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Sample records for lesser antilles island

  1. Deep structure of the central Lesser Antilles Island Arc : relevance for the formation of continental crust

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kopp; Weinzierl, W.; Becel, A.; Charvis, Philippe; Evain, M.; Flueh, E. R.; Gailler, A.; Galve, A.; Hirn, A.; Kandilarov, A.; D. Klaeschen; M. Laigle; Papenberg, C.; L. Planert; Roux, E.

    2011-01-01

    Oceanic island arcs are sites of high magma production and contribute to the formation of continental crust. Geophysical studies may provide information on the configuration and composition of island arc crust, however, to date only few seismic profiles exist across active island arcs, limiting our knowledge on the deep structure and processes related to the production of arc crust. We acquired active-source wide-angle seismic data crossing the central Lesser Antilles island arc north of Domi...

  2. Multiscaling properties of tropical rainfall: Analysis of rain gauge datasets in Lesser Antilles island environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Didier C.; Pasquier, Raphaël; Cécé, Raphaël; Dorville, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Changes in rainfall seem to be the main impact of climate change in the Caribbean area. The last conclusions of IPCC (2013), indicate that the end of this century will be marked by a rise of extreme rainfalls in tropical areas, linked with increase of the mean surface temperature. Moreover, most of the Lesser Antilles islands are characterized by a complex topography which tends to enhance the rainfall from synoptic disturbances by orographic effects. In the past five years, out of hurricanes passage, several extreme rainy events (approx. 16 mm in 6 minutes), including fatal cases, occurred in the Lesser Antilles Arc: in Guadeloupe (January 2011, May 2012 and 2013), in Martinique (May 2009, April 2011 and 2013), in Saint-Lucia (December 2013). These phenomena inducing floods, loss of life and material damages (agriculture sector and public infrastructures), inhibit the development of the islands. At this time, numerical weather prediction models as WRF, which are based on the equations of the atmospheric physics, do not show great results in the focused area (Bernard et al., 2013). Statistical methods may be used to examine explicitly local rainy updrafts, thermally and orographically induced at micro-scale. The main goal of the present insular tropical study is to characterize the multifractal symmetries occurring in the 6-min rainfall time series, registered since 2006 by the French Met. Office network weather stations. The universal multifractal model (Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991) is used to define the statistical properties of measured rainfalls at meso-scale and micro-scale. This model is parametrized by a fundamental exponents set (H,a,C1,q) which are determined and compared with values found in the literature. The first three parameters characterize the mean pattern and the last parameter q, the extreme pattern. The occurrence ranges of multifractal regime are examined. The suggested links between the internal variability of the tropical rainy events and the

  3. A unique opportunity to reconstruct the volcanic history of the island of Nevis, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginor, I.; Gazel, E.

    2012-12-01

    We report twelve new ICP-MS analyses and two 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Caribbean island of Nevis, located in the Lesser Antilles. These data show a very strong fractionation trend, suggesting that along strike variations may be primarily controlled by the interaction of rising magma with the upper plate. If this fractionation trend is shown to correlate with age, it may suggest that underplating of the crust is responsible for variations in the makeup of erupted lava over time, particularly with respect to silica content. We have recently been given permission to sample a series of cores being drilled by a geothermal company with the goal of reconstructing the volcanic history of the island. Drilling is often cost-prohibitive, making this a truly unique opportunity. Nevis has received little recent attention from researchers due to the fact that it has not been active for at least 100,000 years and also because of its proximity to the highly active Montserrat, which boasts its very own volcano observatory. However, there are a number of good reasons that make this region and Nevis in particular an ideal location for further analysis. First, and most importantly, is the access to thousands of meters of drill cores that is being provided by a local geothermal company. Second, a robust earthquake catalog exists (Bengoubou-Valerius et al., 2008), so the dip and depth to the subducting slab is well known. These are fundamental parameters that influence the mechanics of a subduction zone, therefore it would be difficult to proceed if they were poorly constrained. Third, prior sampling of Nevis has been limited since Hutton and Nockolds (1978) published the only extensive petrologic study ever performed on the island. This paper contained only 43 geochemical analyses and 6 K-Ar ages, which are less reliable than more modern Ar-Ar ages. Subsequent studies tended to focus on water geochemistry (GeothermEx, 2005), geothermal potential (Geotermica Italiana, 1992; Huttrer, 1998

  4. Ophiuroidea of the Lesser Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parslow, Rosemary E.; Clark, Ailsa M.

    1963-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with a collection of ophiuroids from the Lesser Antilles sent to the British Museum (Natural History) by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK in 1959. The identifications were made by ROSEMARY PARSLOW, but the discussion and figures of Amphiodia and Ophiocomella are by AILSA CLARK. The

  5. Gas and water geochemistry of geothermal systems in Dominica, Lesser Antilles island arc

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    Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Fournier, Nicolas; Lindsay, Jan M.; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2011-09-01

    Four of the nine potentially active volcanoes on the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles volcanic island arc have associated active volcanic-hydrothermal systems. Between 2000 and 2006 the gas and thermal waters from these systems were investigated to geochemically characterise the fluids, gain insight into the temperature and equilibrium state of the underlying reservoirs, and evaluate the feasibility of monitoring geothermal features as a volcano surveillance tool in Dominica. The geothermal gases are typical of those found in arc-type settings, with N 2 excess and low amounts of He and Ar. The dry gas is dominated by CO 2 (ranging from 492 to 993 mmol/mol), and has a hydrothermal signature with hydrogen sulphide as the main sulphurous gas. The waters are predominantly acid-sulphate (SO 4 = 100-4200 mg/L, pH ≤ 4), and likely formed as a result of dilution of acidic gases in near surface oxygenated groundwater. Enrichment in both δ 18O and δD with respect to the global meteoric water line (GMWL) confirms that the waters are of primarily meteoric origin, but have been affected by evaporation processes. Quartz geothermometers gave equilibrium temperatures of 83 °C-203 °C. These temperatures contrast with the higher equilibrium temperature ranges (170 °C-350 °C) obtained for the gases using the H 2/Ar*-CH 4/CO 2 gas ratios plot, suggesting that the quartz geothermometers are affected by non-attainment of equilibrium. This may be a result of precipitation of the dissolved silica and/or dilution by relatively cold shallow aquifers of the thermal fluids. Generally, no significant variations in fluid gas chemistry of the hydrothermal systems were observed during the study period, and we propose that there were no changes in the state of volcanic activity in this period. One exception to this occurred in a feature known as the Boiling Lake, which underwent a month-long period of significant compositional, temperature and water level fluctuations ascribed to

  6. Geothermal activity related to transtensional context evidenced by petrological and structural data in the St Kitts Island (Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diraison, Marc; Corsini, Michel; Haffen, Sébastien; Géraud, Yves; Navelot, Vivien

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic area may be the main target for high enthalpy geothermal production. Several islands in Lesser Antilles want to develop this energy to produce electricity; St Kitts is one of them. Field analysis allows to propose a geodynamic framework for the dynamic of hydrothermal reservoir in the vicinity of an active volcano. St. Kitts Island is located in the northern part of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc. Volcanic activity initiated at around 3 Ma in the southern part of the island and migrated progressively north-westward until its current position at the active Mt. Liamuiga volcano. Andesites are the large majority of magmatic rocks in the form of lava, dome, sills and dikes intrusive into pyroclastic deposits. Several evidences of active hydrothermal system such as fumaroles, boiling water are present in the St Kitts Island. All of these activities are structurally controlled. Satellite images and Digital Topographic Map analyses at regional scale and systematic measurement of fractures at outcrop scale highlight four main structural lineaments with NE-SW, NW-SE, N-S, and E-W trends respectively. Furthermore detailed field observations allow us to precise the geometry and kinematics of major faults. The main NW-SE steeply dipping left-lateral strike-slip faults and associated NE-SW normal faults with a NW dip correspond to a trans-tensional context. The southern oldest part of the island exposes greenschist facies rocks, which contrast with the non-metamorphic northern younger rocks. This huge jump of metamorphism could reflect exhumation related to normal faulting. In the Frigate Bay area, on the trace of main normal fault, the rocks present an intensive structural and petrological transformations related to hydrothermal fluid circulations. Located at the intersection of the main fault system, this site is interpreted as a hydrothermal paleosystem and is considered as an analogue of the deep northern part of the island under a current hydrothermal activity

  7. Plutonic xenoliths from Martinique, Lesser Antilles: evidence for open system processes and reactive melt flow in island arc crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George F.; Davidson, Jon P.; Blundy, Jon D.

    2016-10-01

    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc is remarkable for the abundance and variety of erupted plutonic xenoliths. These samples provide a window into the deeper crust and record a more protracted crystallisation history than is observed from lavas alone. We present a detailed petrological and in situ geochemical study of xenoliths from Martinique in order to establish their petrogenesis, pre-eruptive storage conditions and their contribution to construction of the sub-volcanic arc crust. The lavas from Martinique are controlled by crystal-liquid differentiation. Amphibole is rarely present in the erupted lavas, but it is a very common component in plutonic xenoliths, allowing us to directly test the involvement of amphibole in the petrogenesis of arc magmas. The plutonic xenoliths provide both textural and geochemical evidence of open system processes and crystal `cargos'. All xenoliths are plagioclase-bearing, with variable proportions of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and amphibole, commonly with interstitial melt. In Martinique, the sequence of crystallisation varies in sample type and differs from other islands of the Lesser Antilles arc. The compositional offset between plagioclase (~An90) and olivine (~Fo75), suggests crystallisation under high water contents and low pressures from an already fractionated liquid. Texturally, amphibole is either equant (crystallising early in the sequence) or interstitial (crystallising late). Interstitial amphibole is enriched in Ba and LREE compared with early crystallised amphibole and does not follow typical fractionation trends. Modelling of melt compositions indicates that a water-rich, plagioclase-undersaturated reactive melt or fluid percolated through a crystal mush, accompanied by the breakdown of clinopyroxene, and the crystallisation of amphibole. Geothermobarometry estimates and comparisons with experimental studies imply the majority of xenoliths formed in the mid-crust. Martinique cumulate xenoliths are

  8. Impact of the slab dip change onto the deformation partitioning in the northern Lesser Antilles oblique subduction zone (Antigua-Virgin Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Muriel; Marcaillou, Boris; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Graindorge, David; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric; Laigle, Mireille; Lallemand, Serge

    2017-04-01

    Marine geophysical cruises Antithesis (2013-2016) investigate the impact of the variations in interplate geometry onto margin tectonic deformation along the strongly oblique Lesser Antilles subduction zone. A striking features of this margin is the drastic increase in earthquake number from the quiet Barbuda-St Martin segment to the Virgin Islands platform. Wide-angle seismic data highlight a northward shallowing of the downgoing plate: in a 150 km distance from the deformation front, the slab dipping angle in the convergence direction decreases from 12° offshore of Antigua Island to 7° offshore of Virgin Islands. North-South wide-angle seismic line substantiates a drastic slab-dip change that likely causes this northward shallowing. This dip change is located beneath the southern tip of the Virgin Islands platform where the Anegada Passage entails the upper plate. Based on deep seismic lines and bathymetric data, the Anegada Passage is a 450 km long W-E trending set of pull-apart basins and strike-slip faults that extends from the Lesser Antilles accretionary prism to Puerto Rico. The newly observed sedimentary architecture within pull-apart Sombrero and Malliwana basins indicates a polyphased tectonic history. A past prominent NW-SE extensive to transtensive phase, possibly related to the Bahamas Bank collision, opened the Anegada Passage as previously published. Transpressive tectonic evidences indicate that these structures have been recently reactivated in an en-echelon sinistral strike-slip system. The interpreted strain ellipsoid is consistent with deformation partitioning. We propose that the slab northward shallowing increases the interplate coupling and the seismic activity beneath the Virgin Islands platform comparatively to the quiet Barbuda-St Martin segment. It is noteworthy that the major tectonic partitioning structure in the Lesser Antilles forearc is located above the slab dip change where the interplate seismic coupling increases.

  9. Erosive effects of the storms HELENA (1963) and HUGO (1989) on Basse-Terre island (Guadeloupe - Lesser Antilles Arc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bivic, Rejanne; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Quiquerez, Amélie

    2014-05-01

    Basse-Terre is a volcanic island which belongs to the archipelago of Guadeloupe located in the Lesser Antilles Arc (Caribbean Sea). As a mountainous region in the tropical belt, Basse-Terre is affected by intense sediment transport due to extreme meteorological events. During the last fifty years, eight major tropical storms and hurricanes with intense rainfalls induced landslides and scars in the weathered layers. The purpose of this study is to compare two major meteorological events within a period of 26 years (HELENA in 10/1963 and HUGO in 09/1989) in order to qualify the parameters responsible of the spatial distribution of landslides and scars. The storm HELENA affected Basse-Terre between the 23rd and the 25th of October, 1963. The maximal daily rainfall reached 300 mm in Baillif which is located on the leeward coast at the altitude of 650 m while the maximum wind velocity reached 50 km/h. A similar exceptional event happened when the hurricane HUGO slammed the island in September 17, 1989. The maximum daily rainfall recorded in Sainte-Rose (on the northern coast) was 250 mm while it reached 208 mm in Petit-Bourg and the maximum wind speed was 60 km/h. Aerial images were acquired by the IGN (French Geographical Institute) before and a few weeks after the extreme events: less than three months after the event HELENA and less than a month after the event HUGO. Those images have been orthorectified at a metric resolution and combined in a GIS with a 10 m resolution DEM. Scars and landslides were digitalized and their surface area and mean slope were measured for both HELENA and HUGO. This work confirms several results proposed by a previous study related to the HELENA event: (1) the landslides occurred mainly in the center of the island and (2) the slope is the main parameter for the initiation of landslides, since all of them occurred with a slope superior to 30°. Furthermore, the resiliency of the surface affected by the landslides induced by HELENA was

  10. Ce isotope systematics of island arc lavas from the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellot, Nina; Boyet, Maud; Doucelance, Régis; Pin, Christian; Chauvel, Catherine; Auclair, Delphine

    2015-11-01

    The La-Ce systematics has one of the longest half-lifes (T1/2 = 292.5 Ga) of radioactive decay systems used in isotope geochemistry. Variations of the 138Ce/142Ce ratio are expected to be small and the use of Ce as isotopic tracer requires a very precise measurement. Compared to Sm-Nd studies, the La-Ce decay system can provide additional information about the nature of sediments recycled in subduction zones, because unusually large Ce anomalies relative to the neighboring rare earth elements exist in marine sediments such as fish teeth or hydrothermal deposits. Here, we present a chemical purification technique for Ce, and mass spectrometric technique to perform accurate and reproducible analyses of Ce isotopes of natural samples. We report a large set of Ce isotope data including analysis of 2 Ce reference material solutions (AMES and JMC-304), 2 rock standards (BCR-2 and BHVO-2), 2 chondrites (the carbonaceous chondrite Allende and the enstatite chondrite Sahara 97072), 4 mid-ocean ridge basalts, 30 arc lavas from the Martinique Island and 5 oceanic sediments from DSDP-site 144 drilled on the Demerara rise. The long-term, external precision obtained on the AMES reference material is 80 ppm (2 s.d., 138Ce/142Ce = 0.0225732 ± 18, n = 89). However, we note an evolution of isotopic ratios measured in static mode over the duration of this study (33 months). When the reproducibility is calculated from the AMES reference material measured during the same analytical session, it averages 40 ppm. All the 138Ce/142Ce ratios have been normalized to the AMES value of 0.0225746 (measured in session 7, 2 s.d. = 14 ppm, n = 8), a session during which the chondritic value has been defined and the peak tailing was negligible. The 138Ce/142Ce ratio measured for the JMC-304 Ce reference reagent is 0.0225706 ± 9 (2 s.d. = 38 ppm, n = 10). The analytical precision on natural samples is improved by a factor of about 4 in relation to previous studies on island arcs (Tanaka et al

  11. Magnetic mapping around Les Saintes islands (Lesser Antilles, Guadeloupe) for structural interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier de Lépinay, J.; Munschy, M.; Géraud, Y.; Diraison, M.; Navelot, V.; Verati, C.; Corsini, M.; Lardeaux, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    In Les Saintes archipelago, the outcrop analysis of Terre-de-Haut island allows to point out several fault systems and geological objects such as lava domes and lava flows. Moreover an exhumed geothermal paleo-system was identified and is thought to be an interesting analogue of the active geothermal system of Bouillante, Guadeloupe. To fully understand this area, the offshore continuation of the geological features is a major concern. The previously known onshore features are visible on airborne magnetic maps due to the highly magnetized material in Les Saintes archipelago. Moreover hydrothermal processes alter the magnetized minerals of volcanic rocks, creating a significant variation in the magnetic measurements. Therefore an adapted marine magnetic study can help the geological understanding of this particular area. In order to correctly link the offshore and onshore structures, the magnetic survey must be close enough to the shoreline and detailed enough so as to correctly outline the tectonic structures. An appropriate solution for such a survey was to use a magnetometer aboard a speedboat. Such a boat allows more navigation flexibility than a classic oceanic vessel towing a magnetometer; it can sail at higher speed on calm seas and closer to the shoreline. This kind of set up is only viable because the magnetic effect of the ship can be compensated using the same algorithms than those used for airborne magnetometry. Studies were implemented through the GEOTREF program which benefits from the support of both the ADEME and the French public funds "Investments for the future". The use of magnetic field transformations allows a large variety of structures to be highlighted, providing insights that help to build a general understanding of the nature and distribution of the magnetic sources. Using a reduction to the pole map operator we are able to prolong the volcanic structures at sea. The marine part of the paleo-geothermal system extension is also roughly

  12. Submarine record of volcanic island construction and collapse in the Lesser Antilles arc: First scientific drilling of submarine volcanic island landslides by IODP Expedition 340

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Friant, A.; Ishizuka, O.; Boudon, G.; Palmer, M. R.; Talling, P. J.; Villemant, B.; Adachi, T.; Aljahdali, M.; Breitkreuz, C.; Brunet, M.; Caron, B.; Coussens, M.; Deplus, C.; Endo, D.; Feuillet, N.; Fraas, A. J.; Fujinawa, A.; Hart, M. B.; Hatfield, R. G.; Hornbach, M.; Jutzeler, M.; Kataoka, K. S.; Komorowski, J.-C.; Lebas, E.; Lafuerza, S.; Maeno, F.; Manga, M.; Martínez-Colón, M.; McCanta, M.; Morgan, S.; Saito, T.; Slagle, A.; Sparks, S.; Stinton, A.; Stroncik, N.; Subramanyam, K. S. V.; Tamura, Y.; Trofimovs, J.; Voight, B.; Wall-Palmer, D.; Wang, F.; Watt, S. F. L.

    2015-02-01

    IODP Expedition 340 successfully drilled a series of sites offshore Montserrat, Martinique and Dominica in the Lesser Antilles from March to April 2012. These are among the few drill sites gathered around volcanic islands, and the first scientific drilling of large and likely tsunamigenic volcanic island-arc landslide deposits. These cores provide evidence and tests of previous hypotheses for the composition and origin of those deposits. Sites U1394, U1399, and U1400 that penetrated landslide deposits recovered exclusively seafloor sediment, comprising mainly turbidites and hemipelagic deposits, and lacked debris avalanche deposits. This supports the concepts that i/ volcanic debris avalanches tend to stop at the slope break, and ii/ widespread and voluminous failures of preexisting low-gradient seafloor sediment can be triggered by initial emplacement of material from the volcano. Offshore Martinique (U1399 and 1400), the landslide deposits comprised blocks of parallel strata that were tilted or microfaulted, sometimes separated by intervals of homogenized sediment (intense shearing), while Site U1394 offshore Montserrat penetrated a flat-lying block of intact strata. The most likely mechanism for generating these large-scale seafloor sediment failures appears to be propagation of a decollement from proximal areas loaded and incised by a volcanic debris avalanche. These results have implications for the magnitude of tsunami generation. Under some conditions, volcanic island landslide deposits composed of mainly seafloor sediment will tend to form smaller magnitude tsunamis than equivalent volumes of subaerial block-rich mass flows rapidly entering water. Expedition 340 also successfully drilled sites to access the undisturbed record of eruption fallout layers intercalated with marine sediment which provide an outstanding high-resolution data set to analyze eruption and landslides cycles, improve understanding of magmatic evolution as well as offshore sedimentation

  13. Discovery of Lower Cretaceous synmetamorphic thrust tectonics in French Lesser Antilles (La Désirade Island, Guadeloupe): Implications for Caribbean geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, M.; Lardeaux, J. M.; Verati, C.; Voitus, E.; Balagne, M.

    2011-08-01

    Located east of Guadeloupe, the island of La Désirade exhibits the oldest rocks of the Lesser Antilles arc and the eastern Caribbean plate. An old magmatic basement is composed of (1) late Jurassic ophiolitic complex with meta-basaltic pillow lavas and interbedded radiolarites, (2) acid igneous complex comprising meta-quartz-diorite and meta-rhyolitic lavas flows, and (3) meta-diabasic/microdioritic dyke swarm complex. We present and discuss the discovery of synmetamorphic thrust tectonics in this island. Based on detailed structural analysis we evidenced two main compressive events. The first event (D1) is characterized by pervasive folding associated with thrust development. In the northeastern part of the island, a major thrust fault, the Grand Abaque Thrust, has been discovered which displaces for several kilometers the acid igneous complex onto the ophiolitic unit. The second deformation event (D2) is featured by a main pervasive cleavage S2 observed at the regional scale associated with upright folding (F2) and by the development of two sets of conjugated steeply dipping strike-slip shear zones, dextral 130°N and sinistral 20°N striking, respectively. Microstructural observations indicate that Greenschist facies metamorphism is clearly contemporaneous with the development of D1 and D2 superimposed tectonic structures. Ar/Ar geochronology was performed on two bulk of adularia minerals sampled in the northeast volcanic complex within a deformed zone related to a D2 event. These analyses yield well-defined and concordant plateau ages at 106.2 ± 1.7 Ma and 107.2 ± 1.8 Ma. Thus, shortening and thickening tectonics occurred during Lower Cretaceous (Albian). In the available framework of Caribbean geodynamics, the synmetamorphic thrust tectonics we discovered in the French Lesser Antilles is related to the collision between an Aptian-Albian oceanic plateau and the Andean-Cordilleran east-dipping subduction zone. Our results support subduction polarity reversal

  14. Cumulate xenoliths from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles Island Arc: a window into upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, P. M. E.; Bindeman, I.; Blundy, J. D.

    2012-02-01

    In order to shed light on upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived basaltic magmas in a subduction zone setting, we have determined the mineral chemistry and oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of individual cumulus minerals in plutonic blocks from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Plutonic rock types display great variation in mineralogy, from olivine-gabbros to troctolites and hornblendites, with a corresponding variety of cumulate textures. Mineral compositions differ from those in erupted basaltic lavas from St. Vincent and in published high-pressure (4-10 kb) experimental run products of a St. Vincent high-Mg basalt in having higher An plagioclase coexisting with lower Fo olivine. The oxygen isotope compositions (δ18O) of cumulus olivine (4.89-5.18‰), plagioclase (5.84-6.28‰), clinopyroxene (5.17-5.47‰) and hornblende (5.48-5.61‰) and hydrogen isotope composition of hornblende (δD = -35.5 to -49.9‰) are all consistent with closed system magmatic differentiation of a mantle-derived basaltic melt. We employed a number of modelling exercises to constrain the origin of the chemical and isotopic compositions reported. δ18OOlivine is up to 0.2‰ higher than modelled values for closed system fractional crystallisation of a primary melt. We attribute this to isotopic disequilibria between cumulus minerals crystallising at different temperatures, with equilibration retarded by slow oxygen diffusion in olivine during prolonged crustal storage. We used melt inclusion and plagioclase compositions to determine parental magmatic water contents (water saturated, 4.6 ± 0.5 wt% H2O) and crystallisation pressures (173 ± 50 MPa). Applying these values to previously reported basaltic and basaltic andesite lava compositions, we can reproduce the cumulus plagioclase and olivine compositions and their associated trend. We conclude that differentiation of primitive hydrous basalts on St. Vincent involves crystallisation of olivine and Cr-rich spinel at depth

  15. The beetles of the Lesser Antilles (Insecta, Coleoptera) : diversity and distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, Stewart B.

    2016-01-01

    The island arc of the Lesser Antilles lies at the eastern margin of the Caribbean Sea in the Western Hemisphere, and stretches from the eastern end of the islands of the Greater Antilles (at the Virgin Islands), south to a position near the continental islands of Trinidad and Tobago at the north eastern corner of South America. The islands are a part of the West Indian Islands biodiversity “hotspot” and have been available for terrestrial colonization for about the past 15 million years. This...

  16. Earthquake foci in metropolitan France and the lesser Antilles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorel, J.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J. (Institut de Physique du Globe, Univ. Paris-6 (France)); Frechet, J. (Universite Scientifique et Medical de Grenoble, Saint Martin d' Heres (France))

    A selection of local mechanism for metropolitan France and the lesser Antilles is presented. The data has been chosen on the basis of its quality and only mechanisms for which the faults planes would be determined with a precision of less than 20/sup 0/ are presented. The data concerns four principal regions: The Jura-Rhein graben, the Alps, the Pyrenees and the lesser Antilles. Finally a brief review of the neotectonic environment of the earthquakes in metropolitan France is presented.

  17. Contrasted patterns of genetic differentiation across eight bird species in the Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimoun, Aurélie; Arnoux, Emilie; Martel, Guillaume; Pot, Alexandre; Eraud, Cyril; Condé, Béatriz; Loubon, Maxime; Théron, Franck; Covas, Rita; Faivre, Bruno; Garnier, Stéphane

    2016-02-01

    Archipelagoes are considered as "natural laboratories" for studying processes that shape the distribution of diversity. The Lesser Antilles provide a favorable geographical context for divergence to occur. However, although morphological subspecies have been described across this archipelago in numerous avian species, the potential for the Lesser Antilles in driving intra-specific genetic divergence in highly mobile organisms such as birds remains understudied. Here, we assessed level of intra-specific genetic diversity and differentiation between three islands of the Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe, Dominica and Martinique) using a multi-species approach on eight bird species. For each species, we built a set of microsatellite markers from cross-species amplifications. Significant patterns of inter-island and/or within-island genetic differentiation were detected in all species. However, levels of intra-specific genetic differentiation among the eight bird species were not always consistent with the boundaries of subspecies previously described in the sampled islands. These results suggest different histories of colonization/expansion and/or different species-specific ecological traits affecting gene flow, advocating for multi-species studies of historical and contemporary factors shaping the distribution of diversity on islands.

  18. Evaluation of tsunami risk in the Lesser Antilles

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    N. Zahibo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to give the preliminary estimates of the tsunami risks for the Lesser Antilles. We investigated the available data of the tsunamis in the French West Indies using the historical data and catalogue of the tsunamis in the Lesser Antilles. In total, twenty-four (24 tsunamis were recorded in this area for last 400 years; sixteen (16 events of the seismic origin, five (5 events of volcanic origin and three (3 events of unknown source. Most of the tsunamigenic earthquakes (13 occurred in the Caribbean, and three tsunamis were generated during far away earthquakes (near the coasts of Portugal and Costa Rica. The estimates of tsunami risk are based on a preliminary analysis of the seismicity of the Caribbean area and the historical data of tsunamis. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of historical extreme runup tsunami data on Guadeloupe, and these data are revised after a survey in Guadeloupe.

  19. Definition and kinematics of the northern of the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands block and the Lesser Antilles forearc based on an updated and improved GPS velocity field and revised block models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Stafford-Glenn, M.; Calais, E.

    2011-12-01

    The presence of small tectonic blocks the Greater Antilles, for example the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands block (PRVI), which may be translating, rotating, and possibly internally deforming, has been proposed and some cases well-documented by several workers. In addition, the existence of a Lesser Antilles forearc has been proposed based on interplate earthquake slip vectors (Lopez et al. 2006). Manaker et al. (2008) used sparse GPS and earthquake slip data from the northeastern Caribbean to construct a DEFNODE block and fault model to constrain interseismic fault coupling among the microplates in the northeastern Caribbean. They concluded that the Enriquillo fault in Haiti could produce a Mw7.2, if the entire accumulated elastic strain was released in one event. On January 12, 2010, the strain was released in a Mw7.0 earthquake that left Port-au-Prince in rubble. The interseismic GPS velocity field has been updated for Hispanolia (Calais et al, 2010); in addition, new data have been collected in the northern Lesser Antilles (NLA) in 2009 as well as throughout the PRVI block in 2007 and 2011, and the existing GPS time series updated and transformed into ITRF05 (IGS05). GPS data from the NLA are consistent with a NLA forearc sliver that moves differently from the Caribbean and North American plates as originally proposed by Lopez et al. (2006). The forearc does not, however, continue as single tectonic entity across the Anegada Passage as previously suggested. Here we report revised DEFNODE models using both the original geometry and constraints of Manaker et al. (2008) with an updated GPS data set as well as new models that explicitly include a forearc block. The models may be used to explicitly define the rotation parameters of the block as well as the coupling along block bounding faults. The original model geometry (without a forearc sliver) yields a higher reduced chi-squared (2.57 vs. 2.01), when additional the GPS velocities from NLA are used to condition the

  20. Imaging the structure of the Northern Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe - Virgin Island) to assess the tectonic and thermo-mechanical behavior of an arcuate subduction zone that undergoes increasing convergence obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, M.; Marcaillou, B.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Graindorge, D.; Bouquerel, H.; Conin, M.; Crozon, J.; De Min, L.; De Voogd, B.; Evain, M.; Heuret, A.; Laigle, M.; Lallemand, S.; Lucazeau, F.; Pichot, T.; Prunier, C.; Rolandone, F.; Rousset, D.; Vitard, C.

    2015-12-01

    Paradoxically, the Northern Lesser Antilles is the less-investigated and the most tectonically and seismically complex segment of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone: - The convergence obliquity between the North American and Caribbean plates increases northward from Guadeloupe to Virgin Islands raising questions about the fore-arc tectonic partitioning. - The margin has undergone the subduction of the rough sediment-starved Atlantic Ocean floor spiked with ridges as well as banks docking, but the resulting tectonic deformation remains hypothetical in the absence of a complete bathymetry and of any seismic line. - Recent geodetic data and low historical seismic activity suggest a low interplate coupling between Saint-Martin and Anegada, but the sparse onshore seismometers located far from source zone cast doubt on this seismic gap. To shed new light on these questions, the ANTITHESIS project, 5 Marine Geophysical legs totaling 72 days, aims at recording a complete bathymetric map, deep and shallow seismic reflexion lines, wide-angle seismic data, heat-flow measurements and the seismic activity with a web of sea-bottom seismometers. Our preliminary results suggest that: - A frontal sliver of accretionary prism is stretched and expulsed northward by 50km along the left-lateral Bunce fault that limits the prism from the margin basement as far southward as 18.5°N. So far, this structure is the only interpreted sign of tectonic partitioning in the fore-arc. - The Anegada Passage extends eastward to the accretionary prism through strike-slip faults and pull-apart basins that possibly form a lef-lateral poorly-active system inherited from a past tectonic phase, consistently with geodetic and seismologic data. - The anomalously cold interplate contact, consistent with a low interseismic coupling, is possibly due to fluid circulation within the shallow crustal aquifer or a depressed thermal structure of the oceanic crust related to the slow-spreading at the medio

  1. The polyphased tectonic evolution of the Anegada Passage in the northern Lesser Antilles subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, M.; Marcaillou, B.; Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Lallemand, S.; Laigle, M.; Lebrun, J.-F.

    2017-05-01

    The influence of the highly oblique plate convergence at the northern Lesser Antilles onto the margin strain partitioning and deformation pattern, although frequently invoked, has never been clearly imaged. The Anegada Passage is a set of basins and deep valleys, regularly related to the southern boundary of the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI) microplate. Despite the publications of various tectonic models mostly based on bathymetric data, the tectonic origin and deformation of this Passage remains unconstrained in the absence of deep structure imaging. During cruises Antithesis 1 and 3 (2013-2016), we recorded the first deep multichannel seismic images and new multibeam data in the northern Lesser Antilles margin segment in order to shed a new light on the structure and tectonic pattern of the Anegada Passage. We image the northeastern extent of the Anegada Passage, from the Sombrero Basin to the Lesser Antilles margin front. Our results reveal that this northeastern segment is an EW trending left-stepping en échelon strike-slip system that consists of the Sombrero and Malliwana pull-apart basins, the Malliwana and Anguilla left-lateral faults, and the NE-SW compressional restraining bend at the Malliwana Hill. Reviewing the structure of the Anegada Passage, from the south of Puerto Rico to the Lesser Antilles margin front, reveals a polyphased tectonic history. The Anegada Passage is formed by a NW-SE extension, possibly related to the rotation or escape of PRVI block due to collision of the Bahamas Bank. Currently, it is deformed by an active WNW-ESE strike-slip deformation associated to the shear component of the strain partitioning resulting from the subduction obliquity.

  2. Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C

    2015-05-12

    We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles.

  3. Muon tomography: Plans for observations in the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, D.; Beauducel, F.; Déclais, Y.; Lesparre, N.; Marteau, J.; Nicollin, F.; Tarantola, A.

    2010-02-01

    The application of muon tomography to monitor and image the internal structure of volcanoes in the Lesser Antilles is discussed. Particular focus is directed towards the three volcanoes that fall under the responsibility of the Institut de Physique du Globe of Paris, namely La Montagne Pelée in Martinique, La Soufriére in Guadeloupe, and the Soufriére Hills in Montserrat. The technological criteria for the design of portable muon telescopes are presented in detail for both their mechanical and electronic aspects. The detector matrices are constructed with scintillator strips, and their detection characteristics are discussed. The tomography inversion is presented, and its distinctive characteristics are briefly discussed. Details are given on the implementation of muon tomography experiments on La Soufriére in Guadeloupe.

  4. A Proposed Community Network For Monitoring Volcanic Emissions In Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Robertson, R. E.; Latchman, J. L.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    Systematic geochemical monitoring of volcanic systems in the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles was initiated by the UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in 2000, as part of its volcanic surveillance programme for the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles. This programme provided the first time-series observations used for the purpose of volcano monitoring in Dominica and Saint Lucia, permitted the characterization of the geothermal fluids associated with them, and established baseline studies for understanding of the hydrothermal systems during periods of quiescence (Joseph et al., 2011; Joseph et al., 2013). As part of efforts to improve and expand the capacity of SRC to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, it is necessary to develop economically sustainable options for the monitoring of volcanic emissions/pollutants. Towards this effort we intend to work in collaboration with local authorities in Saint Lucia, to develop a monitoring network for quantifying the background exposure levels of ambient concentrations of volcanic pollutants, SO2 in air and As in waters (as health significant marker elements in the geothermal emissions) that would serve as a model for the emissions monitoring network for other volcanic islands. This programme would facilitate the building of local capacity and training to monitor the hazardous exposure, through the application and transfer of a regionally available low-cost and low-technology SO2 measurement/detection system in Saint Lucia. Existing monitoring technologies to inform evidence based health practices are too costly for small island Caribbean states, and no government policies or health services measures currently exist to address/mitigate these influences. Gases, aerosols and toxic elements from eruptive and non-eruptive volcanic activity are known to adversely affect human health and the environment (Baxter, 2000; Zhang et al., 2008). Investigations into the

  5. Composition, Geometry and Emplacement Dynamics of a Large Volcanic Island Landslide Offshore Martinique, Lesser Antilles: New Insights from IODP Expedition 340

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, M.; Le Friant, A.; Boudon, G.; Lafuerza, S.; Talling, P. J.; Hornbach, M. J.; Ishizuka, O.; Lebas, E.; Guyard, H.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides are common features in the vicinity of volcanic islands. In this contribution, we investigate landslides emplacement and dynamics around the volcanic island of Martinique based on the first scientific drilling of such deposits. The evolution of the active Montagne Pelée volcano on Martinique has been marked by three major flank-collapses that removed much of the western flank of the volcano. Subaerial collapse volumes vary from 2 to 25 km3 and debris avalanches flowed into the Grenada Basin. High-resolution seismic data (AGUADOMAR - 1999, CARAVAL - 2002 and GWADASEIS - 2009) is combined with new drill cores that penetrate up to 430 m through the three submarine landslide deposits (Site U1399, Site U1400, Site U1401, IODP Expedition 340, Joides Resolution, March-April 2012). This combined geophysical and core data provide an improved understanding of landslide processes offshore a volcanic island. The integrated analysis shows a large submarine landslide deposit, comprising up to 300 km3 of remobilized seafloor sediment that extends for 70 km away from the coast and covers an area of 2100 km2. We propose a new model dealing with seafloor sediment failures and down-slope slide propagation mechanisms, triggered by volcanic flank-collapse events affecting Montagne Pelée volcano. Newly recognized landslide deposits occur deeper in the stratigraphy, suggesting the recurrence of large-scale mass-wasting processes offshore the island and thus, the necessity to better assess the associated tsunami hazards in the region.

  6. Forearc kinematics in obliquely convergent margins: Examples from Nicaragua and the northern Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Henry L., III

    sites and to qualitatively examine the observed post-seismic motion. Coseismic and post-seismic motion in this portion of the forearc indicate that long-term motion of the forearc across the earthquake cycle may proceed in a zig-zag pattern, which may contribute to east-west extension as observed in the Managua graben. Sites to the northwest and southeast were not substantially effected by the earthquake, and longer duration time-series (˜7 yrs) from these areas support the earlier estimates of forearc sliver motion. Results from our analysis of Nicaraguan GPS time-series from 2004--2008 and our earthquake modeling efforts are discussed in Chapter 4 and will form the basis of an article to be submitted for publication. In the northern Lesser Antilles, plate convergence is slow at ˜2 cm yr1, and obliquity varies substantially along the convex Lesser Antilles Subduction Zone. In chapter 5, I present GPS velocities derived from a decade of observations on sites in the northern Lesser Antilles and Virgin Islands. The velocities support forearc sliver motion on the order of ˜2--3 mm yr1 consistent with the lower value estimated by Lopez et al. (2006), indicating convergence in the northern region is only partially partitioned. GPS velocities in the northern Lesser Antilles show considerable variation between islands, suggesting possible independent block motion and internal deformation within the forearc region, however, velocity uncertainties for some sites remain high and may reflect the low signal-to-noise ratio of our residual velocities for the region. The lack of a substantial arc-normal component of shortening is similar to that seen in Nicaragua and may indicate a small amount of locking along the subduction interface with forearc sliver motion being driven from a more fully locked region south of Guadeloupe where the Barracuda and Tiburon aseismic ridges impinge on the subduction zone. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  7. Erosion under extreme climatic events in tropical climates : the case of the storm Helena (1963) in the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles Arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, P.; Lajeunesse, E.; Devauchelle, O.; Delacourt, C.

    2012-04-01

    he volume of sediment exported from a tropical watershed is dramatically increased during extreme climatic events, such as storms and tropical cyclones (Dadson et al. 2004; Hilton et al. 2008). Indeed, the exceptionally high rainfall rates reached during these events generate runoff and trigger landslides which accumulate a significant amount of sediments in flooded rivers (Gabet et al., 2004; Lin et al., 2008). We estimate the volume of sediments mobilized by the storm Helena (26 to 28 October 1963) on Basse-Terre Island in the archipelago of Guadeloupe. This is achieved using images acquired by IGN (Institut Géographique National) a few weeks after the storm which produced numerous landslides. All the available images from this campaign have been pseudo-orthorectified and included in a GIS with a Digital Elevation Model with a resolution of 10 m. Two hundred fifty three landslides have been identified and mapped. Most of them are located in the center of the island, where the highest slopes are. The cumulated surface of the landslides is 0.5 km2. Field observations on Basse-Terre show that landslides mobilized the whole regolith layer, which is about 1m thick. Assuming an average landslide thickness of 1m, we find that the total volume of sediment mobilized by the storm Helena is 0.5 km3. The associated denudation averaged over all watersheds affected by landslides is 1.4 mm with a maximum of 5 mm for the watersheds of Vieux-Habitants and Capesterre. The impact of the storm Helena is then discussed with respect to 1) the erosion induced on the Capesterre catchment by the highest flood available in a two years survey record (less than 0.1 mm/y); 2) the long term denudation rate of the major watersheds of Basse-Terre estimated by reconstructing the initial volcanic topography (between 0.1 and 0.4 mm/y).

  8. Assessing storm surge hazard and impact of sea level rise in the Lesser Antilles case study of Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Krien

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Lesser Antilles, coastal inundations from hurricane-induced storm surges pose a great threat to lives, properties and ecosystems. Assessing current and future storm surge hazards with sufficient spatial resolution is of primary interest to help coastal planners and decision makers develop mitigation and adaptation measures. Here, we use wave–current numerical models and statistical methods to investigate worst case scenarios and 100-year surge levels for the case study of Martinique under present climate or considering a potential sea level rise. Results confirm that the wave setup plays a major role in the Lesser Antilles, where the narrow island shelf impedes the piling-up of large amounts of wind-driven water on the shoreline during extreme events. The radiation stress gradients thus contribute significantly to the total surge – up to 100 % in some cases. The nonlinear interactions of sea level rise (SLR with bathymetry and topography are generally found to be relatively small in Martinique but can reach several tens of centimeters in low-lying areas where the inundation extent is strongly enhanced compared to present conditions. These findings further emphasize the importance of waves for developing operational storm surge warning systems in the Lesser Antilles and encourage caution when using static methods to assess the impact of sea level rise on storm surge hazard.

  9. Isotopic composition of strontium in three basalt-andesite centers along the Lesser Antilles arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, C.E.; Lewis, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Si87/Sr86 ratios have been determined for lavas and py lastic rocks from three basalt-andesite centers along the Lesser Antilles arc-Mt. Misery on the island of St. Kitts, Soufriere on the island of St. Vincent, and Carriacou, an island of The Grenadines. The average Si87/Sr86 content of these rocks is 0.7038 for Mt. Misery, 0.7041 for Soufriere, and 0.7053 for Carriacou. All the Sr87/Sr86 values from each center are the same within analytical uncertainty (??0.0002). The constancy of strontium isotopic data within each center supports the hypothesis that basalts and andesites for each specific center investigated are generated from the same source - in agreement with petrographic and major- and minor-element data. Strontium isotopic compositions and elemental concentrations, particularly of strontium and nickel, indicate that this source was mantle peridotite and that the relationship between the respective basalts and andesites is probably fractional crystallization. ?? 1971 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Active faulting induced by the slip partitioning in the Lesser Antilles arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Frédérique; Feuillet, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    AGUADOMAR marine cruise data acquired 11 years ago allowed us to identified and map two main sets of active faults within the Lesser Antilles arc (Feuillet et al., 2002; 2004). The faults belonging to the first set, such as Morne-Piton in Guadeloupe, bound up to 100km-long and 50km-wide arc-perpendicular graben or half graben that disrupt the fore-arc reef platforms. The faults of the second set form right-stepping en echelon arrays, accommodating left-lateral slip along the inner, volcanic islands. The two fault systems form a sinistral horsetail east of the tip of the left-lateral Puerto Rico fault zone that takes up the trench-parallel component of convergence between the North-American and Caribbean plates west of the Anegada passage. In other words, they together accommodate large-scale slip partitioning along the northeastern arc, consistent with recent GPS measurements (Lopez et al., 2006). These intraplate faults are responsible for a part of the shallow seismicity in the arc and have produce damaging historical earthquakes. Two magnitude 6.3 events occurred in the last 25 years along the inner en echelon faults, the last one on November 21 2004 in Les Saintes in the Guadeloupe archipelago. To better constrain the seismic hazard related to the inner arc faults and image the ruptures and effects on the seafloor of Les Saintes 2004 earthquake, we acquired new marine data between 23 February and 25 March 2009 aboard the French R/V le Suroît during the GWADASEIS cruise. We present here the data (high-resolution 72 channel and very high-resolution chirp 3.5 khz seismic reflection profiles, EM300 multibeam bathymetry, Küllenberg coring and SAR imagery) and the first results. We identified, mapped and characterized in detail several normal to oblique fault systems between Martinique and Saba. They offset the seafloor by several hundred meters and crosscut all active volcanoes, among them Nevis Peak, Soufriere Hills, Soufriere de Guadeloupe and Montagne Pel

  11. Numerical Tsunami Hazard Assessment of the Only Active Lesser Antilles Arc Submarine Volcano: Kick 'em Jenny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Dorville, J. F. M.; Robertson, R. E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc has potentially been hit by prehistorical regional tsunamis generated by voluminous volcanic landslides (volume > 1 km3) among the 53 events recognized so far. No field evidence of these tsunamis are found in the vincity of the sources. Such a scenario taking place nowadays would trigger hazardous tsunami waves bearing potentially catastrophic consequences for the closest islands and regional offshore oil platforms.Here we applied a complete hazard assessment method on the only active submarine volcano of the arc Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ). KeJ is the southernmost edifice with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. From the three identified landslide episodes one is associated with a collapse volume ca. 4.4 km3. Numerical simulations considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami. An edifice current volume estimate is ca. 1.5 km3.Previous study exists in relationship to assessment of regional tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (run-up) in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. However this assessment was based on inferred volume of collapse material. We aim to firstly quantify potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA); secondly to assess first order run-ups and maximum inland inundation distance for Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, i.e. two important economic centers of the Lesser Antilles. In this framework we present for seven geomechanical models tested in the RSIA step maps of critical failure surface associated with factor of stability (Fs) for twelve sectors of 30° each; then we introduce maps of expected potential run-ups (run-up × the probability of failure at a sector) at the shoreline.The RSIA evaluates critical potential failure surface associated with Fs sources characteristics are retrieved from numerical simulation using an hydraulic equations-based code (Volc

  12. TSUNAMI CATALOG AND VULNERABILITY OF MARTINIQUE (LESSER ANTILLES, FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to meteorological hazards (hurricanes, heavy rainfalls, long-period swells, etc., the Caribbean Islands are vulnerable to geological hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions caused by the complex tectonic activity and interactions in the region. Such events have generated frequently local or regional tsunamis, which often have affected the island of Martinique in the French West Indies. Over the past centuries, the island has been struck by destructive waves associated with local or regional events - such as those associated with the eruption of the Saint-Vincent volcano in 1902 and by tsunamis of distant origin as that generated by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.The present study includes a classification of tsunamis that have affected Martinique since its discovery in 1502. It is based on international tsunami catalogs, historical accounts, and previous scientific studies and identifies tsunamigenic areas that could potentially generate destructive waves that could impact specific coastal areas of Martinique Island. The potential threat from tsunamis has been greatly increasing because of rapid urban expansion of coastal areas and development of tourism on the island.

  13. Characterization of geothermal paleosystem in the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc: structural, petrographic, thermodynamic and petrophysics analysis of Terre-de-Haut (Les Saintes archipelago, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Alexiane; Navelot, Vivien; Verati, Chrystèle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Corsini, Michel; Diraison, Marc; Géraud, Yves; Mercier de Lépinay, Jeanne; Munschy, Marc

    2017-04-01

    This survey takes part in the GEOTREF project (high enthalpy geothermal energy in fractured reservoirs), supported by the French government program "Investments for the future". The program focuses on the exploration of geothermal resource in the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc. An exclusive license has been issued in the Vieux-Habitants area (Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe) to carry on the development of high-temperature geothermal energy in this active volcanic region. The deep geothermal reservoir on the Basse-Terre island could be characterized in exhumed paleosystems. The reference paleosystem in the Guadeloupe archipelago is located in Terre-de-Haut. Four major fault directions have been highlighted N000-N020, N050-N070, N090-N110 and N130-N140. Field observations emphasize three major cleavage directions overlaying the fault systems: N035-N060, N080-N110, N145-N165. Volcanic rocks affected by cleavage display several metamorphic transformation grades. The more transformed calc-alkaline rocks are located at the intersection of several cleavage directions. Mineralogical transformations due to metamorphism and surimposed fractures are also responsible for strong changes of petrophysical properties. In comparison with the reference protolith of andesitic lava flows outcropping in Vieux-Habitants, which have porosity and permeability lower than 5 % and 10-15 m2, andesites of Terre-de-Haut have better reservoir properties with connected porosity and permeability higher than 15 % and 10-14-10-15 m2 respectively. Thermodynamic modelling based on petrography and chemical composition of the most transformed rocks highlights a steady state mineral assemblage between 0.25 - 1.5 kbar and 350 - 450 ˚ C. It corresponds to a geothermal gradient higher than 120 to 150˚ C/km. This is consistent with temperatures measured in Bouillante wells. However, this geothermal gradient is notably higher to a usual volcanic arc conductive gradient estimated to 70-100˚ C/km. It can be explained

  14. New Records of Ticks from the Lesser Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohls, Glen M.

    1969-01-01

    This study is based primarily on ticks collected by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK (Zoölogisch Laboratorium, Utrecht) and associates. A few additional collections were received from Dr. K. E. HYLAND (University of Rhode Island), and from Dr. R. L. WENZEL (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago).

  15. New Records of Ticks from the Lesser Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohls, Glen M.

    1969-01-01

    This study is based primarily on ticks collected by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK (Zoölogisch Laboratorium, Utrecht) and associates. A few additional collections were received from Dr. K. E. HYLAND (University of Rhode Island), and from Dr. R. L. WENZEL (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago). THOMP

  16. Breaking of storm waves on sand and reef zone in the Lesser Antilles Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Berthelot, Hugues; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2010-05-01

    The most part of the exposed coastal zone of the Lesser Antilles Arc are composed by sand and coral reef. The high frequencies of passage of cyclones near these islands and anticyclone's swell subject them to waves of large amplitude. These waves are 4 to 5 times lager to the normal conditions. The weak slopes observed on these zones are particularly sensitive to this type of waves and cause the process of surfing. The mode of dissipation of these waves influenced the run-up and the floods on the coast. The surf zones are situated in 5 in 20 meters of the line of coast. A displacement of sea water towards the coast line is provoked by the breaking of the waves. These quantities of water are held by the particularly bathymetry of these islands and provoke a raised of the sea level. The propagation of the waves are allowed by the sea elevation in the surf zone In the evaluation of the marine risk in the Lesser Antilles Arc, a model of sea state forecast are developed in the Laboratory of Geosciences and Energy (LaRGE) in the French West Indies and French Guiana University (Guadeloupe , FWI). This forecast model is based on the coupling of several numerical models. WaveWatch III and SWAN are used for the wave propagation on large and small sectors. An ocean circulation model based on POM is used to evaluate the sea current and the sea level. To improve the forecasts on the exposed coast, in the zone included between the surf and swash, the sea elevation induced by the large amplitude wave are particularly studies. The numerical model of wave propagation near the coast SWAN is used to determine the sea state before the surf zone. The dissipation and the breaking of the large amplitude waves are studied with the spectral values give by SWAN and the local conditions (bathymetry, sea level, slope, bottom friction). During the months of November and December 2009, several large amplitude waves, coming from the North Atlantic Ocean, impact the west coast of Guadeloupe. The

  17. The distribution of seagrasses in Dominica, Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, S C C; Macfarlane, K J; Price, L M; Willette, D A

    2010-10-01

    Seagrass beds are the largest organism-built marine habitat in Dominica, yet have only been surveyed since 2007. Standardized examinations along a depth gradient between 0 and 24 m, focusing on magnoliophyte species composition and benthic cover of shoots at 17 seagrass bed sites, were carried out between September 10 and December 7, 2008. The Cymodoceaceae Syringodium filiforme (Kuetzing 1860) and Halodule wrightii (Ascherson 1868), as well as the Hydrocharitaceae Halophila decipiens (Ostenfeld 1902), H. stipulacea (Fosskal & Ascherson 1867) and Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex König 1805) displayed distinct regional and horizontal distribution patterns. Syringodium filiforme is the island's dominant seagrass along the western and northern coasts, occurring at depths between 2 and 18 m and with a mean benthic cover ranging from 0.9-10% along the West coast. Along the North coast it grew between 0.2 and 1 m depth with a mean maximum benthic cover of 48.9%. Halodule wrightii grew along the North and West coasts, in depths between 1 and 14m in areas of recent and chronic disturbances. Its delicate morphology and sparse benthic cover (< 0.1%) did not constitute seagrass beds. Halophila decipiens grew along the deep, shallow and lateral margins of west coast S. filiforme beds and monospecifically in depths between 3 and 24m. Halophila stipulacea, an invasive species, was widespread along 45km of the West coast and was found in depths between 5 and 24m. Both Halophila species formed extensive beds at depths beyond the survey limit of 24m thus playing a potentially important role in the resettlement of shallow areas after storms. H. decipiens and H. stipulacea are currently the second and third most common seagrasses on the island respectively, despite their absence along the North coast. T. testudinum was confined to North coast's sheltered reef flats at depths Im or less with mean a benthic cover ranging from 2 to 76%. It grew monospecifically in the most turbulent and

  18. Combining Geological and Geophysical Data in Volcanic Hazard Estimation for Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, O.; Latchman, J. L.; Connor, C.; Malservisi, R.; Connor, L.

    2014-12-01

    Risk posed by volcanic eruptions are generally quantified in a few ways; in the short term geophysical data such as seismic activity or ground deformation are used to assess the state of volcanic unrest while statistical approaches such as spatial density estimates are used for long term hazard assessment. Spatial density estimates have been used in a number of monogenetic volcanic fields for hazard map generation and utilize the age, location and volumes of previous eruptions to calculate the probability of a new event occurring at a given location within this field. In a previously unpublished study, spatial density estimates of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc showed the island of Dominica to have the highest likelihood of future vent formation. In this current study, this technique was used in combination with relocated seismic events occurring beneath Dominica within the last ~ 20 years as well as InSAR images of ground deformation to generate a hazard map which not only takes into consideration the past events but also the current state of unrest. Here, geophysical data serve as a weighting factor in the estimates with those centers showing more vigorous activity receiving stronger favorability in the assessment for future activity. In addition to this weighting, the bandwidth utilized in the 2D-radially symmetric kernel density function was optimized using the SAMSE method so as to find the value which best minimizes the error in the estimate. The end results of this study are dynamic volcanic hazards maps which will be readily updatable as changes in volcanic unrest occurs within the system.

  19. Record of Plio-Pleistocene extreme event in the Lesser Antilles fore-arc basin. Example of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe, French West Indies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanlèn, L.; Philippon, M. M.; Randrianasolo, A.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Cornée, J. J.; Münch, P.

    2015-12-01

    Guadeloupe archipelago is part of the Lesser Antilles active volcanic arc and is therefore subjected to both enhanced seismic and volcanic activity related to the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, along which the Atlantic plate is subducted westward bellow the Caribbean plate. The volcanic arc is composed of several immerged volcanic islands (St Kitts, Nevis Montserrat, Basse Terre, Dominica, Martinique, St Lucia, Grenada) and submerged volcanoes (Kick em'Jenny). These volcanoes are known to be explosives and when they are entering in an eruptive cycle, debris flow could potentially initiate a tsunami and generate peculiar deposits within the sedimentary record recognized as tsunami deposits (or tsunamite). Subduction- related earthquakes might also initiate slope instabilities and trigger debris flow. Another controlling factor of slope (in-)-stabilities and debris flow is massive rainfalls. During cyclonic season (June to December), massive rainfalls are recorded in the area, which moreover is located on the trajectory of Atlantic Hurricanes that are responsible for numerous landslides. As a consequence, tsunami deposit are described and well studied in the Lesser Antilles arc as the islands shoreline and coastal plain are perpetually re-shaped by hurricanes responsible for tempestite deposits. However, the report of these deposit concern recent to actual events, for example present-day deposits consisting of large (metric) boulders, more or less aligned, located in the supralittoral fringe can be observed along Guadeloupe shore. In this study, we investigate the Plio-pleistocene sedimentary sequence of Grande Terre carbonate platform (Guadeloupe), and track the presence of such extreme-event related deposits and discuss our findings in the frame of the Lesser Antilles geological context.

  20. Significant technical advances in broadband seismic stations in the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglade, A.; Lemarchand, A.; Saurel, J.-M.; Clouard, V.; Bouin, M.-P.; De Chabalier, J.-B.; Tait, S.; Brunet, C.; Nercessian, A.; Beauducel, F.; Robertson, R.; Lynch, L.; Higgins, M.; Latchman, J.

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years, French West Indies observatories from the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), in collaboration with The UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC, University of West Indies), have modernized the Lesser Antilles Arc seismic and deformation monitoring network. 15 new, permanent stations have been installed that strengthen and expand its detection capabilities. The global network of the IPGP-SRC consortium is now composed of 20 modernized stations, all equipped with broadband seismometers, strong motion sensors, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors and satellite communication for real-time data transfer. To enhance the sensitivity and reduce ambient noise, special efforts were made to improve the design of the seismic vault and the original Stuttgart shielding of the broadband seismometers (240 and 120s corner period). Tests were conducted for several months, involving different types of countermeasures, to achieve the highest performance level of the seismometers. GPS data, realtime and validated seismic data (only broadband) are now available from the IPGP data centre (http://centrededonnees.ipgp.fr/index.php?&lang=EN). This upgraded network feeds the Caribbean Tsunami Warning System supported by UNESCO and establishes a monitoring tool that produces high quality data for studying subduction and volcanic processes in the Lesser Antilles arc.

  1. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N.; Hay-Roe, Mirian; Khan, Ayub; Murúa, M. Gabriela; Silvie, Pierre; Vergara, Clorinda; Westbrook, John

    2017-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in genetically modified corn varieties. These characteristics exacerbate the threat fall armyworm poses to agriculture, with the potential that a resistance trait arising in one geographical location could rapidly disseminate throughout the hemisphere. A region of particular concern is the Caribbean, where a line of islands that extends from Florida to Venezuela provides a potential migratory pathway between populations from North and South America that could allow for consistent and substantial genetic interactions. In this study, surveys of populations from Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Trinidad & Tobago expand on previous work in South America that indicates a generally homogeneous population with respect to haplotype markers. This population differs from that found in most of the Lesser Antilles where a combination of genetic and meteorological observations is described that indicate fall armyworm migration from Puerto Rico to as far south as Barbados, but does not support significant incursion into Trinidad & Tobago and South America. Air transport projections demonstrate that the wind patterns in the Caribbean region are not conducive to consistent flight along the north-south orientation of the Lesser Antilles, supporting the conclusion that such migration is minor and sporadic, providing few opportunities for genetic exchanges. The implications of these findings on the dissemination of deleterious traits between the two Western Hemisphere continents are discussed. PMID:28166292

  2. Magnetic mapping for structural geology and geothermal exploration in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier de Lépinay, jeanne; munschy, marc; geraud, yves; diraison, marc; navelot, vivien; verati, christelle; corsini, michel; lardeaux, jean marc; favier, alexiane

    2017-04-01

    This work is implemented through the GEOTREF program which benefits from the support of both the ADEME and the French public funds "Investments for the future". The program focuses on the exploration for geothermal resources in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, where a geothermal power plant is in production since 1986 (Bouillante, Basse Terre). In Les Saintes archipelago, in the south of Guadeloupe, the outcrop analysis of Terre-de-Haut Island allows to point out an exhumed geothermal paleo-system that is thought to be an analogue of the Bouillante active geothermal system. We show that a detailed marine magnetic survey with a quantitative interpretation can bring information about the offshore structures around Les Saintes archipelago in order to extend the geological limits and structural elements. A similar survey and workflow is also conducted offshore Basse-Terre where more geophysical data is already available. In order to correctly link the offshore and onshore structures, the magnetic survey must be close enough to the shoreline and sufficiently detailed to correctly outline the tectonic structures. An appropriate solution for such a survey is to use a three component magnetometer aboard a speedboat. Such a boat allows more navigation flexibility than a classic oceanic vessel towing a magnetometer; it can sail at higher speed on calm seas and closer to the shoreline. This kind of magnetic acquisition is only viable because the magnetic effect of the ship can be compensated using the same algorithms than those used for airborne magnetometry. The use of potential field transforms allows a large variety of structures to be highlighted, providing insights to build a general understanding of the nature and distribution of the magnetic sources. In particular, we use the tilt angle operator to better identify the magnetic lineaments offshore in order to compare them to the faults identified onshore during the outcrop analysis. All the major faults and fractures

  3. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management

  4. The avifauna of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    The avifauna of the island of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands) is reviewed. Introductory sections, which include a chapter on the history of ornithological discovery, are followed by the main part, a systematic account in which each species and subspecies known from Flores is treated separately. A disc

  5. The land Mollusca of Dominica (Lesser Antilles), with notes on some enigmatic or rare species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, D.G.; Hovestadt, A.; Fields, A.; Breure, A.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the land-snail fauna of the Lesser Antillean island of Dominica is given, based on data from literature and four recent surveys. There are 42 taxa listed, of which the following species are recorded for the first time from the island: Allopeas gracile (Hutt on, 1834), A. micra (d’Orbi

  6. Quantifying potential earthquake and tsunami hazard in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone of the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Seidman, Lily; Roger, Jean

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we quantify the seismic and tsunami hazard in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, focusing on the plate interface offshore of Guadeloupe. We compare potential strain accumulated via GPS-derived plate motions to strain release due to earthquakes that have occurred over the past 110 yr, and compute the resulting moment deficit. Our results suggest that enough strain is currently stored in the seismogenic zone of the Lesser Antilles subduction arc in the region of Guadeloupe to cause a large and damaging earthquake of magnitude Mw ˜ 8.2 ± 0.4. We model several scenario earthquakes over this magnitude range, using a variety of earthquake magnitudes and rupture areas, and utilizing the USGS ShakeMap and PAGER software packages. Strong ground shaking during the earthquake will likely cause loss of life and damage estimated to be in the range of several tens to several hundreds of fatalities and hundreds of millions to potentially billions of U.S. dollars of damage. In addition, such an event could produce a significant tsunami. Modelled tsunamis resulting from these scenario earthquakes predict meter-scale wave amplitudes even for events at the lower end of our magnitude range (M 7.8), and heights of over 3 m in several locations with our favoured scenario (M 8.0, partially locked interface from 15-45 km depth). In all scenarios, only short lead-times (on the order of tens of minutes) would be possible in the Caribbean before the arrival of damaging waves.

  7. Quantifying potential earthquake and tsunami hazard in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone of the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Seidman, Lily; Roger, Jean

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we quantify the seismic and tsunami hazard in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, focusing on the plate interface offshore of Guadeloupe. We compare potential strain accumulated via GPS-derived plate motions to strain release due to earthquakes that have occurred over the past 110 yr, and compute the resulting moment deficit. Our results suggest that enough strain is currently stored in the seismogenic zone of the Lesser Antilles subduction arc in the region of Guadeloupe to cause a large and damaging earthquake of magnitude Mw ∼ 8.2 ± 0.4. We model several scenario earthquakes over this magnitude range, using a variety of earthquake magnitudes and rupture areas, and utilizing the USGS ShakeMap and PAGER software packages. Strong ground shaking during the earthquake will likely cause loss of life and damage estimated to be in the range of several tens to several hundreds of fatalities and hundreds of millions to potentially billions of U.S. dollars of damage. In addition, such an event could produce a significant tsunami. Modelled tsunamis resulting from these scenario earthquakes predict meter-scale wave amplitudes even for events at the lower end of our magnitude range (M 7.8), and heights of over 3 m in several locations with our favoured scenario (M 8.0, partially locked interface from 15–45 km depth). In all scenarios, only short lead-times (on the order of tens of minutes) would be possible in the Caribbean before the arrival of damaging waves.

  8. Preparedness actions towards seismic risk mitigation for the general public in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles: a mid-term appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Audru

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Martinique is a French island in the Lesser Antilles, with a high seismic hazard. In 2006, Martinican stakeholders involved in seismic safety formed the "Réplik" working group ("Aftershock" in French, the first of its kind in this region. This paper addresses a mid-term appraisal of the first seismic awareness campaign organised by Réplik from 2006 to 2011, and how it has modified, or not, local earthquake and tsunami preparedness. Despite efforts from Réplik to assess its efficiency through surveys, a growing gap is noted between the observed awareness and the actual preparedness of the public. As usual, gender, age, educational level, then boredom and saturation contribute to this discrepancy; strong cultural items may also influence the perception of actions. To remain efficient and respond to the public's expectations, Réplik must redirect its actions towards a cultural congruence of information: consideration of religion and local beliefs, comprehensive messages on TV and radio, use of the Creole language, participatory experiences and drills, and a little science. With this, the Réplik stakeholders can hope to increase Martinicans' involvement into the preparedness process, to cope quickly with a strong earthquake and this know-how can be shared with other seismically active islands in the Caribbean.

  9. 2003-2004 Campaign GPS Geodetic Monitoring of Surface Deformation Proximal to Volcanic Centers, Commonwealth of Dominica, Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, R. T.; Turner, H. L.; Blessing, B. C.; Parra, J.; Fitzgibbon, K.; Jansma, P.; Mattioli, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Dominica, located midway along the Lesser Antilles island arc, is home to several (at least eight) potentially active volcanic centers. Spurred by recent seismic crises on the island - in the south from 1998-2000 and in the north in 2003 - twelve GPS monuments were installed in two field campaigns in 2001 and 2003. All twelve sites, along with five of six newly installed sites, were occupied continuously for ~2.5 or more UTC days in 2004 using Ashtech Z-12 dual-frequency, code-phase receivers and choke ring antenna to assess the highly complex and possibly interconnected volcanic systems of Dominica. We examine data from the 2003-2004 epochs because of the highly variable, shallow seismicity preceding this period. This way one can potentially isolate the changes that occurred without the data from previous observations influencing the results. Although only two epochs have been included, data quality and reliability can be established from sites distant from volcanic centers, as such sites show consistent velocities from all three epochs of observation over the 2001-2004 period. Between 2003 and 2004, multiple sites show velocities that are inconsistent with a simple tectonic interpretation of elastic strain accumulation along the plate interface. Sites located in the vicinity of the volcanic centers in the south central part of the island are moving faster than the 3 epoch 2001-2004 average of the velocities, which is approximately 7mm/year. The four sites at which greater movement has been noted have velocities ranging from approximately 10 to 27 mm/year. We note that the largest surface deformation signal is seen in the south during the same period when the shallow seismicity was at a maximum in the north of the island. While the spatial distribution of sites remains sparse and the velocities relatively imprecise, the preliminary results may indicate shallow magmatic emplacement, geothermal fluctuations, or structural instability in that part

  10. Halogen content in Lesser Antilles arc volcanic rocks : exploring subduction recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Pauline; Villemant, Benoit; Caron, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    Halogens (F, Cl, Br and I) are strongly reactive volatile elements which can be used as tracers of igneous processes, through mantle melting, magma differentiation and degassing or crustal material recycling into mantle at subduction zones. Cl, Br and I are higly incompatible during partial melting or fractional cristallization and strongly depleted in melts by H2O degassing, which means that no Cl-Br-I fractionation is expected through magmatic differenciation [current thesis]. Thus, Cl/Br/I ratios in lavas reflect the halogen content of their mantle sources. Whereas these ratios seemed quite constant (e.g. Cl/Br =300 as seawater), recent works suggest significant variations in arc volcanism [1,2]. In this work we provide high-precision halogen measurements in volcanic rocks from the recent activity of the Lesser Antilles arc (Montserrat, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Dominique). Halogen contents of powdered samples were determined through extraction in solution by pyrohydrolysis and analysed by Ion Chromatography for F and Cl and high performance ICP-MS (Agilent 8800 Tripe Quad) for Cl, Br and I [3,4]. We show that lavas - and mantle sources - display significant vraiations in Cl/Br/I ratios along the Lesser Antilles arc. These variations are compared with Pb, Nd and Sr isotopes and fluid-mobile elements (Ba, U, Sr, Pb etc.) compositions which vary along the arc from a nothern ordinary arc compositions to a southern 'crustal-like' composition [5,6]. These characteristics are attributed to subducted sediments recycling into the mantle wedge, whose contribution vary along the arc from north to south [7,8]. The proportion of added sediments is also related to the distance to the trench as sediment melting and slab dehydration may occur depending on the slab depth [9]. Further Cl-Br-I in situ measurements by LA-ICP-MS in Lesser Antilles arc lavas melt inclusions will be performed, in order to provide better constraints on the deep halogen recycling cycle from crust to

  11. Numerical modelling of historical landslide-generated tsunamis in the French Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, B.; Pedreros, R.

    2010-06-01

    Two historical landslide-induced tsunamis that reached the coasts of the French Lesser Antilles are studied. First, the Martinique coast was hit by a tsunami down the western flank of Montagne Pelée at the beginning of the big eruption of May 1902. More recently, the northeastern coast of Guadeloupe was affected by a tsunami that had been generated around Montserrat by pyroclastic flows entering the sea, during the July 2003 eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano. We use a modified version of the GEOWAVE model to compute numerical simulations of both events. Two source hypotheses are considered for each tsunami. The comparison of the simulation results with reported tsunami height data helps to discriminate between the tested source decriptions. In the Martinique case, we obtain a better fit to data when considering three successive lahars entering the sea, as a simplified single source leads to an overstimation of the tsunami wave heights at the coast. In the Montserrat case, the best model uses a unique source which volume corresponds to published data concerning the peak volume flow. These findings emphasize the importance of an accurate description of the relevant volume as well as the timing sequence of the source event in landslide-generated tsunami modelling. They also show that considering far-field effects in addition to near-field effects may significantly improve tsunami modelling.

  12. Genetic Diversity in the Lesser Antilles and Its Implications for the Settlement of the Caribbean Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jada Benn Torres

    Full Text Available Historical discourses about the Caribbean often chronicle West African and European influence to the general neglect of indigenous people's contributions to the contemporary region. Consequently, demographic histories of Caribbean people prior to and after European contact are not well understood. Although archeological evidence suggests that the Lesser Antilles were populated in a series of northward and eastern migratory waves, many questions remain regarding the relationship of the Caribbean migrants to other indigenous people of South and Central America and changes to the demography of indigenous communities post-European contact. To explore these issues, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome diversity in 12 unrelated individuals from the First Peoples Community in Arima, Trinidad, and 43 unrelated Garifuna individuals residing in St. Vincent. In this community-sanctioned research, we detected maternal indigenous ancestry in 42% of the participants, with the remainder having haplotypes indicative of African and South Asian maternal ancestry. Analysis of Y-chromosome variation revealed paternal indigenous American ancestry indicated by the presence of haplogroup Q-M3 in 28% of the male participants from both communities, with the remainder possessing either African or European haplogroups. This finding is the first report of indigenous American paternal ancestry among indigenous populations in this region of the Caribbean. Overall, this study illustrates the role of the region's first peoples in shaping the genetic diversity seen in contemporary Caribbean populations.

  13. New additions to the shallow-water hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) of the French Lesser Antilles: Martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    The present report provides the first general account of the shallow-water hydroids (excluding Eudendriidae) of Martinique, French Lesser Antilles. Of a total of 92 species recorded, 10 athecates and 31 thecates are discussed here, with the remaining species having been the subject of earlier accounts. Six hydroids, namely Halecium discoidum, H. xanthellatum, Sertularella calderi, Antennellapeculiaris, A. similis, and A. tubitheca, are new. Previously unreported data on the nematocyst complement of Heterocoryne caribbensis Wedler & Larson, 1986, Ectopleura mayeri Petersen, 1990, Ralpharia gorgoniae Petersen, 1990, and seven hebellid species are provided.'The gonotheca and the gonophore of Hebellopsis communis Calder, 1991 are described for the first time, allowing a genus transfer to Anthohebella Boero et al., 1997. Thyroscyphus longicaulis Splettstbsser, 1929, a species whose gonosome remained unknown until now, is redescribed based on new, fertile material of both sexes. The occurrence of Antennella quadriaurita Ritchie, 1909 in the Caribbean is questioned upon comparison of its cnidome with that of specimens from Tristan da Cunha, the type locality of this species. An unexpectedly wide morphological variation is noted for Aglaophenia rhynchocarpa Allman, 1877. Specimens corresponding to the Caribbean Gymnangium longicaudum (Nutting, 1900), are shown to be indistinguishable morphologically from a taxon described earlier from Brazil, Gymnangium allmani (Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890), the latter having priority. Thorough descriptions are provided for the new, lesser known or unidentifiable species, while the common taxa are accompanied by brief remarks and/or distributional data. Illustrations are provided for each species discussed in order to justify their identification, and to facilitate identification by others. A checklist at the end of this work incorporates records of 101 species of hydroids reported from Martinique, both occurring in the present

  14. Long term (since the late palaeogene) tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Lesser Antilles fore-arc at Marie-Galante Basin: a clue for geodynamical behavior at the subduction interfac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Frederic, L.; DeMin, L.; Garrigou, J.; Münch, P.; Léticée, J. L.; Cornée, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Oblique subduction of late cretaceous lithosphere of the Atlantic ocean beneath the thick (25km) crust of the Caribbean plate results in widespread deformation and vertical motions in the Lesser Antilles fore-arc. The present-day deformation includes a major transtensive left lateral fault system along the arc and several forearc transverse basins accommodating lengthening of the fore-arc northward. These deformations result from plate motion partitioning under increasing subduction obliquity from the Marie-Galante Basin (MGB) latitude (central Lesser Antilles) northward. Vertical motions in the fore-arc at a regional scale were interpreted as resulting from the effect of subducting ridges and reliefs. The present day uplift of the fore-arc islands acting since the late(?) Pleistocene is believed to attest for long wavelength bending of the plate under strongly coupled plate interface. Recent GPS data suggests a mostly uncoupled plate interface. To decipher between the models and to understand the long-term evolution of the Lesser Antilles forearc since the Late Palaeogene, we interpret high-resolution bathymetric and seismic data from the MGB, together with the onland geology of shallow water carbonate platforms. The tectonic pattern reveals both inherited and late Neogene structures (re)activated under multidirectional extensive tectonic. The sismo-stratigraphic interpretation of sedimentary deposit displays long-term drowning and flexing of the upper plate similar to that occurring under intensive tectonic erosion at the subduction interface. Several short term period of second order uplift can correlate with sweeping of subducting ridges or transient events at the plate interface. The evolution of the Lesser Antilles fore-arc since the Late Palaeogene is interpreted within the regional geodynamical evolution of the plate boundary following its last major reorganization: collision of the Bahamas Bank and inception of the Greater Antilles strike-slip fault zone.

  15. Isotopic evidence for quick freshening of magmatic chlorine in the Lesser Antilles arc volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Jendrzejewski, N.; Aubaud, C. P.; Bonifacie, M.; Crispi, O.; Dessert, C.; Agrinier, P.

    2012-12-01

    Despite numerous geophysical and geochemical monitoring techniques developed over the last 50 years to detect magma activities in volcanoes, it is still challenging to evaluate the state of magmatic activity during its decreasing phase (transitory quiet stage and/or final stage of the magma intrusion which may last for decades) for those infrequent, slow developing, and dangerous explosive eruptive arc volcanoes, attributed to the interaction between the magma and hydrothermal cells at shallow depths to produce complex phreato-magmatic events. Recent studies have implied that chloride in intrusion-induced thermal springs could be a potential sensitive indicator of shallow magma degassing. However, possible contamination from surface chlorine reservoirs, such as seawater, may overprint the magmatic signature and complicate the interpretation of field observation. Here, based on chlorine isotope examination of various water samples from two recently erupted volcanoes in the Lesser Antilles arc (Soufrière in Guadeloupe: phreatic eruption in1976-1977; Montagne Pelée in Martinique: pelean eruption in 1929-1932), we show that magmatic chlorine is isotopically distinct from surface chlorine (seawater, meteoric water, and ground water). A chlorine isotopic survey on thermal springs in Guadeloupe and Martinique indicate that the magmatic chlorine signature is still present in some of the thermal springs in Guadeloupe but completely disappeared in Martinique. This suggests that magmatic chlorine be rapidly flushed from hydrothermal system within < 30 to 80 years after the magmatic eruption. This enables chlorine isotopes to be a sensitive proxy to monitor shallow magmatic activities, particularly practicable at centennial scale.

  16. Relocalizing a historical earthquake using recent methods: The 10 November 1935 Earthquake near Montserrat, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemz, P.; Amorèse, D.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis of Feuillet et al. (2011) that the hypocenter of the seismic event on November 10, 1935 near Montserrat, Lesser Antilles (MS 6 1/4) (Gutenberg and Richter, 1954) was mislocated by other authors and is actually located in the Montserrat-Havers fault zone. While this proposal was based both on a Ground Motion Prediction Equation and on the assumption that earthquakes in this region are bound to prominent fault systems, our study relies on earthquake localization methods using arrival times of the International Seismological Summary (ISS). Results of our methodology suggest that the hypocenter was really located at 16.90° N, 62.53° W. This solution is about 25 km north-west of the location proposed by Feuillet et al. (2011) within the Redonda fault system, northward of the Montserrat-Havers fault zone. As depth phases that contribute valuable insights to the focal depth are not included in the ISS data set and the reassociation of these phases is difficult, the error in depth is high. Taking into account tectonic constraints and the vertical extend of NonLinLoc's uncertainty area of the preferred solution we assume that the focus is most probably in the lower crust between 20 km and the Moho. Our approach shows that the information of the ISS can lead to a reliable solution even without an exhaustive search for seismograms and station bulletins. This is encouraging for a better assessment of seismic and tsunami hazard in the Caribbean, Mexico, South and Central America, where many moderate to large earthquakes occurred in the first half of the 20th century. The limitations during this early phase of seismology which complicate such relocations are described in detail in this study.

  17. Forearc structure in the Lesser Antilles inferred from depth to the Curie temperature and thermo-mechanical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, Lydie; Arcay, Diane; Münch, Philippe; Martelet, Guillaume; Thinon, Isabelle; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Imaging deep active volcanic areas remains a challenge in our understanding of their activity and evolution, especially in subduction zones. Study of magnetic anomalies is appropriate to access such dynamics in depth. The magnetic anomaly pattern of the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA) subduction is studied through Curie Point Depth (CPD), interpreted as the depth of the 580 °C isotherm, and developed to better assess the deep thermal structure of the arc. The depth of the estimated CPD exhibits a complex topography. Keeping in mind the overall uncertainty associated with this method, a main doming is evidenced below the Guadeloupe archipelago. Its apex is shifted towards the ancient arc, suggesting a very hot state of the fore-arc/arc domain. To better understand the LAA thermal state, we perform 2D thermo-mechanical simulations of the subduction zone. Recalling that magnetite is a serpentinization by-product, we simulate water transfer triggered by slab dehydration to test the assumption of fore-arc serpentinization suggested by the positive magnetic anomaly in the vicinity of the Guadeloupe archipelago. In this area, the subduction-induced arc lithosphere hydration and related weakening trigger a fast heating of the upper plate by basal convective removal. This process of fast arc lithosphere thinning may apply where simultaneously the volcanic arc is split in two and normal convergence is high enough. As serpentinization strongly decreases P-wave velocity, we propose a new interpretation of a published seismic profile below Guadeloupe. The seismic layer previously interpreted as the arc lower crust may rather be a layer of serpentinized mantle, as supported by spatial correlations between gravimetric and magnetic anomalies. Consequently, at the scale of Guadeloupe Island, the fore-arc Moho would be shallower than initially assumed, with a dome shape more consistent with both the extensive deformation active since the Oligocene in the inner fore-arc and the CPD doming.

  18. Large-scale flank collapse events during the activity of Montagne Pelée, Martinique, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Friant, Anne; Boudon, Georges; Deplus, Christine; Villemant, Benoã®T.

    2003-01-01

    A horseshoe-shaped structure already identified on the southwestern flank of Montagne Pelée (Martinique, Lesser Antilles arc) was previously interpreted as resulting of a flank collapse event, but no debris avalanche deposits were observed at the time. New offshore high-resolution bathymetry and geophysical data (Aguadomar cruise; December 1998 to January 1999; R/V L'Atalante) lead us to identify three debris avalanche deposits on the submarine western flank of Montagne Pelée extending down to the Grenada Basin. They display morphological fronts and hummocky morphology on bathymetric data, speckled pattern on backscatter data and hyperbolic facies on 3.5 kHz and seismic profiles. New on-land geological studies lead us to identify two other horseshoe-shaped structures on the same flank of the volcano. The three submarine deposits have been traced back to the structures identified on land, which confirms the occurrence of repeated flank collapse events during the evolution of Montagne Pelée. The ages of the last two events are estimated at ˜9 ka and ˜25 ka on the basis of 14C and 238U/230Th dates. Every flank collapse produced debris avalanches which flowed down to the Caribbean Sea. We propose that the repeated instabilities are due to the large asymmetry of the island with western aerial and submarine slopes steeper than the eastern slopes. The asymmetry results from progressive loading by accumulation of volcanic products on the western slopes of the volcano and development of long-term gravitational instabilities. Meteoric and hydrothermal fluid circulation on the floor of the second flank collapse structure also creates a weakened hydrothermalized area, which favors the recurrence of flank collapses.

  19. Application of the probabilistic model BET_UNREST during a volcanic unrest simulation exercise in Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Robert; Robertson, Richard; Lindsay, Jan M.; Tonini, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Rouwet, Dmitri; Smith, Patrick; Stewart, Roderick

    2016-11-01

    We report on the first "real-time" application of the BET_UNREST (Bayesian Event Tree for Volcanic Unrest) probabilistic model, during a VUELCO Simulation Exercise carried out on the island of Dominica, Lesser Antilles, in May 2015. Dominica has a concentration of nine potentially active volcanic centers and frequent volcanic earthquake swarms at shallow depths, intense geothermal activity, and recent phreatic explosions (1997) indicate the region is still active. The exercise scenario was developed in secret by a team of scientists from The University of the West Indies (Trinidad and Tobago) and University of Auckland (New Zealand). The simulated unrest activity was provided to the exercise's Scientific Team in three "phases" through exercise injects comprising processed monitoring data. We applied the newly created BET_UNREST model through its software implementation PyBetUnrest, to estimate the probabilities of having (i) unrest of (ii) magmatic, hydrothermal or tectonic origin, which may or may not lead to (iii) an eruption. The probabilities obtained for each simulated phase raised controversy and intense deliberations among the members of the Scientific Team. The results were often considered to be "too high" and were not included in any of the reports presented to ODM (Office for Disaster Management) revealing interesting crisis communication challenges. We concluded that the PyBetUnrest application itself was successful and brought the tool one step closer to a full implementation. However, as with any newly proposed method, it needs more testing, and in order to be able to use it in the future, we make a series of recommendations for future applications.

  20. 3-D Magnetotelluric Investigations for geothermal exploration in Martinique (Lesser Antilles). Characteristic Deep Resistivity Structures, and Shallow Resistivity Distribution Matching Heliborne TEM Results

    CERN Document Server

    Coppo, Nicolas; Girard, Jean-François; Wawrzyniak, Pierre; Hautot, Sophie; Tarits, Pascal; Jacob, Thomas; Martelet, Guillaume; Mathieu, Francis; Gadalia, Alain; Bouchot, Vincent; Traineau, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of a global French program oriented towards the development of renewable energies, Martinique Island (Lesser Antilles, France) has been extensively investigated (from 2012 to 2013) through an integrated multi-methods approach, with the aim to define precisely the potential geothermal ressources, previously highlighted (Sanjuan et al., 2003). Amongst the common investigation methods deployed, we carried out three magnetotelluric (MT) surveys located above three of the most promising geothermal fields of Martinique, namely the Anses d'Arlet, the Montagne Pel{\\'e}e and the Pitons du Carbet prospects. A total of about 100 MT stations were acquired showing single or multi-dimensional behaviors and static shift effects. After processing data with remote reference, 3-D MT inversions of the four complex elements of MT impedance tensor without pre-static-shift correction, have been performed for each sector, providing three 3-D resistivity models down to about 12 to 30 km depth. The sea coast effe...

  1. Earthquake precise locations catalog for the Lesser Antilles subduction zone (1972-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Frederick; Amorese, Daniel; Beauducel, Francois; Bengoubou-Valérius, Mendy; Bernard, Marie-Lise; Bertil, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Locations for earthquake recorded in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone are processed separately by regional observatories, NEIC and ISC. There is no earthquake location catalog available compiling all available phase arrival data. We propose a new best complete earthquake catalog by merging all available phase arrival data for better constrains on earthquake locations. ISC provides the phase arrival data of 29243 earthquakes (magnitude range from 1.4 to 6.4) recorded by PRSN (Porto Rico), SRC (British West Indies), and from FUNVISIS (Venezuela). We add phases data from IPGP observatories for 68718 earthquakes from magnitudes 0.1 to 7.5 (OVSG, Guadeloupe, recorded 53226 earthquakes since 1981, and OVSM, Martinique, recorded 29931 earthquakes since 1972). IPGP also provides the accelerometer waveform data of the GIS-RAP network. We achieved automatic picking on the GIS-RAP data using the Component Energy Correlation Method. The CECM provides high precision phase detection, a realistic estimation of picking error and realistic weights that can be used with manual pick weights. The CECM add an average of 3 P-waves and 2 S-waves arrivals to 3846 earthquakes recorded by the GIS-RAP network since 2002. The final catalog contains 84979 earthquakes between 1972 and 2013, 24528 of which we compiled additional data. We achieve earthquake location using NonLinLoc, regional P and S waves data and a set of one dimensional velocity models. We produce improved locations for 22974 earthquakes (better residuals, on equal or larger arrival dataset) and improved duration magnitudes for 6258 earthquakes (using duration data and improved locations). A subset of best constrained 15626 hypocenters (with more than 8 phases and an average RMS of 0.48±0.77s) could be used for structural analysis and earthquake local tomography. Relative locations are to be applied in order to image active faulting. We aim to understand coupling in the seismogenic zone as well as triggering mechanisms of

  2. Flank instability assessment at Kick-'em-Jenny submarine volcano (Grenada, Lesser Antilles): a multidisciplinary approach using experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondin, F. J.-Y.; Heap, M. J.; Robertson, R. E. A.; Dorville, J.-F. M.; Carey, S.

    2017-01-01

    Kick-'em-Jenny (KeJ)—located ca. 8 km north of the island of Grenada—is the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc. Previous investigations of KeJ revealed that it lies within a collapse scar inherited from a past flank instability episode. To assess the likelihood of future collapse, we employ here a combined laboratory and modeling approach. Lavas collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) provided samples to perform the first rock physical property measurements for the materials comprising the KeJ edifice. Uniaxial and triaxial deformation experiments showed that the dominant failure mode within the edifice host rock is brittle. Edifice fractures (such as those at Champagne Vent) will therefore assist the outgassing of the nearby magma-filled conduit, favoring effusive behavior. These laboratory data were then used as input parameters in models of slope stability. First, relative slope stability analysis revealed that the SW to N sector of the volcano displays a deficit of mass/volume with respect to a volcanoid (ideal 3D surface). Slope stability analysis using a limit equilibrium method (LEM) showed that KeJ is currently stable, since all values of stability factor or factor of safety (Fs) are greater than unity. The lowest values of Fs were found for the SW-NW sector of the volcano (the sector displaying a mass/volume deficit). Although currently stable, KeJ may become unstable in the future. Instability (severe reductions in Fs) could result, for example, from overpressurization due to the growth of a cryptodome. Our modeling has shown that instability-induced flank collapse will most likely initiate from the SW-NW sector of KeJ, therefore mobilizing a volume of at least ca. 0.7 km3. The mobilization of ca. 0.7 km3 of material is certainly capable of generating a tsunami that poses a significant hazard to the southern islands of the West Indies.

  3. Experimental Evidence for Polybaric Intracrustal Differentiation of Primitive Arc Basalt beneath St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Melekhova, Lena; Robertson, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We present experimental phase equilibria for a primitive, high-Mg basalt from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Experimental details were presented in Melekhova et al (Nature Geosci, 2013); the objective here is to compare experimental phase compositions to those of erupted lavas and cumulates from St. Vincent. Starting material with 4.5 wt% H2O is multiply-saturated with a lherzolite assemblage at 1.3 GPa and 1180 ° C, consistent with mantle wedge derivation. Experimental glasses from our study, in addition to those of Pichavant et al (GCA, 2002) and Pichavant & Macdonald (CMP 2007) on a similar high-Mg basalt, encompass a compositional range from high-magnesian basalt to dacite, with a systematic dependence on H2O content, temperature and pressure. We are able to match the glasses from individual experiments to different lava types, so as to constrain the differentiation depths at which these magmas could be generated from a high-Mg parent, as follows: Composition wt% H2OP (GPa) T (° C) High-Mg basalt 3.9-4.8 1.45-1.751180-1200 Low-Mg basalt 2.3-4.5 1.0-1.3 1065-1150 High alumina basalt 3.0-4.5 0.4 1050-1080 Basaltic andesite 0.6-4.5 0.7-1.0 1050-1130 Andesite 0.6 1.0 1060-1080 The fact that St. Vincent andesites (and some basaltic andesites) appear to derive from a low-H2O (0.6 wt%) parent suggest that they are products of partial melting of older, high-Mg gabbroic rocks, as 0.6 wt% H2O is approximately the amount that can be stored in amphibole-bearing gabbros. The higher H2O contents of parents for the other lava compositions is consistent with derivation by crystallization of basalts with H2O contents that accord with those of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from St. Vincent (Bouvier et al, J Petrol, 2008). The generation of evolved melts both by basalt crystallization and gabbro melting is consistent with the hot zone concept of Annen et al (J Petrol, 2006) wherein repeated intrusion of mantle-derived basalt simultaneously crystallize by cooling and melt

  4. Genetic evidence of hybridization between the endangered native species Iguana delicatissima and the invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae) in the Lesser Antilles: management Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Vuillaume; Victorien Valette; Olivier Lepais; Frédéric Grandjean; Michel Breuil

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase of hybridization in different groups is thought to have become more important with the loss of isolating barriers and the introduction of invasive species. This phenomenon could result in the extinction of endemic species. This study aims at investigating the hybridization dynamics between the endemic and threatened Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima) and the invasive common green iguana (Iguana iguana) in the Lesser Antilles, as well as assessing the impact ...

  5. Use of isotopic spike from Tropical Storm to understand water exchange on large scale: study case of Rafael Storm in the Lesser Antilles archipelago, October 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambs, Luc

    2014-05-01

    Aim The tracking of the rainfall from Tropical Storm Raphael of mid October 2012 was used to better understand how the eco-hydrology and the water cycle function in wet areas, such as mangrove growing in salty ponds on a number of tropical islands. Location Guadeloupe and Saint Martin Islands in the Leeward Islands archipelago, Lesser Antilles. Methods Compared to normal tropical rainfall, tropical storms display distinct depleted heavy stable water isotopes which can be used as isotopic spikes to understand these special rainfall inflows. Rainfall, groundwater, river and pond water were sampled before, during and after the storm. Results In Guadeloupe where the tropical storm started, the rainfall isotopic signal reached values of d18O= -9 to -8 o on October 12-14th 2012, whereas the normal range is d18O= -4 to -2 o as measured from 2009 to 2012. It was possible to detect such a depleted signal in the groundwater and in the mangrove forest during the days after the storm event. Main conclusions The use of such natural isotopic spikes provides an opportunity to obtain a dynamic and time reference on a large scale for the study of the hydro-ecosystems and the effects on the impacted tropical islands. A few days after the cyclone, the isotopic spikes were found in river, groundwater and mangrove water pools with values up to d18O= -8.6 o . For the water basins on the windward side, the downhill salty pond water was almost completely renewed. By contrast, only 20 to 50 % of the water in the ponds located on the leeward side was renewed. No specific elevation in the d-excess values was noted, certainly due to the relatively long distance from the eye of the storm (180 to 300 km), which meant that there was no spray water evaporative process.

  6. Tectonic Implications of Recent Campaign GPS Measurements Along the Central Region of the Lesser Antilles arc: Results from Dominica 2001-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, B. C.; Turner, H. L.; Fitzgibbon, K.; Davidson, R.; Parra, J.; Jansma, P. E.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2004-12-01

    The volcanic island of Dominica is located in the central region of the Lesser Antilles arc, an obliquely convergent boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates. An initial GPS campaign was conducted in 2001 to expand our regional GPS field for the eastern Caribbean and to provide baseline geodetic data for examining volcanic unrest in Dominica. In 2001, nine sites were established, the majority near the southern volcanic region, where a recent shallow seismic swarm had occurred. A second GPS campaign was conducted in 2003, following another seismic swarm in the north. This campaign re-occupied the original nine sites and established three more. The density of GPS sites on the island was improved and all the existing sites were reoccupied in 2004. Today there are eighteen high precision GPS sites on the island. All GPS observations were made with dual-frequency, code-phase receivers and choke ring antenna. At least 2.5 days of continuous observations were obtained on each site for each epoch in 2001, 2003, and 2004. Daily site positions were calculated with an absolute point positioning strategy using GIPSY-OASIS-II and final precise orbit and clock corrections from JPL. The measured surface deformation field on Dominica potentially contains components of motion from both shallow volcanic sources as well as elastic strain accumulation from the plate interface. Because volcanic deformation may be cyclical and superimposed on the background tectonic deformation field, we have chosen to examine on the observations from the far eastern and southern sites on the island, located well away from the region of shallow seismicity and any potentially active volcanic system. Caribbean-fixed residual velocity magnitudes range from 2±2 to 8±2 mm/yr directed approximately west. Although these results must be regarded as preliminary, they are consistent with simple models of elastic strain accumulation along the plate interface.

  7. Genetic Evidence of Hybridization between the Endangered Native Species Iguana delicatissima and the Invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae in the Lesser Antilles: Management Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Vuillaume

    Full Text Available The worldwide increase of hybridization in different groups is thought to have become more important with the loss of isolating barriers and the introduction of invasive species. This phenomenon could result in the extinction of endemic species. This study aims at investigating the hybridization dynamics between the endemic and threatened Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima and the invasive common green iguana (Iguana iguana in the Lesser Antilles, as well as assessing the impact of interspecific hybridization on the decline of I. delicatissima. 59 I. delicatissima (5 localities, 47 I. iguana (12 localities and 27 hybrids (5 localities, who were all identified based on morphological characters, have been genotyped at 15 microsatellites markers. We also sequenced hybrids using ND4 mitochondrial loci to further investigate mitochondrial introgression. The genetic clustering of species and hybrid genetic assignment were performed using a comparative approach, through the implementation of a Discriminant Analysis of Principal Component (DAPC based on statistics, as well as genetic clustering approaches based on the genetic models of several populations (Structure, NewHybrids and HIest, in order to get full characterization of hybridization patterns and introgression dynamics across the islands. The iguanas identified as hybrids in the wild, thanks to morphological analysis, were all genetically F1, F2, or backcrosses. A high proportion of individuals were also the result of a longer-term admixture. The absence of reproductive barriers between species leads to hybridization when species are in contact. Yet morphological and behavioral differences between species could explain why males I. iguana may dominate I. delicatissima, thus resulting in short-term species displacement and extinction by hybridization and recurrent introgression from I. iguana toward I. delicatissima. As a consequence, I. delicatissima gets eliminated through

  8. Chlorine Stable Isotopes to reveal contribution of magmatic chlorine in subduction zones: the case of the Kamchatka-Kuril and the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrinier, Pierre; Shilobreeva, Svetlana; Bardoux, Gerard; Michel, Agnes; Maximov, Alexandr; Kalatcheva, Elena; Ryabinin, Gennady; Bonifacie, Magali

    2015-04-01

    By using the stable isotopes of chlorine (δ 37Cl), we have shown that magmatic chlorine (δ 37Cl ≤ -0.6 ‰ [1]) is different from surface chlorine (δ 37Cl ≈ 0 ‰ [1]) in hydrothermal system of Soufrière and Montagne Pelé from the young arc volcanic system of Lesser Antilles. First measurements on condensed chlorides from volcanic gases (e.g. [2], [3]) did not permitted to get sensible δ 37Cl values on degassed chlorine likely because chlorine isotopes are fractionated during the HClgas - chloride equilibrium in the fumaroles or during sampling artifacts. Therefore we have developed an alternative strategy based on the analysis of chloride in thermal springs, streams, sout{f}lowing on the flanks of the volcanoes. Due to the highly hydrophilic behavior of Cl, we hypothesize that thermal springs incorporate chlorine without fractionation of chlorine isotopes and might reflect the chlorine isotopic composition degassed by magmas [1]. Indeed Thermal spring with low δ 37Cl chlorides (≤ -0.6 perthousand{}) are linked with magmatic volatiles characters (3He ratio at 5 Ra at and δ 13C CO2 quad ≈ -3 perthousand{}). To go further in the potentiality of using the Chlorine isotopes to reveal contribution of magmatic chlorine in volcanic systems, we have started the survey of thermal springs and wells waters in the Kamchatka-Kuril volcanic mature Arc (on sites Mutnovsky, Paratunka, Nalychevsky, Khodutkinsky, Paramushir Island, identified by Taran, 2009 [4] for concentrations of chloride). Preliminary results show δ 37Cl values ranging from 0.5 to -0.2 ‰ and generally higher chloride concentrations. The δ 37Cl values are higher than the value recorded for the young arc volcanic system of lesser Antilles. At present moment very few negative δ 37Cl have been measured in the Kamchatka-Kuril volcanic mature Arc. [1] Li et al., 2015 EPSL in press. [2] Sharp et al. 2010 GCA. [3] Rizzo et al., 2013, EPSL, 371, 134. [4] Taran, 2009, GCA, 73, 1067

  9. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séne, Seynabou; Avril, Raymond; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, Alexandre; Ndiaye, Cheikh; Diédhiou, Abdala Gamby; Sadio, Oumar; Courtecuisse, Régis; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Selosse, Marc-André; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-10-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula cremeolilacina, Inocybe littoralis, Inocybe xerophytica, Melanogaster sp., and Scleroderma bermudense) and one EM fungal species from sclerotia (Cenococcum geophilum). After internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, the EM root tips fell into 15 EM fungal taxa including 14 basidiomycetes and 1 ascomycete identified. Sporocarp survey only weakly reflected belowground assessment of the EM fungal community, although 5 fruiting species were found on roots. Seagrape seedlings and mature trees had very similar communities of EM fungi, dominated by S. bermudense, R. cremeolilacina, and two Thelephoraceae: shared species represented 93 % of the taxonomic EM fungal diversity and 74 % of the sampled EM root tips. Furthermore, some significant differences were observed between the frequencies of EM fungal taxa on mature trees and seedlings. The EM fungal community composition also varied between the four investigated sites. We discuss the reasons for such a species-poor community and the possible role of common mycorrhizal networks linking seagrape seedlings and mature trees in regeneration of coastal forests.

  10. Invertebrate distribution patterns and river typology for the implementation of the water framework directive in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadet C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, Europe’s Water Framework Directive provided compelling reasons for developing tools for the biological assessment of freshwater ecosystem health in member States. Yet, the lack of published study for Europe’s overseas regions reflects minimal knowledge of the distribution patterns of aquatic species in Community’s outermost areas. Benthic invertebrates (84 taxa and land-cover, physical habitat and water chemistry descriptors (26 variables were recorded at fifty-one stations in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles. Canonical Correspondence Analysis and Ward’s algorithm were used to bring out patterns in community structure in relation to environmental conditions, and variation partitioning was used to specify the influence of geomorphology and anthropogenic disturbance on invertebrate communities. Species richness decreased from headwater to lowland streams, and species composition changed from northern to southern areas. The proportion of variation explained by geomorphological variables was globally higher than that explained by anthropogenic variables. Geomorphology and land cover played key roles in delineating ecological sub-regions for the freshwater biota. Despite this and the small surface area of Martinique (1080 km2, invertebrate communities showed a clear spatial turnover in composition and biological traits (e.g., insects, crustaceans and molluscs in relation to natural conditions.

  11. Remote sensing observations of the coherent and non-coherent ring structures in the vicinity of Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cruz Gómez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The North Brazil Current Rings (NBCR penetration into the Caribbean Sea is being investigated by employing a merged altimeter-derived sea height anomaly (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and ERS-1, 2, the ocean surface color data (SeaWiFS and Global Drifter Program information. Four strategies are being applied to process the data: (1 calculations of the Okubo-Weiss parameter for NBCR identification, (2 longitude-time plots (also known as Hovmöller diagrams, (3 two-dimensional Radon transforms and (4 two-dimensional Fourier transforms.

    A twofold NBCR structure has been detected in the region under investigation. The results have shown that NBC rings mainly propagate into the Caribbean Sea along two principal pathways (near 12° N and 17° N in the ring translation corridor. Thus, rings following the southern pathway in the fall-winter period can enter through very shallow southern straits as non-coherent structures. A different behavior is observed near the northern pathway (~17° N, where NBC rings are thought to have a coherent structure during their squeezing into the eastern Caribbean, i.e. conserving the principal characteristics of the incident rings. We attribute this difference in the rings' behavior to the vertical scales of the rings and to the bottom topography features in the vicinity of the Lesser Antilles.

  12. A new species of Thecadactylus from Sint Maarten, Lesser Antilles (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Koehler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Thecadactylus from the Caribbean island of Sint Maarten. The new species differs from all other species in the genus bya distinct dorsal pattern of numerous irregular but sharply deliminated black spots and blotches on an otherwise almost patternless background.

  13. Volcanic Deformation Interpretations From Campaign-Mode GPS Measurements of the Commonwealth of Dominica, Lesser Antilles, 2001-2003 Epoch I Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, J. G.; Turner, H. L.; Blessing, B. C.; Davidson, R. T.; Fitzgibbon, K.; Jansma, P.; Mattioli, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Commonwealth of Dominica is located on the eastern margin of the Caribbean plate midway along the Lesser Antilles Arc. It is the most mountainous of the Lesser Antilles, primarily due to its seven potentially active volcanic centers. A shallow seismic swarm was recorded in southern Dominica from September 20, 1998 to June 30, 2001. This seismicity prompted geodetic investigation due to its relative shallow nature and arc-shaped distribution around the peaks of Morne Anglais, Morne Plat Paye, and Morne Patates. A second seismic swarm took place in 2003. This seismicity clustered in the north of the Island in the vicinity of Morne Aux Diable. Campaign GPS observations were done using Ashtech Z-12 dual frequency, code-phase GPS receivers, with choke ring antennae. Three types of mounting systems were used depending on differing site restrictions. A total of 18 established monuments now exist throughout Dominica: nine were constructed in 2001 after the first seismic swarm occurred and three in 2003 after a second seismic swarm. Six additional sites were installed in June 2004. This presentation will focus on data collected from the 2001 and 2003 campaigns. Absolute point positions were obtained and velocity vectors were resolved in June 2003 for the initial nine benchmarks. Each data point was then compared with previously measured locations in 2001. Seven of the nine sites are located in the south where much of the seismic activity had been concentrated. The remaining two sites are located in the north. The preliminary velocity field is complex. All of the sites showed some measure of local deformation over a 2-year period. In the southern portion of the island, a set of vectors located in the Gommier Estate (GOMM) and Wotten Waven School (WOTT) point toward each other as well as towards the largest concentration of 2001 seismic epicenters. The vector for GOMM exhibited a velocity of 4.21 mm/a trending N68.1°E. WOTT displayed a velocity of 5.38 mm/a trending S16

  14. An annotated checklist of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malumphy, Chris

    2014-07-31

    An annotated list of 83 scale insect species (Hemiptera: Sterorrhyncha: Coccoidea) recorded from Saint Lucia is presented, based on data gathered from UK quarantine interceptions, samples collected in an urban coastal habitat in the North West of the Island in 2013, and published records. Thirty-three species (40%) are recorded for the first time for the country, including Dysmicoccus joannesiae (Costa Lima), a South American mealybug, and Poliaspoides formosana (Takahashi), an Asian armoured scale insect pest of bamboo, which are new for the Caribbean region. The economic, environmental and social impacts caused by introduced exotic species of scale insect are discussed. Two predatory midges Diadiplosis ?coccidivora (Felt) and Diadiplosis multifila (Felt) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are recorded for the first time from Saint Lucia. The latter species was observed causing 90% mortality of a large infestation of passion vine mealybug Planococcus minor (Maskell) on soursop fruit. 

  15. Phreatic activity on Dominica (Lesser Antilles) - constraints from field investigations and experimental volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, K.; Scheu, B.; Rott, S.; Dingwell, D. B.; Gilg, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    Dominica has one of the highest concentrations of potentially active volcanoes worldwide. In addition to this activity, abundant geothermal manifestations are observed at the surface, especially in the southern part of the Island. The Boiling Lake - Valley of Desolation area is one of the most vigorous ones, hosting hot springs, mud pools, fumaroles, and steam vents. Intense alteration and many, predominantly phreatic explosive features, of varying scales characterize the whole area. The most prominent manifestation of such a phreatic eruption is the Boiling Lake, a high temperature volcanic crater lake and popular tourist attraction. Thus phreatic activity is one of the main volcanic hazards on the Island, to date largely unpredictable in time and magnitude. The conditions causing these eruptions, as well as their trigger mechanisms and magnitude need to be better understood. Field mapping, together with the determination of in situ physical (density, humidity, permeability) and mechanical (strength, stiffness) properties yield the characterization of 3 main active areas with high probabilities for phreatic events. Rapid decompression experiments on samples from these areas gave insights into the fragmentation and ejection behavior. These experiments were flanked by chemical analyses and laboratory characterization (porosity, granulometry). The results show that hydrothermal alteration likely plays a crucial role in determining the probability of explosive events. High temperature acidic fluids, which lead to an intense alteration of the host rock's mineralogy, change the rock properties favoring the formation of a low permeability layer above the vent and increasing the likelihood of the site experiencing a steam-blast eruption. The contribution of these results to constraining the conditions for and the dynamics involved in phreatic eruptions provides valuable input to hazard assessment of these frequently visited sites on Dominica and similar hydrothermally

  16. Chemical weathering and erosion rates in the Lesser Antilles: An overview in Guadeloupe, Martinique and Dominica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Sétareh; Rivé, Karine; Vittecoq, Benoit; Cerdan, Olivier; Allègre, Claude Jean

    2013-08-01

    Guadeloupe, Martinique and Dominica islands, like numerous tropical environments, have extreme weathering regimes. Physical denudation is mainly controlled by landslides, which reflect the torrential dynamics of the rivers. In Guadeloupe, the mechanical weathering rates vary between 800 and 4000 t/km2/yr. The lithology is very porous with high infiltration rates, which suggests that most of the element fluxes are produced in the subsurface, with chemical erosion rates 2-5 times higher than the rates from surface water. We show how the kinetics of chemical weathering rates depend on the age of the lava and subsurface circulation. In addition, erosion timescales were calculated from U-series analyses of river sediments. Our results show a broad range: 0-150 ka in Martinique and 0-60 ka in Guadeloupe. We evaluated residence times in river water on the basis of the dissolved load analyses. It appears that water circulation is globally 3-fold longer for subsurface water than for surficial water (Rad et al. 2011a,b). Moreover, these islands are highly impacted by agriculture. However, contrary to what one might think, our results show that human activity does not disturb critical zone processes. Indeed, we show that among the combined impacts of all parameters (climate, runoff, slope, vegetation, etc.), the basin's age seems to be the control parameter for chemical weathering and land use—the younger the basin, the higher the weathering rates. We could observe a combined effect between the higher erodibility and a higher climate erosivity of the younger reliefs.

  17. Role of large flank-collapse events on magma evolution of volcanoes. Insights from the Lesser Antilles Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Georges; Villemant, Benoît; Friant, Anne Le; Paterne, Martine; Cortijo, Elsa

    2013-08-01

    Flank-collapse events are now recognized as common processes of destruction of volcanoes. They may occur several times on a volcanic edifice pulling out varying volumes of material from km3 to thousands of km3. In the Lesser Antilles Arc, a large number of flank-collapse events were identified. Here, we show that some of the largest events are correlated to significant variations in erupted magma compositions and eruptive styles. On Montagne Pelée (Martinique), magma production rate has been sustained during several thousand years following a 32 ka old flank-collapse event. Basic and dense magmas were emitted through open-vent eruptions that generated abundant scoria flows while significantly more acidic magmas were produced before the flank collapse. The rapid building of a new cone increased the load on magma bodies at depth and the density threshold. Magma production rate decreased and composition of the erupted products changed to more acidic compared to the preceding period of activity. These low density magma generated plinian and dome-forming eruptions up to the Present. In contrast at Soufrière Volcanic Centre of St. Lucia and at Pitons du Carbet in Martinique, the flank-collapses have an opposite effect: in both cases, the acidic magmas erupted immediately after the flank-collapses. These magmas are highly porphyritic (up to 60% phenocrysts) and much more viscous than the magmas erupted before the flank-collapses. They have been generally emplaced as voluminous and uptight lava domes (called “the Pitons”). Such magmas could not ascent without a significant decrease of the threshold effect produced by the volcanic edifice loading before the flank-collapse.

  18. The recent Plinian explosive activity of Mt. Pelée volcano (Lesser Antilles): The P1 AD 1300 eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carazzo, Guillaume; Tait, Steve; Kaminski, Edouard; Gardner, James E.

    2012-11-01

    Plinian explosive eruptions represent a major volcanic hazard in the Lesser Antilles Arc that must be carefully assessed based on reconstructions of past activity. The present study focusses on a detailed time evolution of the P1 eruption (AD 1300) at Mt Pelée volcano (Martinique). After an initial dome-forming stage, a Plinian phase commenced. The P1 Plinian-style sequence is mostly a pumice fall deposit with an inversely graded base, interbedded with a surge deposit, and overlain by final flow/surge deposit. Field data on deposit dispersal, thickness, and grain-size distribution are used together with physical models to reconstruct the dynamical evolution of this eruption. We find that the mass eruption rate increased from 2×107 to 9×107 kg s - 1, producing a 19-22-km-high Plinian plume, initially stable but which ultimately collapsed to form a ~1.3-km-high fountain. Empirical models of deposit thinning suggest that the minimum volume of pyroclastic deposits is 0.15 km3, about 25 % that previously estimated. Published data on magmatic water contents in glass inclusions are used together with mass discharge rates to elucidate the mechanisms leading to column collapse. Conditions at the base of the column were close to the plume/fountain transition soon after the Pelean/Plinian-style transition due to the competing effects of increase in both gas content and mass discharge rate. After a short stage of partial collapse, the column underwent a total collapse due to an increasing discharge rate.

  19. Distribution and size of benthic marine habitats in Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Claus Christoff Steiner

    2010-06-01

    total of 755ha of benthos were surveyed in October and November of 2007. The benthic habitat composition of an additional 1 059.7ha was inferred with the help of unpublished data and satellite imagery. Seagrass beds were the most widespread organism-built habitat type with 265ha. Coral reefs covered 72.2ha. Both of these habitats were predominantly established along the West and North coasts, which included the island’s most habitatdiverse regions. Rocky environments (911.5ha dominated the East and South coast and together with sandy areas (566ha constituted 81% of the island’s marine benthos. It is apparent that seagrass beds, which include four native and one invasive seagrass species, had not been surveyed as previous distribution reports could not be confirmed. Similarly, the benthic cover of Dominica’s coral reefs is evidently far below the previously reported 7 000ha. Such discrepancies highlight the advantage of environmental assessments based on field surveys and systematic data compilation, particularly in cases like Dominica where a narrow island shelf stages marginal marine resources in spatial proximity to each other and human settlements. This study has demonstrated how low-tech field methods can be applied on an island-wide scale to build an inventory of marine resources in the form of habitat maps and data repositories publicly accessible for future use. In the absence of such efforts, the development of conservation measures and status reports will remain ill founded. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2: 589- 602. Epub 2010 June 02.

  20. Netherlands Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    This discussion of the Netherlands Antilles focuses on the following: geography, the people, history, government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1980 the population totaled 253,400 with an annual growth rate of 1%. The Netherlands Antilles consists of 2 groups of 3 islands each, situated in the Caribbean Sea about 880 kilometers apart. 40 nationalities are represented. Dutch is the official language, but Spanish and English are spoken widely. Alonzo de Ojeda, a Spanish navigator, landed on Curacao in 1499, and in 1527 the Spanish took possession of Curacao, Bonaire, and Aruba. In 1634 the 3 islands passed to the Netherlands, where they have remained except for 2 short periods during the Napoleonic wars when the British ruled at Willemstad. According to the statute of 1954, which serves as the constitution, the Netherlands Antilles has a constitutional and parliamentary form of government. The highest power in the Kingdom of the Netherlands is the sovereign, Queen Beatrix, who is represented in the Antilles by an appointed governor. The independent court system is under the control of the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Justice. Each of the island territories has its own representative body, the Island Council. Politics are dominated by 3 issues: economic problems, the prospect of independence, and Aruban separatism. The economic well-being of the Netherlands Antilles is based principally on the operations of 2 huge oil refineries. Because of the high volume of shipments in and out of the 2 islands, Curacao and Aruba ports are among the busiest in the world. Until recently, petroleum or petroleum products accounted for about 85% of the dollar volume of imports and exports from the Netherlands Antilles. That figure has declined with the worldwide oil glut, and the refineries are using only 50-60% of capacity. The next most important industries are tourism and offshore investment and banking. The per capita income in the Antilles is one

  1. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  2. On the water relation in limestone and diabase vegetation in the Leeward Islands of the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, A.L.; Mansour Elassaiss, C.J.A.

    1967-01-01

    In a same macroclimate on the islands of the Leeward Group of the Netherlands Antilles two types of vegetation are chiefly found. A vegetation pertaining to the dry evergreen formation series on limestone and a vegetation on diabase belonging to the seasonal formation series. Study was made of the w

  3. An experimental study of the behaviour of cerium/molybdenum ratios during subduction: Implications for tracing the slab component in the Lesser Antilles and Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skora, Susanne; Freymuth, Heye; Blundy, Jon; Elliott, Tim; Guillong, Marcel

    2017-09-01

    Arc magmas are very distinct in their geochemical signatures, a consequence of trace element enriched components from the subducting slab that are incorporated into melts of the overlying mantle wedge. However, it is not always straightforward to distinguish such slab components from assimilation of crustal rocks during subsequent differentiation, given that both reservoirs can share similar geochemical characteristics. This has prompted the development of new tools, such as 98Mo/95Mo analyses used in combination with Ce/Mo measurements. The diverse range of δ98/95Mo in the surface environment gives rise to variable isotopic compositions of subducted Mo. Most diagnostic of these is the extremely isotopically heavy Mo in marine black shales, such as those drilled in the vicinity of the Lesser Antilles. However, subducting assemblages are invariably complex and differing melting behaviours and contrasting δ98/95Mo of various crustal components may counter-balance one another, requiring a more detailed investigation of the behaviour of Mo and Ce in the down-going slab. This study is dedicated to identifying possible hosts for Mo and Ce in sediments and basalt at sub-arc depths. New melting experiments were performed (3 GPa, 800-900 °C), using synthetic carbon-rich black shale and calcareous sediment compositions from the Lesser Antilles arc. In addition, new analyses of Mo concentrations and Ce/Mo data of previously published partial melting studies on altered oceanic crust and volcaniclastics (Mariana Arc) are presented. Our study suggests that sulfide and to a lesser extent rutile are the major hosts for Mo in eclogites, whereas the presence or absence of monazite (Ca-poor sediments), epidote (Ca-rich sediments) and carbonate (CaCO3-rich sediments) controls Ce concentrations in sediments. Redox conditions are found to be of great importance for the Ce/Mo ratios of slab components derived from these lithologies because of their influence on sulfide and epidote

  4. A 200-Year Record of Interannual SST and pH Variability from the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic) Inferred from a Siderastrea Siderea Reef Coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, E.; Paterne, M.; Feuillet, N.; Noury, C.; Bordier, L.; Thil, F.

    2014-12-01

    Global warming and ocean acidification caused by the rising levels of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere need to be better constrained by long-term studies of high resolution natural archives, especially at inter-annual and decadal scales. In the framework of the French INSU program LEFE/CYBER ACID-Antilles, here we developed a 200-year long interannual time series of sea surface temperature and pH based on the geochemical composition of tropical reef forming coral. The selected tropical coral called CHANCEL-1 is a colony of genus Siderastrea Siderea which was collected in 2008 from a living micro-atoll off Martinique in the Lesser Antilles, facing the eastern side of the Caribbean Sea. The colony of 1-meter extension presents a mean growth rate of 4 - 5 mm/yr. Along the growth axis, we measured the boron isotopic composition (delta11B) and trace element ratios (Li/Mg, Sr/Ca), which reveal a progressive decrease of the surface water pH and increase of temperature during the past 200 years. These observations cooperate the anthropogenic forcing, i.e. rising atmospheric CO2 and rising sea surface temperatures due to global warming. However, other processes apparently affect the geochemical records, as indicated by sub-decadal variations of pH and temperature reconstruction overprinting the long term global trend. Possible drivers of such most likely regional variability might be decadal changes of oceanographic conditions (upwelling, freshwater runoff, seawater masse changes, etc.) as well as species dependent biological controls.

  5. The interest of cartography for a better perception and management of volcanic risk: From scientific to social representations: The case of Mt. Pelée volcano, Martinique (Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Frédéric; Lesales, Thierry

    2009-10-01

    The study develops an innovative GIS-based integrated approach for the assessment of a comprehensive volcanic risk. This is based on a four-step methodology which has been developed at Mt. Pelée volcano, in Martinique, a French island in the Lesser Antilles. The first stage of the methodological framework integrates the spatial extent of volcanic hazards for a maximal credible eruptive scenario. The second stage covers an assessment of the elements (especially the buildings) that may be affected in the event of an eruption and defines their level of damages by given volcanic hazards. A computerized analysis leads to the definition of an index for the risk of total loss in a 500-meter grid. The third stage consists of designing regulative land use maps which should orient and limit the occupation of areas exposed to severe hazards. Finally, the fourth stage, based on survey data, includes a spatial assessment of collective representations for a future eruption by the surrounding communities. These maps turn out to be powerful communication tools which help planners and disaster authorities in mitigating damages from volcanic hazards. They can contribute to enhance the perception of volcanic risk in Martinique.

  6. Insights on volcanic behaviour from the 2015 July 23-24 T-phase signals generated by eruptions at Kick-'em-Jenny Submarine Volcano, Grenada, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondin, F. J. Y.; Latchman, J. L.; Robertson, R. E. A.; Lynch, L.; Stewart, R.; Smith, P.; Ramsingh, C.; Nath, N.; Ramsingh, H.; Ash, C.

    2015-12-01

    Kick-'em-Jenny volcano (KeJ) is the only known active submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles Arc. Since 1939, the year it revealed itself, and until the volcano-seismic unrest of 2015 July 11-25 , the volcano has erupted 12 times. Only two eruptions breached the surface: 1939, 1974. The volcano has an average eruption cycle of about 10-11 years. Excluding the Montserrat, Soufrière Hills, KeJ is the most active volcano in the Lesser Antilles arc. The University of the West Indies, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) has been monitoring KeJ since 1953. On July 23 and 24 at 1:42 am and 0:02 am local time, respectively, the SRC recorded T-phase signals , considered to have been generated by KeJ. Both signals were recorded at seismic stations in and north of Grenada: SRC seismic stations as well as the French volcano observatories in Guadeloupe and Martinique, Montserrat Volcano Observatory, and the Puerto Rico Seismic Network. These distant recordings, along with the experience of similar observations in previous eruptions, allowed the SRC to confirm that two explosive eruptions occurred in this episode at KeJ. Up to two days after the second eruption, when aerial surveillance was done, there was no evidence of activity at the surface. During the instrumental era, eruptions of the KeJ have been identified from T-phases recorded at seismic stations from Trinidad, in the south, to Puerto Rico, in the north. In the 2015 July eruption episode, the seismic station in Trinidad did not record T-phases associated with the KeJ eruptions. In this study we compare the T-phase signals of 2015 July with those recorded in KeJ eruptions up to 1974 to explore possible causative features for the T-phase recording pattern in KeJ eruptions. In particular, we investigate the potential role played by the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) layer in influencing the absence of the T-phase on the Trinidad seismic station during this eruption.

  7. The memory of volcanic waters: Shallow magma degassing revealed by halogen monitoring in thermal springs of La Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemant, Benoît; Hammouya, Gilbert; Michel, Agnès; Semet, Michel P.; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Boudon, Georges; Cheminée, Jean-Louis

    2005-09-01

    The halogen contents of thermal waters collected since 1979 at La Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles) are interpreted as a retarded record of magma degassing pulses dispersed into the hydrothermal system. The further the spring is located from the source, the larger the time delay and the older the event recorded in water chemistry. Using advection-dispersion transport models in porous media, we reconstruct the time-series of degassing pulses for the period 1971-1992 and show that it correlates with the seismic records. The 1975-1977 sismo-volcanic crisis at La Soufrière is thereby interpreted as the result of a magma intrusion at shallow depth (˜3 km) which likely began in approximately 1973 and degassed in a pulsatory regime during ˜15 yr. The recent recrudescence of fumarolic and seismic activity could represent the initial stage of new magma injection. Measurement of halogen contents in hydrothermal waters collected around active volcanoes may provide a powerful tool for detection of the initial stages of magma intrusions.

  8. Multidisciplinary exploratory study of a geothermal resource in the active volcanic arc of Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navelot, Vivien; Favier, Alexiane; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Corsini, Michel; Verati, Chrystèle; Lardeaux, Jean-Marc; Mercier de Lépinay, Jeanne; Munschy, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The GEOTREF project (high enthalpy geothermal energy in fractured reservoirs), supported by the French government program, "Investissements d'avenir" develops a sustainable geothermal resource in the Vieux Habitants area, 8-km south of the currently exploited Bouillante geothermal field. The Basse Terre Island is a recent volcanic arc (geothermal gradient of 70 ˚ C/km.

  9. Influence of rainfalls on heat and steam fluxes of fumarolic zones: Six months records along the Ty fault (Soufrière of Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Damien; Finizola, Anthony; Delcher, Eric; Beauducel, François; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Brothelande, Elodie; Peltier, Aline; Di Gangi, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Fumarolic zones are permeable areas where both steam and heat are expelled to the atmosphere. Surface fluxes and flows, which are representative of the intensity of the hydrothermal circulation in depth, can be monitored by thermometers, thermal infrared cameras, spectrometers, or condensers. However, the superficial activity of fumarolic zones can be modified by the meteorological conditions, in particular the rainfalls, which might result in erroneous estimations. From this perspective, we developed a set of physical equations to quantify the effects of rainfalls on the thermal behavior of fumarolic zones. Results were faced to continuous measurements achieved at the Ty fault fumarolic zone (La Soufrière volcano, Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles) during six months in 2010, using six vertical series of thermometers measuring the heat transfer in the ground and one condenser measuring the rising steam flux. Results demonstrate that in the absence of rainfalls, heat and steam flux reach an equilibrium that is representative of the geothermal flux in depth. Conversely, after the rainfalls, the cooling of the ground provokes a deepening of the condensation level. The related soil temperature drop can be estimated by computing the heat required to warm the infiltrated water up to boiling temperature while the recovery rate is directly linked to the geothermal flux. Our observations allow defining in which conditions flux are at steady state, but also to build a first-order numerical model allowing estimating both the physical parameters of the ground (thermal conductivity, precipitation efficiency coefficient and surface flux constant) and the long-term thermal behavior of the hydrothermal system. In particular, our results predict that the hydrothermal activity must vanish on the zones where the geothermal flux drops under a certain threshold (60 W/m2 at La Soufrière). The existence of this limit may have strong implications for the precipitation rate of minerals and the

  10. Record of Tylonycteris pachypus (Lesser Bamboo Bat from Andaman Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Aul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There was very limited and fragmented information on the bat fauna in the Andaman Islands before the study initiated in the Islands (2003-2007 and during this survey 25 species of bats were recorded along with the roosts and habitats. Our survey reconfirmed the presence of the bamboo bat after almost 3 decades from its last report by Hill in 1967. Bamboo bats are a group of small bats with unique skull and morphology. This species has been recorded from southern and northeastern South Asia, southern China, and much of Southeast Asia. In South Asia, this species is widely distributed and is presently known from Bangladesh (Chittagong and Sylhet divisions and India (Andaman Islands, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tripura and West Bengal (Bates et al., 2008. They roost inside hollow bamboo stems. During survey, we examined 8 specimens of Tylonycteris from Andaman Islands of which six were caught by local inhabitants and 2 were mist netted across fresh water pond in Webi (North Andaman Island. The earlier record of this specimen from this zone was without any proper information regarding its proper distribution and habitats.

  11. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  12. French Antilles and Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  13. Opisthobranchs from the Lesser Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bois-Reymond Marcus, Eveline du; Marcus, Ernst

    1963-01-01

    Thanks to help of the Government of the Netherlands, Dr. DIVA DINIZ CORRÊA, a lecturer in our Department, was able to work at the “Caraïbisch Marien-Biologisch Instituut” (Caribbean Marine Biological Institute; Carmabi) Curaçao, from January to July 1962. Besides actinians and nemerteans for her own

  14. Dynamics and evolution of the plumbing system source of three major pumiceous eruptions in Dominica (Lesser Antilles): crystal system analysis and diffusion modeling on orthopyroxenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaro, Clara; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Boudon, Georges; Martel, Caroline; Morgan, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Modern volcanology studies have demonstrated that the crystal "cargo" of magmas can be used to unravel the dynamics of magmatic plumbing systems and constrain timescales of magmatic processes. Specifically, several studies focusing on large silicic eruptions (10 to 100 km3 DRE/eruption) have shown that crystal populations may be rapidly re-mobilized over short timescales of decades to centuries prior to eruption, making these systems more dynamic than previously believed. We present a petrological study of three, major, pumiceous, dacitic eruptions produced on Dominica (Lesser Antilles Arc) in the last 50ky: Layou (~50ka), Roseau (~30ka) and Rosalie (~20ka). We combine crystal texture and chemical analyses with modeling of diffusional relaxation of chemical gradients in orthopyroxene crystals. A systems analysis approach is used to decipher remobilization processes of crystals before each eruption, and to map the plumbing system evolution over time. Timescales are calculated by Fe2+-Mg interdiffusion modeling on selected orthopyroxenes, by inter-calibration of high resolution BSE-images and EMPA analysis profiles. Textural analyses show that for each of the three eruptions about 80-85% of orthopyroxenes are unzoned, while about 15-20% exhibit normal, reverse and multiple zoning. Systems analysis of the zoned crystals reveals the presence of four different magmatic environments (ME): En46-51(ME1), En52-53(ME2), En54-58(ME3) and En59-63(ME4). During the eruptive history, the main magmatic environment, represented by the 80% of unzoned orthopyroxenes, moves from ME2 (for Layou and Roseau) to ME3 (for Rosalie), indicating a shift of the system to less-evolved compositions. For all eruptions, a main crystal transfer pathway can be identified between ME2-ME3, describing a progressive sinking of crystals from the main environment En52-53(ME2) to the less-evolved En54-58 (ME3), which receives crystals, and, by the Rosalie eruption, becomes the volumetrically most

  15. Muon tomography of the Soufrière of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles): Comparison with other geophysical imaging methods and assessment of volcanic risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, D.; Lesparre, N.; Marteau, J.; Taisne, B.; Nicollin, F.; Coutant, O.

    2011-12-01

    adapted to brought constraints on flank destabilization and hydrothermal circulation models. Tanaka et al., Three dimensional computational axial tomography scan of a volcano with cosmic ray muon radiography, J. Geophys. Res., 115, B12332, doi:10.1029/2010JB007677, 2010. Gibert et al., Muon Tomography: Plans for Observations in the Lesser Antilles, Earth Planets and Space, Vol. 52, 153-165, doi: 10.5047/eps.2009.07.003, 2010. Lesparre et al., Geophysical muon imaging: feasibility and limits, Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 183, 1348-1361, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04790.x, 2010. Lesparre et al., Design and Operation of a Field Telescope for Cosmic Ray Geophysical Tomography, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, to appear, 2011a. Lesparre et al., Bayesian Dual Inversion of Experimental Telescope Acceptance and Integrated Flux for Geophysical Muon Tomography, Geophysical Journal International, to appear, 2011b.

  16. A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) from Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia (Aves: Accipitridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) is described from Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands). In addition some notes are given on the distribution of A. virgatus in south-eastern Burma and adjacent parts of Thailand, supplementary to an earlier paper (Mees, 1981).

  17. The Lesser Antillean Ameiva (Sauria, Teiidae) Re-evaluation, zoogeography and the effects of predation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskin, Jonathan N.; Williams, Ernest E.

    1966-01-01

    The Ameiva of the Lesser Antilles present an interesting case of isolated populations of related animals on a chain of islands that differ in size and proximity among themselves but form a geographic group. The situation is made still more interesting by the fact that at times in the Pleistocene the

  18. Bimodal volcanism in northeast Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Greater Antilles Island Arc): Genetic links with Cretaceous subduction of the mid-Atlantic ridge Caribbean spur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Wayne T.; Lidiak, Edward G.; Dickin, Alan P.

    2008-07-01

    Bimodal extrusive volcanic rocks in the northeast Greater Antilles Arc consist of two interlayered suites, including (1) a predominantly basaltic suite, dominated by island arc basalts with small proportions of andesite, and (2) a silicic suite, similar in composition to small volume intrusive veins of oceanic plagiogranite commonly recognized in oceanic crustal sequences. The basaltic suite is geochemically characterized by variable enrichment in the more incompatible elements and negative chondrite-normalized HFSE anomalies. Trace element melting and mixing models indicate the magnitude of the subducted sediment component in Antilles arc basalts is highly variable and decreases dramatically from east to west along the arc. In the Virgin Islands, the sediment component ranges betweenCampanian strata. In comparison, sediment proportions in central Puerto Rico range between 0.5 to 1.5% in the Albian to 2 to > 4% during the Cenomanian-Campanian interval. The silicic suite, consisting predominantly of rhyolites, is characterized by depleted Al 2O 3 (average arc-like Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope signatures, and by the presence of plagioclase. All of these features are consistent with an anatexic origin in gabbroic sources, of both oceanic and arc-related origin, within the sub-arc basement. The abundance of silicic lavas varies widely along the length of the arc platform. In the Virgin Islands on the east, rhyolites comprise up to 80% of Lower Albian strata (112 to 105 Ma), and about 20% in post-Albian strata (105 to 100 Ma). Farther west, in Puerto Rico, more limited proportions (Campanian times. Within this hypothetical setting the centrally positioned Virgin Islands terrain remained approximately fixed above the subducting ridge as the Antilles arc platform swept northeastward into the slot between the Americas. Accordingly, heat flow in the Virgin Islands was elevated throughout the Cretaceous, giving rise to widespread crustal melting, whereas the subducted sediment

  19. How a collaborative integrated taxonomic effort has trained new spongiologists and improved knowledge of Martinique Island (French Antilles, eastern Caribbean Sea) marine biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Although sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems of the Caribbean Sea, their diversity remained poorly investigated in the Lesser Antilles. By organizing a training course in Martinique, we wanted both to promote taxonomy and to provide a first inventory of the sponge diversity on this island. The course was like a naturalist expedition, with a field laboratory and a classroom nearby. Early-career scientists and environmental managers were trained in sponge taxonomy. We gathered unpublished data and conducted an inventory at 13 coastal sites. We explored only shallow water habitats (0–30 m), such as mangroves, reefs or rocky bottoms and underwater caves. According to this study, the sponge fauna of Martinique is currently represented by a minimum of 191 species, 134 of which we could assign species names. One third of the remaining non-identified sponge species we consider to be new to science. Martinique appears very remarkable because of its littoral marine fauna harboring sponge aggregations with high biomass and species diversity dominating over coral species. In mangroves, sponges cover about 10% of the surface of subtidal roots. Several submarine caves are true reservoirs of hidden and insufficiently described sponge diversity. Thanks to this new collaborative effort, the Eastern Caribbean has gained a significant increase of knowledge, with sponge diversity of this area potentially representing 40% of the total in the Caribbean Sea. We thus demonstrated the importance of developing exploratory and educational research in areas historically devoid of biodiversity inventories and systematics studies. Finally, we believe in the necessity to consider not only the number of species but their distribution in space to evaluate their putative contribution to ecosystem services and our willingness to preserve them. PMID:28329020

  20. Some data on the avifauna of the Island of Roti, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, J.A.J.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For several years I had been looking for an opportunity to visit the island of Roti (Rotti, Roté, Loté). Junge (1954) mentions that only once an ornithological collection was made in the island, namely by Dr. H. F. C. ten Kate, an ethnologist who visited the island in 1891. Büttikofer (

  1. Some data on the avifauna of the Island of Roti, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, J.A.J.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For several years I had been looking for an opportunity to visit the island of Roti (Rotti, Roté, Loté). Junge (1954) mentions that only once an ornithological collection was made in the island, namely by Dr. H. F. C. ten Kate, an ethnologist who visited the island in 1891. Büttikofer

  2. Avian cholera mortality in lesser snow geese nesting on Banks Island, Northwest Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Samelius, G.; Goldberg, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Avian cholera is one of the most important diseases affecting waterfowl in North America, but little is known about its ecology and its impact on waterfowl populations. We documented avian cholera mortality in breeding lesser snow geese (Chen c. caerulescens) at the Egg River colony on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, in 1995 and 1996. Area of the breeding colony, core nesting area, and number of nesting geese were greater in 1996 (colony=7,537 ha, core area=1,581 ha, 401,000 nesting geese) than in 1995 (colony=6,637 ha, core area=996 ha, 318,000 nesting geese). Density of nesting geese also was greater in the core area during 1995 (120 geese/ha) than in 1996 (90 geese/ha). Pasteurella multocida (serotype 1) was cultured from the leg bones of adult snow goose carcasses collected after outbreaks. Mortality from avian cholera began during nesting and continued until birds dispersed at hatch. Mortality appeared to be in foci scattered throughout the nesting colony, but generally was greater where there were greater densities of nesting geese. We estimated that 30,000 and 20,000 geese died in 1995 and 1996, respectively, about 5-9% of the nesting colony. Between 1991 and 1997, at least 4 avian cholera outbreaks occurred at Banks Island. It appears that avian cholera has become endemic in this population of snow geese, and these birds have the potential to transmit the disease to other waterfowl, especially on wintering areas where waterfowl are very concentrated.

  3. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - St. Lucia (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Saint Lucia, one of six Caribbean countries that make up the Windward Islands - the southern arc of the Lesser Antilles chain - at the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  4. Ninety-eight new species of Trigonopterus weevils from Sundaland and the Lesser Sunda Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Alexander; Tänzler, Rene; Balke, Michael; Rahmadi, Cahyo; Suhardjono, Yayuk R

    2014-01-01

    The genus Trigonopterus Fauvel, 1862 is highly diverse in Melanesia. Only one species, Trigonopterusamphoralis Marshall, 1925 was so far recorded West of Wallace's Line (Eastern Sumatra). Based on focused field-work the fauna from Sundaland (Sumatra, Java, Bali, Palawan) and the Lesser Sunda Islands (Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores) is here revised. We redescribe Trigonopterusamphoralis Marshall and describe an additional 98 new species: Trigonopterusacuminatus sp. n., Trigonopterusaeneomicans sp. n., Trigonopterusalaspurwensis sp. n., Trigonopterusallopatricus sp. n., Trigonopterusallotopus sp. n., Trigonopterusangulicollis sp. n., Trigonopterusargopurensis sp. n., Trigonopterusarjunensis sp. n., Trigonopterusasper sp. n., Trigonopterusattenboroughi sp. n., Trigonopterusbaliensis sp. n., Trigonopterusbatukarensis sp. n., Trigonopterusbawangensis sp. n., Trigonopterusbinodulus sp. n., Trigonopterusbornensis sp. n., Trigonopteruscahyoi sp. n., Trigonopteruscostipennis sp. n., Trigonopteruscuprescens sp. n., Trigonopteruscupreus sp. n., Trigonopterusdacrycarpi sp. n., Trigonopterusdelapan sp. n., Trigonopterusdentipes sp. n., Trigonopterusdiengensis sp. n., Trigonopterusdimorphus sp. n., Trigonopterusdisruptus sp. n., Trigonopterusdua sp. n., Trigonopterusduabelas sp. n., Trigonopterusechinatus sp. n., Trigonopterusempat sp. n., Trigonopterusenam sp. n., Trigonopterusfissitarsis sp. n., Trigonopterusflorensis sp. n., Trigonopterusfoveatus sp. n., Trigonopterusfulgidus sp. n., Trigonopterusgedensis sp. n., Trigonopterushalimunensis sp. n., Trigonopterushonjensis sp. n., Trigonopterusijensis sp. n., Trigonopterusjavensis sp. n., Trigonopteruskalimantanensis sp. n., Trigonopteruskintamanensis sp. n., Trigonopterusklatakanensis sp. n., Trigonopteruslampungensis sp. n., Trigonopteruslatipes sp. n., Trigonopteruslima sp. n., Trigonopteruslombokensis sp. n., Trigonopterusmerubetirensis sp. n., Trigonopterusmesehensis sp. n., Trigonopterusmicans sp. n., Trigonopterusmisellus sp. n

  5. On the intriguing stranding of four Cuvier’s Beaked Whales, Ziphius cavirostris G. Cuvier, 1823, on the Lesser Antillean Island of Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van Peter J.H.; Kristensen, Ingvar

    1974-01-01

    The stranding of four Cuvier’s Beaked Whales, Ziphius cavirostris, on the Lesser Antillean Island of Bonaire on April 3, 1974 is reported. The death of the animals was most probably caused by some kind of underwater explosion.

  6. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Barbados; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Barbados, an independent nation in the Lesser Antilles island chain in the eastern Caribbean. Barbados’ electricity rates are approximately $0.28 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), below the Caribbean regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  7. A prehistoric tsunami induced long-lasting ecosystem changes on a semi-arid tropical island--the case of Boka Bartol (Bonaire, Leeward Antilles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; Brückner, Helmut; Fürstenberg, Sascha; Frenzel, Peter; Konopczak, Anna Maria; Scheffers, Anja; Kelletat, Dieter; May, Simon Matthias; Schäbitz, Frank; Daut, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean is highly vulnerable to coastal hazards. Based on their short recurrence intervals over the intra-American seas, high-category tropical cyclones and their associated effects of elevated storm surge, heavy wave impacts, mudslides and floods represent the most serious threat. Given the abundance of historical accounts and trigger mechanisms (strike-slip motion and oblique collision at the northern and southern Caribbean plate boundaries, submarine and coastal landslides, volcanism), tsunamis must be considered as well. This paper presents interdisciplinary multi-proxy investigations of sediment cores (grain size distribution, carbonate content, loss-on-ignition, magnetic susceptibility, microfauna, macrofauna) from Washington-Slagbaai National Park, NW Bonaire (Leeward Antilles). No historical tsunami is recorded for this island. However, an allochthonous marine layer found in all cores at Boka Bartol reveals several sedimentary criteria typically linked with tsunami deposits. Calibrated (14)C data from these cores point to a palaeotsunami with a maximum age of 3,300 years. Alternative explanations for the creation of this layer, such as inland flooding during tropical cyclones, cannot entirely be ruled out, though in recent times even the strongest of these events on Bonaire did not deposit significant amounts of sediment onshore. The setting of Boka Bartol changed from an open mangrove-fringed embayment into a poly- to hyperhaline lagoon due to the establishment or closure of a barrier of coral rubble during or subsequent to the inferred event. The timing of the event is supported by further sedimentary evidence from other lagoonal and alluvial archives on Bonaire.

  8. Mosquitoes of the Netherlands Antilles and their hygienic importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyp, van der Edwin

    1954-01-01

    The Netherlands Antilles may be divided into: (1) The Curaçao Group (or Netherlands Leeward Islands): Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire. (2) The St. Martin Group (or Netherlands Windward Islands): (Netherlands) St. Maarten, Saba and St. Eustatius. The latter islands are very small, forming together only 8.

  9. The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera:Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Khoobdel; Maryam Tavassoli; Mehdi Salari; Fateme Firozi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf.Methods:hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-Results: In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region.Conclusions:Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers.

  10. Description of a new member of the Monarcha trivirgatа-group from Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands (Aves, Monarchinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1973-01-01

    Amongst material from the island of Flores forwarded by the Rev. Fr. J. A. J. Verheijen SVD and the Rev. Fr. E. Schmutz SVD is a monarchine flycatcher which appears to represent an undescribed species. It may be known and diagnosed as follows. Monarcha sacerdotum species nova Type and unique specime

  11. The distribution of seagrasses in Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.C Steiner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass beds are the largest organism-built marine habitat in Dominica, yet have only been surveyed since 2007. Standardized examinations along a depth gradient between 0 and 24m, focusing on magnoliophyte species composition and benthic cover of shoots at 17 seagrass bed sites, were carried out between September 10 and December 7, 2008. The Cymodoceaceae Syringodium filiforme (Kuetzing 1860 and Halodule wrightii (Ascherson 1868, as well as the Hydrocharitaceae Halophila decipiens (Ostenfeld 1902, H. stipulacea (Fosskal & Ascherson 1867 and Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex König 1805 displayed distinct regional and horizontal distribution patterns. Syringodium filiforme is the island’s dominant seagrass along the western and northern coasts, occurring at depths between 2 and 18m and with a mean benthic cover ranging from 0.9-10% along the West coast. Along the North coast it grew between 0.2 and 1m depth with a mean maximum benthic cover of 48.9%. Halodule wrightii grew along the North and West coasts, in depths between 1 and 14m in areas of recent and chronic disturbances. Its delicate morphology and sparse benthic cover (Pastos marinos son los ambientes más grandes constituidos por organismos en Dominica. Sin embargo, sólo se han examinado desde 2007. Entre el 10 de septiembre y 9 de diciembre 2008, se examinaron la composicion de especies y la densidad de magnoliofitas en profundidades de 0 a 24m. Los Cymodoceaceae: Syringodium filiforme y Halodule wrightii, tal como los Hydrocharitaceae: Halophila decipiens, H. stipulacea y Thalassia testudinum, mostraron una distribución regional y horizontal muy distinta. Syringodium filiforme fue la especie dominante en las costas del oeste y del norte de la isla. Se encontró en profundidades de 2 a 18m y con un promedio de cobertura béntica de 0.9-10% en la costa del oeste. En las costas del norte creció entre 0.2 y 1m de profundidad con un pormedio de cobertura béntica de 48.9%. Halodule wrightii creció en las costad del norte y oeste, en profundidades de 1 a 14m en áreas de perturbaciones recientes o crónicas. Su morfología delicada y su baja cobertura béntica (<0.1% no constituyeron pastos. Halophila decipiens creció en los márgenes profundos, llanos y laterales de pastos dominados por S. filiforme, pero también en forma mono-específica entre 3 y 24m. Halophila stipulacea, una especie invasora, se encontró comúnmente a lo largo de 45km de la costa del oeste en profundidades entre 5 y 24m. Ambas especies de Halophila formaron pastos extensos en profudidades mayores al límite de este estudio y puden ser importantes en la recolonización de áreas llanas después de tormentas destructivas. H. decipiens y H. stipulacea ahora son las especies más comunes después de S. filiforme, a pesar de su ausencia en la costa del norte. T. testudinum, sólo creció en la costa del norte, encima de áreas arrecifales con un pormedio de cobertura béntica entre 2 y 76%, en aguas con 1m o menos de profundidad. Crecieron mono-específicamente en áreas de turbulencia máxima y mínima, pero entre S. filiforme en áreas de turbulencia moderada. Oleaje fuerte en la costa del oeste (octubre 16, asociado con el Huracán Omar, causó la erosión y el enterramiento variado de las márgenes llanas de pastos marinos, particularmente entre 2 y 10m de profundidad. Este evento demostró la dinámica en las márgenes llanas de pastos marinos de Dominica y el nivel de resistencia a perturbaciones de pastos individuales.

  12. Rivulid Fishes of the Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, J.J.

    1958-01-01

    The present paper is chiefly based on the Rivulid fishes collected by Dr. P. Wagenaar Hummelinck in the Antilles during the years 1930, 1936, 1937, and 1955, and in addition on some specimens collected by various other investigators at earlier dates. Some of the specimens, in particular those belong

  13. Phylogeography of the endangered Lesser Antillean iguana, Iguana delicatissima: a recent diaspora in an archipelago known for ancient herpetological endemism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jessica L; Knapp, Charles R; Gerber, Glenn P; Thorpe, Roger S; Welch, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Iguana delicatissima is an endangered endemic of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. Phylogeographic analyses for many terrestrial vertebrate species in the Caribbean, particularly lizards, suggest ancient divergence times. Often, the closest relatives of species are found on the same island, indicating that colonization rates are so low that speciation on islands is often more likely to generate biodiversity than subsequent colonization events. Mitochondrial sequence analysis of the region spanning ND4 was performed on I. delicatissima individuals from islands across the species' range to estimate genetic divergence among geographically isolated populations. Five unique haplotypes were recovered from 46 individuals. The majority of animals carry a single common haplotype. Two of the haplotypes were only present in individuals classified as hybrids from Îles des Saintes. The final 2 haplotypes, single nucleotide substitutions, were present in animals from Îlet Chancel of Martinique and Saint Barthélemy, respectively. Despite the great distances between islands and habitat heterogeneity within islands, this species is characterized by low haplotype diversity. The low mtDNA variation of I. delicatissima suggests a single colonization coupled with rapid range expansion, potentially hastened by human-mediated dispersal.

  14. Molecular Evidence for Dissemination of Unique Campylobacter jejuni Clones in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, B.; Godschalk, P.C.R.; Braak, N. van den; Dingle, K.E.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Leyde, E.; Plas, J. van der; Colles, F.M.; Endtz, H.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Maiden, M.C.J.; Belkum, A. van

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 234) associated with gastroenteritis and the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in the island of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, and collected from March 1999 to March 2000 were investigated by a range of molecular typing techniques. Data obtained by pulsed-field gel ele

  15. Molecular Evidence for Dissemination of Unique Campylobacter jejuni Clones in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, B.; Godschalk, P.C.R.; Braak, N. van den; Dingle, K.E.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Leyde, E.; Plas, J. van der; Colles, F.M.; Endtz, H.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Maiden, M.C.J.; Belkum, A. van

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 234) associated with gastroenteritis and the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in the island of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, and collected from March 1999 to March 2000 were investigated by a range of molecular typing techniques. Data obtained by pulsed-field gel

  16. Tardigrada of the Caribbean island of Dominica (West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana G. Hinton

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In June 2009 we surveyed the terrestrial Tardigrada of Dominica, the most northerly of the Windward islands of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean sea. Out of 112 moss, lichen, liverwort and leaf litter samples, 35 had tardigrades, representing 10 genera and 25 species or species groups. This survey increases the number of species reported from Dominica from 3 to 25, more than the total recorded from any other West Indian island. Twelve species found in Dominica are cosmopolitan or belong to cosmopolitan species groups. Eight species are new to the fauna of the West Indies, one is new to the fauna of the Americas, and at least one is endemic to Dominica.

  17. Thermal regime along the Antilles subduction zone: Influence of the oceanic lithosphere materials subducted in the oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biari, Youssef; Marcaillou, Boris; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Francis, Lucazeau; Fréderique, Rolandone; Arnauld, Heuret; Thibaud, Pichot; Hélène, Bouquerel

    2017-04-01

    Heat-flow measurements acquired during the Antithesis Cruise in the Northern Lesser Antilles reveal an atypical heat-flow trend, from the trench to the margin forearc, where the subducting crust consists of exhumed and serpentinized mantle rocks (see Marcaillou et al. same session). We investigate the thermal structure of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone along two transects perpendicular to the margin located off Antigua and Martinique Islands. We perform 2-D steady-state finite elements thermal modelling constrained by newly-recorded and existing data: heat flow measurements, deep multichannel reflection and wide angle seismic data as well as earthquake hypocenters location at depth. Along the Martinique profile, the heat-flow decreases from the trench (45 mW.m-2) to minimum in the outer fore-arc (30 mW.m-2) and increases to a plateau (50 mW.m-2) toward the back-arc area. These trend and values are typical for the subduction of a steep 80-MYr old oceanic plate beneath an oceanic margin. As a result, the 150°-350°C temperature range along the interplate contact, commonly associated to the thermally-defined seismogenic zone, is estimated to be located between 200 - 350km from the trench. In contrast, along the Antigua profile, the heat-flow shows an atypical "flat" trend at 40 ± 15 mW.m-2 from the trench to the inner forearc. Purely conductive thermal models fail at fitting both the measured values and the flat trend. We propose that the subducting crust made of serpentinized exhumed mantle rock strongly affecting the heat-flow at the surface and the margin thermal structure. The geothermal gradient in the 5-km-thick serpentinized layer is expected to be low compared to "normal" oceanic crust because of cold water percolation and peridotite alteration. Moreover, from 50km depth, serpentine dehydration reactions provide significant amounts of hot water expelled toward the upper plate, generated heat beneath the forearc. As a result, in our preferred model: 1/ A

  18. Climate change effects on the biodiversity of the BES islands : assessment of the possible consequences for the marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Dutch Antilles and the options for adaptation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Bugter, R.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Due to their vulnerability and low capacity to adapt, the impact of climate change on small island nations will be far larger compared to larger countries. The Dutch BES islands (Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba) form part of the Caribbean global biodiversity hotspot area. The leeward Dutch islands a

  19. Climate change effects on the biodiversity of the BES islands : assessment of the possible consequences for the marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Dutch Antilles and the options for adaptation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Bugter, R.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Due to their vulnerability and low capacity to adapt, the impact of climate change on small island nations will be far larger compared to larger countries. The Dutch BES islands (Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba) form part of the Caribbean global biodiversity hotspot area. The leeward Dutch islands a

  20. Scale insects from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyne, A.

    1964-01-01

    The following species have been reported from the Netherlands’ Antilles: Margarodes formicarum Guilding, collected in 1884 or 1885 by Prof. W. F. R. Suringar in Curaçao; specimens in the State Museum of Natural History at Leiden. Protortonia cacti (Linn.), collected in 1756 by Daniel Rolander in St.

  1. Scale insects from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyne, A.

    1964-01-01

    The following species have been reported from the Netherlands’ Antilles: Margarodes formicarum Guilding, collected in 1884 or 1885 by Prof. W. F. R. Suringar in Curaçao; specimens in the State Museum of Natural History at Leiden. Protortonia cacti (Linn.), collected in 1756 by Daniel Rolander in St.

  2. Time Evolution of the Basse Terre Island (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) Effusive Volcanism from New K-Ar Cassignol-Gillot Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper, A.; Quidelleur, X.; Mollex, D.; Komorowski, J. C.; Boudon, G.

    2004-12-01

    Radiometric dating and geochemistry of effusive volcanics have been combined with geomorphological observations in order to provide a general evolution model of the volcanic island of Basse Terre, Guadeloupe (French West Indies). More than forty new Cassignol-Gillot K-Ar ages distributed within the entire island, together with the twenty ages (Blanc, 1983; Carlut et al., 2000) previously obtained with the same technique, makes the Guadeloupe Island the best place to study the evolution of volcanic processes within the Lesser Antilles Arc. Dating was performed on the carefully separated groundmass in order to avoid K loss due to weathering and excess argon carried by mafic minerals. Ages obtained are relatively younger than previously thought on Basse Terre and range from a few ka to 2.79+-0.04 Ma. When available, the paleomagnetic polarity of the dated flows agree with the GPTS and a very good coherence of ages is observed for each massif. Our results demonstrate the general north to south migration of volcanism through time. It correlates with the main volcanic stages previously identified. The 2.75 Ma Basal Complex, the 1.81+-0.03 _ 1.15+-0.02 Ma Septentrional Chain, the 1.02+-0.02 Ma _ 0.606+-0.02 Ma Axial Chain, the 442+-6 _ 207+-28 ka Mateliane _ Sans Toucher Complex and the basaltic andesites and andesites although a few basalt and dacite have also been dated. All of them are characterized by low MgO values (geochemical characteristics similar to that of the central islands of the Lesser Antilles arc. Within Basse Terre, geochemical characteristics are relatively constant through time, indicating no major change of volcanic processes during the whole subaerial activity. Finally the detailed chronological framework now available provides new constraints for estimating rates of edification and destruction at the island scale and, more generally, to help better understand the evolution of the still active Guadeloupe island Soufriere volcano.

  3. The Marine Mollusca of St. Martin, Lesser Antilles, collected by H.J. Krebs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1963-01-01

    In 1864 an anonymous list of species of the West Indian marine mollusks was published in Denmark. There were only twenty copies printed, seven of which were lost during transportation to the West Indies (CLENCH et al., 1947—1948, p. 23). The author was HENDRIK JOHANNES KREBS (1821—1907), Fig. 117, a

  4. Transport properties of pyroclastic rocks from Montagne Pelée volcano (Martinique, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Marie-Lise; Zamora, Maria; GéRaud, Yves; Boudon, Georges

    2007-05-01

    The hydraulic and electrical properties of pyroclastic rocks have been investigated in laboratory on a representative sampling of Montagne Pelée (Martinique, France) deposits with renewed interest in geophysical applications. This sampling covers all the lithologic units of this volcano: lava dome and lava flows, pumices from ash-and-pumice fall and flow deposits, lava blocks from block-and-ash flow and Peléean "nuées ardentes" deposits, scoriae from scoria flow deposits. The connected porosity varies over a wide range from 3 to 62%. The unconnected porosity is important only on pumices where it can reach 15%. The permeability covers more than 5 orders of magnitude, ranging from 10-16 to 35 × 10-12 m2. The higher values are obtained on lava blocks and the scoriae, even if these rocks are less porous than the pumices. The formation factor ranges from 7 to 1139. The transport properties of these rocks are slightly correlated with porosity. This indicates that these properties are not only controlled by the connected porosity. To connect the transport properties to the textural characteristics of the pore network of pyroclastic rocks, different models, based on geometrical considerations or percolation theory, were tested. The pore access radius distribution and the tortuosity control the transport properties of pyroclastic rocks. Consequently, the models (electric and hydraulic) based on the concept of percolation (e.g., the models of Katz and Thompson), apply better than the equivalent channel model of Kozeny-Carman. In addition, the difference in transport properties observed on lava blocks and pumices confirms that the mechanisms of degassing and vesiculation are different for these two types of rock.

  5. Shallow-water Mysidacea from the Lesser Antilles and other Caribbean regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brattegard, Torleiv

    1975-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of papers dealing with Mysidacea (Crustacea) from shallow water in the tropical and warm-temperate areas of the western Atlantic (BRATTEGARD 1969, 1970a, 1970b, 1973, 1974a, 1974b). Five of these are dealing with material collected by the author in southern Flo

  6. Distribution and size of benthic marine habitats in Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Claus Christoff Steiner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ambientes béntico-marinos de Dominica, Antillas Menores, incluyen 1 814.7ha y cerca del 90% de la costa. Este es el primer trabajo sobre el tamaño y distribución de los ambientes costeros sublitorales y sus comunidades epibénticas. Los pastos marinos constituyeron el ambiente más extenso, con 265ha. Los arrecifes coralinos presentaron una cobertura de 72.2ha. Ambos tipos de ambientes se encontraron principalmente en la costa oeste y norte, regiones con la mayor diversidad de ambientes marinos. Las áreas rocosas (911.5ha dominaron las costas este y sur de la isla, y junto con las áreas arenosas (566ha constituyeron el 81% de los ambientes bénticos. La distribución de pastos marinos, que incluyeron cuatro especies nativas y una invasiva, no se pudo corroborar con los pocos informes previos. La cobertura béntica de los arrecifes coralinos de Dominica fue mucho menor que las 7 000ha que se habían reportado previamente. Estas discrepancias ilustran la ventaja de los estudios ambientales basados en trabajo de campo y la compilación sistemática de datos ambientales, especialmente en casos como Dominica donde por lo angosto de la plataforma insular, los ambientes marinos sublitorales quedan muy cerca de los centros urbanos. Se demuestra que técnicas simples pueden ser utilizadas a gran escala alrededor de una isla para realizar inventarios de los recursos marino-costeros, mediante mapas y repositorios públicos de datos para usos futuros, que permiten el desarrollo de medidas de conservación efectivas.

  7. Improving communication during volcanic crises on small, vulnerable islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, W. J.; Solana, M. C.; Kilburn, C. R. J.; Sanderson, D.

    2009-05-01

    Increased exposure to volcanic hazard, particularly at vulnerable small islands, is driving an urgent and growing need for improved communication between monitoring scientists, emergency managers and the media, in advance of and during volcanic crises. Information gathering exercises undertaken on volcanic islands (Guadeloupe, St. Vincent and Montserrat) in the Lesser Antilles (eastern Caribbean), which have recently experienced - or are currently experiencing - volcanic action, have provided the basis for the compilation and publication of a handbook on Communication During Volcanic Emergencies, aimed at the principal stakeholder groups. The findings of the on-island surveys point up the critical importance of (1) bringing together monitoring scientists, emergency managers, and representatives of the media, well in advance of a volcanic crisis, and (2), ensuring that procedures and protocols are in place that will allow, as far as possible, effective and seamless cooperation and coordination when and if a crisis situation develops. Communication During Volcanic Emergencies is designed to promote and encourage both of these priorities through providing the first source-book addressing working relationships and inter-linkages between the stakeholder groups, and providing examples of good and bad practice. While targeting the volcanic islands of the eastern Caribbean, the source-book and its content are largely generic, and the advice and guidelines contained therein have equal validity in respect of improving communication before and during crises at any volcano, and have application to the communication issue in respect of a range of other geophysical hazards.

  8. Primary Teratoma of the Lesser Sac: Lesser Sac Teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon M. Hardesty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors predominantly involve the gonads but may rarely be found outside of the gonads, primarily in midline structures. We describe the case of a 27-year-old male with an asymptomatic 8 cm teratoma located within the lesser sac of his omentum. This is the fourth case of a teratoma located within the lesser sac of the omentum, which provides the opportunity to make some comparisons. Finally, we discuss some of the etiologic theories behind extragonadal germ cell tumors and how they relate to teratomas in the lesser sac.

  9. Causal link between Quaternary paleoclimatic changes and flank collapses on volcanic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, A.; Quidelleur, X.; Samper, A.

    2007-05-01

    Giant landslides and resulting tsunamis represent the main geologic hazards linked to volcanic island evolution. From bathymetric data and on-land geological studies, flank failures have been identified around numerous volcanic islands, in most geodynamic contexts. However, the enabling and triggering conditions are still poorly understood and several internal and external causes may act simultaneously to reach a critical threshold. We here present a compilation of well-dated flank destabilization events within the last 1 Myr from Tahiti, Hawaii, Canary Islands, Guadeloupe and Martinique (Lesser Antilles), and examine their relationships with global paleoclimatic changes evidenced by a global stack of benthic ?18O records. We show that a causal relationship between flank collapse of volcanic islands and global climatic changes has existed at least since 900 kyr. Moreover, high precision ages reported here favor the hypothesis that major flank collapse events occurred during the onset of glacial to interglacial transitions when a sudden influx of melt water from polar ice caps causes rapid sea level rise. We propose that following a sub aerial erosion interval during low sea level stands, rapid sea level rise induces enhanced coastal erosion and sudden changes of pore pressure conditions within basal layers, which favor edifice failure.

  10. Description of the atmospheric circulation in the boundary layer over a tropical island: Case study of Guadeloupe Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocoste, Thomas; Dorville, Jean-François; Jacoby-Koaly, Sandra; Roussas, André

    2016-04-01

    Over past two decades the use of atmospheric sounding methods as Sodars, Lidar equipped drones increased sharply. Compare to weather balloon, these modern methods allow measure of profile at constant heights during long period. There are few studies using this type of equipment in tropical climates and lesser on small island. Wind regime on island of diameter less than 50 km are mostly considered as oceanic. Many author consider that thermal effect are negligible in land. But recent observations and simulations show importance of the thermal circulation at small- and meso- scales particularly in atmospheric pollution process. Up to 2009 no wind profile data were available continuously to study atmospheric circulation in Guadeloupe Archipelago (GA) which is one of the islands of the Lesser Antilles Arc. In first approximation wind was evaluated based on measures done at the most upwind island of the GA for many application as wind power and atmospheric pollution. From 2009 to 2012 a measurement campaign of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) have been performed by the University of Antilles (UA) in GA. To assess effects of dynamic of ABL on air quality in sub urban area, particularly during the sunset and sunrise, UA monitored two sites with a weather station and a doppler sodar (REMTECH PAO). Both sites are close to the sea with one in a coastal area and the other in an open landfill surrounded by densely populated building and a mangrove swamp. Thermal and chemical measurements with a portable mass spectrometer were made in the vicinity of the landfill and showed the existence of urban heat islands. This study presents the first Doppler Sodar long measurements campaign in GA. Statistical analysis of the three year of doppler sodar data (i.e. wind components and its fluctuations) allow to identified and characterized the complex circulations on the two sites in the ABL between 25 and 500m above the sea level. Orographic and thermal effects due to urban area were

  11. A quantitative assessment of the vegetation types on the island of St. Eustatius, Dutch Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinde van Andel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean dry forests are among the most endangered tropical ecosystems on earth. Several studies exist on their floristic composition and their recovery after natural or man-made disturbances, but little is known on the small Dutch Caribbean islands. In this study, we present quantitative data on plant species richness and abundance on St. Eustatius, one of the smallest islands of the Lesser Antilles. We collected and identified trees, shrubs, lianas and herbs in 11 plots of 25 x 25 m in different vegetation types. We compared their floristic composition and structure to vegetation surveys from roughly the same locations in the 1990s and 1950s. We found substantial differences among our 11 plots: vegetation types varied from evergreen forests to deciduous shrubland and open woodland. The number of tree species ≥10 cm DBH ranged between one and 17, and their density between three and 82 per plot. In spite that all plots were subject to grazing by free roaming cattle, canopy height and floristic diversity have increased in the last decades. Invasive species are present in the open vegetation types, but not under (partly closed canopy. Comparison with the earlier surveys showed that the decline of agriculture and conservation efforts resulted in the regeneration of dry forests between the 1950s and 2015. This process has also been reported from nearby islands and offers good opportunities for the future conservation of Caribbean dry forests.

  12. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  13. Preliminary Assessment of Sponge Biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thacker, R.W.; Díaz, M.C.; de Voogd, N.J.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Freeman, C.J.; Mobley, A.S.; LaPietra, J.; Cope, K.; McKenna, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishe

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Sponge Biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thacker, R.W.; Díaz, M.C.; de Voogd, N.J.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Freeman, C.J.; Mobley, A.S.; LaPietra, J.; Cope, K.; McKenna, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled

  15. From a thriving past to an uncertain future: Zooarchaeological evidence of two millennia of human impact on a large emblematic lizard (Iguana delicatissima) on the Guadeloupe Islands (French West Indies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, C.; Bailon, S.; Ineich, I.; Breuil, M.; Tresset, A.; Grouard, S.

    2016-10-01

    Among the lizards in the Lesser Antillean Islands, iguanas are undoubtedly the most emblematic, especially the endemic species, Iguana delicatissima. However, although much effort is currently made for the conservation of this species as a result of the present biodiversity crisis, nearly nothing is known of the history of this animal on these islands during the last millennia. Here we present the first data relating to the distribution, morphology, and interaction of past iguanas with human populations in the Lesser Antilles. To do so, we review the archaeological Iguana remains collected over the past 15 years on the Guadeloupe Islands. Our results show that the only Iguana species occurring in pre-Columbian archaeological deposits is Iguana delicatissima. Moreover, we demonstrate that this species occurred on all the islands of Guadeloupe during pre-Columbian times and then suddenly became extinct between 1960 and 1990 on most of these islands. We also confirm the modern introduction of I. iguana to the Guadeloupe Islands. In addition, zooarchaeological research demonstrates that pre-Columbian human populations occasionally used iguanas as a source of food, but with no apparent impact on the native population. However, the first data relating to past size variations of I. delicatissima on the Guadeloupe Islands indicate that archaeological iguanas were much larger than the largest remnant modern specimens and that a marked decrease in body length (more than 20%) occurred in these lizards after contact with European populations. This evidence of widespread extinction and morphological change during modern times is another demonstration of the extensive effects of disturbance and selection induced by modern human societies on endemic insular faunas.

  16. Mapping the mean monthly precipitation of a small island using kriging with external drifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantet, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    This study focuses on the spatial distribution of mean annual and monthly precipitation in a small island (1128 km2) named Martinique, located in the Lesser Antilles. Only 35 meteorological stations are available on the territory, which has a complex topography. With a digital elevation model (DEM), 17 covariates that are likely to explain precipitation were built. Several interpolation methods, such as regression-kriging (MLRK, PCRK,and PLSK) and external drift kriging (EDK) were tested using a cross-validation procedure. For the regression methods, predictors were chosen by established techniques whereas a new approach is proposed to select external drifts in a kriging which is based on a stepwise model selection by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The prediction accuracy was assessed at validation sites with three different skill scores. Results show that using methods with no predictors such as inverse distance weighting (IDW) or universal kriging (UK) is inappropriate in such a territory. EDK appears to outperform regression methods for any criteria, and selecting predictors by our approach improves the prediction of mean annual precipitation compared to kriging with only elevation as drift. Finally, the predicting performance was also studied by varying the size of the training set leading to less conclusive results for EDK and its performance. Nevertheless, the proposed method seems to be a good way to improve the mapping of climatic variables in a small island.

  17. Numerical simulation of the last flank-collapse event of Montagne Pelée, Martinique, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Friant, Anne; Heinrich, Philippe; Deplus, Christine; Boudon, Georges

    2003-01-01

    We model the submarine emplacement of a debris avalanche generated by the last flank-collapse event of Montagne Pelée volcano. We estimate the collapsed volume (1.7 km3) using both the volume of the missing material in the horseshoe-shaped structure and the volume of submarine deposits. This avalanche is treated as the gravitational flow of a homogeneous continuum. It is simulated by a finite-difference model, solving mass and momentum conservation equations, that are depth-averaged over the slide thickness. Numerical simulations show that the emplacement of this debris-avalanche can be suitably modeled by a Coulomb-type friction law with a variable friction angle below 10°. We propose that variations of the friction angle are mainly influenced by the thickness of the flowing mass.

  18. Seismic properties of volcanic rocks from Montagne Pelée (Martinique, Lesser Antilles) and their relations to transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, M.-L.; Zamora, M.

    2012-04-01

    Numerous laboratory and theoretical studies on the physical properties of rocks and their relationships - lead mainly in the framework of petroleum exploration - show that rock physics is necessary for an accurate quantitative interpretation of geophysical observations. Moreover joint inversion of different geophysical datasets is emerging as an important tool to enhance resolution and decrease inversion artifacts in imaging of structurally complex areas such as volcanoes. In many cases, the coupling between the inverted parameters is based on empirical or theoretical relationships derived from laboratory data. Consequently rock physics can be used to: interpret simultaneously several geophysical datasets on volcanoes when they are available, improve the imaging of volcano structures, and better understand the coupled processes that can occur during volcanic unrest. It's in this context that we lead a laboratory study on the transport properties (permeability, thermal and electrical conductivities) and seismic properties (velocity and attenuation of P and S waves) of volcanic rocks representative of Montagne Pelée (Martinique) deposits. In this presentation we will focus on (1) the seismic properties and (2) the relations between seismic and transport properties. The 43 samples collected are representative of the main lithological units of this volcano: vesicular lava blocks and indurated ashed from indurated block-and-ash flows also called breccias, vesicular lava blocks from "Pelean nuee ardente" flows, scoriae from scoria flows, pumices from ash-and-pumices flows, and dense lava blocks from lava flows and lava domes. Their total porosity varies over a wide range from 4 to 73%. Since the samples present similar chemical and mineralogical compositions (andesites), the main difference between the samples comes from their pore structure and reflects differences in the mechanisms of magma degassing and vesiculation during their formation (Bernard et al., 2007). This allows us to investigate the effect of the pore space characteristics on the studied properties and on their relationships. Results show that ultrasonic velocities in water saturated samples vary with increasing porosity from 5,4 to 2 km/s for P-waves and from 3 to 0,9 km/s for S-waves. Seismic quality factors are relatively low and range between 27 and 3 for P-waves and between 40 and 5 for S-waves. Seismic velocities and attenuation coefficients correlate with porosity. But the links between seismic and transport properties are generally stronger, and particularly between P-wave attenuation and electrical formation factor. This indicates large similarities in the characteristics of the pore space that control the seismic and transport properties in volcanic rocks. Thereafter seismic measurements can help to monitor fluid flows in volcanic and geothermal areas.

  19. Cold seeps associated with a submarine debris avalanche deposit at Kick'em Jenny volcano, Grenada (Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Steven; Ballard, Robert; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Bell, Richard J.; Connally, Patrick; Dondin, Frederic; Fuller, Sarah; Gobin, Judith; Miloslavich, Patricia; Phillips, Brennan; Roman, Chris; Seibel, Brad; Siu, Nam; Smart, Clara

    2014-11-01

    Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) exploration at the distal margins of a debris avalanche deposit from Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano in Grenada has revealed areas of cold seeps with chemosynthetic-based ecosystems. The seeps occur on steep slopes of deformed, unconsolidated hemipelagic sediments in water depths between 1952 and 2042 m. Two main areas consist of anastomosing systems of fluid flow that have incised local sediments by several tens of centimeters. No temperature anomalies were observed in the vent areas and no active flow was visually observed, suggesting that the venting may be waning. An Eh sensor deployed on a miniature autonomous plume recorder (MAPR) recorded a positive signal and the presence of live organisms indicates at least some venting is still occurring. The chemosynthetic-based ecosystem included giant mussels (Bathymodiolus sp.) with commensal polychaetes (Branchipolynoe sp.) and cocculinid epibionts, other bivalves, Siboglinida (vestimentiferan) tubeworms, other polychaetes, and shrimp, as well as associated heterotrophs, including gastropods, anemones, crabs, fish, octopods, brittle stars, and holothurians. The origin of the seeps may be related to fluid overpressure generated during the collapse of an ancestral Kick'em Jenny volcano. We suggest that deformation and burial of hemipelagic sediment at the front and base of the advancing debris avalanche led to fluid venting at the distal margin. Such deformation may be a common feature of marine avalanches in a variety of geological environments especially along continental margins, raising the possibility of creating large numbers of ephemeral seep-based ecosystems.

  20. Modelling the impact of a hypothetical sub-Plinian eruption at La Soufrière of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Komorowski, J.-C.; Saito, K.; Brown, A.; Pomonis, A.; Toyos, G.; Baxter, P.

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes the development and application of an impact model for a future hypothetical sub-Plinian eruption of La Soufrière of Guadeloupe. The model was designed to assess the impact from either a single or multiple eruption scenarios, each defined in terms of a map of the intensity of three volcanic hazards; volcanogenic earthquake, tephra fallout and pyroclastic density currents. The impact from the three hazards can be assessed independently or alternatively the joint impact of the three hazards can be assessed. The outputs that are produced from the model are; the number of buildings with collapsed roofs, and the number of fatal and non-fatal casualties. Two versions of the impact model were developed, one that uses a spreadsheet and another that is implemented using a Geographical Information System (GIS). Both versions use the same types of hazard inputs and vulnerability functions to derive the number of building collapses and casualties, but have different spatial resolution of the final outputs. The spreadsheet version aggregates the results at a zone level defined specifically for this project whereas the GIS was designed to produce results using 250 m grid-squares. The outputs from the two versions, when using the same eruption scenario, produced somewhat different results, highlighting the importance of defining the appropriate spatial resolution. The vulnerability functions were developed using data on the building stock that was collected by a local survey, in which data on the form of construction, condition, location and types of openings and the variation of these parameters across the affected area were collected. The vulnerability functions incorporated new assessments of fire risks induced by pyroclastic density currents. The model was applied to La Soufrière using a range of input hazard scenarios based on reconstruction of the most recent sub-Plinian magmatic eruption which occurred in 1530 AD. A sensitivity analysis of the model was carried out choosing the inputs from a range of defined input values. The effect on losses and casualties of a range of possible mitigation measures was assessed by running the original model and the modified model using the same input eruption scenario. A separate casualty treatment model was also developed and tested.

  1. Permeability and pressure measurements in Lesser Antilles submarine slides: Evidence for pressure-driven slow-slip failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbach, Matthew J.; Manga, Michael; Genecov, Michael; Valdez, Robert; Miller, Peter; Saffer, Demian; Adelstein, Esther; Lafuerza, Sara; Adachi, Tatsuya; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Jutzeler, Martin; Le Friant, Anne; Ishizuka, Osamu; Morgan, Sally; Slagle, Angela; Talling, Peter J.; Fraass, Andrew; Watt, Sebastian F. L.; Stroncik, Nicole A.; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Boudon, Georges; Fujinawa, Akihiko; Hatfield, Robert; Kataoka, Kyoko; Maeno, Fukashi; Martinez-Colon, Michael; McCanta, Molly; Palmer, Martin; Stinton, Adam; Subramanyam, K. S. V.; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Villemant, Benoît; Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Wang, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies hypothesize that some submarine slides fail via pressure-driven slow-slip deformation. To test this hypothesis, this study derives pore pressures in failed and adjacent unfailed deep marine sediments by integrating rock physics models, physical property measurements on recovered sediment core, and wireline logs. Two drill sites (U1394 and U1399) drilled through interpreted slide debris; a third (U1395) drilled into normal marine sediment. Near-hydrostatic fluid pressure exists in sediments at site U1395. In contrast, results at both sites U1394 and U1399 indicate elevated pore fluid pressures in some sediment. We suggest that high pore pressure at the base of a submarine slide deposit at site U1394 results from slide shearing. High pore pressure exists throughout much of site U1399, and Mohr circle analysis suggests that only slight changes in the stress regime will trigger motion. Consolidation tests and permeability measurements indicate moderately low (~10-16-10-17 m2) permeability and overconsolidation in fine-grained slide debris, implying that these sediments act as seals. Three mechanisms, in isolation or in combination, may produce the observed elevated pore fluid pressures at site U1399: (1) rapid sedimentation, (2) lateral fluid flow, and (3) shearing that causes sediments to contract, increasing pore pressure. Our preferred hypothesis is this third mechanism because it explains both elevated fluid pressure and sediment overconsolidation without requiring high sedimentation rates. Our combined analysis of subsurface pore pressures, drilling data, and regional seismic images indicates that slope failure offshore Martinique is perhaps an ongoing, creep-like process where small stress changes trigger motion.

  2. Phreatic activity in the Valley of Desolation, Dominica (Lesser Antilles) - constraints from field investigations and experimental volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Montanaro, Cristian; Yilmaz, Tim; Aßbichler, Donja; Gilg, H. Albert; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    Dominica has one of the highest concentrations of potentially active volcanoes worldwide, flanked by abundant surficial geothermal manifestations: The Boiling Lake - Valley of Desolation area represents one of the most vigorous ones, hosting hot springs, mud pools, fumaroles, and steam vents. Intense alteration, together with predominantly phreatic explosive features of varying scales, characterize the whole area. The last historic eruptions in Dominica occurred at the Valley of Desolation. Phreatic eruptions are also the most likely type of volcanic activity to occur in the near future at Dominica in general and the Valley of Desolation in particular. Phreatic eruptions are up to date largely unpredictable in time and magnitude, strongly asking for constraints of eruptive conditions as well as trigger mechanisms. We conducted sampling and field mapping, together with the determination of in situ physical (density, humidity, permeability) and mechanical (strength, stiffness) properties to characterize the main active surficial area which possesses a high probability for a phreatic event. Rapid decompression experiments performed on selected samples from this area give insight into the fragmentation and ejection behavior of steam driven eruptions. These experiments were flanked by chemical analyses and laboratory measurements as porosity and granulometry. The results indicate that advanced argillic alteration in the proximity of degassing vents significantly changes the rock properties, which in turn play a crucial role for the degassing of hydrothermal systems. High-temperature acidic fluids lead to an intense alteration of the host rocks, and thereby cause the formation of a kaolinite-rich, low permeable layer above the vent. In addition, alteration enhances slope instabilities causing landslides which may cover and clog the outgassing vents. Such processes increase the likelihood of the site experiencing a pressurization, which may result in a steam-blast (phreatic) eruption. We show the distribution of surficial, hydrothermal features and highlight the range of possible phreatic events in the Valley of Desolation. Our results further contribute to a better understanding of the conditions and the dynamics of phreatic eruptions, especially the ejection dynamics of heavily altered unconsolidated material. Thereby we provide a valuable input to the hazard assessment of these frequently visited sites on Dominica and similar hydrothermally active areas worldwide.

  3. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in ...

  4. Inter-annual rainfall variability in the eastern Antilles and coupling with the regional and intra-seasonal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2016-11-01

    Climate variability in the eastern Antilles island chain is analyzed via principal component analysis of high-resolution monthly rainfall in the period 1981-2013. The second mode reflecting higher rainfall in July-October season between Martinique and Grenada is the focus of this study. Higher rainfall corresponds with a weakened trade wind and boundary current along the southern edge of the Caribbean. This quells the coastal upwelling off Venezuela and builds the freshwater plume east of Trinidad. There is corresponding upper easterly wind flow that intensifies passing tropical waves. During a storm event over the Antilles on 4-5 October 2010, there was inflow from east of Guyana where low salinity and high sea temperatures enable surplus latent heat fluxes. A N-S convective rain band forms ˜500 km east of the cyclonic vortex. Many features at the weather timescale reflect the seasonal correlation and composite difference maps and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulation of oceanic inter-basin transfers.

  5. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Leeward Antilles: Evolution of the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Kounov, Alexandre; Cosca, Michael; Chew, David; Villagomez, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Caribbean Plate are severely hampered by a paucity of geochronologic and exhumation constraints from anastomosed basement blocks along its southern margin. New U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He data constrain quantitative thermal and exhumation histories, which have been used to propose a model for the tectonic evolution of the emergent parts of the Bonaire Block and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. An east facing arc system intruded through an oceanic plateau during ~90 to ~87 Ma and crops out on Aruba. Subsequent structural displacements resulted in >80°C of cooling on Aruba during 70–60 Ma. In contrast, exhumation of the island arc sequence exposed on Bonaire occurred at 85–80 Ma and 55–45 Ma. Santonian exhumation on Bonaire occurred immediately subsequent to burial metamorphism and may have been driven by the collision of a west facing island arc with the Caribbean Plate. Island arc rocks intruded oceanic plateau rocks on Gran Roque at ~65 Ma and exhumed rapidly at 55–45 Ma. We attribute Maastrichtian-Danian exhumation on Aruba and early Eocene exhumation on Bonaire and Gran Roque to sequential diachronous accretion of their basement units to the South American Plate. Widespread unconformities indicate late Eocene subaerial exposure. Late Oligocene–early Miocene dextral transtension within the Bonaire Block drove subsidence and burial of crystalline basement rocks of the Leeward Antilles to ≤1 km. Late Miocene–recent transpression caused inversion and ≤1 km of exhumation, possibly as a result of the northward escape of the Maracaibo Block.

  6. Impact of land use on weathering rates in Guadeloupe, Caribbean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, S.; Cerdan, O.; Gaillardet, J.; Grandjean, G.; Allegre, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Guadeloupe is located in Lesser Antilles with a tropical climate with very high precipitation, temperature, very dense vegetation (forest on the steepest slopes, agricultural on the lowlands) and sharp relief. Rivers present torrential hydrological regime with extreme erosion conditions. The tropical context contributes to important development of saprolitic profile, with extreme chemical weathering rates (e.g. 100 to 600 t/km2/yr). As for many volcanic islands erodible lithology such as pyroclastic flows with ashes or even massif lava flows involve important material transported during the erosion processes. The lithyology is also very porous with high infiltration rates, which induces that most of the elements fluxes are produced on subsurface as the chemical erosion rates are 2 to 5 time higher than the rates from surface water (Rad et al., 2007). Moreover kinetic of chemical weathering rates depends on the age of the lava flows (with a NS gradient of age) and subsurface circulation with local hydrothermal springs, which highly increases chemical weathering rates. It appears that first stage of erosion are characterized by high chemical denudation rates and high physical denudation rates, the erosion products chemical compositions are then close to the bedrock one. It is then followed in a second stage by constant chemical weathering rates and lower mechanical denudation rates. Moreover Guadeloupe islands is highly impacted by agriculture (banana and sugar cane plantations), which significantly influence the hydrological cycle. It is therefore interesting to asses the impact of such influence on the weathering rates on this island. Chemical and physical weathering rates will be correlated to the different land use to quantify the impact of human activities and explain its role in the evolution of the Critical Zone.

  7. The Lesser Antillean Iguana on St. Eustatius: 2012 status update and review of limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Boman, E.

    2013-01-01

    The endangered Lesser Antillean Iguana, Iguana delicatissima, is an emblematic species for the island of St. Eustatius and in Caribbean Netherlands it is only found on St. Eustatius. In this study we conducted an extensive population survey for the iguana and compared densities in different areas to

  8. The Caribbean -- Implications for the US Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-16

    Greater Antilles while those smaller, north-south islands are called the Lesser Antilles. Of the Lesser Antilles, those from Anguilla to Guadeloupe are...Land that is not used for housing or agriculture would be called lush forestation-jungle to some. The Caribbean Sea is deep-the average depth runs...South America) and eventually agricultural opportuni- ties.3 The French, English, Portugese and Dutch saw the military and economic potential in

  9. Winter fidelity and apparent survival of lesser snow goose populations in the Pacific flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.K.; Samuel, M.D.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraege, Donald K.

    2008-01-01

    The Beringia region of the Arctic contains 2 colonies of lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) breeding on Wrangel Island, Russia, and Banks Island, Canada, and wintering in North America. The Wrangel Island population is composed of 2 subpopulations from a sympatric breeding colony but separate wintering areas, whereas the Banks Island population shares a sympatric wintering area in California, USA, with one of the Wrangel Island subpopulations. The Wrangel Island colony represents the last major snow goose population in Russia and has fluctuated considerably since 1970, whereas the Banks Island population has more than doubled. The reasons for these changes are unclear, but hypotheses include independent population demographics (survival and recruitment) and immigration and emigration among breeding or wintering populations. These demographic and movement patterns have important ecological and management implications for understanding goose population structure, harvest of admixed populations, and gene flow among populations with separate breeding or wintering areas. From 1993 to 1996, we neckbanded molting birds at their breeding colonies and resighted birds on the wintering grounds. We used multistate mark-recapture models to evaluate apparent survival rates, resighting rates, winter fidelity, and potential exchange among these populations. We also compared the utility of face stain in Wrangel Island breeding geese as a predictor of their wintering area. Our results showed similar apparent survival rates between subpopulations of Wrangel Island snow geese and lower apparent survival, but higher emigration, for the Banks Island birds. Males had lower apparent survival than females, most likely due to differences in neckband loss. Transition between wintering areas was low (movement between northern and southern wintering areas for Wrangel Island birds and little evidence of exchange between the Banks and northern Wrangel Island populations. Face

  10. Rapid assessment of octocoral diversity and habitat on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Etnoyer

    Full Text Available Saba Bank is a large submerged platform (approximately 2200 km(2, average depth 30 m, located 4 km southwest of Saba Island in Netherlands Antilles, Caribbean Sea. Ships traveling to and from oil terminals on nearby St. Eustatius routinely anchor on the Bank, damaging benthic megafauna. Gorgonian octocorals are vulnerable to anchor damage, and they are common and conspicuous in shallow water (15-50 m around the banks. This prompted a rapid assessment of octocoral habitat and diversity. The primary objectives were to estimate total species richness and to characterize habitats vis a vis gorgonians. Landsat imagery and multibeam bathymetry were employed to identify random sites for quantitative transects. A Seabotix LBV200L remotely operated vehicle (ROV and SCUBA were used to collect and survey to 130 m. A total of 14 scuba dives and 3 ROV dives were completed in 10 days. During that time, 48 octocoral species were collected, including two likely undescribed species in the genera Pterogorgia and Lytreia. Gorgonian richness was exceptional, but not all species were collected, because the species accumulation curve remained steeply inclined after all surveys. Two shallow-water gorgonian habitat types were identified using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses: 1 a high diversity, high density fore-reef environment characterized by Eunicea spp., Gorgonia spp., and Pseudopterogorgia spp. and 2 a low diversity, low density plateau environment characterized by Pseudopterogorgia acerosa, Pterogorgia guadalupensis, and Gorgonia mariae. The analyses support hypotheses of broad (approximately 15 km habitat homogeneity (ANOSIM, P>0.05, but a significant difference between fore-reef and plateau environments (ANOSIM, P<0.05. However, there was some indication of habitat heterogeneity along the 15 km study section of the 50 km platform edge along the southeast rim. Our results highlight the complexity and biodiversity of the Saba Bank, and

  11. Reef fishes of Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles: assemblage structure across a gradient of habitat types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wes Toller

    Full Text Available Saba Bank is a 2,200 km(2 submerged carbonate platform in the northeastern Caribbean Sea off Saba Island, Netherlands Antilles. The presence of reef-like geomorphic features and significant shelf edge coral development on Saba Bank have led to the conclusion that it is an actively growing, though wholly submerged, coral reef atoll. However, little information exists on the composition of benthic communities or associated reef fish assemblages of Saba Bank. We selected a 40 km(2 area of the bank for an exploratory study. Habitat and reef fish assemblages were investigated in five shallow-water benthic habitat types that form a gradient from Saba Bank shelf edge to lagoon. Significant coral cover was restricted to fore reef habitat (average cover 11.5% and outer reef flat habitat (2.4% and declined to near zero in habitats of the central lagoon zone. Macroalgae dominated benthic cover in all habitats (average cover: 32.5--48.1% but dominant algal genera differed among habitats. A total of 97 fish species were recorded. The composition of Saba Bank fish assemblages differed among habitat types. Highest fish density and diversity occurred in the outer reef flat, fore reef and inner reef flat habitats. Biomass estimates for commercially valued species in the reef zone (fore reef and reef flat habitats ranged between 52 and 83 g/m(2. The composition of Saba Bank fish assemblages reflects the absence of important nursery habitats, as well as the effects of past fishing. The relatively high abundance of large predatory fish (i.e. groupers and sharks, which is generally considered an indicator of good ecosystem health for tropical reef systems, shows that an intact trophic network is still present on Saba Bank.

  12. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 36. The genus Strandesia and other Cypricercini (Crustacea, Ostracoda) in the West Indies. Part II. Carapace length, ecology, and distribution of two Strandesia species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and ecology of two species of Strandesia, s. longula Broodbakker, 1983, and S. stocki Broodbakker, 1983, are discussed. Both species are very common in Haiti, and S. longula is also common in the Bahamas. Both are found on some of the Lesser Antilles, and therefore they are assumed

  13. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 36. The genus Strandesia and other Cypricercini (Crustacea, Ostracoda) in the West Indies. Part II. Carapace length, ecology, and distribution of two Strandesia species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and ecology of two species of Strandesia, s. longula Broodbakker, 1983, and S. stocki Broodbakker, 1983, are discussed. Both species are very common in Haiti, and S. longula is also common in the Bahamas. Both are found on some of the Lesser Antilles, and therefore they are assumed

  14. Volcanic evolution of central Basse-Terre Island revisited on the basis of new geochronology and geomorphology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, J.; Quidelleur, X.; Lahitte, P.

    2015-10-01

    Twenty-six new and seven previous K-Ar ages obtained on groundmass separates for samples from the Axial Chain massif (Guadeloupe, F.W.I.), associated with geomorphological investigations, allow us to propose a new model of the volcanic evolution of the central part of Basse-Terre Island. The Axial Chain is composed of four edifices, Moustique, Matéliane, Capesterre, and Icaque mounts, showing coeval activity from 681 ± 12 to 509 ± 10 ka, which contradicts a previous hypothesis that flank collapse affected them successively. Our geomorphological reconstruction shows that the Axial Chain can be considered as a single large volcano, named the Southern Axial Chain volcano (SCA), rather than a succession of several smaller volcanoes. It raises questions regarding the formation of a large depression within the SCA volcano, prior to the construction of the Sans-Toucher volcano between 451 ± 13 and 412 ± 8 ka. Given presently available evidence, a slump affecting the western part of the SCA volcano is the most probable scenario to reconcile the complete age dataset and the present-day morphology of central Basse-Terre. Finally, our study shows that the SCA volcano had a post-activity volume of 90 km3, implying a construction rate of 0.5 km3/kyr. This value strongly constrains interpretations of magma generation processes throughout the Lesser Antilles arc.

  15. A Lesser Yellowlegs hunts for food in the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A sandpiper-like Lesser Yellowlegs eyes the water for food in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The gray-streaked wader is found in marshy ponds, lake and river shores, and mud flats in Alaska and Canada; it winters in the southern United States to southern South America. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  16. A Lesser Yellowlegs hunts for food in the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A sandpiper-like Lesser Yellowlegs eyes the water for food in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The gray-streaked wader is found in marshy ponds, lake and river shores, and mud flats in Alaska and Canada; it winters in the southern United States to southern South America. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  17. Mapping the mean monthly precipitation of a small island using kriging with external drifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the spatial distribution of mean annual and monthly precipitation in a small island (1128 km2) named Martinique, located in the Lesser Antilles. Only 35 meteorological stations are available on the territory, which has a complex topography. With a digital elevation model (DEM), 17 covariates that are likely to explain precipitation were built. Several interpolation methods, such as regression-kriging (𝖬𝖫𝖱𝖪, 𝖯𝖢𝖱𝖪, and 𝖯𝖫𝖲𝖪) and external drift kriging (𝖤𝖣𝖪) were tested using a cross-validation procedure. For the regression methods, predictors were chosen by established techniques whereas a new approach is proposed to select external drifts in a kriging which is based on a stepwise model selection by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The prediction accuracy was assessed at validation sites with three different skill scores. Results show that using methods with no predictors such as inverse distance weighting (𝖨𝖣𝖶) or universal kriging (𝖴𝖪) is inappropriate in such a territory. 𝖤𝖣𝖪 appears to outperform regression methods for any criteria, and selecting predictors by our approach improves the prediction of mean annual precipitation compared to kriging with only elevation as drift. Finally, the predicting performance was also studied by varying the size of the training set leading to less conclusive results for 𝖤𝖣𝖪 and its performance. Nevertheless, the proposed method seems to be a good way to improve the mapping of climatic variables in a small island.

  18. La crise sociale aux Antilles françaises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La crise sociale qui a récemment secoué les Antilles françaises consacre le retour de la « question sociale » sur les scènes politiques insulaires. Elle s’est également traduite par un dessaisissement du personnel politique dont la parole est devenue inaudible, et une montée en puissance de la société civile. Loin d’avoir réglé les problèmes structurels, elle témoigne cependant d’une évolution significative des rapports entre l’outre-mer et l’Hexagone.The social crisis which recently shook the French West Indies legitimises the return of the “social question” on the insular political scenes. It also resulted in a withdrawal of the political personnel whose discourse became inaudible and in the emergence of civil society. Far from having resolved the structural problems, it reveals a significant change of the relationship between the overseas territories  and the Hexagon.

  19. Preliminary assessment of sponge biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Thacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity.

  20. Geographical variation of the skull of the lesser mouse deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hideki; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Junpei; Sasaki, Motoki; Stafford, Brian J

    2004-10-01

    We examined the geographical variation of the skull size and shape of the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) from Laos, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Langkawi and some Islands of Tenasserim in Myanmar. Although the influence of the climatic condition on skull size was not confirmed in the mainland populations, the skull became rostro-caudally longer in the populations of Tenasserim and Sumatra because of island isolation effect. The skull size was classified into the following three clusters of localities from the matrix of Q-mode correlation coefficients: 1) Langkawi and Tenasserim, 2) Laos and Thailand, 3) Sumatra and Borneo. The skulls in the population of Java belong to the cluster of Langkawi and Tenasserim in male, however were morphologically similar to those in the cluster of Borneo and Sumatra. The canonical discriminant analysis pointed out that the Laos and Tenasserim populations were separated from the other ones and that the populations of Sumatra, Java and Borneo were intermingled each other.

  1. High-energy wave deposits at the eastern shore of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M.; Willershäuser, T.; Bolten, A.; Brückner, H.; Daut, G.; Wennrich, V.; Kelletat, D.; Scheffers, A.; Scheffers, S. R.; Schäbitz, F.

    2009-04-01

    The island of Bonaire is part of the Leeward Netherlands Antilles and lies 90 km off the Venezuelan coast. It mainly consists of two upper cretaceous cores of basalt, andesite, and dacite, fringed by a sequence of Quaternary marine limestone terraces. These well-defined platforms formed by in-situ growth of coral reefs and deposition of coral debris during high stands of sea level and subsequent exposure due to slow tectonic uplift. Bonaire has a semi-arid climate with an average annual precipitation of less than 500 mm, though large year-to-year variation occurs. Due to its peripheral position within the Caribbean hurricane belt the island rarely experiences severe storm events. Nevertheless, along the eastern windward coast several high-energy wave impacts of mid- to late Holocene age have created a well-diversified sedimentary record. Broad ramparts of imbricated coral rubble north of Lac Bai are 4 m high, proceed up to 400 m inland, and follow the shore over a distance of 12 km. Reef communities of the island's eastern sublittoral obviously never regenerated after their destruction during extreme wave events. Furthermore, massive boulders of up to 260 tons are distributed over the broad elevated Pleistocene reef platform deriving from the foreshore zone (Scheffers et al., 2008). The windward nearshore morphological depressions provide excellent conditions for preserving sedimentary inputs of exceptionally large wave impacts. We carried out numerous vibracorings and gravity corings inside shallow sinkholes on the Pleistocene terrace north of Lac Bai and the landward floodplain of the Lagun embayment at Washikemba. Several vibracorings of up to 5 m below surface at Lagun show multiple interruptions of continuous sedimentation patterns by poorly-sorted shell hash within a carbonate-rich matrix of marine origin. The lowermost bioclastic unit dates back before 6000 BP. Within a superimposed layer of pure mangrove peat another cluster of shells, partly broken, is

  2. Herder and Modernity: From Lesser-Taught Languages to Lesser-Taught Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Votruba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The typical North American curriculum of a lesser-taught Slavic language implicitly relies on the legacy of Johann Gottfried von Herder’s interpretation that language in and of itself contains national (ethnic culture. At the same time, enrolments are dwindling even in courses in the most commonly taught Slavic languages. Millennials’ understandable focus on the practicality of the courses they take make it unlikely for the lesser-taught languages to survive the slump. On the other hand, foreign culture courses are appearing to hold their ground more successfully. Slavic departments may reconsider Herder’s dictum as they try to maintain or establish programs in lesser-taught languages and cultures.

  3. Seismic ambient noise study at Bouillante geothermal system, French Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bitri, Adnan; Loiseau, Justine; Bouchot, Vincent

    2010-05-01

    Seismic ambient noise analyses have been shown to be able to image structural features of the crust and to monitor underground changes of seismic wave ground velocity. We present results of cross-correlation techniques at Bouillante geothermal field, French Antilles, the largest French high-enthalpy geothermal system exploited for electrical power from 3 collocated productive wells. Two power plants generate electricity and fluid extraction rate varies with time and wells are sometimes closed for equipment maintenance. Under the support of the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and the French Research Agency (ANR), BRGM has been analyzing seismic data from a network comprising 5 broadband seismological stations set-up at Bouillante area since 2004. Amongst the large number of earthquakes recorded, we show that no single earthquake could be related to the fluid exploitation. Instead, they are due to the intense regional seismicity. Despite the small number of stations, surface wave travel times computed from ambient noise cross-correlation for about a year suggest that the velocity structure is consistent with the conceptual model of hot (250°C) and permeable (fractured) geothermal reservoir of Bouillante. We show at several instances that changes of the fluid extraction rate have spatial and temporal slight perturbations on medium wave velocity. For example, when the production stops for maintenance, velocity increases by several percent and with larger amplitude at stations within 1 km distance from the production wells and lower amplitudes (by more than 50 %) at stations further than 2 km from the production wells. In addition, we note that velocity perturbations have a delay of at most 1 day at further stations. We discuss several mechanisms to explain those observations like pressure and stress variations in the geothermal system. The results suggest that the inferred velocity changes, owing the fine sensibility of the inter

  4. Estimated occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Shown are the current estimated occupied range and the historical range of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken. The current range was updated in January 2011 by the Lesser...

  5. A new species of Stichothamnion (Rhodophyta) from the West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroman, M.

    1967-01-01

    The genus Stichothamnion (Rhodomelaceae) was described by Borgesen in 1930, on the basis of material from the north western coast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). During our investigation of marine algae collected from the Netherlands Antilles it appeared that on St. Eustatius (Lesser Antilles) an

  6. Recent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatories Part 2 : WebObs - an integrated web-based system for monitoring and networks management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauducel, François; Bosson, Alexis; Randriamora, Frédéric; Anténor-Habazac, Christian; Lemarchand, Arnaud; Saurel, Jean-Marie; Nercessian, Alexandre; Bouin, Marie-Paule; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Clouard, Valérie

    2010-05-01

    Seismological and Volcanological observatories have common needs and often common practical problems for multi disciplinary data monitoring applications. In fact, access to integrated data in real-time and estimation of measurements uncertainties are keys for an efficient interpretation, but instruments variety, heterogeneity of data sampling and acquisition systems lead to difficulties that may hinder crisis management. In Guadeloupe observatory, we have developed in the last years an operational system that attempts to answer the questions in the context of a pluri-instrumental observatory. Based on a single computer server, open source scripts (Matlab, Perl, Bash, Nagios) and a Web interface, the system proposes: an extended database for networks management, stations and sensors (maps, station file with log history, technical characteristics, meta-data, photos and associated documents); a web-form interfaces for manual data input/editing and export (like geochemical analysis, some of the deformation measurements, ...); routine data processing with dedicated automatic scripts for each technique, production of validated data outputs, static graphs on preset moving time intervals, and possible e-mail alarms; computers, acquisition processes, stations and individual sensors status automatic check with simple criteria (files update and signal quality), displayed as synthetic pages for technical control. In the special case of seismology, WebObs includes a digital stripchart multichannel continuous seismogram associated with EarthWorm acquisition chain (see companion paper Part 1), event classification database, location scripts, automatic shakemaps and regional catalog with associated hypocenter maps accessed through a user request form. This system leads to a real-time Internet access for integrated monitoring and becomes a strong support for scientists and technicians exchange, and is widely open to interdisciplinary real-time modeling. It has been set up at Martinique observatory and installation is planned this year at Montserrat Volcanological Observatory. It also in production at the geomagnetic observatory of Addis Abeba in Ethiopia.

  7. Soil fauna abundance and diversity in a secondary semi-evergreen forest in Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles): influence of soil type and dominant tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Loranger-Merciris, Gladys; Imbert, Daniel; Bernhard-Reversat, France; Ponge, Jean-François; Lavelle,Patrick

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The importance of secondary tropical forests regarding the maintenance of soil fauna abundance and diversity is poorly known. The aims of this study were (1) to describe soil fauna abundance and diversity and (2) to assess the determinants of soil fauna abundance and diversity in two stands of a tropical semi-evergreen secondary forest. Soil macrofauna and microarthropod abundance and soil macrofauna diversity were described at two sites developed on different soils an...

  8. Diversity of trophic niches among herbivorous fishes on a Caribbean reef (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles), evidenced by stable isotope and gut content analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromard, Charlotte R.; Bouchon-Navaro, Yolande; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Bouchon, Claude

    2015-01-01

    While herbivorous fishes have been widely studied due to the major ecological role they play on coral reefs, the description of their trophic niche remains challenging. In this study, we asked how 10 species of parrotfishes and surgeonfishes partition trophic resources on a Caribbean reef. The determination of trophic niches was conducted using gut and stomach content and stable isotope analyses (15N:14N and 13C:12C ratios). The contributions of food source to fish diet were calculated with concentration-dependent mixing models. Stomach content analyses distinguished two species of Acanthuridae from other fish species: Acanthurus coeruleus due to its high ingestion of fleshy macroalgae and Acanthurus chirurgus due to its high ingestion of calcified macroalgae. Acanthuridae and Sparisoma aurofrenatum presented similar diets in terms of assimilation of food resources with a high contribution of detritus and invertebrates to their diets. The diets of Sparisoma rubripinne and Sparisoma chrysopterum were more heterogeneous by comparison to the previous species. Scarus iseri, Scarus vetula, Scarus taeniopterus and Sparisoma viride appeared to share a similar trophic niche characterized by the contribution of live coral and fleshy macroalgae to their diet. The resource use among herbivorous fishes was partially related to the nutritional quality of food sources, but also to their physical structure and the capacity of fish to process them efficiently. These results showed that the ten species occupy distinct trophic niches, indicating a high functional diversity among the Caribbean herbivorous fishes.

  9. HIV transmission patterns among The Netherlands, Suriname, and The Netherlands Antilles: a molecular epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Merlijn A; Cornelissen, Marion; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A; van Sighem, Ard I; Sabajo, Lesley; Duits, Ashley J; Winkel, Cai N; Prins, Jan M; van der Ende, Marchina E; Kauffmann, Robert H; Op de Coul, Eline L

    2011-02-01

    We aimed to study patterns of HIV transmission among Suriname, The Netherlands Antilles, and The Netherlands. Fragments of env, gag, and pol genes of 55 HIV-infected Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch heterosexuals living in The Netherlands and 72 HIV-infected heterosexuals living in Suriname and the Antilles were amplified and sequenced. We included 145 pol sequences of HIV-infected Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch heterosexuals living in The Netherlands from an observational cohort. All sequences were phylogenetically analyzed by neighbor-joining. Additionally, HIV-1 mobility among ethnic groups was estimated. A phylogenetic tree of all pol sequences showed two Surinamese and three Antillean clusters of related strains, but no clustering between ethnic groups. Clusters included sequences of individuals living in Suriname and the Antilles as well as those who have migrated to The Netherlands. Similar clustering patterns were observed in env and gag. Analysis of HIV mobility among ethnic groups showed significantly lower migration between groups than expected under the hypothesis of panmixis, apart from higher HIV migration between Antilleans in The Netherlands and all other groups. Our study shows that HIV transmission mainly occurs within the ethnic group. This suggests that cultural factors could have a larger impact on HIV mobility than geographic distance.

  10. Petrogenesis of meta-volcanic rocks from the Maimón Formation (Dominican Republic): Geochemical record of the nascent Greater Antilles paleo-arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torró, Lisard; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Marchesi, Claudio; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Lewis, John F.

    2017-05-01

    Metamorphosed basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites and plagiorhyolites of the Early Cretaceous, probably pre-Albian, Maimón Formation, located in the Cordillera Central of the Dominican Republic, are some of the earliest products of the Greater Antilles arc magmatism. In this article, new whole-rock element and Nd-Pb radiogenic isotope data are used to give new insights into the petrogenesis of the Maimón meta-volcanic rocks and constrain the early evolution of the Greater Antilles paleo-arc system. Three different groups of mafic volcanic rocks are recognized on the basis of their immobile element contents. Group 1 comprises basalts with compositions similar to low-Ti island arc tholeiites (IAT), which are depleted in light rare earth elements (LREE) and resemble the forearc basalts (FAB) and transitional FAB-boninitic basalts of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc. Group 2 rocks have boninite-like compositions relatively rich in Cr and poor in TiO2. Group 3 comprises low-Ti island arc tholeiitic basalts with near-flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Plagiorhyolites and rare andesites present near-flat to subtly LREE-depleted chondrite normalized patterns typical of tholeiitic affinity. Nd and Pb isotopic ratios of plagiorhyolites, which are similar to those of Groups 1 and 3 basalts, support that these felsic lavas formed by anatexis of the arc lower crust. Geochemical modelling points that the parental basic magmas of the Maimón meta-volcanic rocks formed by hydrous melting of a heterogeneous spinel-facies mantle source, similar to depleted MORB mantle (DMM) or depleted DMM (D-DMM), fluxed by fluids from subducted oceanic crust and Atlantic Cretaceous pelagic sediments. Variations of subduction-sensitive element concentrations and ratios from Group 1 to the younger rocks of Groups 2 and 3 generally match the geochemical progression from FAB-like to boninite and IAT lavas described in subduction-initiation ophiolites. Group 1 basalts likely formed at magmatic

  11. A deep scar in the flank of Tenerife (Canary Islands): Geophysical contribution to tsunami hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Nicolas P.; Schnegg, Pierre-André; Falco, Pierik; Costa, Roberto

    2009-05-01

    Among the high-intensity on-Earth tsunami generating events, seismicity, submarine landslides, and volcano lateral collapses are the most important [Ward, S.H., 2001. Landslide tsunami. J. Geophy. Res. 106, 11201-11215; Holcomb, R.T., Searle, R.C., 1991. Large landslides from oceanic volcanoes. Mar. Geotech. 10, 19-32; Tinti, S., Bortolucci, E., Romagnoli, C., 2000. Computer simulations of tsunamis due to the sector collapse ar Stromboli, Italy. J. Volcano. Geotherm. Res. 96, 103-128; Ward, S.N., Day, S., 2003. Ritter Island Volcano — lateral collapse and the tsunami of 1888. Geophys. J. Int. 154, 891-902; MacGuire, W.J., 2003. Volcano instability and lateral collapse. Revista 1, 33-45]. Offshore bathymetry studies highlighted huge accumulations of large mass-waste flows (up to thousands cubic kilometres) inherited from past lateral collapses or submarine landslides [ Le Friant, A., Boudon, G., Deplus, C., Villemant, B., 2003. Large-scale flank collapse events during the activity of Montagne Pelée, Martinique, Lesser Antilles. J. Geophys. Res. 108, ECV13; Moore, J.G. et al., 1989. Prodigious submarine Landslides on the Hawaiian ridge. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 17465-17484] which spread over more than 100 km off the northern Tenerife (Canary Islands) coastline [Watts, A.B., Masson, D.G., 1995. A giant landslide on the north flank of Tenerife, Canary Islands. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24487-24498]. Although mechanics and dynamics triggering such catastrophic events follow from combined complex processes and interactions [Hürlimann, M., Garcia-Piera, J.-O., Ledesma, A., 2000. Causes and mobility of large volcanic landslides: application to Tenerife, Canary Islands. J. Volcano. Geotherm. Res. 103, 121-134; Masson, D.G. et al., 2002. Slope failures on the flanks of the western Canary Islands. Earth-Sci. Rev. 57, 1-35; Reid, M.E., Sisson, T.W., Brien, D.L., 2001. Volcano collapse promoted by hydrothermal alteration and edifice shape, Mount Rainier, Washington. Geology 29, 779

  12. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  13. Nesting biology of Lesser Canada Geese, Branta canadensis parvipes, along the Tanana River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, C.R.; Pearce, J.M.; Ruess, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Lesser Canada Geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) are widespread throughout interior regions of Alaska and Canada, yet there have been no published studies documenting basic aspects of their nesting biology. We conducted a study to determine reproductive parameters of Lesser Canada Geese nesting along the Tanana River near the city of Fairbanks, in interior Alaska. Fieldwork was conducted in May of 2003, and consisted of locating nests along the riparian corridor between Fairbanks and Northpole, Alaska. Nests were found on gravel islands and shore habitats along the Tanana River, and were most commonly observed among driftwood logs associated with patches of alder (Alnus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.). Peak of nest initiation was 3-8 May, with a range from 27 April to 20 May; renesting was likely. Clutches ranged in size from 2 to 7 eggs and averaged 4.6 eggs. There was a negative correlation between clutch size and date of nest initiation. Egg size (mean mass = 128 g) was similar to other medium-sized Canada Geese. A positive correlation between egg size and clutch size was likely related to female age. Nineteen of 28 nests (68%) were active when visited; nests located on islands with nesting Mew Gulls (Larus canus) were more likely to be active than nests located elsewhere. Evidence at nest sites implicated Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as nest predators.

  14. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  15. Increase of heterozygosity in a growing population of lesser kestrels

    OpenAIRE

    Ortego, Joaquín; Aparicio, José Miguel; Calabuig, Gustau; Cordero, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    The lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) suffered a sharp population decline over much of its European distribution range in the middle of the twentieth century. Still declining in some areas, the species has recently experienced a notable population recovery in certain regions. We examined the genetic diversity variation in a growing population of lesser kestrels from Central Spain over a 6-year period (2000–2005). The population studied showed a rapid demographic expansion, increasing in the num...

  16. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (82). Lesser trochanter metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, W C G; Muttarak, M

    2003-02-01

    A 73-year-old woman who had previous mastectomy for breast carcinoma presented with persistent pain over the left hip area for two to three months. Pelvic radiograph showed an expanded osteolytic lesion involving the lesser trochanter of the left femur, with adjacent ill-defined destructive changes. She subsequently developed a displaced pathological fracture through the lesser trochanteric metastasis. The clinical features and pathophysiology of bone metastases are discussed. The role of imaging, with additional illustrative examples, is emphasised.

  17. Benefits to poorly studied taxa of conservation of bird and mammal diversity on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Clare; Holmes, Nick; Tershy, Bernie; Spatz, Dena; Croll, Donald A

    2015-02-01

    Protected area delineation and conservation action are urgently needed on marine islands, but the potential biodiversity benefits of these activities can be difficult to assess due to lack of species diversity information for lesser known taxa. We used linear mixed effects modeling and simple spatial analyses to investigate whether conservation activities based on the diversity of well-known insular taxa (birds and mammals) are likely to also capture the diversity of lesser known taxa (reptiles, amphibians, vascular land plants, ants, land snails, butterflies, and tenebrionid beetles). We assembled total, threatened, and endemic diversity data for both well-known and lesser known taxa and combined these with physical island biogeography characteristics for 1190 islands from 109 archipelagos. Among physical island biogeography factors, island area was the best indicator of diversity of both well-known and little-known taxa. Among taxonomic factors, total mammal species richness was the best indicator of total diversity of lesser known taxa, and the combination of threatened mammal and threatened bird diversity was the best indicator of lesser known endemic richness. The results of other intertaxon diversity comparisons were highly variable, however. Based on our results, we suggest that protecting islands above a certain minimum threshold area may be the most efficient use of conservation resources. For example, using our island database, if the threshold were set at 10 km(2) and the smallest 10% of islands greater than this threshold were protected, 119 islands would be protected. The islands would range in size from 10 to 29 km(2) and would include 268 lesser known species endemic to a single island, along with 11 bird and mammal species endemic to a single island. Our results suggest that for islands of equivalent size, prioritization based on total or threatened bird and mammal diversity may also capture opportunities to protect lesser known species endemic to

  18. Notes on marine fishes from the Netherlands Antilles, with the description of a new species, Eutyx tumidifrons (Brotulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1960-01-01

    A small number of fishes from the Netherlands Antilles has been collected and recently presented to the Leiden Museum by Dr. J. S. Zaneveld, Head of the Biology Department, College of William and Mary, Norfolk, Va., formerly Director of the Caraibisch Marien Biologisch Instituut, Curaçao; and Dr. L.

  19. Lesser omental hernia after total colectomy: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Takanori; Morita, Yasuhiro; Takanishi, Kijuro; Nitta, Jun; Matsumoto, Jun; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2014-07-01

    Lesser omental hernia is a rare type of hernia that can cause intestinal obstruction. To our knowledge, there are only 16 documented cases of lesser omental hernia, including the present case. The subject of this case report was a 42-year-old man with a history of total colectomy for colon perforation caused by Crohn's disease 15 years earlier, who presented with epigastralgia and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a distended bowel loop ventral to the stomach and convergence of mesenteric vessels at the lesser curvature of the stomach. Based on a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction caused by a lesser omental hernia, he underwent emergency surgery, which revealed a 150-cm jejunal segment herniating through a 5-cm defect in the lesser omentum from the retrogastric space. We reduced the herniated loop and closed the hernial orifice successfully. We describe the characteristic CT findings, which allowed us to make the preoperative diagnosis, and speculate how the past total colectomy, in which the gastrocolic ligament was isolated and the transverse colon was resected, probably caused by this hernia. This case serves to demonstrate that lesser omental hernia could be a postoperative complication of total colectomy.

  20. The distally based lateral sural neuro-lesser saphenous veno-fasciocutaneous flap: anatomical basis and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Xiong, Zhuyou; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Li; Huang, He; Li, Guangzao

    2014-09-01

    Soft tissue management around the lower third of the leg and foot presents a considerable challenge to the plastic surgeon. The aim of this research was to investigate the anatomical relationships of artery, nerve, vein and other adjacent structures in the posterolateral region of the calf, and our experience with using a distally based island flap pedicled with the lateral sural nerve and the lesser saphenous vein for soft tissue reconstruction of lower third of leg, foot, and ankle defects in 15 patients. Five fresh cadavers (ten lower limbs) were infused with colored red latex. The origin of the nutrient vessel of the lesser saphenous vein and the lateral sural nerve was identified. Based on the anatomical studies, an island flap supplied by the vascular axis of the lesser saphenous vein and the lateral sural nerve was designed for clinical reparative applications in 15 cases. The nutrient vessel of the lesser saphenous vein and the lateral sural nerve originates from the superficial sural artery, musculocutaneous perforators of the posterior tibial artery, and septocutaneous perforators of the peroneal artery in different segment of the calf. Meanwhile, these vessels have many sub-branches nourishing subcutaneous tissue and skin, form a favorable vascular chain around the nerve and the vein, and also communicate with vascular plexus of superficial and deep fascia. Among 15 flaps, 13 showed complete survival (86.66 %), while marginal flap necrosis occurred in one patient (6.67 %) and distal wound dehiscence in another (6.67 %). Their appearance and function were satisfactory, with feeling maintained in the heel and lateral side of the foot. The distally based flap pedicled with the lateral sural nerve and lesser saphenous vein was a reliable source for repairing soft tissue defects in the lower leg and foot due to its advantages of infection control, high survival rate, and sufficient blood supply without the need to sacrifice a major blood vessel.

  1. Rupture of the lesser gastric curvature after a Heimlich maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, A; Rosado, R; Ramírez, D; Medina, P; Mezquita, S; Sánchez, J

    2003-09-01

    We present a case of lesser gastric curvature injury after a Heimlich maneuver due to obstruction of the breathing tract that was repaired by laparoscopic surgery. A patient with perforation of the lesser gastric curvature as a result of closed abdominal traumatism was operated on using the laparoscopic approach with the use of four trocars as work openings. With this technique, the diagnosis was confirmed, the injury repaired, and the abdominal cavity washed. The postoperative period was favorable and the patient was released from the hospital on day 7 without any complications. Laparoscopic surgery can be technically reproduced in the treatment of gastric injury as a result of closed abdominal traumatism.

  2. The Future of Constitutionally Required Lesser Included Offenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Hoffheimer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available For over a generation courts have recognized that failing to instruct juries on lesser included offenses results in wrongful convictions. In Beck v. Alabama, the Supreme Court held that in capital cases juries must be instructed on the option of returning convictions of non-capital lesser included offenses. The Court explained that this right prevents juries from being forced to make all-or-nothing choices between guilt and innocence in cases where serious crimes have been committed and pressures to convict of some crime are great.

  3. Microscale anthropogenic pollution modelling in a small tropical island during weak trade winds: Lagrangian particle dispersion simulations using real nested LES meteorological fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécé, Raphaël; Bernard, Didier; Brioude, Jérome; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2016-08-01

    Tropical islands are characterized by thermal and orographical forcings which may generate microscale air mass circulations. The Lesser Antilles Arc includes small tropical islands (width lower than 50 km) where a total of one-and-a-half million people live. Air quality over this region is affected by anthropogenic and volcanic emissions, or saharan dust. To reduce risks for the population health, the atmospheric dispersion of emitted pollutants must be predicted. In this study, the dispersion of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) is numerically modelled over the densely populated area of the Guadeloupe archipelago under weak trade winds, during a typical case of severe pollution. The main goal is to analyze how microscale resolutions affect air pollution in a small tropical island. Three resolutions of domain grid are selected: 1 km, 333 m and 111 m. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used to produce real nested microscale meteorological fields. Then the weather outputs initialize the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (FLEXPART). The forward simulations of a power plant plume showed good ability to reproduce nocturnal peaks recorded by an urban air quality station. The increase in resolution resulted in an improvement of model sensitivity. The nesting to subkilometer grids helped to reduce an overestimation bias mainly because the LES domains better simulate the turbulent motions governing nocturnal flows. For peaks observed at two air quality stations, the backward sensitivity outputs identified realistic sources of NOx in the area. The increase in resolution produced a sharper inverse plume with a more accurate source area. This study showed the first application of the FLEXPART-WRF model to microscale resolutions. Overall, the coupling model WRF-LES-FLEXPART is useful to simulate the pollutant dispersion during a real case of calm wind regime over a complex terrain area. The forward and backward simulation results showed clearly that the

  4. Subduction Complex Provenance redefined: modern sands from the Indo-Burman-Andaman-Nicobar Ridge and Barbados Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, Mara; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Bandopadhyay, Pinaki C.; Najman, Yani; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    the Lesser Antilles. Mixing of detritus recycled from orogen-derived turbidites transported long distance with detritus from oceanic mèlange, pelagic sediments and younger calcareous cap rocks and in addition volcaniclastic products thus redefines the diagnostic mark of Subduction Complex Provenance as quite distinct from the original definition by Dickinson and Suczek (1979). REFERENCES Dickinson, W.R., and Suczek, C.A., 1979, Plate tectonics and sandstone composition: American Association Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 63, 2164-2172. Garzanti, E., Doglioni, C., Vezzoli, G., and Andò, S., 2007, Orogenic belts and orogenic sediment provenances: Journal of Geology, 115, 315-334. Ingersoll, R.V., Dickinson, W.R., and Graham, S.A., 2003, Remnant-ocean submarine fans: largest sedimentary systems on Earth, [in] Chan, M.A., and Archer, A.W., eds., Extreme Depositional Environments: Mega End Members in Geologic Time: Geological Society of America, Special Paper 370, 191-208.

  5. U-Series disequilibria, magma petrogenesis and flux rates along the depleted Tonga-Kermadec Island Arc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.; Rogers, N.; Bartlett, J.; Smith, I.; Worthington, T. [The Open University, Milton Keynes, (United Kingdom). Department of Earth Sciences; Smith, I.; Worthington, T. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    1997-12-31

    The fluid contribution to the lava source has been calculated as -1 ppm Rb, 10 ppm Ba, 0.02 ppm U, 600 ppm K 0.2 ppm Pb and 30 ppm Sr. It has {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.7035 and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb = 18.5 and thus is inferred to be derived from dehydration of the subducting altered oceanic crust. U-Th isotope disequilibria reflect the time since fluid release from the subducting slab and a pseudo-isochron through the lowest ({sup 230}Th/{sup 232}Th) lavas constrains this to be {approx} 50 000 yr. Significantly, U-Th isotope data record similar timescales in the Lesser Antilles ({approx}40 000 yr, Turner et al., 1996) and in the Marianas (30 000 yr, Elliott et al., 1996) which provides encouragement that these data reflect some general aspect of the flux rates beneath island arcs. Large {sup 226}Ra excesses have also been reported from Tonga-Kermadec (({sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th) = 1.5-3.0, Gill and Williams, 1990). Since {sup 226}Ra will return to secular equilibrium with {sup 230}Th (({sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th) = 1) within 7500 yr of Ra/Th fractionation the {sup 238}U/{sup 230}Th and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th disequilibria are clearly decoupled (see also Turner et al., 1996). This is an unexpected result and clearly the {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th disequilibria must have developed after the process responsible for the major U/Th fractionation. It is suggested that Th-Ra isotope disequilibria record the time since partial melting and thus indicate rapid channelled magma ascent. Olivine gabbro xenoliths from Raoul are interpreted as cumulates to their host lavas with which they form zero age U-Th isochrons indicating that minimal time was spent in magma chambers. The subduction signature is not observed in lavas from the back arc island of Niuafo`ou and thus does not penetrate as far 200 km beyond the arc front volcanoes. These were derived from partial melting of fertile peridotite at 130-160 km depth with melt rates around 2 x 10{sup -4} kg m{sup -3} yr{sup -1}, possibly

  6. Automatic picking and earthquake relocation for the Antilles subduction zone (1972-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, F.; Amorèse, D.; Bengoubou-Valerius, M.; Bernard, M.

    2013-12-01

    Locations for earthquake recorded in the Antilles subduction zone are processed separately by regional observatories and ISC. There is no earthquake location catalog available compiling all available first arrival data. We aim to produce a best complete earthquake catalog by merging all available first arrival data for better constrains on earthquake locations. ISC provides the first arrival data of 29243 earthquakes (magnitude range from 1.4 to 6.4) recorded by PRSN (Porto Rico), SRC (British West Indies), and form FUNVISIS (Venezuela). IPGP provided the first arrival data of 68718 earthquakes (magnitude from 0.1 to 7.5) recorded by OVSG (Guadeloupe, 53226 earthquakes since 1981) and by OVSM (Martinique, 29931 earthquakes since 1972). IPGP also provides the accelerometer waveform data of the GIS-RAP network in the Antilles. The final catalog contains 84979 earthquakes between 1972 and 2013, 24528 of which we compiled additional data. We achieved automatic picking using the Component Energy Correlation Method. The CECM provide high precision phase detection, a realistic estimation of picking error and realistic weights that can be used with manual pick weights. The CECM add an average of 3 P-waves and 2 S-waves arrivals to 3846 earthquakes recoded by the GIS-RAP network since 2002. Cluster analysis, earthquake local tomography and relative locations are to be applied in order to image active faulting and migration of seismicity. This will help to understand seismic coupling in the seismogenic zone as well as triggering mechanisms of intermediate depth seismicity like fluid migration beneath the volcanic arc.

  7. Biodiversity assessment of the fishes of Saba Bank atoll, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T Williams

    Full Text Available Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna.Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness of fishes for Saba Bank under represents the actual richness, and our knowledge of the ichthyofauna has not plateaued. The total expected fish-species richness may be somewhere between 320 and 411 species.The Saba Bank ichthyofaunal assemblage is compared to fish assemblages found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Despite the absence of shallow or emergent shore habitats like mangroves, Saba Bank ranks as having the eighth highest ichthyofaunal richness of surveyed localities in the Greater Caribbean. Some degree of habitat heterogeneity was evident. Fore-reef, patch-reef, and lagoonal habitats were sampled. Fish assemblages were significantly different between habitats. Species richness was highest on the fore reef, but 11 species were found only at lagoonal sites.A comprehensive, annotated list of the fishes currently known to occur on Saba Bank, Netherland Antilles, is provided and color photographs of freshly collected specimens are presented for 165 of the listed species of Saba Bank fishes to facilitate identification and taxonomic comparison with similar taxa at other localities. Coloration of some species is shown for the first time. Preliminary analysis indicates that at least six undescribed new species were collected during the survey and these are

  8. Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric studies in parts of Almora crystalline zone, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amar Agarwal; K K K K Agarwal; R Bali; Chandra Prakash; Gaurav Joshi

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to understand evolution of the Lesser Himalaya, which consists of (meta) sedimentaryand crystalline rocks. Field studies, microscopic and rock magnetic investigations have beencarried out on the rocks near the South Almora Thrust (SAT) and the North Almora Thrust (NAT),which separates the Almora Crystalline Zone (ACZ) from the Lesser Himalayan sequences (LHS). Theresults show that along the South Almora Thrust, the deformation is persistent; however, near theNAT deformation pattern is complex and implies overprinting of original shear sense by a youngerdeformational event. We attribute this overprinting to late stage back-thrusting along NAT, active afterthe emplacement of ACZ. During this late stage back-thrusting, rocks of the ACZ and LHS were coupled.Back-thrusts originated below the Lesser Himalayan rocks, probably from the Main Boundary Thrust,and propagated across the sedimentary and crystalline rocks. This study provides new results frommultiple investigations, and enhances our understanding of the evolution of the ACZ.

  9. Lesser devil rays Mobula cf. hypostoma from Venezuela are almost twice their previously reported maximum size and may be a new sub-species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehemann, N R; González-González, L V; Trites, A W

    2017-03-01

    Three rays opportunistically obtained near Margarita Island, Venezuela, were identified as lesser devil rays Mobula cf. hypostoma, but their disc widths were between 207 and 230 cm, which is almost double the reported maximum disc width of 120 cm for this species. These morphometric data suggest that lesser devil rays are either larger than previously recognized or that these specimens belong to an unknown sub-species of Mobula in the Caribbean Sea. Better data are needed to describe the distribution, phenotypic variation and population structure of this poorly known species.

  10. Individual specialization on fishery discards by lesser black-backedgulls (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyson, C.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; van Loon, E.E.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.; Hintzen, N.T.

    2015-01-01

    While seabird–fishery associations are well documented, this research primarily comes from ship-based surveys and consequently individual level responses to discard availability are largely unknown. As part of a long-term study on lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) in the Netherlands, the fine

  11. Using "Children of a Lesser God" To Teach Intercultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Russell F., II; Rock, Roseanna

    One film widely recommended as an instructional resource for communication courses is "Children of a Lesser God," the 1986 movie starring Marlee Matlin and William Hurt. In this film, which can serve as a case study, James Leeds, a talented young teacher in a school for the deaf, falls in love with Sarah Norman, a graduate of the school…

  12. A list of the birds known from Roti and adjacent islets (Lesser Sunda Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1975-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Father Verheijen (in press) has given a narrative of his visit to Roti, with a list of all birds recorded from material, personal observations, and hearsay. Although several of Verheijen's own field observations are entirely reliable, other species mentioned by him cannot be regarded as

  13. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  14. Neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion in an adolescent elite gymnast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavasili, Alexandra; Manolarakis, Manolis; Paxinos, Thrasivoulos; Papavasiliou, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old elite gymnast who presented with recurring pain in the left shoulder after training. The athlete recalled an injury to the shoulder 2 years ago. Clinically a localized tenderness to the anterior shoulder and loss of strength and range of motion was noted. Imaging investigation suggested a neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion. The athlete was treated with open excision of the deformed tuberosity and direct repair of the subscapularis to the humeral head. Following a careful postoperative rehabilitation protocol the athlete was able to return to unrestricted gymnastics after 6 months. After surgery the athlete followed a intense rehabilitation program that allowed him to return to sports at 6 months. At 5-years follow-up, the athlete was asymptomatic and competing at an international level. Avulsion fractures of the lesser tuberosity are extremely rare injuries with significant shoulder disability if left untreated. Anatomic repair can yield excellent results, even in neglected cases. PMID:27582934

  15. Neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion in an adolescent elite gymnast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxinos, Odysseas; Karavasili, Alexandra; Manolarakis, Manolis; Paxinos, Thrasivoulos; Papavasiliou, Athanasios

    2014-07-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old elite gymnast who presented with recurring pain in the left shoulder after training. The athlete recalled an injury to the shoulder 2 years ago. Clinically a localized tenderness to the anterior shoulder and loss of strength and range of motion was noted. Imaging investigation suggested a neglected lesser tuberosity avulsion. The athlete was treated with open excision of the deformed tuberosity and direct repair of the subscapularis to the humeral head. Following a careful postoperative rehabilitation protocol the athlete was able to return to unrestricted gymnastics after 6 months. After surgery the athlete followed a intense rehabilitation program that allowed him to return to sports at 6 months. At 5-years follow-up, the athlete was asymptomatic and competing at an international level. Avulsion fractures of the lesser tuberosity are extremely rare injuries with significant shoulder disability if left untreated. Anatomic repair can yield excellent results, even in neglected cases.

  16. Vocal activity of lesser galagos (Galago spp.) at zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan; Štefanská, Lucie; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Lhota, Stanislav; Brandl, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. This is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. The aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. This knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. We performed a 10-day-long acoustic monitoring of vocal activity in each of seven various groups of Galago senegalensis and G. moholi living at four zoos. We quantitatively evaluated the occurrence of four loud vocalization types present in both species, including the most species-specific advertisement call. We found that qualitative as well as quantitative differences exist in the vocal behavior of the studied groups. We confirmed that the observed vocalization types can be collected from lesser galagos living at zoos, and the success can be increased by selecting larger and more diverse groups. We found two distinct patterns of diel vocal activity in the most vocally active groups. G. senegalensis groups were most vocally active at the beginning and at the end of their activity period, whereas one G. moholi group showed an opposite pattern. The latter is surprising, as it is generally accepted that lesser galagos emit advertisement calls especially at dawn and dusk, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of their diel activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Summer foods of lesser scaup in subarctic taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek, J.C.; Murdy, H.W.

    1970-01-01

    Twenty-five adult and 38 juvenile lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) that were collected in taiga north of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, had eaten almost entirely animal material (99 i?? 1 per cent, P odonates, and corixids. Sampling aquatic organisms concomitantly with collecting ducks revealed that seeds, copepods, and cladocerans were seldom or never eaten; most other organisms were consumed in proportions that were not significantly different (P < 0.05) from those in the collected samples.

  18. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  19. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Management of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) has been hindered by access to reliable data on population trajectories and vital rates. We conducted a Bayesian analysis of historical (1951–2011) band-recovery data throughout North America to estimate annual survival and recovery rates for juvenile and adult male and female lesser scaup to determine if increasing harvest or declining survival rates have contributed to population changes and to determine if harvest has been primarily additive or compensatory. Annual recovery rates were low, ranging from 1% to 4% for adults and 2% to 10% for juveniles during most years, with trend models indicating that recovery rates have declined through time for all age–sex classes. Annual survival (mid-Aug to mid-Aug) averaged 0.402 (σ ̂ 0.043) for juvenile males, 0.416 (σ ̂ 0.067) for juvenile females, 0.689 (σ ̂ 0.109) for adult males, and 0.602 (σ ̂ 0.115) for adult females, where σ ̂ represents an estimate of annual process variation in each survival rate. Annual survival rates exhibited no evidence of long-term declines or negative correlations with annual recovery rates (i.e., an index of harvest intensity) for any age–sex class, suggesting that declining fecundity was the most likely explanation for population declines during 1975–2005. We conclude that hunting mortality played a minor role in affecting population dynamics of lesser scaup and waterfowl managers could take a less cautious approach in managing harvest, especially if recruiting or maintaining waterfowl hunters are viewed as important management objectives.

  1. The Lesser Antillean scorpions of the genus Centruroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas, de Luis F.

    1983-01-01

    The buthid scorpions of the genus Centruroides are widely distributed in the Antillean area. They are also the most common scorpions in the majority of these islands. Nevertheless they remained almost forgotten until recently (STAHNKE 1970; ARMAS 1976, 1977, 1980, 1981, 1982; FRANCKE & SISSOM 1980).

  2. Shoreline changes and high-energy wave impacts at the leeward coast of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; Brückner, Helmut; Messenzehl, Karoline; Frenzel, Peter; May, Simon Matthias; Scheffers, Anja; Scheffers, Sander; Wennrich, Volker; Kelletat, Dieter

    2012-10-01

    Supralittoral coarse-clast deposits along the shores of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles) as well as increased hurricane frequency during the past decade testify to the major hazard of high-energy wave impacts in the southern Caribbean. Since deducing certain events from the subaerial coarse-clast record involves major uncertainties and historical reports are restricted to the past 500 years, we use a new set of vibracore and push core data (i) to contribute to a more reliable Holocene history of regional extreme-wave events and (ii) to evaluate their impact on shoreline evolution. Multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental analyses (XRF, XRD, grain size distribution, carbonate, LOI, microfossils) were carried out using nearshore sedimentary archives from the sheltered western (leeward) side of Bonaire and its small neighbour Klein Bonaire. In combination with 14C-AMS age estimates the stratigraphy reflects a long-term coastal evolution controlled by relative sea level rise, longshore sediment transport, and short-term morphodynamic impulses by extreme wave action, all three of which may have significantly influenced the development of polyhaline lagoons and the demise of mangrove populations. Extreme wave events may be categorized into major episodic incidents (c. 3.6 ka [?] BP; 3.2-3.0 ka BP; 2.0-1.8 ka BP; post-1.3 ka [?] BP), which may correspond to tsunamis and periodic events recurring on the order of decades to centuries, which we interpret as severe tropical cyclones. Extreme wave events seem to control to a certain extent the formation of coastal ridges on Bonaire and, thus, to cause abrupt shifts in the long-term morphodynamic and ecological boundary conditions of the circumlittoral inland bays.

  3. Autumn diet of lesser snow geese staging in northeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Alan W.; Hupp, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is used by lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) in autumn for premigratory staging. To better understand the potential impacts of human disturbance on snow geese, we investigated species composition of, and temporal and age-related variation in, their diet during staging. Depending on age and time of collection, between 35.2 and 94.1% of the diet (aggregate percent wet mass, n = 75) consisted of 2 species of plants; underground stems of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium), and aerial shoots of northern scouring rush (Equisetum variegatum). The diet varied between August and September (P = 0.0089), morning and afternoon (P freezing, interspecific differences in nutritional quality, and plant senescence likely constrained the diet of snow geese to a small number of food items. Because alternative foods may not be available, human disturbance should be minimized in areas that provide these forage species.

  4. The Lesser Palatine Nerve Innervates the Levator Veli Palatini Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Katsuya; Yamada, Shigehito; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-01-01

    Summary: When the lesser palatine nerve (LPN) is supposed to be a branch of the trigeminal nerve and innervate sensation of the soft palate, whether the LPN contains motor fibers is unclear. In this study, we monitored the electromyogram of the levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle on stimulating the LPN during palatoplasty in 3 patients. The electromyogram of the muscles showed the myogenic potential induced by electrostimulation of the LPN. Taken together with the finding from our previous anatomical study that the motor fibers come from the facial nerve, this result supports the double innervation theory of the LVP, which posits that both the pharyngeal plexus and the facial nerve innervate it. Identifying and preserving the LPN during palatoplasty might improve postoperative speech results. PMID:27757354

  5. The difference in cultural curriculum: for a lesser (Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo César Bueno Nunes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current time is contingent, plural, decentralized, free of old identities and permeated by the noise of voices that have never been heard. Inserted in such context, the school tries to overcome traces of the past and face the struggles of the present. Regarding physical education, the cultural curriculum seems to contribute with the new era mentality by questioning the hegemony of body practices and meanings of the privileged groups to promote the pedagogy of difference. This study analyzed the most important works on this proposal, identifying teaching principles and procedures that characterize it and submitted them to the confrontation with the notion of pure difference by Gilles Deleuze. The results indicate that the cultural curriculum takes the features of a lesser (physical education when it listens what the „different ones‟ have to say and pays attention to the cultural body repertoire that students can access

  6. Environmental factors influence lesser scaup migration chronology and population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Taylor A.; Afton, Alan D.; Schummer, Michael L.; Petrie, Scott A.; Badzinski, Shannon S.; Johnson, Michael A.; Szymanski, Michael L.; Jacobs, Kevin J.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Mitchell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental metrics specific to lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; scaup) spring migration chronology may help inform development of conservation, management and population monitoring. Our objective was to determine how environmental conditions influence spring migration of lesser scaup to assess the effectiveness of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey in accurately estimating scaup populations. We first compared peak timing of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and scaup migration from weekly ground surveys in North Dakota, USA because the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey is designed to capture annual mallard migration. As predicted, we detected that peak timing of scaup and mallard migrations differed in 25 of 36 years investigated (1980–2010). We marked scaup with satellite transmitters (n = 78; 7,403 locations) at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada; Pool 19 of the Mississippi River, Iowa and Illinois, USA; and Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. We tested the assumption that our marked scaup were representative of the continental population using the traditional survey area by comparing timing of migration of marked birds and scaup counted in the North Dakota Game and Fish Department survey. We detected a strong positive correlation between marked scaup and the survey data, which indicated that marked scaup were representative of the population. We subsequently used our validated sample of marked scaup to investigate the effects of annual variation in temperature, precipitation, and ice cover on spring migration chronology in the traditional and eastern survey areas of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, 2005–2010. We evaluated competing environmental models to explain variation in timing and rate of scaup migration at large-scale and local levels. Spring migration of scaup occurred earlier and faster during springs with warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, variables known

  7. Relative contribution of lipid sources to eggs of lesser scaup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Hobson, Keith A.; Rotella, Jay J.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Parker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Studies of how birds mobilize nutrients to eggs have traditionally considered a continuum of possible allocation strategies ranging from income breeding (rely on food sources found on the breeding grounds) to capital breeding (rely on body reserves stored prior to the breeding season). For capital breeding, stored body reserves can be acquired either on or away from the breeding grounds, but it has been difficult to quantify the relative contribution of each, precluding identification of key habitats for acquiring nutrients for clutch formation. During 2006–2009, we explored the importance of spring-staging habitats versus breeding-area habitats for egg-lipid formation in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis using stable carbon (δ13C) isotope analyses. Although δ13C values for abdominal lipid reserves brought to the breeding grounds overlapped those of local amphipods, we were able to quantify the importance of local plant carbohydrates (seeds of emergent wetland plants) to the production of eggs. We compared the importance of local wetland seeds (overall δ13C: −29.1 ± 0.9‰ SD) to combined lipid stores and lipids from local amphipods (overall δ13C: −23.8 ± 2.2‰). Local seeds and stored body lipids contributed equally to egg lipid formation across years but we found evidence of annual variation in their relative importance. Wetland seeds contributed 39% (SE = 10%) to egg lipid production, and the importance of this source varied by year (90% CI = 47–75% in 2006, 13–42% in 2007, 29–65% in 2008, and 7–30% in 2009). In contrast to earlier studies that suggest lesser scaup predominantly employ a capital breeding strategy, our results suggest that in some years females may attain half of their energy for clutch formation from foods on the breeding grounds.

  8. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 36. The genus Strandesia and other Cypricercini (Crustacea, Ostracoda) in the West Indies. Part II. Carapace length, ecology, and distribution of two Strandesia species

    OpenAIRE

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and ecology of two species of Strandesia, s. longula Broodbakker, 1983, and S. stocki Broodbakker, 1983, are discussed. Both species are very common in Haiti, and S. longula is also common in the Bahamas. Both are found on some of the Lesser Antilles, and therefore they are assumed to have a much wider distribution. The two species are mostly found in fresh water, but they can tolerate chlorinities up to 3500 mg/l. No preferences concerning other factors could be found. Both ...

  9. Parthenogenetic reproduction demonstrated in the diploid Spasalus puncticollis (Le Peletier & Serville 1825), n. stat., from the Antilles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Passalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Stéphane; Dutrillaux, Anne-Marie; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Only females were observed in Spasalus crenatus (Mac Leay 1819) in the Antilles, from Puerto Rico to Saint-Vincent, whereas both sexes are in Trinidad and on the continent. No difference in endo- and ectodermic female genitalia could be noticed between the two populations. Chromosomes of specimens from Guadeloupe reveal a 26,XX karyotype, as in females of various sexual species of Passalini, which demonstrates its diploidy. Breedings were developed with isolated immature stages. After nine years, descendants from a single female are demonstrating their parthenogenetic reproduction. This is the first recorded parthenogenesis in Passalidae and a rare telytoky in diploid insects. Relationships between parthenogenesis, diploidy and insularity are discussed in the scheme of geographical parthenogenesis. No discriminant morphological character on adults could be found between the two populations, except the total length. The modes of reproduction distinguishing the two geographically separated populations suggest the presence of two taxa: S. crenatus on the continent and Trinidad; the parthenote S. puncticollis (Le Peletier & Serville 1825), n. stat., on the Arc of the Antilles.

  10. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 13, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James A.; Whitehead, R.L.; Oki, Delwyn S.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Olcott, Perry G.

    1997-01-01

    and large-scale agricultural operations are not feasible. The island of Hawaii is the largest island of the State (fig. 33) and has the highest altitude at 13,796 feet. Maui is about 10,000 feet above sea level in its eastern part and about 5,800 feet above sea level in its western part; a broad lowland area separates the two parts. Kahoolawe is the smallest of the eight major islands and is only about 1 ,500 feet above sea level in its eastern, highest part. Lanai is about 3,400 feet above sea level in its highest part, but much of the island is less than 1,000 feet above sea level. Molokai is mountainous in its eastern half, where it rises to about 5,000 feet above sea level, but most of the island is less than 1,000 feet above sea level. Oahu has a mountainous ridge along its eastern side and another mountainous area along the western side, where it rises to about 4,000 feet above sea level; however, most of Oahu is less than 1,000 feet above sea level. Kauai is about 5,200 feet above sea level in its central part, but from the base of the mountains shoreward, large areas of the island are less than 1,000 feet above sea level in the southern, eastern, and northern parts. Niihau is mostly less than 1 ,000 feet above sea level, except for a narrow ridge about 1 ,300 feet above sea level along its northeastern side. The topography of each island has a profound effect on development and climate.Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States (fig. 66) are located about 1, 100 miles east-southeast of Miami, Fla. The islands are part of the Greater Antilles island chain which, along with the Lesser Antilles island chain, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands lie approximately 100 miles south of the Puerto Rico Trench, a depression of the ocean floor that reaches depths of 30,249 feet , the deepest known part of the Atlantic Ocean. The main island of Puerto Rico is a rectangular-shaped island that extends

  11. Additions to the marine algal flora of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, H.; Vroman, M.

    1988-01-01

    Nine species of benthic marine algae are reported from the Caribbean island of Curaçao for the first time: Chlorophyta: Derbesia marina and Trichosolen longipedicellata; Phaeophyta: Ectocarpus rhodochortonoides, Feldmannia elachistaeformis, Hecatonema floridanum, Herponema tortugense and Sphacelaria

  12. Island Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new law has been enacted to protect China’s islands from destruction After three rounds of deliberations that began in June 2009, the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee endorsed the Law of Sea

  13. The subantarctic Prince Edward Islands are globally important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    (BirdLife International 2000). Of particular interest was the population of Indian ..... pile of lava on top of the cliffs near West Point was more than 300 m away from ..... of lesser sheathbills Chionis minor at Marion Island: impacts of cats, mice and ...

  14. Prevalence of mycoplasma antibodies in lesser prairie-chicken sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christian A; Crupper, Scott S; Applegate, Roger D; Robel, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Serologic testing by the serum plate agglutination (SPA) procedure was performed to detect the presence of cross-reacting antibodies to Mycoplasma meleagridis, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum in lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) trapped over a 2-yr period in Finney and Kearny counties of southwestern Kansas. Sera examined from birds (n = 50) obtained in March-April 2000 tested positive for M meleagridis, M. synoviae, and M. gallisepticum at levels of 6%, 10%, and 10%, respectively, for the population examined. Mycoplasma meleagridis antibodies were detected in 3 samples (2.7%), M. synoviae antibodies in 2 samples (1.7%), and M. gallisepticum antibodies in 3 samples (2.7%) from birds (n = 112) collected in March-April 2001. Data obtained by SPA can result in false positives and should be verified by additional procedures such as the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Low amounts of sera prohibited this additional testing. Thus, the positive SPA results should be considered presumptive for the presence of Mycoplasma antibodies. Although Mycoplasma antibodies have been detected in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from Kingman and Butler counties in Kansas, this report is the first of possible mycoplasmosis in Finney and Kearny counties, Kansas. All birds testing positive by this procedure should be considered as potential carriers of Mycoplasma and should not be used in relocation efforts.

  15. Oceanographic data collected during the Bonaire 2008: Exploring Coral Reef Sustainability with New Technologies (bonaire2008) on Fetch1 AUV and Gavia AUV's in Netherlands, Antilles from January 6, 2008 - January 29, 2008 (NODC Accession 0072312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, is arguably the most pristine coral reef environment in the Caribbean. The percent coral cover is the highest and percent algal cover...

  16. Predictive MRI correlates of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate tear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, Rachel L. [Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Umans, Benjamin D. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Umans, Hilary [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Elsinger, Elisabeth [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2016-07-15

    To identify correlated signs on non-enhanced MRI that might improve diagnostic detection of plantar plate (PP) tear. We performed an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective analysis of 100 non-contrast MRI (50 PP tear, 50 controls). All were anonymized, randomized, and reviewed; 20 were duplicated to assess consistency. One musculoskeletal radiologist evaluated qualitative variables. A trained non-physician performed measurements. Consistency and concordance were assessed. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to test the correlation between qualitative findings and PP tear status. Correlation between measurements and PP status was assessed using t tests and Wilcoxon's rank-sum test (p values < 0.05 considered significant). Classification and regression trees were utilized to identify attributes that, taken together, would consistently distinguish PP tear from controls. Quantitative measurements were highly reproducible (concordance 0.88-0.99). Elevated 2nd MT protrusion, lesser MT supination and rotational divergence of >45 between the 1st-2nd MT axis correlated with PP tear. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening correlated most strongly with PP tear, correctly classifying 95 % of cases and controls. Excluding pericapsular soft tissue thickening, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, 2nd flexor tendon subluxation, and splaying of the second and third toes accurately classified PP status in 92 %. Pericapsular soft tissue thickening most strongly correlated with PP tear. For cases in which it might be difficult to distinguish pericapsular fibrosis from neuroma, sequential assessment of 2nd toe enthesitis, flexor tendon subluxation and splaying of the 2nd and 3rd toe is most helpful for optimizing accurate diagnosis of PP tear. (orig.)

  17. Bivergent thrust wedges surrounding oceanic island arcs: Insight from observations and sandbox models of the northeastern caribbean plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, U.S.; Marshak, S.; Granja, Bruna J. L.

    2009-01-01

    At several localities around the world, thrust belts have developed on both sides of oceanic island arcs (e.g., Java-Timor, Panama, Vanuatu, and the northeastern Caribbean). In these localities, the overall vergence of the backarc thrust belt is opposite to that of the forearc thrust belt. For example, in the northeastern Caribbean, a north-verging accretionary prism lies to the north of the Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico), whereas a south-verging thrust belt called the Muertos thrust belt lies to the south. Researchers have attributed such bivergent geometry to several processes, including: reversal of subduction polarity; subduction-driven mantle flow; stress transmission across the arc; gravitational spreading of the arc; and magmatic inflation within the arc. New observations of deformational features in the Muertos thrust belt and of fault geometries produced in sandbox kinematic models, along with examination of published studies of island arcs, lead to the conclusion that the bivergence of thrusting in island arcs can develop without reversal of subduction polarity, without subarc mantle flow, and without magmatic inflation. We suggest that the Eastern Greater Antilles arc and comparable arcs are simply crustalscale bivergent (or "doubly vergent") thrust wedges formed during unidirectional subduction. Sandbox kinematic modeling suggests, in addition, that a broad retrowedge containing an imbricate fan of thrusts develops only where the arc behaves relatively rigidly. In such cases, the arc acts as a backstop that transmits compressive stress into the backarc region. Further, modeling shows that when arcs behave as rigid blocks, the strike-slip component of oblique convergence is accommodated entirely within the prowedge and the arc-the retrowedge hosts only dip-slip faulting ("frontal thrusting"). The existence of large retrowedges and the distribution of faulting in an island arc may, therefore, be evidence that the arc is

  18. Combined displaced fracture of the lesser humeral tuberosity and the scapular spine: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Hackl; Fabrizio Moro; Holger Durchholz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Combined displaced fractures of the lesser humeral tuberosity and the scapular spine are highly uncommon and have not been previously reported in literature. Case presentation: The authors report a novel case of a 24 year-old male who sustained displaced fractures of the lesser humeral tuberosity and the scapular spine. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) was performed with a LCP T-plate for the lesser tuberosity and with a LCP Distal Humerus Plate for the scapular spi...

  19. Long-term changes in structure and composition following hurricanes in a primary lower montane rain forest in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Weaver

    2013-01-01

    Ridges within the lower montane rain forests (sensu Beard) of the Caribbean Basin are dominated by Dacryodes excelsa, a tree species known as tabonuco in Puerto Rico and gommier in the Lesser Antilles. Periodially, hurricanes traverse the islands causing changes in structure, species composition, and dynamics of forests. The chronology of post-hurricane vegetation...

  20. Caribbean Land Molluscs: Vertiginidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Fritz

    1960-01-01

    The area dealt with in this publication requires definition. In order to avoid misunderstanding, its individual components are listed as follows (see Table 1): Bahamas — Bimini’s, Cat Key, New Providence Lesser Antilles, with the following groups: Virgin Islands — St. Thomas, St. John, St. Croix Win

  1. Haromyia, a new genus of long-legged flies from Dominica (Diptera: Dolichopodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon

    2015-01-01

    The new micro-dolichopodid genus Haromyia gen. nov. and the type species H. iviei sp. nov. are described from the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles. Males and females of Haromyia are distinguished by the large setae on a bulging clypeus, minute size, and wing veins that are nearly straight and evenly diverging from wing base. Haromyia does not fit readily into...

  2. Mosquito Information Management Project (MIMP): Application of a Computerized Genral Purpose Information Management System (Selgem) to Medically Important Arthropods (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    ominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands. 6. Lesser Antilles-includes Anguilla, Antigua , Barbados, Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada...USAF, OEHL/ECQ, Brooks AFB, TX; 8) Nucleo de Medicina Tropical e Nutricao, Universidad de Brazilia, Brazil; 9) USAMRU-Kenya; 10) London School of

  3. Rhizobium paknamense sp. nov., isolated from lesser duckweeds (Lemna aequinoctialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittiwongwattana, Chokchai; Thawai, Chitti

    2013-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated and designated strain L6-8(T) during a study of endophytic bacterial communities in lesser duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis). Cells of strain L6-8(T) were motile with peritrichous flagella. The analysis of the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain L6-8(T) was phylogenetically related to species of the genus Rhizobium. Its closest relatives were Rhizobium borbori DN316(T) (97.6 %), Rhizobium oryzae Alt 505(T) (97.3 %) and Rhizobium pseudoryzae J3-A127(T) (97.0 %). The sequence similarity analysis of housekeeping genes recA, glnII, atpD and gyrB showed low levels of sequence similarity (Rhizobium with validly published names. The pH range for growth was 4.0-9.0 (optimum 6.0-7.0), and the temperature range for growth was 20-45 °C (optimum 30 °C). Strain L6-8(T) tolerated NaCl up to 2 % (w/v) (optimum 1 % NaCl). The predominant components of cellular fatty acids were C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c (31.32 %), summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c; 25.39 %) and C16 : 0 (12.03 %). The DNA G+C content of strain L6-8(T) was 60.4 mol% (Tm). nodC and nifH were not amplified in strain L6-8(T). DNA-DNA relatedness between strain L6-8(T) and R. borbori DN316(T), R. oryzae Alt505(T) and R. pseudoryzae J3-A127(T) was between 11.2 and 18.3 %. Based on the sequence similarity analyses, phenotypic, biochemical and physiological characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization, strain L6-8(T) could be readily distinguished from its closest relatives and represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium paknamense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L6-8(T) ( = NBRC 109338(T) = BCC 55142(T)).

  4. Icelandic: A Lesser-Used Language in the Global Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2001-07-01

    A small nation in the middle of the North Atlantic, Iceland currently has a population of 265,000 (1996). The Iceland language has changed very little since the island was settled some 11 centuries ago. Despite the relatively small number of people who speak the language and irrespective of the globalisation efforts by the international community, which includes the ever-increasing influence of English worldwide, the Icelandic language and culture are stronger than ever. The current volume and variety of publications of Icelandic works in all areas have never been as great. Icelandic is a living and growing language. Growth in vocabulary, in response to recent phenomena like the introduction of new technology, has primarily come about with the development of new words from the language's roots. The near absence of Latin, Greek and, more recently, English or Danish words in Icelandic, is striking. Iceland's language policy is not only a governmental policy. It is a policy that comes from the grassroots with the government and official institutions viewing their job as one of service to the people of Iceland. Icelanders are very proud of their language and are extremely determined to continually develop and preserve it for future generations.

  5. Hepatic element concentrations of lesser scaup (aythya affinis) during spring migration in the upper midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillatzki, A.E.; Neiger, R.D.; Chipps, S.R.; Higgins, K.F.; Thiex, N.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of some hepatic elements might be contributing to the decline of the continental lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) population. We evaluated hepatic element concentrations of male and female lesser scaup collected from the upper Midwest (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) during the 2003 and 2004 spring migrations. We measured concentrations of 24 elements in livers of 117 lesser scaup. We found that only selenium concentrations were at levels (>3.0 ??g/g wet weight [ww)]) proposed to adversely affect reproduction. Approximately 49% of females (n = 61) had individual hepatic concentrations >3.0 ??g/g ww selenium (Se). Our observed hepatic concentration of Se was similar to that reported in lesser scaup collected from the mid-continental United States but less than Se concentrations reported from the Great Lakes region. We found that the liver cadmium (Cd) concentration for males was significantly higher than that for females. Gender differences in hepatic Cd concentrations have not been previously reported for lesser scaup, but Cd is known to have negative impacts on male reproduction. Our results indicate that lesser scaup migrating through the upper Midwest in spring have elevated Se levels and that males carry a significantly greater Cd burden than females. Moreover, elemental concentrations might be high enough to affect reproduction in both male and female lesser scaup, but controlled laboratory studies are needed to adequately assess the effects of Se and Cd on lesser scaup reproduction. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Nesting biology of Lesser Canada Geese, Branta canadensis parvipes, along the Tanana River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig R. Ely; John M. Pearce; Roger W. Ruess

    2008-01-01

    Lesser Canada Geese (Brania canadensis parvipes) are widespread throughout interior regions of Alaska and Canada, yet there have been no published studies documenting basic aspects of their nesting biology. We conducted a study to determine reproductive parameters of Lesser Canada Geese nesting along the Tanana River near the city of Fairbanks, in...

  7. Metatarsophalangeal joint stability: A systematic review on the plantar plate of the lesser toes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, N.M.G. (Nico M.G.); M. van der Grinten (Margot); W.M. Bramer (Wichor); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Instability of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints of the lesser toes (digiti 2-5) is increasingly being treated by repair of the plantar plate (PP). This systematic review examines the anatomy of the plantar plate of the lesser toes, and the relation between the integrity

  8. Metatarsophalangeal joint stability: A systematic review on the plantar plate of the lesser toes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, N.M.G. (Nico M.G.); M. van der Grinten (Margot); W.M. Bramer (Wichor); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Instability of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints of the lesser toes (digiti 2-5) is increasingly being treated by repair of the plantar plate (PP). This systematic review examines the anatomy of the plantar plate of the lesser toes, and the relation between the integrity o

  9. Metatarsophalangeal joint stability: A systematic review on the plantar plate of the lesser toes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, N.M.G. (Nico M.G.); M. van der Grinten (Margot); W.M. Bramer (Wichor); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Instability of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints of the lesser toes (digiti 2-5) is increasingly being treated by repair of the plantar plate (PP). This systematic review examines the anatomy of the plantar plate of the lesser toes, and the relation between the integrity o

  10. Hepatic element concentrations of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during spring migration in the upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillatzki, Angela E; Neiger, Regg D; Chipps, Steven R; Higgins, Kenneth F; Thiex, Nancy; Afton, Alan D

    2011-07-01

    High concentrations of some hepatic elements might be contributing to the decline of the continental lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) population. We evaluated hepatic element concentrations of male and female lesser scaup collected from the upper Midwest (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) during the 2003 and 2004 spring migrations. We measured concentrations of 24 elements in livers of 117 lesser scaup. We found that only selenium concentrations were at levels (>3.0 μg/g wet weight [ww)]) proposed to adversely affect reproduction. Approximately 49% of females (n = 61) had individual hepatic concentrations >3.0 μg/g ww selenium (Se). Our observed hepatic concentration of Se was similar to that reported in lesser scaup collected from the mid-continental United States but less than Se concentrations reported from the Great Lakes region. We found that the liver cadmium (Cd) concentration for males was significantly higher than that for females. Gender differences in hepatic Cd concentrations have not been previously reported for lesser scaup, but Cd is known to have negative impacts on male reproduction. Our results indicate that lesser scaup migrating through the upper Midwest in spring have elevated Se levels and that males carry a significantly greater Cd burden than females. Moreover, elemental concentrations might be high enough to affect reproduction in both male and female lesser scaup, but controlled laboratory studies are needed to adequately assess the effects of Se and Cd on lesser scaup reproduction.

  11. Transactional sex among men who have sex with men in the French Antilles and French Guiana: frequency and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelschmidt, Justine; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Van Melle, Astrid; Basurko, Célia; Gontier, Barbara; Cabié, André; Hoen, Bruno; Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    The French Antilles (Martinique, Saint Martin and Guadeloupe) and French Guiana are the French territories most affected by the HIV epidemic. Some population groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM), especially those involved in transactional sex, are thought to be particularly vulnerable to HIV but few data exist to help characterize their health-related needs and thus implement relevant prevention interventions. To fill this knowledge gap, we used data collected from an HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey conducted in 2012 among MSM living in the French Antilles and French Guiana and recruited through snowball sampling. Our objectives were to compare social and demographic characteristics and sexual behaviours between MSM engaging in transactional sex and MSM not engaging in transactional sex and to identify factors associated with transactional sex involvement using a logistic regression model. A total of 733 MSM were interviewed, 21% of whom reported to undergo transactional sex. Their behaviour and social and demographic characteristics were different from other MSMs' and they were more exposed to factors that are recognized to potentiate HIV vulnerability, at the individual, community, network and structural levels. The variables positively associated with sex trade involvement were having ever consumed drug (OR = 2.84 [1.23-6.52]; p = .002), having a greater number of sex partners than the median (OR = 8.31 [4.84-14.30]; p < .001), having experienced intimate partner violence (OR = 1.72 [0.99-3.00]; p = .053) and having undergone physical aggression because of sexual orientation (OR = 2.84 [1.23-6.52]; p = .014). Variables negatively associated with sex trade involvement were being older (OR = 0.93 [0.90-0.97] per year; p = .001), having a stable administrative situation (OR = 0.10 [0.06-0.19]; p < .001), having a stable housing (OR = 0.29 [0.15-0.55]; p < .001) and

  12. Plant-pollinator interactions and floral convergence in two species of Heliconia from the Caribbean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martén-Rodríguez, Silvana; Kress, W John; Temeles, Ethan J; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

    2011-12-01

    Variation in interspecific interactions across geographic space is a potential driver of diversification and local adaptation. This study quantitatively examined variation in floral phenotypes and pollinator service of Heliconia bihai and H. caribaea across three Antillean islands. The prediction was that floral characters would correspond to the major pollinators of these species on each island. Analysis of floral phenotypes revealed convergence among species and populations of Heliconia from the Greater Antilles. All populations of H. caribaea were similar, characterized by long nectar chambers and short corolla tubes. In contrast, H. bihai populations were strongly divergent: on Dominica, H. bihai had flowers with short nectar chambers and long corollas, whereas on Hispaniola, H. bihai flowers resembled those of H. caribaea with longer nectar chambers and shorter corolla tubes. Morphological variation in floral traits corresponded with geographic differences or similarities in the major pollinators on each island. The Hispaniolan mango, Anthracothorax dominicus, is the principal pollinator of both H. bihai and H. caribaea on Hispaniola; thus, the similarity of floral phenotypes between Heliconia species suggests parallel selective regimes imposed by the principal pollinator. Likewise, divergence between H. bihai populations from Dominica and Hispaniola corresponded with differences in the pollinators visiting this species on the two islands. The study highlights the putative importance of pollinator-mediated selection as driving floral convergence and the evolution of locally-adapted plant variants across a geographic mosaic of pollinator species.

  13. Fluoroscope Study of Lesser Snow Geese at Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains the results of a fluoroscope study of Lesser Snow Geese wintering at Sabine National Wildlife Refuge in November of 1974.

  14. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伦

    2002-01-01

    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  15. Neogene marine isotopic evolution and the erosion of Lesser Himalayan strata: Implications for Cenozoic tectonic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrow, Paul M.; Hughes, Nigel C.; Derry, Louis A.; Ryan McKenzie, N.; Jiang, Ganqing; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Banerjee, Dhiraj M.; Paulsen, Timothy S.; Singh, Birendra P.

    2015-05-01

    An extensive, northward deepening blanket of Neoproterozoic and Cambrian sedimentary rocks once extended from the Himalayan margin far onto the Indian craton. Cambrian deposits of this "upper Lesser Himalayan" succession, which include deposits of the "outer" Lesser Himalaya tectonic unit, are enriched in radiogenic 187Os. They make up part of a proximal marine facies belt that extends onto the craton and along strike from India to Pakistan. By contrast, age-equivalent facies in the Tethyan Himalaya are more distal in nature. Neoproterozoic to Cambrian strata of the upper Lesser Himalayan succession are now missing in much of the Lesser Himalaya, with their erosion exposing older Precambrian Lesser Himalayan strata. We suggest that exhumation and weathering of the upper Lesser Himalaya and related strata caused dramatic changes in the 187Os/188Os and 87Sr/86Sr Neogene record of seawater starting at ∼ 16 Ma. First-order estimates for the volume of upper Himalayan strata, as well as the volume of all LH rock eroded since this time, and geochemical box modeling, support this idea. Exhumation at 16 Ma is a fundamental event in the evolution of the Himalayan orogeny and the geochemical evolution of the oceans, and will be a critical part of the construction of future models of Himalayan thrust belt evolution.

  16. Iliopsoas tendon insertion footprint with surgical implications in lesser trochanterplasty for treating ischiofemoral impingement: an anatomic study

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Hoyos, Juan; Schröder, Ricardo; Ian J. Palmer; Reddy, Manoj; Khoury, Anthony; Martin, Hal David

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the footprint location of the iliopsoas tendon on the lesser trochanter to clarify the surgical implications of the lesser trochanterplasty for treating ischiofemoral impingement. Ten non-matched, fresh-frozen, cadaveric hemipelvis specimens (average age, 62.4 years; range, 48–84 years; 7 male and 3 female) were included. Registered measures included bony parameters of the lesser trochanter (lesser trochanteric area, distances from the tip to the ba...

  17. 78 FR 26302 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened Species With a Special Rule AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... provide for the conservation of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). In addition, we... lesser prairie-chicken as a threatened species under the Act. We also announce the availability of a...

  18. De la production fruitière intégrée à la gestion écologique des vergers aux Antilles

    OpenAIRE

    Lavigne, Claire; Lesueur-Jannoyer, M.; Lacroix, S.; Chauvet, G.; Lavigne, A.; Dufeal, D.

    2011-01-01

    La forte anthropisation aux Antilles françaises, la pression des monocultures de banane et de canne à sucre, et l’usage immodéré de pesticides, ont abouti à la pollution persistante d’une partie importante des sols de la SAU ainsi que des eaux de rivière et des nappes phréatiques. Si, dans les dix dernières années, la recherche de moyens de lutte biologique contre les insectes a été prioritaire, la lutte contre les adventices continue d’être un problème central pour les arboriculteurs qui ne ...

  19. Observed and estimated economic losses in Guadeloupe (French Antilles) after Les Saintes Earthquake (2004). Application to risk comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, Daniel; Reveillère, Arnaud; Lecacheux, Sophie; Muller, Héloise; Grisanti, Ludovic; Baills, Audrey; Bertil, Didier; Sedan, Olivier; Tinard, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this work is to compare the potential direct economic losses between two different hazards in Guadeloupe (French Antilles), earthquakes and storm surges, for different return periods. In order to validate some hypotheses which are done concerning building typologies and their insured values a comparison between real economic loss data and estimated ones is done using a real event. In 2004 there was an earthquake in Guadeloupe, Mw 6.3, in a little archipelago in the south of Guadeloupe called Les Saintes. The heaviest intensities were VIII in the municipalities of Les Saintes and decreases from VII to IV in the other municipalities of Guadeloupe. The CCR, French Reinsurance Organism, has provided data about the total insured economic losses estimated per municipality (in a situation in 2011) and the insurance penetration ratio, it means, the ratio of insured exposed elements per municipality. Some other information about observed damaged structures is quite irregular all over the archipelago, being the only reliable one the observed macroseismic intensity per municipality (field survey done by BCSF). These data at Guadeloupe's scale has been compared with results coming from a retro damage scenario for this earthquake done with the vulnerability data from current buildings and their mean economic value of each building type and taking into account the local amplification effects on the earthquake propagation. In general the results are quite similar but with some significant differences. The results coming from scenario are quite correlated with the spatial attenuation from the earthquake intensity; the heaviest economic losses are concentrated within the municipalities exposed to a considerable and damageable intensity (VII to VIII). On the other side, CCR data show that heavy economic damages are not only located in the most impacted cities but also in the most important municipalities of the archipelago in terms of economic activity

  20. Revision of the Euagathis species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Bassinae) from the Sunda Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simbolotti, G.; Achterberg, van C.

    1994-01-01

    The species of the genus Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900 (Braconidae: Bassinae (= Agathidinae)) from the Greater and Lesser Sunda Islands (including West Malaysia) are revised and keyed. The subfamily name Bassinae Nees, 1812, is used because it is senior to the commonly used subfamily name Agathidinae

  1. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  2. Quantifying chemical weathering rates along a precipitation gradient on Basse-Terre Island, French Guadeloupe: New insight from U-series isotopes in weathering rinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Jacqueline M.; Ma, Lin; Sak, Peter B.; Gaillardet, Jerome; Ren, Minghua; Engle, Mark A.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2016-12-01

    Inside soil and saprolite, rock fragments can form weathering clasts (alteration rinds surrounding an unweathered core) and these weathering rinds provide an excellent field system for investigating the initiation of weathering and long term weathering rates. Recently, uranium-series (U-series) disequilibria have shown great potential for determining rind formation rates and quantifying factors controlling weathering advance rates in weathering rinds. To further investigate whether the U-series isotope technique can document differences in long term weathering rates as a function of precipitation, we conducted a new weathering rind study on tropical volcanic Basse-Terre Island in the Lesser Antilles Archipelago. In this study, for the first time we characterized weathering reactions and quantified weathering advance rates in multiple weathering rinds across a steep precipitation gradient. Electron microprobe (EMP) point measurements, bulk major element contents, and U-series isotope compositions were determined in two weathering clasts from the Deshaies watershed with mean annual precipitation (MAP) = 1800 mm and temperature (MAT) = 23 °C. On these clasts, five core-rind transects were measured for locations with different curvature (high, medium, and low) of the rind-core boundary. Results reveal that during rind formation the fraction of elemental loss decreases in the order: Ca ≈ Na > K ≈ Mg > Si ≈ Al > Zr ≈ Ti ≈ Fe. Such observations are consistent with the sequence of reactions after the initiation of weathering: specifically, glass matrix and primary minerals (plagioclase, pyroxene) weather to produce Fe oxyhydroxides, gibbsite and minor kaolinite. Uranium shows addition profiles in the rind due to the infiltration of U-containing soil pore water into the rind as dissolved U phases. U is then incorporated into the rind as Fe-Al oxides precipitate. Such processes lead to significant U-series isotope disequilibria in the rinds. This is the first time

  3. Miocene dispersal drives island radiations in the palm tribe Trachycarpeae (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Christine D; Baker, William J; Simmons, Mark P

    2012-05-01

    The study of three island groups of the palm tribe Trachycarpeae (Arecaceae/Palmae) permits both the analysis of each independent radiation and comparisons across the tribe to address general processes that drive island diversification. Phylogenetic relationships of Trachycarpeae were inferred from three plastid and three low-copy nuclear genes. The incongruent topological position of Brahea in CISP5 was hypothesized to be caused by a gene duplication event and was addressed using uninode coding. The resulting phylogenetic trees were well-resolved and the genera were all highly supported except for Johannesteijsmannia and Serenoa. Divergence time analysis estimated the stem of the tribe to be approximately 86 Ma and the crown to be 38 Ma, indicating that significant extinction may have occurred along this branch. Historical biogeographic analysis suggested that Trachycarpeae are of southern North American, Central American, or Caribbean origin and supports previous hypotheses of a Laurasian origin. The biogeography and disjunctions within the tribe were interpreted with respect to divergence times, the fossil record, and geological factors such as the formation of the Greater Antilles--Aves Ridge, the Bering and the North Atlantic land bridges, tectonic movement in Southeast Asia, climatic shifts between the Eocene and Pliocene, and volcanism in the Pacific basin. In considering the three major island radiations within Trachycarpeae, Miocene dispersal appears to have been the driving force in allopatric speciation and is highlighted here as an emerging pattern across the tree of life.

  4. First complete genome sequence of parainfluenza virus 5 isolated from lesser panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jun-Qiong; Zhai, Shao-Lun; Lin, Tao; Liu, Jian-Kui; Wang, He-Xing; Li, Bing; Zhang, He; Zou, Shu-Zhan; Zhou, Xia; Wu, Meng-Fan; Chen, Wu; Luo, Man-Lin

    2017-05-01

    Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is widespread in mammals and humans. Up to now, there is little information about PIV5 infection in lesser pandas. In this study, a PIV5 variant (named ZJQ-221) was isolated from a lesser panda with respiratory disease in Guangzhou zoo in Guangdong province, southern China. The full-length genome of ZJQ-221 was found to be 15,246 nucleotides and consisted of seven non-overlapping genes encoding eight proteins (i.e., NP, V, P, M, F, SH, HN and L). Sequence alignment and genetic analysis revealed that ZJQ-221 shared a close relationship with a PIV5 strain of canine-origin (1168-1) from South Korea. The findings of this study confirm the presence of PIV5 in lesser panda and indicate this mammal as a possible natural reservoir. Furthermore they highlight the urgent need to strengthen viral surveillance and control of PIV5 in zoo animals.

  5. The effect of listing the lesser prairie chicken as a threatened species on rural property values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietelman, Derek C; Melstrom, Richard T

    2017-04-15

    This paper estimates the effect of Endangered Species Act protections for the lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) on rural property values in Oklahoma. The political and legal controversy surrounding the listing of imperiled species raises questions about the development restrictions and opportunity costs the Endangered Species Act imposes on private landowners. Examining parcel-level sales data before and after the listing of the endemic lesser prairie chicken, we employ difference-in-differences (DD) regression to measure the welfare costs of these restrictions. While our basic DD regression provides evidence the listing was associated with a drop in property values, this finding does not hold up in models that control for latent county and year effects. The lack of a significant price effect is confirmed by several robustness checks. Thus, the local economic costs of listing the lesser prairie chicken under the Endangered Species Act appear to have been small.

  6. Landscape composition creates a threshold influencing Lesser Prairie-Chicken population resilience to extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and degradation compound the effects of climate change on wildlife, yet responses to climate and land cover change are often quantified independently. The interaction between climate and land cover change could be intensified in the Great Plains region where grasslands are being converted to row-crop agriculture concurrent with increased frequency of extreme drought events. We quantified the combined effects of land cover and climate change on a species of conservation concern in the Great Plains, the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus  ). We combined extreme drought events and land cover change with lek count surveys in a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify changes in abundance of male Lesser Prairie-Chickens from 1978 to 2014 in Kansas, the core of their species range. Our estimates of abundance indicate a gradually decreasing population through 2010 corresponding to drought events and reduced grassland areas. Decreases in Lesser Prairie-Chicken abundance were greatest in areas with increasing row-crop to grassland land cover ratio during extreme drought events, and decreased grassland reduces the resilience of Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations to extreme drought events. A threshold exists for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in response to the gradient of cropland:grassland land cover. When moving across the gradient of grassland to cropland, abundance initially increased in response to more cropland on the landscape, but declined in response to more cropland after the threshold (δ=0.096, or 9.6% cropland). Preservation of intact grasslands and continued implementation of initiatives to revert cropland to grassland should increase Lesser Prairie-Chicken resilience to extreme drought events due to climate change.

  7. Landscape composition creates a threshold influencing Lesser Prairie-Chicken population resilience to extreme drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth E. Ross

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and degradation compound the effects of climate change on wildlife, yet responses to climate and land cover change are often quantified independently. The interaction between climate and land cover change could be intensified in the Great Plains region where grasslands are being converted to row-crop agriculture concurrent with increased frequency of extreme drought events. We quantified the combined effects of land cover and climate change on a species of conservation concern in the Great Plains, the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus. We combined extreme drought events and land cover change with lek count surveys in a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify changes in abundance of male Lesser Prairie-Chickens from 1978 to 2014 in Kansas, the core of their species range. Our estimates of abundance indicate a gradually decreasing population through 2010 corresponding to drought events and reduced grassland areas. Decreases in Lesser Prairie-Chicken abundance were greatest in areas with increasing row-crop to grassland land cover ratio during extreme drought events, and decreased grassland reduces the resilience of Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations to extreme drought events. A threshold exists for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in response to the gradient of cropland:grassland land cover. When moving across the gradient of grassland to cropland, abundance initially increased in response to more cropland on the landscape, but declined in response to more cropland after the threshold (δ=0.096, or 9.6% cropland. Preservation of intact grasslands and continued implementation of initiatives to revert cropland to grassland should increase Lesser Prairie-Chicken resilience to extreme drought events due to climate change.

  8. Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquemin, C. [King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Radiology Dept.; Mullaney, P. [Paediatric Ophthalmology Div., King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Bosley, T.M. [Neuro-Ophthalmology Div., King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2001-02-01

    We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing may interfere with the normal closure of the optic vesicle and normal growth of encephalic structures, possibly by disturbing developmental tissue interactions. These patients may exhibit a type of restricted primary sphenoid dysplasia, while the sphenoid dysplasia of neurofibromatosis type 1 may be secondary to orbital or ocular neurofibromas and other factors associated with that disease. (orig.)

  9. Abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid with microphthalmos and microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, C; Mullaney, P; Bosley, T M

    2001-02-01

    We report two patients with abnormal development of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, globe, optic nerve and cerebral hemisphere without stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 1. The lesser wing of the sphenoid bone was abnormally formed and was not ossified ipsilateral to the dysmorphic eye and underdeveloped cerebral hemisphere. Maldevelopment of the sphenoid wing may interfere with the normal closure of the optic vesicle and normal growth of encephalic structures, possibly by disturbing developmental tissue interactions. These patients may exhibit a type of restricted primary sphenoid dysplasia, while the sphenoid dysplasia of neurofibromatosis type 1 may be secondary to orbital or ocular neurofibromas and other factors associated with that disease.

  10. Les formations volcano-sedimentaires de la marge de la Guadeloupe (Petites antilles): Etudes mineralogique et geochimique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    of traces of volcanic eruptions in the sedimentary column; correlation of volcanogenic deposits with known volcanic episodes on the island; impact of volcanism on insular margin sedimentation. This thesis deals with the last three objectives. The main topics...

  11. The West Indies as a laboratory of biogeography and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2008-07-27

    Islands have long provided material and inspiration for the study of evolution and ecology. The West Indies are complex historically and geographically, providing a rich backdrop for the analysis of colonization, diversification and extinction of species. They are sufficiently isolated to sustain endemic forms and close enough to sources of colonists to develop a dynamic interaction with surrounding continental regions. The Greater Antilles comprise old fragments of continental crust, some very large; the Lesser Antilles are a more recent volcanic island arc, and the low-lying Bahama Islands are scattered on a shallow oceanic platform. Dating of island lineages using molecular methods indicates over-water dispersal of most inhabitants of the West Indies, although direct connections with what is now southern Mexico in the Early Tertiary, and subsequent land bridges or stepping stone islands linking to Central and South America might also have facilitated colonization. Species-area relationships within the West Indies suggest a strong role for endemic radiations and extinction in shaping patterns of diversity. Diversification is promoted by opportunities for allopatric divergence between islands, or within the large islands of the Greater Antilles, with a classic example provided by the Anolis lizards. The timing of colonization events using molecular clocks permits analysis of colonization-extinction dynamics by means of species accumulation curves. These indicate low rates of colonization and extinction for reptiles and amphibians in the Greater Antilles, with estimated average persistence times of lineages in the West Indies exceeding 30Myr. Even though individual island populations of birds might persist an average of 2Myr on larger islands in the Lesser Antilles, recolonization from within the archipelago appears to maintain avian lineages within the island chain indefinitely. Birds of the Lesser Antilles also provide evidence of a mass extinction event within

  12. Theory of mind in children with 'lesser variants' of autism : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M; Loth, FL; van Geert, PLC; Hurkens, E; Minderaa, RB

    2002-01-01

    Background: The study investigated the development of theory-of-mind (ToM) knowledge in children with 'lesser variants' of autism (PDD-NOS) over a period thought to be critical for ToM development (i.e., 3 to 5 years of age). Method: The sample included 11 children with PDD-NOS; 23 normally developi

  13. Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Dried Synbiotics Yoghurt from Lesser Yam Tubers (Dioscoreaesculenta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarti Sri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many variations of Yam (Dioscorea spp. which spread out in the world including Indonesia. Those variations could be categorized based on their shape, size, colour, and flavour of their tuber. The genus of Dioscorea spp. has more than 600 species, such as Dioscorea hispida, Dioscorea esculenta (lesser yam, Discorea bulbifera, Dioscorea alata (purple yam, Dioscorea opposita (white yam, Dioscorea villosa (yellow yam, Dioscorea altassima, and Dioscorea elephantipes. At the present, the utilization of yam tubers is seen to be limited. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the properties/characteristics of dried synbiotics yoghurt from lesser yam tubers. The treatment on this study was performed by the number of substitution of lesser yam tubers and the fermentation time. The results show that the dried synbiotics yoghurt that most preferred by consumers was G2F3 (lesser yam 40% and fermentation time 22 hours with an average value 3.65. It is followed by the total LAB (lactic acid bacteria 8,15 log cfu/g, pH 4.27, total lactic acid 1.02%, yield of dried synbiotic yoghurt 32.30%, and total soluble protein 4.53%.

  14. A new genus for the Lesser Moorhen Gallinula angulata Sundevall, 1850 (Aves, Rallidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Sangster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that the genus Gallinula is not monophyletic and comprises four major lineages. A review of the nomenclature of Gallinula shows that generic names are available for three lineages but that a fourth is as yet unnamed. A new monotypic genus, Paragallinula gen. nov., is described for Lesser Moorhen (Gallinula angulata Sundevall, 1850.

  15. Individual specialization on fishery discards by lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Tyson; J. Shamoun-Baranes; E.E. van Loon; C.J. Camphuysen; N.T. Hintzen

    2015-01-01

    While seabird-fishery associations are well documented, this research primarily comes from ship-based surveys and consequently individual level responses to discard availability are largely unknown. As part of a long-term study on lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) in the Netherlands, the fine

  16. Individual specialization on fishery discards by lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyson, Chris; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Loon, Van E.E.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.; Hintzen, N.T.

    2015-01-01

    While seabird-fishery associations are well documented, this research primarily comes from ship-based surveys and consequently individual level responses to discard availability are largely unknown. As part of a long-term study on lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) in the Netherlands, the f

  17. Theory of mind in children with 'lesser variants' of autism : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M; Loth, FL; van Geert, PLC; Hurkens, E; Minderaa, RB

    2002-01-01

    Background: The study investigated the development of theory-of-mind (ToM) knowledge in children with 'lesser variants' of autism (PDD-NOS) over a period thought to be critical for ToM development (i.e., 3 to 5 years of age). Method: The sample included 11 children with PDD-NOS; 23 normally

  18. Lesser-known European wine grape cultivars in southwestern Idaho: cold hardiness, berry maturity and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cold tolerance, phenology, yield and fruit maturity of lesser-known red and white-skinned wine grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera, L.) of European origin were compared to that of ‘Merlot’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ over two growing seasons in southwestern Idaho. Variability among cultivars was detec...

  19. Regeneration and management of lesser known timber species in the Peruvian Amazon following disturbance by logging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Rune Juelsborg; Meilby, Henrik; Larsen, Jørgen Bo

    2014-01-01

    landing construction, and how the forest regenerates after such disturbances, remain poorly understood. This paper investigates the regeneration success of a range of well/lesser-known timber species in a tierra-firme forest concession in Peru. Sample plots (100 m2) were established in areas with three...

  20. Lesser celandine (pilewort) induced acute toxic liver injury:The first case report worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bulent Yilmaz; Bars Yilmaz; Bora Aktas; Ozan Unlu; Emir Charles Roach

    2015-01-01

    Lesser celandine, also known as Ranunculus ficaria , isa herbaceous perennial plant that commonly utilizespiles and is taken either internally or used externally.The causality assessment of several reports providedevidence for the existence of Greater Celandinehepatotoxicity. However, there hasn't been any casereport published thus far, about lesser celandineinduced liver injury. Here, we present a case of36-year-old woman admitted to the hospital with acutehepatitis and jaundice on her sclera with no historyof drug abuse or alcohol consumption. However, thepatient had a recent history of lesser celandine extractconsumption for hemorrhoids, for about 10 d, prior tothe admission. Viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis,and drug induced toxic hepatitis were ruled out byfurther imaging studies and laboratory analysis. Usingthe Council for International Organizations of MedicalSciences scale, the type of liver injury was assumedas hepatocellular and was scored as 7 which showsprobable causality. Immediate discontinuation of lessercelandine extract resulted in rapid decrease of theelevated enzymes. Herbs have been reported to causeliver injury and therefore should be suspected in thecase of acute hepatitis with an unknown etiology. Thiscase is important to be the first to explain hepatotoxicitycaused by lesser celandine. Physicians should considerlesser celandine as a causative agent for hepatotoxicity.

  1. The predicted influence of climate change on lesser prairie-chicken reproductive parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.; Davis, Dawn M.; Boydston, Kathy K.; Dixon, Charles; Heck, Willard R.

    2013-01-01

    The Southern High Plains is anticipated to experience significant changes in temperature and precipitation due to climate change. These changes may influence the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) in positive or negative ways. We assessed the potential changes in clutch size, incubation start date, and nest survival for lesser prairie-chickens for the years 2050 and 2080 based on modeled predictions of climate change and reproductive data for lesser prairie-chickens from 2001–2011 on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. We developed 9 a priori models to assess the relationship between reproductive parameters and biologically relevant weather conditions. We selected weather variable(s) with the most model support and then obtained future predicted values from climatewizard.org. We conducted 1,000 simulations using each reproductive parameter’s linear equation obtained from regression calculations, and the future predicted value for each weather variable to predict future reproductive parameter values for lesser prairie-chickens. There was a high degree of model uncertainty for each reproductive value. Winter temperature had the greatest effect size for all three parameters, suggesting a negative relationship between above-average winter temperature and reproductive output. The above-average winter temperatures are correlated to La Niña events, which negatively affect lesser prairie-chickens through resulting drought conditions. By 2050 and 2080, nest survival was predicted to be below levels considered viable for population persistence; however, our assessment did not consider annual survival of adults, chick survival, or the positive benefit of habitat management and conservation, which may ultimately offset the potentially negative effect of drought on nest survival.

  2. Lesser prairie-chicken fence collision risk across its northern distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samantha G.; Haukos, David A.; Plumb, Reid T.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Sullins, Daniel S.; Kraft, John D.; Lautenbach, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock fences have been hypothesized to significantly contribute to mortality of lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus); however, quantification of mortality due to fence collisions is lacking across their current distribution. Variation in fence density, landscape composition and configuration, and land use could influence collision risk of lesser prairie-chickens. We monitored fences within 3 km of known leks during spring and fall and surveyed for signs of collision occurrence within 20 m of fences in 6 study sites in Kansas and Colorado, USA during 2013 and 2014. We assessed mortality locations of radio-tagged birds (n = 286) for evidence of fence collisions and compared distance to fence relative to random points. Additionally, we quantified locations, propensity, and frequency of fences crossed by lesser prairie-chickens. We tested for landscape and vegetative characteristics that influenced fence-cross propensity and frequency of global positioning system (GPS)-marked birds. A minimum of 12,706 fence crossings occurred by GPS-marked lesser prairie-chickens. We found 3 carcasses and 12 additional possible instances of evidence of collision during >2,800 km of surveyed fences. We found evidence for a single suspected collision based on carcass evidence for 148 mortalities of transmittered birds. Mortality locations of transmittered birds were located at distances from fences 15% farther than expected at random. Our data suggested minimal biological significance and indicated that propensity and frequency of fence crossings were random processes. Lesser prairie-chickens do not appear to be experiencing significant mortality risk due to fence collisions in Kansas and Colorado. Focusing resources on other limiting factors (i.e., habitat quality) has greater potential for impact on population demography than fence marking and removal.

  3. Shemya Island prehistory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  4. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    -nesting seabirds of the Prince Edward Islands into the 21st century, but only providing the effects of .... too penguins resulted in high losses of eggs and chicks ... Marion Island base. ..... which comes into force three months after five Parties.

  5. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  6. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on co...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  8. The Islands, Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieman, R.; Hinborch, M.; Monden, M.; Vendrik, E.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Master project report. In Barbados the problem arose of lack of space for development on the existing shoreline. Therefore the project "The Islands" has been conceptualized. In front of the west coast of Barbados, a group of artificial islands will be created. On the islands there will be space for

  9. Convergence between the Georgian Lesser and Greater Caucasus: Implications for seismic risk around Tbilisi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, Giorgi; Floyd, Michael; Godoladze, Tea; King, Robert; Cowgill, Eric; Javakhishvili, Zurab; Hahubia, Galaktion; Reilinger, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The Caucasus region, including the Lesser and Greater Caucasus Mountains and intervening Rioni, Kartli and Kura basins, defines the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia continental collision between the Black and Caspian Seas. Although geodetic, geologic and seismological data attest to active crustal shortening in the region, both the structures accommodating this deformation and the potential seismic hazards they pose remain unclear. Here we present and interpret newly determined site motions derived from GPS observations made at 21 campaign sites and 4 continuous GPS stations in the Republic of Georgia from 2008 through 2015. The sites are located along two, 160 km-long, range-perpendicular profiles crossing the Lesser-Greater Caucasus boundary zone. The Racha profile in the west spans the Rioni Basin and epicentral area of the 1991 Mw6.9 Racha earthquake. To the east, the Tbilisi profile crosses near the capital city of Tbilisi, with a population of 1.2 million. To estimate site velocities, we processed the GPS observations using the GAMIT/GLOBK software package, and then combined new and previously published velocities in a common Eurasian reference frame. Both profiles indicate 3 mm/yr of shortening between the Greater and Lesser Caucasus. On the Racha profile, the locus of shortening roughly coincides with the Main Caucasus Thrust Fault as defined by the location of the 1991 Racha earthquake. In contrast, on the Tbilisi profile shortening is concentrated 40-60 km further south, in the vicinity of the Lesser Caucasus Thrust Fault (locally, the Adjara-Trialeti Fault). Simple elastic models of planar faults in an elastic half-space indicate that convergence along the Racha profile is consistent with strain accumulation on a north-dipping thrust fault rooting beneath the Greater Caucasus, generally consistent with the coseismic fault parameters for the 1991 Racha earthquake. In contrast, principal convergence along the Tbilisi profile appears to be associated

  10. Iliopsoas tendon insertion footprint with surgical implications in lesser trochanterplasty for treating ischiofemoral impingement: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hoyos, Juan; Schröder, Ricardo; Palmer, Ian J; Reddy, Manoj; Khoury, Anthony; Martin, Hal David

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the footprint location of the iliopsoas tendon on the lesser trochanter to clarify the surgical implications of the lesser trochanterplasty for treating ischiofemoral impingement. Ten non-matched, fresh-frozen, cadaveric hemipelvis specimens (average age, 62.4 years; range, 48-84 years; 7 male and 3 female) were included. Registered measures included bony parameters of the lesser trochanter (lesser trochanteric area, distances from the tip to the base in a coordinate system, height and area) and tendinous iliopsoas footprint descriptions (areas and detailed location). The mean height of the lesser trochanter was 13.1 (SD ± 1.8) mm, with female having a smaller lesser trochanter on average (11.3, SD ± 2.0). A double tendinous footprint was found in 7 (70%) specimens. The average area of the single- and double-footprint was 211.2 mm(2) and 187.9 mm(2), respectively. An anterior cortical area with no tendinous insertion on the anterior aspect of lesser trochanter was present in all specimens and measured 4.9 mm (SD ± 0.6) on average. The mean ratio between the bald anterior wall and the lesser trochanter height was 38% (SD ± 0.05). The iliopsoas tendon footprint is double (psoas and iliacus) in most cases and is located on the anteromedial tip of the lesser trochanter. A bald anterior wall on the bottom of the lesser trochanter indicates that a partial or total lesser trochanterplasty for increasing the ischiofemoral space without detaching partially or entirely the iliopsoas tendon is improbable.

  11. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for two species of phyllostomid bats from the Greater Antilles (Erophylla sezekorni and Macrotus waterhousii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kevin L; Fleming, Theodore H; Gaines, Michael S; Williams, Dean A

    2008-05-01

    We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the buffy flower bat (Erophylla sezekorni) and 10 loci for Waterhouse's big-eared bat (Macrotus waterhousii). In E. sezekorni, we tested 65 individuals from three islands, Cuba, Exuma, and Abaco. Mean number of alleles per locus was 10.7 (range 5-20). In M. waterhousii, we tested 39 individuals from one island, Exuma. Mean number of alleles per locus was 6.9 (range 4-13). We will use these markers to study the phylogeography and mating system of these species. © 2008 The Authors.

  12. A Phenomenology of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Hay

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The question is posed: is a coherent theory of islandness – nissology – possible? Faultlines within constructions of islands and islandness are noted. Some of these axes of contestation have remained latent but have the potential to be sharply divisive. Three of the identified faultlines are examined – the nature of the island ‘edge’, the import for questions of island memory and identity of massive inward and outward movements of people, and the appropriation of island ‘realness’ by those for whom ‘island’ best functions as metaphor. A case is made for the excision of the latter from the purview of island studies. Despite apparent irreconcilability within island studies’ emerging faultlines, it is argued that place theory does constitute a theoretical framing that can work for island studies. Following a brief overview of the faultlines that also exist within place studies, it is noted that the difference-respecting and identity focused nature of phenomenology of place is particularly apposite for island studies, and the paper concludes with a consideration of what a phenomenology of islands might look like.

  13. Iron deficiency anemia: focus on infectious diseases in lesser developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia G; Friedman, Jennifer F

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is thought to affect the health of more than one billion people worldwide, with the greatest burden of disease experienced in lesser developed countries, particularly women of reproductive age and children. This greater disease burden is due to both nutritional and infectious etiologies. Individuals in lesser developed countries have diets that are much lower in iron, less access to multivitamins for young children and pregnant women, and increased rates of fertility which increase demands for iron through the life course. Infectious diseases, particularly parasitic diseases, also lead to both extracorporeal iron loss and anemia of inflammation, which decreases bioavailability of iron to host tissues. This paper will address the unique etiologies and consequences of both iron deficiency anemia and the alterations in iron absorption and distribution seen in the context of anemia of inflammation. Implications for diagnosis and treatment in this unique context will also be discussed.

  14. Iron Deficiency Anemia: Focus on Infectious Diseases in Lesser Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia G. Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is thought to affect the health of more than one billion people worldwide, with the greatest burden of disease experienced in lesser developed countries, particularly women of reproductive age and children. This greater disease burden is due to both nutritional and infectious etiologies. Individuals in lesser developed countries have diets that are much lower in iron, less access to multivitamins for young children and pregnant women, and increased rates of fertility which increase demands for iron through the life course. Infectious diseases, particularly parasitic diseases, also lead to both extracorporeal iron loss and anemia of inflammation, which decreases bioavailability of iron to host tissues. This paper will address the unique etiologies and consequences of both iron deficiency anemia and the alterations in iron absorption and distribution seen in the context of anemia of inflammation. Implications for diagnosis and treatment in this unique context will also be discussed.

  15. Nontraumatic avulsion of the lesser trochanter: A pathognomonic sign of metastatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.D.; Pope, T.L. Jr.; Jones, J.E.; Keats, T.E.; MacMillan, R.H. III

    1988-03-01

    Isolated avulsion fractures of the lesser trochanter resulting from trauma are most commonly seen in adolescent athletes and are rare in adults. Standard therapy is nonsurgical with bedrest and immobilization of the leg. However, when this lesion is seen in the adult without significant trauma, it should be regarded as secondary to metastatic neoplasm until proven otherwise. Treatment should be surgical with prophylactic internal fixation of the hip to help prevent the commonly associated subtrochanteric pathologic fracture. In a patient without a known primary malignancy, biopsy should be carried out before therapy. We describe four patients with isolated avulsion fracture of the lesser trochanter due to metastatic carcinoma. Radiologists should be aware of this lesion because its presence has a decisive effect on therapy.

  16. Impingement of lesser trochanter on ischium as a potential cause for hip pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patti, Jay W.; Ouellette, Hugue; Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The bony anatomy of the hip leads to a limited array of impingement syndromes, more frequently resulting from abnormal contact between the femoral neck and acetabulum. We report an unusual case of osseous impingement between the lesser trochanter and ischium, with involvement of the intervening quadratus femoris muscle. While the prevalence and etiology of this finding is unclear, it may represent a cause for hip pain. (orig.)

  17. Winter habitat use and survival of lesser prairie-chickens in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirius, Nicholas E.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.; Wallace, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range since the late 1800s and is currently proposed for Federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Populations and the distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas, USA, are thought to be at or near all-time lows. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We measured home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the non-breeding seasons (1 Sep-28 Feb) of 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in the West Texas panhandle region. Home range size did not differ among years or between females (503 ha) andmales (489 ha). Over 97% of locations of both male and female prairie-chickens were within 3.2 km of the lek of capture, and 99.9% were within 3.2 km of an available water source (i.e., livestock water tank). Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges; grassland-dominated areas with co-occurring sand shinnery oak were used more than available, but sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-dominated areas with grassland and sand sagebrush-dominated areas with bare ground were both used less than available. Survival rates during the first 2 non-breeding seasons (>80%) were among the highest reported for the species. However, survival during the third non-breeding season was only 57%, resulting in a 3-year average of 72%. It does not appear that non-breeding season mortality is a strong limiting factor in lesser prairie-chicken persistence in the study area.

  18. Rangewide genetic analysis of Lesser Prairie-Chicken reveals population structure, range expansion, and possible introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; DeYoung, Randall W; Fike, Jennifer; Hagen, Christian A.; Johnson, Jeff A.; Larsson, Lena C; Patten, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has been markedly reduced due to loss and fragmentation of habitat. Portions of the historical range, however, have been recolonized and even expanded due to planting of conservation reserve program (CRP) fields that provide favorable vegetation structure for Lesser Prairie-Chickens. The source population(s) feeding the range expansion is unknown, yet has resulted in overlap between Lesser and Greater Prairie-Chickens (T. cupido) increasing the potential for hybridization. Our objectives were to characterize connectivity and genetic diversity among populations, identify source population(s) of recent range expansion, and examine hybridization with the Greater Prairie-Chicken. We analyzed 640 samples from across the range using 13 microsatellites. We identified three to four populations corresponding largely to ecoregions. The Shinnery Oak Prairie and Sand Sagebrush Prairie represented genetically distinct populations (F ST > 0.034 and F ST > 0.023 respectively). The Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic and Mixed Grass ecoregions appeared admixed (F ST = 0.009). Genetic diversity was similar among ecoregions and N e ranged from 142 (95 % CI 99–236) for the Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic to 296 (95 % CI 233–396) in the Mixed Grass Prairie. No recent migration was detected among ecoregions, except asymmetric dispersal from both the Mixed Grass Prairie and to a lesser extent the Sand Sagebrush Prairie north into adjacent Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic (m = 0.207, 95 % CI 0.116–0.298, m = 0.097, 95 % CI 0.010–0.183, respectively). Indices investigating potential hybridization in the Shortgrass/CRP Mosaic revealed that six of the 13 individuals with hybrid phenotypes were significantly admixed suggesting hybridization. Continued monitoring of diversity within and among ecoregions is warranted as are actions promoting genetic connectivity and range expansion.

  19. The relative contribution of climate to changes in lesser prairie-chicken abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James

    2016-01-01

    Managing for species using current weather patterns fails to incorporate the uncertainty associated with future climatic conditions; without incorporating potential changes in climate into conservation strategies, management and conservation efforts may fall short or waste valuable resources. Understanding the effects of climate change on species in the Great Plains of North America is especially important, as this region is projected to experience an increased magnitude of climate change. Of particular ecological and conservation interest is the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), which was listed as “threatened” under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in May 2014. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to quantify the effects of extreme climatic events (extreme values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index [PDSI]) relative to intermediate (changes in El Niño Southern Oscillation) and long-term climate variability (changes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation) on trends in lesser prairie-chicken abundance from 1981 to 2014. Our results indicate that lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks responded to environmental conditions of the year previous by positively responding to wet springs (high PDSI) and negatively to years with hot, dry summers (low PDSI), but had little response to variation in the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Additionally, greater variation in abundance on leks was explained by variation in site relative to broad-scale climatic indices. Consequently, lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks in Kansas is more strongly influenced by extreme drought events during summer than other climatic conditions, which may have negative consequences for the population as drought conditions intensify throughout the Great Plains.

  20. Intraspecific variation in nutrient reserve use during clutch formation by Lesser Scaup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Grand, James B.; Afton, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    We studied nutrient reserve dynamics of female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) to identify sources of intraspecific variation in strategies of nutrient acquisition for meeting the high nutritional and energetic costs of egg formation. We collected data from interior Alaska and combined these with data for Lesser Scaup from midcontinent breeding areas (Afton and Ankney 1991), allowing a rangewide analysis for the species. We found little evidence that nutrient reserve use differed between Alaskan and midcontinent Lesser Scaup, except that subarctic birds used a small amount of protein reserves when forming eggs, whereas midcontinent birds did not. Mineral reserves contributed relatively little to the clutch, but endogenous lipid accounted for approximately two-thirds of the lipid in the clutch. Levels of endogenous lipid and protein at initiation of clutch formation declined with date of initiation. Also, absolute amounts of lipid and protein reserves used declined through the season, corresponding to smaller clutch sizes. Our data are consistent with a seasonally variable threshold of lipid reserves for initiation of clutch formation and considerable reliance on lipid reserves, suggestive of lipid control of productivity via effects on clutch size and initiation dates. However, our data cannot refute the hypothesis that clutch size or initiation dates are set by other factors that in turn dictate the amount of lipid reserves that are stored and used. Despite uncertainty regarding the role of nutrient limitations on productivity, maintenance of adequate food resources on winter, migration, and breeding areas should be a management concern, given the high costs of clutch formation by Lesser Scaup, evidence of recent population declines, and potential links between nutrition and productivity.

  1. Dural arteriovenous fistula of the lesser sphenoid wing region treated with Onyx: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Marco Tulio Salles; Piotin, Michel; Mounayer, Charbel; Spelle, Laurent; Abud, Daniel Giansante [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Moret, Jacques [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Hopital de la Fondation Rothschild, Service de Neuroradiologie Interventionnelle, Paris, CEDEX 19 (France)

    2006-02-15

    A 45-year-old man presented with acute right orbital pain and right-sided headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebral angiography revealed a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the lesser sphenoid wing region. The lesion was endovascularly treated by transarterial embolization with Onyx (ethyl vinyl alcohol; Micro Therapeutics, Irvine, Calif.). We review some anatomical and therapeutic features involving DAVFs of this region and describe the feasibility of the use of Onyx in the treatment of these lesions. (orig.)

  2. Assessing range-wide habitat suitability for the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Jarnevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Population declines of many wildlife species have been linked to habitat loss incurred through land-use change. Incorporation of conservation planning into development planning may mitigate these impacts. The threatened Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus is experiencing loss of native habitat and high levels of energy development across its multijurisdictional range. Our goal was to explore relationships of the species occurrence with landscape characteristics and anthropogenic effects influencing its distribution through evaluation of habitat suitability associated with one particular habitat usage, lekking. Lekking has been relatively well-surveyed, though not consistently, in all jurisdictions. All five states in which Lesser Prairie-Chickens occur cooperated in development of a Maxent habitat suitability model. We created two models, one with state as a factor and one without state. When state was included it was the most important predictor, followed by percent of land cover consisting of known or suspected used vegetation classes within a 5000 m area around a lek. Without state, land cover was the most important predictor of relative habitat suitability for leks. Among the anthropogenic predictors, landscape condition, a measure of human impact integrated across several factors, was most important, ranking third in importance without state. These results quantify the relative suitability of the landscape within the current occupied range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens. These models, combined with other landscape information, form the basis of a habitat assessment tool that can be used to guide siting of development projects and targeting of areas for conservation.

  3. Assessing range-wide habitat suitability for the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Timmer, Jennifer M.; Boal, Clint W.; Butler, Matthew; Pitman, James C.; Kyle, Sean; Klute, David; Beauprez, Grant M.; Janus, Allan; Van Pelt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Population declines of many wildlife species have been linked to habitat loss incurred through land-use change. Incorporation of conservation planning into development planning may mitigate these impacts. The threatened Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is experiencing loss of native habitat and high levels of energy development across its multijurisdictional range. Our goal was to explore relationships of the species occurrence with landscape characteristics and anthropogenic effects influencing its distribution through evaluation of habitat suitability associated with one particular habitat usage, lekking. Lekking has been relatively well-surveyed, though not consistently, in all jurisdictions. All five states in which Lesser Prairie-Chickens occur cooperated in development of a Maxent habitat suitability model. We created two models, one with state as a factor and one without state. When state was included it was the most important predictor, followed by percent of land cover consisting of known or suspected used vegetation classes within a 5000 m area around a lek. Without state, land cover was the most important predictor of relative habitat suitability for leks. Among the anthropogenic predictors, landscape condition, a measure of human impact integrated across several factors, was most important, ranking third in importance without state. These results quantify the relative suitability of the landscape within the current occupied range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens. These models, combined with other landscape information, form the basis of a habitat assessment tool that can be used to guide siting of development projects and targeting of areas for conservation.

  4. Lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) emergence after mechanical incorporation of poultry litter into field soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calibeo-Hayes, Dawn; Denning, Steve S; Stringham, S Mike; Watson, D Wes

    2005-02-01

    Lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), emergence from North Carolina field soils was evaluated in a controlled experiment simulating land application of turkey litter and again in field studies. Adult lesser mealworms were buried in central North Carolina Cecil red clay at depths of 0, 8, 15, 23, and 30 cm and the beetles emerging from the soil counted 1, 3, 7, 10, 13, 17, 21, 24, and 28 d after burial. Beetles emerged from all depths and differences among depths were not significant. Beetles survived at least 28 d buried in the soil at depths soil with poultry litter incorporated by disk, mulch and plow was compared with emergence from plots with no incorporation. Incorporation significantly reduced beetle emergence when poultry litter containing large numbers of beetles was applied to clay field soils during the summer (F = 3.45; df = 3, 143; P = 0.018). Although mechanical incorporation of poultry litter reduced beetle emergence relative to the control, greatest reductions were seen in plowed treatments. Beetle activity was reduced after land application of litter during colder months. Generally, lesser mealworm emergence decreased with time and few beetles emerged from the soil 28 d after litter was applied. Similarly, mechanical incorporation of poultry litter into sandy soils reduced beetle emergence (F = 4.06; df = 3, 143; P soils typical of eastern North Carolina, disk and plow treatments significantly reduced beetle emergence compared with control.

  5. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer.

  6. A Caribbean evaluation of public versus private drinking water provision: the case of St. Maarten, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.C. Schouten (Marco); D. Brdjanovic (Damir); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article assesses how a small island state can choose the best option in the process of private sector involvement. It reviews the decision process to involve or not the private sector in water and sanitation supply and in which way. Nine criteria are used to make the choice. A caref

  7. Non-breeding Cackling, Ross's and Snow Geese on Baffin Island show no loss of body mass during wing moult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Leafloor, James O.; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg;

    2016-01-01

    Non-breeding Cackling Branta hutchinsii, Ross's Anser rossii and Lesser Snow Geese Anser caerulescens caerulescens captured during remigial moult on Baffin Island in 2015 showed no loss of body mass with moult stage, and individual variation in mass was largely explained by sex and measures of body...

  8. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  9. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  10. Electrochemical island growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian

    The ability to independently dictate the shape and crystal orientation of islands in electrocrystallization remains a significant challenge. The main reason for this is that the complex interplay between the substrate, nucleation, and surface chemistry are not fully understood. Here the kinetics of 3D island growth for copper on ruthenium oxide is studied. The small nucleation overpotential leads to enhanced lateral growth and the formation of hexagonal, disk-shaped islands. The amorphous substrate allows the nuclei to achieve the thermodynamically favorable orientation, i.e. a surface normal. Island growth follows power law kinetics in both lateral and vertical directions. At shorter times, the two growth exponents are equal to 1/2 whereas at longer times lateral growth slows down while vertical growth speeds up. Accordingly, a growth mechanism is proposed, wherein the lateral growth of disk-shaped islands is initiated by attachment of Cu adatoms on the ruthenium oxide surface onto the island periphery while vertical growth is initiated by 2D nucleation on the top terrace and followed by lateral step propagation. These results indicate three criteria for enhanced lateral growth in electrodeposition: (i) a substrate that leads to a small nucleation overpotential, (ii) fast adatom surface diffusion on substrate to promote lateral growth, and (iii) preferential anion adsorption to stabilize the basal plane. The surface roughness evolution, during isolated island growth, island coalescence, and continuous film growth, has also been studied as a function of island shape and island density. It is shown that the surface width wsat(l,t) initially follows anomalous scaling in the isolated island growth regime but exhibits normal scaling during the early stages of continuous film growth. Furthermore, the short length scale roughness is dependent primarily on island shape while the long length scale roughness is dependent on island density. Electrochemical deposition of

  11. Long-term lesser prairie-chicken nest ecology in response to grassland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Sarah R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Haukos, David A.; Boal, Clint W.; Patten, Michael; Wolfe, Don H.; Dixon, Charles; Cox, Robert D.; Heck, Willard R.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term population and range declines from habitat loss and fragmentation caused the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) to be a species of concern throughout its range. Current lesser prairie-chicken range in New Mexico and Texas is partially restricted to sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii; hereafter shinnery oak) prairies, on which cattle grazing is the main socioeconomic driver for private landowners. Cattle producers within shinnery oak prairies often focus land management on shrub eradication using the herbicide tebuthiuron to promote grass production for forage; however, herbicide application alone, and in combination with grazing, may affect nest site selection and nest survival of lesser prairie-chickens through the reduction of shinnery oak and native grasses. We used a controlled, paired, completely randomized design study to assess the influence of grazing and tebuthiuron application and their combined use on nest site selection and nest survival from 2001 to 2010 in Roosevelt County, New Mexico, USA at 2 spatial scales (i.e., treatment and microhabitat) in 4 treatments: tebuthiuron with grazing, tebuthiuron without grazing, no tebuthiuron with grazing, and a control of no tebuthiuron and no grazing. Grazing treatment was a short-duration system in which plots were grazed once during the dormant season and once during the growing season. Stocking rate was calculated each season based on measured forage production and applied to remove ≤25% of available herbaceous material per season. At the treatment scale, we compared nest site selection among treatments using 1-way χ2 tests and nest survival among treatments using a priori candidate nest survival models in Program MARK. At the microhabitat scale, we identified important habitat predictors of nest site selection and nest survival using logistic regression and a priori candidate nest survival models in Program MARK, respectively. Females typically used treatments as expected and

  12. Winter ecology and habitat use of lesser prairie-chickens in west Texas, 2008-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.; Pirius, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range by more than 90 percent since the late 1800s. The lesser prairie-chicken has been listed as a candidate species for protection under the Endangered Species Act and is undergoing review for actual listing. Populations and distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas are thought to be at or near all time lows. These factors have led to substantially increased concern for conservation of the species. It is apparent that sound management and conservation strategies for lesser prairie-chickens are necessary to ensure the long-term persistence of the species. To develop those strategies, basic ecological information is required. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We examined home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the winters of 2008–9, 2009–10, and 2010–11 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in west Texas. We captured and radio-tagged 53 adult lesser prairie-chickens. We obtained sufficient locations to estimate winter home-range size for 23 individuals. Home-range size did not differ between years or by sex. Although female prairie-chickens had slightly larger home ranges (503.5 ± 34.9 ha) compared to males (489.1 ± 34.9 ha), the differences were not significant (t2 = 0.05, P = 0.96). During the nonbreeding season, we found that 97.2 percent of locations of male and female prairie-chickens alike were within 3.2 kilometers (km) of the lek of capture. Most locations (96.8%) were within 1.7 km of a known lek and almost all locations (99.9%) were within 3.2 km of an available water source. Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges, grassland dominated areas with sand shinnery oak were used more than available, and sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) areas dominated with grassland as well as sand sagebrush areas

  13. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  14. L'île de Saint-Barthélemy (Petites Antilles) : une destination du tourisme de luxe

    OpenAIRE

    Theng, Sopheap

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Within thirty years, the small island of Saint-Barthelemy (25 km²) is out of its secular isolation to be among major luxury tourism destinations in the world. In this study, the idea is to identify structural element and different cyclical factors that help to understand Saint-Barthelemy tourism situation. The small size of the territory itself can be seen as a fundamental handicap or, conversely, as a considerable asset. Everything depends on development project. It i...

  15. Satellite tracking of two lesser spotted eagles Aquila pomarina, migrating from Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyburg, B.-U.; Ellis, D.H.; Meyburg, C.; Mendelsohn, J.; Scheller, W.

    2001-01-01

    One immature and one subadult Lesser Spotted Eagle, Aquila pomarina, were followed by satellite telemetry from their non-breeding areas in Namibia. Both birds were fitted with transmitters (PTTs) in February 1994 and tracked, the immature for six months and two weeks, over distances of 10084 and 16773 km, respectively. During their time in Namibia both birds? movements were in response to good local rainfall. The immature eagle left Namibia at the end of February, the subadult at the end of March. They flew to their respective summer quarters in Hungary and the Ukraine, arriving there 2.5 and 1.5 months later than the breeding adults. The immature eagle took over two months longer on the homeward journey than a breeding male followed by telemetry in a previous study. On returning, the immature eagle followed the narrow flightpath through Africa used by other Lesser Spotted Eagles on their outward migration. It reached this corridor, which runs roughly between longitudes 31? and 36? East from Suez to Lake Tanganyika, veering from the shortest route in a direction east-northeast through Angola and Zambia to the southern end of Lake Tanganyika. The route taken by the subadult bird on its return migration differed markedly from that of all Lesser Spotted Eagles tracked to date, running further west through the Democratic Republic of Congo where, level with the equator, it flew over the eastern rainforest of that country. The outward migration, however, followed the same corridor and coincided in time with the migration of adults.

  16. Evaluation of capture techniques on lesser prairie-chicken trap injury and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Mitchell, Natasia R.; Gicklhorn, Trevor S.; Borsdorf, Philip K.; Haukos, David A.; Dixon, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Ethical treatment of research animals is required under the Animal Welfare Act. This includes trapping methodologies that reduce unnecessary pain and duress. Traps used in research should optimize animal welfare conditions within the context of the proposed research study. Several trapping techniques are used in the study of lesser prairie-chickens, despite lack of knowledge of trap injury caused by the various methods. From 2006 to 2012, we captured 217, 40, and 144 lesser prairie-chickens Tympanuchus pallidicinctus using walk-in funnel traps, rocket nets, and drop nets, respectively, in New Mexico and Texas, to assess the effects of capture technique on injury and survival of the species. We monitored radiotagged, injured lesser prairie-chickens 7–65 d postcapture to assess survival rates of injured individuals. Injuries occurred disproportionately among trap type, injury type, and sex. The predominant injuries were superficial cuts to the extremities of males captured in walk-in funnel traps. However, we observed no mortalities due to trapping, postcapture survival rates of injured birds did not vary across trap types, and the daily survival probability of an injured and uninjured bird was ≥99%. Frequency and intensity of injuries in walk-in funnel traps are due to the passive nature of these traps (researcher cannot select specific individuals for capture) and incidental capture of individuals not needed for research. Comparatively, rocket nets and drop nets allow observers to target birds for capture and require immediate removal of captured individuals from the trap. Based on our results, trap injuries would be reduced if researchers monitor and immediately remove birds from walk-in funnels before they injure themselves; move traps to target specific birds and reduce recaptures; limit the number of consecutive trapping days on a lek; and use proper netting techniques that incorporate quick, efficient, trained handling procedures.

  17. Assessment, prevention and mitigation of landslide hazard in the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patra Punyatoya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are destructive geological processes that have globally caused deaths and destruction to property worth billion dollars. Landslide occurrences are widespread and prolific in India covering more than 15 per cent of the total area. These are mostly concentrated in the Himalayan belt, parts of Meghalaya Plateau, Nilgiri Hills, Western and Eastern Ghats. The slope failure in the hilly terrain is due to geological processes and events. The frequency and magnitude of slope failure also increased due to anthropogenic activities such as road construction, deforestation and urban expansion. Keeping all these problems in mind research focuses on the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Himalaya as it falls under very high risk zone in case of landslides and comprise of three objectives. They are: a to analyse the spatial pattern of landslides in the Lesser Himalaya, b to assess the causes of landslides vulnerability in the study region and c to suggests some preventive measures to mitigate landslides. In this work an attempt has been made to collect data on landslides incidences and damage from the secondary sources like Geological Survey of India, Building Material and Technology Promotion council from Ministry of Urban Affairs. The methodologies adopted for data analysis are simple tabulations, bar diagrams, statistical and mapping techniques to represent the Landslide vulnerability of the Lesser Himalaya. The analysis of the study reveals that there is increase in the number of landslides. The spatial pattern of landslide shows linear patterns, viz. along roads, rivers or lineaments/ faults. Besides, heavy rainfall, floods and earthquakes enhance the vulnerability condition. The landslides may be part and parcel of the Himalayan landscape, but they can be mitigated by some suitable measures. Few methods of landslide prevention in the study region have been suggested.

  18. The Geological Environment West of St. Croix

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    determined to be late Cretaceous and younger. Fink, L.K., Jr. (1972). Bathymetric and Geologic Studies of the Guadeloupe Region, Lesser Antilles...Dominica through studies of the geology of the islands, particularly that of Guadeloupe and nearby submarine physiographic regions. The finding of Late...Living Birds of Puerto Rico. Jour, of Agriculture of the Union of Puerto Rico, v. 21, no. 1, p. 5-16. Whetten, J.R. (1961). Geology of St. Croix, U.S

  19. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, French Guiana, Surinam and Uruguay. Amblyomma rotundatum Koch. Although there have been no published reports of this reptile and amphibian ...Nicaragua, Surinam and the islands of the Greater and Lesser Antilles. Both species have been found in Colombia, Panama and Venezuela. IXODIDAE Murray...Guiana, Surinam and Uruguay (Guglielmone et al., 2003c). Amblyomma auricularium (Conil). Massi Pallarés and Benı́tez Usher (1982) reported this tick from

  20. Unique structure and optics of the lesser eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, A; Andersson, F; Nilsson, Dan-E

    2008-01-01

    The visual system of box jellyfish comprises a total of 24 eyes. These are of four types and each probably has a special function. To investigate this hypothesis the morphology and optics of the lesser eyes, the pit and slit eyes, were examined. The pit eyes hold one cell type only and are probably...... mere light meters. The slit eyes, comprising four cell types, are complex and highly asymmetric. They also hold a lens-like structure, but its optical power is minute. Optical modeling suggests spatial resolution, but only in one plane. These unique and intriguing traits support strong peripheral...

  1. Spatially explicit modeling of lesser prairie-chicken lek density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Jennifer M.; Butler, M.J.; Ballard, Warren; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    As with many other grassland birds, lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have experienced population declines in the Southern Great Plains. Currently they are proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to a history of land-uses that have resulted in habitat loss, lesser prairie-chickens now face a new potential disturbance from energy development. We estimated lek density in the occupied lesser prairie-chicken range of Texas, USA, and modeled anthropogenic and vegetative landscape features associated with lek density. We used an aerial line-transect survey method to count lesser prairie-chicken leks in spring 2010 and 2011 and surveyed 208 randomly selected 51.84-km(2) blocks. We divided each survey block into 12.96-km(2) quadrats and summarized landscape variables within each quadrat. We then used hierarchical distance-sampling models to examine the relationship between lek density and anthropogenic and vegetative landscape features and predict how lek density may change in response to changes on the landscape, such as an increase in energy development. Our best models indicated lek density was related to percent grassland, region (i.e., the northeast or southwest region of the Texas Panhandle), total percentage of grassland and shrubland, paved road density, and active oil and gas well density. Predicted lek density peaked at 0.39leks/12.96km(2) (SE=0.09) and 2.05leks/12.96km(2) (SE=0.56) in the northeast and southwest region of the Texas Panhandle, respectively, which corresponds to approximately 88% and 44% grassland in the northeast and southwest region. Lek density increased with an increase in total percentage of grassland and shrubland and was greatest in areas with lower densities of paved roads and lower densities of active oil and gas wells. We used the 2 most competitive models to predict lek abundance and estimated 236 leks (CV=0.138, 95% CI=177-306leks) for our sampling area. Our results suggest that

  2. Canine distemper virus infection in a lesser grison (Galictis cuja: first report and virus phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Megid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases in wild animals have been increasing as a result of their habitat alterations and closer contact with domestic animals. Canine distemper virus (CDV has been reported in several species of wild carnivores, presenting a threat to wildlife conservation. We described the first case of canine distemper virus infection in lesser grison (Galictis cuja. A free-ranging individual, with no visible clinical sigs, presented sudden death after one day in captivity. Molecular diagnosis for CDV infection was performed using whole blood collected by postmortem intracardiac puncture, which resulted positive. The virus phylogeny indicated that domestic dogs were the probable source of infection.

  3. The Upper Palaeolithic site of Kalavan 1 (Armenia): an Epigravettian settlement in the Lesser Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Cyril; Balasescu, Adrian; Joannin, Sébastien; Ollivier, Vincent; Liagre, Jérémie; Nahapetyan, Samvel; Ghukasyan, Ruben; Colonge, David; Gasparyan, Boris; Chataigner, Christine

    2013-11-01

    The open-air site of Kalavan 1 is located in the Aregunyats mountain chain (at 1640 m above sea level) on the northern bank of Lake Sevan. It is the first Upper Palaeolithic site excavated in Armenia. Led by an Armenian-French team, several excavations (2005-2009) have revealed a well preserved palaeosoil, dated to around 14,000 BP (years before present), containing fauna, lithic artefacts, as well as several hearths and activity areas that structure the settlement. The initial studies enable placement of the site in its environment and justify palaeoethnological analysis of the Epigravettian human groups of the Lesser Caucasus.

  4. Bionomics of a lesser known goby, Stenogobius gymnopomus (Bleeker, 1853 (Perciformes: Gobiidae from southern Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lekshmi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The biology of a lesser known goby, Stenogobius gymnopomus was studied from the freshwater systems of southern Kerala. Dietary analysis showed that S. gymnopomus is a euryphagous feeder and an omnivore. Cladocerans, together with fish eggs and scales, constituted the major food items. The minimum size at first maturity for male S. gymnopomus is 78mm and for females 72mm. This species was found to be a batch spawner with a prolonged spawning season extending from August to December. Fecundity ranged from 46,323 to 61,291 eggs. Sex ratios revealed that local populations of S. gymnopomus are male dominated.

  5. Case report: epizootic of coccidiosis in free-flying lesser scaup (Aythya affinis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, R.M.; McDonald, M.E.; Locke, L.N.; Kerr, S.M.; Sinn, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A coccidiosis epizootic has occurred in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) at Bluestem Reservoir in eastern Nebraska during the spring in each of three recent years: 1976-1978. Losses peaked during the period from mid-March through April. As much as 29% of the peak population of scaup using the reservoir died. Necropsies of 72 of the nearly 1390 scaup that died revealed destruction and sloughing of the intestinal mucosa and associated hemorrhaging. Fibrinonecrotic cores were frequently found in the intestinal lumens. Scrapings from the intestinal mucosal contained massive numbers of oocysts of the coccidian Eimeria aythyae. This is the first report of recurrent epizootics of coccidiosis in freeflying waterfowl.

  6. St. Vincent Island Tour

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  7. Marine and Island Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  8. Plantar pressures and relative lesser metatarsal lengths in older people with and without forefoot pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Fotoohabadi, Mohammad R; Munteanu, Shannon E; Zammit, Gerard V; Gilheany, Mark F

    2013-03-01

    Forefoot pain is a common problem in older people. We determined whether plantar pressures during gait and the relative lengths of the lesser metatarsals differ between older people with and without plantar forefoot pain. Dynamic plantar pressure assessment during walking was undertaken using the Tekscan MatScan® system in 118 community-dwelling older people (44 males and 74 females), mean age 74 (standard deviation=5.9) years, 43 (36%) of whom reported current or previous plantar forefoot pain. The relative lengths of metatarsals 1-5 were determined from weightbearing X-rays. Participants with current or previous plantar forefoot pain exhibited significantly (p=0.032) greater peak plantar pressure under metatarsal heads 3-5 (1.93 ± 0.41 kg/cm(2) vs. 1.74 ± 0.48 kg/cm(2) ). However, no differences were found in relative metatarsal lengths between the groups. These findings indicate that older people with forefoot pain generate higher peak plantar pressures under the lateral metatarsal heads when walking, but do not exhibit relatively longer lesser metatarsals. Other factors may be responsible for the observed pressure increase, such as reduced range of motion of the metatarsophalangeal joints and increased stiffness of plantar soft tissues. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  9. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdul Matin; Sweety Mazumdar

    2009-08-01

    Understanding deformation mechanisms in Himalayan rocks is a challenging proposition due to the complex nature of the deformed rocks and their genesis. Crustal deformation in the Himalayan thrust belt typically occurs in elastico-frictional (EF) or quasi-plastic (QP) regimes at depths controlled mainly by regional strain-rate and geothermal gradient. However, material property, grain-size and their progressive changes during deformation are also important controlling factors. We present evidence of EF deformation from Gondwana rocks developed during the emplacement of one of the frontal horses (Jorthang horse) in the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) structure associated with Lesser Himalayan rocks in the footwall of the Ramgarh thrust in the Rangit window near Jorthang in the Sikkim Himalaya. The rocks in the horse exhibit systematic changes in microand meso-structures from an undeformed protolith to cataclasite suggesting that it was emplaced under elastico-frictional conditions. Meso- to micro-scale shear fractures are seen developed in Gondwana sandstone and slate while intercalated fine-grained shale-coal-carbonates are deformed by cataclastic flow suggesting that material property and grain-size have played an important role in the deformation of the Jorthang horse. In contrast, the hanging wall schists and quartzites of the Ramgarh thrust exhibit quasi-plastic deformation structures. This suggests that the Jorthang horse was emplaced under shallower crustal conditions than the antiformally folded Ramgarh thrust sheet even though the Ramgarh sheet presently overlies the Jorthang horse.

  10. The horizontal transfer of Salmonella between the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus) and poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, T L; Sheffield, C L; Beier, R C; Nisbet, D J

    2017-09-19

    There is need to determine the nature of enduring reservoirs of Salmonella contributing to perpetual contamination within poultry flocks. The dispersal of Salmonella between birds, litter and the lesser mealworm has been established, but the extent that these act as critical components in the epidemiology of Salmonella infection during broiler grow-out and flock rotation has not been delineated; in particular, the level of participation by the lesser mealworm beetles (LMB) as agents of retention and dispersal. This study defines this route of transmission and provides empirical data on bacterial loads that facilitate Salmonella transfer. Results showed differential Salmonella transfer dependent on bacterial concentration. At 10(3)  cfu/ml, only a small, but not significant, amount of Salmonella was transferred, from the LMB to the manure and back to uninfected LMB; while from 10(5) to 10(7)  cfu/ml, a significant acquisition and transfer occurred both internally and externally to the LMB over 4 and 24 hr exposures. These data will be used in correlation with facility management practices to develop intervention strategies to mitigate the establishment and spreading of reservoir Salmonella populations contributing to pre-harvest contamination of poultry flocks. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Regional Variation in mtDNA of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Wolfe, Don H.; Robel, Robel J.; Applegate, Roger D.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative loss of habitat and long-term decline in the populations of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have led to concerns for the species' viability throughout its range in the southern Great Plains. For more efficient conservation past and present distributions of genetic variation need to be understood. We examined the distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the Lesser Prairie-Chicken across Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. Throughout the range we found little genetic differentiation except for the population in New Mexico, which was significantly different from most other publications. We did, however, find significant isolation by distance at the rangewide scale (r=0.698). We found no relationship between haplotype phylogeny and geography, and our analyses provide evidence for a post-glacial population expansion within the species that is consistent with the idea that speciation within Tympanuchus is recent. Conservation actions that increase the likelihood of genetically viable populations in the future should be evaluated for implementation.

  12. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of the Lesser Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Low, Van Lun; Suana, I Wayan

    2017-05-01

    Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies were carried out in Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa and Flores in the Lesser Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia, where 10 species were known. A total of 14 simuliid species including four new species and five new records of the genus Simulium were collected, bringing the number of species from the Lesser Sunda Archipelago to 19. They are classified into four subgenera: two in Nevermannia, nine in Gomphostilbia, seven in Simulium and one in Wallacellum. One of four new species, Simulium (Simulium) baliense, is described based on females, males, pupae and larvae from Bali and Lombok. This new species, which is placed in the Simulium striatum species-group of the subgenus Simulium, is closely related to S. (S.) argyrocinctum De Meijere from Java and Sumatra, but it is distinguished from the latter species by the smaller number of the male enlarged upper-eye facets and larval abdomen lacking dorsal pairs of conical protuberances. The distribution record of S. (S.) upikae Takaoka & Davies from Flores is corrected as that of S. (S.) eximium De Meijere. Some aberrant characters of the pupal gill filaments of S. (G.) atratum De Meijere, S. (G.) floresense Takaoka, Hadi & Sigit and S. (G.) sunapii Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Suana are illustrated. Characteristics of the fauna of black flies in this archipelago are briefly noted. Keys to all 19 species are provided for females, males, pupae and larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution, abundance, and productivity of fall staging lesser snow geese on coastal habitats of northeast Alaska and northwest Canada, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the distribution, abundance, and productivity of fall staging lesser snow geese on coastal habitats of northeast Alaska and northwest Canada. The...

  14. Spatiotemporal distributions of intestinal helminths in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis during spring migration from the upper Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J. C.; Levengood, J.M.; Osborn, J. M.; Yetter, A. P.; Kinsella, J.M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Cory D. Suski,; Hagy, Heath M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between intestinal helminth infracommunity structure and infection parameters and the age, size, and year and region of collection of 130 female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during their 2014–2015 spring migrations through the upper Midwest, USA. We identified a total of 647,174 individual helminths from 40 taxa, including 20 trematodes, 14 cestodes, 4 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans parasitizing lesser scaup within the study area. Lesser scaup were each infected with 2–23 helminth taxa. One digenean, Plenosoma minimum, is reported for the first time in lesser scaup and in the Midwest. Mean trematode abundance and total helminth abundance was significantly less in 2015 than 2014, and we suspect that colder weather late in 2015 impacted the intermediate host fauna and caused the observed differences. Brillouin's species diversity of helminths was greatest in the northernmost region of the study area, which coincides with the range of a non-indigenous snail that indirectly causes annual mortality events of lesser scaup. While host age and size were not determined to be influential factors of helminth infracommunity structure, non-parametric ordination and permutational analysis of co-variance revealed that year and region of collection explained differences in helminth infracommunities. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variations play an important role in the structure of intestinal helminth infracommunities found in migrating lesser scaup hosts, and may therefore impact host ability to build endogenous reserves at certain stopover locations in the Midwest.

  15. Island-trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Island-trapped waves , internal waves , and island circulation T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California...topography. As strong flows encounter small islands, points, and submarine ridges, it is expected that wakes, eddies, and arrested internal lee waves ...form drag, lee waves , eddy generation) over small-scale topographic features and (ii) fundamentally nonlinear processes (turbulent island wakes

  16. Mycobacterium avium-related epizootic in free-ranging lesser flamingos in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, N D; Kock, R A; Wambua, J; Kamau, G J; Mohan, K

    1999-04-01

    An epizootic in free-ranging lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) in Kenya resulted in more than 18,500 deaths from August through mid-November 1993. Disease was concentrated along the shores of Rift Valley Lakes Bogoria and Nakuru (Kenya) and did not involve any of the other avian or mammalian species frequenting the lakes. Coincidental to the outbreak was a bloom of algae on Lake Bogoria, toxins from which were first suspected to be causative. Discrete necrotic and granulomatous lesions were often noted in spleen and liver, and Mycobacterium avium serovar I was isolated from both organs. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa also were often recovered in pure culture from liver. Gross and histopathological evaluation of the cases disclosed signs of acute sepsis and also chronic, potentially life-threatening lesions of mycobacteriosis, primarily involving the spleen and liver. Lesions typical for algae toxicosis were not seen in any birds. Deaths were attributed to septicemia complicated in those affected, by mycobacteriosis.

  17. Ichnology of the Early Cambrian Tal Group, Mussoorie Syncline, Lesser Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meera Tiwari; S K Parcha; Rajita Shukla; Harshita Joshi

    2013-12-01

    The Lesser Himalayan sequence is considered as one of the best developed sections of Cambrian successions, exposed in five different synclines. Mussoorie Syncline, being one of the five synclines, exposes the Cambrian Tal Group. This paper describes nine ichnotaxa, viz., Dimorphichnus isp., ?Diplichnites isp., Monomorphichnus isp., Nereites isp., Palaeopasichnus isp., Palaeophycus isp., Planolites montanus, Planolites isp., Skolithos isp., Treptichnus isp. from the Dhaulagiri Formation of the Tal Group. A detailed analysis of the ichnofossils indicates that the entire succession of Tal Group reflects shallow marine conditions in general and Mussoorie Syncline in particular. The above ichnofossil assemblage along with earlier ichnofossils and other faunal occurrences substantiates the assignment of Early Cambrian age to the Dhaulagiri Formation.

  18. Oxygen deficiency impacts on burying habitats for lesser sandeel, Ammodytes tobianus, in the inner Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane; Ærtebjerg, Gunni; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf;

    2009-01-01

    Starting in 1980s, the inner Danish waters have yearly been exposed to seasonal oxygen deficiency (hypoxia). Through spatial–temporal interpolation of monitoring data (1998–2005), we investigated oxygen deficiency impacts on suitable burying habitats for lesser sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus......). Furthermore, the consequences of a predicted 4 °C temperature increase within this century were investigated. Maps of bottom oxygen deficiency (oxygen saturation ≤ Scrit of sandeel) were overlaid on maps of sediment composition. Throughout the study period (1998–2005), about 8% of the suitable sediments were...... affected by oxygen deficiency during an average year and 23% in the most severe year. Regional differences underlay the interannual variations. The extent of oxygen deficiency in enclosed regions varied from 20% to 33% of the suitable seabed being affected, whereas in open-water regions oxygen deficiency...

  19. Reviewing host proteins of Rhabdoviridae: possible leads for lesser studied viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, A; Kiranmayi, M; Sreejith, R; Kumar, K; Sharma, S K; Gupta, S

    2011-12-01

    Rhabdoviridae, characterized by bullet-shaped viruses, is known for its diverse host range, which includes plants, arthropods, fishes and humans. Understanding the viral-host interactions of this family can prove beneficial in developing effective therapeutic strategies. The host proteins interacting with animal rhabdoviruses have been reviewed in this report. Several important host proteins commonly interacting with animal rhabdoviruses are being reported, some of which, interestingly, have molecular features, which can serve as potential antiviral targets. This review not only provides the generalized importance of the functions of animal rhabdovirus-associated host proteins for the first time but also compares them among the two most studied viruses, i.e. Rabies virus (RV) and Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV). The comparative data can be used for studying emerging viruses such as Chandipura virus (CHPV) and the lesser studied viruses such as Piry virus (PIRYV) and Isfahan virus (ISFV) of the Rhabdoviridae family.

  20. Reproductive biology of lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (L., 1758 in the Cantabrian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rodríguez-Cabello

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines sexual maturity of the female lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (L., 1758 in the Cantabrian Sea (north of Spain. Analyses made using data collected from commercial trawlers during 1994 and 1995 showed that females reach sexual maturity at a length of 54.2 cm, and the mean egg-laying size is 56.4 ± 0.94 cm. At least one in six adult female dogfish carried egg-capsules during the study period. Sex-ratio by depth strata indicates a larger proportion of females in deeper waters. Mature and spawning females were found at depths ranging from 100 m to more than 400 m, with their proportion being larger in the deeper strata.

  1. A projection of lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) populations range-wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathan W.; Converse, Sarah J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, Clay T.; Allan, Nathan L.; O'Meilia, Chris M.

    2017-08-09

    We built a population viability analysis (PVA) model to predict future population status of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus, LEPC) in four ecoregions across the species’ range. The model results will be used in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Species Status Assessment (SSA) for the LEPC. Our stochastic projection model combined demographic rate estimates from previously published literature with demographic rate estimates that integrate the influence of climate conditions. This LEPC PVA projects declining populations with estimated population growth rates well below 1 in each ecoregion regardless of habitat or climate change. These results are consistent with estimates of LEPC population growth rates derived from other demographic process models. Although the absolute magnitude of the decline is unlikely to be as low as modeling tools indicate, several different lines of evidence suggest LEPC populations are declining.

  2. Laceration of femoral vessels by an avulsion fracture fragment of the lesser trochanter after bipolar hemiarthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yong-Chan; Luminita, Simion; Cho, Se-Hyun; Choi, Jun-Young; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2005-08-01

    Femoral vessel injuries after bipolar hemiarthroplasty have not been reported. The current report describes a case of a dual major vessel (superficial femoral artery and vein) injury associated with an avulsion fracture fragment of the lesser trochanter in a 76-year-old woman who had been treated with bipolar hemiarthroplasty because of a femoral neck fracture. The superficial femoral artery was repaired and the defect of the superficial femoral vein was reconstructed with a Gore-Tex graft (WL Gore and Associates Inc, Flagstaff, Ariz). The clinical result was satisfactory and there was no vascular problem at 1-year follow-up. Early diagnosis of this vascular injury prevents serious complications including gangrene of the injured limb.

  3. Oxygen deficiency impacts on burying habitats for lesser sandeel, Ammodytes tobianus, in the inner Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane; Ærtebjerg, Gunni; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2009-01-01

    Starting in 1980s, the inner Danish waters have yearly been exposed to seasonal oxygen deficiency (hypoxia). Through spatial–temporal interpolation of monitoring data (1998–2005), we investigated oxygen deficiency impacts on suitable burying habitats for lesser sandeel (Ammodytes tobianus...... affected by oxygen deficiency during an average year and 23% in the most severe year. Regional differences underlay the interannual variations. The extent of oxygen deficiency in enclosed regions varied from 20% to 33% of the suitable seabed being affected, whereas in open-water regions oxygen deficiency...... problems were limited during average years. However, large areas of the open-water seabed experienced oxygen deficiency during severe years. In such years, under a 4.0 °C temperature increase scenario, the extent of oxygen deficiency on open-water suitable patches was predicted to increase from 25...

  4. Reviewing host proteins of Rhabdoviridae: Possible leads for lesser studied viruses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Guleria; M Kiranmayi; R Sreejith; K Kumar; S K Sharma; S Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Rhabdoviridae, characterized by bullet-shaped viruses, is known for its diverse host range, which includes plants, arthropods, fishes and humans. Understanding the viral–host interactions of this family can prove beneficial in developing effective therapeutic strategies. The host proteins interacting with animal rhabdoviruses have been reviewed in this report. Several important host proteins commonly interacting with animal rhabdoviruses are being reported, some of which, interestingly, have molecular features, which can serve as potential antiviral targets. This review not only provides the generalized importance of the functions of animal rhabdovirus-associated host proteins for the first time but also compares them among the two most studied viruses, i.e. Rabies virus (RV) and Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV). The comparative data can be used for studying emerging viruses such as Chandipura virus (CHPV) and the lesser studied viruses such as Piry virus (PIRYV) and Isfahan virus (ISFV) of the Rhabdoviridae family.

  5. A short review on tardigrades – some lesser known taxa of polyextremophilic invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gagyi-Palffy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are polyextremophilic small organisms capable to survive in a variety of extremeconditions. By reversibly suspending their metabolism (cryptobiosis – tun state tardigrades can dry orfreeze and, thus, survive the extreme conditions like very high or low pressure and temperatures,changes in salinity, lack of oxygen, lack of water, some noxious chemicals, boiling alcohol, even thevacuum of the outer space. Despite their peculiar morphology and amazing diversity of habitats,relatively little is known about these organisms. Tardigrades are considered some lesser known taxa.Studying tardigrades can teach us about the evolution of life on our planet, can help us understand whatextremophilic evolution and adaptation means and they can show us what forms of life may develop onother planets.

  6. First description of malignant retrobulbar and intracranial teratoma in a lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rafael Molina; Múrcia, Daniel Borràs

    2008-08-01

    Teratomas are defined as germ cell origin neoplasms that can be rarely found in either humans or animals. Their most common localization is the gonads, although extragonadal localization has also been observed. In avian medicine, there is scarce literature about the occurrence of teratomas and their clinical implications, and this is mainly in wildlife birds . For this reason, we report the first description of a teratoma with both retrobulbar and intracranial locations in a 10-day-old chick of a lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) born in captivity. The raptor was treated in a centre of wildlife rehabilitation because of the presence of left periocular swelling and exopthalmos. The bird worsened rapidly with signs of vestibular syndrome, ataxia and depression, and euthanasia was practised for humanitarian reasons. Histological examination characterized both masses as malignant teratomas based on the presence of tissues of the three germ cell layers and the presence of both anaplastic foci and immature tissues.

  7. Dominance and diversity studies of tree species in lesser Himalayan forest of Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. BISHT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bisht AS, Bhatt AB. 2016. Dominance and diversity studies of tree species in lesser Himalayan forest of Uttarakhand, India. Biodiversitas 17: 70-77. For the present investigation single mountain, approach was applied. This is a supplement the basic approach and extends the gradients further downward in to the forest belt. Vegetational analysis of nine stands covering all the four aspects of the study site of Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand, India has been undertaken. In seven trees, species were encountered. East aspect is characteristics by highest density of Cupressus torulosa while west aspect comprised of Cedrus deodara, Myrica esculenta, Pinus. roxbugrhii, Quercus. leucotrichophora and Rhododendron arboreum, i.e. high diversity with low dominance Cupressus torulosa and Cedrus deodara dominated the north aspect. In general, influence of higher anthropogenic pressure on Quercus species is an important factor for leads to gradual replacement of oak species by Pinus roxburghii in all the aspects.

  8. Editorial : islands : objects of representation

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Baldacchino tries to define what is an island and what makes an island. Insularity is a diverse experience ranging from the remoteness of Easter Island in the Pacific to the more international and globalized islands of the Western world.

  9. The acquisition and internalization of Salmonella by the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Esquivel, Sharon V; Droleskey, Robert E; Esquivel, Jesus F

    2009-02-01

    In poultry broiler production facilities, it is important to understand the sources and contribution of reservoir populations of pathogens. The lesser mealworm beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), is a common pest in poultry litter that is reported to carry pathogens affecting both human and animal health. This study investigates whether the carriage of a bacterial pathogen occurs by the harboring of bacteria internally by these insects. Beetles were exposed to a marker bacterium, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-green fluorescent protein (ST-GFP), at concentrations up to 10(7) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL for 0.5 to 12 h, and then subsequently surface disinfected and dissected. The head, gastrointestinal tract and hemolymph were cultured for the presence of ST-GFP. This study definitively demonstrates the internal carriage of Salmonella by this insect and found that the beetles rapidly acquired bacteria from external sources and harbored the bacteria within their alimentary canal after exposure for 30 min at 10(4) cfu/mL and within the hemolymph after exposure for 2 h at 10(6) cfu/mL. Beetles internalized an average of 9.5 × 10(1) and 3.2 × 10(3) after a 2-h exposure to 2 × 10(4) and 2 × 10(6) cfu/mL, respectively. The lesser mealworm is a serious pest within the poultry brooder and laying industry and because of their mobility, voracious feeding habits, and prey potential may represent an active source facilitating the dissemination of Salmonella.

  10. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup: A response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris A.

    2017-01-01

    We recently analyzed long-term (1951–2011) continental band-recovery data from lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and demonstrated that harvest rates declined through time, but annual survival rates exhibited no such trends; moreover, annual harvest and survival rates were uncorrelated for all age-sex classes. We therefore concluded that declining fecundity was most likely responsible for recent population declines, rather than changes in harvest or survival. Lindberg et al. (2017) critiqued our conclusions, arguing that we did little more than fail to reject a null hypothesis of compensatory mortality, postulated ecologically unrealistic changes in fecundity, and failed to give sufficient consideration to additive harvest mortality. Herein, we re-summarize our original evidence indicating that harvest has been compensatory, or at most weakly additive, and demonstrate that our analysis had sufficient power to detect strongly additive mortality if it occurred. We further demonstrate that our conclusions were not confounded by population size, band loss, or individual heterogeneity, as suggested by Lindberg et al. (2017), and we provide additional support for our conjecture that low fecundity played a major role in declining scaup populations during 1983–2006. We therefore reiterate our original management recommendations: given low harvest rates and lack of demonstrable effect on scaup survival, harvest regulations could return to more liberal frameworks, and waterfowl biologists should work together to continue banding lesser scaup and use these data to explore alternative hypotheses to identify the true ecological causes of population change, given that it is unlikely to be excessive harvest. 

  11. Hydrochemistry and rock weathering in a sub-tropical Lesser Himalayan river basin in Kumaun, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartarya, S. K.

    1993-06-01

    Major ion chemistry of the water of the Gaula catchment — a medium-sized Lesser Himalayan basin in Kumaun, was measured in 1983 and 1984. The results show the influence of rock weathering on the concentration of major constituents in the ground water and surface water. The catchment lithology contributes a large part of the major constituents in the waters; Ca and Mg account for 40-73% of the cations and HCO 3 accounts for 48-98% of anions, and the equivalent ratio of Ca + Mg to Na + K is about nine. Cl + SO 4 accounts for 12-16% in the anion balance and does not represent a contribution from soil salt. The low Mg:Ca ratio (0.1-0.4) and high bicarbonate suggest the possibility of carbonate precipitation between the upper and the lower reaches. The excess Na over Cl, low Mg:Ca ratio and relatively high abundance of silica in the upper reaches indicate weathering of aluminosilicate minerals of crystalline rocks (granite, mica schist and quartz porphyry), and particularly of Na- and K-feldspar and quartz. Intense weathering of pyrite and or gypsum associated with the carbonate rocks is reflected by the substantially higher abundance of SO 4, low silica and the low Na:Cl ratio. In comparison with the Indian peninsular rivers, the low concentrations of the major constituents in the water of this Lesser Himalayan catchment indicate rapid infiltration and quick outflow of the rainwater and thus a short residence time for water, during which interaction with the rocks could occur, because of the steep slopes.

  12. Prevalence of ciguatoxins in lionfish (Pterois spp.) from Guadeloupe, Saint Martin, and Saint Barthélmy Islands (Caribbean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliño, Lucía; Widgy, Saha; Pautonnier, Anthony; Turquet, Jean; Loeffler, Christopher R; Flores Quintana, Harold A; Diogène, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Lionfish (Pterois spp.) are invasive species that have recently spread throughout the Caribbean. Lionfish are available for purchase in local markets for human consumption in several islands of the region. We examined the prevalence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in lionfish from the French Antilles, a ciguatera-endemic region. The neuroblastoma-2a (N2a) cell assay was used to assess composite cytotoxicity in 120 fish samples collected from the surrounding waters of Guadeloupe (n = 60), Saint Barthélemy Islands (n = 55) and Saint Martin (n = 5). Twenty-seven of these samples exhibited CTX-like activity by the N2a assay. Ciguatoxin (CTX) was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple samples that presented highest composite toxicity levels by N2a. Those fish found to contain CTXs were all from Saint Barthélemy. Lionfish from Guadeloupe and Saint Martin did not exhibit toxin activity, although the sample size from Saint Martin was insufficient to draw any conclusions as to the incidence of CTXs. In this study, we provide information about the potential hazard of ciguatera associated with the consumption of lionfish from known endemic areas. We also demonstrate the utility of the cell-based assay combined with LC-MS/MS to assess activity and to provide structural confirmation of CTXs respectively.

  13. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  14. Nunivak Island muskox studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  15. Melville Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  16. Colwellia and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: An unusual dual symbiosis in a Terua mussel (Mytilidae: Bathymodiolinae) from whale falls in the Antilles arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperron, Sébastien; Gros, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Seven individuals of a single morphotype of mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) were found attached to a naturally sunken whale intervertebral disk collected in Guadeloupe (Caribbean) at 800 m depth. These specimens resemble small Idas mussels which are found worldwide at cold seeps and hydrothermal vents, and typically harbor ectosymbiotic bacteria on their gills upon which they depend for nutrition. Based on multi-locus gene sequencing, these specimens appear to belong to a new species closely related to two species now included within the genus Terua. Unexpectedly, its closest relatives are found in the Pacific, questioning how this species has reached the Antilles arc. Based on marker gene sequence analysis, electron and fluorescence microscopy, Terua n. sp. harbors two distinct and abundant extracellular bacterial symbionts located between microvilli at the apical surface of host gill epithelial cells. One is a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium similar to the symbionts previously identified in several deep-sea mussels, while the other is related to Colwellia species, a group of cold-adapted heterotrophic bacteria able to degrade organic compounds. This study provides the first evidence for the existence of a dual symbiosis in mussels from whale fall ecosystems in the Caribbean. The evolutionary history of Terua n. sp. and potential role of its Colwellia symbionts are discussed.

  17. Scientific travel in the Atlantic world: the French expedition to Gorée and the Antilles, 1681-1683.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Nicholas

    2010-03-01

    Although historians have long recognized the importance of long-range scientific expeditions in both the practice and culture of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century science, it is less well understood how this form of scientific organization emerged and became established in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. In the late seventeenth century new European scientific institutions tried to make use of globalized trade networks for their own ends, but to do so proved difficult. This paper offers a case history of one such expedition, the voyage sponsored by the French Académie royale des sciences to Gorée (in modern Senegal) and the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1681-3. The voyage of Varin, Deshayes and de Glos reveals how the process of travel itself caused problems for instruments and observers alike.

  18. Differential behaviour of a Lesser Himalayan watershed in extreme rainfall regimes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pankaj Chauhan; Nilendu Singh; Devi Datt Chauniyal; Rajeev S Ahluwalia; Mohit Singhal

    2017-03-01

    Climatic extremes including precipitation are bound to intensify in the global warming environment. The present study intends to understand the response of the Tons sub-watershed in Lesser Himalaya, in 3 years with entirely different hydrological conditions (July 2008–June 2011) in terms of discharge, sedimentflux and denudation rates. Within an uncertainty limit of ±20%, the mean interannual discharge (5.74 ± 1.44 m ³s ⁻¹) (±SE), was found highly variable (CV: 151%; 0.8–38 m ³s ⁻¹). In a normal rainfall year (2008–2009; ~1550 mm), the discharge was 5.12 ± 1.75 m ³s ⁻¹, whereas in a drought year (2009–2010), it reduced by 30% with the reduction in ~23% rainfall (CV: 85%). In an excessive rainfall year (once-in-a-century event) (2010–2011; ~3050 mm), discharge as well as total solid load was ~200% higher. Monsoon months (July–September) accounted for more than 90% of the annual solid load transport. The ratio of dissolved to suspended solid (C/P ratio) was consistently low (<1) during monsoon months and higher (1–7) during the rest of the dry period. C/P ratio was inversely (R ² = 0.49), but significantly (P<0.001) related to the rainfall. The average mechanical erosion rate in the three different rainfall years was 0.24, 0.19 and 1.03 mmyr ⁻¹, whereas the chemical erosion was estimated at 0.12, 0.11 and 0.46 mmyr ⁻¹, respectively. Thus, the average denudation rate of the Tons sub-watershed has been estimated at 0.33 mmyr ⁻¹ (excluding extreme rainfall year: 1.5 mmyr ⁻¹). Our results have implications to understand the hydrological behaviour of the Lesser Himalayan watersheds and will be valuable for the proposed and several upcoming small hydropower plants in the region in the context of regional ecology and naturalresource management.

  19. Observations of the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni in Bulgaria during the period of post-breeding dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalova Girgina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni was considered extinct as a breeding species in Bulgaria, but recently a small breeding colony was found again in the south-eastern part of the country. Seven recent observations of flocks or solitary birds of the species in Bulgaria during the post-breeding period are presented and commented here. It is shown that the territory of the country is a regular area for post-breeding dispersal and pre-migratory feeding of lesser kestrels. The origin of these is not known, but most probably birds from the populations of the European part of Turkey, Greece, Republic of Macedonia and Albania are involved.

  20. Dragonflies of Polillo Island, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Reagan Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    Polillo is a small group of island (27 islands in total) east of central Luzon (Figure 1). It is made up of four main island viz. Polillo I, Patnanungan I, Jomalig I and Palasan I and several islets. This island group has relatively flat to gentle sloping terrain and the highest point is only 300 m asl (Mt. Maluhod) in Polillo Island (ca 700 km²) which is the largest in the group and the third largest island in greater Luzon biogeographic region.

  1. Effects of 2010 Hurricane Earl amidst geologic evidence for greater overwash at Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Tuttle, M. P.

    2014-03-01

    A post-hurricane survey of a Caribbean island affords comparisons with geologic evidence for greater overwash at the same place. This comparison, though of limited application to other places, helps calibrate coastal geology for assessment of earthquake and tsunami potential along the Antilles Subduction Zone. The surveyed island, Anegada, is 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench and is near the paths of hurricanes Donna (1960) and Earl (2010), which were at or near category 4 when at closest approach. The survey focused on Earl's geologic effects, related them to the surge from Hurricane Donna, and compared them further with erosional and depositional signs of southward overwash from the Atlantic Ocean that dates to 1200-1450 AD and to 1650-1800 AD. The main finding is that the geologic effects of these earlier events dwarf those of the recent hurricanes. Hurricane Earl's geologic effects at Anegada, observed mainly in 2011, were limited to wrack deposition along many of the island's shores and salt ponds, accretion of small washover (spillover) fans on the south shore, and the suspension and deposition of microbial material from interior salt ponds. Earl's most widespread deposit at Anegada, the microbial detritus, was abundantly juxtaposed with evidence for catastrophic overwash in prior centuries. The microbial detritus formed an extensive coating up to 2 cm thick that extended into breaches in beach-ridge plains of the island's north shore, onto playas that are underlain by a sand-and-shell sheet that extends as much as 1.5 km southward from the north shore, and among southward-strewn limestone boulders pendant to outcrops as much as 1 km inland. Earl's spillover fans also contrast with a sand-and-shell sheet, which was dated previously to 1650-1800, by being limited to the island's south shore and by extending inland a few tens of meters at most. These findings complement those reported in this issue by Michaela Spiske and Robert Halley (Spiske and Halley

  2. Lesser than diabetes hyperglycemia in pregnancy is related to perinatal mortality: a cohort study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendland Eliana M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gestational diabetes related morbidity increases along the continuum of the glycemic spectrum. Perinatal mortality, as a complication of gestational diabetes, has been little investigated. In early studies, an association was found, but in more recent ones it has not been confirmed. The Brazilian Study of Gestational Diabetes, a cohort of untreated pregnant women enrolled in the early 1990's, offers a unique opportunity to investigate this question. Thus, our objective is to evaluate whether perinatal mortality increases in a continuum across the maternal glycemic spectrum. Methods We prospectively enrolled and followed 4401 pregnant women attending general prenatal care clinics in six Brazilian state capitals, without history of diabetes outside of pregnancy, through to birth, and their offspring through the early neonatal period. Women answered a structured questionnaire and underwent a standardized 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Obstetric care was maintained according to local protocols. We obtained antenatal, delivery and neonatal data from hospital records. Odds ratios (OR were estimated using logistic regression. Results We ascertained 97 perinatal deaths (67 fetal and 31 early neonatal. Odds of dying increased according to glucose levels, statistically significantly so only for women delivering at gestational age ≥34 weeks (p Conclusions In settings of limited detection and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus, women across a spectrum of lesser than diabetes hyperglycemia, experienced a continuous rise in perinatal death with increasing levels of glycemia after 34 weeks of pregnancy. Current GDM diagnostic criteria identified this increased risk of mortality.

  3. Female reproductive tract of the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla, myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra). Anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L F; Luaces, J P; Marcos, H J Aldana; Cetica, P D; Gachen, G; Jimeno, G Pérez; Merani, M S

    2011-11-01

    The morphological and histological features of the unusual reproductive tract of the female lesser anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla (Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra), are described for the first time. The present study aimed to establish the main similarities and differences between this species and other xenarthrans. The populations of this species are declining rapidly for a number of reasons and our study is relevant to diverse programs related to its conservation. Studies were carried out on five female genital tracts of adult specimens. Ovaries were ovoid, presenting a medulla completely surrounded by the cortex, differently from that described in other xenarthans. Like in Dasypus but different from all other armadillos studied, single oocyte follicles were observed and a simple the uterus. The uterovaginal canal connects the uterus with the urogenital sinus. The simple columnar epithelium of the uterovaginal canal ends abruptly at a septum which resembles a hymen, where the transitional epithelium of the urogenital sinus appears. This ancestral feature is shared with that of other armadillos, except Tolypeutes matacus, which has a true vagina. Characteristics of the reproductive tract and sperm morphology of other Xenarthra are comparatively discussed. These observations suggest that important reproductive features are shared between the family Myrmecophagidae and the genus Dasypus, a basal group in the phylogeny of Xenarthra.

  4. Contribution of hot spring cyanobacteria to the mysterious deaths of Lesser Flamingos at Lake Bogoria, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienitz, Lothar; Ballot, Andreas; Kotut, Kiplagat; Wiegand, Claudia; Pütz, Stephanie; Metcalf, James S; Codd, Geoffrey A; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2003-03-01

    Cyanobacterial mats at hot springs on the shore of the alkaline Lake Bogoria, Kenya, were investigated regarding species community and cyanobacterial toxin content. The hepatotoxins microcystin-LR, -RR, -LF and -YR, and the neurotoxin anatoxin-a were present. The mats were dominated by Phormidium terebriformis, Oscillatoria willei, Spirulina subsalsa and Synechococcus bigranulatus. The concentration of microcystins in mat samples, ranged from 221 to 845 microg microcystin-LR equivalents g(-1) DW of mat. Anatoxin-a concentrations ranged from 10 to 18 microg g(-1) DW of mat. A contribution of the cyanobacterial toxins from the hot spring mats to the mass mortalities of Lesser Flamingos is suggested by: (a), the presence of hot spring cyanobacterial cells and cell fragments, and high concentrations of the cyanobacterial hepato- and neurotoxins in flamingo stomach contents and faecal pellets; (b), observations of neurological signs of bird poisoning at the lake. Cyanobacterial toxins in stomach contents, intestine and fecal pellets were 0.196 microg g(-1) fresh weight (FW) for the microcystins and 4.34 microg g(-1) FW for anatoxin-a. Intoxication with cyanobacterial toxins could occur by uptake of detached cyanobacterial cells from the mats, as the flamingos need to drink fresh or brackish water, and to wash their feathers daily, which they do in the vicinity of the hot springs, where salinity is lower than in the main body of water of the lake.

  5. Vascularization of the small intestine in lesser anteaters, Tamandua tetradactyla (Xenarthra: Myrmecophagidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara R Ferreira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The blood supply in the small intestine of seven Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758, was studied. The method included preparation of the macroscopic collection report, perfusion of the arterial network with water (40ºC, injection of colored latex (Neoprene 650®, 2350-0003 Suvinil® dye, fixation in formaldehyde (10%, and preservation in ethanol (50%. For description and analyzes, dissection under mesoscopic light and photo documentation were performed. The small intestine of T. tetradactyla is irrigated by the cranial mesenteric artery, the ventral visceral branch of the abdominal aorta. The artery emerges from the retroperitoneum and disperses between the layers of the common mesentery, parallel to the caudal mesenteric artery. The primary cranial collateral branches irrigate the pancreas, duodenum, jejunum (13 arteries, ileum (14 vessels, and the cecocolic region. The arteries anastomose with adjacent vessels to form arches. Terminal branches are derived from these peri-intestinal arcs that reach into the intestine through the mesenteric boundary and form capillaries within the lining. The vascular pattern of the lesser anteater differs from those of other previously described vertebrates, but is similar to the pattern found in fetuses of domestic mammals during early intestinal development.

  6. Reproductive biology of the lesser guitarfish Zapteryx brevirostris from the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello, J C; García, M L; Menni, R C

    2011-01-01

    This study provides the first detailed information on the reproductive biology of the lesser guitarfish Zapteryx brevirostris in the south-western Atlantic Ocean between latitudes 34° and 42° S. A total of 320 males (196-647 mm total length, L(T)) and 336 females (200-640 mm L(T)) were analysed. No significant differences were observed in size at 50% maturity between males (499 mm L(T)) and females (506 mm L(T)). Three seasonal patterns were related to the testes mass, the development of spermatocysts and the presence of spermatozoa in genital ducts. Females showed a 3 year reproductive cycle, with 2 years of ovarian maturation and 1 year of gestation, including a mean annual fecundity of one to two embryos. Synchronicity of both ovulating females and males with sperm in genital ducts indicated that ovulation and hence mating occurs during winter. Birth was assumed to occur during winter, but neither ovulation nor mating is simultaneous with this reproductive event. Despite its low economic value, a decline in abundance in the region, together with a low reproductive efficiency, indicates that the Z. brevirostris population should be monitored closely.

  7. Raptor community composition in the Texas Southern High Plains lesser prairie-chicken range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, A.C.; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Lucia, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Predation can be a factor in preventing prey population growth and sustainability when prey populations are small and fragmented, and when predator density is unrelated to the density of the single prey species. We conducted monthly raptor surveys from February 2007 to May 2009 in adjacent areas of the Texas Southern High Plains (USA) that do and do not support lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act. During the summer period corresponding to prairie-chicken nesting and brood-rearing, Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) were the most abundant raptor. During the lekking and overwintering period, the raptor community was diverse, with northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) being the most abundant species. Raptor abundance peaked during the early autumn and was lowest during the spring. Utility poles were a significant predictor of raptor density at survey points and Swainson's hawks and all raptors, pooled, were found in greater densities in non-prairie-chicken habitat dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). Avian predation risk on prairie-chickens, based on presence and abundance of raptors, appears to be greatest during winter when there is a more abundant and diverse raptor community, and in areas with utility poles.

  8. Abundance and density of lesser prairie-chickens and leks in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Jennifer M.; Butler, M.J.; Ballard, Warren; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lesser prairie-chickens (LEPCs; Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have experienced population declines due to both direct and indirect habitat loss, including conversion of native rangeland to cropland and disturbance from energy development. Our objectives were to 1) determine the current density of LEPC leks and LEPCs within the Texas (USA) occupied range, including areas with high potential for wind-energy development; and 2) find new leks. To estimate lek and LEPC density, we employed a line-transect-based aerial survey method using a Robinson 22 helicopter to count leks. We surveyed 26,810.9 km of transect in the spring of 2010 and 2011 and we detected 96 leks. We estimated a density of 2.0 leks/100 km(2) (90% CI = 1.4-2.7 leks/100 km(2)) and 12.3 LEPCs/100 km(2) (90% CI = 8.5-17.9 LEPCs/100 km(2)) and an abundance of 293.6 leks (90% CI = 213.9-403.0 leks) and 1,822.4 LEPCs (90% CI = 1,253.7-2,649.1 LEPCs) for our sampling frame. Our best model indicated that lek size and lek type (AIC(c) wt = 0.235) influenced lek detectability. Lek detectability was greater for larger leks and natural leks versus man-made leks. Our statewide survey efforts provide wildlife managers and biologists with population estimates, new lek locations, and areas to target for monitoring and conservation.

  9. Arc parallel extension in Higher and Lesser Himalayas, evidence from western Arunachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharmistha De Sarkar; George Mathew; Kanchan Pande

    2013-06-01

    The existence of E–W extensional features from northeast (NE) Himalaya is poorly documented. Our investigation in the western part of Arunachal Himalaya provides evidences of active Quaternary E–W arc-parallel extensional features in the Higher and Lesser Himalayas. They are represented by arcperpendicular normal faults and arc-parallel sinistral strike-slip faults. We discuss the occurrences of these arc-parallel extensional features in terms of oblique convergence and radial expansion models. The partitioning of stress due to oblique convergence is argued based on evidences of left-lateral slip in NEHimalaya, right-lateral slip in NW-Himalaya and absence of translation in the central part. The amount of arc-parallel extension in the hinterland regions is correlated to the amount of radial shortening in the foreland. The computation of arc-parallel extension in the NE Himalayan arc is carried out by defining a small-circle centered at 88° 39′ ± 0.7′E longitude and 33° 40′ ± 0.6′N latitude having a radius of 770.7 ± 15.1 km, for the segment between 92° 01′ and 95° 16′E longitudes. The amount of arc-parallel extension estimated is ∼110 km for the NE Himalayan segment. Our result agrees closely with the 104 km extension determined based on geodetically computed extension rate and age of initiation of rifting in southern Tibet.

  10. Carbon stock in Korean larch plantations along a chronosequence in the Lesser Khingan Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei MA; Yan-hong LIU; Yu-jun SUN; Jason Grabosky

    2014-01-01

    Carbon (C) dynamics are central to understanding ecosystem restoration effects within the context of Grain for Green Project (GGP). GGP stared in China since 2003 to improve the environment. Despite its importance, how total forest ecosystem C stock (FECS) develops fol-lowing land-use changes from cropland to plantation is poorly under-stood, in particular the relationship of C allocation to pools. We quanti-fied C pools in a chronosequence ranging from 0 to 48 years, using com-plete above-and below-ground harvests based on detailed field inventory. Stands were chosen along a succession sequence in managed plantations of Korean larch (Larix olgensis Henry.), a native planting species in the Lesser Khingan Mountains, Northeast of China. The FECS of Korean larch plantation (KLP) were dynamic across stand development, chang-ing from 88.2 Mg·ha-1 at cropland, to 183.9 Mg·ha-1 as an average of forest C from 7-through 48-year-old plantation. In a 48-year-old mature KLP, vegetation comprises 48.63%of FECS and accounts for 67.66%of annual net C increment (ANCI). Soil is responsible for 38.19% and 13.53% of those, and with the remainders of 13.18% and 18.81% in down woody materials. Based on comparisons of our estimate to those of others, we conclude that afforestation of Korean larch plantation is a valid approach to sequester carbon.

  11. Hydrologically complemented deterministic slope stability analysis in part of Indian Lesser Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mathew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a deterministic approach to evaluate the factor of safety (FS of the terrain for different hydrological conditions, in part of Indian Lesser Himalaya. The results indicate sudden increase in the percentage unstable area from 7.5% to 13.8% for rainfall intensity variation from 50 to 100 mm/day. For the rainfall intensity of 15 August 2007 which caused many landslides in the study area, 18.5% of the total area was unstable and it increases to 21.7%, 23.5% and 24.7%, respectively, for rainfall intensities corresponding to 10, 25 and 50 year return periods. This increment stagnates at about 260 mm/day, making about 25% of the area unstable. Higher rainfall intensities make progressively gentler slopes unstable, but limited to 25 degrees of slope in this area. The area underlain by granitic gneiss showed 23.1% of area as unstable for 135 mm/day of rainfall intensity, and was followed by those areas underlain by amphibolite (16%, limestone (13.7% and quartzite (10.4%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis has given 84.2% accuracy for the model. Conversion of FS to failure probability through Z scores enables identification unstable or marginally unstable areas, for planning selective slope stabilization measures.

  12. Distribution and ecology of lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, in Tanzanian coastal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuni, Christopher A; Sluydts, Vincent; Mulungu, Loth S; Maganga, Samwel L S; Makundi, Rhodes H; Leirs, Herwig

    2015-11-01

    The lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, is a small rodent that is patchily distributed in the Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests in East Africa. The ecology of this species and its current distribution in coastal forests is not well known. Therefore, we conducted a study in selected coastal forests to assess the current distribution of the species and to investigate the population ecology in terms of abundance fluctuations and demographic patterns. Assessments of the species distribution were conducted in 5 forests through trapping with Sherman live traps. Data on ecology were obtained from monthly capture-mark-recapture studies conducted for 5 consecutive nights per month in two 1 ha grids set in Zaraninge Forest over a 2-year period. The results indicate the presence of B. hindei in 3 forests where it was not previously recorded. The population abundance estimates ranged from 1 to 40 animals per month, with high numbers recorded during rainy seasons. Reproduction patterns and sex ratios did not differ between months. Survival estimates were not influenced by season, and recruitment was low, with growth rate estimates of 1 animal per month. These estimates suggest a stable population of B. hindei in Zaraninge Forest. Further studies are recommended to establish the home range, diet and burrowing behavior of the species in coastal forests in East Africa.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome and the phylogenetic position of the Lesser Cuckoo, Cuculus poliocephalus (Aves: Cuculiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Liang, Bin; Huo, Juan; Liang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Lesser Cuckoo Cuculus poliocephalus was determined using next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses with 20 cuckoo species and six genes (12S, ATP6, CYTb, ND2, ND3, and ND6) strongly verified the identity of our sample as grouping with C. poliocephalus, which was sister to a clade of other Cuculus spp., including C. canorus, C. micropterus, and C. saturatus. The mitogenomic length of C. poliocephalus was 17 508 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, one control region with 48 bp unit tandem repeats close to 3' end, and one short pseudo-control region with 33 tandem repeats of CAACAAA. An extra nucleotide (T) was identified at position 174 of ND3. The mitogenome of C. poliocephalus will contribute to studies of mitogenomic evolution, the phylogenetic relationship of cuckoos, and the co-evolutionary pattern between brood parasitic birds and their hosts.

  14. Seasonal and daily variation of radon at 10 m depth in borehole, Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, V M; Arora, B R; Barbosa, S M; Kumar, Naresh; Kamra, Leena

    2011-07-01

    Mostly accepted and widely reported radon (Rn(222)) measurements, a tool for earthquake precursor research, is a part of multi-parametric geophysical observation in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya for earthquake related studies. Radon is being recorded continuously at an interval of 15 min at 10 m depth in a 68 m deep borehole. Three years high resolution 15 min data at 10 m depth shows a complex trend and has a strong seasonal effect along with some diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day recurring trends. A well-defined seasonal pattern is prominent with a high emanation in summer and low values in winter accounting for about a 30% decrease in count values in winter when the atmospheric temperature is very low at this station located 1.90 km above mean sea level. Diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day trends in this time-series are mainly observed during April-May and October-November. This is the period of spring and autumn when there is a high contrast in day-night atmospheric temperature. Hence the high fluctuation in Rn concentration is mainly caused by the temperature contrast between the air-column inside the borehole and the atmosphere above the earth's surface.

  15. Seasonal and daily variation of radon at 10 m depth in borehole, Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M., E-mail: vchoubey@wihg.res.i [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India); Arora, B.R. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India); Barbosa, S.M. [University of Lisbon, IDL, Campo Grande, Edificio C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Kumar, Naresh; Kamra, Leena [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Mostly accepted and widely reported radon (Rn{sup 222}) measurements, a tool for earthquake precursor research, is a part of multi-parametric geophysical observation in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya for earthquake related studies. Radon is being recorded continuously at an interval of 15 min at 10 m depth in a 68 m deep borehole. Three years high resolution 15 min data at 10 m depth shows a complex trend and has a strong seasonal effect along with some diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day recurring trends. A well-defined seasonal pattern is prominent with a high emanation in summer and low values in winter accounting for about a 30% decrease in count values in winter when the atmospheric temperature is very low at this station located 1.90 km above mean sea level. Diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day trends in this time-series are mainly observed during April-May and October-November. This is the period of spring and autumn when there is a high contrast in day-night atmospheric temperature. Hence the high fluctuation in Rn concentration is mainly caused by the temperature contrast between the air-column inside the borehole and the atmosphere above the earth's surface.

  16. [Tree uprooting of coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Lesser Khingan Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-wen; Hou, Jie-jian; Wang, Li-hai; Wang, Xing-long; Rong, Bin-bin

    2016-02-01

    The morphological parameters, root wad indexes and site conditions of 127 uprooting trees from 76 plots (20 mx20 m) in Lesser Khingan coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest were measured. Then the influencing factors of uprooting differences and the relationship between uprooting trees and disturbed soil were analyzed. Results showed that the number of uprooting trees varied significantly among species. Abies nephrolepis suffered the most serious uprooting damage, then Pinus koraiensis, and Ulmus spp. the least. Deciduous species had a stronger uprooting-resistant capacity than broad-leaved species. With the increase of tree DBH and height, tree' s uprooting resistance declined rapidly first and then was gradually enhanced, and finally reached the minimum at diameter class of 20 cm and height class of 14 m, respectively. The smaller the taper degree and projected area of crown were, the stronger the uprooting resistance was. Uprooting rate was negatively correlated with stand density. Trees lying in wet ground, flat terrain, medium low altitude area and windward slope had a greater risk of uprooting. There were significant positive correlation between the depth, area and volume of disturbed soil and the DBH, height, volume of uprooting trees.

  17. Petrography, geochemistry and regional significance of crystalline klippen in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Islam; S K Ghosh; S Vyshnavi; Y P Sundriya

    2011-06-01

    Uphalda gneisses (UG) is a crystalline klippe located near Srinagar in Garhwal Himalaya. These gneisses are compared with Debguru porphyroids (DP) (≈ Ramgarh group) of Garhwal–Kumaun Himalaya and Baragaon mylonitic gneisses (BMG) of Himachal Himalaya. Petrographic study reveals that the deformation of UG was initiated at higher temperature (above 350°C) and continued till lowering of temperature and deformation led to the mylonitization. Geochemically, these granitic gneisses (UG, DP and BMG) exhibit similar composition. Features such as high molecular A/CNK value (< 1), presence of normative corundum and absence of normative diopside, enhanced Rb/Sr, Rb/Zr ratios, enrichment of Th and containing rounded zircons support their crustally-derived S-type granitic nature. The linear plot in major oxides is interpreted in terms of fractional crystallization processes. Mantle normalized multi-element spider diagram of UG illustrates depletion of Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti and enrichment of Th and show similarities with DP and BMG. Similarities were observed in lithology, petrographic characters and chemical composition of UG, DP, BMG and Ulleri augen gneisses (Nepal). Comparison with the rocks of Higher Himalayan crystallines (≈ Vaikrita), suggests that these rocks (UG) are not transported from Higher Himalaya as understood earlier. This study however proposes that, these gneissic bodies represent an older basement occurring as a tectonic sliver which emplaced within the cover sequence as wedges at different structural levels. This is a regional phenomena observed throughout the Lesser Himalayan region.

  18. Endogenous contributions to egg protein formation in lesser scaup Aythya affinis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Hobson, Keith A.; Rotella, Jay J.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Wainwright-de la Cruz, Susan E.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2011-01-01

    Lesser scaup Aythya affinis populations have declined throughout the North American continent for the last three decades. It has been hypothesized that the loss and degradation of staging habitats has resulted in reduced female body condition on the breeding grounds and a concomitant decline in productivity. We explored the importance of body (endogenous) reserves obtained prior to arrival on the breeding ground in egg protein formation in southwestern Montana during 2006–2008 using stable-carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analyses of scaup egg components, female tissue, and local prey items. From arrival on the breeding grounds through the egg-laying period, δ15N values of scaup red blood cells decreased while δ13C values became less variable; a pattern consistent with endogenous tissues equilibrating with local (freshwater) dietary sources. In 2006 and 2008, isotopic values for egg albumen and yolk protein indicated that most (>90%) protein used to produce these components was obtained on the breeding grounds. However, in 2007, a year with an exceptionally warm and dry spring, endogenous reserves contributed on average 41% of yolk and 29% of albumen. Results from this study suggest that female scaup can meet the protein needs of egg production largely from local dietary food sources. This highlights the importance of providing high-quality breeding habitats for scaup. Whether this pattern holds in areas with similar breeding season lengths but longer migration routes, such as those found in the western boreal forest, should be investigated.

  19. Frequency discrimination of brief tonal steps as a function of frequency in the lesser bulldog bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverud, R C

    1999-09-01

    In a two-alternative, forced-choice task lesser bulldog bats were trained to distinguish between a pure tone pulse and a pulse composed of a series of brief tonal steps oscillating between two different frequencies. The tone-step pulse gradually approximates the pure tone pulse as the frequency difference between the steps becomes progressively smaller. Frequency difference limens for the brief tonal frequency steps were determined for a broad range of ultrasonic frequencies. The variation in tone-step difference limens with frequency appears to be correlated to the frequency structure of the bat's short-constant-frequency/frequency-modulated echolocation sound. There was a marked decline in the value of the relative frequency difference limens (Weber ratio) over a fairly narrow range of frequencies above the constant frequency and a sharp increase in threshold above this range. The relative thresholds for frequency discrimination were small and uniform over the frequency range of the frequency-modulated sweep and increased for frequencies below the frequency-modulated sweep. Thus, the most accurate frequency-discrimination abilities occur over a narrow frequency range around the frequency of the constant-frequency component of returning echoes. Frequency discrimination over the range of frequencies of the frequency-modulated component is relatively good.

  20. Differential behaviour of a Lesser Himalayan watershed in extreme rainfall regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Pankaj; Singh, Nilendu; Chauniyal, Devi Datt; Ahluwalia, Rajeev S.; Singhal, Mohit

    2017-03-01

    Climatic extremes including precipitation are bound to intensify in the global warming environment. The present study intends to understand the response of the Tons sub-watershed in Lesser Himalaya, in 3 years with entirely different hydrological conditions (July 2008-June 2011) in terms of discharge, sediment flux and denudation rates. Within an uncertainty limit of ±20%, the mean interannual discharge (5.74 ± 1.44 m 3 s -1) (±SE), was found highly variable (CV: 151%; 0.8-38 m 3 s -1). In a normal rainfall year (2008-2009; ˜1550 mm), the discharge was 5.12 ± 1.75 m 3 s -1, whereas in a drought year (2009-2010), it reduced by 30% with the reduction in ˜23% rainfall (CV: 85%). In an excessive rainfall year (once-in-a-century event) (2010-2011; ˜3050 mm), discharge as well as total solid load was ˜200% higher. Monsoon months (July-September) accounted for more than 90% of the annual solid load transport. The ratio of dissolved to suspended solid (C/P ratio) was consistently low (management.

  1. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  2. Islands of Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A global review of islands and their connections with astronomy throughout history up to the contemporary times suggests eight compelling, distinct yet interlocking reasons why islands have been and remain so important to astronomy and astronomers. Islands constitute favourable locations for various types of astronomy-related activities: from tracking satellites and monitoring significant celestial events, to providing exceptional locations to jurisdictions with mandated dark and unpolluted skies. They appeal for their favourable longitude and (especially southern latitude, as well as for their disposition towards the conditions that the scientific community may expect in an ideal world: relatively clear viewing conditions from a secure, self-contained platform that is, however, endowed with connectivity. This article is written as a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy (2009.

  3. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  4. Dermatoglyphics of Easter Islanders analyzed by pattern type, admixture effect, and ridge count variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R J

    1975-03-01

    The adult Easter Island population was fingerprinted in 1965 as part of an overall study of their human biology. Major findings of the dermatoglyphic analysis are as follows. Digit and bimanuar percentages of patterns (arches, loops, and whorls) were similar to those observed in Europeans. However, in terms of total pattern type distributions, the Islanders had many more whorls and a correspondingly much higher Pattern Intensity Index than those found in European groups. This difference was even present, although in lesser magnitude, in Easter Islanders known to be admixed with Europeans. Corresponding to a high occurrence of whorls, Mean Total Ridge Count (TRC) was also notably high. An association between TRC as a measure of pattern size and incidence of patterns was clearly evident in several groups available for comparison.

  5. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  6. Takarajima: A Treasured Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hayward

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the manner in which local identity can be constructed on small islands from the selective prioritisation and elaboration of exogenous elements that become localised by this process and can subsequently function as a brand within contemporary tourism markets. The particular analysis of identity motifs on Takarajima island that we expound examines aspects of the relationships between folklore and contemporary media and references contemporary debates concerning archaeology’s interface with folklore and popular culture in the context of (non-scientific ‘treasure hunting’.

  7. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  8. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  9. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  10. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-15

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  11. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  12. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  13. Isolated avulsion fracture of lesser tuberosity of the humerus: Review of the literature and report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Tosun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of acute isolated avulsion fracture of the lesser tuberosity of the humerus and their short-term outcome are presented with a review of previously reported cases. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed. Outcomes were excellent, and the patients regained their normal pain-free shoulder function 3 months after the operation. This was a Level IV study.

  14. Synergistic effects of chlorpyrifos with piperonyl butoxide (pbo against the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akter Mst Yeasmin

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The study suggests that the mortality rate of lesser meal worm is increase with the increase of insecticide dose. The LD50 values of the insecticides are inversely related to the toxicity of the insecticides i.e. higher the LD50 value lower the toxicity of the insecticide.

  15. Butyrate inhibits cancerous HCT116 cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous NCM460 colon cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate at the cellular level remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser...

  16. Evaluation of three formulations of Beauveria bassiana for control of lesser mealworm and hide beetle in Georgia poultry houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initial screening of 12 Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin isolates against larvae of the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus[Panzer]) resulted in the selection of two isolates, GHA and 707, for further testing under field conditions. Three formulations of each strain were prepared: an EC, ...

  17. Contaminated Larval and Adult Lesser Mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)can Transmit Salmonella Typhimurium in a Broiler Flock

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), commonly known as the darkling beetle, to transmit a marker strain Salmonella Typhimurium to day-of-hatch broiler chicks was evaluated, as well as the spread to non-challenged pen mates. Day-of-hatch chicks were orally gavaged wit...

  18. Unexpected evolutionary diversity in a recently extinct Caribbean mammal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Selina; Turvey, Samuel T.; Weksler, Marcelo; Hoogland, Menno L. P.; Barnes, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Identifying general patterns of colonization and radiation in island faunas is often hindered by past human-caused extinctions. The insular Caribbean is one of the only complex oceanic-type island systems colonized by land mammals, but has witnessed the globally highest level of mammalian extinction during the Holocene. Using ancient DNA analysis, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of one of the Caribbean's now-extinct major mammal groups, the insular radiation of oryzomyine rice rats. Despite the significant problems of recovering DNA from prehistoric tropical archaeological material, it was possible to identify two discrete Late Miocene colonizations of the main Lesser Antillean island chain from mainland South America by oryzomyine lineages that were only distantly related. A high level of phylogenetic diversification was observed within oryzomyines across the Lesser Antilles, even between allopatric populations on the same island bank. The timing of oryzomyine colonization is closely similar to the age of several other Caribbean vertebrate taxa, suggesting that geomorphological conditions during the Late Miocene facilitated broadly simultaneous overwater waif dispersal of many South American lineages to the Lesser Antilles. These data provide an important baseline by which to further develop the Caribbean as a unique workshop for studying island evolution. PMID:25904660

  19. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  20. A Comparison of Recent Post-Collisional Volcanism in the Lesser and Greater Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Samuel; Harris, Nigel; Parkinson, Ian; Hammond, Sam; Adamia, Shota; Sadradze, Nino

    2015-04-01

    The southern margin of the Eurasian plate is a well studied region of continental collision. The Caucasus lie in the centre of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt, and differ from their better studied neighbours by the presence of intense post-collisional volcanism. The Lesser Caucasus (LC) represent a Jurassic-Cretaceous-early Palaeogene arc formed from the northward subduction of the Neotethys Ocean. The back-arc basins that opened behind this arc closed during the Oligocene Arabia-Eurasian collision, forming the Greater Caucasus (GC). Late Miocene-Quaternary volcanism has erupted through the thickened crust (45-60km), tens of millions of years following continental collision. The source of magmatism in this region of significantly thickened crust is poorly constrained. We present bulk rock major and trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data to unravel the complexity of the orogenic zone and assess the role of asthenosphere, lithosphere and crust in the contemporaneous Greater and Lesser Caucasus volcanism. Rock types from the LC cover a wide range of compositions from basalts to dacites (50-70 wt% SiO2). Those from the GC range from andesites to rhyolites, although high Mg# (up to 85) cores of olivines and clinopyroxenes, suggest more mafic melts exist that have not been recognised at the surface. Significant fractionation from a primitive source is required to produce the range of compositions measured. Enrichment in large-ion lithophiles and negative Ti and Nb-Ta anomalies are indicative of a source enriched by subduction related fluids. Flat heavy rare earths patterns ((Dy/Yb)N = 1.14-1.42) require shallow (<70km) melting for the LC magmas, while the GC volcanics ((Dy/Yb)N = 1.2-1.65) require a small input from deeper melts. Middle rare earth patterns show amphibole fractionation played a significant role in LC magmatism. Variations in radiogenic isotopic compositions (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf) require interaction with local GC and LC crust. Our results are consistent

  1. Assessment of lesser prairie-chicken lek density relative to landscape characteristics in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmer, Jennifer; Butler, Matthew; Ballard, Warren; Boal, Clint; Whitlaw, Heather

    2012-08-31

    My 2.5-yr Master's project accomplished the objectives of estimating lesser prairie-chicken (LPC) lek density and abundance in the Texas occupied range and modeling anthropogenic and landscape features associated with lek density by flying helicopter lek surveys for 2 field seasons and employing a line-transect distance sampling method. This project was important for several reasons. Firstly, wildlife managers and biologists have traditionally monitored LPC populations with road-based surveys that may result in biased estimates and do not provide access to privately-owned or remote property. From my aerial surveys and distance sampling, I was able to provide accurate density and abundance estimates, as well as new leks and I detected LPCs outside the occupied range. Secondly, recent research has indicated that energy development has the potential to impact LPCs through avoidance of tall structures, increased mortality from raptors perching on transmission lines, disturbance to nesting hens, and habitat loss/fragmentation. Given the potential wind energy development in the Texas Panhandle, spatial models of current anthropogenic and vegetative features (such as transmission lines, roads, and percent native grassland) influencing lek density were needed. This information provided wildlife managers and wind energy developers in Texas with guidelines for how change in landscape features could impact LPCs. Lastly, LPC populations have faced range-wide declines over the last century and they are currently listed as a candidate species under the Endangered Species Act. I was able to provide timely information on LPC populations in Texas that will be used during the listing process.

  2. Hindlimb motion during steady flight of the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorn A Cheney

    Full Text Available In bats, the wing membrane is anchored not only to the body and forelimb, but also to the hindlimb. This attachment configuration gives bats the potential to modulate wing shape by moving the hindlimb, such as by joint movement at the hip or knee. Such movements could modulate lift, drag, or the pitching moment. In this study we address: 1 how the ankle translates through space during the wingbeat cycle; 2 whether amplitude of ankle motion is dependent upon flight speed; 3 how tension in the wing membrane pulls the ankle; and 4 whether wing membrane tension is responsible for driving ankle motion. We flew five individuals of the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis (Family: Pteropodidae, in a wind tunnel and documented kinematics of the forelimb, hip, ankle, and trailing edge of the wing membrane. Based on kinematic analysis of hindlimb and forelimb movements, we found that: 1 during downstroke, the ankle moved ventrally and during upstroke the ankle moved dorsally; 2 there was considerable variation in amplitude of ankle motion, but amplitude did not correlate significantly with flight speed; 3 during downstroke, tension generated by the wing membrane acted to pull the ankle dorsally, and during upstroke, the wing membrane pulled laterally when taut and dorsally when relatively slack; and 4 wing membrane tension generally opposed dorsoventral ankle motion. We conclude that during forward flight in C. brachyotis, wing membrane tension does not power hindlimb motion; instead, we propose that hindlimb movements arise from muscle activity and/or inertial effects.

  3. GIS habitat analysis for lesser prairie-chickens in southeastern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville Paul

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted Geographic Information System (GIS habitat analyses for lesser prairie-chicken (LPCH, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus conservation planning. The 876,799 ha study area included most of the occupied habitat for the LPCH in New Mexico. The objectives were to identify and quantify: 1. suitable LPCH habitat in New Mexico, 2. conversion of native habitats, 3. potential for habitat restoration, and 4. unsuitable habitat available for oil and gas activities. Results We found 16% of suitable habitat (6% of the study area distributed in 13 patches of at least 3,200 ha and 11% of suitable habitat (4% of the study area distributed in four patches over 7,238 ha. The area converted from native vegetation types comprised 17% of the study area. Ninety-five percent of agricultural conversion occurred on private lands in the northeastern corner of the study area. Most known herbicide-related conversions (82% occurred in rangelands in the western part of the study area, on lands managed primarily by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM. We identified 88,190 ha (10% of the study area of habitats with reasonable restoration potential. Sixty-two percent of the primary population area (PPA contained occupied, suitable, or potentially suitable habitat, leaving 38% that could be considered for oil and gas development. Conclusion Although suitable LPCH habitat appears at first glance to be abundant in southeastern New Mexico, only a fraction of apparently suitable vegetation types constitute quality habitat. However, we identified habitat patches that could be restored through mesquite control or shin-oak reintroduction. The analysis also identified areas of unsuitable habitat with low restoration potential that could be targeted for oil and gas exploration, in lieu of occupied, high-quality habitats. Used in combination with GIS analysis and current LPCH population data, the habitat map represents a powerful conservation and management tool.

  4. The parasitic eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi as a possible cause of decline in the threatened lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Dunham

    Full Text Available Lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus have been declining range wide since the early 1900's despite efforts to establish conservation and improve their habitat. In early 2014, the lesser prairie-chicken was listed as a threatened species under the U.S Endangered Species Act and the need to find out why they are declining is more important than ever. Nine hunter shot lesser prairie-chickens were donated and sampled for the presence or absence of the eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi, a known parasite that can cause damage to the eye of its host, and common environmental contaminants. Eyeworm infection was found in 7 of 9 birds (78% infection rate with an infection range between 0-16 O. petrowi per bird. Breast, liver, and fat tissue samples from the lesser prairie-chickens were analyzed for the frequency of 20 organochlorine pesticides. Femurs and livers were also tested on these birds for metal contaminants. Pesticides were found in several samples above the detection limits but were still in the low ng/g range. Notable was the ubiquitous presence of endrin aldehyde across all tissues. One femur showed 5.66 µg/g of lead (Pb but this is still relatively low. No liver samples had elevated mercury (Hg above detection limits. The presence of these organochlorines is consistent with the historic use of pesticides in this region. With pesticide and metals found in such low levels and parasitic nematode infections at rather high levels, it is recommended that these parasites be further evaluated as a contributing factor to the decline of the lesser prairie-chicken.

  5. The parasitic eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi as a possible cause of decline in the threatened lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Nicholas R; Peper, Steven T; Baxter, Catherine E; Kendall, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    Lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have been declining range wide since the early 1900's despite efforts to establish conservation and improve their habitat. In early 2014, the lesser prairie-chicken was listed as a threatened species under the U.S Endangered Species Act and the need to find out why they are declining is more important than ever. Nine hunter shot lesser prairie-chickens were donated and sampled for the presence or absence of the eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi, a known parasite that can cause damage to the eye of its host, and common environmental contaminants. Eyeworm infection was found in 7 of 9 birds (78% infection rate) with an infection range between 0-16 O. petrowi per bird. Breast, liver, and fat tissue samples from the lesser prairie-chickens were analyzed for the frequency of 20 organochlorine pesticides. Femurs and livers were also tested on these birds for metal contaminants. Pesticides were found in several samples above the detection limits but were still in the low ng/g range. Notable was the ubiquitous presence of endrin aldehyde across all tissues. One femur showed 5.66 µg/g of lead (Pb) but this is still relatively low. No liver samples had elevated mercury (Hg) above detection limits. The presence of these organochlorines is consistent with the historic use of pesticides in this region. With pesticide and metals found in such low levels and parasitic nematode infections at rather high levels, it is recommended that these parasites be further evaluated as a contributing factor to the decline of the lesser prairie-chicken.

  6. Functional and Pasting Properties of Lesser Known Nigerian Yams as a Function of Blanching Time and Particle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Okorie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Effects of blanching time and particle size on functional and pasting characteristics of some lesser known Nigerian yams were investigated. Two varieties of lesser known yam Ighu and Ona belonging to Dioscorea dometorum species and two varieties of commonly used yams ozibo and okwanankata belonging to the D. rotunda and D. alata sp., respectively. The yams were processed by peeling, cubing, and blanching at 100ºC for 5 or 10 min, drying at 50ºC and subsequently milled to flours and fractionated to 40, 60, or 80 mesh sizes. Another batch of the tubers were processed similarly, but they were not subjected to a blanching treatment. Swelling capacity, water absorption capacities, bulk density, solubility and pasting characteristics were evaluated. The result showed that the lesser known yam Ighu exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05 hot and cold paste viscosities, solubility, water absorption and swelling capacities than the common yam varieties. Hot and Cold paste viscosities, solubility, water absorption and swelling capacities of flour generally increased as particle size decreased in all the test samples. While the bulk density was not affected by the blanching treatment, it decreased with decrease in particle size. The yam starches generally showed weak stability,but starch of the lesser known variety Ona suffered the least share thinning . Rate of retrogradation was found to be high in all the yam varieties but more pronounced in the lesser known yams Ighu and Ona. Ighu starch which exhibited the highest cold and hot paste viscosity showed the highest setback and index of gelatinization values. Industrial and culinary applications of the test yam varieties were suggested.

  7. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... libraries in northwestern Washington: Anacortes Public Library, Bellingham Public Library, Clinton Public Library, Coupeville Public Library, Evergreen State College Library, Island Public Library, Jefferson County Central Library, Lopez Island Public Library, North Olympic Public Library, Oak Harbor Public...

  8. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

  9. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  10. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated ...

  11. Teachers' Potpourri: The Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Steven

    1971-01-01

    The author allows his students to create an imaginary society--the island. While developing the structure of their society, the students are actually practicing speech skills and activities such as problem solving through discussion, persuasive speaking and impromptu speaking. (Author/MS)

  12. The Flores Island tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  13. Snake venomics of the Lesser Antillean pit vipers Bothrops caribbaeus and Bothrops lanceolatus: correlation with toxicological activities and immunoreactivity of a heterologous antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, José María; Sanz, Libia; Escolano, José; Fernández, Julián; Lomonte, Bruno; Angulo, Yamileth; Rucavado, Alexandra; Warrell, David A; Calvete, Juan J

    2008-10-01

    The venom proteomes of the snakes Bothrops caribbaeus and Bothrops lanceolatus, endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands of Saint Lucia and Martinique, respectively, were characterized by reverse-phase HPLC fractionation, followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The venoms contain proteins belonging to seven ( B. caribbaeus) and five ( B. lanceolatus) types of toxins. B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus venoms contain phospholipases A 2, serine proteinases, l-amino acid oxidases and zinc-dependent metalloproteinases, whereas a long disintegrin, DC-fragments and a CRISP molecule were present only in the venom of B. caribbaeus, and a C-type lectin-like molecule was characterized in the venom of B. lanceolatus. Compositional differences between venoms among closely related species from different geographic regions may be due to evolutionary environmental pressure acting on isolated populations. The venoms of these two species differed in the composition and the relative abundance of their component toxins, but they exhibited similar toxicological and enzymatic profiles in mice, characterized by lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, phospholipase A 2 and proteolytic activities. The venoms of B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus are devoid of coagulant and defibrinogenating effects and induce only mild local myotoxicity in mice. The characteristic thrombotic effect described in human envenomings by these species was not reproduced in the mouse model. The toxicological profile observed is consistent with the abundance of metalloproteinases, PLA 2s and serine proteinases in the venoms. A polyvalent (Crotalinae) antivenom produced in Costa Rica was able to immunodeplete approximately 80% of the proteins from both B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus venoms, and was effective in neutralizing the lethal, hemorrhagic, phospholipase

  14. Teaching Multicultural Awareness and Understanding through the Language Arts--"Creative Writing." Suggested Topics for Creative and Expository Writing Based on the Haitian Culture for Use with Haitian Children, The Children of the Antilles, and Others Who are Interested in Understanding Their Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Zola Jiles

    As part of a series of documents providing language arts materials adapted for use by children in refugee populations, this list offers 200 topics for creative and expository writing based on the Haitian culture. These topics, which can also be used as stimuli for writing activities by children from the Antilles and students interested in…

  15. Lithic assemblages of Azokh Cave (Nagorno Karabagh, Lesser Caucasus: Raw materials, technology and regional context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Asryan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Azokh Cave is a Middle Pleistocene to Holocene site located in Nagorno Karabagh (Lesser Caucasus. The main entrance, Azokh 1, is a large cave that has two geological sequences (lower and upper with nine geo-archaeological units of which only the upper ones (Units I to V have a significant archaeological record.  The faunal remains and lithic artefacts in these units indicate aspects of human occupation, and exploitation of, and association with animals.     The lithic artefacts presented here were recovered from Units V, III and II during the 2002 – 2009 excavation seasons. The available chronological data indicates an age between 293 – 100 Ka for these units. The operational chain is incomplete and artefacts found in the cave are primarily end-products dominated by flake-tools. The assemblage of Unit V is composed primarily of simple, unretouched flakes with a minimal presence of retouched flakes and cores. The Unit II lithic assemblage includes a substantial Levallois component, although with fewer cores and retouched flakes. There are very few flake tools in Unit III. While it is still difficult to assign the Unit V assemblage to a techno-typological group or complex (i.e. Acheulean, Mousterian or other local techno-complexes such as the Kudarian, the Unit II assemblage is clearly associated with Mode 3 or the Mousterian techno-complex.Different local and non-local raw materials were exploited in all units for the production of lithic artefacts, although the range of raw materials is more varied in Unit II. Local chert, flint and basalt were used most commonly, probably due to their easy accessibility. Limestone, jasper and sandstone, from local and non-local sources, are present in small quantities in Units V and II. Obsidian is the only raw material that possibly originates from more distant sources. Flint and chert appear to have been preferentially exploited for flake tool production in all units, but the toolmakers show a

  16. A Multi-analytical Approach for the Characterization of Marbles from Lesser Himalayas (Northwest Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, M.; Iqbal, Y.; Riaz, M.; Ubic, R.; Redfern, S. A. T.

    2015-12-01

    The KP province of Pakistan hosts widespread deposits of thermo-metamorphic marbles that were extensively used as a building and ornamental stones since the time of earliest flourishing civilization in this region known as Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BC). The macroscopic characteristics of 22 marble varieties collected from three different areas of Lesser Himalayas (Northwest Pakistan), its chemical, mineralogical, petrographic features, temperature conditions of metamorphic re-crystallization, and the main physical properties are presented in order to provide a solid basis for possible studies on the provenance and distribution of building stones from this region. The results provide a set of diagnostic parameters that allow discriminating the investigated marbles and quarries. Studied marbles overlap in major phase assemblage, but the accessory mineral content, chemistry, the maximum grain size (MGS) and other petrographic characteristics are particularly useful in the distinction between them. On the basis of macroscopic features, the studied marbles can be classifies into four groups: (i) white (ii) grey-to-brown veined, (iii) brown-reddish to yellowish and (iv) dark-grey to blackish veined marbles. The results show that the investigated marbles are highly heterogeneous in both their geochemical parameters and minero-petrographic features. Microscopically, the white, grey-to-brown and dark-grey to blackish marbles display homeoblastic/granoblastic texture, and the brown-reddish to yellowish marbles display a heteroblastic texture with traces of slightly deformed polysynthetic twining planes. Minero-petrography, XRD, SEM and EPMA revealed that the investigated marbles chiefly consist of calcite along with dolomite, quartz, muscovite, pyrite, K-feldspar, Mg, Ti and Fe-oxides as subordinates. The magnesium content of calcite coexisting with dolomite was estimated by both XRD and EPMA/EDS, indicating the metamorphic temperature of re-crystallization from 414

  17. Growth of black brant and lesser snow goose goslings in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Hogrefe, Kyle R.; Sedinger, James S.; Martin, Philip D.; Stickney, Alice A; Obritschkewitsch, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Gosling body mass can affect first year survival, recruitment, adult body size, and future fecundity of geese, and can serve as an indicator of forage availability and quality on brood-rearing areas. From 2012–2014 we measured body mass of 76 black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and 268 lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goslings of known age on the Colville River Delta (CRD) of northern Alaska to determine if there was evidence of density-dependent declines in gosling growth following recent population increases of those species and sympatric greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis). We contrasted contemporary body mass of brant goslings and forage biomass in brood-rearing habitats that were shared by all species, with measures obtained on, and near the CRD in the 1990s, prior to the establishment of snow goose nesting colonies in the area. Body mass of brant goslings recaptured between 25 and 32 days of age had not changed over the past 2 decades, despite an influx of snow geese, and increases in populations of brant and white-fronted geese. At 30 days of age, body mass of brant goslings on the CRD was 100–400 g heavier than for brant goslings of the same age on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska. Contemporary biomass of grazed Carex subspathacea on CRD brood-rearing areas was comparable to the 1990s and was 2–4 times greater than for the same plant community on the YKD. Historical data on growth of snow goose goslings were not available for the CRD. However, average body mass of 34-day-old snow goose goslings was >230 g heavier than for conspecifics of the same age in the Hudson Bay region. We conclude that the establishment of nesting snow geese on the CRD has not negatively affected brant gosling growth, and that recent population increases of all species have likely not been constrained by forage availability on brood-rearing areas. Barring demographic changes elsewhere in their annual cycles, we predict that

  18. Effects of male removal on female reproductive biology in Ross' and Lesser Snow Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschack, C.R.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    We studied effects of mate removal on nesting and hatching success, incubation behavior, body mass, and post-hatch dispersal distance of female Ross' (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (C. caerulescens caerulescens) at Karrak Lake. N.W.T., Canada. Male ge and widowed and paired control females were monitored through post-hatch dispersal. Nesting and hatching success did not differ between species or treatments (widowed vs paired) and averaged 77.5 ?? 3.8% and 64.0 ?? 3.6% (??SE), respectively. Paired females spent more time with their bills tucked (23.7 ?? 3.3% vs 9.1 ?? 4.0%) and less time alert (8.6 ?? 2.9% vs 22.9 ?? 3.5%) while on nests than did widowed females. Snow widowed females (31.1 ?? 4.7%) and Ross' widowed females (20.6 ?? 6.0%) generally spent more time each day in head-up alert than did Snow paired females (7.1 ?? 3.8%). Snow paired maleS (11.8 ?? 3.8%), Ross' paired females (9.4 ?? 3.6%), and Ross' paired males (7.9 ?? 3.6%). Body mass of paired and widowed female Ross' Geese did not differ at hatch or at time of post-hatch recapture; however, mean distance recaptured from the breeding colony was greater for paired (50.9 ?? 6.1 km) than for widowed females (27.3 ?? 6.6 km). Total mass gain (276 ?? 19 g) and rate of mass gain (8.4 ?? 0.5 g/day), from hatch until post-hatch recapture (33.1 ?? 1.2 days), were similar for widowed and paired female Ross' Geese. Male removal experiments in monogamous, precocial species generally have produced few effects on female nesting success or incubation behavior. We suggest that male parental care in arctic-nesting geese is more critical during laying and the post-hatch period than during incubation.

  19. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  20. [Brood parasitism and egg mimicry on Brownish-flanked Bush Warbler (Cettia fortipes) by Lesser Cuckoo (Cuculus poliocephalus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Can-Chao; Cai, Yan; Liang, Wei

    2010-10-01

    Nest fate of Brownish-flanked Bush Warbler (Cettia fortipes) was conducted in breeding seasons from 1999 to 2009 in Kuankuoshui Natural Reserve, Guizhou province. Predation rate, parasitism rate, hatching success, nesting success and reproductive success were surveyed and egg color was quantified using spectrophotometer. Principal component analysis, reflectance spectrum and Robinson Project were used to analyze the egg color of bush warbler and egg mimicry of Lesser Cuckoo (Cuculus poliocephalus) in parasitized nests. Our results indicated that the Brownish-flanked Bush Warbler suffered from high predation rate and relatively high parasitism rate of 49.26% and 9.18%, respectively. Reflectance analysis showed that the hue and chroma of Lesser Cuckoo eggs were highly mimetic but the egg brightness and ultraviolet reflectance were different from the bush warbler.

  1. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy produ...... production via SSDG. Furthermore, the paper gives an update on the implementation in Mauritius of the proposed incentives.......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed...

  2. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  3. Distribution of the early larval stages of cod, plaice and lesser sandeel across haline fronts in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Wright, P.J.; Pihl, Niels Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    , suggesting that adult spawning and dispersal of eggs and larvae are influenced by the same hydrographic features. The present study describes the results of a field survey in March 1997 which covered concentrations of small larval cod, plaice and lesser sandeel in the central and southern North Sea...... zones between freshwater-influenced water masses and shelf water of the central North Sea, and larval abundances peaked in the vicinity of the haline fronts. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Lipid reserves of Lesser Scaup (Aythya Affinis) migrating across a large landscape are consistent with the "Spring Condition" hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    The "spring condition" hypothesis (SCH) states that nutrition during spring migration affects survival, reproductive success, and, ultimately, population size of migratory birds. The North American population of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) has experienced a marked decline, apparently because of poor recruitment. An important prediction of the SCH is that female Lesser Scaup have low lipid reserves during spring migration. We previously reported that lipid reserves and body mass of females collected on migratory stopover areas in northwestern Minnesota in springs 2000-2001 were lower than those on the same areas in the 1980s and markedly lower than those collected at Pool 19 of the Mississippi River in 2000-2001, an important preceding stopover area. However, it was unclear whether these findings represented a site-specific result or a landscape-scale phenomenon. Accordingly, we examined lipid and body mass of 641 female Lesser Scaup migrating across seven eco-physiographic regions of Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota during springs 2003-2005. We found that lipids and body mass of females throughout the Upper Midwest were similar to or less than the low values documented in northwestern Minnesota in springs 2000-2001 and markedly lower than those of females at Pool 19 in springs 2000-2001. Accordingly, our results are consistent with a prediction of the SCH, because lipid and body mass of females are low throughout this large landscape, lower than at an important preceding stopover area, and lower than all historical values. Finally, our results suggest the potential for cross-seasonal influences of nutrition on recruitment and that a stronger management focus on spring migration habitats may be necessary for conservation and recovery of declining migratory birds, especially Lesser Scaup. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2009.

  5. Seminal plasma proteins modify the distribution of sperm subpopulations in cryopreserved semen of rams with lesser fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Alba; Zalazar, Lucía; Fernández-Alegre, Estela; Hozbor, Federico; Cesari, Andreina; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Any physiological mechanism involved in sperm selection and semen improvement has effects on heterogeneous sperm populations. This is mainly due to the fact that sperm populations within a single ejaculate have considerable heterogeneity for many variables, such as motility which is meaningful in terms of understanding how some sperm cells possess fertility advantages as compared with other cells. In the present research, initially there was a multivariate and clustering analysis used to assess sperm motility data from cryopreserved ram semen to identify subpopulations and compare the distribution of these clusters between rams with lesser and greater fertility. There were four classifications made of sperm subpopulations (clusters): CL1 fast/linear/progressive sperm; CL2 fast/non-linear sperm; CL3 very fast/linear sperm with vigorous beating and CL4 slow/non-linear sperm. Rams with greater fertility had a lesser proportion of sperm considered as "hyperactivated" (CL2) and a greater proportion of slow and non-linear sperm (CL4) than sperm of rams with lesser fertility. In addition, the effects were assessed for the capacity of seminal plasma (SP) and interacting SP proteins (iSPP) that were present during different seasons of the year to improve the distribution of sperm within subpopulations of semen from rams with lesser fertility. The iSPP and SP were obtained by artificial vagina (AV) and electroejaculation (EE) during breeding and non-breeding seasons and added to thawed semen. All the aggregates had a significant effect on the distribution of sperm subpopulations and effects differed among seasons of the year and depending on collection method used. Even though, future studies are needed to assess the contribution of each subpopulation on ram sperm fertility, it is important that a multivariate analysis be used to evaluate the effect of a treatment on sperm quality variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  7. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  8. Cushion plants as islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepedino, V J; Stanton, N L

    1976-09-01

    The acarine fauna of two abundant species of cushion plant on the high, short-grass prairie of S.E. Wyoming were used to test The MacArthur-Wilson Theory of Island Biogeography. Multiple regression analysis using area, distance and percent moisture as independent variables and number of mite species and number of mite individuals were run for the two sampling dates. Results showed area alone to be consistently and highly correlated (r=0.84-0.94) with both species and individuals for one cushion species. The slopes of the species-area and individuals-area curves are among the highest recorded and were significantly higher on the second sampling date. Selective seasonal changes in the fauna were shown by increases both in numbers of species and individuals, mainly on larger cushions, for the later sampling period. It is hypothesized that seasonal changes are due to an increase in the number of predator species in response to an increase in the number of prey items. The slopes of the species-area curves are compared with those in the literature and it is argued that slope values are more dependent upon the taxonomic group being studied than on whether the island is insular or oceanic. Finally, we suggest that The MacArthur-Wilson Theory is not applicable to islands which 1) exhibit continuous growth, 2) lack a discrete species source, and 3) are relatively transitory.

  9. Islands of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  10. LESSER METATARSAL SESAMOIDITIS-POTENTIAL CAUSE OF FORE FOOT PAIN?? : A PROSPECTIVE MULTICENTER EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SCREENING STUDY OF THE ODISHA POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sesamoiditis as a cause of fore foot pain is less often thought of, patients suffer for extended periods due to misdiagnosis and analgesic abuse resulting in dissatisfaction, depression and anxiety. METHODS: We performed a multicenter prospective epidemiological screening study in Bhubaneswar, Odisha from Nov’ 2013 to July’ 2014 in patients of foot pain for the presence of lesser sesamoids to study the incidences and causes of fore foot pain in Odisha Population. RESULTS: We screened 960 patients (1920 feet in 500 male and 460 female patients. 5th Metatarsal sesamoids were present in 77 (8% patients (M/F: 1.8:1, Bilateral in 67 (86 % patients. (48% patients lesser sesamoids were bipartite and (82% were symptomatic. 52% recovered with conservative measures, 40 % patients required ultrasound guided injections and sesamoidectomy was performed in 8 % patients due to recurrence and/or failure. Other causes of fore foot pain were Rheumatoid Arthritis, Gouty Arthritis, Callosities, Hallux Valgus, Stress Fractures of the Metatarsals, Plantar Fasciitis, Infections, Morton’s Metatarsalgia and Barefoot Walking (mechanical. DISCUSSION: High incidences of lesser sesamoids is attributed to genetics, low socioeconomic status, bare foot walking and high prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus, Smoking and Gout in our country. CT and MRI provide useful information regarding the presence and pathology involving these bones, and should be used in concert with clinical findings to guide successful patient management. An initial trial of conservative measures should follow minimally invasive ultrasound guided injections of anesthetic with steroids and lastly surgical excision.

  11. Application of side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum in gastric bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ri-Xing; Yan, Wen-Mao; Li, You-Guo; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Zhi-Qiang; Yan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the feasibility of side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). METHODS Seventy-seven patients received side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum by utilization of linear stapler in LRYGB from April 2012 to July 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS All patients were successfully completed laparoscopic gastric bypass with the side-to-side anastomosis of the lesser curvature of stomach and jejunum. No patient was switched to laparotomy during operation. No early complications including gastrointestinal anastomotic bleeding, fistula, obstruction, deep vein thrombosis, incision infections, intra-abdominal hernia complications were found. One patient complicated with stricture of gastrojejunal anastomosis (1.3%) and six patients complicated with incomplete intestinal obstruction (7.8%). BMI and HbA1c determined at 3, 6, 12, 24 mo during follow up period were significantly reduced compared with preoperative baselines respectively. The percentage of patients who maintain HbA1c (%) < 6.5% without taking antidiabetic drugs reached to 61.0%, 63.6%, 75.0%, and 63.6% respectively. The outcome parameters of concomitant diseases were significantly improved too. CONCLUSION Present surgery is a safety and feasibility procedure. It is effective to lighten the body weight of patients and improve type 2 diabetes and related complications. PMID:27729746

  12. Quantifying chemical weathering rates along a precipitation gradient on Basse-Terre Island, French Guadeloupe: new insight from U-series isotopes in weathering rinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Jacqueline M.; May, Linda; Sak, Peter B.; Gaillardet, Jerome; Ren, Minghua; Engle, Mark A.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Inside soil and saprolite, rock fragments can form weathering clasts (alteration rinds surrounding an unweathered core) and these weathering rinds provide an excellent field system for investigating the initiation of weathering and long term weathering rates. Recently, uranium-series (U-series) disequilibria have shown great potential for determining rind formation rates and quantifying factors controlling weathering advance rates in weathering rinds. To further investigate whether the U-series isotope technique can document differences in long term weathering rates as a function of precipitation, we conducted a new weathering rind study on tropical volcanic Basse-Terre Island in the Lesser Antilles Archipelago. In this study, for the first time we characterized weathering reactions and quantified weathering advance rates in multiple weathering rinds across a steep precipitation gradient. Electron microprobe (EMP) point measurements, bulk major element contents, and U-series isotope compositions were determined in two weathering clasts from the Deshaies watershed with mean annual precipitation (MAP) = 1800 mm and temperature (MAT) = 23 °C. On these clasts, five core-rind transects were measured for locations with different curvature (high, medium, and low) of the rind-core boundary. Results reveal that during rind formation the fraction of elemental loss decreases in the order: Ca ≈ Na > K ≈ Mg > Si ≈ Al > Zr ≈ Ti ≈ Fe. Such observations are consistent with the sequence of reactions after the initiation of weathering: specifically, glass matrix and primary minerals (plagioclase, pyroxene) weather to produce Fe oxyhydroxides, gibbsite and minor kaolinite.Uranium shows addition profiles in the rind due to the infiltration of U-containing soil pore water into the rind as dissolved U phases. U is then incorporated into the rind as Fe-Al oxides precipitate. Such processes lead to significant U-series isotope disequilibria in the rinds

  13. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  14. Causes of mortality and temporal patterns in breeding season survival of lesser prairie-chickens in shinnery oak prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.

    2015-01-01

    Baseline survival and mortality data for lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) are lacking for shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) prairies. An understanding of the causes and timing of mortalities and breeding season survival in this ecoregion is important because shinnery oak prairies have hotter and drier environmental conditions, as well as different predator communities compared with the northern distribution of the species. The need for this information has become more pressing given the recent listing of the species as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We investigated causes of mortality and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the 6-month breeding season (1 Mar–31 Aug) of 2008–2011 on the Texas Southern High Plains, USA. We recorded 42 deaths of radiotagged individuals, and our results indicated female mortalities were proportionate among avian and mammalian predation and other causes of mortality but survival was constant throughout the 6-month breeding season. Male mortalities were constant across avian and mammalian predation and other causes, but more mortalities occurred in June compared with other months. Male survival also varied by month, and survival probabilities were lower in June–August. We found predation on leks was rare, mortalities from fence collisions were rare, female survival did not decrease during incubation or brood-rearing, and survival was influenced by drought. Our study corroborated recent studies that suggested lesser prairie-chickens are living at the edge of their physiological tolerances to environmental conditions in shinnery oak prairies. As such, lesser prairie-chickens in our study experienced different patterns of mortality and survival that we attributed to hot, dry conditions during the breeding season. Specifically, and converse to other studies on lesser prairie-chicken survival and mortality, drought positively influenced female survival because females did not incubate eggs

  15. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  16. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery and colonization of islands by humans has invariably resulted in their widespread ecological transformation. The small and isolated populations of many island taxa, and their evolution in the absence of humans and their introduced taxa, mean that they are particularly vulnerable to ...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  17. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  18. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  19. Islands of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  20. Ciguatera fish poisoning on the West Africa Coast: An emerging risk in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P; Almeida-González, Maira; Plakas, Steven M; Granade, Hudson R; Abraham, Ann; Jester, Edward L E; Dickey, Robert W

    2010-12-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CFP had not been described on the West Africa Coast until a 2004 outbreak in the Canary Islands. In 2008-2009, two additional outbreaks of ciguatera occurred. Individuals afflicted had consumed lesser amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) captured from nearby waters. Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) was confirmed in fish samples by LC-MS/MS. Ciguatoxic fish in this region may pose a new health risk for the seafood consumer.

  1. The origin of the isolated population of the Faroe Islands investigated using Y chromosomal markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Tove H; Buttenschön, Henriette N; Wang, August G

    2004-01-01

    Historical, archaeological and linguistic sources suggest that the ancestors of the present day population in the Faroe Islands may have their origin in several different regions surrounding the North Atlantic Ocean. In this study we use binary and microsatellite markers of the Y chromosome...... and the Norwegian, Swedish and Icelandic Y chromosomes but also some similarity with the Scottish and Irish Y chromosomes. Diversity measures and estimates of effective population sizes also suggest that the original gene pool of the settlers have been influenced by random genetic drift, thus complicating direct...... by males originating from the same regions of Scandinavia and, to a lesser extent, from the British Isles....

  2. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  3. Seabirds of Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Flores,Marcelo A; Roberto P Schlatter; Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed available information on seabirds inhabiting Easter Island, Salas y Gómez Island and Desventuradas Islands and their adjacent waters through an analysis of published and grey literature. Results obtained indicate that a total of 37 species are present in the study area and that, among the orders represented, the Procellariiformes and Charadriiformes are the dominant taxa (29 species). Moreover, the family Procellariidae is represented by 13 species and Laridae by 7 species. There ...

  4. The submental island flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F

    1996-03-01

    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  5. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  6. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  7. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  8. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  9. Rain on small tropical islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

    2011-04-01

    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow

  10. Modified Mitchell osteotomy alone does not have higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than combined first and lesser metatarsal osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Jung; Cheng, Yuh-Min; Lin, Sung-Yen; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Huang, Hsuan-Ti; Huang, Peng-Ju

    2015-04-01

    Transfer metatarsalgia (TM) is a common forefoot disorder secondary to hallux valgus (HV). Some authors suggest that a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while undergoing HV surgery improves metatarsalgia, whereas others concluded that isolated HV corrective osteotomy can improve symptomatic metatarsalgia. The main purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes in patients with and without combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while receiving HV correction surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the patients who underwent osteotomy for HV correction between January 2000 and December 2010. All patients underwent HV correction with modified Mitchell osteotomy. Clinical evaluations including the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score and residual metatarsalgia were assessed, and radiographic measurements were carried out. Sixty-five patients (83 feet) meeting the selection criteria were enrolled. Thirty feet receiving a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy were classified as the combined surgery (CS) group, and the others were classified as the control (CN) group (53 feet). The overall rate of persistent symptomatic metatarsalgia was 19.28% after operative treatment. There were six feet with residual metatarsalgia in the CS group, and 10 feet in the CN group. There was no significant difference in the rate of persistent symptoms between the two groups (p = 0.9). According to this result, modified Mitchell osteotomy alone did not have a higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than CS. We also found that the average recovery rate of TM was about 80.7% and those patients whose preoperative HV angle was > 30° had the higher risk of residual metatarsalgia after surgery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  11. Modified Mitchell osteotomy alone does not have higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than combined first and lesser metatarsal osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jung Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transfer metatarsalgia (TM is a common forefoot disorder secondary to hallux valgus (HV. Some authors suggest that a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while undergoing HV surgery improves metatarsalgia, whereas others concluded that isolated HV corrective osteotomy can improve symptomatic metatarsalgia. The main purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes in patients with and without combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while receiving HV correction surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the patients who underwent osteotomy for HV correction between January 2000 and December 2010. All patients underwent HV correction with modified Mitchell osteotomy. Clinical evaluations including the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score and residual metatarsalgia were assessed, and radiographic measurements were carried out. Sixty-five patients (83 feet meeting the selection criteria were enrolled. Thirty feet receiving a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy were classified as the combined surgery (CS group, and the others were classified as the control (CN group (53 feet. The overall rate of persistent symptomatic metatarsalgia was 19.28% after operative treatment. There were six feet with residual metatarsalgia in the CS group, and 10 feet in the CN group. There was no significant difference in the rate of persistent symptoms between the two groups (p = 0.9. According to this result, modified Mitchell osteotomy alone did not have a higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than CS. We also found that the average recovery rate of TM was about 80.7% and those patients whose preoperative HV angle was > 30° had the higher risk of residual metatarsalgia after surgery.

  12. Lesser Himalayan sequences in Eastern Himalaya and their deformation: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonic activity along the northern margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Saha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Substantial part of the northern margin of Indian plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate during the Caenozoic Himalayan orogeny, obscuring older tectonic events in the Lesser Himalaya known to host Proterozoic sedimentary successions and granitic bodies. Tectonostratigraphic units of the Proterozoic Lesser Himalayan sequence (LHS of Eastern Himalaya, namely the Daling Group in Sikkim and the Bomdila Group in Arunachal Pradesh, provide clues to the nature and extent of Proterozoic passive margin sedimentation, their involvement in pre-Himalayan orogeny and implications for supercontinent reconstruction. The Daling Group, consisting of flaggy quartzite, meta-greywacke and metapelite with minor mafic dyke and sill, and the overlying Buxa Formation with stromatolitic carbonate-quartzite-slate, represent shallow marine, passive margin platformal association. Similar lithostratigraphy and broad depositional framework, and available geochronological data from intrusive granites in Eastern Himalaya indicate strikewise continuity of a shallow marine Paleoproterozoic platformal sequence up to Arunachal Pradesh through Bhutan. Multiple fold sets and tectonic foliations in LHS formed during partial or complete closure of the sea/ocean along the northern margin of Paleoproterozoic India. Such deformation fabrics are absent in the upper Palaeozoic–Mesozoic Gondwana formations in the Lesser Himalaya of Darjeeling-Sikkim indicating influence of older orogeny. Kinematic analysis based on microstructure, and garnet composition suggest Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of LHS to be distinct from those associated with the foreland propagating thrust systems of the Caenozoic Himalayan collisional belt. Two possibilities are argued here: (1 the low greenschist facies domain in the LHS enveloped the amphibolite to granulite facies domains, which were later tectonically severed; (2 the older deformation and metamorphism relate to a Pacific type

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of a single dose of meloxicam after oral and intramuscular administration to captive lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Martín A; Papich, Mark G; Pich, Ashley A; Unger, Katy M; Sánchez, Carlos R

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of meloxicam after IM and oral administration to healthy lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) by use of a population approach. ANIMALS 16 healthy captive lesser flamingos between 1 and 4 years of age. PROCEDURES A single dose of meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to each bird, and blood samples were collected from birds at 3 (n = 13 birds), 2 (2), or 1 (1) selected point between 0 and 13 hours after administration, with samples collected from birds at each point. After a 15-day washout period, the same dose of meloxicam was administered PO via a red rubber tube and blood samples were collected as described for IM administration. Pharmacokinetic values were determined from plasma concentrations measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS Plasma drug concentrations after IM administration of meloxicam reached a mean ± SD maximum value of 6.01 ± 3.38 μg/mL. Mean area under the concentration-versus-time curve was 17.78 ± 2.79 μg•h/mL, and mean elimination half-life was 1.93 ± 0.32 hours. Plasma concentrations after oral administration reached a mean maximum value of 1.79 ± 0.33 μg/mL. Mean area under the curve was 22.16 ± 7.17 μg•h/mL, and mean elimination half-life was 6.05 ± 3.53 hours. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In lesser flamingos, oral administration of meloxicam resulted in higher bioavailability and a longer elimination half-life than did IM administration, but the maximum plasma concentration was low and may be insufficient to provide analgesia in flamingos. Conversely, IM administration achieved the desired plasma concentration but would require more frequent administration.

  14. Gastric tumor development in Smad3-deficient mice initiates from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Taek; O'Neal, Ryan; Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Yong Chan; Coffey, Robert J; Goldenring, James R

    2012-06-01

    SMAD proteins are downstream effectors of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Smad3-null mice develop colorectal cancer by 6 months of age. In this study, we have examined whether the loss of Smad3 promotes gastric neoplasia in mice. The stomachs of Smad3⁻/⁻ mice were compared with age-matched Smad3 heterozygous and wild-type mice. E-cadherin, Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3, and TFF2/SP expression was analyzed by immunohistochemisty. The short hairpin RNA (ShRNA)-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells was also performed. In addition, we examined alterations in DCLK1-expressing cells. Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs at 6 months of age revealed the presence of exophytic growths along the lesser curvature in the proximal fundus. Six-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mouse stomachs showed metaplastic columnar glands initiating from the transition zone junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium along the lesser curvature. Ten-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice all exhibited invasive gastric neoplastic changes with increased Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3 expression, and aberrant cytosolic E-cadherin staining in papillary glands within the invading submucosal gland. The shRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells promoted the expression of phosphoSTAT3. DCLK1-expressing cells, which also stained for the tuft cell marker acetylated-α-tubulin, were observed in 10-month-old Smad3⁻/⁻ mice within tumors and in fundic invasive lesions. In conclusion, Smad3-null mice develop gastric tumors in the fundus, which arise from the junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium and progress to prominent invasive tumors over time. Smad3-null mice represent a novel model of fundic gastric tumor initiated from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.

  15. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  16. The Museum of Piano Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    GULANGYU, the island of pianos in southeast Xiamen, has more than 500 pianos. In the island's Shuzhuang Garden is the Gulangyu Piano Museum.Spread out over 2,000 square meters of land, the museum has on exhibit more than 70 pianos from the UK, France, Germany and Austria.

  17. Neoproterozoic granitoids on Wrangel Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sergeev, S. A.; Sokolov, S. D.; Tuchkova, M. I.

    2016-07-01

    Based on geochronological U-Pb studies, the age of Wrangel Island granitoids was estimated as Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian). Some granitoids contain zircons with inherited cores with an estimated age of 1010, 1170, 1200, and >2600 Ma, assuming the presence of ancient (Neoarchean-Mesoproterozoic) rocks in the Wrangel Island foundation and their involvement in partial melting under granitoid magma formation.

  18. Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against the Lesser Mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus) and Its Possible Effect on the Soil Fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, A.; WR Lorenzetti; T Zortea; LCDD Giombelli; Baretta,D.; RCV Santos; RA Vaucher; RP Raffin; ME Souza; LM Stefani; AA Boligon; ML Athayde; AS da Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro bioactivity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil against larvae and adult forms of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus) and its influence on the soil fauna. Tests were performed in triplicate using pure tea tree oil (TTO; 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100%), TTO nanoparticles (1, 3, and 7.5%), or terpinen-4-ol, the main compound of the tea tree oil, at the same concentrations of TTO. Larvae and adult mortality occurred at ...

  19. Sea level rise and inundation of island interiors: Assessing impacts of lake formation and evaporation on water resources in arid climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, J. D.; Mayer, A. S.; Martin, J. B.; Bedekar, V.

    2016-09-01

    Coasts of many low-lying islands will be inundated should sea level rise by 1 m by 2100 as projected, thereby decreasing water resources through aquifer salinization. A lesser known impact occurs if rising sea level elevates water tables above interior topographic lows to form lakes. Impacts of lake formation on water resources, however, remain unquantified. Here we use hydrological models, based on islands in the Bahamian archipelago, to demonstrate that on islands with negative water budgets, evaporation following lake inundation can cause more than twice the loss of fresh groundwater resources relative to an equivalent amount of coastal inundation. This result implies that in dry climates, low-lying islands with inland depressions could face substantially greater threats to their water resources from sea level rise than previously considered.

  20. Long Island Sound: a Human Dominated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    Long Island Sound (LIS) is a marginally marine urban estuary, with Long Island (NY) as its southern coastline, New York and Connecticut along its northern coast. LIS has a narrow opening to the West (East River), but most exchange with the ocean occurs at its eastern end, resulting in an east-west gradient in salinity. There is also an east-west gradient in indicators of contamination in the surface sediments (e.g., trace metals). Western LIS is close to the main population center (New York City), but also is a focusing region for fine- grained sediments. Since the 1970s, western LIS and to a lesser extent, central LIS, suffer summer hypoxia or even anoxia. We used sediment cores in westernmost and central LIS to document environmental changes over the last millennium, including the time of European settlement, using microfossil, geochemical, sedimentological, and trace element proxies. Sediment ages were determined using metal pollution records and radiometric carbon dating. Before European settlement, the low-diversity benthic faunas were dominated by Elphidium excavatum (feeding on diatoms) at shallow depths (human population growth in the region, with a marked decrease in salinity in westernmost LIS, and with the beginning of low oxygen conditions as indicated by carbon isotope values in foraminiferal tests. At the same time, accumulation rates of organic carbon and nitrogen increased several fold, most extremely so in westernmost LIS. These data thus all indicate that humans influenced LIS and its ecosystems from the mid 19th century on, causing eutrophication, increased fresh water run-off due to urbanization and possibly re-routing of fresh water through waste water treatment plants, and increased organic carbon and trace metal storage in the sediments. A period of additional faunal changes started in the late 1960s, when overall foraminiferal abundance decreased, but Ammonia parkinsoniana, formerly absent or rare, became common to dominant especially in

  1. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  2. Palaeo-islands as refugia and sources of genetic diversity within volcanic archipelagos: the case of the widespread endemic Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairal, M; Sanmartín, I; Aldasoro, J J; Culshaw, V; Manolopoulou, I; Alarcón, M

    2015-08-01

    Geographical isolation by oceanic barriers and climatic stability has been postulated as some of the main factors driving diversification within volcanic archipelagos. However, few studies have focused on the effect that catastrophic volcanic events have had on patterns of within-island differentiation in geological time. This study employed data from the chloroplast (cpDNA haplotypes) and the nuclear (AFLPs) genomes to examine the patterns of genetic variation in Canarina canariensis, an iconic plant species associated with the endemic laurel forest of the Canary Islands. We found a strong geographical population structure, with a first divergence around 0.8 Ma that has Tenerife as its central axis and divides Canarian populations into eastern and western clades. Genetic diversity was greatest in the geologically stable 'palaeo-islands' of Anaga, Teno and Roque del Conde; these areas were also inferred as the ancestral location of migrant alleles towards other disturbed areas within Tenerife or the nearby islands using a Bayesian approach to phylogeographical clustering. Oceanic barriers, in contrast, appear to have played a lesser role in structuring genetic variation, with intra-island levels of genetic diversity larger than those between-islands. We argue that volcanic eruptions and landslides after the merging of the palaeo-islands 3.5 Ma played key roles in generating genetic boundaries within Tenerife, with the palaeo-islands acting as refugia against extinction, and as cradles and sources of genetic diversity to other areas within the archipelago.

  3. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  4. Rebamipide Improves Chronic Inflammation in the Lesser Curvature of the Corpus after Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoari Kamada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Although many epidemiologic studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori eradication has prophylactic effects on gastric cancer, it does not completely eliminate the risk of gastric cancer. We aimed to investigate the changes in histological gastritis in patients receiving rebamipide treatment after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 206 patients who had undergone H. pylori eradication were evaluated. Of these, 169 patients who achieved successful eradication were randomly allocated to 2 groups: the rebamipide group (n = 82 and the untreated group (n = 87. The primary endpoints were histopathological findings according to the updated Sydney system at the start of the study and after 1 year. Results. Final assessment for histological gastritis was possible in 50 cases from the rebamipide group and 53 cases from the untreated group. The activity and atrophy improved in both the rebamipide and untreated groups, and no significant intergroup differences were observed. Chronic inflammation affecting the lesser curvature of the corpus was significantly improved in the rebamipide group compared to in the untreated group (1.12±0.08 versus 1.35±0.08; P = 0.043. Conclusions. Rebamipide treatment after H. pylori eradication alleviated chronic inflammation in the lesser curvature of the corpus compared to that in the untreated group. This trial is registered with UMIN000002369.

  5. Microstructures and strain variation: Evidence of multiple splays in the North Almora Thrust Zone, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gaurav; Agarwal, Amar; Agarwal, K. K.; Srivastava, Samriddhi; Alva Valdivia, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    The North Almora Thrust zone (NATZ) marks the boundary of the Almora Crystalline Complex (ACC) against the Lesser Himalayan Sedimentary sequence (LHS) in the north. Its southern counterpart, the South Almora Thrust (SAT), is a sharply marked contact between the ACC and the LHS in the south. Published studies argue various contradictory emplacement modes of the North Almora Thrust. Recent studies have implied splays of smaller back thrusts in the NATZ. The present study investigates meso- and microstructures, and strain distribution in the NATZ and compares it with strain distribution across the SAT. In the NATZ, field evidence reveals repeated sequence of 10-500 m thick slices of proto- to ultra-mylonite, thrust over the Lesser Himalayan Rautgara quartzite. In accordance with the field evidence, the strain analysis reveals effects of splays of smaller thrust in the NATZ. The study therefore, argues that contrary to popular nomenclature the northern contact of the ACC with the LHS is not a single thrust plane, but a thrust zone marked by numerous thrust splays.

  6. Rebamipide improves chronic inflammation in the lesser curvature of the corpus after Helicobacter pylori eradication: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Tomoari; Sato, Motonori; Tokutomi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Tetsuo; Murao, Takahisa; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Manabe, Noriaki; Ito, Masanori; Tanaka, Shinji; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Shiotani, Akiko; Akiyama, Takashi; Hata, Jiro; Haruma, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Although many epidemiologic studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori eradication has prophylactic effects on gastric cancer, it does not completely eliminate the risk of gastric cancer. We aimed to investigate the changes in histological gastritis in patients receiving rebamipide treatment after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 206 patients who had undergone H. pylori eradication were evaluated. Of these, 169 patients who achieved successful eradication were randomly allocated to 2 groups: the rebamipide group (n = 82) and the untreated group (n = 87). The primary endpoints were histopathological findings according to the updated Sydney system at the start of the study and after 1 year. Results. Final assessment for histological gastritis was possible in 50 cases from the rebamipide group and 53 cases from the untreated group. The activity and atrophy improved in both the rebamipide and untreated groups, and no significant intergroup differences were observed. Chronic inflammation affecting the lesser curvature of the corpus was significantly improved in the rebamipide group compared to in the untreated group (1.12 ± 0.08 versus 1.35 ± 0.08; P = 0.043). Conclusions. Rebamipide treatment after H. pylori eradication alleviated chronic inflammation in the lesser curvature of the corpus compared to that in the untreated group. This trial is registered with UMIN000002369.

  7. Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against the Lesser Mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus and Its Possible Effect on the Soil Fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Volpato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro bioactivity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil against larvae and adult forms of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus and its influence on the soil fauna. Tests were performed in triplicate using pure tea tree oil (TTO; 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100%, TTO nanoparticles (1, 3, and 7.5%, or terpinen-4-ol, the main compound of the tea tree oil, at the same concentrations of TTO. Larvae and adult mortality occurred at concentrations up to 10 and 50% of TTO, respectively. No larvicidal or insecticidal effect of TTO nanoparticles was observed. Terpinen-4-ol showed insecticidal and larvicidal effect at concentrations higher than 25%. The evaluation of TTO effect on soil organisms was performed by standard ecotoxicological tests (ISO with the springtail species Folsomia candida. Only TTO was used for ecotoxicological tests in doses of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg-1 of soil. TTO had no negative effects on F. candida survival or reproduction. Therefore, it was concluded that M. alternifolia oil may be a new alternative for control of the lesser mealworm.

  8. Butyrate Inhibits Cancerous HCT116 Colon Cell Proliferation but to a Lesser Extent in Noncancerous NCM460 Colon Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous cells through regulating apoptosis and cellular-signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by exposing cancerous HCT116 or non-cancerous NCM460 colon cells to physiologically relevant doses of butyrate. Cellular responses to butyrate were characterized by Western analysis, fluorescent microscopy, acetylation, and DNA fragmentation analyses. Butyrate inhibited cell proliferation, and led to an induction of apoptosis, genomic DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells, but to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Although butyrate increased H3 histone deacetylation and p21 tumor suppressor expression in both cell types, p21 protein level was greater with intense expression around the nuclei in HCT116 cells when compared with that in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, butyrate treatment increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2, a survival signal, in NCM460 cells while it decreased p-ERK1/2 in HCT116 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic potential in HCT116 cells may confer the increased sensitivity of cancerous colon cells to butyrate in comparison with noncancerous colon cells.

  9. The Migration of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in Eastern Europe - A Ringing Recovery and Direct Observation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounas Anastasios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined ringing recovery data of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in order to analyse its migration patterns and philopatry rates in Eastern Europe. In addition, we extracted counts of migrating birds from online databases and studied the use of the flyway as well as the phenology of both spring and autumn migrations through Greece. Birds appeared to migrate in the same mean direction in spring and autumn through the Italian and Balkan Peninsulas. During spring, movements took place on a broad front from March until mid- May with a peak in mid-April; in autumn, birds migrated through Greece on a narrower front from early August to early October, with most of individuals passing through Greece in mid-September. Finally, philopatry rates were higher for adults, while juvenile birds dispersed more often and at longer distances, up to 974 km away. Our results on migration patterns generally agree with those in other studies, but we found some evidence of long-distance premigratory movements towards mainland Greece that could also shape the narrower front migration in autumn. In addition, long distance dispersal movements of juveniles in southeastern Europe, where Lesser Kestrel populations show a fragmented distribution, could facilitate gene flow between populations, thus avoiding the negative effects of mating with genetically similar individuals.

  10. Butyrate Inhibits Cancerous HCT116 Colon Cell Proliferation but to a Lesser Extent in Noncancerous NCM460 Colon Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Taussig, David P; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Johnson, LuAnn K; Hakkak, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous cells through regulating apoptosis and cellular-signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by exposing cancerous HCT116 or non-cancerous NCM460 colon cells to physiologically relevant doses of butyrate. Cellular responses to butyrate were characterized by Western analysis, fluorescent microscopy, acetylation, and DNA fragmentation analyses. Butyrate inhibited cell proliferation, and led to an induction of apoptosis, genomic DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells, but to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Although butyrate increased H3 histone deacetylation and p21 tumor suppressor expression in both cell types, p21 protein level was greater with intense expression around the nuclei in HCT116 cells when compared with that in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, butyrate treatment increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), a survival signal, in NCM460 cells while it decreased p-ERK1/2 in HCT116 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic potential in HCT116 cells may confer the increased sensitivity of cancerous colon cells to butyrate in comparison with noncancerous colon cells.

  11. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  12. Evaluation of a barrier to inhibit lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and dermestidae movement in high-rise, caged-layer poultry facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip E; Reasor, Colleen; Murray, Kathleen D; Waldron, J Keith; Rutz, Donald A

    2005-10-01

    An evaluation of a mechanical barrier to prevent movement of adult and larval lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer); larder beetle, Dermestes lardarius L.; and hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus De Geer was conducted in caged-layer poultry facilities in New York and Maine. The barrier, a plastic collar wrapped around building support posts, proved highly effective at preventing movement of adult lesser mealworms. Significantly more lesser mealworm larvae were recovered from cardboard collar beetle traps placed below both washed and unwashed barriers than from traps placed above washed and unwashed barriers. Similarly, significantly more adult Dermestes were recovered from traps placed below washed barriers than from above both washed and unwashed barriers. The level of fly specking on the barrier was found to have no significant impact on the numbers of adult lesser mealworms and adult and larval Dermestes recovered either above or below barriers. Fly specking level did significantly impact the numbers of lesser mealworm larvae recovered above the barrier. Although washed barriers provided the greatest deterrent to adult lesser mealworms, the presence of the barrier, regardless of the level of fly specking, provided a significant deterrent to beetle climbing success. Washed barriers further reduced climbing success by lesser mealworm larvae by 17%, Dermestes adults by 7-28%, and Dermestes larvae by 33-38%. The high level of climbing observed by adult lesser mealworms suggests that the impact of adult beetle movement toward birds should be considered in its importance in building damage, disease transmission, feed infestation, and bird productivity and health. Observations on cost and maintenance of the barrier are discussed.

  13. Radiographically breedspecific morphology and calcifying tendinopathy in the Iliopsoas muscle at the lesser trochanter in Rottweilers, German Shepherd dogs and Bavarian Mountain hounds

    OpenAIRE

    Willmitzer, Florian; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Sommerfeld-Stur, Irene; Mayrhofer, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to describe the radiographic morphology of the lesser trochanter as well as possible enthesiopathies of the iliopsoas muscle in Rottweilers, German Shepherd Dogs and Bavarian Mountain Hounds. The normal shape of the lesser trochanter appeared radiological triangular in German Shepherd Dogs and blunt or bump like in Rottweilers and Bavarian Mountain Hounds. Changes indicating an enthesiopathy presented as periosteal blurrings, variation in shape or in...

  14. The Filistatidae in the Caribbean region, with a description of the new genus Antilloides, revision of the genus Filistatoides F. O. P.-Cambridge and notes on Kukulcania Lehtinen (Arachnida, Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez; Garcia, Giraldo Alayón

    2016-07-07

    A synopsis of Caribbean filistatid diversity is recorded herein. A new genus, Antilloides, is proposed for five new species exclusively found in the Antilles: A. abeli n. sp., A. cubitas n. sp., and A. mesoliticus n. sp. from Cuba; A. haitises n. sp. from the Dominican Republic; and A. zozo n. sp. from the U. S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. The genus Filistatoides is revised and includes four species: the type species F. insignis F.O.P. Cambridge, which occurs only in Guatemala; the female is described here for the first time; F. polita Franganillo sp. reval., comb. nov., which occurs only in Cuba; F. xichu n. sp. described from Mexico; and F. milloti (Zapfe) which does not appear to belong to the genus based on morphological structures. Additionally, Kukulcania isolinae Alayón is synonymized with Kukulcania hibernalis (Hentz), and new records of its distribution are included for the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

  15. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  16. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  17. Geodynamics and Stress State of the Earth's Crust in the Greater and Lesser Caucasus (Azerbaijan) collision region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayev, Gulam; Akhmedova, Elnare; Babayev, Elvin

    2017-04-01

    The current study researches the present-day stress state of the Earth's crust within the territory of Azerbaijan by using the database of the international research project "World Stress Map" (WSM). The present stress state was also assessed by exploring the effects of the contemporary topographic properties of Caucasus in three-dimensional frame. Aiming to explore the relative roles of regional tectonic conditions in the definition of stress state of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, stress distribution model was developed by the earthquake data (1998-2016) and by the standard techniques of stress field calculation. The results show that the stress orientations are influenced also by the combination of topography and crust thickness distribution even at very large depth. Stress data and earthquake focal mechanisms indicate that the stress state of the Earth's crust of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus is characterized by the compression predominantly oriented across the regional strike. The model results suggest that the Lesser Caucasus and Kur depression are rotating coherently, with little or no internal deformation in a counter-clockwise rotation located near the north-eastern corner of the Black Sea. Orientation of stress axes well consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms revealed that within Upper and Lower Crusts, earthquakes are predominantly thrust-faulting with a number of normal-faulting and some strike-slip faulting. The map of the focal mechanisms and stress distribution suggests that the research area is characterized by the thrust of horizontal compression trending north-north-east in the western part of the southern Caucasus. In the western part of Azerbaijan, the compression takes place between the Main Caucasus Fault and the Kur depression, which strikes south along the northern margin of the mountain range. In addition, a clear transition from the left-lateral strike slip to the predominantly right-lateral strike slip is observed in the southern of

  18. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  19. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  20. Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

    2011-11-01

    AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

  1. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  2. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  3. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  4. The effect of habitat degradation, season and gender on morphological parameters of lesser jerboas (Jaculus jaculus L. in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al–Mutairi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arid environments suffer anthropogenic interference causing habitat degradation. This degradation can influence animal populations. We randomly captured a total of 198 lesser jerboas Jaculus jaculus in three seasons (autumn, spring and summer in two relatively close areas (intact and degraded. All animals were sexed, and weight, body and tail length, and thigh thickness were taken. We found significant differences in weight (p < 0.001, which was lower in summer (p < 0.05 when fewer food resources were available. Thigh thickness was greater in the intact habitat (p < 0.01, explained by the greater amount of food resources and also by the higher numbers of predators in this area, prompting escape behaviour. Females inthe intact area were heavier and had longer bodies and tails. This was related to greater availability of time for mothers to search for food in this area.

  5. Abstracts of contributions presented at the International Conference on the Conservation of the Lesser Spotted Eagle, Slovakia, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dravecký Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Conference on the Conservation of the Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina was held on September 25-27, 2014 in Lesanka Guesthouse at Košická Belá, Slovakia. The Conference was organized within the framework of the project LIFE09NAT/SK/000396 Conservation of Aquila pomarina in Slovakia, implemented by Raptor Protection of Slovakia, Východoslovenská energetika, a.s., Stredoslovenská energetika, a.s., and Stredoslovenská energetika - Distribúcia, a.s. This project was cofinanced by EU-LIFE and the Ministry for the Environment of the Slovak Republic. A total of 59 participants from 14 countries attended the conference. The conference agenda included 17 presentations and 7 posters. Some of the contributions are published in Slovak Raptor Journal volume 9 (2015 as full papers, and a further 23 contributions are published here as conference abstracts.

  6. Thermal history, exhumation, uplift, and long-term landscape evolution of the Eastern Great and Northern Lesser Caucasus, Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilger, Tatiana; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Mosar, Jon

    2015-04-01

    The Caucasus orogen (Great and Lesser Caucasus) is the highest mountain range between Asia and Europe, whose growth takes place since the beginning of the Cenozoic (Mosar et al. 2010). The orogen has evolved as a result of the active north directed convergence of the Arabian plate (Nikishin et al. 2001). The Great Caucasus (GC) represents a doubly verging fold-and-thrust belt, with a per-and a retro wedge actively propagating into the foreland sedimentary basins to the south and to the north (Sholpo 1993). Thermochronometric techniques (fission-track, (U-Th-Sm)/He, each on apatite and zircon) are used to reconstruct the thermal evolution of the upper crust, the subsidence, as well as the rock and surface uplift of the Eastern GC and Northern Lesser Caucasus and to connect them with the thrust kinematics of the GC. Samples were taken along different transects in Eastern GC and Northern Lesser Caucasus in Azerbaijan. Most samples of Eastern GC are Lower Jurassic age sandstones (deep marine and slope facies). Several sedimentary rock samples of Cretaceous, Miocene, Pliocene and Quaternary age were taken from the outcrops in the Kura basin and along rivers in the Eastern GC. Samples of the Lesser Caucasus are igneous and sedimentary origin and have Lower Jurassic to Holocene age. The first AFT-data in the Eastern Great Caucasus were investigated. All researched samples show recessed AF-ages. Most dated sedimentary samples have several populations of apatite minerals. Apatite minerals have low U-concentration (up to 10 ppm). Most dated samples taken in Aalenian sandstone have very young AFT-ages (up to 10 Ma). Some samples show Oligocene AF-ages of 23-28Ma. The preliminary data confirm orogeny in the Eastern Great Caucasus since Oligocene and propagation of orogeny since middle Miocene (Mosar et al. 2010). References Mosar, J., Kangarli, T., Bochud, M., Glasmacher, U.A., Rast, A., Brunet, M.-F. & Sosson, M. 2010. Cenozoic-Recent tectonics and uplift in the Greater

  7. Lesser snow geese and ross's geese form mixed flocks during winter but differ in family maintenance and social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Smaller species are less likely to maintain families (or other forms of social groups) than larger species and are more likely to be displaced in competition with larger species. We observed mixed-species flocks of geese in southwest Louisiana and compared frequencies of social groups and success in social encounters of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter Snow Geese) with that of the smaller, closely- related Ross's Geese (C. rossii). Less than 7% of adult and social encounters and had higher odds of success against Ross's Geese than against individuals of their own species. The larger Snow Geese maintain families longer than Ross's Geese, which probably contributes to their dominance over Ross's Geese during winter. Predator vigilance probably is an important benefit of mixed flocking for both species. We suggest the long-standing association with Snow Geese (along with associated subordinate social status) has selected against family maintenance in Ross's Geese.

  8. A meta-analysis of lesser prairie-chicken nesting and brood-rearing habitats: implications for habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christian A.; Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution and range of lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has been reduced by >90% since European settlement of the Great Plains of North America. Currently, lesser prairie-chickens occupy 3 general vegetation communities: sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia), sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii), and mixed-grass prairies juxtaposed with Conservation Reserve Program grasslands. As a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act, there is a need for a synthesis that characterizes habitat structure rangewide. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of vegetation characteristics at nest sites and brood habitats to determine whether there was an overall effect (Hedges' d) of habitat selection and to estimate average (95% CI) habitat characteristics at use sites. We estimated effect sizes (di) from the difference between use (nests and brood sites) and random sampling sites for each study (n = 14), and derived an overall effect size (d++). There was a general effect for habitat selection as evidenced by low levels of variation in effect sizes across studies and regions. There was a small to medium effect (d++) = 0.20-0.82) of selection for greater vertical structure (visual obstruction) by nesting females in both vegetation communities, and selection against bare ground (d++ = 0.20-0.58). Females with broods exhibited less selectivity for habitat components except for vertical structure. The variation of d++ was greater during nesting than brooding periods, signifying a seasonal shift in habitat use, and perhaps a greater range of tolerance for brood-rearing habitat. The overall estimates of vegetation cover were consistent with those provided in management guidelines for the species.

  9. Water-rock interaction on the development of granite gneissic weathered profiles in Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyshnavi, S.; Islam, R.

    2015-07-01

    The development and sustainability of weathered profiles are very difficult in the Himalaya due to its complex lithology, tectonic history and fast erosion. Despite this, two weathered profiles namely WPa (weathered profile a) and WPb (weathered profile b) which have sustained erosion are developed on porphyry granite gneiss and granite gneissic lithology in Alaknanda valley of the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya. Systematic sampling of these two weathered profiles was done from bottom to top and they were chemically analysed to understand the elemental mobility in each profile. Major, trace and rare earth element studies show dissimilar behaviour with the advancement of weathering. In WPa profile, the CIA value of LAR (LAR) is 50 which reveals that the rock has not suffered any alteration but in WPb profile, the CIA value of LAR is 64 which indicates significant amount of chemical alteration. A-CN-K projection also exhibits similar behaviour. Further, the relative mobility of all the major and trace elements show variable elemental distribution in both the profiles. Enrichment of Mg, Fe, Ti, Al, Co, Ni, Zr, LREE and depletion of Na, K, P, Ca, Si, LILE and HFSE are observed in WPa profile; while the depletion of Na, K, Ca, P, Si, HREE and enhancement of Fe, Mn, Ti, Sc, Co, Zr, LREE are noticed in WPb profile. The rare earth elements also show a dissimilar mobilization pattern in both the profiles due to their strong dependency on lithology, and corresponding climate and tectonic interaction. Contrasting elemental mobility in both the profiles depict the major role in disparity of lithological characters and subsequent development of fractures produced by the major thrust system (Ramgarh thrust) which made an easy passage for rain water, thus causing the development of a chemically altered profile in the Lesser Himalayan region. Further, the present study infers the climate and tectonic milieu which is responsible for the development of such weathered profiles in Himalayan

  10. Water–rock interaction on the development of granite gneissic weathered profiles in Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Vyshnavi; R Islam

    2015-07-01

    The development and sustainability of weathered profiles are very difficult in the Himalaya due to its complex lithology, tectonic history and fast erosion. Despite this, two weathered profiles namely WPa (weathered profile a) and WPb (weathered profile b) which have sustained erosion are developed on porphyry granite gneiss and granite gneissic lithology in Alaknanda valley of the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya. Systematic sampling of these two weathered profiles was done from bottom to top and they were chemically analysed to understand the elemental mobility in each profile. Major, trace and rare earth element studies show dissimilar behaviour with the advancement of weathering. In WPa profile, the CIA value of LAR (LAR) is 50 which reveals that the rock has not suffered any alteration but in WPb profile, the CIA value of LAR is 64 which indicates significant amount of chemical alteration. A–CN–K projection also exhibits similar behaviour. Further, the relative mobility of all the major and trace elements show variable elemental distribution in both the profiles. Enrichment of Mg, Fe, Ti, Al, Co, Ni, Zr, LREE and depletion of Na, K, P, Ca, Si, LILE and HFSE are observed in WPa profile; while the depletion of Na, K, Ca, P, Si, HREE and enhancement of Fe, Mn, Ti, Sc, Co, Zr, LREE are noticed in WPb profile. The rare earth elements also show a dissimilar mobilization pattern in both the profiles due to their strong dependency on lithology, and corresponding climate and tectonic interaction. Contrasting elemental mobility in both the profiles depict the major role in disparity of lithological characters and subsequent development of fractures produced by the major thrust system (Ramgarh thrust) which made an easy passage for rain water, thus causing the development of a chemically altered profile in the Lesser Himalayan region. Further, the present study infers the climate and tectonic milieu which is responsible for the development of such weathered profiles in

  11. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... from biogeography, community ecology and evolution to global change, this horizon scan may help to foster the formation of interdisciplinary research networks, enhancing joint efforts to better understand the past, present and future of island biotas....... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores....... Results: Questions were structured around four broad and partially overlapping island topics, including: (Macro)Ecology and Biogeography, (Macro)Evolution, Community Ecology, and Conservation and Management. These topics were then subdivided according to the following subject areas: global diversity...

  12. Marine geophysical research helps to assess the seismic hazard at the Hispaniola Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Granja Bruña, J.; Llanes Estrada, M.; Munoz Martin, A.; Gómez Ballesteros, M.; Druet, M.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalan, M.; ten Brink, U. S.; Hernaiz-Huerta, P.; Olaiz, A. J.; Torres, R.; Brothers, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Detailed swath bathymetry mapping of complete geological provinces together with high-resolution seismic profiles provide critical perspective for the detection and study of active faults and their seismic and tsunami hazard. Since 2003 the Universidad Complutense de Madrid has been leading an international research group to study the north-eastern Caribbean, from the Lesser Antilles to Jamaica. This area comprises the 200 km-wide boundary zone between the North American and the Caribbean plates, where the relative plate motion is 18-20 ±3 mm/year towards 070-075. The highly-oblique convergence between the plates in Hispaniola is accommodated by strain partitioning on seismic fault systems sub-parallel to the plate boundary: strike-slip (the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and the Septentrional fault zones) and the compressive deformed belts (the Muertos thrust belt and the North Hispaniola thrust belt). Results from several research cruises offshore Hispaniola have identified and characterized zones of active deformation that were not observed onshore, such as the Muertos out-of-sequence thrust or the Beata Ridge crest fault zone. The Muertos out-of-sequence thrust could be related to the M≈8 event occurred the 18th of October in 1751 that shook central and south-eastern Hispaniola. In other seismic fault zones, such as the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and the Septentrional fault zones, knowledge of their offshore continuity is limited. Future research cruises will target the offshore continuity of these strike-slip seismic fault zones in the vicinity of Southern Peninsula of Haiti, in the Jamaica Passage and in the Gonave Bay. As part of the NORCARIBE project, a research cruise will be taking place in the spring of 2012 aboard the Spanish R/V Hespérides. Multichannel, high-resolution and wide-angle seismic profiles will be acquired together with swath bathymetry, magnetic and gravity data. The scientific and social interest in studying this region has greatly

  13. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  14. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  15. Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

    2014-09-01

    Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

  16. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  17. Mammals evolve faster on smaller islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millien, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    Island mammals often display remarkable evolutionary changes in size and morphology. Both theory and empirical data support the hypothesis that island mammals evolve at faster rates than their mainland congeners. It is also often assumed that the island effect is stronger and that evolution is faster on the smallest islands. I used a dataset assembled from the literature to test these assumptions for the first time. I show that mammals on smaller islands do indeed evolve more rapidly than mammals on larger islands, and also evolve by a greater amount. These results fit well the theory of an evolutionary burst due to the opening of new ecological opportunities on islands. This evolutionary burst is expected to be the strongest on the smallest islands where the contrast between the island and the mainland environments is the most dramatic.

  18. A new small bent-toed gecko of the genus Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the lower slopes of Mount Tambora, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Mulyadi, Mulyadi; McGuire, Jimmy A; Kusrini, Mirza D; Febylasmia, Febylasmia; Basyir, Irfan Haidar; Kaiser, Hinrich

    2017-03-13

    We describe the sixth species of bent-toed gecko from the Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. This species was first collected on the banks of the Oi Marai River on the low northern slopes of Gunung (Mount) Tambora on Sumbawa Island. The new species is differentiated from Greater Sunda Islands (including Sulawesi) and Lesser Sunda Islands congeners by having the following unique combination of characters: (1) two scales between the second pair of postmentals in contact with the first pair; (2) dorsal surface of antebrachium tuberculate; (3) no tubercles on dorsal surface of brachium; (4) dorsal surfaces of thigh and crus tuberculate; (5) 18 irregularly aligned, longitudinal rows of keeled tubercles at midbody; (6) 26-27 paravertebral tubercles; (7) 40 ventral scales between indistinct ventrolateral folds; (8) 16-17 fourth-toe subdigital scales; (9) a continuous enlarged precloacal and femoral scales present, with the enlarged femoral scales arranged in three rows; (10) males with five to six precloacal pores, with four larger pores situated in a short groove; (11) femoral pores absent in both sexes; (12) lack of transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and (13) 7-9 irregular, paired black blotches on the body.

  19. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  20. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Alaid and Nizki Islands, Near Island Group, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic foxes, introduced to Alaid and Nizki islands in 1911, 1920 and 1935, were removed from the two islands in 1975 and 1976 by means of shooting and trapping...

  1. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report...

  2. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  3. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  4. CRED 10m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Maug Island(s), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Maug Island(s), CNMI. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 4 and 3275 meters. This 10-m grid also...

  5. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report...

  6. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report...

  7. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report...

  8. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  9. URBAN HEAT ISLAND AEROSPACE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Modern cities are characterized by special urban landscape and special urban climate. Urban heat island is a phenomenon closely associated with urban territories. There are many methods developed for studying urban heat island, they can be combined into two groups: imagery-based methods and physicomathematical methods. Using spatial imagery can provide revealing thermal anomalies evolution in time and space, spatial distribution of various thermal anomalies, differences in quantitative measures of various thermal anomalies. Despite the fact that imagery-based methods are seemed to be very widespread among scientists all over the world, still there are some problems with using spatial imagery. The best spatial resolution of accessible thermal imagery is 60 m (ETM+ sensor, and sometimes it is not enough for urban studies (many urban objects have smaller dimensions. The problem of urban heat island is rather serious in modern world, and it needs data of very good quality.

  10. "Mosquitoes collected on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island, Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (Diptera : Culicidae)"

    OpenAIRE

    "NODA, Shinichi"

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito larval surveys were carried out on Weno Island, Romonum Island and Piis Island in August 2011. Larvae were collected from 133 natural and artificial habitats. A total of 1,761 larvae belonging to nine species including one unidentified species were collected. On Weno Island, eight species, Aedes hensilli, Ae. albopictus, Ae. lamelliferus, Aedes sp., Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. carolinensis, Cx. annulirostris and Lutzia vorax, were collected. On Romonum Island,  four sp...

  11. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife [Refuge]: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater South Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater North Light to Channel Islands Harbor North Jetty Light 5....

  13. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  14. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife [Refuge]: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  15. The Big Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  16. Reconstruction of a missed posterior locked shoulder fracture-dislocation with bone graft and lesser tuberosity transfer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalidis Byron E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Posterior shoulder fracture-dislocation is a rare emergency condition with poor prognosis when there is a delay in diagnosis and presence of associated injuries. Case presentation We present a case of a neglected four-part fracture-dislocation of the proximal humerus in a 34-year-old Greek woman. Except from the substantially displaced and comminuted tuberosity fractures, an anterolateral defect of approximately 50% of the articular surface was apparent. Open reduction of the humeral head was followed by reconstruction of the proximal humerus with allograft impaction, transfer of lesser tuberosity to the humeral defect and anatomic fixation of the greater tuberosity and humeral neck fractures. At two and a half years postoperatively, the humeral head was revascularised and properly articulated with the glenoid fossa. Conclusion The presented case underlines the variability of injury pattern, the potential of missed diagnosis and the need for preserving the humeral head in young patients regardless of the amount of articular surface defect and disruption of soft tissue attachments.

  17. Erosion Relevant Topographical Parameters Derived from Different DEMs—A Comparative Study from the Indian Lesser Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawanjeet S. Datta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Topography is a crucial surface characteristic in soil erosion modeling. Soil erosion studies use a digital elevation model (DEM to derive the topographical characteristics of a study area. Majority of the times, a DEM is incorporated into erosion models as a given parameter and it is not tested as extensively as are the parameters related to soil, land-use and climate. This study compares erosion relevant topographical parameters—elevation, slope, aspect, LS factor—derived from 3 DEMs at original and 20 m interpolated resolution with field measurements for a 13 km2 watershed located in the Indian Lesser Himalaya. The DEMs are: a TOPO DEM generated from digitized contour lines on a 1:50,000 topographical map; a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM DEM at 90-m resolution; and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM at 15-m resolution. Significant differences across the DEMs were observed for all the parameters. The highest resolution ASTER DEM was found to be the poorest of all the tested DEMs as the topographical parameters derived from it differed significantly from those derived from other DEMs and field measurements. TOPO DEM, which is, theoretically more detailed, produced similar results to the coarser SRTM DEM, but failed to produce an improved representation of the watershed topography. Comparison with field measurements and mixed regression modeling proved SRTM DEM to be the most reliable among the tested DEMs for the studied watershed.

  18. Different time and energy budgets of Lesser Snow Geese in rice-prairies and coastal marshes in southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    Many bird species use human-made habitats and an important issue is whether these are equally suitable foraging habitats as are historical, natural habitats. Historically, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens, hereafter Snow Geese) wintered in coastal marshes in Louisiana but began using rice-prairies within the last 60 years. Time spent feeding was used as an indicator of habitat suitability and time and energy budgets of Snow Geese were compared between rice-prairies and coastal marshes in southwest Louisiana. Composite diets of Snow Geese have a lower energy density in the rice-prairies than in coastal marshes; thus, we predicted that Snow Geese would spend relatively more time feeding in rice-praires to obtain existence energy. However, time spent feeding was higher in coastal marshes and thus, not proportional to energy density of composite diets. Snow Geese in coastal marshes ingested less apparent metabolizable energy than did Snow Geese in rice-prairies. In rice-prairies, juveniles spent more time feeding than did adults; however, time spent feeding was similar between age classes in coastal marshes. Undeveloped foraging skills probably cause juvenile Snow Geese to forage less efficiently in coastal marshes than in rice-prairies. These findings are consistent with recent trends in Snow Goose numbers, which increased in rice-prairies but remained stable in coastal marshes.

  19. Dextrocardia with situs solitus and inversion apex-basis axis in lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.L.C. Pinheiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dextrocardia is a rare cardiac anomaly where the heart is situated on the right antimeres of the thorax. This study had the objective of describing a case of dextrocardia with situs solitus and apex-basis axis inversion in a lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla between five evaluated animals, all from the area of Mine Bauxite - Paragominas - Para. The arterial system was filled with contrasted latex and the animals were fixed with 10% formaldehyde and a posterior dissection was done. The heart of an animal was found in right antimere with inversion of the base-apex axis. The right atrium was more developed then the left and the pulmonary veins arrived directly in the left ventricle. The main vases of the base were identified with some topographic alterations resulting in: aorta dorsal to the cava caudal vein, pulmonary artery dorsal and cranial to aorta, pulmonary veins ventral to the pulmonary artery, cava caudal vein in ventral plain and cava cranial vein in dorsal plan in relation to the other vessels. Internally there were four cardiac chambers, with absence of septal communication.

  20. Tooth reorientation affects tooth function during prey processing and tooth ontogeny in the lesser electric ray, Narcine brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Mason N; Ramsay, Jason B; Schaefer, Justin T

    2008-01-01

    The dental anatomy of elasmobranch fishes (sharks, rays and relatives) creates a functional system that is more dynamic than that of mammalian dentition. Continuous dental replacement (where new teeth are moved rostrally to replace older ones) and indirect fibrous attachment of the dentition to the jaw allow teeth to reorient relative to the jaw over both long- and short-term scales, respectively. In this study, we examine the processing behavior and dental anatomy of the lesser electric ray Narcine brasiliensis (Olfers, 1831) to illustrate that the freedom of movement of elasmobranch dentition allows a functional flexibility that can be important for complex prey processing behaviors. From static manipulations of dissected jaws and observations of feeding events in live animals, we show that the teeth rotate during jaw protrusion, resulting in a secondary grasping mechanism that likely serves to hold prey while the buccal cavity is flushed free of sediment. The function of teeth is not always readily apparent from morphology; in addition to short-term reorientation, the long-term dental reorientation during replacement allows a given tooth to serve multiple functions during tooth ontogeny. Unlike teeth inside the mouth, the cusps of external teeth (on the portion of the tooth pad that extends past the occlusal plane) lay flat, such that the labial faces act as a functional battering surface, protecting the jaws during prey excavation.