site selection and nest survival of lesser prairie-chickens through the reduction of shinnery oak and native grasses. We used a controlled, paired, completely randomized design study to assess the influence of grazing and tebuthiuron application and their combined use on nest site selection and nest survival from 2001 to 2010 in Roosevelt County, New Mexico, USA at 2 spatial scales (i.e., treatment and microhabitat) in 4 treatments: tebuthiuron with grazing, tebuthiuron without grazing, no tebuthiuron with grazing, and a control of no tebuthiuron and no grazing. Grazing treatment was a short-duration system in which plots were grazed once during the dormant season and once during the growing season. Stocking rate was calculated each season based on measured forage production and applied to remove ≤25% of available herbaceous material per season. At the treatment scale, we compared nest site selection among treatments using 1-way χ2 tests and nest survival among treatments using a priori candidate nest survival models in Program MARK. At the microhabitat scale, we identified important habitat predictors of nest site selection and nest survival using logistic regression and a priori candidate nest survival models in Program MARK, respectively. Females typically used treatments as expected and

  20. Nonbreeding home‐range size and survival of lesser prairie‐chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samantha G.; Haukos, David A.; Plumb, Reid T.; Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Sullins, Daniel S.; Kraft, John D.; Lautenbach, Jonathan D.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    The lesser prairie‐chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a species of conservation concern with uncertain regulatory status, has experienced population declines over the past century. Most research on lesser prairie‐chickens has focused on the breeding season, with little research conducted during the nonbreeding season, a period that exerts a strong influence on demography in other upland game birds. We trapped lesser prairie‐chickens on leks and marked them with either global positioning system (GPS) satellite or very high frequency (VHF) transmitters to estimate survival and home‐range size during the nonbreeding season. We monitored 119 marked lesser prairie‐chickens in 3 study areas in Kansas, USA, from 16 September to 14 March in 2013, 2014, and 2015. We estimated home‐range size using Brownian Bridge movement models (GPS transmitters) and fixed kernel density estimators (VHF transmitters), and female survival using Kaplan–Meier known‐fate models. Average home‐range size did not differ between sexes. Estimated home‐range size was 3 times greater for individuals fitted with GPS satellite transmitters ( = 997 ha) than those with VHF transmitters ( = 286 ha), likely a result of the temporal resolution of the different transmitters. Home‐range size of GPS‐marked birds increased 2.8 times relative to the breeding season and varied by study area and year. Home‐range size was smaller in the 2013–2014 nonbreeding season ( = 495 ha) than the following 2 nonbreeding seasons ( = 1,290 ha and  = 1,158 ha), corresponding with drought conditions of 2013, which were alleviated in following years. Female survival () was high relative to breeding season estimates, and did not differ by study area or year ( = 0.73 ± 0.04 [SE]). Future management could remain focused on the breeding season because nonbreeding survival was 39–44% greater than the previous breeding season; however, considerations of total space

  1. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes, and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, J. C.; Leskey, T. C.; Walgenbach, J. F.; Klingeman, W. E.; Kain, D. P.; Zhang, A.

    2017-01-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 ± 644 and 3095 ± 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, excee...

  2. Control of Cocoa Pod Borer and Phytophthora Pod Rot Using Degradable Plastic Pod Sleeves and a Nematode, Steinernema Carpocapsae

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmana, Ade; Shepard, Merle; Hebbar, Prakash; Mustari, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Cocoa pod borer (CPB; Conopomorpha cramerella) and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR; Phytophthora palmivora) are serious pest and disease on cocoa plantations in Indonesia. Both pest and disease have been controlled with limited success using cultural practices such as pruning, frequent harvesting, sanitation, plastic sleeving, and chemical pesticides. An experiment was conducted on cocoa plantings in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi during the wet season of 2008/09 to test the effect of pod sleeving...

  3. European Corn Borer life stage model: Regional estimates of pest development and spatial distribution under present and future climate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, M.; Muška, F.; Semerádová, Daniela; Dubrovský, Martin; Kocmánková, E.; Žalud, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 207, 2-4 (2007), s. 61-84 ISSN 0304-3800 R&D Projects: GA MZe QG60051; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/05/0125 Grant - others:6th FP EU(XE) GOCE 037005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Corn borer * ECAMON * GCMs * Degree day model * Climate change impacts Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2007

  4. Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitória Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h 2 = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = −0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  5. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions.

  6. Influence of Mortality Factors and Host Resistance on the Population Dynamics of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Urban Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquarrie, Chris J K; Scharbach, Roger

    2015-02-01

    The success of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America is hypothesized to be due to both the lack of significant natural enemies permitting easy establishment and a population of trees that lack the ability to defend themselves, which allows populations to grow unchecked. Since its discovery in 2002, a number of studies have examined mortality factors of the insect in forests, but none have examined the role of natural enemies and other mortality agents in the urban forest. This is significant because it is in the urban forest where the emerald ash borer has had the most significant economic impacts. We studied populations in urban forests in three municipalities in Ontario, Canada, between 2010 and 2012 using life tables and stage-specific survivorship to analyze data from a split-rearing manipulative experiment. We found that there was little overall mortality caused by natural enemies; most mortality we did observe was caused by disease. Stage-specific survivorship was lowest in small and large larvae, supporting previous observations of high mortality in these two stages. We also used our data to test the hypothesis that mortality and density in emerald ash borer are linked. Our results support the prediction of a negative relationship between mortality and density. However, the relationship varies between insects developing in the crown and those in the trunk of the tree. This relationship was significant because when incorporated with previous findings, it suggests a mechanism and hypothesis to explain the outbreak dynamics of the emerald ash borer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  8. Development of novel ash hybrids to introgress resistance to emerald ash borer into north American ash species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is no evidence that any of the native North American ash species have any resistance to the emerald ash borer (EAB). This means that the entire ash resource of the eastern United States and Canada is at risk of loss due to EAB. In contrast, outbreaks of EAB in Asian ash species are rare and appear to be isolated responses to stress (Bauer et al. 2005,...

  9. Grain Flow at High Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSaveney, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The transport mechanism of rapid long-runout rock avalanches was a hotly debated topic when I came on the scene in 1967. So how come it is still debated today? My explanation is that it is the expected outcome of peer review, poor comprehension, and technological advances outpacing intellectual advances. Why think about the problem when we can model it! So let us think about the problem. Shreve thought that rock avalanches fell upon and trapped a layer of air. What physics was he thinking about? It is how feathers and tissue papers fall. When my rock avalanches fly, they fly like unlubricated bricks using the physics of projectiles and ballistics. But the main transport mechanism is not flight. The dominant impression from watching a rock avalanche in motion is of fluid flow, as Heim described it in 1882. A rock avalanche is a very large grain flow. Bagnold studied dispersive grain flows, but why should one assume that rock avalanches are dispersive grain flows as many do. The more common grain flow type is a dense grain flow and rock avalanches are dense grain flows in which the weight can and does generate very high stresses at grain contacts. Brittle rock deforms elastically up to its compressive strength, whereupon it breaks, releasing elastic strain as transient elastic strain (seismic energy to a seismologist, acoustic energy to a physicist). Melosh and others have shown that acoustic energy can fluidize a grain mass. There is no exotic physics behind grain flow at high stress. When grains break, the released elastic strain has to go somewhere, and it goes somewhere principally by transmission though grain contacts. Depending on the state of stress at the grain contact, the contact will pass the stress or will slip at conventional values of Coulomb friction. Enough thinking! A physical model of the entire process is too big for any laboratory. So whose numerical model will do it?

  10. Grain dust and the lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a PMID:348288

  11. Impact of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Field Corn (Poales: Poaceae) Yield and Grain Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibb, Jenny L; Cook, Donald; Catchot, Angus; Musser, Fred; Stewart, Scott D; Leonard, Billy Rogers; Buntin, G David; Kerns, David; Allen, Tom W; Gore, Jeffrey

    2018-05-28

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), commonly infests field corn, Zea mays (L.). The combination of corn plant biology, corn earworm behavior in corn ecosystems, and field corn value renders corn earworm management with foliar insecticides noneconomical. Corn technologies containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were introduced that exhibit substantial efficacy against corn earworm and may reduce mycotoxin contamination in grain. The first generation Bt traits in field corn demonstrated limited activity on corn earworm feeding on grain. The pyramided corn technologies have greater cumulative protein concentrations and higher expression throughout the plant, so these corn traits should provide effective management of this pest. Additionally, reduced kernel injury may affect physical grain quality. Experiments were conducted during 2011-2012 to investigate corn earworm impact on field corn yield and grain quality. Treatments included field corn hybrids expressing the Herculex, YieldGard, and Genuity VT Triple Pro technologies. Supplemental insecticide treatments were applied every 1-2 d from silk emergence until silk senescence to create a range of injured kernels for each technology. No significant relationship between the number of corn earworm damaged kernels and yield was observed for any technology/hybrid. In these studies, corn earworm larvae did not cause enough damage to impact yield. Additionally, no consistent relationship between corn earworm damage and aflatoxin contamination was observed. Based on these data, the economic value of pyramided Bt corn traits to corn producers, in the southern United States, appears to be from management of other lepidopteran insect pests including European and southwestern corn borer.

  12. Elaboration of a strategy to control the peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller in the Sefrou region in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfers Adil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trapping by specific sex pheromones initiated in 2009 to monitor three pests, peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella, oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana revealed the greater importance of peach twig borer in comparison to the others. The results of monitoring the development of larval stages over time and the accumulated degree-days from biofix show that the pest develops five generations per year, one of which undergoes a diapause. In 2009 and 2010 chemical control based on tolerance threshold of 10 males/trap/2 weeks showed unsatisfactory results. With this method, the percentage of affected fruits increased from 6.8% in 2009 to 18.6% in 2010 despite the application of four treatments of organophosphate-based insecticides in 2009 and the application of four treatments in 2010 using active ingredients from different chemical families (pyrethroid, organophosphate and chlorinicotinyl. On the other hand, management of the peach twig borer by the degree-days method tested and planned on the basis of a bifenthrin treatment between 150 to 204 degree-days accumulated from biofix, gave interesting results where the percentage of affected fruits hardly exceeded 0.5% over the four years of study

  13. INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner ON CORN HYBRIDS IN NORTH-WEST AND EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvjezdana Augustinović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.

  14. Crafting traps with attractant alcoholics an alternative for monitoring and control of borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari 1867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agramont Richard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to incorporate an alternative, for monitoring and control of the borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Choleoptera: Curculionidae to be feasible for the use of the coffee producers, in the community Choro, Coripata municipality, second section of Nor Yungas province, La Paz Bolivia. It was evaluated the capture of adult borer coffee individuals using 45 traps into 1,5 hectares distributed at random with four repetitions. It was used three types of craft traps, built with disposable plastic bottles of soft drinks, with the traps Casera, Brocap and Yessica, were evaluated three treatments: mixture of alcohols methyl (M and ethylic (E in proportions 3:1; mix 1:1 of (M and (E; mix 1:1:1 of (M (E and coffee fresh cherry liquated (CFCL and water as a witness. The largest captures of adult individuals, were present in the crafting traps with mixture of (M(E 3:1 with overalls (± standard deviation adults/traps/ten days of 3414,5±3227,7 being superior to the other treatments. The crafting trap is one of the alternatives for the control and monitoring of the borer in the coffee plantations. The use of crafting traps with alcoholic attractants for the capture of adult individuals, is present as a low cost alternative, being feasible the successful use by the producers into the management integrated programs.

  15. Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

    2011-12-01

    The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively.

  16. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Chilo auricilius and comparison with three other rice stem borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-09-15

    The mitogenome of Chilo auricilius (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae) was a circular molecule made up of 15,367 bp. Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas, and C. auricilius, are closely related, well known rice stem borers that are widely distributed in the main rice-growing regions of China. The gene order and orientation of all four stem borers were similar to that of other insect mitogenomes. Among the four stem borers, all AT contents were below 83%, while all AT contents of tRNA genes were above 80%. The genomes were compact, with only 121-257 bp of non-coding intergenic spacer. There are 56 or 62-bp overlapping nucleotides in Crambidae moths, but were only 25-bp overlapping nucleotides in the noctuid moth S. inferens. There was a conserved motif 'ATACTAAA' between trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 in Crambidae moths, but this same region was 'ATCATA' in the noctuid S. inferens. And there was a 6-bp motif 'ATGATAA' of overlapping nucleotides, which was conserved in Lepidoptera, and a 14-bp motif 'TAAGCTATTTAAAT' conserved in the three Crambidae moths (C. suppressalis, C. auricilius and T. incertulas), but not in the noctuid. Finally, there were no stem-and-loop structures in the two Chilo moths. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of multifunnel traps for capturing emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): effect of color, glue, and other trap coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2011-06-01

    Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps.

  18. Assessment of Trichogramma japonicum and T. chilonis as Potential Biological Control Agents of Yellow Stem Borer in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Kang, Min; Song, Kai; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Two species of Trichogramma wasps were assessed for their effectiveness against yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas. A laboratory cage test with T. japonicum and T. chilonis showed that both species parasitized yellow stem borer egg masses at 60.0% ± 9.13% and 40.7% ± 7.11%, respectively, with egg parasitism rates of 15.8% ± 22.2% for T. japonicum and 2.8% ± 5.0% for T. chilonis. Once the host eggs were parasitized, emergence rates were high for both species (95.7% ± 0.12% for T. japonicum and 100% for T. chilonis). In paddy field trials, the two Trichogramma species were released at three densities (50,000/ha, 100,000/ha and 200,000/ha) in Southwestern China. Egg mass parasitism was 9% ± 7.7% for T. japonicum and 15% ± 14.1% for T. chilonis, and again only a relatively small fraction of eggs was successfully parasitized. No clear conclusion could be drawn on the most efficient release rate as no significant differences were found among the three release rates. A comparison of field-collected T. japonicum with T. japonicum and T. chilonis mass reared on Corcyra cephalonica showed significantly larger body size and ovipositor length in field-collected wasps, suggesting potentially higher effectiveness on yellow stem borer eggs after at least one generation on the target host. Factors contributing to the low field parasitism rates are discussed. PMID:28208706

  19. Modelling of grain refinement driven by negative grain boundary energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Zickler, G. A.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 23 (2017), s. 1963-1977 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grain refinement * grain nucleation * distribution concept * jump on distribution function Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2016

  20. Ionizing radiation for insect control in grain and grain products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, E.W.; Brower, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A technical review summarizes and discusses information on various aspects of the use of ionizing radiation for the control of insect infestation in grains and grain products. Topics include: the effects of ionizing radiation on insects infesting stored-grain products; the 2 main types of irradiators (electron accelerators; radioisotopes (e.g.: Co-60; Cs-137); dosimetry systems and methodology; variations in radiation resistance by stored-product pests; the proper selection of radiation dose; the effects of combining various treatments (temperature, infrared/microwave radiation, hypoxia, chemicals) with ionizing radiation; sublethal radiation for controlling bulk grain insects; the feeding capacity of irradiated insects; the susceptibility of insecticide-resistant insects to ionizing radiation; and the possible resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. Practical aspects of removing insects from irradiated grain also are discussed

  1. Field-Cage Methodology for Evaluating Climatic Suitability for Introduced Wood-Borer Parasitoids: Preliminary Results from the Emerald Ash Borer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Duan, Jian J.; Bauer, Leah S.; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Driesche, Roy Van

    2011-01-01

    Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well. PMID:22233133

  2. Influence of age and diet on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of age and feeding on the performance of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae, a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Curculionidae was investigated in the laboratory. Groups of female parasitoids were subject to the following treatments: a group fed during one, five and ten days after emergence of adults with coffee borer larvae; another group fed only with honey solution during five days after emergence; and as a control, a third group was kept without food for five days. At the end of each treatment, survivorship, parasitoid activity (walking and flying capacity in an arena, search capacity for finding coffee borer-infested berries, host feeding and oviposition (on immature hosts, were assessed. Unfed females showed a significant decrease in survivorship compared to individuals that were fed. The type of meal (insects or honey did not significantly influence parasitoid activity, search and oviposition capacities. Females fed with honey solution significantly consumed less immature coffee borers. Younger females (one day old walked and flew out of the arena significantly faster than older ones (5 and 10 days old. Implications of these results are discussed on the performance of C. stephanoderis as a biological control agent of the coffee berry borer.

  3. Stochastic theory of grain growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Haiyun; Xing Xiusan.

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this note is to set up a stochastic theory of grain growth and to derive the statistical distribution function and the average value of the grain radius so as to match them with the experiment further. 8 refs, 1 fig

  4. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAIN AMARANTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    children; increased body mass index of people formerly wasted by HIV/AIDS; ... and market acceptability of Amaranth cruentus based products in order to ... Peru, grain amaranth also used the grains as food; preparation of local beverage; added ... initiated to know the proximate composition, mineral and vitamin contents of ...

  5. Stress-driven grain growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1998-11-13

    Full Text Available of length b (1+ epsilon) is parallel to sigma, embedded in a grain in which the lattice vector b (1+ epsilon) is transverse to sigma. If the embedded grain grows at the expense of its matrix, the source of the stress will do work, and therefore the presence...

  6. Characteristics of lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) long-distance movements across their distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Julia E.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Haukos, David A.; Tanner, Ashley M.; Elmore, Dwayne; Carleton, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance movements are important adaptive behaviors that contribute to population, community, and ecosystem connectivity. However, researchers have a poor understanding of the characteristics of long-distance movements for most species. Here, we examined long-distance movements for the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a species of conservation concern. We addressed the following questions: (1) At what distances could populations be connected? (2) What are the characteristics and probability of dispersal movements? (3) Do lesser prairie-chickens display exploratory and round-trip movements? (4) Do the characteristics of long-distance movements vary by site? Movements were examined from populations using satellite GPS transmitters across the entire distribution of the species in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. Dispersal movements were recorded up to 71 km net displacement, much farther than hitherto recorded. These distances suggest that there may be greater potential connectivity among populations than previously thought. Dispersal movements were displayed primarily by females and had a northerly directional bias. Dispersal probabilities ranged from 0.08 to 0.43 movements per year for both sexes combined, although these movements averaged only 16 km net displacement. Lesser prairie-chickens displayed both exploratory foray loops and round-trip movements. Half of round-trip movements appeared seasonal, suggesting a partial migration in some populations. None of the long-distance movements varied by study site. Data presented here will be important in parameterizing models assessing population viability and informing conservation planning, although further work is needed to identify landscape features that may reduce connectivity among populations.

  7. Evaluation of capture techniques on lesser prairie-chicken trap injury and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Mitchell, Natasia R.; Gicklhorn, Trevor S.; Borsdorf, Philip K.; Haukos, David A.; Dixon, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Ethical treatment of research animals is required under the Animal Welfare Act. This includes trapping methodologies that reduce unnecessary pain and duress. Traps used in research should optimize animal welfare conditions within the context of the proposed research study. Several trapping techniques are used in the study of lesser prairie-chickens, despite lack of knowledge of trap injury caused by the various methods. From 2006 to 2012, we captured 217, 40, and 144 lesser prairie-chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus using walk-in funnel traps, rocket nets, and drop nets, respectively, in New Mexico and Texas, to assess the effects of capture technique on injury and survival of the species. We monitored radiotagged, injured lesser prairie-chickens 7–65 d postcapture to assess survival rates of injured individuals. Injuries occurred disproportionately among trap type, injury type, and sex. The predominant injuries were superficial cuts to the extremities of males captured in walk-in funnel traps. However, we observed no mortalities due to trapping, postcapture survival rates of injured birds did not vary across trap types, and the daily survival probability of an injured and uninjured bird was ≥99%. Frequency and intensity of injuries in walk-in funnel traps are due to the passive nature of these traps (researcher cannot select specific individuals for capture) and incidental capture of individuals not needed for research. Comparatively, rocket nets and drop nets allow observers to target birds for capture and require immediate removal of captured individuals from the trap. Based on our results, trap injuries would be reduced if researchers monitor and immediately remove birds from walk-in funnels before they injure themselves; move traps to target specific birds and reduce recaptures; limit the number of consecutive trapping days on a lek; and use proper netting techniques that incorporate quick, efficient, trained handling procedures.

  8. Canine distemper virus infection in a lesser grison (Galictis cuja: first report and virus phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Megid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases in wild animals have been increasing as a result of their habitat alterations and closer contact with domestic animals. Canine distemper virus (CDV has been reported in several species of wild carnivores, presenting a threat to wildlife conservation. We described the first case of canine distemper virus infection in lesser grison (Galictis cuja. A free-ranging individual, with no visible clinical sigs, presented sudden death after one day in captivity. Molecular diagnosis for CDV infection was performed using whole blood collected by postmortem intracardiac puncture, which resulted positive. The virus phylogeny indicated that domestic dogs were the probable source of infection.

  9. Hepatic microsomal metabolism of BDE-47 and BDE-99 by lesser snow geese and Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lisa K; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the oxidative biotransformation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) by liver microsomes from wild lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Formation of hydroxy-metabolites was analyzed using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method. Incubation of BDE-47 with avian liver microsomes produced sixteen hydroxy-metabolites, eight of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites formed by liver microsomes from individual lesser snow geese were 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-42), 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (3-OH-BDE-47), and 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4'-OH-BDE-49). By comparison, 4-OH-BDE-42 and 4'-OH-BDE-49, but not 3-OH-BDE-47, were major metabolites of Japanese quail liver microsomes. Unidentified metabolites included monohydroxy- and dihydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers. Incubation of BDE-99 with avian liver microsomes produced seventeen hydroxy-metabolites, twelve of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites formed by lesser snow goose liver microsomes were 2,4,5-tribromophenol, 3-OH-BDE-47, 4'-OH-BDE-49, 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-90), and 5'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (5'-OH-BDE-99). By comparison, the major metabolites produced by liver microsomes from Japanese quail included 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47) and 2-hydroxy-2',3,4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (2-OH-BDE-123), but not 3-OH-BDE-47. Unidentified metabolites consisted of monohydroxy-pentabromodiphenyl ethers, monohydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers and dihydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers. Another difference between the two species was that formation rates of BDE-47 and BDE-99 metabolites were greater with liver

  10. Spatially explicit modeling of lesser prairie-chicken lek density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Jennifer M.; Butler, M.J.; Ballard, Warren; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    As with many other grassland birds, lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have experienced population declines in the Southern Great Plains. Currently they are proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to a history of land-uses that have resulted in habitat loss, lesser prairie-chickens now face a new potential disturbance from energy development. We estimated lek density in the occupied lesser prairie-chicken range of Texas, USA, and modeled anthropogenic and vegetative landscape features associated with lek density. We used an aerial line-transect survey method to count lesser prairie-chicken leks in spring 2010 and 2011 and surveyed 208 randomly selected 51.84-km(2) blocks. We divided each survey block into 12.96-km(2) quadrats and summarized landscape variables within each quadrat. We then used hierarchical distance-sampling models to examine the relationship between lek density and anthropogenic and vegetative landscape features and predict how lek density may change in response to changes on the landscape, such as an increase in energy development. Our best models indicated lek density was related to percent grassland, region (i.e., the northeast or southwest region of the Texas Panhandle), total percentage of grassland and shrubland, paved road density, and active oil and gas well density. Predicted lek density peaked at 0.39leks/12.96km(2) (SE=0.09) and 2.05leks/12.96km(2) (SE=0.56) in the northeast and southwest region of the Texas Panhandle, respectively, which corresponds to approximately 88% and 44% grassland in the northeast and southwest region. Lek density increased with an increase in total percentage of grassland and shrubland and was greatest in areas with lower densities of paved roads and lower densities of active oil and gas wells. We used the 2 most competitive models to predict lek abundance and estimated 236 leks (CV=0.138, 95% CI=177-306leks) for our sampling area. Our results suggest that

  11. Unique structure and optics of the lesser eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, A; Andersson, F; Nilsson, Dan-E

    2008-01-01

    mere light meters. The slit eyes, comprising four cell types, are complex and highly asymmetric. They also hold a lens-like structure, but its optical power is minute. Optical modeling suggests spatial resolution, but only in one plane. These unique and intriguing traits support strong peripheral......The visual system of box jellyfish comprises a total of 24 eyes. These are of four types and each probably has a special function. To investigate this hypothesis the morphology and optics of the lesser eyes, the pit and slit eyes, were examined. The pit eyes hold one cell type only and are probably...

  12. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  13. Grain centre mapping - 3DXRD measurements of average grain characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Lyckegaard, Allan

    2014-01-01

    characteristics of each grain (such as their centre-of-mass positions, volumes, phases, orientations and/or elastic strain tensor components), while the exact locations of the grain boundaries are unknown. In the present chapter a detailed description of the setup and software for both grain centre mapping...... and the closely related boxscan method is given. Both validation experiments and applications for in situ studies of microstructural changes during plastic deformation and crack growth are given. Finally an outlook with special emphasis on coupling the measured results with modelling is given....

  14. Methods of assessing grain-size distribution during grain growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, Cherry J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, Brian

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers methods of obtaining grain-size distributions and ways of describing them. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer is used, and the resulting data are subjected to a series of tests that evaluate the differences between two related...... distributions (before and after grain growth). The distributions are measured from two-dimensional sections, and both the data and the corresponding true three-dimensional grain-size distributions (obtained by stereological analysis) are collected. The techniques described here are illustrated by reference...

  15. Application of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) in monitoring slope movements in Nainital, Uttarakhand Lesser Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yhokha, Akano; Goswami, Pradeep K.; Chang, Chung-Pai; Yen, Jiun-Yee; Ching, Kuo-En; Aruche, K. Manini

    2018-02-01

    Orogenic movements and sub-tropical climate have rendered the slopes of the Himalayan region intensely deformed and weathered. As a result, the incidences of slope failure are quite common all along the Himalayan region. The Lesser Himalayan terrane is particularly vulnerable to mass-movements owing to geological fragility, and many parts of it are bearing a high-risk of associated disaster owing to the high population density. An important step towards mitigation of such disasters is the monitoring of slope movement. Towards this, the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique can be applied. In the present study, the PSI technique is employed in Lesser Himalayan town of Nainital in Uttarakhand state of India to decipher and monitor slope movements. A total of 15 multi-date ENVISAT ASAR satellite images, acquired during August 2008 to August 2010 period, were subjected to PSI, which revealed a continuous creep movement along the hillslopes located towards the eastern side of the Nainital lake. The higher reaches of the hill seem to be experiencing accelerated creep of {˜ }21 mm/year, which decreases downslope to {˜ }5 mm/year. Based on spatial pattern of varying PSI Mean LOS Velocity (MLV) values, high (H), moderate (M), low (L) and very low (S) creeping zones have been delineated in the hillslopes. Given the long history of mass movements and continuously increasing anthropogenic activities in Nainital, these results call for immediate measures to avert any future disaster in the town.

  16. A Midterm Review of Lesser Toe Arthrodesis With an Intramedullary Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, James Lee; Wilkinson, Anthony; Maher, Anthony John

    2017-10-01

    Lesser toe deformities are one of the most common conditions encountered by podiatric surgeons. When conservative treatments fail surgical correction is indicated. Many surgical options have been described to address the complex nature of these deformities but no perfect solution has been reported to date. However, with the continued advancement of internal fixation technology, interphalangeal joint (IPJ) arthrodesis with an intramedullary implant may be a good option. This retrospective study presents patient reported outcomes and complications at 6 months and 3 years following lesser toe proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) arthrodesis with a polyketone intrameduallary implant (Toe Grip, Orthosolutions, UK). Between September 2011 and November 2012, a total of 38 patients attended for second toe PIPJ arthrodesis by means of the Toe Grip device. At 6 months postoperation, 94.7% of patients and at 3 years postoperation, 92.8% of patients felt that their original complaint was better or much better. Health-related quality of life scores continued to improve overtime as measured by the Manchester Oxford Foot Questionnaire. Complications were generally observational and asymptomatic. The most common complications were floating toes (17.8%), mallet deformities (14.2%), metatarsalgia (17.8%), and transverse plane deformity of the toe (10.7%). This study demonstrates excellent patient-eported outcomes with minimal symptomatic complications making the "Toe Grip" implant a safe and effective alternative fixation device for IPJ arthrodesis when dealing with painful digital deformities. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series.

  17. Social Impact Assessment: The lesser sibling in the South African EIA process?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, L.; Sandham, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Social Impact Assessment has developed as an integral but neglected component of EIA in South Africa since it became mandatory in 1997, and has therefore been referred to as the “orphan” or “lesser sibling” of EIA, as has SIA in the UK and the US. The aim of this paper is to test this claim by reviewing the quality of a sample of SIA reports, and also to establish whether there has been any improvement in quality following the introduction of revised EIA regulations in 2006. The results confirm that SIA can be called “the lesser sibling” due to the weak grades achieved in the quality review, but also reveal that there has been a slight and consistent improvement in quality, most likely driven by best practice considerations in the absence of prescriptive regulations for SIA. Suggestions and recommendations for addressing observed weakness in SIA performance are advanced. - Highlights: • The quality of a sample of SIA reports was evaluated using a review package. • SIA reports received mostly weak grades. • Limited improvement observed from first to second regulatory regime. • Improvements most likely due to best practice considerations

  18. Temperature effects on egg development and larval condition in the lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnier, Thomas; Gibb, Fiona M.; Wright, Peter J.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the influence of temperature on egg development and larval condition in planktonic fish is a prerequisite to understanding the phenological impacts of climate change on marine food-webs. The lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus (Raitt 1934), is a key trophic link between zooplankton and many piscivorous fish, sea birds and mammals in the northeast Atlantic. Temperature-egg development relationships were determined for batches of lesser sandeel eggs. Hatching began as early as 19 days post fertilisation at 11 °C and as late as 36 days post fertilisation at 6 °C, which is faster than egg development rates reported for closely related species at the lower end of the tested temperature range. The average size of newly hatched larvae decreased with increasing incubation temperatures in early hatching larvae, but this effect was lost by the middle of the hatching period. While the study revealed important temperature effects on egg development rate, predicted variability based on the range of temperatures eggs experience in the field, suggests it is only a minor contributor to the observed inter-annual variation in hatch date.

  19. Regional Variation in mtDNA of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Wolfe, Don H.; Robel, Robel J.; Applegate, Roger D.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative loss of habitat and long-term decline in the populations of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have led to concerns for the species' viability throughout its range in the southern Great Plains. For more efficient conservation past and present distributions of genetic variation need to be understood. We examined the distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the Lesser Prairie-Chicken across Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. Throughout the range we found little genetic differentiation except for the population in New Mexico, which was significantly different from most other publications. We did, however, find significant isolation by distance at the rangewide scale (r=0.698). We found no relationship between haplotype phylogeny and geography, and our analyses provide evidence for a post-glacial population expansion within the species that is consistent with the idea that speciation within Tympanuchus is recent. Conservation actions that increase the likelihood of genetically viable populations in the future should be evaluated for implementation.

  20. Testing competing hypotheses for chronology and intensity of lesser scaup molt during winter and spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Anteau, A.C.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined chronology and intensity of molt and their relationships to nutrient reserves (lipid and protein) of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) to test predictions of two competing hypotheses. The "staggered cost" hypothesis states that contour-feather molt is nutritionally costly and should not occur during nutritionally costly periods of the annual cycle unless adequate nutrients are available. The "breeding plumage" hypothesis states that prealternate molt must be complete prior to nesting, regardless of nutrient availability. Males and females were completing prebasic molt during winter (Louisiana) and had similar molt intensities. Females underwent prealternate molt during spring migration (Illinois and Minnesota) and prebreeding (Manitoba) periods; 53% and 93% of females were in moderate to heavy molt in Minnesota and Manitoba, respectively, despite experiencing other substantial nutritional costs. Intensity of prealternate molt was not correlated with lipid reserves even though females, on average, were nutritionally stressed. Molt intensity was not negatively correlated with protein reserves at any location. Chronology and intensity of prealternate molt varied little and were not temporally staggered from other nutritionally costly events. Prealternate molt did not influence nutrient reserves, and nutrient reserves likely were not the ultimate factor influencing chronology or intensity of prealternate molt of females. We surmise that nutrients required for prealternate molt come from exogenous sources and that the "staggered cost" hypothesis does not explain chronology of prealternate molt in female Lesser Scaup; rather, it appears that molt must be complete prior to nesting, consistent with the "breeding plumage" hypothesis. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  1. A comment on “temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Boomer, G. Scott; Schmutz, Joel A.; Walker, Johann A.

    2017-01-01

    Concerns about declines in the abundance of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) have promoted a number of analyses to understand reasons for this decline. Unfortunately, most of these analyses, including that of Arnold et al. (2016 Journal of Wildlife Management 80: 850–861), are based on observational studies leading to weak inference. Although we commend the efforts of Arnold et al. (2016 Journal of Wildlife Management 80: 850–861), we think their conclusions are over-stated given their retrospective analysis. Further, we note a number of inconsistencies in their reasoning and offer alternative conclusions that can be drawn from their analysis. Given the uncertainty still surrounding management of lesser scaup, we do not believe it is prudent to abandon or greatly modify adaptive management approaches designed specifically to make optimal decisions in the face of uncertainty. The current learning-based and recursive approach to management appears to be providing adequate guidance for harvest without punctuated changes to harvest levels, as Arnold et al. (2016 Journal of Wildlife Management 80: 850–861) recommend.

  2. K-Ar geochronology and palaeomagnetism of volcanic rocks in the lesser Antilles island arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briden, J.C.; Rex, D.C.; Faller, A.M.; Tomblin, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    K-Ar age determinations on rocks and minerals from 95 locations in the Lesser Antilles. An age range of 38 - 10 million years was found for the outer arc (Limestone Caribbees) but less than 7.7 million years in the inner arc (Volcanic Caribbees). From Martinique southwards the two arcs are superimposed. These age ranges fit between discontinuities in sea floor spreading in the North Atlantic at about 38 and 9 million years and a causal connection between spreading change and relocation of arc volcanicity is suggested. Paleomagnetic directions at 108 localities in 10 islands fall into normal and reversed groups with 6 sites intermediate and 5 indeterminate. The mean dipole axis is within 2% of the present rotation axis. The data generally agrees with the established geomagnetic polarity time scale but there is some suggestion of a normal polarity event at about 1.18 million years. The paleomagnetic data suggest that in the past 10 million years the Lesser Antilles have not changed their latitude or geographical orientation and the geomagnetic field has averaged that of a central axial dipole. (author)

  3. Social Impact Assessment: The lesser sibling in the South African EIA process?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, L., E-mail: Leandri.hildebrandt@nwu.ac.za [African Centre for Disaster Studies, Research Focus Area: Social Transformation, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Sandham, L.A., E-mail: luke.sandham@nwu.ac.za [Environmental Assessment Research Group, School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa)

    2014-09-15

    Social Impact Assessment has developed as an integral but neglected component of EIA in South Africa since it became mandatory in 1997, and has therefore been referred to as the “orphan” or “lesser sibling” of EIA, as has SIA in the UK and the US. The aim of this paper is to test this claim by reviewing the quality of a sample of SIA reports, and also to establish whether there has been any improvement in quality following the introduction of revised EIA regulations in 2006. The results confirm that SIA can be called “the lesser sibling” due to the weak grades achieved in the quality review, but also reveal that there has been a slight and consistent improvement in quality, most likely driven by best practice considerations in the absence of prescriptive regulations for SIA. Suggestions and recommendations for addressing observed weakness in SIA performance are advanced. - Highlights: • The quality of a sample of SIA reports was evaluated using a review package. • SIA reports received mostly weak grades. • Limited improvement observed from first to second regulatory regime. • Improvements most likely due to best practice considerations.

  4. Testing competing hypotheses for chronology and intensity of lesser scaup molt during winter and spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Anteau, Andrea C.E.; Afton, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined chronology and intensity of molt and their relationships to nutrient reserves (lipid and protein) of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinisK/i>) to test predictions of two competing hypotheses. The "staggered cost" hypothesis states that contour-feather molt is nutritionally costly and should not occur during nutritionally costly periods of the annual cycle unless adequate nutrients are available. The "breeding plumage" hypothesis states that prealternate molt must be complete prior to nesting, regardless of nutrient availability. Males and females were completing prebasic molt during winter (Louisiana) and had similar molt intensities. Females underwent prealternate molt during spring migration (Illinois and Minnesota) and prebreeding (Manitoba) periods; 53% and 93% of females were in moderate to heavy molt in Minnesota and Manitoba, respectively, despite experiencing other substantial nutritional costs. Intensity of prealternate molt was not correlated with lipid reserves even though females, on average, were nutritionally stressed. Molt intensity was not negatively correlated with protein reserves at any location. Chronology and intensity of prealternate molt varied little and were not temporally staggered from other nutritionally costly events. Prealternate molt did not influence nutrient reserves, and nutrient reserves likely were not the ultimate factor influencing chronology or intensity of prealternate molt of females. We surmise that nutrients required for prealternate molt come from exogenous sources and that the "staggered cost" hypothesis does not explain chronology of prealternate molt in female Lesser Scaup; rather, it appears that molt must be complete prior to nesting, consistent with the "breeding plumage" hypothesis.

  5. Amino acid neurotoxins in feathers of the Lesser Flamingo, Phoeniconaias minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, J S; Banack, S A; Kotut, K; Krienitz, L; Codd, G A

    2013-01-01

    The Lesser Flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) is known to use cyanobacteria (primarily Arthrospira) as a major food source in the East African Rift Valley lakes. Periodically, mass mortalities have occurred, associated with the cyanobacterial toxins (cyanotoxins), microcystins and anatoxin-a. Deposition of these cyanotoxins into P. minor feathers has been shown to occur, consistent with the presence of cyanotoxins in the livers, stomach and faecal contents after dietary intake. As cyanobacteria have been shown to also produce the neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB), stored wing feathers, previously recovered from flamingos which had been exposed to microcystins and anatoxin-a and had subsequently died, were analysed for these neurotoxic amino acids. Trace amounts of BMAA were detected in extracts from Lake Nakuru flamingo feathers, with DAB also present at concentrations between 3.5 and 8.5 μg g(-1) dry weight in feathers from both lakes. Toxin recovery by solid-phase extraction of feather digests was tested with spiked deuterated BMAA and showed good recovery when analysed by LC-MS/MS (80-94%). This is the first report of these neurotoxic amino acids in birds. We discuss the origin and significance of DAB, alongside other cyanotoxins of dietary origin, in the feathers of the Lesser Flamingo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sero-epidemiological survey on bovine tick-borne diseases in the Lesser Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camus, E.; Maran, M.; Montenegro-James, S.; Accipe, A.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a tick-borne disease control programme in the Lesser Antilles, studies were undertaken to determine the prevalence of cowdriosis, babesiosis and anaplasmosis in an effort to determine what the impact of tick eradication would be. The epidemiological situation for bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis is unstable in all the islands of the Lesser Antilles, but the clinical cases are only recorded in imported breeds, which represent less than 5% of the cattle population. The native cattle population react as if naturally resistant. When the A. variegatum tick eradication campaign begins, it will be necessary, by the end of the acaricide treatment regime, to immunize all the imported cattle born during that period, and possibly all of the seronegative imported cattle already on the islands. Both Antigua and Guadeloupe have a long history of infestation with the tick and both have experienced clinical cases of cowdriosis. On the other islands, less than 6% of the sera were positive and this correlates well also with an apparent absence of clinical cases of cowdriosis. (author)

  7. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies.

  8. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D M; Romeo, P A; Olenchock, S A

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies. PMID:3709478

  9. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies

  10. Effectiveness of Sex Pheromone in Controlling Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella  nell. is a dangerous pest of cocoa which seriously reduce cocoa production mainly in Southeast Asia and Pasific. Prevention of CPB attack can be done by pod sleeving to prevent CPBs lay eggs on pod, or reduction of source of CPB infestation by using pheromone or kairomone as attractant in an insect trap. A preliminary research using sex pheromone has been conducted at endemic cocoa area infested by CPB in East Java. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sex pheromonesin controlling CPB. Trial was arranged by randomized completely block design in four treatments and four blocks as replication. Four densities trap/ha (0, 4, 8, and 12 traps/ha were used as a treatments. Sex pheromone trap consisted of synthetic pheromone (lure and sticky liner was hanged on 0.5 m above the cocoa canopy. The results showed that the number of CPB captured during four months was significantly decreased. The number of CPB captured per trap during the first two months in the treatment of 0, 4, 8 and 12 traps/ha were 0, 6.5, 4.72, and 5.58 CPBs, respectively. Four months after treatment, the number of CPB captured in the respective treatments was reduced to 0, 0.25, 0.6, and 0.96 CPBs. Estimate calculation on yield loss due to CPB attack showed that before treatment the yield loss ranged 37.4—45.6%, however six months after treatment, the yield loss in treatment plots decreased to 9.4—21%, whereas on control 38.47%. Use of sex pheromones to attract CPB at a density of 4 traps/ha reduced yield losses due to CPB damage by 67.7%. The significant correlation betweenthe number of CPB captured with the damage intensity followed regression equation of Y = - 0,00044X + 0,32059. Use of sex pheromone for monitoring or masstrapping of CPB, as a component in IPM of CPB is promising, due to its nature for specific target, environmentally friendly, effectiveness, and economic values

  11. 77 FR 73827 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a grassland bird known from southeastern... plants; wind energy development; petroleum production; and presence of roads and manmade vertical structures including towers, utility lines, fences, turbines, wells, and buildings. We will request peer...

  12. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF GRAIN MICRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Afanas’ev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. During micronisation grain moisture evaporates mainly in decreasing drying rate period. Grain layer located on the surface of the conveyor micronisers will be regarded as horizontal plate. Due to the fact that the micronisation process the surface of the grain evaporates little moisture (within 2-7 % is assumed constant plate thickness. Because in the process of micronization grain structure is changing, in order to achieve an exact solution of the equations necessary to take into account changes thermophysical, optical and others. Equation of heat transfer is necessary to add a term that is responsible for the infrared heating. Because of the small thickness of the grain, neglecting the processes occurring at the edge of the grain, that is actually consider the problem of an infinite plate. To check the adequacy of the mathematical model of the process of micronisation of wheat grain moisture content must be comparable to the function of time, obtained by solving the system of equations with the measured experimental data of experience. Numerical solution of a system of equations for the period of decreasing drying rate is feasible with the help of the Maple 14, substituting the values of the constants in the system. Calculation of the average relative error does not exceed 7- 10 %, and shows a good agreement between the calculated data and the experimental values.

  13. Forearc kinematics in obliquely convergent margins: Examples from Nicaragua and the northern Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Henry L., III

    In this study, I use surface velocities derived from GPS geodesy, elastic half-space dislocation models, and modeled Coulomb stress changes to investigate deformation in the over-riding plate at obliquely convergent margins at the leading and trailing edges of the Caribbean plate. The two principal study areas are western Nicaragua, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate, and the northern Lesser Antilles, where the North American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean plate. In Nicaragua, plate convergence is rapid at 84 mm yr1 with a small angle of obliquity of 10° along a slightly concave portion of the Middle America Trench. GPS velocities for the period from 2000 to 2004 from sites located in the Nicaraguan forearc confirmed forearc sliver motion on the order of ˜14 mm yr1 in close agreement with the value predicted by DeMets (2001). These results are presented here in Chapter 3 and were reported in Geophysical Research Letters (Turner et al., 2007). GPS observations made on sites located in the interior and on the eastern coast of Nicaragua during the same time period were combined with new data from eastern Honduras to help better constrain estimates of rigid Caribbean plate motion (DeMets et al., 2007). Slip approaching the plate convergence rate along the Nicaraguan and El Salvadoran sections of the Middle America Trench was quantitatively demonstrated by finite element modeling of this section of the plate interface using GPS velocities from our Nicaraguan network together with velocities from El Salvador and Honduras as model constraints (Correa-Mora, 2009). The MW 6.9 earthquake that ruptured the seismogenic zone offshore Nicaragua on October 9, 2004 resulted in coseismic displacements and post-seismic motion at GPS sites in the central part of the Nicaraguan forearc that currently prevent extension of interseismic time-series in this region. An elastic half-space dislocation model was used to estimate coseismic displacements at these

  14. PESTICIDES USE AMONG GRAIN MERCHANTS IN MUBI GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    pose the greatest threat to increased food production, storage and handling ... are to: assess pest control practices of grain merchants in Mubi markets with a .... This further cements the fact that multiple routes of contaminations are possible.

  15. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Style What Is a Healthy Eating Style? Choosing Foods and Beverages Saturated, Unsaturated, and Trans Fats Sodium Added Sugars ... may reduce the risk of heart disease. Consuming foods containing fiber, ... weight management. Eating grain products fortified with folate before and ...

  16. Transgenic rice plants expressing a fused protein of Cry1Ab/Vip3H has resistance to rice stem borers under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shen, Zhi-Chen; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2010-08-01

    Six transgenic rice, Oryza sativa L., lines (G6H1, G6H2, G6H3, G6H4, G6H5, and G6H6) expressing a fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein, were evaluated for resistance against the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and the stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. The bioassay results indicated that the mortality of Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens neonate larvae on six transgenic lines from seedling to filling stage was up to 100% at 168 h after infestation. The cumulative feeding area by Asiatic rice borer neonate larvae on all transgenic lines was significantly reduced compared with the untransformed parental 'Xiushui 110' rice. A 2-yr field evaluation showed that damage during the vegetative stage (deadheart) or during the reproductive stage (whitehead) caused by Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens for transgenic lines was much lower than the control. For three lines (G6H1, G6H2, and G6H6), no damage was found during the entire growing period. Estimation of fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein concentrations using PathoScreen kit for Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac protein indicated that the expression levels of Cry1Ab protein both in main stems (within the average range of 0.006-0.073% of total soluble protein) and their flag leaves (within the average range of 0.001-0.038% of total soluble protein) were significantly different among six transgenic lines at different developmental stages. Both laboratory and field researches suggested that the transgenic rice lines have considerable potential for protecting rice from attack by both stem borers.

  17. Traps craft with attractive alcoholics in the control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari 1867 in Cologne Bolinda, Caranavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe-Condori Rosalía

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coffee is one of the main cultivated crops in the Caranavi region, among the biotic stress factors; the borer of the coffee (Hypothenemus hampei is the one that affects significantly and negatively. In order to finding alternative practical and economic for the control of the pest, it was carried this investigation in the “Bolinda” Colony of the Caranavi Municipality La Paz-Bolivia, the trial was established under a completely random, design with two study factors, e three replications, 1.5 ha distributed at random in the coffee plantations. Three types of traps were built handmade. These were, INIA, ECOIAPAR and TRAP BORER, in combination with the attractive mixtures of alcohols methanol (M and ethanol (E in the proportion of 3: 1; it mixes 3: 1: 1 M-E+milled coffee, 2: 1 M-E and commercial alcohol as check. Borer/trap/attractive capture was evaluated. He she was highly significant statistical differences among them. The biggest captures female adults of Hipothenemus hampei were presented in the proportion 2: 1 of M-E and ECOIAPAR trap (T8 was identified as the most efficient and economic, being able to capture 4877 borer, with a cost trap (1.50 Bs and the attractive (2.20 Bs, continued by the T2 with the same cost (proportion 3: 1 of M-E and INIA trap with 159 borer and the treatments witnesT9, T5 and T1 (commercial alcohol they obtained smaller captures with 23, 35 and 38 drills, which means that it is not effective for the control. The costs of the implementation of traps the marginal cost of 40 Bolivianos/ha. The results obtained in the study show the biggest borer captures were in December and January, the use of handmade traps constitutes an alternative for the control in the period of postharvest, a more practical and economic method, feasible for the producers.

  18. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

    2014-08-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae.

  19. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range.

  20. Incidence of Infestation and Larval Success of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) on White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Chinese Fringetree (Chionanthus retusus), and Devilwood (Osmanthus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M

    2015-10-01

    We compared the incidence of infestation by emerald ash borer (EAB) and lilac borer on white fringetree to that of its Asian congener, Chinese fringetree, Chionanthus retusus, and a North American relative, devilwood, Osmanthus americanus. We also conducted laboratory bioassays to determine the suitability of these hosts for EAB larvae. At Spring Grove Cemetery and Arboretum in Cincinnati, Ohio, 9 of 28 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB. Most of the white fringetrees had lilac borer infestation, and most of the trees infested by EAB also had lilac borer infestation. None of the 11 Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either EAB or lilac borer. Each of the five devilwood individuals examined was infested by lilac borer, but not EAB. At The Morton Arboretum in Lisle, Illinois, 7 of 16 white fringetrees examined were infested by EAB, while none of the seven Chinese fringetrees examined were infested by either insect. A 40-d bioassay confirmed that white fringetree was an acceptable host, producing fourth-instar larvae that were smaller than those produced on a highly susceptible cultivar of green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica. No larvae survived on Chinese fringetree, and neonates were largely incapable of feeding on it. Two larvae survived on devilwood, reaching the second instar and excavating extensive galleries. Future work should be aimed at biotic and abiotic factors influencing the susceptibility of white fringetree, as well as further examination of close relatives for their vulnerability to EAB. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Chemisputtering of interstellar graphite grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, B.T.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of erosion of interstellar graphite grains as a result of chemical reaction with H, N, and O is estimated using the available experiment evidence. It is argued that ''chemical sputtering'' yields for interstellar graphite grains will be much less than unity, contrary to earlier estimates by Barlow and Silk. Chemical sputtering of graphite grains in evolving H II regions is found to be unimportant, except in extremely compact (n/sub H/> or approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) H II regions. Alternative explanations are considered for the apparent weakness of the lambda=2175 A extinction ''bump'' in the direction of several early type stars

  2. Spatiotemporal distributions of intestinal helminths in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis during spring migration from the upper Midwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J C; Levengood, J M; Osborn, J M; Yetter, A P; Kinsella, J M; Cole, R A; Suski, C D; Hagy, H M

    2017-07-01

    We examined the associations between intestinal helminth infracommunity structure and infection parameters and the age, size, and year and region of collection of 130 female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during their 2014-2015 spring migrations through the upper Midwest, USA. We identified a total of 647,174 individual helminths from 40 taxa, including 20 trematodes, 14 cestodes, 4 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans parasitizing lesser scaup within the study area. Lesser scaup were each infected with 2-23 helminth taxa. One digenean, Plenosoma minimum, is reported for the first time in lesser scaup and in the Midwest. Mean trematode abundance and total helminth abundance was significantly less in 2015 than 2014, and we suspect that colder weather late in 2015 impacted the intermediate host fauna and caused the observed differences. Brillouin's species diversity of helminths was greatest in the northernmost region of the study area, which coincides with the range of a non-indigenous snail that indirectly causes annual mortality events of lesser scaup. While host age and size were not determined to be influential factors of helminth infracommunity structure, non-parametric ordination and permutational analysis of co-variance revealed that year and region of collection explained differences in helminth infracommunities. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variations play an important role in the structure of intestinal helminth infracommunities found in migrating lesser scaup hosts, and may therefore impact host ability to build endogenous reserves at certain stopover locations in the Midwest.

  3. The valuation of commercial grain silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The valuation of grain silos is a complex exercise when one considers all the variables that affect their ... their grains, larger grain-processing companies, traders, importers or exporters that have ..... 2015: personal interview). The percentages ...

  4. Studies on growth, yield and shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee.) resistance in M3 progenies of Solanum macrocarpon L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasappa, K.N.; Ramanjini Gowda, P.H.; Thimmaiah, S.K.; Mahadevu, P.

    1998-01-01

    Shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee) is a serious pest in brinjal and no variety is found to be resistant to this dreaded pest. Solanum macrocarpon, a wild relative of brinjal is found to be resistant to shoot and fruit borer infestation. Attempts were made to hybridise between S. melongena and S. macrocarpon, but it was unsuccessful due to ovule abortion. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the promising mutants in M 3 generation for improved fruit quality besides its unbroken resistance and for further crop improvement

  5. Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Reyneri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

  6. Ancient xenocrystic zircon in young volcanic rocks of the southern Lesser Antilles island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Williams, Ian S.; Arculus, Richard; Kröner, Alfred; García-Casco, Antonio; Lázaro, Concepción; Buhre, Stephan; Wong, Jean; Geng, Helen; Echeverría, Carlos Morales; Jeffries, Teresa; Xie, Hangqian; Mertz-Kraus, Regina

    2017-10-01

    The Lesser Antilles arc is one of the best global examples in which to examine the effects of the involvement of subducted sediment and crustal assimilation in the generation of arc crust. Most of the zircon recovered in our study of igneous and volcaniclastic rocks from Grenada and Carriacou (part of the Grenadines chain) is younger than 2 Ma. Within some late Paleogene to Neogene ( 34-0.2 Ma) lavas and volcaniclastic sediments however, there are Paleozoic to Paleoarchean ( 250-3469 Ma) xenocrysts, and Late Jurassic to Precambrian zircon ( 158-2667 Ma) are found in beach and river sands. The trace element characteristics of zircon clearly differentiate between different types of magmas generated in the southern Lesser Antilles through time. The zircon population from the younger arc (Miocene, 22-19 Ma, to Present) has minor negative Eu anomalies, well-defined positive Ce anomalies, and a marked enrichment in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), consistent with crystallization from very oxidized magmas in which Eu2 + was in low abundance. In contrast, zircon from the older arc (Eocene to mid-Oligocene, 30-28 Ma) has two different REE patterns: 1) slight enrichment in the light (L)REE, small to absent Ce anomalies, and negative Eu anomalies and 2) enriched High (H)REE, positive Ce anomalies and negative Eu anomalies (a similar pattern is observed in the xenocrystic zircon population). The combination of positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies in the zircon population of the older arc indicates crystallization from magmas that were variably, but considerably less oxidized than those of the younger arc. All the igneous zircon has positive εHf(t), reflecting derivation from a predominantly juvenile mantle source. However, the εHf(t) values vary significantly within samples, reflecting considerable Hf isotopic heterogeneity in the source. The presence of xenocrystic zircon in the southern Lesser Antilles is evidence for the assimilation of intra-arc crustal sediments and

  7. A Proposed Community Network For Monitoring Volcanic Emissions In Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Robertson, R. E.; Latchman, J. L.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    Systematic geochemical monitoring of volcanic systems in the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles was initiated by the UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in 2000, as part of its volcanic surveillance programme for the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles. This programme provided the first time-series observations used for the purpose of volcano monitoring in Dominica and Saint Lucia, permitted the characterization of the geothermal fluids associated with them, and established baseline studies for understanding of the hydrothermal systems during periods of quiescence (Joseph et al., 2011; Joseph et al., 2013). As part of efforts to improve and expand the capacity of SRC to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, it is necessary to develop economically sustainable options for the monitoring of volcanic emissions/pollutants. Towards this effort we intend to work in collaboration with local authorities in Saint Lucia, to develop a monitoring network for quantifying the background exposure levels of ambient concentrations of volcanic pollutants, SO2 in air and As in waters (as health significant marker elements in the geothermal emissions) that would serve as a model for the emissions monitoring network for other volcanic islands. This programme would facilitate the building of local capacity and training to monitor the hazardous exposure, through the application and transfer of a regionally available low-cost and low-technology SO2 measurement/detection system in Saint Lucia. Existing monitoring technologies to inform evidence based health practices are too costly for small island Caribbean states, and no government policies or health services measures currently exist to address/mitigate these influences. Gases, aerosols and toxic elements from eruptive and non-eruptive volcanic activity are known to adversely affect human health and the environment (Baxter, 2000; Zhang et al., 2008). Investigations into the

  8. Reproductive parameters of tropical lesser noddies respond to local variations in oceanographic conditions and weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticelli, David; Ramos, Jaime A.; Catry, Teresa; Pedro, Patricia; Paiva, Vitor H.

    2014-02-01

    Most attempts to link seabirds and climate/oceanographic effects have concerned the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with comparatively few studies in the tropical Indian Ocean. This paper examines the reproductive response of the lesser noddy Anous tenuirostris to temporal fluctuations in oceanographic and climatic conditions using 8 years of monitoring data from Aride Island (Seychelles), tropical Western Indian Ocean. We tested the hypothesis that breeding parameters (mean hatching date, mean egg size, hatching and fledging successes) and chick growth are influenced by local, seasonal oceanographic conditions as expressed by ocean primary productivity (surface chlorophyll-a concentrations; CC), sea surface temperature (SST) and wind speed. We also examined the relationship between lesser noddy breeding parameters and climate conditions recorded at the basin-wide scale of the Indian Ocean (Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index, DMI). Our findings suggest that birds had a tendency to lay slightly larger eggs during breeding seasons (years) with higher CC during April-June (pre-laying, laying and incubation periods). Hatching date was positively related to SST in April-June, with the regression parameters suggesting that each 0.5 °C increase in SST meant a delay of approx.10 days in hatching date. A negative linear relationship was also apparent between hatching success and SST in June-August (hatching and chick-rearing periods), while the quadratic regression models detected a significant effect of wind speed in June-August on fledging success. Body mass increments of growing chicks averaged over 7-day periods were positively related with (2-week) lagged CC values and negatively related with (2-week) lagged SST values. No significant relationship between DMI and lesser noddy breeding parameters was found, but DMI indices were strongly correlated with local SST. Altogether, our results indicate that the reproduction of this top marine predator is dictated by fluctuations in

  9. Winter fidelity and apparent survival of lesser snow goose populations in the Pacific flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.K.; Samuel, M.D.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraege, Donald K.

    2008-01-01

    The Beringia region of the Arctic contains 2 colonies of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding on Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Canada, and wintering in North America. The Wrangel Island population is composed of 2 subpopulations from a sympatric breeding colony but separate wintering areas, whereas the Banks Island population shares a sympatric wintering area in California, USA, with one of the Wrangel Island subpopulations. The Wrangel Island colony represents the last major snow goose population in Russia and has fluctuated considerably since 1970, whereas the Banks Island population has more than doubled. The reasons for these changes are unclear, but hypotheses include independent population demographics (survival and recruitment) and immigration and emigration among breeding or wintering populations. These demographic and movement patterns have important ecological and management implications for understanding goose population structure, harvest of admixed populations, and gene flow among populations with separate breeding or wintering areas. From 1993 to 1996, we neckbanded molting birds at their breeding colonies and resighted birds on the wintering grounds. We used multistate mark-recapture models to evaluate apparent survival rates, resighting rates, winter fidelity, and potential exchange among these populations. We also compared the utility of face stain in Wrangel Island breeding geese as a predictor of their wintering area. Our results showed similar apparent survival rates between subpopulations of Wrangel Island snow geese and lower apparent survival, but higher emigration, for the Banks Island birds. Males had lower apparent survival than females, most likely due to differences in neckband loss. Transition between wintering areas was low (exchange between the Banks and northern Wrangel Island populations. Face staining was an unreliable indicator of wintering area. Our findings suggest that northern and southern

  10. Laboratory Screening for Resistance in Rice to Rice Stem Borer Chilo Suppressalis Walker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singgih Sutrisno

    2004-01-01

    Rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker is one of the major insect pests in rice in Indonesia. The use of insect pest resistant variety of rice is one of the effective techniques against pests. Breeding of resistance to insect pests rice crops often faced difficulties in obtaining a lot of insect amounts due to the unavailability of enough number insects pests in the field so that a laboratory bioassay is needed. In this experiments five rice varieties were used: a Pelita I/1, Atomita I, Cisadane, Cisanggarung, and IR 36. Rice seedling 7 days of age were put in 1 liter plastic vials for rice resistance test against the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. The parameters observed were larval and pupal viability, pupal weight, and eggs production. The larval and pupal viability which were reared on of Pelita I/1 and Atomita I rice seedlings were 68.5 % - 55.5 % and 57.3 % - 46.7 % respectively. The respective lowest percentages were found in IR 36 which was about 41.3 % - 29.8 % .The experiment results on the parameters of pupal weight and egg production showed similar results to that on the parameters of larval and pupal viability. Rice variety of IR 36 showed more resistance to the other varieties, while Pelita I/1 and Atomita I showed the most susceptible to the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. (author)

  11. Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Fuentes, Luis M.; Urias-Lopez, Mario A.; Bautista-Martinez, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    The sour sop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with sour sop was conducted to study the life cycle under fi eld conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00 h and 13:00 h (35 degree C, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. (author)

  12. Characterization of Asian Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqin Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A strain of the Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, has evolved >800-fold resistance to Cry1Ie (ACB-IeR after 49 generations of selection. The inheritance pattern of resistance to Cry1Ie in ACB-IeR strain and its cross-resistance to other Bt toxins were determined through bioassay by exposing neonates from genetic-crosses to toxins incorporated into the diet. The response of progenies from reciprocal F1 crosses were similar (LC50s: 76.07 vs. 74.32 μg/g, which suggested the resistance was autosomal. The effective dominance (h decreased as concentration of Cry1Ie increased. h was nearly recessive or incompletely recessive on Cry1Ie maize leaf tissue (h = 0.02, but nearly dominant or incompletely dominant (h = 0.98 on Cry1Ie maize silk. Bioassay of the backcross suggested that the resistance was controlled by more than one locus. In addition, the resistant strain did not perform cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (0.8-fold, Cry1Ac (0.8-fold, Cry1F (0.9-fold, and Cry1Ah (1.0-fold. The present study not only offers the manifestation for resistance management, but also recommends that Cry1Ie will be an appropriate candidate for expression with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, or Cry1Ah for the development of Bt maize.

  13. Characterization of Asian Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueqin; Yang, Jing; Quan, Yudong; Wang, Zhenying; Cai, Wanzhi; He, Kanglai

    2017-06-07

    A strain of the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has evolved >800-fold resistance to Cry1Ie (ACB-IeR) after 49 generations of selection. The inheritance pattern of resistance to Cry1Ie in ACB-IeR strain and its cross-resistance to other Bt toxins were determined through bioassay by exposing neonates from genetic-crosses to toxins incorporated into the diet. The response of progenies from reciprocal F₁ crosses were similar (LC 50 s: 76.07 vs. 74.32 μg/g), which suggested the resistance was autosomal. The effective dominance ( h ) decreased as concentration of Cry1Ie increased. h was nearly recessive or incompletely recessive on Cry1Ie maize leaf tissue ( h = 0.02), but nearly dominant or incompletely dominant ( h = 0.98) on Cry1Ie maize silk. Bioassay of the backcross suggested that the resistance was controlled by more than one locus. In addition, the resistant strain did not perform cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (0.8-fold), Cry1Ac (0.8-fold), Cry1F (0.9-fold), and Cry1Ah (1.0-fold). The present study not only offers the manifestation for resistance management, but also recommends that Cry1Ie will be an appropriate candidate for expression with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, or Cry1Ah for the development of Bt maize.

  14. THE EARLY DETECTION OF THE EMERALD ASH BORER (EAB USING MULTI-SOURCE REMOTELY SENSED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to exploit the synergy of hyperspectral imagery, Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR and high spatial resolution data and their synergy in the early detection of the EAB (Emerald Ash Borer presence in trees within urban areas and to develop a framework to combine information extracted from multiple data sources. To achieve these, an object-oriented framework was developed to combine information derived from available data sets to characterize ash trees. Within this framework, an advanced individual tree delineation method was developed to delineate individual trees using the combined high-spatial resolution worldview-3 imagery was used together with LiDAR data. Individual trees were then classified to ash and non-ash trees using spectral and spatial information. In order to characterize the health state of individual ash trees, leaves from ash trees with various health states were sampled and measured using a field spectrometer. Based on the field measurements, the best indices that sensitive to leaf chlorophyll content were selected. The developed framework and methods were tested using worldview-3, airborne LiDAR data over the Keele campus of York University Toronto Canada. Satisfactory results in terms of individual tree crown delineation, ash tree identification and characterization of the health state of individual ash trees. Quantitative evaluations is being carried out.

  15. The Early Detection of the Emerald Ash Borer (eab) Using Multi-Source Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B.; Naveed, F.; Tasneem, F.; Xing, C.

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to exploit the synergy of hyperspectral imagery, Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) and high spatial resolution data and their synergy in the early detection of the EAB (Emerald Ash Borer) presence in trees within urban areas and to develop a framework to combine information extracted from multiple data sources. To achieve these, an object-oriented framework was developed to combine information derived from available data sets to characterize ash trees. Within this framework, an advanced individual tree delineation method was developed to delineate individual trees using the combined high-spatial resolution worldview-3 imagery was used together with LiDAR data. Individual trees were then classified to ash and non-ash trees using spectral and spatial information. In order to characterize the health state of individual ash trees, leaves from ash trees with various health states were sampled and measured using a field spectrometer. Based on the field measurements, the best indices that sensitive to leaf chlorophyll content were selected. The developed framework and methods were tested using worldview-3, airborne LiDAR data over the Keele campus of York University Toronto Canada. Satisfactory results in terms of individual tree crown delineation, ash tree identification and characterization of the health state of individual ash trees. Quantitative evaluations is being carried out.

  16. A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C(25)), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with (n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C(25), which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C(25) had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

  17. Building Double-decker Traps for Early Detection of Emerald Ash Borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M

    2017-10-04

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), the most destructive forest insect to have invaded North America, has killed hundreds of millions of forest and landscape ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Several artificial trap designs to attract and capture EAB beetles have been developed to detect, delineate, and monitor infestations. Double-decker (DD) traps consist of two corrugated plastic prisms, one green and one purple, attached to a 3 m tall polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe supported by a t-post. The green prism at the top of the PVC pipe is baited with cis-3-hexenol, a compound produced by ash foliage. Surfaces of both prisms are coated with sticky insect glue to capture adult EAB beetles. Double-decker traps should be placed near ash trees but in open areas, exposed to sun. Double-decker trap construction and placement are presented here, along with a summary of field experiments demonstrating the efficacy of DD traps in capturing EAB beetles. In a recent study in sites with relatively low EAB densities, double-decker traps captured significantly more EAB than green or purple prism traps or green funnel traps, all of which are designed to be suspended from a branch in the canopy of ash trees. A greater percentage of double decker traps were positive, i.e., captured at least one EAB, than the prism traps or funnel traps that were hung in ash tree canopies.

  18. Sexual behavior and diel activity of citrus fruit borer Ecdytolopha aurantiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, J M; Parra, J R; Vilela, E F; Walder, J M; Leal, W S

    2001-10-01

    Males and virgin females of the citrus fruit borer Ecdytolopha aurantiana Lima, displayed two flight peaks during a 24-hr period, one at dawn and the other at dusk in an orange grove near Gavião Peixoto, São Paulo, Brazil. During the day, when temperatures were highest and relative humidity lowest, most individuals rested on leaves in the lower and middle crown. Moths rapidly moved higher in the crown after sunset, and many were observed flying above the tree canopy. This behavior was mainly associated with mating. Males and virgin females marked with fluorescent powder of different colors were observed in the dark with the aid of a black light. Mating was observed only in the upper crown of citrus trees from 6:00 to 9:00 PM, with a peak (64%) between 7:00 and 8:00 PM. Males of E. aurantiana were captured in traps baited either with virgin females or female extracts, suggesting the use of a long-range sex pheromone. At close distance (1-2 cm), males and females displayed a short-range communication behavior, with males exposing hairpencils and vibrating their wings. Females were frequently stimulated to contact the body of a male before copulation. The mean duration of copulation was 1 hr 40 min.

  19. Critical electrolyte concentration of silk gland chromatin of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis, induced using agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S A; Fermino, F; Moreira, B M T; Araujo, K F; Falco, J R P; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, M C C

    2014-09-29

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis is widely known as the main pest of sugarcane crop, causing increased damage to the entire fields. Measures to control this pest involve the use of chemicals and biological control with Cotesia flavipes wasps. In this study, we evaluated the insecticides fipronil (Frontline; 0.0025%), malathion (Malatol Bio Carb; 0.4%), cipermetrina (Galgotrin; 10%), and neem oil (Natuneem; 100%) and the herbicide nicosulfuron (Sanson 40 SC; 100%) in the posterior region silk glands of 3rd- and 5th-instar D. saccharalis by studying the variation in the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC). Observations of 3rd-instar larvae indicated that malathion, cipermetrina, and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation that may consequently disable genes. Tests with fipronil showed no alteration in chromatin condensation. With the use of nicosulfuron, there was chromatin and probable gene decompaction. In the 5th-instar larvae, the larval CEC values indicated that malathion and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation. The CEC values for 5th-instar larvae using cipermetrina, fipronil, and nicosulfuron indicated chromatin unpacking. These observations led us to conclude that the quantity of the pesticide does not affect the mortality of these pests, can change the conformation of complexes of DNA, RNA, and protein from the posterior region of silk gland cells of D. saccharalis, activating or repressing the expression of genes related to the defense mechanism of the insect and contributing to the selection and survival of resistant individuals.

  20. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Prophenoloxidases from Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Gunée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect phenoloxidase (PO belongs to the type 3 copper protein family and possesses oxidoreductase activities. PO is typically synthesized as a zymogen called prophenoloxidase (PPO and requires the proteolytic activation to function. We here cloned full-length cDNA for 3 previously unidentified PPOs, which we named OfPPO1a, OfPPO1b, and OfPPO3, from Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Gunée, in addition to the previously known OfPPO2. These conceptual PPOs and OfPPO2 all contain two common copper-binding regions, two potential proteolytic activation sites, a plausible thiol-ester site, and a conserved C-terminal region but lack a secretion signal peptide sequence at the N-terminus. O. furnacalis PPOs were highly similar to other insect PPOs (42% to 79% identity and clustered well with other lepidopteran PPOs. RT-PCR assay showed the transcripts of the 4 OfPPOs were all detected at the highest level in hemocytes and at the increased amounts after exposure to infection by bacteria and fungi. Additionally, we established an Escherichia coli (E. coli expression system to produce recombinant O. furnacalis PPO proteins for future use in investigating their functions. These insights could provide valuable information for better understanding the activation and functioning mechanisms of O. furnacalis PPOs.

  1. Development of an efficient pheromone-based trapping method for the banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Cruz, Z T; Guerrero, A

    2009-01-01

    The banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of bananas throughout the world. Chemical control is both undesirable and expensive, where biological control alternatives are limited, and pheromone-based trapping results in low captures. In this study, several important factors that affect pheromone-based catches, such as trap type, trap dimensions, and color and position of the traps, were optimized. Ground traps were found to be superior to ramp and pitfall traps, and larger traps (40 x 25 cm and above) were more efficient than smaller ones (30 x 15 cm). In a color-choice test, the banana weevil clearly preferred brown traps over yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green, with mahogany being more attractive than other shades of brown. In addition, pheromone baited ground traps positioned in the shade of the canopy caught significantly more adults than those placed in sunlight. Therefore, mahogany-brown ground traps 40 x 25 cm appear to be the most efficient at catching C. sordidus adults and have the greatest potential for use in mass trapping and programs for eradication of this pest.

  2. Cytogenetic study on the sterility of peach fruit borer carposina nipponensis (Wals.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanying; Kang Wen; Zhang Heqin

    1989-01-01

    The chromosomal aberration, its genetic effect and the structurally abnormal sperms of Peach Fruit Borer (PFB) irradiated with substerilizing dose were described. The numbers of chromosome of PFB were n = 31. The longest chromosome was 4.43 ± 0.49 μ. The shortest one was 1.54 ± 0.15 μ. Total chromosome lengh was 96.37 ± 10.75 μ. The variation rate of the chromosome was 83.6% in F 1 generation including several kinds of aberration. The main chromosomal rearrangement was reciprocal translocation involving many chromosomes. It is the main factor of F 1 generation with higher sterility than P generation that the radiation damage of chromosome can be inherited and strongly expressed in F 1 generation. Because of the dominant lethal mutation of F 1 generation leading to high rate of death, there was less chromosomal aberration in F 2 generation. The variation rate was 12.5%. The genetic abnormalities of ultrastructure of sperm were inherited more intensely in F 1 progeny, produced from the cross of P male adults with the irradiated females

  3. Development of RNAi method for screening candidate genes to control emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Thais B; Rieske, Lynne K; J Duan, Jian; Mogilicherla, Kanakachari; Palli, Subba R

    2017-08-07

    The ingestion of double-strand RNAs (dsRNA) targeting essential genes in an insect could cause mortality. Based on this principle, a new generation of insect control methods using RNA interference (RNAi) are being developed. In this work, we developed a bioassay for oral delivery of dsRNA to an invasive forest and urban tree pest, the emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis). EAB feeds and develops beneath the bark, killing trees rapidly. This behavior, coupled with the lack of a reliable artificial diet for rearing larvae and adults, make them difficult to study. We found that dsRNA is transported and processed to siRNAs by EAB larvae within 72 h after ingestion. Also, feeding neonate larvae with IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) or COP (COPI coatomer, β subunit) dsRNA silenced their target genes and caused mortality. Both an increase in the concentration of dsRNA fed and sequential feeding of two different dsRNAs increased mortality. Here we provide evidence for successful RNAi in EAB, and demonstrate the development of a rapid and effective bioassay for oral delivery of dsRNA to screen additional genes.

  4. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  5. Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

  6. Core RNAi machinery and gene knockdown in the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Alvarez Gonzales, Miguel A; Poland, Therese M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used in insect functional genomics research and provides an alternative approach for insect pest management. To understand whether the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive and destructive coleopteran insect pest of ash tree (Fraxinus spp.), possesses a strong RNAi machinery that is capable of degrading target mRNA as a response to exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induction, we identified three RNAi pathway core component genes, Dicer-2, Argonaute-2 and R2D2, from the A. planipennis genome sequence. Characterization of these core components revealed that they contain conserved domains essential for the proteins to function in the RNAi pathway. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they are closely related to homologs derived from other coleopteran species. We also delivered the dsRNA fragment of AplaScrB-2, a β-fructofuranosidase-encoding gene horizontally acquired by A. planipennis as we reported previously, into A. planipennis adults through microinjection. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on the dsRNA-treated beetles demonstrated a significantly decreased gene expression level of AplaScrB-2 appearing on day 2 and lasting until at least day 6. This study is the first record of RNAi applied in A. planipennis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pest Status and Distribution of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschman, Lawrent L.; Sloderbeck, Phillip E.

    2010-01-01

    The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America. PMID:21268702

  8. Studies on the sterilization of soybean pod borer using nuclear irradiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Junling; Zhao Xiaoli

    1994-01-01

    A systematic study of soybean pod borer control by using the sterile technology of the nuclear irradiation was carried out. By changing the photo-period, the diapause was broken and the highest percentage of emergence was obtained with 18 hours illumination per day. The duration of diapause was reduced from 10 months to about 1 month and it took 40∼42 days to reproduce one generation. The suitable prescription of the artificial diet was selected. When the larvae were fed with soybean sprouts, the high survival rate was achieved with normal development. The suitable treatment period and irradiation dose were discussed. The irradiation treatment conducted two days before adult emergence with the irradiation dose of 120 Gy would give the best results, which showed that the emerged adult was normal, whereas the eggs laid were not able to be hatched. When releasing the adults emerged from the treated pupae into screen in the soybean field, the control effect of 88.1%∼99.0% was obtained, and the rate of seed-boring reduced from 10.1% to 0.1%∼1.3%. In the soybean field, its control effect was 86.56%

  9. Lethal trap trees: a potential option for emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Lewis, Phillip A

    2016-05-01

    Economic and ecological impacts of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality resulting from emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) invasion are severe in forested, residential and urban areas. Management options include girdling ash trees to attract ovipositing adult beetles and then destroying infested trees before larvae develop or protecting ash with a highly effective, systemic emamectin benzoate insecticide. Injecting this insecticide and then girdling injected trees a few weeks later could effectively create lethal trap trees, similar to a bait-and-kill tactic, if girdling does not interfere with insecticide translocation. We compared EAB larval densities on girdled trees, trees injected with the emamectin benzoate insecticide, trees injected with the insecticide and then girdled 18-21 days later and untreated controls at multiple sites. Pretreatment larval densities did not differ among treatments. Current-year larval densities were higher on girdled and control trees than on any trees treated with insecticide at all sites. Foliar residue analysis and adult EAB bioassays showed that girdling trees after insecticide injections did not reduce insecticide translocation. Girdling ash trees to attract adult EAB did not reduce efficacy of emamectin benzoate trunk injections applied ≥ 18 days earlier and could potentially be used in integrated management programs to slow EAB population growth. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Aristizábal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1 establish a CBB monitoring program, (2 synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3 conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4 establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5 stump prune by blocks. Progress achieved includes the introduction of the mycoinsecticide Beauveria bassiana to coffee plantations, the coordination of area-wide CBB surveys, the establishment and augmentation of native beetle predators, and an observed reduction of CBB populations and increased coffee quality where IPM programs were established. However, CBB remains a challenge for coffee growers due to regional variability in CBB pressures, high costs, and labor issues, including a lack of training and awareness of CBB management practices among growers.

  11. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: Current Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Luis F.; Johnson, Melissa; Shriner, Suzanne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Myers, Roxana; Bayman, Paul; Arthurs, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1) establish a CBB monitoring program, (2) synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3) conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4) establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5) stump prune by blocks. Progress achieved includes the introduction of the mycoinsecticide Beauveria bassiana to coffee plantations, the coordination of area-wide CBB surveys, the establishment and augmentation of native beetle predators, and an observed reduction of CBB populations and increased coffee quality where IPM programs were established. However, CBB remains a challenge for coffee growers due to regional variability in CBB pressures, high costs, and labor issues, including a lack of training and awareness of CBB management practices among growers. PMID:29135952

  12. BIOECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF ERVA-MATE BORER, Hedypathes betulinus (KLUG, 1825 (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia d´Avila

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil. has a social, cultural and economic importance in  the southern states of Brazil. The  pure stands of  this culture was responsible for the increase  of many species of insects. Hedypathes betulinus (Klug, 1825 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae is considered the main pest from an economic viewpoint because of its difficult control and potential for damage. The larval phase occurs inside the twings and trunks, what makes more difficult to deal with its detention and management. Cultural and mechanical management are the most indicated, such as collection of adults, prunning and burning of plant parts damaged by the insect, balanced nutrition, adequate plant density and maintenance of areas with native vegetation or also the introduction of policulture. These strategies  may increase  the  agroecossystem  balance  and  thus  a  reduction  of  the  insect-pest  to  an aceptable level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assemble and the discuss the information on the bioecology and management of erva-mate borer.

  13. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  14. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years On

    OpenAIRE

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work tha...

  15. Grain boundary structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balluffi, R.W.

    1979-05-01

    An attempt is made to distinguish those fundamental aspects of grain boundaries which should be relevant to the problem of the time dependent fracture of high temperature structural materials. These include the basic phenomena which are thought to be associated with cavitation and cracking at grain boundaries during service and with the more general microstructural changes which occur during both processing and service. A very brief discussion of the current state of knowledge of these fundamentals is given

  16. Studies on control of yellow stem borer, Tryporyza incertulas, a serious pest of paddy. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of pest management with emphasis on rice insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahalkar, G.W.

    1982-03-01

    Egg parasitism is the chief biotic factor regulating paddy stem borer populations. However, effective suppression of the borer through their natural enemies is not evident in practice. Studies were undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of releasing sterile yellow stem borer females into the field to increase host egg densities as these females would lay nonviable eggs. (a) Paddy fields were surveyed for the incidence of egg parasitism. (b) Attempts were made to rear yellow stem borer larvae on cut stem pieces of field grown rice plants. (c) Trichogramma japonicum, the natural egg parasite of the stem borer was reared in the laboratory using eggs of Corcyra cephalonica and Ephestia cautella as alternate host material. Mass rearing of yellow stem borer larvae on paddy plants grown under laboratory conditions does not appear practically feasible. Borer larvae reared on cut stem pieces with intact roots did not yield satisfactory adults as far as their reproductive behaviour was concerned. Though some of the dietary compositions contained natural host material, they failed to support the larval establishment. Probably some highly specific phagostimulants need to be incorporated in the diets. T. japonicum could be reared on radiation killed Ephestia eggs. The female parasite was unable to discriminate between eggs laid by radiation sterilized host females and those laid by normal ones

  17. A virulent clone of Devriesea agamarum affects endangered Lesser Antillean iguanas (Iguana delicatissima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Questel, Karl; Pasmans, Frank; Brantegem, Leen Van; Philip, Pascal; Martel, An

    2017-10-02

    Infectious diseases affecting wildlife are drivers of global biodiversity loss. Here we report a bacterial threat to endangered wild reptiles. Since April 2011, a severe skin disease has affected free-ranging, endangered Lesser Antillean iguanas (Iguana delicatissima) on the French Caribbean island of Saint Barthélemy and we identified Devriesea agamarum as the causative agent. The presence of this bacterium was also demonstrated in healthy lizards (anoles) co-inhabiting the island. All isolates from the iguanas corresponded to a single AFLP genotype that until now has exclusively been associated with infections in lizard species in captivity. The clonal relatedness of the isolates and recent emergence of the disease suggest recent arrival of a virulent D. agamarum clone on the island. The presence of healthy but infected lizards suggests the presence of asymptomatic reservoir hosts. This is the first description of a bacterial disease that poses a conservation threat towards free-ranging squamates.

  18. Assessments of the lesser sandeel ( Ammodytes marinus ) in the North Sea based on revised stock divisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.A.; Lewy, Peter; Wright, P.

    1999-01-01

    effort, catch per unit effort, yield, fishing and natural mortality. A better understanding of sandeel growth is important for stock and catch predictions because previous studies indicate that the variability of mean weight-at-age is one of the most important factors influencing the precision......Recent investigations suggest that the current treatment of North Sea sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) as a single unit stock may have little biological basis. In order to study regional effects of the fishery on North Sea lesser sandeel it may therefore be important to assess stock dynamics...... of predictions. The Danish weight-at-age data of sandeel are re- analysed to estimate the mean weight-at-age in the catch and the stock and the precision of the estimates. The reliability of the sandeel assessments is discussed in relation to the data sources available and to the knowledge of sandeel biology...

  19. Reviewing host proteins of Rhabdoviridae: possible leads for lesser studied viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, A; Kiranmayi, M; Sreejith, R; Kumar, K; Sharma, S K; Gupta, S

    2011-12-01

    Rhabdoviridae, characterized by bullet-shaped viruses, is known for its diverse host range, which includes plants, arthropods, fishes and humans. Understanding the viral-host interactions of this family can prove beneficial in developing effective therapeutic strategies. The host proteins interacting with animal rhabdoviruses have been reviewed in this report. Several important host proteins commonly interacting with animal rhabdoviruses are being reported, some of which, interestingly, have molecular features, which can serve as potential antiviral targets. This review not only provides the generalized importance of the functions of animal rhabdovirus-associated host proteins for the first time but also compares them among the two most studied viruses, i.e. Rabies virus (RV) and Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV). The comparative data can be used for studying emerging viruses such as Chandipura virus (CHPV) and the lesser studied viruses such as Piry virus (PIRYV) and Isfahan virus (ISFV) of the Rhabdoviridae family.

  20. A projection of lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) populations range-wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathan W.; Converse, Sarah J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, Clay T.; Allan, Nathan L.; O'Meilia, Chris M.

    2017-08-09

    We built a population viability analysis (PVA) model to predict future population status of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus, LEPC) in four ecoregions across the species’ range. The model results will be used in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Species Status Assessment (SSA) for the LEPC. Our stochastic projection model combined demographic rate estimates from previously published literature with demographic rate estimates that integrate the influence of climate conditions. This LEPC PVA projects declining populations with estimated population growth rates well below 1 in each ecoregion regardless of habitat or climate change. These results are consistent with estimates of LEPC population growth rates derived from other demographic process models. Although the absolute magnitude of the decline is unlikely to be as low as modeling tools indicate, several different lines of evidence suggest LEPC populations are declining.

  1. Reproductive biology of lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (L., 1758 in the Cantabrian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rodríguez-Cabello

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines sexual maturity of the female lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (L., 1758 in the Cantabrian Sea (north of Spain. Analyses made using data collected from commercial trawlers during 1994 and 1995 showed that females reach sexual maturity at a length of 54.2 cm, and the mean egg-laying size is 56.4 ± 0.94 cm. At least one in six adult female dogfish carried egg-capsules during the study period. Sex-ratio by depth strata indicates a larger proportion of females in deeper waters. Mature and spawning females were found at depths ranging from 100 m to more than 400 m, with their proportion being larger in the deeper strata.

  2. Contrasting sedimentary processes along a convergent margin: the Lesser Antilles arc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Michel; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Boudon, Georges

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentation processes occurring in an active convergent setting are well illustrated in the Lesser Antilles island arc. The margin is related to westward subduction of the North and/or the South America plates beneath the Caribbean plate. From east to west, the arc can be subdivided into several tectono-sedimentary depositional domains: the accretionary prism, the fore-arc basin, the arc platform and inter-arc basin, and the Grenada back-arc basin. The Grenada back-arc basin, the fore-arc basin (Tobago Trough) and the accretionary prism on the east side of the volcanic arc constitute traps for particles derived from the arc platform and the South American continent. The arc is volcanically active, and provides large volumes of volcaniclastic sediments which accumulate mainly in the Grenada basin by volcaniclastic gravity flows (volcanic debris avalanches, debris flows, turbiditic flows) and minor amounts by fallout. By contrast, the eastern side of the margin is fed by ash fallout and minor volcaniclastic turbidites. In this area, the dominant component of the sediments is pelagic in origin, or derived from South America (siliciclastic turbidites). Insular shelves are the locations of carbonate sedimentation, such as large platforms which develop in the Limestone Caribbees in the northern part of the margin. Reworking of carbonate material by turbidity currents also delivers lesser amounts to eastern basins of the margin. This contrasting sedimentation on both sides of the arc platform along the margin is controlled by several interacting factors including basin morphology, volcanic productivity, wind and deep-sea current patterns, and sea-level changes. Basin morphology appears to be the most dominant factor. The western slopes of the arc platform are steeper than the eastern ones, thus favouring gravity flow processes.

  3. Asian corn borer (ACB) and non-ACB pests in GM corn (Zea mays L.) in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afidchao, Miladis M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R

    2013-07-01

    The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has become the most damaging pest in corn in south-east Asia. Corn farmers in the Philippines have incurred great yield losses in the past decades because of ACB infestation. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Bt herbicide-tolerant (BtHT) corns have been developed to reduce borer attacks worldwide. This study assessed the extent of ACB and non-ACB pest infestations in both GM and non-GM corn in Isabela Province, the Philippines. Specific aims were to reinvestigate the efficacy of Bt corn in controlling ACB, to evaluate what parts of Bt corn plants are susceptible to ACB, to monitor the potential development of ACB resistance and to evaluate whether secondary pests dominate in an ACB-free Bt corn environment. The study involved preparatory interviews with farmers, site selection, field scouting and visual inspection of 200 plants along 200 m transect lines through 198 cornfields. Bt corn can efficiently reduce the ACB pest problem and reduce borer damage by 44%, to damage levels in Bt and BtHT corn of 6.8 and 7% respectively. The leaves of Bt corn were more susceptible, while cobs of Bt corn were less affected by ACB. Non-ACB pests were common in Bt toxin-free cornfields and reduced in non-GM cornfields where ACB was abundant. No secondary pest outbreaks were found in ACB-free Bt cornfields. Bt and BtHT corn hybrids containing the Cry1Ab protein performed well in Isabela Province. Reduced cob damage by ACB on Bt fields could mean smaller economic losses even with ACB infestation. The occurrence of ACB in Bt and BtHT cornfields, although at a moderate and insignificant level, could imply the potential development of resistance to Bt toxin. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close.

  5. Chemical and sensory characteristics of frozen wheygurt with the addition of taro and lesser yam flours as thickening agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Widowati, E.; Karunawati, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Cheese whey is a waste product from cheese processing. It has low solid contents thus required the addition of a thickening agent. Lactic acid bacteria could utilize it in the fermented drink. This research aims to study the effect of taro and lesser yam flour addition as a thickening agent on chemical and sensory characteristics of frozen wheygurt. This research used Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with one factor that is variation ratio of taro and lesser yam flour F1 (4: 0), F2 (3: 1), F3 (2: 2), F4 (1: 3), F5 (0: 4). The number of lactic acid bacteria cell determined by using hemocytometer. The lactic acid content determined by the titrimetric method by using 0.1 N NaOH and phenolphthalein as indicator. pH value measured with pH meter. Sensory characteristics evaluated using hedonic test. The result showed that the addition of taro and lesser yam flour have a significant effect on the number of lactic acid bacteria in frozen wheygurt. The higher lesser yam flour addition, the higher lactic acid bacteria count on frozen wheygurt, due to lesser yam higher glucose and fructo-oligosaccharide content than taro. The higher lesser yam addition, the higher the lactic acid produced. The higher the total bacteria and higher levels of lactic acid, the lower the pH obtained. The conclusion of this study is addition ratio of taro and lesser yam flour effect on the chemical characteristics of frozen wheygurt. There is no difference in the level of acceptance of the panelists in sensory evaluation.

  6. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-André Calatayud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species. This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of fungi and wood-borers in the coastal tropical waters of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vishwakiran, Y.; Thakur, N.L.; Raghukumar, S.; Yennawar, P.L.; Anil, A.C.

    . (Meyers) Yusoff, Read, E. B. G. Jones et S. T. Moss 2 416 4 Arenariomyces trifurcatus Höhnk 22 4 5 Bathyascus tropicalis Kohlm. 2 44 6 Bathyascus vermisporus Kohlm. 8 4 2 7 Corollospora pulchella Kohlm., I. Schmidt et Nair. 8 2 8 8 Dactylospora haliotrepha... faster growth and multiplication rate dur- ing the early stage of wood decomposition (Cooke Distribution of fungi and wood-borers in the coastal tropical waters of Goa, India 53 54 Y. Vishwakiran et al. and Rayner 1984). Such fungi face a competition from...

  8. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L.

    2015-01-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulat...

  9. Experiments on Dust Grain Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. N.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Dust particles in various astrophysical environments are charged by a variety of mechanisms generally involving collisional processes with other charged particles and photoelectric emission with UV radiation from nearby sources. The sign and the magnitude of the particle charge are determined by the competition between the charging processes by UV radiation and collisions with charged particles. Knowledge of the particle charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a number of physical processes. The charge of a dust grain is thus a fundamental parameter that influences the physics of dusty plasmas, processes in the interplanetary medium and interstellar medium, interstellar dust clouds, planetary rings, cometary and outer atmospheres of planets etc. In this paper we present some results of experiments on charging of dust grains carried out on a laboratory facility capable levitating micron size dust grains in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The charging/discharging experiments were carried out by exposing the dust grains to energetic electron beams and UV radiation. Photoelectric efficiencies and yields of micron size dust grains of SiO2, and lunar simulates obtained from NASA-JSC will be presented.

  10. Dynamics of interplanetary dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, P.L.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of spherical grains of various materials-three silicates (quartz, obsidian and andesite), water-ice and iron - whose radii lie in the micronic and submicronic range with the interplanetary medium is solved. This includes: the interaction with the solar radiation field which is solved using Mie scattering theory and taking into account the precise dependence of the optical properties of the five materials upon wavelength; the interaction with the solar wind: corpuscular tangential drag is found to be always important and may even be larger than the Poynting-Robertson drag; the interaction with the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated in terms of a diffusion or random walk through a series of electromagnetic scatterings, leading to a Chapman-Komolgorov equation (i.e., a generalized Liouville equation). Numerical results are presented for these interactions spanning the entire solar system with circularity of elliptical orbits, direct or retrograde, with grains of various materials and sizes and giving -probably for the first time - a clear global picture of the interaction of dust grains with the interplanetary medium. The dynamics of the grains is then investigated using the theory of general perturbations and the numerical integration of trajectories of circum-solar grains

  11. Development of Perennial Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Cox

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perennial germplasm derived from crosses between Sorghum bicolor and either S. halepense or S. propinquum is being developed with the goal of preventing and reversing soil degradation in the world’s grain sorghum-growing regions. Perennial grain sorghum plants produce subterranean stems known as rhizomes that sprout to form the next season’s crop. In Kansas, breeding perennial sorghum involves crossing S. bicolor cultivars or breeding lines to S. halepense or perennial S. bicolorn × S. halepense breeding lines, selecting perennial plants from F2 or subsequent populations, crossing those plants with S. bicolor, and repeating the cycle. A retrospective field trial in Kansas showed that selection and backcrossing during 2002–2009 had improved grain yields and seed weights of breeding lines. Second-season grain yields of sorghum lines regrowing from rhizomes were similar to yields in the first season. Further selection cycles have been completed since 2009. Many rhizomatous lines that cannot survive winters in Kansas are perennial at subtropical or tropical locations in North America and Africa. Grain yield in Kansas was not correlated with rhizomatousness in either Kansas or Uganda. Genomic regions affecting rhizome growth and development have been mapped, providing new breeding tools. The S. halepense gene pool may harbor many alleles useful for improving sorghum for a broad range of traits in addition to perenniality.

  12. Grain growth in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Scoberg, J.A.; Walden, W.

    1979-06-01

    Grain growth studies have been carried out on UO 2 to provide data for the fuel modelling program and to evaluate fuel fabricated in commissioning the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Fuel examined includes natural UO 2 commercially fabricated from ADU powder for CANDU reactors; natural UO 2 commercially fabricated from AU powder; natural UO 2 from ADU and AU powder, fabricated in the MOFFL; and commercially fabricated UO 2 enriched 1.7, 4.5, and 9.6 wt. percent U-235 in U. Samples were step-annealed in vacuo at 1870-2070 K for up to 32.5 h. All data fit a (grain size)sup(2.5) versus annealing time relationship. Apparent activation energy for grain growth, Q, depends on fuel type and varies from 150+-10 kJ/mol for early AU powder to 360+-10 kJ/mol for pellets from ADU fabricated in the MOFFL. Grain sizes calculated using the laboratory equation in a fuel performance code tend to be greater than those measured in irradiated natural fuel, suggesting irradiation-induced inhibition of grain growth. However, any inhibition is equivalent to that expected for a systematic 5 percent underpredicition in reactor power. (author)

  13. Identification and classification of similar looking food grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anami, B. S.; Biradar, Sunanda D.; Savakar, D. G.; Kulkarni, P. V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the comparative study of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers by taking a case study of identification and classification of four pairs of similar looking food grains namely, Finger Millet, Mustard, Soyabean, Pigeon Pea, Aniseed, Cumin-seeds, Split Greengram and Split Blackgram. Algorithms are developed to acquire and process color images of these grains samples. The developed algorithms are used to extract 18 colors-Hue Saturation Value (HSV), and 42 wavelet based texture features. Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN)-based classifier is designed using three feature sets namely color - HSV, wavelet-texture and their combined model. SVM model for color- HSV model is designed for the same set of samples. The classification accuracies ranging from 93% to 96% for color-HSV, ranging from 78% to 94% for wavelet texture model and from 92% to 97% for combined model are obtained for ANN based models. The classification accuracy ranging from 80% to 90% is obtained for color-HSV based SVM model. Training time required for the SVM based model is substantially lesser than ANN for the same set of images.

  14. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  15. Assessing non-target effects and host feeding of the exotic parasitoid Apanteles taragamae, a potential biological control agent of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Apanteles taragamae Viereck is a larval parasitoid introduced in Benin for classical biological control of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata Fabricius. In the laboratory, we evaluated the effects of A. taragamae on non-target herbivore species, and on another parasitoid of M. vitrata, i.e. the

  16. Canopy treatment influences growth of replacement tree species in Fraxinus nigra forests threatened by the emerald ash borer in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Looney; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Robert A. Slesak

    2017-01-01

    Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash), a dominant tree species of wetland forests in northern Minnesota, USA, is imperiled by the invasive insect emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888). Regeneration of associated tree species is generally low in F. nigra forests and could be impacted...

  17. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  18. SLAM: A multi-agency pilot project to SL.ow A.sh M.ortality caused by emerald ash borer in outlier sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery in southeast Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has continued to spread and kill ash (Fraxinus) trees at an alarming rate. As of February 2010, EAB has killed tens of millions of ash trees in Michigan, at least 12 additional U.S. states, and the...

  19. Ground truth assessments of forests affected by oak decline and red oak borer in the interior highlands of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri: preliminary results from overstory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Edward A. Poole; Eric Heitzman; John M. Kabrick; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2006-01-01

    Forests of the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri are being affected by oak decline and an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle called the red oak borer. On average, Interior Highlands stands contained 236 trees per acre, of which 32 trees per acre (13.4 percent) were dead or dying. Stands averaged 97 square feet per acre of basal area, of...

  20. Tree Stress and Mortality from Emerald Ash Borer Does Not Systematically Alter Short-Term Soil Carbon Flux in a Mixed Northeastern U.S. Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn Hatala Matthes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive insect pests are a common disturbance in temperate forests, but their effects on belowground processes in these ecosystems are poorly understood. This study examined how aboveground disturbance might impact short-term soil carbon flux in a forest impacted by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire in central New Hampshire, USA. We anticipated changes to soil moisture and temperature resulting from tree mortality caused by emerald ash borer, with subsequent effects on rates of soil respiration and methane oxidation. We measured carbon dioxide emissions and methane uptake beneath trees before, during, and after infestation by emerald ash borer. In our study, emerald ash borer damage to nearby trees did not alter soil microclimate nor soil carbon fluxes. While surprising, the lack of change in soil microclimate conditions may have been a result of the sandy, well-drained soil in our study area and the diffuse spatial distribution of canopy ash trees and subsequent canopy light gaps after tree mortality. Overall, our results indicate that short-term changes in soil carbon flux following insect disturbances may be minimal, particularly in forests with well-drained soils and a mixed-species canopy.

  1. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  2. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  3. Overstory treatment and planting season affect survival of replacement tree species in emerald ash borer threatened Fraxinus nigra forests in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Looney; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Robert A. Slesak

    2015-01-01

    Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash) wetland forests in northern Minnesota, USA, are threatened by the invasive insect, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB)). A potential management option is promoting regeneration of tree species that are not EAB hosts to maintain ecosystem functions. Using an operational-scale...

  4. Sap flow of black ash in wetland forests of northern Minnesota, USA: Hydrologic implications of tree mortality due to emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew C. Telander; Robert A. Slesak; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Kenneth N. Brooks; Christian F. Lenhart

    2015-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) mortality caused by the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) is of concern to land managers in the upper Great Lakes region, given the large areas of ash-dominated forest and potential alteration of wetland hydrology following loss of this foundation tree species. The importance of changes in evapotranspiration (ET) following...

  5. Biotic and Abiotic Drivers of Sap Flux in Mature Green Ash Trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) Experiencing Varying Levels of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Flower; Douglas J. Lynch; Kathleen S. Knight; Miquel A.  Gonzalez-Meler

    2018-01-01

    While the relationship between abiotic drivers of sap flux are well established, the role of biotic disturbances on sap flux remain understudied. The invasion of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) into North America in the 1990s represents a significant threat to ash trees (Fraxinus spp.), which are a...

  6. Effects of the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, on the health of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, in southern California before and after treatment with two systemic insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Mary L. Flint; Tom W. Coleman; Joseph J. Doccola; Donald M. Grosman; David L. Wood; Steven J. Seybold

    2015-01-01

    The invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is threatening the health and survival of oak trees in San Diego County, California (Flint and others 2013). The primary oak species colonized and killed in this area include coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (...

  7. Impact of the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, on the health of coast live oak before and after treatment with two systemic insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Mary L. Flint; Tom W. Coleman; Joseph J. Doccola; Donald M. Grosman; David L. Wood; Steven J. Seybold

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, is threatening the health and survival of oak trees in San Diego County, California. From two sites in the core area of the infestation, we report a 2.5 year investigation of the impact of A. auroguttatus on coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, before and after treatment with two systemic...

  8. Distribution of trunk-injected 14C-imidacloprid in ash trees and effects on emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Mota-Sánchez; Bert M. Cregg; Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Robert M. Hollingworth

    2009-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a destructive exotic pest of North American ash (Fraxinus sp.) trees. Trunk injection of imidacloprid is commonly used to protect landscape ash trees from A. planipennis damage. Efficacy can vary and little is known about the...

  9. The influence of satellite populations of emerald ash borer on projected economic damage in U.S. communities, 2010-2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent F. Kovacs; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Robert G. Haight; Nathan W. Siegert; Deborah G. McCullough; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2011-01-01

    The invasion spread of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is characterized by the formation of satellite populations that expand and coalesce with the continuously invading population front. As of January 2010, satellite infestations have been detected in 13 states and two Canadian provinces. Understanding...

  10. Biology and life history of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a north american larval parasitoid attacking the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, a serious invasive pests of North American ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To facilitate the development of potential augmentative biocon...

  11. Evaluating a new method for monitoring the field establishment and parasitism of Oobius agrili, an egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oobius agrili is a solitary egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and can be responsible for 50-60% of EAB egg mortality in its native range. O. agrili has been released for biological control of EAB in the US since 2007; however, current methods to monitor its establishme...

  12. Natural enemies and their impacts on emerald ash borer populations in its native range, with new records of parasitism by two species of beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the natural enemies of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and their role in regulating the pest population dynamics, we conducted field surveys at multiple forest sites with variable host densities in the pest’s native range (north an...

  13. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of egg and larval parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan, USA using sentinel eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an important invasive pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. Two larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang and Spathius agrili Yang, and one egg parasitoid, Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang, were introduced into the United Sta...

  14. A new species of oobius trjapitzin (hymenoptera:encyrtidae) from the russian far east that parasitizes eggs of emerald ash borer (coleoptera:buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...

  15. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera:Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, which has killed millions of ash trees since it was first detected in Michigan. A native parasitoid like A. cappaerti...

  16. Natural enemies implicated in the regulation of an invasive pest: a life table analysis of the population dynamics of the emerald ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is a serious invasive forest pest that has killed tens of millions of ash (Fraxinus) trees in the United States and Canada. By caging EAB adults on trunks of healthy ash trees, we established three generations of experimental cohorts from ...

  17. To treat or not to treat: Diminishing effectiveness of emamectin benzoate tree injections in ash trees heavily infested by emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Flower; Jennifer E. Dalton; Kathleen S. Knight; Marie Brikha; Miquel A. Gonzalez-Meler

    2015-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), a non-native invasive tree-boring beetle, is the primary agent behind thewidespread mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in both natural forests and urban areas of North Amer-ica. While a variety of insecticide options have been adopted for protection against EAB attacks, little hasbeen reported on the success of...

  18. Comparison of male and female emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) responses to phoebe oil and (Z)-3-hexanol lures in light green prism traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary G. Grant; Therese M. Poland; Tina Ciaramitaro; D. Barry Lyons; Gene C. Jones

    2011-01-01

    We conducted trapping experiments for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan, USA, and Ontario, Canada, to compare unbaited light green sticky prism traps with traps baited with phoebe oil, (Z)-3-hexenol (Z3-6:OH), or blends of other green leaf volatiles (GLVs) with Z3-6:OH. Traps were placed in the...

  19. Quercivorol as a lure for the polyphagous and Kuroshio shot hole borers, Euwallacea spp. nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae, vectors of Fusarium dieback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Dodge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The polyphagous shot hole borer and Kuroshio shot hole borer, two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, are invasive ambrosia beetles that harbor distinct species of Fusarium fungal symbionts. Together with the damage caused by gallery construction, these two phytopathogenic Fusarium species are responsible for the emerging tree disease Fusarium dieback, which affects over 50 common tree species in Southern California. Host trees suffer branch dieback as the xylem is blocked by invading beetles and fungi, forcing the costly removal of dead and dying trees in urban areas. The beetles are also threatening natural riparian habitats, and avocado is susceptible to Fusarium dieback as well, resulting in damage to the avocado industries in California and Israel. Currently there are no adequate control mechanisms for shot hole borers. This paper summarizes efforts to find a suitable lure to monitor shot hole borer invasions and dispersal. Field trials were conducted in two counties in Southern California over a span of two years. We find that the chemical quercivorol is highly attractive to these beetles, and perform subsequent field experiments attempting to optimize this lure. We also explore other methods of increasing trap catch and effects of other potential attractants, as well as the deterrents verbenone and piperitone.

  20. Effects of cutting time, stump height, and herbicide application on ash (Fraxinus spp.) stump sprouting and colonization by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to eradicate or slow the spread of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire [Coleoptera: Buprestidae]) include cutting infested and nearby uninfested ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. However, ash trees readily sprout after they have been cut, providing potential host material for EAB. In 2004-2005, we conducted...

  1. Abnormal grain growth: a non-equilibrium thermodynamic model for multi-grain binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J; Fischer, F D

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal grain growth as the abrupt growth of a group of the largest grains in a multi-grain system is treated within the context of unequal retardation of grain growth due to the segregation of solute atoms from the bulk of the grains into the grain boundaries. During grain boundary migration, the segregated solute atoms are dragged under a small driving force or left behind the migrating grain boundary under a large driving force. Thus, the solute atoms in the grain boundaries of large grains, exhibiting a large driving force, can be released from the grain boundary. The mobility of these grain boundaries becomes significantly higher and abnormal grain growth is spontaneously provoked. The mean-field model presented here assumes that each grain is described by its grain radius and by its individual segregation parameter. The thermodynamic extremal principle is engaged to obtain explicit evolution equations for the radius and segregation parameter of each grain. Simulations of grain growth kinetics for various conditions of segregation with the same initial setting (100 000 grains with a given radius distribution) are presented. Depending on the diffusion coefficients of the solute in the grain boundaries, abnormal grain growth may be strongly or marginally pronounced. Solute segregation and drag can also significantly contribute to the stabilization of the grain structure. Qualitative agreement with several experimental results is reported. (paper)

  2. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmanns M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  3. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  4. Sticking properties of ice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongmanns, M.; Kumm, M.; Wurm, G.; Wolf, D. E.; Teiser, J.

    2017-06-01

    We study the size dependence of pull-off forces of water ice in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. To determine the pull-off force in our laboratory experiments, we use a liquid nitrogen cooled centrifuge. Depending on its rotation frequency, spherical ice grains detach due to the centrifugal force which is related to the adhesive properties. Numerical simulations are conducted by means of molecular dynamics simulations of hexagonal ice using a standard coarse-grained water potential. The pull-off force of a single contact between two spherical ice grains is measured due to strain controlled simulations. Both, the experimental study and the simulations reveal a dependence between the pull-off force and the (reduced) particle radii, which differ significantly from the linear dependence of common contact theories.

  5. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance -- a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  6. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Jennings

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp. since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  7. THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER (OSTRINIA NUBILALIS HÜBNER REVIEW OF RESULTS FROM CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ivezić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available European Corn Borer (ECB - (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner is one of the most important pest on corn in Croatia. In the last decade corn production was on over 400 000 ha, in Eastern Croatia. Although ECB is present every year, with no such a low intensity, their control is not implemented. Corn is grown in monoculture, at 40% of cornfields, which also has influence on spreading of ECB. In the last ten years average attack of ECB was 51.5%; been done three different kinds of trials for controlling ECB. First trials were carried out in DeKalb hybrids, and ECB was controlled by Biobit XL, on the base of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Intensity of attack was decreased for 46%. Second trial was carried out in ten hybrids, in order to determine the tolerance of hybrids against ECB. It was identified that several domestic hybrids (OSSK 382, OSSK 664 and BC 462 are tolerant to ECB. The third trial was carried out with GM hybrids. Experiments included Pioneer hybrids Evelina Bt, and Landia Bt. Intensity of attack at Evelina standard was 52%, while in Evelina Bt, ECB wasn't present at all. At Landia standard ECB was present on 98%, while in Landia Bt, intensity of attack was 21%. At both Bt hybrids, number of larvae and tunnels was lower comparing to standard hybrids. Length of damage in Landia check was 20.66 cm, while in Landia Bt it was 0.45 cm. The yield was increased for 10.27% at Evelina Bt, and for 26.67% in Landia Bt comparing to their standards. This kind of experiments will be continued in the future, not only because of its agronomic importance, but also because of its ecological relevance.

  8. Efficacy of Systemic Insecticides for Control of the Invasive Goldspotted Oak Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Tom W; Smith, Sheri L; Jones, Michael I; Graves, Andrew D; Strom, Brian L

    2017-10-01

    From 2009 to 2013, we tested four systemic insecticide formulations and five application methods against the invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in California. The insecticides were evaluated in three experiments: 1) 2009 remedial applications of emamectin benzoate (stem-injection) and imidacloprid (stem-injection and soil-injection); 2) 2009-2012 emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid initially applied at different times during the dormant season with varying injection technologies; and 3) 2013 dinotefuran applied to several tree diameter size classes. Adult leaf-feeding bioassays were used to assess the impact of systemic treatments against A. auroguttatus, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays determined the quantity of the active ingredient of insecticide residues in foliage. Imidacloprid (experiment 1) persisted at elevated levels in foliage of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, for 1.5 yr following stem injections. Stem injections of emamectin benzoate (experiment 2) sometimes significantly decreased survival in adults fed foliage from treated Q. agrifolia, and both the emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid treatments reduced adult feeding in some trials. Imidacloprid residues in Q. agrifolia and California black oak, Quercus kelloggii Newb., foliage remained at elevated levels (>10 µg/g) ∼2 yr postapplication. In 2013 (experiment 3), dinotefuran residues were highest in foliage collections 2 wk postapplication and greatest in smaller diameter oaks, but insecticide treatment had no effect on survival or frass production by adults fed foliage from treated trees. Systemic injections of emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid applied during the dormant season to uninfested or lightly infested oaks can reduce adult A. auroguttatus survival and maturation feeding. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee

  9. Possibilities of using radiation induced F1 sterility for control of European corn borer in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbulescu, A.; Rosca, I.

    1993-01-01

    Investigations were undertaken to develop the foundation for control in the future of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), with a pest management system based on sterility expressed to the greatest extent during the F 1 generation of progeny of moths irradiated with gamma rays. As a basis for the mass rearing of the pest, a diet was developed from locally available ingredients. The ingredients are bean meal, wheat bran, brewe's yeast, milk powder substitute for calves, salt mixture used in poultry production, sugar, ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, glacial acetic acid, formaldehyde, agar and water. Using this diet, 1000 moths can be reared for as little as one US dollar. Complete sterility induced by exposure to gamma rays occurs at a lower dose in females than in males. When males that are exposed as six-day-old pupae to 150 Gy are mated to untreated females, 67.5% of the eggs hatch. Further, when the sons of treated males are mated to untreated females, 42.8% of the eggs hatch, when daughters of treated males are mated to untreated males, 40.7% of the eggs hatch, and when sons and daughters of treated males are mated to each other, 9.1% of the eggs hatch. The amount of mortality following egg hatch was not recorded. However, in field cage experiments, F 1 larvae damaged 4, 8 and 0% of corn stalks for these respective crosses compared with the 76% damage by larvae from untreated parents. The corresponding yield of kernels of corn in grammes per plant was 57, 42, 46, and 27. In order to mark moths for filed studies they were reared on diet containing Calco red dye. Traps baited with the various enantiomers of the sex pheromone were used to study the dispersal of released moths and the dates of adult moth emergence in various regions of Romania. (author). 20 refs, 12 tabs

  10. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

  11. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  12. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years.

  13. A Biologically Active Analog of the Sex Pheromone of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, P J; Ryall, K; Mayo, P; MaGee, D I; Leclair, G; Fidgen, J; Lavallee, R; Price, J; McConaghy, J

    2015-03-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (EAB), is an invasive species causing unprecedented levels of mortality to ash trees in its introduced range. The female-produced sex pheromone of EAB has been shown to contain the macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide. This compound and its geometrical isomer, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, have been demonstrated previously to be EAG active and, in combination with a host-derived green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol, to be attractive to male EAB in green prism traps deployed in the ash tree canopy. In the current study, we show that the saturated analog, dodecan-12-olide, is similarly active, eliciting an antennal response and significant attraction of EAB in both olfactometer and trapping bioassays in green traps with (3Z)-hexenol. Conformational modeling of the three lactones reveals that their energies and shapes are very similar, suggesting they might share a common receptor in EAB antennae. These findings provide new insight into the pheromone ecology of this species, highlighting the apparent plasticity in response of adults to the pheromone and its analog. Both of the unsaturated isomers are costly to synthesize, involving multistep, low-yielding processes. The saturated analog can be made cheaply, in high yield, and on large scale via Mitsunobu esterification of a saturated ω-hydroxy acid or more simply by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of commercially available cyclododecanone. The analog can thus provide an inexpensive option as a lure for detection surveys as well as for possible mitigation purposes, such as mating disruption.

  14. Identification of odor-processing genes in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidala, Praveen; Wijeratne, Asela J; Wijeratne, Saranga; Poland, Therese; Qazi, Sohail S; Doucet, Daniel; Cusson, Michel; Beliveau, Catherine; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-01-01

    Insects rely on olfaction to locate food, mates, and suitable oviposition sites for successful completion of their life cycle. Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer) is a serious invasive insect pest that has killed tens of millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp) trees and threatens the very existence of the genus Fraxinus. Adult A. planipennis are attracted to host volatiles and conspecifics; however, to date no molecular knowledge exists on olfaction in A. planipennis. Hence, we undertook an antennae-specific transcriptomic study to identify the repertoire of odor processing genes involved in A. planipennis olfaction. We acquired 139,085 Roche/454 GS FLX transcriptomic reads that were assembled into 30,615 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 3,249 isotigs and 27,366 non-isotigs (contigs and singletons). Intriguingly, the majority of the A. planipennis antennal transcripts (59.72%) did not show similarity with sequences deposited in the non-redundant database of GenBank, potentially representing novel genes. Functional annotation and KEGG analysis revealed pathways associated with signaling and detoxification. Several odor processing genes (9 odorant binding proteins, 2 odorant receptors, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein and 134 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases; esterases, etc.) putatively involved in olfaction processes were identified. Quantitative PCR of candidate genes in male and female A. planipennis in different developmental stages revealed developmental- and sex-biased expression patterns. The antennal ESTs derived from A. planipennis constitute a rich molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of A. planipennis. These findings should help in understanding the processing of antennally-active compounds (e.g. 7-epi-sesquithujene) previously identified in this serious invasive pest.

  15. Glutathione-S-transferase profiles in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-05-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-μ1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-μ1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the north Saharan oases ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10 d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40 min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1 h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. Long-distance multistep sediment transfer at convergent plate margins (Barbados, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, Mara; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    We present a regional provenance study of the compositional variability and long distance multicyclic transport of terrigenous sediments along the convergent and transform plate boundaries of Central America, from the northern termination of the Andes to the Lesser Antilles arc-trench system. We focus on high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral analyses of modern beach and fluvial sediments and Cenozoic sandstones of Barbados island, one of the places in the world where an active accretionary prism is subaerially exposed (Speed et al., 2012). The main source of siliciclastic sediment in the Barbados accretionary prism is off-scraped quartzose to feldspatho-litho-quartzose metasedimentaclastic turbidites, ultimately supplied from South America chiefly via the Orinoco fluvio-deltaic system. Modern sand on Barbados island is either quartzose with depleted heavy-mineral suites recycled from Cenozoic turbidites and including epidote, zircon, tourmaline, andalusite, garnet, staurolite and chloritoid, or calcareous and derived from Pleistocene coral reefs. The ubiquitous occurrence of clinopyroxene and hypersthene, associated with green-brown kaersutitic hornblende in the north or olivine in the south, points to reworking of ash-fall tephra erupted from andesitic (St. Lucia) and basaltic (St. Vincent) volcanic centers in the Lesser Antilles arc transported by the prevailing anti-trade winds in the upper troposphere. Modern sediments on Barbados island and those shed by other accretionary prisms such as the Indo- Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge (Garzanti et al., 2013) define the distinctive mineralogical signature of Subduction Complex Provenance, which is invariably composite. Detritus recycled dominantly from accreted turbidites and oceanic mudrocks is mixed in various proportions with detritus from the adjacent volcanic arc or carbonate reefs widely developed at tropical latitudes. Ophiolitic detritus may be locally prominent. Quantitative provenance

  18. Multiscaling properties of tropical rainfall: Analysis of rain gauge datasets in Lesser Antilles island environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Didier C.; Pasquier, Raphaël; Cécé, Raphaël; Dorville, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Changes in rainfall seem to be the main impact of climate change in the Caribbean area. The last conclusions of IPCC (2013), indicate that the end of this century will be marked by a rise of extreme rainfalls in tropical areas, linked with increase of the mean surface temperature. Moreover, most of the Lesser Antilles islands are characterized by a complex topography which tends to enhance the rainfall from synoptic disturbances by orographic effects. In the past five years, out of hurricanes passage, several extreme rainy events (approx. 16 mm in 6 minutes), including fatal cases, occurred in the Lesser Antilles Arc: in Guadeloupe (January 2011, May 2012 and 2013), in Martinique (May 2009, April 2011 and 2013), in Saint-Lucia (December 2013). These phenomena inducing floods, loss of life and material damages (agriculture sector and public infrastructures), inhibit the development of the islands. At this time, numerical weather prediction models as WRF, which are based on the equations of the atmospheric physics, do not show great results in the focused area (Bernard et al., 2013). Statistical methods may be used to examine explicitly local rainy updrafts, thermally and orographically induced at micro-scale. The main goal of the present insular tropical study is to characterize the multifractal symmetries occurring in the 6-min rainfall time series, registered since 2006 by the French Met. Office network weather stations. The universal multifractal model (Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991) is used to define the statistical properties of measured rainfalls at meso-scale and micro-scale. This model is parametrized by a fundamental exponents set (H,a,C1,q) which are determined and compared with values found in the literature. The first three parameters characterize the mean pattern and the last parameter q, the extreme pattern. The occurrence ranges of multifractal regime are examined. The suggested links between the internal variability of the tropical rainy events and the

  19. New Perspective of Tsunami Deposit Investigations: Insight from the 1755 Lisbon Tsunami in Martinique, Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, J.; Clouard, V.; Moizan, E.

    2014-12-01

    The recent devastating tsunamis having occurred during the last decades have highlighted the essential necessity to deploy operationnal warning systems and educate coastal populations. This could not be prepared correctly without a minimum knowledge about the tsunami history. That is the case of the Lesser Antilles islands, where a few handfuls of tsunamis have been reported over the past 5 centuries, some of them leading to notable destructions and inundations. But the lack of accurate details for most of the historical tsunamis and the limited period during which we could find written information represents an important problem for tsunami hazard assessment in this region. Thus, it is of major necessity to try to find other evidences of past tsunamis by looking for sedimentary deposits. Unfortunately, island tropical environments do not seem to be the best places to keep such deposits burried. In fact, heavy rainfalls, storms, and all other phenomena leading to coastal erosion, and associated to human activities such as intensive sugarcane cultivation in coastal flat lands, could caused the loss of potential tsunami deposits. Lots of places have been accurately investigated within the Lesser Antilles (from Sainte-Lucia to the British Virgin Islands) the last 3 years and nothing convincing has been found. That is when archeaological investigations excavated a 8-cm thick sandy and shelly layer in downtown Fort-de-France (Martinique), wedged between two well-identified layers of human origin (Fig. 1), that we found new hope: this sandy layer has been quickly attributed without any doubt to the 1755 tsunami, using on one hand the information provided by historical reports of the construction sites, and on the other hand by numerical modeling of the tsunami (wave heights, velocity fields, etc.) showing the ability of this transoceanic tsunami to wrap around the island after ~7 hours of propagation, enter Fort-de-France's Bay with enough energy to carry sediments, and

  20. Numerical Tsunami Hazard Assessment of the Only Active Lesser Antilles Arc Submarine Volcano: Kick 'em Jenny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Robertson, R. E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc has potentially been hit by prehistorical regional tsunamis generated by voluminous volcanic landslides (volume > 1 km3) among the 53 events recognized so far. No field evidence of these tsunamis are found in the vincity of the sources. Such a scenario taking place nowadays would trigger hazardous tsunami waves bearing potentially catastrophic consequences for the closest islands and regional offshore oil platforms.Here we applied a complete hazard assessment method on the only active submarine volcano of the arc Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ). KeJ is the southernmost edifice with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. From the three identified landslide episodes one is associated with a collapse volume ca. 4.4 km3. Numerical simulations considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami. An edifice current volume estimate is ca. 1.5 km3.Previous study exists in relationship to assessment of regional tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (run-up) in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. However this assessment was based on inferred volume of collapse material. We aim to firstly quantify potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA); secondly to assess first order run-ups and maximum inland inundation distance for Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, i.e. two important economic centers of the Lesser Antilles. In this framework we present for seven geomechanical models tested in the RSIA step maps of critical failure surface associated with factor of stability (Fs) for twelve sectors of 30° each; then we introduce maps of expected potential run-ups (run-up × the probability of failure at a sector) at the shoreline.The RSIA evaluates critical potential failure surface associated with Fs <1 as compared to areas of deficit/surplus of mass/volume identified on the volcanic edifice using (VolcanoFit 2