WorldWideScience

Sample records for less than carload traffic

  1. 7 CFR 33.7 - Less than carload lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.7 Less than carload lot. Less than carload lot means a quantity of apples in packages not exceeding 20,000 pounds gross weight or 400...

  2. Variations in exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by different modes in a low density, less congested city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingham, Simon; Longley, Ian; Salmond, Jenny; Pattinson, Woodrow; Shrestha, Kreepa

    2013-01-01

    This research assessed the comparative risk associated with exposure to traffic pollution when travelling via different transport modes in Christchurch, New Zealand. Concentrations of PM 1 , UFPs and CO were monitored on pre-defined routes during the morning and evening commute on people travelling concurrently by car, bus and bicycle. It was found that car drivers were consistently exposed to the highest levels of CO; on-road cyclists were exposed to higher levels of all pollutants than off-road cyclists; car and bus occupants were exposed to higher average levels of UFP than cyclists, and travellers were occasionally exposed to very high levels of pollution for short periods of time. PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found to be poor indicators of exposure to traffic pollution. Studying Christchurch adds to our understanding as it was a lower density city with limited traffic congestion compared most other cities previously studied. -- Highlights: •This paper compared commuter exposure by car, bus, and on- and off-road cyclists. •The sampling was carried out in a low density, less congested city. •As in larger cities, car occupants were exposed to the highest levels of pollution. •On-road cyclists are exposed to higher levels of pollutants than off-road cyclists. •PM 10 and PM 2.5 are inappropriate indicators of exposure to vehicle emissions. -- This study carried out in a low density, less congested city, found that like studies in large or densely populated urban areas car drivers are still exposed to the worst quality air

  3. Is it traffic type, volume, or distance? Wheezing in infants living near truck and bus traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patrick H; LeMasters, Grace; Biagini, Jocelyn; Bernstein, David; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Shukla, Rakesh; Wilson, Kimberly; Villareal, Manuel; Burkle, Jeff; Lockey, James

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies of air pollution have not examined the association between exposure to varying types, distance, and amounts of traffic and wheezing in very young infants. We sought to determine the relationship between types of traffic, traffic volume, and distance and wheezing among infants less than 1 year of age. A geographic information system and a classification scheme were developed to categorize infants enrolled in the study as living near moving truck and bus traffic (highway >50 miles per hour, >1000 trucks daily, bus traffic (bus and truck traffic had a significantly increased prevalence of wheezing (adjusted odds ratio, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.15-5.42) when compared with unexposed infants. The prevalence of wheezing among nonwhite infants was at least twice that of white infants, regardless of exposure. Infants living less than 400 m from a high volume of moving traffic, however, did not have an increased prevalence of wheezing. These results suggest that the distance from and type of traffic exposures are more significant risk factors than traffic volume for wheezing in early infancy.

  4. Evolution of Intrinsic Scatter in the SFR-Stellar Mass Correlation at 0.5 less than z Less Than 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric; Acquaviva, Viviana; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; De Mello, Duilia F.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    We present estimates of intrinsic scatter in the star formation rate (SFR)--stellar mass (M*) correlation in the redshift range 0.5 less than z less than 3.0 and in the mass range 10(exp 7) less than M* less than 10(exp 11) solar mass. We utilize photometry in the Hubble Ultradeep Field (HUDF12) and Ultraviolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF) campaigns and CANDELS/GOODS-S and estimate SFR, M* from broadband spectral energy distributions and the best-available redshifts. The maximum depth of the UDF photometry (F160W 29.9 AB, 5 sigma depth) probes the SFR--M* correlation down to M* approximately 10(exp 7) solar mass, a factor of 10-100 x lower in M* than previous studies, and comparable to dwarf galaxies in the local universe. We find the slope of the SFR-M* relationship to be near unity at all redshifts and the normalization to decrease with cosmic time. We find a moderate increase in intrinsic scatter with cosmic time from 0.2 to 0.4 dex across the epoch of peak cosmic star formation. None of our redshift bins show a statistically significant increase in intrinsic scatter approximately 100 Myr. Our results are consistent with a picture of gradual and self-similar assembly of galaxies across more than three orders of magnitude in stellar mass from as low as 10(exp 7) solar mass.

  5. [Follow-up protocol for newborns of birthweight less than 1500 g or less than 32 weeks gestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallás Alonso, Carmen; García González, Pilar; Jimenez Moya, Ana; Loureiro González, Begoña; Martín Peinador, Yolanda; Soriano Faura, Javier; Torres Valdivieso, María José; Ginovart Galiana, Gemma

    2018-04-01

    The mortality of children with a birthweight of less than 1500g or with a gestational age of less than 32 weeks (<1500<32) has decreased significantly in the last 20 years or so. Given the higher risk of disability in these children, follow-up after hospital discharge is considered essential. In this document, the Follow-Up Group of the Spanish Society of Neonatology, in collaboration with the Spanish Society of Paediatric Primary Care, propose a follow-up protocol specific for the<1500<32, which has as its aim to standardise the activities and evaluations according to good practice criteria. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Cold dark matter dominated, inflationary universe with Omega(0) less than 1 and n less than 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorio, N.; Matarrese, S.; Lucchin, F.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical prejudice for a flat universe with an initially scale-invariant power spectrum has restricted the number of cosmological scenarios investigated for studying the formation of structure in the universe. A cold dark matter-dominated universe with a density parameter Omega(0) and a primordial spectral index n different from unity is considered, and its possible consistency with the inflationary model is discussed. It is shown that some of the difficulties of a flat cold dark matter scenario can be avoided by having Omega(0) less than 1 and n less than 1. For Omega(0) roughly 0.4 and n roughly 0.75 a good agreement is obtained with the large-scale drifts, the bounds on the cosmic microwave background smoothness, the Abell cluster abundance, and their correlation function. 85 references

  7. Air traffic control activity increases attention capacity in air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Amorim, Gutemberg Guerra; Ribas, Renata de Melo Guerra; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Lima, Murilo Duarte Costa; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic controllers simultaneously develop complex and multiple tasks in the course of their activities. In this context, concern is raised over the high level of attention needed by these professionals which can ultimately be affected by stress and fatigue. The objective of this study was to assess attention level in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCo air traffic control activity after ten years may be associated with a high level of attention.

  8. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sleeping Time and Certain Other Activities § 785.21 Less than 24-hour duty. An employee who is required to be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Less than 24-hour duty. 785.21 Section 785.21 Labor...

  9. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental factors on road traffic accidents and underlines the

  10. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    the model calculations included only a part of the induced traffic, the difference in cost-benefit results compared to the model excluding all induced traffic was substantial. The results show lower travel time savings, more adverse environmental impacts and a considerably lower benefitcost ratio when...... induced traffic is partly accounted for than when it is ignored. By exaggerating the economic benefits of road capacity increase and underestimating its negative effects, omission of induced traffic can result in over-allocation of public money on road construction and correspondingly less focus on other...... performance of a proposed road project in Copenhagen with and without short-term induced traffic included in the transport model. The available transport model was not able to include long-term induced traffic resulting from changes in land use and in the level of service of public transport. Even though...

  11. Variations in exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by different modes in a low density, less congested city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingham, Simon; Longley, Ian; Salmond, Jenny; Pattinson, Woodrow; Shrestha, Kreepa

    2013-10-01

    This research assessed the comparative risk associated with exposure to traffic pollution when travelling via different transport modes in Christchurch, New Zealand. Concentrations of PM1, UFPs and CO were monitored on pre-defined routes during the morning and evening commute on people travelling concurrently by car, bus and bicycle. It was found that car drivers were consistently exposed to the highest levels of CO; on-road cyclists were exposed to higher levels of all pollutants than off-road cyclists; car and bus occupants were exposed to higher average levels of UFP than cyclists, and travellers were occasionally exposed to very high levels of pollution for short periods of time. PM10 and PM2.5 were found to be poor indicators of exposure to traffic pollution. Studying Christchurch adds to our understanding as it was a lower density city with limited traffic congestion compared most other cities previously studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Typewriting--Less-Than-a-Semester Credit Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Dwayne

    1974-01-01

    Five advantages to be gained in teaching typing in a time structure less rigid than the traditional semester are itemized. The implications for typewriting teachers as a more individualized approach is used are considered. (AG)

  13. Are Teams Less Inequality Averse than Individuals?

    OpenAIRE

    He, Haoran; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    We compare inequality aversion in individuals and teams by means of both within- and between-subject experimental designs, and we investigate how teams aggregate individual preferences. We find that team decisions reveal less inequality aversion than individual initial proposals in team decision-making. However, teams are no more selfish than individuals who decide in isolation. Individuals express strategically more inequality aversion in their initial proposals in team decision-making becau...

  14. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the 600 less than l less than 8000 Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum at 148 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J. W.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Barrientos, L. F.; Bassistelli, E. S.; Bond, J. R.; Brown, B.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz. The measurement uses maps with 1.4' angular resolution made with data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The observations cover 228 deg(sup 2) of the southern sky, in a 4 deg. 2-wide strip centered on declination 53 deg. South. The CMB at arc minute angular scales is particularly sensitive to the Silk damping scale, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect from galaxy dusters, and to emission by radio sources and dusty galaxies. After masking the 108 brightest point sources in our maps, we estimate the power spectrum between 600 less than l less than 8000 using the adaptive multi-taper method to minimize spectral leakage and maximize use of the full data set. Our absolute calibration is based on observations of Uranus. To verify the calibration and test the fidelity of our map at large angular scales, we cross-correlate the ACT map to the WMAP map and recover the WMAP power spectrum from 250 less than l less than 1150. The power beyond the Silk damping tail of the CMB (l approximately 5000) is consistent with models of the emission from point sources. We quantify the contribution of SZ clusters to the power spectrum by fitting to a model normalized to sigma 8 = 0.8. We constrain the model's amplitude A(sub sz) less than 1.63 (95% CL). If interpreted as a measurement of as, this implies sigma (sup SZ) (sub 8) less than 0.86 (95% CL) given our SZ model. A fit of ACT and WMAP five-year data jointly to a 6-parameter ACDM model plus point sources and the SZ effect is consistent with these results.

  15. Low Temperature Synthesis, Chemical and Electrochemical Characterization of LiNi(x)Co(1-x)O2 (0 less than x less than 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjundaswamy, K. S.; Standlee, D.; Kelly, C. O.; Whiteley, R. V., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A new method of synthesis for the solid solution cathode materials LiNi(x)Co(1-x)O2 (0 less than x less than 1) involving enhanced reactions at temperatures less than or equal to 700 deg. C, between metal oxy-hydroxide precursors MOOH (M = Ni, Co) and Li-salts (Li2CO3, LiOH, and LiNO3) has been investigated. The effects of synthesis conditions and sources of Li, on phase purity, microstructure, and theoretical electrochemical capacity (total M(3+) content) are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis and room temperature magnetic susceptibility. An attempt has been made to correlate the electrochemical properties with the synthesis conditions and microstructure.

  16. Why Tu Youyou Makes Less Money Than Zhang Ziyi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Qinghui; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Daming

    2017-08-01

    Scientists normally earn less money than many other professions which require a similar amount of training and qualification. The economic theory of marginal utility and cost-benefit analysis can be applied to explain this phenomenon. Although scientists make less money than entertainment stars, the scientists do research work out of their interest and they also enjoy a much higher reputation and social status in some countries.

  17. The influence of road traffic noise on sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, J. L.

    1988-12-01

    The influence of road traffic noise on the sleep of adults and 6-11 year old children was studied by using electrophysiological methods. Young adults, unaccustomed to traffic noise, were disturbed by continuous and intermittent traffic noise at 45 dB(A). No sleep disturbances were found for continuous traffic noise at 36 dB(A). Car passages with a peak noise level of 55 dB(A) caused awakenings. The equivalent sound pressure level ( Leq) did not correlate with sleep disturbance effects. A better noise dose description was found in the number of vehicles per night that made most noise. Children wer about 10 dB(A) less sensitive than adults to awakening reactions, and even less sensitive with respect to disturbances of REM sleep and deep sleep. Total habituation to road traffic noise did not occur, even after at least one year of exposure. Sound reduction in the bedroom induced increased amounts of deep sleep for adults and reduced falling-asleep time for children. Road traffic noise during the first hours of a night's sleep tended to disturb sleep more than when it ocurred later in the night, the main effects being a reduction of the total amount of REM sleep during the night and an increased duration of intermittent wakefulness during the hours of exposure.

  18. Brazilian air traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Alves, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Alves, Marcos José Pinheiro Cândido; Carneiro, Severino Marcos de Oliveira; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2011-01-01

    Excessive sleepiness (ES) is an increased tendency to initiate involuntary sleep for naps at inappropriate times. The objective of this study was to assess ES in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCoair traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

  19. Malaria Parasitemia in Children Aged less than 5 Years Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fever is the commonest manifestation and Children aged less than 5 years are most vulnerable. An appraisal of this disease among these children is important to reducing the impact of the disease. Objective: To determine the prevalence and identify factors affecting malaria parasitemia in febrile children aged less than 5 ...

  20. Coal: Less than lackluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  1. ROAD TRAFFIC ESTIMATION USING BLUETOOTH SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika N. BUGDOL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bluetooth standard is a low-cost, very popular communication protocol offering a wide range of applications in many fields. In this paper, a novel system for road traffic estimation using Bluetooth sensors has been presented. The system consists of three main modules: filtration, statistical analysis of historical, and traffic estimation and prediction. The filtration module is responsible for the classification of road users and detecting measurements that should be removed. Traffic estimation has been performed on the basis of the data collected by Bluetooth measuring devices and information on external conditions (e.g., temperature, all of which have been gathered in the city of Bielsko-Biala (Poland. The obtained results are very promising. The smallest average relative error between the number of cars estimated by the model and the actual traffic was less than 10%.

  2. [Feeding practices with human milk in newborns less than 1.500 g or less than 32 weeks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Díaz, Clara; Utrera-Torres, Isabel; de Alba-Romero, Concepción; Flores-Antón, Beatriz; López-Maestro, María; Lora-Pablos, David; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R

    2016-07-01

    There is currently no unified policy on either breastfeeding support or enteral nutrition practices, as regards human milk (HM) in pre-term newborns. The aim of this study was to describe breastfeeding support measures, as well as the use of HM in very preterm infants in Spanish public hospitals. A questionnaire on enteral feeding practices was distributed. Data were analysed from units caring for newborns less than 32 weeks or 1,500g. A univariate analysis was performed comparing level ii and iii care units. There was a 91% response rate. A total of 93 units cared for infants less than 32 weeks or 1,500g (17 level ii and 76 level iii), and 49% of the units recorded the breastfeeding rate on discharge. Around 75% (70/93) had a guideline on managing HM (level iii 81 vs. level ii 47%, P=.002), and 25% had access to donor human milk. Just under half (46%) started trophic feeding in the first 6h. Target enteral feeding volume in stable preterm infants was ≥ 180ml/kg/day in 89% of the units (level iii 93% vs. level ii 70%, P =.017). HM fortifier was used in 96% of the units. In 92%, it was added when the required enteral volume was tolerated. In 59% of the units, adjustments in the quantity of fortifier were made according to weight, and in 36%, it depended on analytical criteria. Some units (9%) used pure protein fortifier. There is a marked variability in breastfeeding support measures and in feeding practices of preterm infants in Spanish neonatal units. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Allergy adjuvant effect of particles from wood smoke and road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Mari; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Løvik, Martinus

    2008-04-18

    There is growing evidence that in addition to augmenting the severity of asthma and allergic diseases, particulate air pollution also increases the incidence of allergy and asthma. We studied the adjuvant effect of particles from wood smoke and road traffic on the immune response to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). OVA with and without particles was injected into one hind footpad of Balb/cA mice. All particles together with OVA significantly increased the level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum, compared to groups given OVA or particles alone. Reference diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with OVA induced the highest levels of IgE, whereas no clear difference was observed between particles from road traffic and wood smoke. Road traffic particles collected in the autumn induced higher IgE values with OVA than corresponding particles collected during the winter season when studded tires are used, suggesting that studded tire-generated road pavement particles have less allergy adjuvant activity than exhaust particles. Compared to OVA or particles alone, all particles with OVA increased popliteal lymph node cell numbers, cell proliferation, ex vivo secretion of IL-4 and IL-10 after ConA stimulation, and the expression of several cell surface molecules (CD19, MHC class II, CD86 and CD23). Wood smoke particles with OVA induced somewhat higher cellular responses than road traffic particles, but less than DEP with OVA which seemed to be the most potent particle in inducing cellular as well as antibody responses. Thus, wood smoke particles had about the same capacity to enhance allergic sensitization as road traffic particles, but less than diesel exhaust particles.

  4. Allergy adjuvant effect of particles from wood smoke and road traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsen, Mari; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Lovik, Martinus

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that in addition to augmenting the severity of asthma and allergic diseases, particulate air pollution also increases the incidence of allergy and asthma. We studied the adjuvant effect of particles from wood smoke and road traffic on the immune response to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). OVA with and without particles was injected into one hind footpad of Balb/cA mice. All particles together with OVA significantly increased the level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum, compared to groups given OVA or particles alone. Reference diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with OVA induced the highest levels of IgE, whereas no clear difference was observed between particles from road traffic and wood smoke. Road traffic particles collected in the autumn induced higher IgE values with OVA than corresponding particles collected during the winter season when studded tires are used, suggesting that studded tire-generated road pavement particles have less allergy adjuvant activity than exhaust particles. Compared to OVA or particles alone, all particles with OVA increased popliteal lymph node cell numbers, cell proliferation, ex vivo secretion of IL-4 and IL-10 after ConA stimulation, and the expression of several cell surface molecules (CD19, MHC class II, CD86 and CD23). Wood smoke particles with OVA induced somewhat higher cellular responses than road traffic particles, but less than DEP with OVA which seemed to be the most potent particle in inducing cellular as well as antibody responses. Thus, wood smoke particles had about the same capacity to enhance allergic sensitization as road traffic particles, but less than diesel exhaust particles

  5. Versatility of cooperative transcriptional activation: a thermodynamical modeling analysis for greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till D Frank

    Full Text Available We derive a statistical model of transcriptional activation using equilibrium thermodynamics of chemical reactions. We examine to what extent this statistical model predicts synergy effects of cooperative activation of gene expression. We determine parameter domains in which greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects are predicted for cooperative regulation by two activators. We show that the statistical approach can be used to identify different causes of synergistic greater-than-additive effects: nonlinearities of the thermostatistical transcriptional machinery and three-body interactions between RNA polymerase and two activators. In particular, our model-based analysis suggests that at low transcription factor concentrations cooperative activation cannot yield synergistic greater-than-additive effects, i.e., DNA transcription can only exhibit less-than-additive effects. Accordingly, transcriptional activity turns from synergistic greater-than-additive responses at relatively high transcription factor concentrations into less-than-additive responses at relatively low concentrations. In addition, two types of re-entrant phenomena are predicted. First, our analysis predicts that under particular circumstances transcriptional activity will feature a sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and eventually less-than-additive effects when for fixed activator concentrations the regulatory impact of activators on the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter increases from weak, to moderate, to strong. Second, for appropriate promoter conditions when activator concentrations are increased then the aforementioned re-entrant sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and less-than-additive effects is predicted as well. Finally, our model-based analysis suggests that even for weak activators that individually induce only negligible increases in promoter activity, promoter activity can exhibit greater-than

  6. Nonlinear stability of traffic models and the use of Lyapunov vectors for estimating the traffic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatella, Luigi; Trevisan, Anna; Rambaldi, Sandro

    2013-08-01

    Valuable information for estimating the traffic flow is obtained with current GPS technology by monitoring position and velocity of vehicles. In this paper, we present a proof of concept study that shows how the traffic state can be estimated using only partial and noisy data by assimilating them in a dynamical model. Our approach is based on a data assimilation algorithm, developed by the authors for chaotic geophysical models, designed to be equivalent but computationally much less demanding than the traditional extended Kalman filter. Here we show that the algorithm is even more efficient if the system is not chaotic and demonstrate by numerical experiments that an accurate reconstruction of the complete traffic state can be obtained at a very low computational cost by monitoring only a small percentage of vehicles.

  7. Effects of urban sprawl and vehicle miles traveled on traffic fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jiho; Park, Sungjin; Jang, Kitae

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that urban sprawl increases auto-dependency and that excessive auto use increases the risk of traffic fatalities. This indirect effect of urban sprawl on traffic fatalities is compared to non-vehicle miles traveled (VMT)-related direct effect of sprawl on fatalities. We conducted a path analysis to examine the causal linkages among urban sprawl, VMT, traffic fatalities, income, and fuel cost. The path diagram includes 2 major linkages: the direct relationship between urban sprawl and traffic fatalities and the indirect effect on fatalities through increased VMT in sprawling urban areas. To measure the relative strength of these causal linkages, path coefficients are estimated using data collected nationally from 147 urbanized areas in the United States. Through both direct and indirect paths, urban sprawl is associated with greater numbers of traffic fatalities, but the direct effect of sprawl on fatalities is more influential than the indirect effect. Enhancing traffic safety can be achieved by impeding urban sprawl and encouraging compact development. On the other hand, policy tools reducing VMT may be less effective than anticipated for traffic safety.

  8. Particulate matter urban air pollution from traffic car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, G. M.; Brezoczki, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The particulate matters (PM) are very important compounds of urban air pollution. There are a lot of air pollution sources who can generate PM and one of the most important of them it is urban traffic car. Air particulate matters have a major influence on human health so everywhere are looking for PM reducing solutions. It is knows that one of the solution for reduce the PM content from car traffic on ambient urban air is the fluidity of urban traffic car by introduction the roundabout intersections. This paper want to present some particulate matter determinations for PM10 and PM2.5 conducted on the two types of urban intersection respectively traffic light and roundabout intersections in Baia Mare town in the approximate the same work conditions. The determinations were carried out using a portable particulate matter monitor Haz - Dust model EPAM - 5000, who can provide a real time data for PM10, PM 2.5.Determinations put out that there are differences between the two locations regarding the PM content on ambient air. On roundabout intersection the PM content is less than traffic light intersection for both PM10 and PM 2.5 with more than 30%.

  9. Hunter-gatherers have less famine than agriculturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesque, J Colette; Marlowe, Frank W; Shaw, Peter; Thompson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The idea that hunter-gatherer societies experience more frequent famine than societies with other modes of subsistence is pervasive in the literature on human evolution. This idea underpins, for example, the 'thrifty genotype hypothesis'. This hypothesis proposes that our hunter-gatherer ancestors were adapted to frequent famines, and that these once adaptive 'thrifty genotypes' are now responsible for the current obesity epidemic. The suggestion that hunter-gatherers are more prone to famine also underlies the widespread assumption that these societies live in marginal habitats. Despite the ubiquity of references to 'feast and famine' in the literature describing our hunter-gatherer ancestors, it has rarely been tested whether hunter-gatherers suffer from more famine than other societies. Here, we analyse famine frequency and severity in a large cross-cultural database, in order to explore relationships between subsistence and famine risk. This is the first study to report that, if we control for habitat quality, hunter-gatherers actually had significantly less--not more--famine than other subsistence modes. This finding challenges some of the assumptions underlying for models of the evolution of the human diet, as well as our understanding of the recent epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-18

    Aug 18, 1990 ... couples where the husband's normal sperm morphology was less than 15% ... gonadotrophin (HCG) 5000 ID was given when the average size of three ... have a normal sperm count and motility but have lower than normal ...

  11. Comparative analysis of characteristics and risk factors of traffic injury in aged people from urban and rural areas in Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Ji-Hong; Qiu, Jun; Zhang, Xiu-Zhu; Yuan, Dan-Feng; Gao, Zhi-Ming; Dai, Wei

    2012-01-01

    To study the epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among people over 60 years old in the Nan'an district (urban) and Jiangjin district (rural) of Chongqing, and to discuss the corresponding strategies for its prevention and cure. Records of traffic injuries in people over 60 years old registered by the traffic police between 2000 and 2006 in Nan'an district and Jiangjin district were collected in the Database of Road Traffic Accidents and Traffic Injuries. Epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among the aged people were analyzed and compared. Between the year 2000 and 2006, the average annual incidence of traffic injuries and mortality rate in the aged people in Nan'an district were 124.62/100 000 and 13.85/ 100 000 respectively, higher than that in Jiangjin district (27.49/ 100 000, 7.13/100 000, P less than 0.01). However, the mortality rate for the aged people who were involved in traffic injuries in Jiangjin district was 20.60%, higher than that in Nan'an district (10.00%, P less than 0.01). Head injury was the primary cause of death. Totally 76.58% of casualties were pede-strians. Over 90% of the traffic accidents occurred in the areas with no traffic signal or traffic control system. The traffic environment is unfavorable to the aged people. It is important to enhance traffic safety consciousness of drivers and the elderly and to strengthen traffic safety system and traffic law, so as to provide a safe road traffic environment for the aged people.

  12. Accident history, risk perception and traffic safe behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueutsa, Robert; Kouabenan, Dongo Rémi

    2017-09-01

    This study clarifies the associations between accident history, perception of the riskiness of road travel and traffic safety behaviours by taking into account the number and severity of accidents experienced. A sample of 525 road users in Cameroon answered a questionnaire comprising items on perception of risk, safe behaviour and personal accident history. Participants who reported involvement in more than three accidents or involvement in a severe accident perceived road travel as less risky and also reported behaving less safely compared with those involved in fewer, or less severe accidents. The results have practical implications for the prevention of traffic accidents. Practitioner Summary: The associations between accident history, perceived risk of road travel and safe behaviour were investigated using self-report questionnaire data. Participants involved in more than three accidents, or in severe accidents, perceived road travel as less risky and also reported more unsafe behaviour compared with those involved in fewer, or less severe accidents. Campaigns targeting people with a less serious, less extensive accident history should aim to increase awareness of hazards and the potential severity of their consequences, as well as emphasising how easy it is to take the recommended preventive actions. Campaigns targeting those involved in more frequent accidents, and survivors of serious accidents, should address feelings of invulnerability and helplessness.

  13. Intravenous dexketoprofen induces less injection pain than racemic ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjövall, S; Kokki, M; Nokela, A; Halinen, L; Turunen, M; Kokki, H

    2015-08-01

    Ketoprofen has high analgesic efficacy against inflammatory and nociceptive pain. Additionally, when ketoprofen is administered in conjunction with an opioid during pain management, it prevents the development of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The main limitation for racemic ketoprofen IV administration is venous irritation. Dexketoprofen is the active enantiomer of racemic ketoprofen and has a similar analgesic efficacy in a dose proportion of 1 : 2, but it causes fewer adverse effects than racemic ketoprofen. It has been claimed that dexketoprofen may cause less frequent and less severe injection pain than racemic ketoprofen. In this study, we compared the injection pain of IV administered racemic ketoprofen and dexketoprofen in elective surgical patients. The ethics committee of our institution approved this randomized, double-blinded, two-treatment, two-period, crossover clinical comparison of ketoprofen and dexketoprofen. A total of 221 ASA I-III adult patients, aged 20-75 years, were initially IV administered either 0·5 mg/kg racemic ketoprofen followed 2 h later with 0·25 mg/kg dexketoprofen (group 1) or vice versa (group 2). Both compounds were diluted in 20 mL of normal saline and were injected over 6 min. Patients reported injection pain on an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) (0 = no pain, 10 = most pain). Significantly less injection pain was reported after dexketoprofen administration. A total of 201 of 209 patients reported pain during racemic ketoprofen injection, and 157 of 210 patients reported pain during dexketoprofen injection, respectively. Moderate or severe pain was reported by 90 (41%) patients during racemic ketoprofen administration and by 43 (20%) during dexketoprofen injection (P = 0·001). The mean of injection pain during racemic ketoprofen injection was 4·2 (SD 2·5) and was 2·5 (2·4) during dexketoprofen injection (P = 0·001). No serious or unexpected adverse events were reported. Dexketoprofen causes

  14. Chronic hemodialysis in children weighing less than 10 kg.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) in infants is usually used when peritoneal dialysis (PD) has failed. We describe our experience with HD, outlining the morbidity, complications, and outcomes for infants weighing less than 10 kg managed with HD for more than 6 months over a 10-year period.

  15. Do CAD/CAM dentures really release less monomer than conventional dentures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmassl, Patricia-Anca; Wiedemair, Verena; Huck, Christian; Klaunzer, Florian; Steinmassl, Otto; Grunert, Ingrid; Dumfahrt, Herbert

    2017-06-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) dentures are assumed to have more favourable material properties than conventionally fabricated dentures, among them a lower methacrylate monomer release. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis. CAD/CAM dentures were generated from ten different master casts by using four different CAD/CAM systems. Conventional, heat-polymerised dentures served as control group. Denture weight and volume were measured; the density was calculated, and the denture surface area was assessed digitally. The monomer release after 7 days of water storage was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Whole You Nexteeth and Wieland Digital Dentures had significantly lower mean volume and weight than conventional dentures. Baltic Denture System and Whole You Nexteeth had a significantly increased density. Baltic Denture System had a significantly smaller surface area. None of the CAD/CAM dentures released significantly less monomer than the control group. All tested dentures released very low amounts of methacrylate monomer, but not significantly less than conventional dentures. A statistically significant difference might nevertheless exist in comparison to other, less recommendable denture base materials, such as the frequently used autopolymerising resins. CAD/CAM denture fabrication has numerous advantages. It enables the fabrication of dentures with lower resin volume and lower denture weight. Both could increase the patient comfort. Dentures with higher density might exhibit more favourable mechanical properties. The hypothesis that CAD/CAM dentures release less monomer than conventional dentures could, however, not be verified.

  16. Energy Saving: Scaling Network Energy Efficiency Faster than Traffic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Blume, O.; Gati, A.; Capone, A.; Wu, C.-E.; Barth, U.; Marzetta, T.; Zhang, H.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    As the mobile traffic is expected to continue its exponential growth in the near future, energy efficiency has gradually become a must criterion for wireless network design. Three fundamental questions need to be answered before the detailed design could be carried out, namely what energy efficiency

  17. Less than 2 °C warming by 2100 unlikely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Adrian E.; Zimmer, Alec; Frierson, Dargan M. W.; Startz, Richard; Liu, Peiran

    2017-09-01

    The recently published Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections to 2100 give likely ranges of global temperature increase in four scenarios for population, economic growth and carbon use. However, these projections are not based on a fully statistical approach. Here we use a country-specific version of Kaya's identity to develop a statistically based probabilistic forecast of CO2 emissions and temperature change to 2100. Using data for 1960-2010, including the UN's probabilistic population projections for all countries, we develop a joint Bayesian hierarchical model for Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and carbon intensity. We find that the 90% interval for cumulative CO2 emissions includes the IPCC's two middle scenarios but not the extreme ones. The likely range of global temperature increase is 2.0-4.9 °C, with median 3.2 °C and a 5% (1%) chance that it will be less than 2 °C (1.5 °C). Population growth is not a major contributing factor. Our model is not a `business as usual' scenario, but rather is based on data which already show the effect of emission mitigation policies. Achieving the goal of less than 1.5 °C warming will require carbon intensity to decline much faster than in the recent past.

  18. Critical elements for human health risk assessment of less than lifetime exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Nijkamp, Monique M; Ter Burg, Wouter

    2016-11-01

    Less than lifetime exposure has confronted risk assessors as to how to interpret the risks for human health in case a chronic health-based limit is exceeded. Intermittent, fluctuating and peak exposures do not match with the basis of the chronic limit values possibly leading to conservative outcomes. This paper presents guidance on how to deal with human risk assessment of less than lifetime exposure. Important steps to be considered are characterization of the human exposure situation, evaluation whether the human less than lifetime exposure scenario corresponds to a non-chronic internal exposure: toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic considerations, and, finally, re-evaluation of the risk assessment. Critical elements for these steps are the mode of action, Haber's rule, and toxicokinetics (ADME) amongst others. Previous work for the endpoints non-genotoxic carcinogenicity and developmental toxicity is included in the guidance. The guidance provides a way to consider the critical elements, without setting default factors to correct for the less than lifetime exposure in risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A New Macro Model for Traffic Flow on a Highway with Ramps and Numerical Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Tieqiao; Huang Haijun; Zhang Ying; Wong, S.C.; Gao Ziyou

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new macro model for traffic flow on a highway with ramps based on the existing models. We use the new model to study the effects of on-off-ramp on the main road traffic during the morning rush period and the evening rush period. Numerical tests show that, during the two rush periods, these effects are often different and related to the status of the main road traffic. If the main road traffic flow is uniform, then ramps always produce stop-and-go traffic when the main road density is between two critical values, and ramps have little effect on the main road traffic when the main road density is less than the smaller critical value or greater than the larger critical value. If a small perturbation appears on the main road, ramp may lead to stop-and-go traffic, or relieve or even eliminate the stop-and-go traffic, under different circumstances. These results are consistent with real traffic, which shows that the new model is reasonable.

  20. Regional correlations of VS30 averaged over depths less than and greater than 30 meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David M.; Thompson, Eric M.; Cadet, Héloïse

    2011-01-01

    Using velocity profiles from sites in Japan, California, Turkey, and Europe, we find that the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to 30 m (VS30), used as a proxy for site amplification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and building codes, is strongly correlated with average velocities to depths less than 30 m (VSz, with z being the averaging depth). The correlations for sites in Japan (corresponding to the KiK-net network) show that VSz is systematically larger for a given VSz than for profiles from the other regions. The difference largely results from the placement of the KiK-net station locations on rock and rocklike sites, whereas stations in the other regions are generally placed in urban areas underlain by sediments. Using the KiK-net velocity profiles, we provide equations relating VS30 to VSz for z ranging from 5 to 29 m in 1-m increments. These equations (and those for California velocity profiles given in Boore, 2004b) can be used to estimate VS30 from VSz for sites in which velocity profiles do not extend to 30 m. The scatter of the residuals decreases with depth, but, even for an averaging depth of 5 m, a variation in logVS30 of ±1 standard deviation maps into less than a 20% uncertainty in ground motions given by recent GMPEs at short periods. The sensitivity of the ground motions to VS30 uncertainty is considerably larger at long periods (but is less than a factor of 1.2 for averaging depths greater than about 20 m). We also find that VS30 is correlated with VSz for z as great as 400 m for sites of the KiK-net network, providing some justification for using VS30 as a site-response variable for predicting ground motions at periods for which the wavelengths far exceed 30 m.

  1. Determination of traffic noise nuisance as a function of traffic type and density in a heavily populated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimerl, G.; Holzmann, E.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of a study including noise level measurements during the day and night and 1125 interviews with residents, it was found that railway noise creates less of a disturbance than street traffic noise. By far the largest majority of respondents experienced the greatest disturbance during the day. The difference in nuisance decreases as noise level rises.

  2. Effects of road traffic background noise on judgments of individual airplane noises. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Two laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of road-traffic background noise on judgments of individual airplane flyover noises. In the first experiment, 27 subjects judged a set of 16 airplane flyover noises in the presence of traffic-noise sessions of 30-min duration consisting of the combinations of 3 traffic-noise types and 3 noise levels. In the second experiment, 24 subjects judged the same airplane flyover noises in the presence of traffic-noise sessions of 10-min duration consisting of the combinations of 2 traffic-noise types and 4 noise levels. In both experiments the airplane noises were judged less annoying in the presence of high traffic-noise levels than in the presence of low traffic-noise levels.

  3. Are group members less inequality averse than individual decision makers?

    OpenAIRE

    He, Haoran; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We compare inequality aversion in individuals and teams by means of both within- and between-subject experimental designs, and we investigate how teams aggregate individual preferences. We find that team decisions reveal less inequality aversion than individual initial proposals in team decision-making. However, teams are no more selfish than individuals who decide in isolation. Individuals express strategically more inequality aversion in their initial proposals in te...

  4. The importance of spatial orientation and knowledge of traffic signs for children's traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunović, Aleksandar; Pešić, Dalibor; Čičević, Svetlana; Antić, Boris

    2017-05-01

    Pre-school children, as well as children from lower grades in primary school, who although rarely, completely independently participate in traffic, represent a vulnerable population from the standpoint of traffic safety. The greatest number of children were injured or killed in road traffic crashes on their way from home to kindergarten or school. Mostly due to lack of experience, children's behavior is confusing and often reckless and hasty. Safe behavior in the traffic environment demands certain cognitive skills. Unlike adults, children have less than fully developed peripheral vision. Also, changes occur in color perception, i.e. discrimination. All this leads to the conclusion that the stage of physical and mental development of the child is very important for safe participation in traffic. So, to estimate if they are sufficiently equipped to participate safely in traffic, a sensitive test for young children that may be suitable for their level of cognitive development is required. Accordingly, road safety education should be arranged in such a way that considers the child's level of development, as has been shown to be more effective when started at younger ages. Play is the most natural and easiest way of learning because it is the lens through which children experience their world, and the world of others. Having this in mind, if we want to measure the abilities of a child, and their preparedness for safety participation in traffic, unavoidable is to use non-verbal tests. The purpose of this study is to explore primary schooler's spatial, and abilities of color perception and memorization, as well as their performances in interpreting the meaning of traffic signs. In addition, neighborhood environmental correlates (rural-urban) and possible individual differences influences on the relationship among these abilities was examined. Knowledge about these factors affecting children's safety can be applied to improve relevant intervention measures for promoting

  5. Are team members less inequality averse than individual decision makers?

    OpenAIRE

    Haoran He; Marie Claire Villeval

    2014-01-01

    révision Août 2015; We compare inequality aversion in individuals and teams by means of both within- and between-subject experimental designs, and we investigate how teams aggregate individual preferences. We find that team decisions reveal less inequality aversion than individual initial proposals in team decision-making. However, teams are no more selfish than individuals who decide in isolation. Individuals express strategically more inequality aversion in their initial proposals in team d...

  6. Traffic flow model at fixed control signals with discrete service time distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky I. Igbinosun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the models of road traffic flow at fixed-cycle controlled intersection assume stationary distributions and provide steady state results. The assumption that a constant number of vehicles can leave the system during the green phase is unrealistic in real life situations. A discrete time queuing model was developed to describe the operation of traffic flow at a road intersection with fixed-cycle signalized control and to account for the randomness in the number of vehicles that can leave the system. The results show the expected queue size in the system when the traffic is light and for a busy period, respectively. For the light period, when the traffic intensity is less than one, it takes a shorter green cycle time for vehicles to clear up than during high traffic intensity (the road junction is saturated. Increasing the number of cars that can leave the junction at the turn of the green phase reduces the number of cycle times before the queue is cleared.

  7. Calorimetry measurements in less than 20 minutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.B.; Cremers, T.

    1991-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a new series of 10 watt Bulk Plutonium Assay Calorimeters (BPAC10). The calorimeter measures bulk samples of plutonium bearing material in containers up to 5in. in diameter and 7in. high. The average measurement time is 19.7 minutes compared to 2--9 hours for the same sample measured in a water bath calorimeter. Measurement precision in the range of 1--10 watts is 1% to 0.1% and it is 0.010 watt for sample power less than 1 watt. BPAC10 series calorimeters are in use in two plutonium facilities at the EG ampersand G Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory TA55 Plutonium Facility. The paper presents a description of the calorimeter, discusses operating experience at Los Alamos, and presents a comparison of data on typical samples measured with both types of calorimeters. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Traditional herbal medicines used in neonates and infants less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medicine use in children , adults and other groups have been documented but little information is known about the use herbal medicine mixtures in neonates and infants less than six months old. This is important because pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics changes between infants and adults ...

  9. Less head motion during MRI under task than resting-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbers, Willem; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Boenniger, Meta M; Stirnberg, Rüdiger; Breteler, Monique M B

    2017-02-15

    Head motion reduces data quality of neuroimaging data. In three functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments we demonstrate that people make less head movements under task than resting-state conditions. In Experiment 1, we observed less head motion during a memory encoding task than during the resting-state condition. In Experiment 2, using publicly shared data from the UCLA Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics LA5c Study, we again found less head motion during several active task conditions than during a resting-state condition, although some task conditions also showed comparable motion. In the healthy controls, we found more head motion in men than in women and more motion with increasing age. When comparing clinical groups, we found that patients with a clinical diagnosis of bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, move more compared to healthy controls or patients with ADHD. Both these experiments had a fixed acquisition order across participants, and we could not rule out that a first or last scan during a session might be particularly prone to more head motion. Therefore, we conducted Experiment 3, in which we collected several task and resting-state fMRI runs with an acquisition order counter-balanced. The results of Experiment 3 show again less head motion during several task conditions than during rest. Together these experiments demonstrate that small head motions occur during MRI even with careful instruction to remain still and fixation with foam pillows, but that head motion is lower when participants are engaged in a cognitive task. These finding may inform the choice of functional runs when studying difficult-to-scan populations, such as children or certain patient populations. Our findings also indicate that differences in head motion complicate direct comparisons of measures of functional neuronal networks between task and resting-state fMRI because of potential differences in data quality. In practice, a task to reduce head motion

  10. CONTROLLING TRAFFIC FLOW IN MULTILANE-ISOLATED INTERSECTION USING ANFIS APPROACH TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. LAI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many controllers have applied the Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS concept for optimizing the controller performance. However, there are less traffic signal controllers developed using the ANFIS concept. ANFIS traffic signal controller with its fuzzy rule base and its ability to learn from a set of sample data could improve the performance of Existing traffic signal controlling system to reduce traffic congestions at most of the busy traffic intersections in city such as Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The aim of this research is to develop an ANFIS traffic signals controller for multilane-isolated four approaches intersections in order to ease traffic congestions at traffic intersections. The new concept to generate sample data for ANFIS training is introduced in this research. The sample data is generated based on fuzzy rules and can be analysed using tree diagram. This controller is simulated on multilane-isolated traffic intersection model developed using M/M/1 queuing theory and its performance in terms of average waiting time, queue length and delay time are compared with traditional controllers and fuzzy controller. Simulation result shows that the average waiting time, queue length, and delay time of ANFIS traffic signal controller are the lowest as compared to the other three controllers. In conclusion, the efficiency and performance of ANFIS controller are much better than that of fuzzy and traditional controllers in different traffic volumes.

  11. The Stability of Multi-modal Traffic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Zhu Chengjuan; Jia Bin; Wu Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    There is an explicit and implicit assumption in multimodal traffic equilibrium models, that is, if the equilibrium exists, then it will also occur. The assumption is very idealized; in fact, it may be shown that the quite contrary could happen, because in multimodal traffic network, especially in mixed traffic conditions the interaction among traffic modes is asymmetric and the asymmetric interaction may result in the instability of traffic system. In this paper, to study the stability of multimodal traffic system, we respectively present the travel cost function in mixed traffic conditions and in traffic network with dedicated bus lanes. Based on a day-to-day dynamical model, we study the evolution of daily route choice of travelers in multimodal traffic network using 10000 random initial values for different cases. From the results of simulation, it can be concluded that the asymmetric interaction between the cars and buses in mixed traffic conditions can lead the traffic system to instability when traffic demand is larger. We also study the effect of travelers' perception error on the stability of multimodal traffic network. Although the larger perception error can alleviate the effect of interaction between cars and buses and improve the stability of traffic system in mixed traffic conditions, the traffic system also become instable when the traffic demand is larger than a number. For all cases simulated in this study, with the same parameters, traffic system with dedicated bus lane has better stability for traffic demand than that in mixed traffic conditions. We also find that the network with dedicated bus lane has higher portion of travelers by bus than it of mixed traffic network. So it can be concluded that building dedicated bus lane can improve the stability of traffic system and attract more travelers to choose bus reducing the traffic congestion. (general)

  12. Traffic crash accidents in Tehran, Iran: Its relation with circadian rhythm of sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Yazdi, Zohreh; Moradinia, Mohsen; Aminian, Omid; Esmaili, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are one of main problems in Iran. Multiple factors cause traffic accidents and the most important one is sleepiness. This factor, however, is given less attention in our country. Road traffic accidents relevant to sleepiness are studied. In this cross-sectional study, all road traffic accidents relevant to sleepiness, which were reported by police, were studied in Tehran province in 2009. The risk of road traffic accidents due to sleepiness was increased by more than sevenfold (odds ratio = 7.33) in low alertness hours (0:00-6:00) compared to other time of day. The risk of road traffic accidents due to sleepiness was decreased by 0.15-fold (odds ratio = 0.15) in hours with maximum of alertness (18:00-22:00) of circadian rhythm compared to other time of day. The occurrence of road traffic accidents due to sleepiness has significant statistical relations with driving during lowest point of alertness of circadian rhythm.

  13. Household triggers of bronchospasm in children aged less than two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Identified household trigger factors of bronchospasm in children less than two years of age include: insecticide spray, fumes, smoke from stove and firewood, and exposure to cold air. The elimination of these factors from the environment of the affected child would go a long way in preventing the attacks.

  14. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer in 90 couples where the husband's normal sperm morphology was less than 15% were analysed. Based on the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa the patients were divided into three groups: group A - normal morphological features 0 - 5%; group B - 6 ...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1246 - Disposal of resources at less than fair market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... at less than fair market value. (a) General. (1) An individual (or eligible spouse) who gives away or sells a nonexcluded resource for less than fair market value for the purpose of establishing SSI or Medicaid eligibility will be charged with the difference between the fair market value of the resource and...

  16. Effects of the amount of feedback information on urban traffic with advanced traveler information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Ming; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin

    2017-09-01

    In a real traffic system, information feedback has already been proven to be a good way to alleviate traffic jams. However, due to the massive traffic information of real system, the procedure is often difficult in practice. In this paper, we study the effects of the amount of feedback information based on a cellular automaton model of urban traffic. What we found most interesting is that when providing the traffic information of a part of a road to travelers, the performance of the system will be better than that providing the road's full traffic information. From this basis, we can provide more effective routing strategy with less information. We demonstrate that only providing the traffic information of about first half road from upstream to downstream can maximize the traffic capacity of the system. We also give an explanation for these phenomena by studying the distribution pattern of vehicles and the detailed turning environment at the intersections. The effects of the traffic light period are also provided.

  17. Traffic Congestion Detection and Avoidance using Vehicular Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Narendrabhai Upadhyaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a serious problem in big cities. With the number of vehicles increasing rapidly, especially in cities whose economy is booming, the situation is getting even worse. Drivers, unaware of congestion ahead eventually join it and increase the severity of it. The ability of a driver to know the traffic conditions on the roads ahead enables him/her to seek alternate routes through which time and fuel can be saved. Due to recent advancements in vehicular technologies, vehicular communication has emerged. The objective of this work is to check feasibility of using infrastructure based vehicular communication for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. In this paper we propose a Signal Agent (SA and Car Agent(CAbased approach for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. We analyze performance of the proposed approach for two different road network scenarios using simulations: structured grid network (like Gandhinagar City of Gujarat, India and apart of typical city road network ( Tiwan city. With the proposed approach we get reduction of 10.05% in trip duration of vehicles, reduction of 10.08% in number of vehicles in entire traffic road network and 9.82% in heavy traffic area. In an accident scenario, about 72.63% vehicles changed their route due to awareness of congestion. Error in trip time estimation and vehicle count estimation is observed to be less than 1%.

  18. Controlling Air Traffic (Simulated) in the Presence of Automation (CATS PAu) 1995: A Study of Measurement Techniques for Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jennifer R.

    1995-01-01

    As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.

  19. Anti-deterministic behaviour of discrete systems that are less predictable than noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, Krzysztof; Kantz, Holger; Holyst, Janusz A.

    2005-05-01

    We present a new type of deterministic dynamical behaviour that is less predictable than white noise. We call it anti-deterministic (AD) because time series corresponding to the dynamics of such systems do not generate deterministic lines in recurrence plots for small thresholds. We show that although the dynamics is chaotic in the sense of exponential divergence of nearby initial conditions and although some properties of AD data are similar to white noise, the AD dynamics is in fact, less predictable than noise and hence is different from pseudo-random number generators.

  20. Hematological and immunological effects of stress of air traffic controllers in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenilson Ribeiro Ribas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that stress and emotional reactions can affect immune responses in animals and humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate hematological and immunological effects of stress on air traffic controllers. METHODS: Thirty air traffic controllers and 15 aeronautical information service operators were evaluated. The groups were divided as information service operators with 10 years or more of experience (AIS>10 and with less than 10 years in the profession (AIS10 and with less than 10 years in the profession (ATCo10 group presented a significantly lower phagocytosis rate of monocytes at 2:00 p.m. compared to 8:00 a.m. Moreover, the ATCo>10 group presented lower hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, platelet and leukocyte levels, and increased cortisol concentrations at 8:00 a.m. compared to the other groups. Additionally, this group had lower phagocytosis rate of monocytes, and hemoglobin, platelet, leukocyte, basophils and nitric oxide levels at 2:00 p.m. compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: Stress seems to greatly affect immune responses of air traffic controllers with more than ten years of experience.

  1. Liouville theory with a central charge less than one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribault, Sylvain [CEA Saclay, Institut de Physique Théorique,F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Santachiara, Raoul [LPTMS, Université Paris Sud,15 rue Georges Clemenceau, Orsay (France)

    2015-08-21

    We determine the spectrum and correlation functions of Liouville theory with a central charge less than (or equal) one. This completes the definition of Liouville theory for all complex values of the central charge. The spectrum is always spacelike, and there is no consistent timelike Liouville theory. We also study the non-analytic conformal field theories that exist at rational values of the central charge. Our claims are supported by numerical checks of crossing symmetry. We provide Python code for computing Virasoro conformal blocks, and correlation functions in Liouville theory and (generalized) minimal models.

  2. Exchange-Driven Growth with Birth Rate Less Than Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhenquan; Ye Gaoxiang; Ke Jianhong

    2005-01-01

    We further study the kinetic behavior of the exchange-driven growth with birth and death for the case of birth rate kernel being less than that of death based on the mean-field theory. The symmetric exchange rate kernel is K(k,j) = K'(k,j) = Ikj υ , and the birth and death rates are proportional to the aggregate's size. The long time asymptotic behavior of the aggregate size distribution a k (t) is found to obey a much unusual scaling law with an exponentially growing scaling function Φ(x) = exp (x).

  3. Non-Theists Are No Less Moral Than Theists: Some Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Didyoung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The longstanding stereotype that non-theists are less moral than theists is not empirically supported. To test this commonplace assumption, 114 undergraduate participants were evaluated to draw comparisons about religious identity and altruism levels. Participants were placed into one of two groups, theists or non-theists. The theist group was then further divided: weakly religious, moderately religious, and highly religious. Non-theists and theists as a whole, as well as theist subgroup assessments, were compared. Data were collected through self-report surveys. Additionally, to test moral decision-making abilities, participants answered questions based on situational dilemmas. Using Kohlberg’s coding schema, scores were assigned for the participant’s global moral reasoning rather than for the content of their answers. Using independent groups t-test, ANOVA, and post-hoc tests,our findings suggest no support for the existence of the stereotype that non-theists are less moral than theists. Religious identity did not conclusively determine whether or not an individual was more moral or more altruistic.

  4. Traffic breakdown at a signal: classical theory versus the three-phase theory of city traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S; Schreckenberg, Michael; Klenov, Sergey L

    2014-01-01

    Physical reasons for a crucial difference between the results of a three-phase theory developed recently (Kerner 2011 Phys. Rev. E 84 045102(R); 2013 Europhys. Lett. 102 28010; 2014 Physica A 397 76) and the classical theory are explained. Microscopic characteristics of traffic passing a traffic signal during the green signal phase and their dependence on the duration of the green phase have been found. It turns out that a moving synchronized flow pattern (MSP), which occurs in under-saturated traffic at the signal, causes ‘compression’ of traffic flow: the rate of MSP discharge can be considerably larger than the saturation flow rate of the classical traffic theory of city traffic. This leads to a considerably larger rate of traffic passing the signal in comparison with the saturation flow rate. This effect together with traffic behavior at the upstream queue front explains the metastability of under-saturated traffic with respect to a random time-delayed traffic breakdown. (paper)

  5. Study of the road traffic noise in Erzurum-Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir Gökdag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic noise affects a large number of people, especially in urban areas and is generally a major source of complaints. This paper refers to a study of the problem of traffic noise on roads which have been transformed into streets in the city of Erzurum. Noise levels are measured and the impacts suffered by the community are documented. Manual noise measurements were made along 12 streets exploring sources of maximum noise levels. Noise from different types of vehicles driven in a realistic way in inner city traffic was measured. The results from the measurements showed that, of 750 measured events, approximately 5% of the vehicles exceeded 70 dB(A and less than 2% exceeded 80 dB(A maximum noise level. In summary, the result showed that the most important vehicle component as regards the maximum noise level in inner city traffic was a medium-weight vehicle. Among the higher noise levels measured (>80 dB(A this type of vehicle was dominant.

  6. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  7. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  8. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  9. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0. 02 g/cc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1994-01-04

    A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm[sup 3] to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm[sup 3]. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described. 7 figures.

  10. Breakdown in traffic networks fundamentals of transportation science

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed investigation of breakdowns in traffic and transportation networks. It shows empirically that transitions from free flow to so-called synchronized flow, initiated by local disturbances at network bottlenecks, display a nucleation-type behavior: while small disturbances in free flow decay, larger ones grow further and lead to breakdowns at the bottlenecks. Further, it discusses in detail the significance of this nucleation effect for traffic and transportation theories, and the consequences this has for future automatic driving, traffic control, dynamic traffic assignment, and optimization in traffic and transportation networks. Starting from a large volume of field traffic data collected from various sources obtained solely through measurements in real world traffic, the author develops his insights, with an emphasis less on reviewing existing methodologies, models and theories, and more on providing a detailed analysis of empirical traffic data and drawing consequences regarding t...

  11. Urbanization and traffic related exposures as risk factors for Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    to nearest major road had no significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: The cause(s) or exposure(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk were closer related to the degree of urbanization than to the geographical distance to nearest major road. Traffic related exposures might thus be less......BACKGROUND: Urban birth or upbringing increase schizophrenia risk. Though unknown, the causes of these urban-rural differences have been hypothesized to include, e.g., infections, diet, toxic exposures, social class, or an artefact due to selective migration. METHODS: We investigated the hypothesis...... that traffic related exposures affect schizophrenia risk and that this potential effect is responsible for the urban-rural differences. The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road was used as a proxy variable for traffic related exposures. We used a large population-based sample...

  12. Radiotherapy of early tongue cancer in patients less than 40 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Ken; Koizumi, Masahiko; Inoue, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Hideya; Imai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Hiroya; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Eiichi; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Inoue, Toshihiko

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of treatment for early mobile tongue cancer in patients less than 40 years. Methods and Materials: Between January 1967 and September 1992, 70 patients less than 40 years old (young age group) with early tongue cancer (T1-2N0M0) were treated with low-dose-rate (LDR) interstitial radiotherapy at the Osaka University Hospital (OUH). All patients had a minimum 2-year follow-up (median: 13 years). External radiotherapy (median: 30 Gy) was combined in 25 cases. The treatment results were compared with those for two older age groups (middle age: 40-64 years old; old age: 65 years old or more). Results: The 5-year probability of cause-specific survival (CSS) rate for the young age group was 80%, which was not significantly different from the two older groups: 81% for middle age and 71% for old age. However, male patients of young age showed significantly worse rates than those of middle and old age (p = 0.02). The 5-year local control rate for the young age group was 78%. It was not significantly different from the two older groups: 81% for middle age and 70% for old age. The incidence of regional lymph node metastasis was 32% for T1, 48% for T2, 56% for males, and 24% for females. The regional failure rate of young males was significantly higher than those of the two older groups: 32% for middle and 22% for old age (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The overall treatment results for patients with early tongue cancer less than 40 years old were not worse than those of older age groups. However, male gender was a risk factor for lymph node metastasis and CSS

  13. Adolescents with a smartphone sleep less than their peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Angélick; Berchtold, André; Barrense-Dias, Yara; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the use of electronic media is related to sleep disturbance, but few have examined the impact of smartphones. The objective of this study was to assess longitudinally whether acquiring a smartphone had an effect on adolescents' sleeping duration. The study included 591 adolescents observed at baseline (T0, Spring 2012; mean age 14.3 years, 288 females) and 2 years later (T1). They were divided into owners (those owning a smartphone at T0 and T1; N = 383), new owners (those owning a smartphone at T1 but not at T0; N = 153), and non-owners (those not owning a smartphone at any time-point; N = 55). Groups were compared on sleep duration, sleep problems, and sociodemographic variables. Overall, all three groups decreased their sleeping time between T0 and T1. At T0, owners of a smartphone were found to sleep significantly less than non-owners and new-owners, especially on school days, and to report significantly more sleeping problems. At T1, new-owners and owners showed no differences on sleep duration or sleeping problems. The results emphasize that owning a smartphone tends to entail sleep disturbance. Therefore, adolescents and parents should be informed about the potential consequences of smartphone use on sleep and health. What is Known: • The use of electronic media plays an important role in the life of adolescents. • Smartphone use is increasing among young people and allows them to be connected almost anytime anywhere. What is New : • Adolescents owning a smartphone sleep less hours on school days than their peers. • Smartphones seem to have an important impact on youths' sleep duration.

  14. 27 CFR 20.119 - Toilet preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. 20.119 Section 20.119 Alcohol, Tobacco....119 Toilet preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. This general-use formula shall consist of an article containing not less than 10% essential oils by volume made...

  15. 76 FR 5562 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import Administration, International... United States at less than fair value (LTFV), as provided in section 735 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as... Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final...

  16. Internal conversion coefficients for atomic numbers Z less than or equal to 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, I.M.; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.; Listengarten, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    Presented here are internal conversion coefficients (ICC) of gamma rays for 20 values of atomic number, Z, in the range 3 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 30, including all Z greater than or equal to 14. The tables provide the previously missing data for light elements. Coefficients are given for 19 values of gamma-ray transition energies up to 6 MeV for the K-electron shell and 18 values up to 2 MeV for three L-subshells. The minimum enegy is 15 keV. The first five electric and magnetic nuclear transition multipolarities are covered. The calculations are relativistic, with screening and finite nuclear size effect taken into account

  17. TASAR Flight Trial 2: Assessment of Air Traffic Controller Acceptability of TASAR Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Husni; Enea, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    In support of the Flight Trial (FT-2) of NASA's prototype of the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept, observations were conducted at the air traffic facilities to identify and assess the main factors that affect the acceptability of pilot requests by air traffic controllers. Two observers shadowed air traffic controllers at the Atlanta (ZTL) and Jacksonville (ZJX) air traffic control centers as the test flight pilot made pre-scripted requests to invoke acceptability issues and then they interviewed the observed and other controllers voluntarily. Fifty controllers were interviewed with experience ranging from one to thirty-five years. All interviewed controllers were enthusiastic about the technology and accounting for sector boundaries in pilot requests, particularly if pilots can be made aware of high workload situations. All interviewed controllers accept more than fifty percent of pilot requests; forty percent of them reject less than ten percent of requests. The most common reason for rejecting requests is conflicting with traffic followed by violating letters of agreement (LOAs) and negatively impacting neighboring sector workload, major arrival and departure flows and flow restrictions. Thirty-six requests were made during the test, eight of which were rejected due to: the aircraft already handed off to another sector, violating LOA, opposing traffic, intruding into an active special use airspace (SUA), intruding into another center, weather, and unfamiliarity with the requested waypoint. Nine requests were accepted with delay mostly because the controller needed to locate unfamiliar waypoints or to coordinate with other controllers.

  18. Is overall similarity classification less effortful than single-dimension classification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Andy J; Milton, Fraser; Longmore, Christopher A; Hester, Sarah; Robinson, Jo

    2013-01-01

    It is sometimes argued that the implementation of an overall similarity classification is less effortful than the implementation of a single-dimension classification. In the current article, we argue that the evidence securely in support of this view is limited, and report additional evidence in support of the opposite proposition--overall similarity classification is more effortful than single-dimension classification. Using a match-to-standards procedure, Experiments 1A, 1B and 2 demonstrate that concurrent load reduces the prevalence of overall similarity classification, and that this effect is robust to changes in the concurrent load task employed, the level of time pressure experienced, and the short-term memory requirements of the classification task. Experiment 3 demonstrates that participants who produced overall similarity classifications from the outset have larger working memory capacities than those who produced single-dimension classifications initially, and Experiment 4 demonstrates that instructions to respond meticulously increase the prevalence of overall similarity classification.

  19. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  20. Characterization of traffic-generated pollutants in Bucharest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raducan, G. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Department of Atmospheric Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: gabi_raducan@yahoo.com; Stefan, S. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Department of Atmospheric Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-01-15

    European Union Council directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management requires the development of action plans for zones where the concentrations of pollutants in ambient air exceed limit values. In the urban areas the limit values are exceeded, especially due to the traffic. In this paper, we analyzed the temporal variability levels of concentration of NO{sub X}, O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} in two street canyons. The distribution of concentrations proves that traffic is the most important source of NO{sub X}, this pollutant being emitted during running of the vehicle engines. The level of pollution within U2 street is 25% less than U1 street, even though the measured traffic within U2 street is 50% less than within U1 street. This happen because the streets geometry and locations are different. [Spanish] La directiva 96/62/EC del Consejo de la Union Europea sobre determinacion y manejo de la calidad del aire ambiental establece que deben existir planes de accion para las zonas donde la concentracion de contaminantes excede los valores limite. En las areas urbanas dichos valores limite se rebasan en especial debido al trafico. En este trabajo analizamos la variabilidad temporal de los niveles de concentracion de NO{sub X}, O{sub 3} y SO{sub 2} en dos canones urbanos. La distribucion de las concentraciones demuestra que el trafico es la fuente mas importante de NO{sub X}, contaminante que se emite por la operacion de los motores vehiculares. El nivel de contaminacion en la calle U2 es 25% menor que el de la calle U1, aun cuando el trafico cuantificado en la calle U2 es 50% menor que el de la U1. Esto se debe a que la geometria y la ubicacion de las calles es diferente.

  1. CONTROLLING TRAFFIC FLOW IN MULTILANE-ISOLATED INTERSECTION USING ANFIS APPROACH TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    G. R. LAI; A. CHE SOH; H. MD. SARKAN; R. Z. ABDUL RAHMAN; M. K. HASSAN

    2015-01-01

    Many controllers have applied the Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) concept for optimizing the controller performance. However, there are less traffic signal controllers developed using the ANFIS concept. ANFIS traffic signal controller with its fuzzy rule base and its ability to learn from a set of sample data could improve the performance of Existing traffic signal controlling system to reduce traffic congestions at most of the busy traffic intersections in city such as Kuala L...

  2. Regional correlations of V s30 and velocities averaged over depths less than and greater than 30 meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, D.M.; Thompson, E.M.; Cadet, H.

    2011-01-01

    Using velocity profiles from sites in Japan, California, Turkey, and Europe, we find that the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to 30 m (V S30), used as a proxy for site amplification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and building codes, is strongly correlated with average velocities to depths less than 30 m (V Sz, with z being the averaging depth). The correlations for sites in Japan (corresponding to the KiK-net network) show that V S30 is systematically larger for a given V Sz than for profiles from the other regions. The difference largely results from the placement of the KiK-net station locations on rock and rocklike sites, whereas stations in the other regions are generally placed in urban areas underlain by sediments. Using the KiK-net velocity profiles, we provide equations relating V S30 to V Sz for z ranging from 5 to 29 m in 1-m increments. These equations (and those for California velocity profiles given in Boore, 2004b) can be used to estimate V S30 from V Sz for sites in which velocity profiles do not extend to 30 m. The scatter of the residuals decreases with depth, but, even for an averaging depth of 5 m, a variation in log V S30 of 1 standard deviation maps into less than a 20% uncertainty in ground motions given by recent GMPEs at short periods. The sensitivity of the ground motions to V S30 uncertainty is considerably larger at long periods (but is less than a factor of 1.2 for averaging depths greater than about 20 m). We also find that V S30 is correlated with V Sz for z as great as 400 m for sites of the KiK-net network, providing some justification for using V S30 as a site-response variable for predicting ground motions at periods for which the wavelengths far exceed 30 m.

  3. 39 CFR 946.5 - Disposition of property having a value of less than $200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that fair market value of such property is $200 or less, title to the property vests in the United... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of property having a value of less... SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.5 Disposition of property having a value of less than $200. Where the...

  4. Zolpidem and traffic safety - the importance of treatment compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Volkerts, Edmund R; Olivier, Berend; Johnson, William; Liddicoat, Laura

    2007-09-01

    Zolpidem is among the most frequently prescribed hypnotic drugs for those who suffer from insomnia. Recent media reports drew attention to driving impairment after zolpidem misuse. This review summarizes the available data on the effects of recommended use and misuse of zolpidem on driving ability and traffic safety. Both experimental studies and roadside evidence were taken into account. From these studies it must be concluded that patients should fully comply with the prescription instructions of zolpidem, i.e. to take the medication just prior to a full 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep. If this strategy is adopted, zolpidem is a safe alternative to benzodiazpine hypnotics and zopiclone who do show significant driving impairment the morning following bedtime administration. However, to ensure traffic safety higher dosages than recommended (10 mg) or allowing less than 8 hours between zolpidem intake and actual operation of a motor vehicle should be avoided.

  5. Reds are more important than greens: how UK supermarket shoppers use the different information on a traffic light nutrition label in a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Matthews, Anne; Eyles, Helen; Kaur, Asha; Hodgkins, Charo; Raats, Monique M; Rayner, Mike

    2015-12-12

    Colour coded front-of-pack nutrition labelling ('traffic light labelling') has been recommended for use in the UK since 2006. The voluntary scheme is used by all the major retailers and some manufacturers. It is not clear how consumers use these labels to make a single decision about the relative healthiness of foods. Our research questions were: Which of the four nutrients on UK traffic light labels (total fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt) has the most influence on decisions? Do green lights or red lights have a greater influence? Are there age and gender differences in how people use the colour and nutrient information? We recruited participants from a UK supermarket chain membership list to conduct an online choice experiment in May 2014. We analysed data using multilevel logisitic models with food choices (n = 3321) nested in individuals (n = 187) as the unit of analysis. A food with more reds was 11.4 (95% confidence intervals: 10.3, 12.5) times less likely to be chosen as healthy, whereas a food with more greens was 6.1 (5.6, 6.6) times more likely to be chosen as healthy. Foods with better colours on saturated fat and salt were 7.3 (6.7, 8.0) and 7.1 (6.5, 7.8) times more likely to be chosen as healthy - significantly greater than for total fat (odds ratio 4.8 (4.4, 5.3)) and sugar (5.2 (4.7, 5.6)). Results were broadly similar for different genders and age groups. We found that participants were more concerned with avoiding reds than choosing greens, and that saturated fat and salt had a greater influence on decisions regarding healthiness than total fat and sugar. This could influence decisions about food reformulation and guidance on using nutrition labelling.

  6. Less Evil Than You: Bounded Self-Righteousness in Character Inferences, Emotional Reactions, and Behavioral Extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    Recent research suggests that self-righteousness is bounded, arising more reliably in evaluations of immoral actions than in evaluations of moral actions. Here, we test four implications of this asymmetry in self-righteousness and the mechanism explaining it. We find that people are less likely to make negative character inferences from their own unethical behavior than from others' unethical behavior (Experiment 1), believe they would feel worse after an unethical action than others (Experiment 2), and believe they are less capable of extreme unethical behavior than others (Experiment 3). We observe weaker self-other differences in evaluations of ethical actions. This occurs partly because people base evaluations of themselves on their own moral intentions, leading to predictable individual differences. People more likely to ascribe cynical motives to their own behavior exhibit a smaller asymmetry in self-righteousness (Experiment 4). Self-righteousness seems better characterized as feeling "less evil than thou" than feeling "holier than thou."

  7. Alcohol-related road traffic accidents before and after the passing of the Road Traffic Safety Act in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Eduard; Bozić, Boris; Missoni, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gather enough data in order to formulate theory- and research-based recommendations to policy makers with the intention of decreasing the number of alcohol-related accidents and victims on Croatian roads. The data on the injured traffic participants and the share of participants under the influence of alcohol were collected from the police reports of the Traffic Police Department, Ministry of the Interior, written at the scene of the respective accidents. This documentation was then processed by descriptive epidemiology and analysed through a four-year period, before and after the passing of the New Road Traffic Safety Act in the Republic of Croatia, on 20 August 2004. In the first six months of 2005, after the passing of the Act, there were 3,275 accidents caused by the motorists under the influence of alcohol (12.5% of all the accidents), with 64 persons killed. Only 5 fatalities (8%) were caused by the drivers with measured blood alcohol concentration of up to 0.5 per thousand. As much as 27 fatalities (42%) were caused by the drivers with measured more than 1.5 per thousand, while half of the fatalities, 32 (50%), were caused by drivers with 0.5-1.5 per thousand. In this period, more than 451,000 violations were recorded, whereas in the same period of the previous year, the number of violations was about 519,000. A reduction of the total number of accidents is the result of the new regulation provision, according to which the incidents without human victims do not have to be reported to the police. The number of traffic accidents caused by drivers under the influence of alcohol had increased by some dozen per cents, namely: 2005 - 6,219 persons, 2006- 6,590 persons, noting that in 2006 one less person was killed (123) compared to 2005. In 2005, drivers with alcohol concentration of 0-0.5 per thousand caused 1,096 accidents, with 14 fatalities, whereas in 2006 there were 1,164 accidents with 9 fatalities. A total of 2,314 accidents

  8. [Hospital information system performance for road traffic accidents analysis in a hospital recruitment based area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, A-S; Fauconnier, J

    2013-06-01

    Road traffic accidents in France are mainly analyzed through reports completed by the security forces (police and gendarmerie). But the hospital information systems can also identify road traffic accidents via specific documentary codes of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether hospital stays consecutive to road traffic accident were truly identified by these documentary codes in a facility that collects data routinely and to study the consistency of results from hospital information systems and from security forces during the 2002-2008 period. We retrieved all patients for whom a documentary code for road traffic accident was entered in 2002-2008. We manually checked the concordance of documentary code for road traffic accident and trauma origin in 350 patient files. The number of accidents in the Grenoble area was then inferred by combining with hospitalization regional data and compared to the number of persons injured by traffic accidents declared by the security force. These hospital information systems successfully report road traffic accidents with 96% sensitivity (95%CI: [92%, 100%]) and 97% specificity (95%CI: [95%, 99%]). The decrease in road traffic accidents observed was significantly less than that observed was significantly lower than that observed in the data from the security force (45% for security force data against 27% for hospital data). Overall, this study shows that hospital information systems are a powerful tool for studying road traffic accidents morbidity in hospital and are complementary to security force data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Atmospheric BTEX-concentrations in an area with intensive street traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczynska, Anna Jolanta; Krata, Agnieszka; Stranger, Marianne; Locateli Godoi, Ana Flavia; Kontozova-Deutsch, Velichka; Bencs, László; Naveau, Inge; Roekens, Edward; Van Grieken, René

    The major threat to clean air in developed and industrializing countries is now posed by traffic emissions. The effects of traffic road modifications on the air quality are, however, rarely reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the modernization and renovation of a traffic artery in the region of Mortsel (Antwerp, Belgium) on the concentration of volatile organic compounds such as: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m-, p-, o-xylenes (BTEX). The original goal of the reconstruction works was to reduce the traffic lanes of one of the busiest streets in Antwerp, in order to discourage the road traffic and in consequence also to improve the air quality in this region. The average concentrations of BTEX before these works in 2003 were: 1.6, 7.0, 0.9, 2.3, and 0.9 μg/m 3, for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m + p xylenes, and o-xylene, respectively. However, after the completion of the works, in 2005, they were slightly higher: 2.5, 9.5, 1.6, 3.4, and 1.3 μg/m 3, respectively. The scatter plots of benzene against toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in 2003 and 2005 showed very good correlations. This fact indicated that all of the measured compounds originated from the same source, namely the road traffic. Moreover, the data obtained from an air-monitoring station at less than 6 km distance from the sampling site (operated by the Flemish Environment Agency, and located in Borgerhout, Antwerp), confirmed the lack of influence of background concentrations of BTEX. The obtained results led to the conclusion that the reduction of the number of traffic lanes had apparently increased the traffic jams and also increased the emission from cars. Therefore, these modernization works had even a negative impact on the local concentration of traffic-related pollutants as BTEX.

  10. Street characteristics and traffic factors determining road users' exposure to black carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dons, Evi; Temmerman, Philip; Van Poppel, Martine; Bellemans, Tom; Wets, Geert; Int Panis, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many studies nowadays make the effort of determining personal exposure rather than estimating exposure at the residential address only. While intra-urban air pollution can be modeled quite easily using interpolation methods, estimating exposure in transport is more challenging. The aim of this study is to investigate which factors determine black carbon (BC) concentrations in transport microenvironments. Therefore personal exposure measurements are carried out using portable aethalometers, trip diaries and GPS devices. More than 1500 trips, both by active modes and by motorized transport, are evaluated in Flanders, Belgium. GPS coordinates are assigned to road segments to allow BC concentrations to be linked with trip and road characteristics (trip duration, degree of urbanization, road type, traffic intensity, travel speed and road speed). Average BC concentrations on highways (10.7 μg/m 3 ) are comparable to concentrations on urban roads (9.6 μg/m 3 ), but levels are significantly higher than concentrations on rural roads (6.1 μg/m 3 ). Highways yield higher BC exposures for motorists compared to exposure on major roads and local roads. Overall BC concentrations are elevated at lower speeds ( 3 for roads with less than 500 veh/h, up to 12 μg/m 3 for roads with over 2500 veh/h). Traffic intensity proved to be the major explanatory variable for in-vehicle BC exposure, together with timing of the trip and urbanization. For cyclists and pedestrians the range in BC exposure is smaller and models are less predictive; for active modes exposure seems to be influenced by timing and degree of urbanization only. - Highlights: ► Aethalometers, an electronic diary and GPS were used to measure exposure in transport ► More than 1500 trips with active modes and in motorized transport are studied ► Exposure is higher on highways, in urban areas and during traffic peak hours. ► Traffic intensity is the major explanatory variable for in-vehicle BC exposure. ► Exposure

  11. Chernobylsk: a situation less tragic than feared according to United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    A report of United Nation published at the beginning of September 2005 noticed that the sanitary consequences should be less tragic than it was feared. More than 600 000 persons have been exposed to radiations. Four thousand cases of thyroid cancers occurred especially among children. The report noticed the damage of the sarcophagus, and worries about the radioactive waste storage. A steel sarcophagus should be build for 2008-2009. The experts of I.F.A. (French and German Initiative for Chernobyl) think it is necessary to follow the study of sanitary consequences; the director of I.P.S.N. thinks it is to early to speak about assessment. (N.C.)

  12. A First Look at Modern Enterprise Traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Ruoming; Mark Allman, Mark; Bennett, Mike; Lee, Jason; Paxson, Vern; Tierney, Brian

    2005-06-01

    While wide-area Internet traffic has been heavily studied for many years, the characteristics of traffic inside Internet enterprises remain almost wholly unexplored. Nearly all of the studies of enterprise traffic available in the literature are well over a decade old and focus on individual LANs rather than whole sites. In this paper we present a broad overview of internal enterprise traffic recorded at a medium-sized site. The packet traces span more than 100 hours, over which activity from a total of several thousand internal hosts appears. This wealth of data--which we are publicly releasing in anonymized form--spans a wide range of dimensions. While we cannot form general conclusions using data from a single site, and clearly this sort of data merits additional in-depth study in a number of ways, in this work we endeavor to characterize a number of the most salient aspects of the traffic. Our goal is to provide a first sense of ways in which modern enterprise traffic is similar to wide-area Internet traffic, and ways in which it is quite different.

  13. "I was less scared to bungy jump than to speak this language"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Charlotte

    ABSTRACT “I was less scared to bungy jump than to speak this language” - A qualitative research of adult learners’ motivation for learning Danish Motivation has primarily been investigated within a specific sociopsychology school of thought (Gardner & Lambert 1972, Deci & Ryan 2002, Dörnyei 2009...

  14. [Interadministrative collaboration for public health management in municipalities with less than 10,000 residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabert López, Marc; Arbussà Reixach, Anna; Sáez Zafra, Marc

    This study analyses which administrative body local councils use to carry out their basic public health responsibilities. The study sample includes data from municipalities with less than 10,000 residents, which we believe is a first for studies published in academic journals in Spain. The data used was obtained by means of a survey administered by trained personnel. 93.7% of all the municipalities in the province of Girona, the area under study, responded to the survey. The analysis shows that there is a statistically significant difference between municipalities with more and less than 10,000 residents with regards to which administrative body local councils use for managing public health responsibilities. The results of this study suggest that in the ongoing debate over the streamlining of local government, the current situation regarding public health responsibilities in municipalities with less than 10,000 residents needs to be taken into account. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 55552 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final... Determination of Sales at Not Less Than Fair Value, 73 FR 33985 (June 16, 2008), and Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Partial...

  16. Substantial proportion of global streamflow less than three months old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Kirchner, James W.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical cycles, contaminant transport and chemical weathering are regulated by the speed at which precipitation travels through landscapes and reaches streams. Streamflow is a mixture of young and old precipitation, but the global proportions of these young and old components are not known. Here we analyse seasonal cycles of oxygen isotope ratios in rain, snow and streamflow compiled from 254 watersheds around the world, and calculate the fraction of streamflow that is derived from precipitation that fell within the past two or three months. This young streamflow accounts for about a third of global river discharge, and comprises at least 5% of discharge in about 90% of the catchments we investigated. We conclude that, although typical catchments have mean transit times of years or even decades, they nonetheless can rapidly transmit substantial fractions of soluble contaminant inputs to streams. Young streamflow is less prevalent in steeper landscapes, which suggests they are characterized by deeper vertical infiltration. Because young streamflow is derived from less than 0.1% of global groundwater storage, we conclude that this thin veneer of aquifer storage will have a disproportionate influence on stream water quality.

  17. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  18. Fuel economy and traffic fatalities: multivariate analysis of international data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noland, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    In the US motor vehicle fuel economy standards were imposed in the late 1970s, in response to the oil crises of that decade. Since then, efforts to increase the standards have not occurred, one reason being the argument that smaller vehicles (which are generally more efficient) are considered less safe. Recent analyses (Energy J.( 2004)) suggests that variance in vehicle weights may be more important than the absolute weights of vehicles in making the highway network less safe. In Europe and other countries, which generally have smaller more efficient vehicle fleets, due to relatively high gasoline taxes, this debate has not occurred. In particular, countries such as Great Britain and Sweden have far safer road transport systems than the US but also have much more efficient vehicle fleets. This suggests that either vehicle weight and size are unimportant or if they have an effect it is small compared to other factors. This paper uses international data to build econometric models that examine whether average vehicle fuel economy has any association with road traffic fatalities, while controlling for other factors that are associated with fatalities. The effect on pedestrian fatalities is also analyzed. Cross-sectional time-series data on traffic fatalities from OECD countries is used and negative binomial regression models are developed using panel data to determine whether any associations are present. Results find that changes in vehicle efficiency are not associated with changes in traffic fatalities, suggesting either that size and weight changes over time have not had a strong effect or are not associated with fuel economy improvements

  19. Is Traffic Still an Important Emitter of Monoaromatic Organic Compounds in European Urban Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbon, Agnès; Boynard, Anne; Salameh, Thérèse; Baudic, Alexia; Gros, Valérie; Gauduin, Julie; Perrussel, Olivier; Pallares, Cyril

    2018-01-16

    Trends of long-term observations and emission inventories suggest that traffic emissions will no longer dominate the concentrations of monoaromatic compounds (i.e., TEX - toluene, xylenes, and ethylbenzene) in European urban areas. But the split limit between traffic and other emission sector contributions such as solvent use remains tenuous. Here long-term observations of an extensive set of hydrocarbons, including TEX, at traffic and urban background sites in London, Paris and Strasbourg were combined to estimate the relative importance of traffic emissions on TEX in every city. When analyzing the urban enhancement emission ratios of TEX-to-benzene on a seasonal basis, two potential source signatures other than traffic could be differentiated in all cities (1) summertime evaporation from fuel and/or solvent and (2) wintertime domestic heating. However, traffic emissions still unambiguously dominate the concentration levels of TEX in every city despite the reduction of their emissions at exhaust pipe over the last two decades. Traffic explains between 60% and 96% (at ±20%) of TEX levels while it is less clear for xylenes at some locations. Our results provide a basis to evaluate regional emission inventories. The method is applicable at any urban area where speciated hydrocarbon monitoring is available.

  20. Ultrasonographic findings of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid according to the size: Especially less than 0.5 cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Yung; Kim, Yun Min; Lee, Hyun Bok; Cho, Nam Soo [Dept. of Diagonostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Joon [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    The Korean Thyroid Association recommends fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for nodules more than 0.5 cm in diameter. But nodules, smaller than 0.5 cm have been found in papillary carcinomas of the thyroid (PTC) at the health promotion center at SMC. We wanted to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings according to size of nodule in proven PTCs by FNAB, especially less than 0.5 cm. All nodules were classified into three groups by their longest diameter : less than 0.5 cm, more than 0.5 cm but less than 1 cm, and more than 1 cm. Sonographic findings suggesting malignancy were analyzed according to their size groups. Of 288 malignant nodules, 21.5 % (62/288) were less than 0.5 cm , 54.9 % (158/288) were more than 0.5 cm but less than 1 cm, 23.6 % (68/288) exceeded 1 cm. A taller-than-wide shape was observed in 90.3 % (56/62) of nodules less than 0.5 cm, and 48.5 % (33/68) of nodules exceeding 1 cm (p<0.001). There were no well-defined smooth nodules among nodules less than 0.5 cm, and spiculated or irregular margin nodules increased as the size increased (p=0.024). Nodules of size less than 0.5 cm did not showed hyper or isoechogenicity. Hypoechogenicity was greater than the marked hypoechogenicity in each group (p=0.034). Micro- or macro-calcifications were not founded in 77.4 % (48/62) of the nodule group sized less than 0.5 cm. From the small size of the group, micro- or macrocalcifications were observed 21.0 % (13/62), 48.1 % (76/158), 64.7 % (44/68), so the number of nodules containing micro- or macro-calcification increased as size increased (p<0.001). PTCs less than 0.5 cm in size on ultrasonography had taller than-wide shape, spiculated or irregular and ill-defined margins, and exhibited hypo and markedly hypoechogenicity, but microor macro-calcifications were not common. These ultrasonographic features of nodules less than 0.5 cm can be useful in reporting and guiding FNABs or follow-up exams.

  1. Traffic theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gazis, Denos C

    2002-01-01

    ... of traffic signal settings The vehicle-actuated traffic signal 87 89 77 CHAPTER 3. TRAFFIC CONTROL 101 Objectives of Traffic Control 103 Single, Isolated Intersection 105 Synchronization Scheme...

  2. A rapid appraisal of traffic policemen about auditory effects of traffic noise pollution from Ambala city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Traffic policemen are at an increased risk of suffering from hazards of noise pollution because they are engaged in controlling traffic noise, particularly at heavy traffic junctions. The effect is more in this subgroup because they are continuously exposed to it. Aim: The present study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices of traffic policemen regarding auditory effects of traffic noise pollution in Ambala city. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional workplace survey. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was carried out in different traffic zones of Ambala city during April-June 2013. The study population consisted of 100 traffic policemen working in different traffic intersections of Ambala city. Statistical Analysis Used: Structured interview schedule was used to collect the data. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Interpretation of data was performed using percentages and proportions. Results: Majority (75% of the study subjects were exposed to traffic noise pollution for more than 5 years. Of the total subjects, 5% of respondents reported below-average hearing on self-assessment of hearing ability. Seventeen percent of the study population accepted that while hearing over phone they do miss some conversation. Most (98% of the traffic police did not use any personal protective equipment (PPEs like earplugs/earmuffs, and the non-availability of these PPEs (90% is the common reason for the hearing loss. Conclusions: The study concludes that traffic policemen are not much aware regarding impending auditory effects of traffic noise pollution. Duty rotation, duty scheduling and other forms of preventive modalities for exposure limitation are suggested.

  3. ON THE ARRIVAL TRAFFIC FLOW ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Assorov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about air traffic flow organization, ICAO regulations describe the organizing of traffic flow as one of the purposes of air traffic control, but they don’t state exactly at what point the flow has to be organized and metered. The flight phase, where air traffic controller interferes with his instructions in order to begin organizing of all aircraft landing at a certain airport depends on the actual traffic volume per hour, airspace capacity and design.The example of air traffic situation in Moscow Domodedovo airport is described in the article, with runway 32 right in use, no significant weather, real usage of STARs, considering all the ICAO and Russian Federation regulations regarding speed control with the restrictions mentioned in AIP of Moscow Domodedovo. The purpose of the experiment is to prove the need of metering the air traffic flow on the entry points in Moscow TMA, because in case of unorganized air traffic flow approach controllers will have additional unnecessary workload.The conducted calculations show, that only 3 aircraft entering TMA on the same distance from initial approach point can be handled using only speed control and existing standard arrival procedures, in all other cases vectoring or holding areas should be used.In order to avoid such situations and increase the number of the aircraft that can be handled by the approach controller with less instructions, all the traffic arriving on the TMA entry point has to be metered by area control centre, because the air traffic control unit has much more space and time for long term speed control modifications, e.g. ±0,02 Mach. In conclusion a simple rule comes to mind – the bigger inbound traffic is, the earlier one has to organize it, in order to do it speed control, radar vectors, miles-in-trail can be used. Also new equipment and technology can help air traffic controller with this task, e.g. AMAN (arrival manager, in addition to this, the experience of

  4. Computing Installation Parameters Of CCTV Cameras for Traffic Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Pratishtha Gupta; G. N. Purohit

    2013-01-01

    For properly installing CCTV cameras on any intersection point for traffic surveillance, some parametersneed to be determined in order to get maximum benefit. The height, angle of placement of the CCTVcamera is used to determine the view or the area that the camera will cover with proper resolution. Theresolution should not be too high to cover less traffic and should not be too low to cover large but hardlydistinguishable traffic.This paper concerns with computation of the required CCTV inst...

  5. A new smart traffic monitoring method using embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinrui; Lu, Youyuan; Lu, Zeyu; Liu, Chao; Sun, Guoxing; Li, Zongjin

    2015-01-01

    Cement-based piezoelectric composites are employed as the sensing elements of a new smart traffic monitoring system. The piezoelectricity of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors enables powerful and accurate real-time detection of the pressure induced by the traffic flow. To describe the mechanical-electrical conversion mechanism between traffic flow and the electrical output of the embedded piezoelectric sensors, a mathematical model is established based on Duhamel’s integral, the constitutive law and the charge-leakage characteristics of the piezoelectric composite. Laboratory tests show that the voltage magnitude of the sensor is linearly proportional to the applied pressure, which ensures the reliability of the cement-based piezoelectric sensors for traffic monitoring. A series of on-site road tests by a 10 tonne truck and a 6.8 tonne van show that vehicle weight-in-motion can be predicted based on the mechanical-electrical model by taking into account the vehicle speed and the charge-leakage property of the piezoelectric sensor. In the speed range from 20 km h −1 to 70 km h −1 , the error of the repeated weigh-in-motion measurements of the 6.8 tonne van is less than 1 tonne. The results indicate that the embedded cement-based piezoelectric sensors and associated measurement setup have good capability of smart traffic monitoring, such as traffic flow detection, vehicle speed detection and weigh-in-motion measurement. (paper)

  6. Procedure for Marine Traffic Simulation with AIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Miyake

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to evaluate safety of marine traffic for the improvement of efficiency and safety of marine traffic. Spread of AIS makes observation of actual marine traffic more easily and faster than before. Besides, description of collision avoidance behaviours of ships are indispensable to simulate a realistic marine traffic. It is important to develop and implement an algorithm of collision avoidance corresponding to a target traffic or target area into the marine traffic simulation because actual actions for collision avoidance depend on circumstances where ships are sailing. The authors developed an automated marine traffic simulation system with AIS data. And in this paper, we proposed a series of systematic procedures for marine traffic simulation including analysing for collision avoidance behaviours using AIS data.

  7. Is vehicle automation enough to prevent crashes? Role of traffic operations in automated driving environments for traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol; Lee, Seolyoung

    2017-07-01

    Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study. This study evaluated traffic safety at different MPRs based on a proposed index to represent the overall rear-end crash risk of the traffic stream. Two approaches were evaluated for adjusting longitudinal vehicle maneuvers: vehicle safety-based maneuvering (VSM), which considers the crash risk of an equipped vehicle and its neighboring vehicles, and traffic safety-based maneuvering (TSM), which considers the overall crash risk in the traffic stream. TSM assumes that traffic operational agencies are able to monitor all the vehicles and to intervene in vehicle maneuvering. An optimization process, which attempts to obtain vehicle maneuvering control parameters to minimize the overall crash risk, is integrated into the proposed evaluation framework. The main purpose of employing the optimization process for vehicle maneuvering in this study is to identify opportunities to improve traffic safety through effective traffic management rather than developing a vehicle control algorithm that can be implemented in practice. The microscopic traffic simulator VISSIM was used to simulate the freeway traffic stream and to conduct systematic evaluations based on the proposed methodology. Both TSM and VSM achieved significant reductions in the potential for rear-end crashes. However, TSM obtained much greater

  8. When are solar refrigerators less costly than on-grid refrigerators: A simulation modeling study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A.; Brown, Shawn T.; Wedlock, Patrick; Connor, Diana L.; Spiker, Marie; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background Gavi recommends solar refrigerators for vaccine storage in areas with less than eight hours of electricity per day, and WHO guidelines are more conservative. The question remains: Can solar refrigerators provide value where electrical outages are less frequent? Methods Using a HERMES-generated computational model of the Mozambique routine immunization supply chain, we simulated the use of solar versus electric mains-powered refrigerators (hereafter referred to as “electric refrigerators”) at different locations in the supply chain under various circumstances. Results At their current price premium, the annual cost of each solar refrigerator is 132% more than each electric refrigerator at the district level and 241% more at health facilities. Solar refrigerators provided savings over electric refrigerators when one-day electrical outages occurred more than five times per year at either the district level or the health facilities, even when the electric refrigerator holdover time exceeded the duration of the outage. Two-day outages occurring more than three times per year at the district level or more than twice per year at the health facilities also caused solar refrigerators to be cost saving. Lowering the annual cost of a solar refrigerator to 75% more than an electric refrigerator allowed solar refrigerators to be cost saving at either level when one-day outages occurred more than once per year, or when two-day outages occurred more than once per year at the district level or even once per year at the health facilities. Conclusion Our study supports WHO and Gavi guidelines. In fact, solar refrigerators may provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electrical refrigerators when electrical outages are less frequent. Our study identified the frequency and duration at which electrical outages need to occur for solar refrigerators to provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electric refrigerators at different solar

  9. When are solar refrigerators less costly than on-grid refrigerators: A simulation modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T; Wedlock, Patrick; Connor, Diana L; Spiker, Marie; Lee, Bruce Y

    2017-04-19

    Gavi recommends solar refrigerators for vaccine storage in areas with less than eight hours of electricity per day, and WHO guidelines are more conservative. The question remains: Can solar refrigerators provide value where electrical outages are less frequent? Using a HERMES-generated computational model of the Mozambique routine immunization supply chain, we simulated the use of solar versus electric mains-powered refrigerators (hereafter referred to as "electric refrigerators") at different locations in the supply chain under various circumstances. At their current price premium, the annual cost of each solar refrigerator is 132% more than each electric refrigerator at the district level and 241% more at health facilities. Solar refrigerators provided savings over electric refrigerators when one-day electrical outages occurred more than five times per year at either the district level or the health facilities, even when the electric refrigerator holdover time exceeded the duration of the outage. Two-day outages occurring more than three times per year at the district level or more than twice per year at the health facilities also caused solar refrigerators to be cost saving. Lowering the annual cost of a solar refrigerator to 75% more than an electric refrigerator allowed solar refrigerators to be cost saving at either level when one-day outages occurred more than once per year, or when two-day outages occurred more than once per year at the district level or even once per year at the health facilities. Our study supports WHO and Gavi guidelines. In fact, solar refrigerators may provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electrical refrigerators when electrical outages are less frequent. Our study identified the frequency and duration at which electrical outages need to occur for solar refrigerators to provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electric refrigerators at different solar refrigerator prices. Copyright © 2017. Published

  10. A tale of two cities: paradoxical intensity of traffic calming around Auckland schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopgood, Timothy; Percival, Teuila; Stewart, Joanna; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2013-05-10

    The school journey is a common context for child pedestrian injuries in New Zealand, with children from low socioeconomic, Maori or Pacific families being at increased risk. The extent to which evidence-based environmental strategies that can address this problem are equitably implemented is unclear. To determine if there is a difference in the distribution of traffic-calming modifications around schools in areas of high and low socioeconomic deprivation in Auckland and Manukau Cities, New Zealand. From a list of the most and least socioeconomically deprived schools in Auckland and Manukau Cities, 40 of each were randomly selected. The number of modifications within a 1 km radius of these schools was recorded in December 2009 or January 2010. The association of deprivation and region with the numbers of traffic-calming modifications was examined using a general linear model. Socioeconomically least deprived schools had more traffic-calming interventions than the most deprived schools (least square mean (LSM): 25 versus 18; p=0.05), and Auckland schools had more interventions than Manukau schools (LSM: 27 versus 16; p=0.001). Traffic-calming measures were observed more commonly in less deprived areas where the risks of child pedestrian injuries are generally lower. This apparent paradox could result in increasing socioeconomic inequities in the distribution of child pedestrian injuries.

  11. On street observations of particulate matter movement and dispersion due to traffic on an urban road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Aditya; Colvile, Roy; Arnold, Samantha; Bowen, Emma; Shallcross, Dudley; Martin, Damien; Price, Catheryn; Tate, James; ApSimon, Helen; Robins, Alan

    Empirical models for particulate matter emissions from paved road surfaces have been criticised for their lack of realism and accuracy. To support the development of a less empirical model, a study was conducted in a busy street at the DAPPLE site in Central London to understand the processes and to identify important parameters that influence emission from paved roads. Ordinary road gritting salt was applied to the road and the particulate matter entering the air at near-road surface level was monitored using optical particle counters. The grit acted as a tracer. The grit moved rapidly along the road in the direction of traffic flow. Build-up of material at the kerb indicated material being thrown across the road by the traffic. Coarser particles were resuspended faster than the finer ones. A clear decay profile was seen in the case of particles larger than 2μm; particles smaller than 2μm did not show any decay pattern during the experiment duration. Grinding of material appears to control the reservoir of fine particles on the road surface. The amount of material resuspended by traffic is about 30% less than those removed along the road and a factor of 6 higher than the amount removed across the road. Resuspension accounts for 40% of the total material removed from a road segment and 70% of the material removed together along and across the road. On average a single vehicle pass removes 0.08% of material present on a road segment at that instant. The calculation scheme is obtained from a short-duration study and therefore further studies of long duration involving varying road geometry and different traffic and meteorological condition need to be carried out before applying parameter estimates presented in this paper.

  12. Approximating the Ising model on fractal lattices of dimension less than two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    We construct periodic approximations to the free energies of Ising models on fractal lattices of dimension smaller than two, in the case of a zero external magnetic field, based on the combinatorial method of Feynman and Vdovichenko. We show that the procedure is applicable to any fractal obtained...... with, possibly, arbitrary accuracy and paves the way for determination Tc of any fractal of dimension less than two. Critical exponents are more diffcult to determine since the free energy of any periodic approximation still has a logarithmic singularity at the critical point implying α = 0. We also...

  13. Semiquantum-key distribution using less than four quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiangfu; Qiu Daowen; Li Lvzhou; Wu Lihua; Li Lvjun

    2009-01-01

    Recently Boyer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140501 (2007)] suggested the idea of semiquantum key distribution (SQKD) in which Bob is classical and they also proposed a semiquantum key distribution protocol (BKM2007). To discuss the security of the BKM2007 protocol, they proved that their protocol is completely robust. This means that nonzero information acquired by Eve on the information string implies the nonzero probability that the legitimate participants can find errors on the bits tested by this protocol. The BKM2007 protocol uses four quantum states to distribute a secret key. In this paper, we simplify their protocol by using less than four quantum states. In detail, we present five different SQKD protocols in which Alice sends three quantum states, two quantum states, and one quantum state, respectively. Also, we prove that all the five protocols are completely robust. In particular, we invent two completely robust SQKD protocols in which Alice sends only one quantum state. Alice uses a register in one SQKD protocol, but she does not use any register in the other. The information bit proportion of the SQKD protocol in which Alice sends only one quantum state but uses a register is the double as that in the BKM2007 protocol. Furthermore, the information bit rate of the SQKD protocol in which Alice sends only one quantum state and does not use any register is not lower than that of the BKM2007 protocol.

  14. The effects of road traffic noise on the students\\' errors in movement time anticipation; the role of introversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Alimohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Traffic noise is one of the most important urban noise pollution, which causes various physical and mental effects, impairment in daily activities, sleep disturbances, hearing loss and the impact on job performance. Thus it can reduce concentration significantly and increase the rate of traffic accidents. Some individual differences such as personality types in noise effects, affect.   Methods : Traffic noise has been measured and recorded in 10 arterial streets in Tehran, and the average sound pressure level measured was72/9 dB during two hours played for participants in the acousticroom . The sample size consisted of 80 patients (40 cases and 40 controls who were students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Personality type was determined by using Eysenc’s Personality Inventory (EPIquestionnaire. The error time movement anticipation before and after exposure to traffic noisewas measured by ZBA computerize test.   Results: The results revealed that error time movement anticipation before exposure to traffic noise have significant difference for introverts and extraverts Introverts have less errortime movement anticipation than extroversion ,whereas extroverts have less error time movement anticipation that introversion after exposure to traffic noise.   Conclusion: According to the obtained results, noise created different effects on the performance of personality type. Extroverts may be expected to adapt better to noise during mental performance, compared to people with opposite personality traits.  

  15. A Survey on Urban Traffic Management System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellore, Kapileswar; Hancke, Gerhard P.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the number of vehicles has increased exponentially, but the bedrock capacities of roads and transportation systems have not developed in an equivalent way to efficiently cope with the number of vehicles traveling on them. Due to this, road jamming and traffic correlated pollution have increased with the associated adverse societal and financial effect on different markets worldwide. A static control system may block emergency vehicles due to traffic jams. Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs) have gained increasing attention in traffic detection and avoiding road congestion. WSNs are very trendy due to their faster transfer of information, easy installation, less maintenance, compactness and for being less expensive compared to other network options. There has been significant research on Traffic Management Systems using WSNs to avoid congestion, ensure priority for emergency vehicles and cut the Average Waiting Time (AWT) of vehicles at intersections. In recent decades, researchers have started to monitor real-time traffic using WSNs, RFIDs, ZigBee, VANETs, Bluetooth devices, cameras and infrared signals. This paper presents a survey of current urban traffic management schemes for priority-based signalling, and reducing congestion and the AWT of vehicles. The main objective of this survey is to provide a taxonomy of different traffic management schemes used for avoiding congestion. Existing urban traffic management schemes for the avoidance of congestion and providing priority to emergency vehicles are considered and set the foundation for further research. PMID:26828489

  16. 77 FR 46055 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... From Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import Administration..., or are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in... Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Final Negative Critical Circumstances: Carbon...

  17. [Distribution of and changes in Danish traffic deaths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerre, Johannes; Kirkebjerg, Peer Gregersen; Larsen, Lars Binderup

    2006-05-01

    Traffic accidents were the primary cause of death for Danes aged 15 to 24 years in 1999; per million inhabitants, that figure was 62% higher than in Great Britain. Reduction to the level in Great Britain would have reduced the number killed in traffic accidents in Denmark in 2002 from 465 to 289. The data used are from StatBank Denmark, the Danish Road Directorate and the Danish Transport Research Institute. The number of traffic deaths per billion kilometers driven was 57% higher in 1994 than in 2001. Those aged 65 and over had the largest decrease, with 67% fewer traffic deaths. Per billion kilometers driven, rural roads had around twice the number of traffic deaths as city streets and motorways. The geographic distribution showed few traffic deaths in the capital, Copenhagen, while the rest of the country had up to twice the number per 100,000 inhabitants from 1997 to 2002. Car drivers were well protected by seat belts, while people who were walking or on a motorcycle had high casualty rates per billion kilometers driven. 29% of the traffic deaths in Denmark in 2002 were registered as alcohol-related, while only 1% of drivers overall were influenced by alcohol. Men had twice the risk of traffic death compared with women per kilometer driven. Men were convicted in 93% of cases involving illegal blood alcohol level and 84% of cases involving other traffic offences. The greatest potential for reduction of traffic deaths seems to be traffic behaviour; females' behaviour, with rare drunk driving and few convictions for traffic offences, seems rational. If all drivers adhered to women's traffic behaviour, the number of road deaths in 1999 could have been reduced by 169, equivalent to 30%.

  18. A Survey of Soil Enzyme Activities along Major Roads in Beijing: The Implications for Traffic Corridor Green Space Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxin Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil quality is critical to the management of urban green space, in particular, along traffic corridors where traffic-related air pollution is significant. Soil quality can be evaluated by soil enzyme activities, which show quick responses to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we investigated three soil enzyme activities (i.e., dehydrogenase, catalase and urease along the major roads in urban areas of Beijing. Results show the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease in urban samples were 58.8%, 68.2% and 48.5% less than the rural sample, respectively. The content of fluorescent amino acids as indicators of microbial activities was also consistently lower in urban samples than the rural. We observed two times greater exposure of particulate material along the roadsides in urban areas than rural areas. Although traffic air pollutants provide some nutrient sources to stimulate the URE activity, the exposure to traffic-related air pollution leads to the substantial decrease in enzyme activities. There were significant negative correlations for exposure to PM10 with DHA (r = −0.8267, p = 0.0017 and CAT (r = −0.89, p = 0.0002 activities. For the urban soils URE activity increased with the increasing of PM. We conclude that the degraded soil quality can negatively affect the target of developing plants and green spaces along the traffic corridors to mitigate the traffic impact. This study suggests the investigation of integrated strategies to restore the soil quality, reinforce the ecological service functions of green spaces along the traffic corridors and reduce the traffic pollutants.

  19. 75 FR 14126 - Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the Republic of Korea... Department'') published its notice of final determination of sales at less than fair value (``LTFV'') in the... Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Final Determination of Critical...

  20. 76 FR 20954 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... From India: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import Administration... of sales at less than fair value (``LTFV'') in the antidumping duty investigation of CLPP from India... Court No. 06- 00399. \\2\\ See Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, and...

  1. 78 FR 79670 - Steel Threaded Rod From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Affirmative Preliminary..., sold in the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in section 733(b) of the... Less Than Fair Value: Sodium Nitrite from the Federal Republic of Germany, 73 FR 21909 (April 23, 2008...

  2. Road traffic emission monitoring on motorways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Beek, P.J.G. van

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic noise is one of the major environmental noise sources that is known to cause health problems. Despite existing noise reception items, the continuing growth of traffic causes higher levels than the lims allow. Consequently, excessive costs are incurred for noise barriers along roads and

  3. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  4. 75 FR 45097 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks from Mexico: Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Bricks from Mexico: Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import... the United States at less-than-fair-value (LTFV), as provided in section 735 of the Tariff Act of 1930... Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 75 FR 11517 (March 11, 2010) (Preliminary...

  5. A microchannel plate X-ray multiplier with rising-time less than 170 ps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shicheng; Ouyang Bin

    1987-01-01

    The time reponse of a microchannel plate X-ray multiplier has been improved considerably by using a coupling construction of coaxial tapers. The experimental calibration results with laser plasma X-ray source show that the rising-time of the multiplier is less than 170 ps

  6. Website Detection Using Remote Traffic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Xun; Kiyavash, Negar; Schear, Nabíl; Borisov, Nikita

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in traffic analysis has shown that traffic patterns leaked through side channels can be used to recover important semantic information. For instance, attackers can find out which website, or which page on a website, a user is accessing simply by monitoring the packet size distribution. We show that traffic analysis is even a greater threat to privacy than previously thought by introducing a new attack that can be carried out remotely. In particular, we show that, to perform traffi...

  7. 77 FR 64475 - Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Circular Welded Carbon-Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab... be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (LTFV), as provided in section 735 of the... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 77 FR 32539 (June 1, 2012...

  8. Air Traffic Controller Acceptability of Unmanned Aircraft System Detect-and-Avoid Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eric R.; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Stevens, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted with 15 retired air traffic controllers to investigate two research questions: (a) what procedures are appropriate for the use of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) detect-and-avoid systems, and (b) how long in advance of a predicted close encounter should pilots request or execute a separation maneuver. The controller participants managed a busy Oakland air route traffic control sector with mixed commercial/general aviation and manned/UAS traffic, providing separation services, miles-in-trail restrictions and issuing traffic advisories. Controllers filled out post-scenario and post-simulation questionnaires, and metrics were collected on the acceptability of procedural options and temporal thresholds. The states of aircraft were also recorded when controllers issued traffic advisories. Subjective feedback indicated a strong preference for pilots to request maneuvers to remain well clear from intruder aircraft rather than deviate from their IFR clearance. Controllers also reported that maneuvering at 120 seconds until closest point of approach (CPA) was too early; maneuvers executed with less than 90 seconds until CPA were more acceptable. The magnitudes of the requested maneuvers were frequently judged to be too large, indicating a possible discrepancy between the quantitative UAS well clear standard and the one employed subjectively by manned pilots. The ranges between pairs of aircraft and the times to CPA at which traffic advisories were issued were used to construct empirical probability distributions of those metrics. Given these distributions, we propose that UAS pilots wait until an intruder aircraft is approximately 80 seconds to CPA or 6 nmi away before requesting a maneuver, and maneuver immediately if the intruder is within 60 seconds and 4 nmi. These thresholds should make the use of UAS detect and avoid systems compatible with current airspace procedures and controller expectations.

  9. Influence of traffic conditions on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in street dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Li, Yingxia; Yang, Zhifeng; Shi, Jianghong

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were quantified in sieved street dusts from eight sampling sites with different traffic conditions in Beijing. The parent diagnostic ratio test and multi-regression analysis were used to identify the different PAH pollution sources. Results showed that more than 93% of the cumulative 16 priority pollutant PAHs (Sigma 16EPA-PAH) load was present in street dust with a diameter less than 300 microm across all the sampling sites. The concentration of Sigma 4-6 ring PAHs was 93 to 284% higher than that of Sigma 2-3 ring PAHs for most of the sites except the cycle lane site, indicating the dominance of pyrogenic inputs in street dusts at these sites. Cooking oil is an important PAH source in street dusts for all the sampling sites. Tire debris and vehicle emissions were also identified as significant contributors to the PAH loading in the heavy traffic zone, vehicle parking areas, the frequent brake usage zone, and the construction area.

  10. Real-Time Corrected Traffic Correlation Model for Traffic Flow Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-pu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problems of short-term traffic flow forecasting. The main goal is to put forward traffic correlation model and real-time correction algorithm for traffic flow forecasting. Traffic correlation model is established based on the temporal-spatial-historical correlation characteristic of traffic big data. In order to simplify the traffic correlation model, this paper presents correction coefficients optimization algorithm. Considering multistate characteristic of traffic big data, a dynamic part is added to traffic correlation model. Real-time correction algorithm based on Fuzzy Neural Network is presented to overcome the nonlinear mapping problems. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling methods.

  11. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  12. Traffic Noise Assessment at Residential Areas in Skudai, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, F. S.; Darus, N.; Mashros, N.; Haron, Z.; Yahya, K.

    2018-03-01

    Vehicles passing by on roadways in residential areas may produce unpleasant traffic noise that affects the residents. This paper presents the traffic noise assessment of three selected residential areas located in Skudai, Johor. The objectives of this study are to evaluate traffic characteristics at selected residential areas, determine related noise indices, and assess impact of traffic noise. Traffic characteristics such as daily traffic volume and vehicle speed were evaluated using automatic traffic counter (ATC). Meanwhile, noise indices like equivalent continuous sound pressure level (LAeq), noise level exceeded 10% (L10) and 90% (L90) of measurement time were determined using sound level meter (SLM). Besides that, traffic noise index (TNI) and noise pollution level (LNP) were calculated based on the measured noise indices. The results showed an increase in noise level of 60 to 70 dBA maximum due to increase in traffic volume. There was also a significant change in noise level of more than 70 dBA even though average vehicle speed did not vary significantly. Nevertheless, LAeq, TNI, and LNP values for all sites during daytime were lower than the maximum recommended levels. Thus, residents in the three studied areas were not affected in terms of quality of life and health.

  13. Structuring of Road Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planko Rožić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic traffic count on the Croatian road network hasbeen carried out for more than three decades in different ways.During this period a large number of automatic traffic countershave been installed, and they operate on different principles.The traffic count has been analyzed from the aspect of vehicleclassification. The count results can be only partly comparedsince they yield different structures of traffic flows. Special analysisrefers to the classification of vehicles by automatic trafficcounters.During the research, a database has been formed with physicalelements of vehicles of over five thousand vehicle types. Theresearch results prove that the vehicle length only is not sufficientfor the classification of vehicles, the way it is used in thepresent automatic traffic counts, but rather the number of axles,the wheelbase as well as the front and rear overhangs needto be considered as well. Therefore, the detector system shouldapply also the detector of axles.The results have been presented that were obtained as partof the program TEST- Technological, research, developmentproject supported by the Minist1y of Science, Education andSport.

  14. A queuing model for road traffic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrouahane, N.; Aissani, D.; Bouallouche-Medjkoune, L.; Farhi, N.

    2015-01-01

    We present in this article a stochastic queuing model for the raod traffic. The model is based on the M/G/c/c state dependent queuing model, and is inspired from the deterministic Godunov scheme for the road traffic simulation. We first propose a variant of M/G/c/c state dependent model that works with density-flow fundamental diagrams rather than density-speed relationships. We then extend this model in order to consider upstream traffic demand as well as downstream traffic supply. Finally, we show how to model a whole raod by concatenating raod sections as in the deterministic Godunov scheme

  15. An epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S M; Jindal, A K; Verma, A K; Mahen, A

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. In India, more than a million are injured annually and about a lakh are killed in road traffic accidents.(1) It causes the country to lose around 55,000 crores annually which is 2-3% of Gross Domestic Production (GDP).(2) This cross sectional study was conducted to elucidate the role of various factors involved in road traffic accidents. Road traffic accident cases admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 01 Oct 2009 and 28 Feb 2011 were included in the study. A total of 182 patients were studied. Information was collected through questionnaire, hospital records and on-site visit. OPD cases, comatose patients and deaths were excluded. Two-wheelers were the commonest vehicle involved in vehicular accidents. Most accidents happened at a speed of 40-60 km/h (37.9%). Most of the patients were aged between 20 and 30 years. Majority had a driving experience of less than 5 years. Monsoons witnessed 46.7% cases. Most cases occurred between 6 and 10 pm. Among severe injuries, the commonest was lower limb fractures (19.8%). There are multiple factors associated with road traffic accidents which due to the lack of road safety measures in the country are playing their role. It is the need of the hour to address this issue and formulate comprehensive, scientific and practical rules and regulations as well as evaluate its enforcement.

  16. Temporal Patterns of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, Ali; Ainy, Elaheh; Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Saeed; Soori, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the main causes of death and disability in Iran. However, very few studies about the temporal variations of RTIs have been published to date. Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the temporal pattern of RTIs in Iran in 2012. Materials and Methods All road traffic accidents (RTAs) reported to traffic police during a one-year period (March 21, 2012 through March 21, 2013) were investigated after obtaining permission from the law enforcement force of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Distributions of RTAs were obtained for season, month, week, and hour scales, and for long holidays (more than one day) and the day prior to long holidays (DPLH). The final analysis was carried out using the Poisson regression model to calculate incidence rate ratios for RTIs. All analyses were conducted using STATA 13.1 and Excel software; statistical significance was set at P accidents was 219 per 10,000 registered vehicles, or 595 per 100,000 people. About 28% of all RTAs, and more than one third of fatal RTAs, occurred during the summer months. The incidence rate for all traffic accidents on DPLH was 1.20, compared to workdays as a reference category, and it was 1.40 for fatal crashes. The rate of fatal road traffic accidents in outer cities was 3.2 times higher than in inner ones. Conclusions Our findings reveal that there are temporal variations in traffic accidents, and long holidays significantly influence accident rates. Traffic injuries have different patterns on outer/inner city roads, based on weekday and holiday status. Thus, these findings could be used to create effective initiatives aimed at traffic management. PMID:27703958

  17. Development in Danish international air traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    The paper is describing the development in international air traffic made by Danes and for all travellers out of Denmark in the period 2002 - 2012. Development in passengers, destination countries and prices is illustrated. The person kilometres by Danes have increased 80% or 7.2% per year in mean...... during the 10 years. This increase has been analysed by a panel data model. The conclusion found by modelling is the increasing travel activity first of all is driven by increasing income and to less extent by decreasing prices. The paper is furthermore showing how the international air traffic has got...

  18. The historical town core and traffic in Novo mesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Jankovič

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical town core of Novo mesto is subject to intolerable traffic conditions. Individual car use is suffocating the town core, but simultaneously good access is essential for shopkeepers and other inhabitants since buses don’t go there. The project proposes changes to the traffic regime, its basic goals are to redesign the town square into a pedestrian place and to eliminate transitory traffic by rerouting vehicles to less burdened side roads. It introduces short-term parking, smaller parking garages in the core and larger parking spaces on the edge and routes the buses through the town core.

  19. TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR MIXED TRAFFIC SYSTEMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGETE

    2012-05-04

    May 4, 2012 ... Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are ..... The traffic light control system presented by its location on ... multi-destination dynamic routing and real-time.

  20. Relationship between Particulate matter less than 10 microns exposures and health effects on humans in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Geravandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Particulate matters less than 10 microns can absorb into your lungs and reacting with the moisture and enter the circulatory system directly through the airways. The aim of this study is to assess Behavior PM 10 data in different seasons and Determination effects on human health in Ahvaz city during 2013. Materials & Methods: Data Particulate matters less than 10 microns were taken from Ahvaz Department of Environment and Meteorological Organization. Sampling was performed for 24 hours in 4 stations. Method of sampling and analysis were performed according to EPA guideline. Processing data include the instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering. Finally, health-effects of Particulate matters less than 10 exposures were calculated with impact of meteorological parameters and converted as input file to the Air Q model. Results: PM 10 concentration in winter season was maximum amount in the year 2013. According to the research findings, highest and the lowest Particulate matters less than 10 microns concentrations during 2013 had the Bureau of Meteorology “Havashenasi” and Head office of ADoE “Mohitzist”. Sum of total numbers of cardiovascular death and hospitals admission to respiratory diseases attributed to Particulate matters less than 10 microns were 923 and 2342 cases in 2013. Conclusions: Particulate matter emissions are highly regulated in most industrialized countries. Due to environmental concerns, most industries and dust storm phenomena are required to decrease in source produce particle mater and kind of dust collection system to control particulate emissions. Pollution prevention and control measures that reduce Particulate matters less than 10 microns can very useful for expected to reduce people’s exposures to Sulfur dioxide.

  1. Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in a medium-sized Scandinavian city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2018-01-01

    Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) are aimed at reducing congestion. ATCS adapt to approaching traffic to continuously optimise the traffic flows in question. ATCS have been implemented in many locations, including the Scandinavian countries, with various effects. Due to congestion problems......, and GPS data from a range of cars driving on the ring road formed the basis for the study. The result of ATCS implementation was a significant 17% reduction in transportation time on the ring road in the most congested period, the afternoon peak. Less significant effects were found regarding the morning...

  2. Is spoken Danish less intelligible than Swedish?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent J.; van Bezooijen, Renee; Pacilly, Jos J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The most straightforward way to explain why Danes understand spoken Swedish relatively better than Swedes understand spoken Danish would be that spoken Danish is intrinsically a more difficult language to understand than spoken Swedish. We discuss circumstantial evidence suggesting that Danish is

  3. Bound Maxima as a Traffic Feature under DDOS Flood Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a novel traffic feature for identifying abnormal variation of traffic under DDOS flood attacks. It is the histogram of the maxima of the bounded traffic rate on an interval-by-interval basis. We use it to experiment on the traffic data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA in 1999. The experimental results profitably enhance the evidences that traffic rate under DDOS attacks is statistically higher than that of normal traffic considerably. They show that the pattern of the histogram of the maxima of bounded rate of attack-contained traffic greatly differs from that of attack-free traffic. Besides, the present traffic feature is simple in mathematics and easy to use in practice.

  4. Traffic signal synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng

    2003-05-01

    The benefits of traffic signal synchronization are examined within the cellular automata approach. The microsimulations of traffic flow are obtained with different settings of signal period T and time delay delta. Both numerical results and analytical approximations are presented. For undersaturated traffic, the green-light wave solutions can be realized. For saturated traffic, the correlation among the traffic signals has no effect on the throughput. For oversaturated traffic, the benefits of synchronization are manifest only when stochastic noise is suppressed.

  5. Road Traffic Injury in Lagos, Nigeria: Assessing Prehospital Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nasiru A; Ajani, Abdul Wahab O; Mustafa, Ibrahim A; Balogun, Rufai A; Oludara, Mobolaji A; Idowu, Olufemi E; Solagberu, Babatunde A

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Injuries are the third most important cause of overall deaths globally with one-quarter resulting from road traffic crashes. Majority of these deaths occur before arrival in the hospital and can be reduced with prompt and efficient prehospital care. The aim of this study was to highlight the burden of road traffic injury (RTI) in Lagos, Nigeria and assess the effectiveness of prehospital care, especially the role of Lagos State Ambulance Service (LASAMBUS) in providing initial care and transportation of the injured to the hospital. A three-year, retrospective review of road traffic injured patients seen at the Surgical Emergency Room (SER) of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Nigeria, from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014 was conducted. Parameters extracted from the Institution Trauma Registry included bio-data, date and time of injury, date and time of arrival in SER, host status, type of vehicle involved, and region(s) injured. Information on how patients came to the hospital and outcome in SER also were recorded. Results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS; IBM Corporation; Armonk, New York USA) version 16. A total of 23,537 patients were seen during the study period. Among them, 16,024 (68.1%) had trauma. Road traffic crashes were responsible in 5,629 (35.0%) of trauma cases. Passengers constituted 42.0% of the injured, followed by pedestrians (34.0%). Four wheelers were the most frequent vehicle type involved (54.0%), followed by motor cycles (30.0%). Regions mainly affected were head and neck (40.0%) and lower limb (29.0%). Less than one-quarter (24.0%) presented to the emergency room within an hour, while one-third arrived between one and six hours following injury. Relatives brought 55.4%, followed by bystanders (21.4%). Only 2.3% had formal prehospital care and were brought to the hospital by LASAMBUS. They also had significantly shorter arrival time. One hundred and nine patients

  6. Urban street structure and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Villaveces, Andres

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the influence of road type and junction density on road traffic fatality rates in U.S. cities. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files were used to obtain fatality rates for all cities for the years 2005-2010. A stratified random sample of 16 U.S. cities was taken, and cities with high and low road traffic fatality rates were compared on their road layout details (TIGER maps were used). Statistical analysis was done to determine the effect of junction density and road type on road traffic fatality rates. The analysis of road network and road traffic crash fatality rates in these randomly selected U.S. cities shows that, (a) higher number of junctions per road length was significantly associated with a lower motor- vehicle crash and pedestrian mortality rates, and, (b) increased number of kilometers of roads of any kind was associated with higher fatality rates, but an additional kilometer of main arterial road was associated with a significantly higher increase in total fatalities. When compared to non-arterial roads, the higher the ratio of highways and main arterial roads, there was an association with higher fatality rates. These results have important implications for road safety professionals. They suggest that once the road and street structure is put in place, that will influence whether a city has low or high traffic fatality rates. A city with higher proportion of wider roads and large city blocks will tend to have higher traffic fatality rates, and therefore in turn require much more efforts in police enforcement and other road safety measures. Urban planners need to know that smaller block size with relatively less wide roads will result in lower traffic fatality rates and this needs to be incorporated at the planning stage. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vegans report less bothersome vasomotor and physical menopausal symptoms than omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, Bonnie; Radnitz, Cynthia; McGrath, Robert E; Feldman, Arielle

    2018-06-01

    Lifestyle modifications that may reduce menopausal symptoms have generated much interest. The vegetarian diet has been associated with a lower risk of chronic disease as well as a more healthy hormonal milieu. Our objective in this cross-sectional study was to survey peri- and postmenopausal women to investigate menopausal symptoms and dietary pattern. Survey distribution in 2015-2016 was aimed at female vegans, vegetarians, and omnivores between the ages of 45 and 80 years, who were active on senior and vegetarian social networking websites and at vegan restaurants and events. We investigated vasomotor and physical symptoms as measured by the Menopause-specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and dietary pattern classified by animal protein intakes reported in response to food frequency questions. Out of 754 participants who completed the survey, 604 reported they were perimenopausal (n = 121) or postmenopausal (n = 483), of whom 539 also completed the food frequency questions. We compared vasomotor and physical symptoms in omnivores (n = 304, consumed meat and/or poultry at least monthly) and vegans (n = 125, abstained from all animal proteins) using general linear models; covariates included age, exercise, hormone replacement therapy, presence of reproductive organs, and age at menopause. Among perimenopausal women, vegans reported less bothersome vasomotor (p < 0.01) and physical symptoms (p < 0.01) than omnivores. For both symptom types, more vegetables and less flesh food were associated with less bothersome symptoms (p values < 0.05). Eating a plant-based diet may be helpful for women in menopausal transition who prefer a natural means to manage their symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combustible cigarettes cost less to use than e-cigarettes: global evidence and tax policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Drope, Jeffrey M; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-03-01

    Some scholars suggest that price differences between combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes could be effective in moving current combustible smokers to e-cigarettes, which could reduce tobacco-related death and disease. Currently, in most jurisdictions, e-cigarettes are not subject to the same excise taxes as combustible cigarettes, potentially providing the category with a price advantage over combustible cigarettes. This paper tests whether e-cigarettes tax advantage has translated into a price advantage. In a sample of 45 countries, the price of combustible cigarettes, disposable e-cigarettes and rechargeable cigarettes were compared. Comparable units of combustible cigarettes cost less than disposable e-cigarettes in almost every country in the sample. While the e-liquids consumed in rechargeable e-cigarettes might cost less per comparable unit than combustible cigarettes, the initial cost to purchase a rechargeable e-cigarette presents a significant cost barrier to switching from smoking to vaping. Existing prices of e-cigarettes are generally much higher than of combustible cigarettes. If policymakers wish to tax e-cigarettes less than combustibles, forceful policy action-almost certainly through excise taxation-must raise the price of combustible cigarettes beyond the price of using e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Were moas really hunted to extinction in less than 100 years?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, O.

    2000-01-01

    Three months ago New Zealand archaeologists were surprised to read in their daily newspapers that moas had been eaten to extinction by Maori moahunters in less than 100 years. The claim had been made in the US journal 'Science' by Richard Holdaway, formerly with Canterbury University, and Chris Jacomb of Canterbury Museum. It seems to me there are a number of weaknesses in the original paper, which should have been thrashed out locally before going for prestigious exposure overseas. The rapid extinction claim is based first of all on a 'Leslie matrix model' of moa population dynamics, and secondly on some recent carbon dates of a single archaeological site, Monck's Cave, near Christchurch. 21 refs

  10. 27 CFR 19.742 - Tank record of wine or spirits of less than 190 degrees of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Records and Reports Storage Account § 19.742 Tank record of wine or spirits of less than 190 degrees of... wine or spirits of less than 190 degrees of proof to show deposits into, withdrawals from, and the...; (3) Identification of the tank; (4) Kind of wine or spirits; (5) Number and average proof gallon...

  11. Using multisensory cues to facilitate air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mary K; Pierce, Russell S; Spence, Charles

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we sought to investigate whether auditory and tactile cuing could be used to facilitate a complex, real-world air traffic management scenario. Auditory and tactile cuing provides an effective means of improving both the speed and accuracy of participants' performance in a variety of laboratory-based visual target detection and identification tasks. A low-fidelity air traffic simulation task was used in which participants monitored and controlled aircraft.The participants had to ensure that the aircraft landed or exited at the correct altitude, speed, and direction and that they maintained a safe separation from all other aircraft and boundaries. The performance measures recorded included en route time, handoff delay, and conflict resolution delay (the performance measure of interest). In a baseline condition, the aircraft in conflict was highlighted in red (visual cue), and in the experimental conditions, this standard visual cue was accompanied by a simultaneously presented auditory, vibrotactile, or audiotactile cue. Participants responded significantly more rapidly, but no less accurately, to conflicts when presented with an additional auditory or audiotactile cue than with either a vibrotactile or visual cue alone. Auditory and audiotactile cues have the potential for improving operator performance by reducing the time it takes to detect and respond to potential visual target events. These results have important implications for the design and use of multisensory cues in air traffic management.

  12. Influence of Intra-cell Traffic on the Output Power of Base Station in GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mileusnic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the influence of intracell traffic in a GSM cell on the base station output power. It is proved that intracell traffic increases this power. If offered traffic is small, the increase of output power is equal to the part of intracell traffic. When the offered traffic and, as the result, call loss increase, the increase of output power becomes less. The results of calculation are verified by the computer simulation of traffic process in the GSM cell. The calculation and the simulation consider the uniform distribution of mobile users in the cell, but the conclusions are of a general nature.

  13. Positive exercise thallium-201 test responses in patients with less than 50% maximal coronary stenosis: angiographic and clinical predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.; Osbakken, M.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.; Okada, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The incidence and causes of abnormal thallium-201 (TI-201) myocardial perfusion studies in the absence of significant coronary artery disease were examined. The study group consisted of 100 consecutive patients undergoing exercise TI-201 testing and coronary angiography who were found to have maximal coronary artery diameter narrowing of less than 50%. Maximal coronary stenosis ranged from 0 to 40%. The independent and relative influences of patient clinical, exercise and angiographic data were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Significant predictors of a positive stress TI-201 test result were: (1) percent maximal coronary stenosis (p less than 0.0005), (2) propranolol use (p less than 0.01), (3) interaction of propranolol use and percent maximal stenosis (p less than 0.005), and (4) stress-induced chest pain (p . 0.05). No other patient variable had a significant influence. Positive TI-201 test results were more common in patients with 21 to 40% maximal stenosis (59%) than in patients with 0 to 20% maximal stenosis (27%) (p less than 0.01). Among patients with 21 to 40% stenosis, a positive test response was more common when 85% of maximal predicted heart rate was achieved (75%) than when it was not (40%) (p less than 0.05). Of 16 nonapical perfusion defects seen in patients with 21 to 40% maximal stenosis, 14 were in the territory that corresponded with such a coronary stenosis. Patients taking propranolol were more likely to have a positive TI-201 test result (45%) than patients not taking propranolol (22%) (p less than 0.05)

  14. Identification of minor acylglycerols less polar than triricinolein in castor oil by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triacylglycerols in castor oil less polar than triricinolein were identified by electrospray ionization – mass spectrometry using the lithium adducts of the acylglycerols from the HPLC fractions of castor oil. Thirty four new molecular species of acylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids in casto...

  15. The Effect of Queueing Strategy on Network Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xue-Jun; Guan Xiang-Min; Sun Deng-Feng; Tang Shao-Ting

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the transportation system has been faced by increasing challenge in congestion and inefficiency, and research in traffic network has become a significant area of interest. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic-information-based (DIB) queueing strategy into network traffic model under the efficient routing strategy. DIB makes a packet with higher priority to be delivered if there are less packets travelling along its path from the current node to the destination. It is found that, compared with the traditional first-in-first-out (FIFO) queueing strategy, DIB can effectively balance the traffic load of the system via delaying packets to be delivered to congested nodes. Although the network capacity has no obvious changes, some other indexes which reflect transportation efficiency are efficiently improved in the congestion state. Besides, extensive simulation results and discussions are provided to explain the phenomena. The results may provide novel insights for research on traffic systems. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  16. Day-surgery patients anesthetized with propofol have less postoperative pain than those anesthetized with sevoflurane.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, Terry

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been recent studies suggesting that patients anesthetized with propofol have less postoperative pain compared with patients anesthetized with volatile anesthetics. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind study, 80 patients undergoing day-case diagnostic laparoscopic gynecological surgery were either anesthetized with IV propofol or sevoflurane. The primary outcome measured was pain on a visual analog scale. RESULTS: Patients anesthetized with propofol had less pain compared with patients anesthetized with sevoflurane (P = 0.01). There was no difference in any of the other measured clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The patients anesthetized with propofol appeared to have less pain than patients anesthetized with sevoflurane.

  17. A Brief Introduction of Air Traffic Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Air Traffic Management(ATM)started publication in 1995 by Air Traffic Management Bureauof CAAC.It is the first magazine about ATM field in CAAC.The chairman of Editorial Board ofATM is Mr.Bao Peide,Vice Minister of CAAC.Mr.Chen Ziye,Vice President of the 1st ResearchInstitute of CAAC and Chen Xuhua,General Director of Air Traffic Management Bureau are vicechairmen of the editorial board,and six general directors of local air traffic management bureau andsome professors and experts are members of the editorial board.ATM includes more than 20 columns,which are communication,navigation,surveillance,air trafficmanagement,special articles(policy,planning and management of implementation of CNS/ATM

  18. Prevalence of orthorexia nervosa is less than 1 %: data from a US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Thomas M; Gibbs, Josh; Whitney, Noelle; Starosta, Amy

    2017-03-01

    Orthorexia nervosa, or pathological dieting based on being "healthy," has been of growing interest. Clinical data are limited to less than a half-dozen case studies reporting instances of medical problems due to healthful eating. However, more than a dozen studies using a measure to identify orthorexia, the ORTO-15, report very high prevalence rates in non-clinical samples. Point prevalence rates are reported from 6 % to nearly 90 %. Such variability could be due to cultural issues or psychometric problems with the instrument. This study examines prevalence rate of orthorexia in a US sample. The ORTO-15 was administered to 275 US college students along with other questions regarding diet, exercise, and health. While the ORTO-15 indicated a prevalence rate of 71 %, only 20 % of the sample endorsed a dietary practice of removing a particular food type (e.g. meat) from their diet. Those who endorsed following a vegan diet had the highest (less pathological) mean ORTO-15 score. Further, when classifying participants based on their seriousness about healthy eating and whether their diet had led to impairment in everyday activities and medical problems, less than 1 % of the sample fell into such a category. As in other countries, a large proportion of a non-clinical US sample scored in the orthorexia range on the ORTO-15. However, this instrument is likely unable to distinguish between healthy eating and pathologically healthful eating. Our estimate is that orthorexia nervosa like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, is not a common condition.

  19. Traffic Generator (TrafficGen) Version 1.4.2: Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the network with Transmission Control Protocol and User Datagram Protocol Internet Protocol traffic. Each node generating network traffic in an...TrafficGen Graphical User Interface (GUI) 3 3.1 Anatomy of the User Interface 3 3.2 Scenario Configuration and MGEN Files 4 4. Working with...for public release; distribution is unlimited. vi List of Figures Fig. 1 TrafficGen user interface

  20. "Better than" performance motives as roots of satisfaction across more and less developed countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Janssen, O.

    Individuals tend to want to better their own performance when they repeat the same tasks, and they want to perform better than competitors. These self- and other-referenced performance motives vary independently and lead to more and less satisfaction. respectively. A 42-nation regression study,

  1. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  2. Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers' interactions.

  3. Transportation Service Procurement Bid Construction Problem from Less Than Truckload Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents mixed integer programming for a transportation service procurement bid construction problem from a less than full truckload perspective, in which the bidders (carriers generate their best bid (package using a bundled price to maximize their utility and increase the chance of winning the business. The models are developed from both the carriers and shippers perspectives to establish a relationship between the quoted price and the likelihood of winning to assist the carriers in balancing the potential benefits and the possibility of winning the bid. An intelligent algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization is then designed to solve the proposed model and hypothetical data sets are used to test the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model and algorithm.

  4. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vehicles based on similar traffic operating characteristics are grouped into ... of distances to the video monitor involved using a measuring wheel to mark ... Secondly, the observers reviewed the videotape to sample traffic entity ...... makes a strong case for including service lanes for slow moving vehicles for improving the.

  5. Less skin irritation from alcohol-based disinfectant than from detergent used for hand disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L K; Held, E; Johansen, J D

    2005-01-01

    and forearms of 17 healthy volunteers. A control area was included. After 4 weeks an SLS patch was applied to each area. Irritant reactions were quantified with a visual score recording and measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin colour were performed on days 1, 5, 11, 38 and 40. RESULTS...... was found on the disinfectant-treated area compared with the control area and detergent area, and a similar trend was found for TEWL, although it was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Alcohol-based disinfectant caused less visible skin irritation and less skin barrier disruption than the use...

  6. Area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and second in developing countries. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one such strategy. To evaluate the effectiveness of area-wide traffic calming in preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC). We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes. Two reviewers independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The statistical package STATA was used to calculate rate ratios for each study, which were then pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. We found no randomised controlled trials, but 16 controlled before-after trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were done in Germany, six in the UK, two in Australia and one in the Netherlands. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Eight trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths. The pooled rate ratio was 0.63 (0.14, 2.59 95% CI). Sixteen studies reported the number

  7. Traffic, air pollution, minority and socio-economic status: addressing inequities in exposure and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C; Vadali, Monika L; Kvale, Dorian L; Ellickson, Kristie M

    2015-05-19

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities.

  8. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy of 13C methanol at less than 5 μT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Seong-Joo; Hwang, Seong-min; Yu, Kwon-Kyu; Kim, Kiwoong

    2014-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy is one of the most significant applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Here, we demonstrate that the 2D NMR can be performed even at a low magnetic field of less than 5 μT, which is ten times less than the Earth’s magnetic field. The pulses used in the experiment were composed of circularly polarized fields for coherent as well as wideband excitations. Since the excitation band covers the entire spectral range, the simplest two-pulse sequence delivered the full 2D spectrum. At 5 μT, methanol with 13C enriched up to 99% belongs to a strongly coupled regime, and thus its 2D spectrum exhibits complicated spectral correlations, which can be exploited as a fingerprint in chemical analysis. In addition, we show that, with compressive sensing, the acquisition of the 2D spectrum can be accelerated to take only 45% of the overall duration.

  9. Nuclear-related training and education offered by academic institutions (less than baccalaureate degree) (preliminary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, L.

    1981-11-01

    This study presents the results of a survey of academic institutions offering nuclear-related training and education at the less than baccalaureate degree level. The scope of the survey includes only those programs which have a nuclear power industry application, and excludes all programs which are affiliated with nuclear medicine. The survey instrument was distributed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations to 262 academic institutions. The survey universe was compiled from a number of publications that listed nuclear-related academic programs. Since the initial mailing in May 1981, ten of the institutions have been determined to no longer exist and eight other listings have been identified as duplications, thus reducing the universe to 244 institutions. Fifty-five percent of the survey population (134 institutions) responded to the questionnaire, of which 45 percent (109) were out of the survey scope and 10 percent (25) indicated they offered less than baccalaureate degree, nuclear-related programs

  10. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  11. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  12. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  13. Noxious substances in the air - traffic planning measures - traffic of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koestenberger, H

    1985-01-01

    Necessary bundle of measures: Extension of public transport and restriction of individual traffic, extension and activation of large main roads (by-passes) to unload inhabited areas, building garages, creation of residential streets, pedestrian precincts and cycle paths. The best possible traffic system can only be achieved if all means of transport are used efficiently. It is the duty of traffic planners to develop an overall traffic system with the aims of benefiting the whole community. Due to wrong slowing down of traffic, the reduction of emitted quantities of noxious substances from private cars can be counteracted by general slowing down of traffic; frequent braking and restarting. The functional separation of residential areas for living, areas for working, supply, education and leisure pursuits which has been aimed at in recent decades must be slowly changed. This could reduce the traffic and mobility (mixed functions). The aims for traffic of the future are: suitability for the environment, economy, safety and capacity. In an integrated road network, the traffic must take over the correct purpose of traffic. (orig.).

  14. Women with acute coronary syndrome are less invasively examined and subsequently less treated than men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Anders; Galatius, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate if gender bias is present in today's setting of an early invasive strategy for patients with acute coronary syndrome in Denmark (population 5 million). METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified all patients admitted to Danish hospitals with acute coronary syndrome in 2005-07 (9561...... women and 16 406 men). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the gender differences in coronary angiography (CAG) rate and subsequent revascularization rate within 60 days of admission. Significantly less women received CAG (cumulative incidence 64% for women vs. 78% for men, P ....66-0.71, P coronary angiogram. However, after adjustment for the number of significant stenoses, age, and comorbidity women were still less likely to be revascularized (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87-0.95, P...

  15. Abstract Description of Internet Traffic of Generalized Cauchy Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    . Therefore, there is a limitation for fGn to accurately model traffic. Recently, the generalized Cauchy (GC process was introduced to model traffic with the flexibility to separately measure the fractal dimension DGC and the Hurst parameter HGC of traffic. However, there is a fundamental problem whether or not there exists the generality that the GC model is more conformable with real traffic than single parameter models, such as fGn, irrelevant of traffic traces used in experimental verification. The solution to that problem remains unknown but is desired for model evaluation in traffic theory or for model selection against specific issues, such as queuing analysis relating to the autocorrelation function (ACF of arrival traffic. The key contribution of this paper is our solution to that fundamental problem (see Theorem 3.17 with the following features in analysis. (i Set-valued analysis of the traffic of the fGn type. (ii Set-valued analysis of the traffic of the GC type. (iii Revealing the generality previously mentioned by comparing metrics of the traffic of the fGn type to that of the GC type.

  16. Accurate Multisteps Traffic Flow Prediction Based on SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate traffic flow prediction is prerequisite and important for realizing intelligent traffic control and guidance, and it is also the objective requirement for intelligent traffic management. Due to the strong nonlinear, stochastic, time-varying characteristics of urban transport system, artificial intelligence methods such as support vector machine (SVM are now receiving more and more attentions in this research field. Compared with the traditional single-step prediction method, the multisteps prediction has the ability that can predict the traffic state trends over a certain period in the future. From the perspective of dynamic decision, it is far important than the current traffic condition obtained. Thus, in this paper, an accurate multi-steps traffic flow prediction model based on SVM was proposed. In which, the input vectors were comprised of actual traffic volume and four different types of input vectors were compared to verify their prediction performance with each other. Finally, the model was verified with actual data in the empirical analysis phase and the test results showed that the proposed SVM model had a good ability for traffic flow prediction and the SVM-HPT model outperformed the other three models for prediction.

  17. Risk Factors for Road Traffic Injuries among Different Road Users in the Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edrisa Sanyang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified risk factors for road traffic injuries among road users who received treatment at two major trauma hospitals in urban Gambia. The study includes pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and drivers/passengers of cars and trucks. We examined distributions of injury by age, gender, collision vehicle types and vehicle category, and driver and environment factors. Two hundred and fifty-four patients were included in the study. Two-thirds were male and one-third female. Two-thirds (67% of road traffic injuries involved pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists; and these were more common during weekdays (74% than weekends. Nearly half (47% of road traffic injuries involved pedestrians. One-third (34% of injured patients were students (mean age of students was less than 14 years, more than half (51% of whom were injured on the roadway as pedestrians. Head/skull injuries were common. Concussion/brain injuries were 3.5 times higher among pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists than vehicle occupants. Crashes involving pedestrians were more likely to involve young people (<25 years; aOR 6.36, 95% CI: 3.32–12.17 and involve being struck by a motor car (aOR 3.95, 95% CI: 2.09–7.47. Pedestrians contribute the largest proportion of hospitalizations in the Gambia. Young pedestrians are at particularly high risk. Prevention efforts should focus on not only vehicle and driver factors, but also protecting pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists.

  18. Traffic Infrastructure in the Development of the Croatian Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Šimulčik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a long-term traffic policy and of the policyof financing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastructurefacilities, represents a synthesis of numerous unresolvedrelations whose negative effects are felt in the overalleconomic and traffic development and consequently theevaluation of national potentials in the field. Adverse aspectcaused by the lack of a clear and feasible policy of financing thetraffic infrastructure facilities, is also a result of not having definedan adequate traffic policy, programme and strategiccourses of development, nor financing models that would be inaccordance with the market and economy system.This indicates that it is necessary to determine a policy forfinancing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastntcture,which has to be based on scientific development,team work, availability of plans and programmes to scientistsand experts, determined methodology based on marketing andeconomic logic in defining the programme and strategic tasksand assignments so as to make them feasible.In the near future, intensive preparations for investments inthe overall traffic sysiem are necessary, especially regarding thetraffic infrastntcture facilities - the pivotal points in the processof evaluating the traffic in our national tenitory. Croatia needsto define clearly its strategy in constructing and maintaining thegeneral traffic infrastructure, appointing at the same time thosewho will carry out the given tasks.

  19. 77 FR 62492 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY: Import Administration..., or are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in... Fair Value, 77 FR 46055 (August 2, 2012) (``Preliminary Determination''). Period of Investigation The...

  20. Less Than Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    , Bulgaria, 2017 May 1- 7 2.Annecy International Film Festival, France, 2017 June 12-17 3.Anima Mundi, Brazil, 2017 July 26-30 4.Fest Anča International Animation Festival,Slovacia, 2017 June 29 – July 2 5.Fredikstad Animation Festival 2017, Norway, 2017 November 9-12 6.Cartoons on the Bay- International...... Cross - media and Children`s Television Festival, Italy, 2017 April 6-8 7.Anifilm International Festival of Animated Films, Czeck Republic, 2017 May 2-7 8.Animafest Zagreb, Croatia, 2017 June 5-10 9.ANIMAKOM - Bilbao International Animation Community Festival, Spain, 2017 March 16 – 19 10.Encounters...

  1. Involuntary Euthanasia and Current Attempts to Define Persons with Mental Retardation as Less Than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn W.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)

  2. Traffic represents the main source of pollution in small Mediterranean urban areas as seen by lichen functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Esteve; Pinho, Pedro; Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pereira, Maria João; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The land-use type (residential, green areas, and traffic) within relatively small Mediterranean urban areas determines significant changes on lichen diversity, considering species richness and functional groups related to different ecological factors. Those areas with larger volume of traffic hold lower species diversity, in terms of species richness and lichen diversity value (LDV). Traffic areas also affect the composition of the lichen community, which is evidenced by sensitive species. The abundance of species of lichens tolerant to low levels of eutrophication diminishes in traffic areas; oppositely, those areas show a higher abundance of species of lichens tolerating high levels of eutrophication. On the other hand, residential and green areas have an opposite pattern, mainly with species highly tolerant to eutrophication being less abundant than low or moderate ones. The characteristics of tree bark do not seem to affect excessively on lichen composition; however, tree species shows some effect that should be considered in further studies.

  3. Communication efficiency and congestion of signal traffic in large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    The complex connectivity of the cerebral cortex suggests that inter-regional communication is a primary function. Using computational modeling, we show that anatomical connectivity may be a major determinant for global information flow in brain networks. A macaque brain network was implemented as a communication network in which signal units flowed between grey matter nodes along white matter paths. Compared to degree-matched surrogate networks, information flow on the macaque brain network was characterized by higher loss rates, faster transit times and lower throughput, suggesting that neural connectivity may be optimized for speed rather than fidelity. Much of global communication was mediated by a "rich club" of hub regions: a sub-graph comprised of high-degree nodes that are more densely interconnected with each other than predicted by chance. First, macaque communication patterns most closely resembled those observed for a synthetic rich club network, but were less similar to those seen in a synthetic small world network, suggesting that the former is a more fundamental feature of brain network topology. Second, rich club regions attracted the most signal traffic and likewise, connections between rich club regions carried more traffic than connections between non-rich club regions. Third, a number of rich club regions were significantly under-congested, suggesting that macaque connectivity actively shapes information flow, funneling traffic towards some nodes and away from others. Together, our results indicate a critical role of the rich club of hub nodes in dynamic aspects of global brain communication.

  4. Usefulness of sonography in women less than 35 years old with palpable breast masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Chung, Hyun Ung; Park, Jin Gyoon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    To assess the usefulness of sonography in the evaluation of palpable mass in patients less than 35 years old,the breast sonograms and mammograms of 105 histopathologically proved cases were retrospectively reviewed. Breast parenchymal patterns on mammogram, sensitivity of sonography and mammography in the diagnosis of palpable breast masses, and sonographic findings of breast masses were analyzed. Grade IV breast parenchymal pattern was demonstrated in 44 of 76 mammogram (57.9%). The incidence of Grade IV pattern increased, as the patients' age became younger. The sensitivity of sonography (81.3%) was higher than that of mammography (45.3%) in the evaluation of the benign breast lesions. However, the sensitivity of both modalities were nearly equal (66.7% and 58.3% respectively) in the evaluation of the breast cancers. Sonographic findings of fibroadenoma included oval,well defined border, smooth contour, weak homogeneous internal echoes, posterior sonic enhancement, and bilateral shadows. On the other hand, breast cancer exhibited poorly defined border, irregular contour, and inhomogeneous hypoechoic mass with posterior sonic attenuation. In summary, sonography was useful in the evaluation of the palpable breast mass in women less than 35 years old. Choreoathetotic sonographic findings might help the differential diagnosis of breast masses

  5. Usefulness of sonography in women less than 35 years old with palpable breast masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Chung, Hyun Ung; Park, Jin Gyoon; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    To assess the usefulness of sonography in the evaluation of palpable mass in patients less than 35 years old,the breast sonograms and mammograms of 105 histopathologically proved cases were retrospectively reviewed. Breast parenchymal patterns on mammogram, sensitivity of sonography and mammography in the diagnosis of palpable breast masses, and sonographic findings of breast masses were analyzed. Grade IV breast parenchymal pattern was demonstrated in 44 of 76 mammogram (57.9%). The incidence of Grade IV pattern increased, as the patients' age became younger. The sensitivity of sonography (81.3%) was higher than that of mammography (45.3%) in the evaluation of the benign breast lesions. However, the sensitivity of both modalities were nearly equal (66.7% and 58.3% respectively) in the evaluation of the breast cancers. Sonographic findings of fibroadenoma included oval,well defined border, smooth contour, weak homogeneous internal echoes, posterior sonic enhancement, and bilateral shadows. On the other hand, breast cancer exhibited poorly defined border, irregular contour, and inhomogeneous hypoechoic mass with posterior sonic attenuation. In summary, sonography was useful in the evaluation of the palpable breast mass in women less than 35 years old. Choreoathetotic sonographic findings might help the differential diagnosis of breast masses

  6. Energy savings in traffic, technical possibilities. Energiansaeaestoe liikenteessae, tekniset mahdollisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alppivuori, K; Himanen, V [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Tie- ja Liikennelab.

    1991-01-01

    The fuel consumption of passenger cars can be reduced in many ways. Decreasing the drag coefficient cuts down on the consumption with 3-10% calculated on the basis of the total consumption of passenger cars. Decreasing the cubic capacity of the engine with 200 ccm reduces the consumption with 12-24%. Introduction of small city cars (engine capacity of less than 660 ccm) gives a reduction of 8-13%, changing over to diesel engines gives a reduction of 20-3% and to small two-stroke engines a reduction of 30%. Changing over to electric cars in cities and in the short-distance traffic of cities would reduce the consumption of liquid fuel in traffic with passenger cars with 30-40%, but it would require using of the power of six power plants (total 3000 MW) for charging in the night-time. The consumption of liquid fuel of buses varies considerably according to the bus and the driving conditions in question. Developing of the qualities of a car may produce a saving of 5-15% in its energy consumption. Additionally, optimized use of a car can produce a saving of 5-10%. In future, the boundary between delivery vans and lorries may blur when new types of distribution systems will be introduced. The possibilities of saving fuel will be considerably good, up to 30-49% for delivery vans and light lorries, and 20-30% for heavy lorries. The development of traffic is a result of the traffic policy of the public administration and the behaviour of private people. Background factors are various measures of car manufacturers and marketing organizations. The prevailing development will lead to a steady growth of consumption of liquid fuel in the traffic.

  7. Why Are Girls Less Physically Active than Boys? Findings from the LOOK Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Rohan M; Telford, Richard D; Olive, Lisa S; Cochrane, Thomas; Davey, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    A gender-based disparity in physical activity (PA) among youth, whereby girls are less active than boys is a persistent finding in the literature. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying this difference has potential to guide PA intervention strategies. Data were collected at age 8 and 12 years (276 boys, 279 girls) from 29 schools as part of the LOOK study. Multilevel linear models were fitted separately for boys and girls to examine effects of individual, family and environmental level correlates on pedometer measured PA. Cardio-respiratory fitness (multi-stage run), percent fat (DEXA), eye-hand coordination (throw and catch test) and perceived competence in physical education (questionnaire) were used as individual level correlates. At the family level, parent's support and education (questionnaire) were used. School attended and extracurricular sport participation were included as environmental level correlates. Girls were 19% less active than boys (9420 vs 11360 steps/day, pgirls was associated with weaker influences at the school and family levels and through lower participation in extracurricular sport. School attended explained some of the variation in boys PA (8.4%) but not girls. Girls compared to boys had less favourable individual attributes associated with PA at age 8 years, including 18% lower cardio-respiratory fitness (3.5 vs 4.2, pphysical education (7.7 vs 8.4, pboys but not girls. Girls PA was less favourably influenced by socio-ecological factors at the individual, family, school and environmental levels. These factors are potentially modifiable suggesting the gap in PA between boys and girls can be reduced. Strategies aiming to increase PA should be multicomponent and take into consideration that pathways to increasing PA are likely to differ among boys and girls.

  8. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...... matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade...

  9. Consumers Buy Lower-Cost Plans On Covered California, Suggesting Exposure To Premium Increases Is Less Than Commonly Reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Jon R; Arnold, Daniel R; Fulton, Brent D; Stromberg, Sam T; Green, Matthew; Whitmore, Heidi; Scheffler, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    With the notable exception of California, states have not made enrollment data for their Affordable Care Act (ACA) Marketplace plans publicly available. Researchers thus have tracked premium trends by calculating changes in the average price for plans offered (a straight average across plans) rather than for plans purchased (a weighted average). Using publicly available enrollment data for Covered California, we found that the average purchased price for all plans was 11.6 percent less than the average offered price in 2014, 13.2 percent less in 2015, and 15.2 percent less in 2016. Premium growth measured by plans purchased was roughly 2 percentage points less than when measured by plans offered in 2014-15 and 2015-16. We observed shifts in consumer choices toward less costly plans, both between and within tiers, and we estimate that a $100 increase in a plan's net annual premium reduces its probability of selection. These findings suggest that the Marketplaces are helping consumers moderate premium cost growth. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Analysis of traffic accidents in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlekić Snežana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Violent health damages of different origin (accidents, murders, suicides in children and youth are one of the main causes of death and disabilities in this group of population in most countries. Objective: Objective of our paper was to analyze all related factors of traffic accidents involving children and to propose adequate measures of their prevention. Method: The analysis of fatal traffic accidents of children and youth aged to 18 years on the territory of Belgrade, within the period from 1998 to 2002. Results: In relation to other forms of violent death, the traffic mortality rate in children and youth holds the leading position, accounting for 56.9% with pedestrians as the most frequent category (57.4%. The most frequent age was between 7 and 9 years (46.8% and the boys were more frequently injured than the girls. It was established that the majority of children (51.9% was either running across the street outside the pedestrian/ zebra crossings or they were carelessly running out in the street, especially in April, July, August and September. More than a half of them (55.5%, predominantly school children, were injured by the end of working week, on Thursday and Friday. Conclusion: Results of our research have shown that the traffic education of children in our region is inadequate. Due to the abovementioned, it is primarily necessary to establish long-term and permanent education of this category of population. In addition, some public investments in the City infrastructure will be required in order to reduce the risk of traffic injuries in children.

  11. Cellular automata model for urban road traffic flow considering pedestrian crossing street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Han-Tao; Yang, Shuo; Chen, Xiao-Xu

    2016-11-01

    In order to analyze the effect of pedestrians' crossing street on vehicle flows, we investigated traffic characteristics of vehicles and pedestrians. Based on that, rules of lane changing, acceleration, deceleration, randomization and update are modified. Then we established two urban two-lane cellular automata models of traffic flow, one of which is about sections with non-signalized crosswalk and the other is on uncontrolled sections with pedestrians crossing street at random. MATLAB is used for numerical simulation of the different traffic conditions; meanwhile space-time diagram and relational graphs of traffic flow parameters are generated and then comparatively analyzed. Simulation results indicate that when vehicle density is lower than around 25 vehs/(km lane), pedestrians have modest impact on traffic flow, whereas when vehicle density is higher than about 60 vehs/(km lane), traffic speed and volume will decrease significantly especially on sections with non-signal-controlled crosswalk. The results illustrate that the proposed models reconstruct the traffic flow's characteristic with the situation where there are pedestrians crossing and can provide some practical reference for urban traffic management.

  12. Chemical and physical characterization of traffic particles in four different highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Enroth

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic-related pollution is a major concern in urban areas due to its deleterious effects on human health. The characteristics of the traffic emissions on four highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area were measured with a mobile laboratory, equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. Concentration gradients were observed for all traffic-related pollutants, particle number (CN, particulate mass (PM1, black carbon (BC, organics, and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2. Flow dynamics in different environments appeared to be an important factor for the dilution of the pollutants. For example, the half-decay distances for the traffic-related CN concentrations varied from 8 to 83 m at different sites. The PM1 emissions from traffic mostly consisted of organics and BC. At the most open site, the ratio of organics to BC increased with distance to the highway, indicating condensation of volatile and semi-volatile organics on BC particles. These condensed organics were shown to be hydrocarbons as the fraction of hydrocarbon fragments in organics increased. Regarding the CN size distributions, particle growth during the dilution was not observed; however the mass size distributions measured with a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS, showed a visible shift of the mode, detected at  ∼  100 nm at the roadside, to a larger size when the distance to the roadside increased. The fleet average emission factors appeared to be lower for the CN and higher for the NO2 than ten years ago. The reason is likely to be the increased fraction of light-duty (LD diesel vehicles in the past ten years. The fraction of heavy-duty (HD traffic, although constituting less than 10 % of the total traffic flow, was found to have a large impact on the emissions.

  13. Impacts of Traffic Noise and Traffic Volume on Birds of Roadside Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Parris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Roadside habitats are important for a range of taxa including plants, insects, mammals, and birds, particularly in developed countries in which large expanses of native vegetation have been cleared for agriculture or urban development. Although roadside vegetation may provide suitable habitat for many species, resident animals can be exposed to high levels of traffic noise, visual disturbance from passing vehicles, and the risk of collision with cars and trucks. Traffic noise can reduce the distance over which acoustic signals such as song can be detected, an effect known as acoustic interference or masking. Studies from the northern hemisphere show that the singing behavior of birds changes in the presence of traffic noise. We investigated the impact of traffic noise and traffic volume on two species of birds, the Grey Shrike-thrush (Colluricincla harmonica and the Grey Fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa, at 58 roadside sites on the Mornington Peninsula, southeastern Australia. The lower singing Grey Shrike-thrush sang at a higher frequency in the presence of traffic noise, with a predicted increase in dominant frequency of 5.8 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 209 Hz. In contrast, the higher singing Grey Fantail did not appear to change its song in traffic noise. The probability of detecting each species on a visit to a site declined substantially with increasing traffic noise and traffic volume, with several lines of evidence supporting a larger effect of traffic noise. Traffic noise could hamper detection of song by conspecifics, making it more difficult for birds to establish and maintain territories, attract mates and maintain pair bonds, and possibly leading to reduced breeding success in noisy roadside habitats. Closing key roads during the breeding season is a potential, but untested, management strategy to protect threatened bird species from traffic noise and collision with vehicles at the time of year when they are most

  14. Global impact of road traffic on atmospheric chemical composition and on ozone climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, Ulrike; Granier, Claire; Kornblueh, Luis; Walters, Stacy; Brasseur, Guy P.

    2006-05-01

    Automobile emissions are known to contribute to local air pollution and to photochemical smog in urban areas. The impact of road traffic on the chemical composition of the troposphere at the global scale and on climate forcing is less well quantified. Calculations performed with the chemical transport MOZART-2 model show that the concentrations of ozone and its precursors (NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) are considerably enhanced in most regions of the Northern Hemisphere in response to current surface traffic. During summertime in the Northern Hemisphere, road traffic has increased the zonally averaged ozone concentration by more than 10% in the boundary layer and in the extratropics by approximately 6% at 500 hPa and 2.5% at 300 hPa. The summertime surface ozone concentrations have increased by typically 1-5 ppbv in the remote regions and by 5-20 ppbv in industrialized regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The corresponding ozone-related radiative forcing is 0.05 Wm-2. In order to assess the sensitivity of potential changes in road traffic intensity, two additional model cases were considered, in which traffic-related emissions in all regions of the world were assumed to be on a per capita basis the same as in Europe and in the United States, respectively. In the second and most dramatic case, the surface ozone concentration increases by 30-50 ppbv (50-100%) in south Asia as compared to the present situation. Under this assumption, the global radiative forcing due to traffic-generated ozone reaches 0.27 Wm-2.

  15. Articulation of Native Cartilage Against Different Femoral Component Materials. Oxidized Zirconium Damages Cartilage Less Than Cobalt-Chrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlommel, Jan; De Corte, Ronny; Luyckx, Jean Philippe; Anderson, Melissa; Labey, Luc; Bellemans, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Oxidized zirconium (OxZr) is produced by thermally driven oxidization creating an oxidized surface with the properties of a ceramic at the top of the Zr metal substrate. OxZr is much harder and has a lower coefficient of friction than cobalt-chrome (CoCr), both leading to better wear characteristics. We evaluated and compared damage to the cartilage of porcine patella plugs, articulating against OxZr vs CoCr. Our hypothesis was that, owing to its better wear properties, OxZr would damage cartilage less than CoCr. If this is true, OxZr might be a better material for the femoral component during total knee arthroplasty if the patella is not resurfaced. Twenty-one plugs from porcine patellae were prepared and tested in a reciprocating pin-on-disk machine while lubricated with bovine serum and under a constant load. Three different configurations were tested: cartilage-cartilage as the control group, cartilage-OxZr, and cartilage-CoCr. Macroscopic appearance, cartilage thickness, and the modified Mankin score were evaluated after 400,000 wear cycles. The control group showed statistically significant less damage than plugs articulating against both other materials. Cartilage plugs articulating against OxZr were statistically significantly less damaged than those articulating against CoCr. Although replacing cartilage by an implant always leads to deterioration of the cartilage counterface, OxZr results in less damage than CoCr. The use of OxZr might thus be preferable to CoCr in case of total knee arthroplasty without patella resurfacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling the heterogeneous traffic correlations in urban road systems using traffic-enhanced community detection approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Liu, Kang; Duan, Yingying; Cheng, Shifen; Du, Fei

    2018-07-01

    A better characterization of the traffic influence among urban roads is crucial for traffic control and traffic forecasting. The existence of spatial heterogeneity imposes great influence on modeling the extent and degree of road traffic correlation, which is usually neglected by the traditional distance based method. In this paper, we propose a traffic-enhanced community detection approach to spatially reveal the traffic correlation in city road networks. First, the road network is modeled as a traffic-enhanced dual graph with the closeness between two road segments determined not only by their topological connection, but also by the traffic correlation between them. Then a flow-based community detection algorithm called Infomap is utilized to identify the road segment clusters. Evaluated by Moran's I, Calinski-Harabaz Index and the traffic interpolation application, we find that compared to the distance based method and the community based method, our proposed traffic-enhanced community based method behaves better in capturing the extent of traffic relevance as both the topological structure of the road network and the traffic correlations among urban roads are considered. It can be used in more traffic-related applications, such as traffic forecasting, traffic control and guidance.

  17. Visual ergonomic evaluations on four different designs of LED traffic signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Ting-Yuan; Lee, Tsung-Xian; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the legibility and visual comfort of LED traffic signs, an ergonomic experiment is performed on four custom-designed LED traffic signs, including three self-luminous ones as LED lightbox, LED backlight and regional LED backlight, and one non-self-luminous sign with external LED lighting. The four signs are hanged side-by-side and evaluated by observers through questionnaires. The signage dimension is one-sixth of the real freeway traffic signs, and the observation distance is 25 m. The luminance of three self-luminous signs is 216 cd/m2. The illuminance of external LED lighting is 400 lux on the traffic sign. The ambient illuminance is 2.8 and 6.0 lux in two rounds. The results show that self-luminous traffic signs provide superior legibility, visual comfort and user preference than the non-self-luminous one. Among the three self-luminous signs, regional LED backlight is most susceptible to the ambient illumination. LED lightbox has significantly better preference score than LED backlight under darker ambient lighting. Only LED lightbox has significantly better visual comfort than external LED lighting in the brighter environment. Based on the four LED traffic signs evaluated in this study, we suggest LED lightbox as the prior choice. Further investigations on the effect of ambient illumination and other designs of self-luminous traffic signs are in progress.

  18. The impact of diurnal variations of air traffic on contrail radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stuber

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We combined high resolution aircraft flight data from the EU Fifth Framework Programme project AERO2k with analysis data from the ECMWF's integrated forecast system to calculate diurnally resolved 3-D contrail cover. We scaled the contrail cover in order to match observational data for the Bakan area (eastern-Atlantic/western-Europe.

    We found that less than 40% of the global distance travelled by aircraft is due to flights during local night time. Yet, due to the cancellation of shortwave and longwave effects during daytime, night time flights contribute a disproportional 60% to the global annual mean forcing. Under clear sky conditions the night flights contribute even more disproportionally at 76%. There are pronounced regional variations in night flying and the associated radiative forcing. Over parts of the North Atlantic flight corridor 75% of air traffic and 84% of the forcing occurs during local night, whereas only 35% of flights are during local night in South-East Asia, yet these contribute 68% of the radiative forcing. In general, regions with a significant local contrail radiative forcing are also regions for which night time flights amount to less than half of the daily total of flights. Therefore, neglecting diurnal variations in air traffic/contrail cover by assuming a diurnal mean contrail cover can over-estimate the global mean radiative forcing by up to 30%.

  19. 76 FR 1965 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Fair Value and Critical Circumstances AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... sales at less-than-fair-value (``LTFV'') and critical circumstances, in part, in the antidumping... Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Affirmative Determination...

  20. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888

  1. Supervised Learning Applied to Air Traffic Trajectory Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Christabelle; Nikoleris, Tasos

    2018-01-01

    Given the recent increase of interest in introducing new vehicle types and missions into the National Airspace System, a transition towards a more autonomous air traffic control system is required in order to enable and handle increased density and complexity. This paper presents an exploratory effort of the needed autonomous capabilities by exploring supervised learning techniques in the context of aircraft trajectories. In particular, it focuses on the application of machine learning algorithms and neural network models to a runway recognition trajectory-classification study. It investigates the applicability and effectiveness of various classifiers using datasets containing trajectory records for a month of air traffic. A feature importance and sensitivity analysis are conducted to challenge the chosen time-based datasets and the ten selected features. The study demonstrates that classification accuracy levels of 90% and above can be reached in less than 40 seconds of training for most machine learning classifiers when one track data point, described by the ten selected features at a particular time step, per trajectory is used as input. It also shows that neural network models can achieve similar accuracy levels but at higher training time costs.

  2. Patients' Risk of Causing Traffic Violations and Traffic Accidents while Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šestan, Nevenka; Dodič Fikfak, Metoda; Balantič, Zvone

    2017-09-01

    This study examines whether drivers suffering from epilepsy, chronic alcoholism and/or hazardous drinking, psychoactive substance abuse, other diseases of the nervous system, mental and behavioural disorders, cardiovascular diseases, severe diabetes, and severe eye diseases are at a greater risk of causing traffic accidents and traffic violations than drivers that cause accidents and violations without these diagnoses. A case control study was carried out. The cases were drivers checked by a special medical committee in the period observed suffering from the diseases listed above. Matched controls were taken from the cohort of those that caused accidents and violations during the same period observed. The descriptive statistics were followed by calculation of correlations, t-tests and χ 2 , and the odds ratio. Drivers with referrals for diseases of the nervous system are five times more likely to cause a traffic accident compared to controls (OR=5.18; 95% CI=2.59-10.34); in addition, a high risk is associated with drivers with mental and behavioural disorders (OR=3.64; 95% CI=1.91-6.94), drivers with epilepsy (OR=1.99; 95% CI=1.01-3.92), and drivers addicted to alcohol (OR=1.71; 95% CI=1.01-2.89). Drivers suffering from addiction, a disease of the nervous system, or epilepsy are more likely to cause a traffic accident, which is a contribution to the inconclusive findings of previous studies. The multiple reasons for risks of patients suffering from mental and behavioural disorders need to be further investigated. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  3. Adaptive traffic signal control with actor-critic methods in a real-world traffic network with different traffic disruption events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslani, Mohammad; Mesgari, Mohammad Saadi; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The transportation demand is rapidly growing in metropolises, resulting in chronic traffic con-gestions in dense downtown areas. Adaptive traffic signal control as the principle part of in-telligent transportation systems has a primary role to effectively reduce traffic congestion by making a

  4. Self-Organized Criticality and $1/f$ Noise in Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Paczuski, Maya; Nagel, Kai

    1996-01-01

    Phantom traffic jams may emerge ``out of nowhere'' from small fluctuations rather than being triggered by large, exceptional events. We show how phantom jams arise in a model of single lane highway traffic, which mimics human driving behavior. Surprisingly, the optimal state of highest efficiency, with the largest throughput, is a critical state with traffic jams of all sizes. We demonstrate that open systems self-organize to the most efficient state. In the model we study, this critical stat...

  5. Independent Comparison of Popular DPI Tools for Traffic Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Carela-Español, Valentín; Barlet-Ros, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) is the state-of-the-art technology for traffic classification. According to the conventional wisdom, DPI is the most accurate classification technique. Consequently, most popular products, either commercial or open-source, rely on some sort of DPI for traffic classifi......Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) is the state-of-the-art technology for traffic classification. According to the conventional wisdom, DPI is the most accurate classification technique. Consequently, most popular products, either commercial or open-source, rely on some sort of DPI for traffic......, application and web service). We carefully built a labeled dataset with more than 750K flows, which contains traffic from popular applications. We used the Volunteer-Based System (VBS), developed at Aalborg University, to guarantee the correct labeling of the dataset. We released this dataset, including full...

  6. When economic growth is less than exponential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Koch, Karl-Josef; Steger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that growth theory needs a more general notion of "regularity" than that of exponential growth. We suggest that paths along which the rate of decline of the growth rate is proportional to the growth rate itself deserve attention. This opens up for considering a richer set...

  7. When Economic Growth is Less than Exponential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Koch, Karl-Josef; Steger, Thomas M.

    This paper argues that growth theory needs a more general notion of "regularity" than that of exponential growth. We suggest that paths along which the rate of decline of the growth rate is proportional to the growth rate itself deserve attention. This opens up for considering a richer set...

  8. FRIX-Traffic Analyzer And Transportation Assistant

    OpenAIRE

    Manuj Darbari,; Prateek Kumar; Singh Rakesh; Savitur Prakash

    2010-01-01

    This website specializes in giving traffic reports for a specific area. Much of our collected data comes from automatic sensors placed at various points around the motorway to monitor vehicle speeds. We have provided an accurate, up-to-date report which is normally faster than other mediums, such as radio. Typically our speed readings are updated every 3 minutes. Using this website a user can give the starting place and destination to the system. Depending on the prevalent traffic conditions,...

  9. Less than Optimal Parenting Strategies Predict Maternal Low-Level Depression beyond that of Child Transgressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; d'Entremont, Marc-Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between less than optimal parenting styles, child transgressions and maternal depression were examined. It was predicted that variations in parenting styles would predict maternal depression over and above child transgressions. The present study involved approximately 68 children, their mothers and their preschool teachers.…

  10. From Goods to Traffic:First Steps Toward an Auction-based Traffic Signal Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, Jeffery; Maskell, Simon; Sklar, Elizabeth Ida

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion is a major issue that plagues many urban road networks large and small. Traffic engineers are now leaning towards Intelligent Traffic Systems as many physical changes to road networks are costly or infeasible. Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) have become a popular paradigm for intelligent solutions to traffic management problems. There are many MAS approaches to traffic management that utilise market mechanisms. In market-based approaches, drivers “pay” to use the roadways. Howeve...

  11. A Two-Stage Fuzzy Logic Control Method of Traffic Signal Based on Traffic Urgency Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Ge

    2014-01-01

    City intersection traffic signal control is an important method to improve the efficiency of road network and alleviate traffic congestion. This paper researches traffic signal fuzzy control method on a single intersection. A two-stage traffic signal control method based on traffic urgency degree is proposed according to two-stage fuzzy inference on single intersection. At the first stage, calculate traffic urgency degree for all red phases using traffic urgency evaluation module and select t...

  12. Environmental pollution of lead in traffic air and blood of traffic policemen in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahama, Salah M; Khider, Hiba E; Mohamed, Sitt Nour H; Abuelmaali, Sara A; Elaagip, Arwa H

    2011-06-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted in Khartoum State. A total of 45 males' traffic policemen were divided into two groups according to exposure to car exhaust; n=30 taken as exposed group, n=15 taken as controls, who were not exposed to car exhaust. The study was conducted to determine lead concentrations in traffic ambient air, to determine lead levels in blood of traffic policemen, and to evaluate the effect of exposure to car exhaust on traffic policemen during January 2009. The level of lead in ambient air was determined in 14 locations which were taken randomly at the intersections and entrances to the bridges using personal sampler "Cassella, U.K". The blood samples of all policemen were analyzed by atomic absorption Spectrophotometer to determine lead levels. A questionnaire was designed to assess the adverse health effects on the traffic policemen. The degree of environmental lead pollution in traffic ambient air was found to be 0.1937 +/- 0.1768 mg/m3 with range between 0.000-0.5166 mg/m3. In seven locations out of fourteen locations lead concentrations were 0.1940 and 0.5166 above the permissible level of 0.15 mg/m3 permitted internationally. Blood lead levels on traffic policemen (exposed and control groups) were found to be 2.4691 +/- 1.4065 microg/100 ml and 0.3944 +/- 1.2471 microg/100 ml respectively and there is no significant differences between the two groups where using SPSS program. A questionnaire findings were: average age mean of 35.9 +/- 7.7 years, 47.48% worked for periods of more than 20 years, 74.19% did not work before joining the traffic police, 51.6% of them recognized traffic air pollution as a problem of high level, 45.2% of them estimated it as medium, and 3.2% as low. As habits 38.71% were smokers, and for health complaints, 61.29% have various complaints of headache, fatigue, abdominal, hypertension and anemia. All these symptoms have a close relationship with lead poisoning. When we compared the results of age groups and work

  13. Evaluation of the Auditory Pathway in Traffic Policemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Indora

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic policemen working at heavy traffic junctions are continuously exposed to high level of noise and its health consequences. Objective: To assess the hearing pathway in traffic policemen by means of brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA, mid-latency response (MLR, and slow vertex response (SVR. Methods: In this observational comparative study, BERA, MLR, and SVR were tested in 35 male traffic policemen with field posting of more than 3 years. 35 age-matched men working in our college served as controls. Results: Increase in the latencies of waves I and III of BERA, and IPL I-III were observed. Compared to controls, the MLR and SVR waves showed no significant changes in studied policemen. Conclusion: We found that chronic exposure of traffic policemen to noise resulted in delayed conduction in peripheral part of the auditory pathway, ie, auditory nerve up to the level of superior olivary nucleus; no impairment was observed at the level of sub-cortical, cortical, or the association areas.

  14. A Multi-Agent Traffic Control Model Based on Distributed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian WU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of urbanization construction, urban travel has become a quite thorny and imminent problem. Some previous researches on the large urban traffic systems easily change into NPC problems. We purpose a multi-agent inductive control model based on the distributed approach. To describe the real traffic scene, this model designs four different types of intelligent agents, i.e. we regard each lane, route, intersection and traffic region as different types of intelligent agents. Each agent can achieve the real-time traffic data from its neighbor agents, and decision-making agents establish real-time traffic signal plans through the communication between local agents and their neighbor agents. To evaluate the traffic system, this paper takes the average delay, the stopped time and the average speed as performance parameters. Finally, the distributed multi-agent is simulated on the VISSIM simulation platform, the simulation results show that the multi-agent system is more effective than the adaptive control system in solving the traffic congestion.

  15. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu

    2009-10-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  16. Citizen Science for Traffic Planning: A Practical Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Matthes; Stasch, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; de Wall, Arne; Remke, Albert; Wulffius, Herwig; Jirka, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Measures affecting traffic flows in urban areas, e.g. changing the configuration of traffic lights, are often causing emotional debates by citizens who are affected by these measures. Up to now, citizens are usually not involved in traffic planning and the evaluation of the decisions that were taken. The enviroCar project provides an open platform for collecting and analyzing car sensor data with GPS position data. On the hardware side, enviroCar relies on using Android smartphones and OBD-II Bluetooth adapters. A Web server component collects and aggregates the readings from the cars, anonymizes them and publishes the data as open data which scientists, public administrations or other third parties can utilize for further analysis. In this work, we provide a general overview on the enviroCar project and present a project in a mid-size city in Germany. The city's administration utilized the enviroCar platform with the help of a traffic system consultancy for including citizens in the evaluation process of different traffic light configurations along major traffic axes. Therefore, a public campaign was started including local workshops to engage the citizens. More than 150 citizens were actively collecting more about 9.500 tracks including about 2.5 million measurements. Dedicated evaluation results for the different traffic axes were computed based on the collected data set. Because the data is publicly available as open data, others may prove and reproduce the evaluation results contributing to an objective discussion of traffic planning measures. In summary, the project illustrates how Citizen Science methods and technologies improve traffic planning and related discussions.

  17. Analysis of vehicular traffic flow in the major areas of Kuala Lumpur utilizing open-traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Saargunawathy; Ali, Muhammad; Yusof, Kamaludin Mohamad; Suhaili, Ramdhan

    2017-09-01

    Vehicular traffic congestion occurs when a large number of drivers are overcrowded on the road and the traffic flow does not run smoothly. Traffic congestion causes chaos on the road and interruption to daily activities of users. Time consumed on road give lots of negative effects on productivity, social behavior, environmental and cost to economy. Congestion is worsens and leads to havoc during the emergency such as flood, accidents, road maintenance and etc., where behavior of traffic flow is always unpredictable and uncontrollable. Real-time and historical traffic data are critical inputs for most traffic flow analysis applications. Researcher attempt to predict traffic using simulations as there is no exact model of traffic flow exists due to its high complexity. Open Traffic is an open source platform available for traffic data analysis linked to Open Street Map (OSM). This research is aimed to study and understand the Open Traffic platform. The real-time traffic flow pattern in Kuala Lumpur area was successfully been extracted and analyzed using Open Traffic. It was observed that the congestion occurs on every major road in Kuala Lumpur and most of it owes to the offices and the economic and commercial centers during rush hours. At some roads the congestion occurs at night due to the tourism activities.

  18. Air pollution burden of illness from traffic in Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, D.; Campbell, M.; Bassil, K.; Morgan, C.; Lalani, M.; Macfarlane, R.; Bienefeld, M.

    2007-11-01

    This paper examined the health impacts of air pollution from traffic in Toronto. The paper provided a review of scientific studies on the health effects of vehicle pollution as well as a quantitative assessment of the economic costs and the burden of illness attributed to traffic pollution in Toronto. The report also assessed air pollution and traffic trends in the city, and outlined initiatives being conducted to reduce vehicle-related pollution. The study used the new air quality benefits tool (AQBAT) which determines the burden of illness and the economic impacts of traffic-related air pollution. Air modelling specialists were consulted in order to determine the contribution of traffic-related pollutants to overall pollution levels using data on traffic counts and vehicle emissions factors. The air model also considered dispersion, transport and and the transformation of compounds emitted from vehicles. Results of the study showed that traffic pollution caused approximately 440 premature deaths and 1700 hospitalizations per year. Children in the city experienced more than 1200 acute bronchitis episodes per year as a result of air pollution from traffic. Mortality-related costs associated with traffic pollution in Toronto were estimated at $2.2 billion. It was concluded that the city must pursue the implementation of sustainable transportation policies and programs which foster and enable the expansion and use of public transport. 47 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  19. Identification of Risk Factors Influencing Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Touahmia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs are becoming a major problem around the world, incurring enormous losses of human and economic resources. Recent reports from the World Health Organization (WHO reveal that each year more than 1.25 million people are killed and 50 million are injured in road traffic accidents worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, statistics show that at least one traffic accident occurs every minute, causing up to 7,000 deaths and over 39,000 injuries annually. In this study, the main causes of RATs in the province of Hail are examined. The data was collected through the use of a survey which was developed to evaluate the effect of influencing parameters on RTA rate. The results show that 67% of RTAs result from human factors, 29% from road conditions and 4% from vehicle defects. Excessive speed and violation of traffic rules and regulations were found to be the main causes of RATs. Low rates of compliance with speed limit signs and seat-belt regulations were also observed. These findings highlight the need of strengthening effective traffic law enforcement alongside with improving traffic safety and raising public awareness.

  20. Traffic safety strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sadauskas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of the number of vehicles is closely related not only to large benefit for the public but also to certain undesirable social and economic consequences. Firstly - large numbers of injured and killed people are involved into the accidents. The target to improve traffic safety situation in Lithuania can be reached only after the detailed evaluation of transport system, environment, traffic participants, road and vehicle. Taking into consideration the accident situation in Lithuania and its causes the followings priority trends are suggested: The improvement of the coordination of road traffic safety system, the training and education of road users, the explanation of the importance of traffic safety and its propagation, the improvement of traffic conditions. Recommendations and proposals for differentiated criterion of maximum speed limit selection taking into account different factors are provided in the work.

  1. Travelers ability to observe changes in traffic intensities and traffic light settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Do, Michael; Middag, Wilco; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart; ITSC,

    2011-01-01

    Travel choice behavior is an important determinant in traffic and subject to human imperfection and bounded rationality. In decision-making processes travelers seldom act perfectly rational. Traffic models and traffic network management measure could become more realistic and effective, if

  2. Safety perceptions and behavior related to cycling in mixed traffic: A comparison between Brisbane and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chataway, Elijah Steven; Kaplan, Sigal; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2014-01-01

    -based survey administered among cyclists in the two cities. Elicited items concerned perceived risk of infrastructure layouts, fear of traffic, cycling while distracted, use of safety gear, cycling avoidance due to feeling unsafe, and avoidance to cycle in mixed traffic conditions. The data were analyzed...... with structural equation models. Results show that, in comparison with cyclists in Copenhagen, cyclists in Brisbane perceive mixed traffic infrastructure layouts as less safe, feel more fear of traffic, and are more likely to adopt cycling avoidance as a coping strategy. Results also show that cyclists...

  3. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; de Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  4. Real Time Traffic Models, Decision Support for Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, L.; De Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  5. Remark on the Causes of Traffic Accidents and Traffic Awareness: Examples of Usak Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan ÖZEN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents cause important losses on the social and economics structure of countries. While economic losses are able to be compensated in a short time, it isn’t possible to compensate social and communal losses. This study tackles with not the economic aspect of traffic accidents but the social dimension, evaluates the causes of the traffic accidents with respect to views of individuals on traffic and aims to measure the levels of awareness of individuals about traffic. To achieve these goals, a group of 506 people were surveyed in Uşak province and the acquired data were analyzed via one-way ANOVA test in SPSS 16 program. According to the analysis results, drivers and pedestrians are considered to have significant flaws in traffic accidents. But alongside this thought, the idea that traffic accidents are caused by the road having technical and physical problems has come to the fore. This results present a valid motive for the established approach “Vision Zero” , being practised in Sweden, to be adopted in Turkey. When the level of awareness about traffic is examined, it is seen that individuals generally have got inadequate information related traffic rules and traffic authorities. Besides, the fact that individuals are inadequate in terms of courtesy and respect in traffic and that more serious efforts on traffic education is needed to be spent come out as the important findings of this study. The findings of this study can be thought as a directive tool to the policy makers.

  6. Self-Adapting Routing Overlay Network for Frequently Changing Application Traffic in Content-Based Publish/Subscribe System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the large-scale distributed simulation area, the topology of the overlay network cannot always rapidly adapt to frequently changing application traffic to reduce the overall traffic cost. In this paper, we propose a self-adapting routing strategy for frequently changing application traffic in content-based publish/subscribe system. The strategy firstly trains the traffic information and then uses this training information to predict the application traffic in the future. Finally, the strategy reconfigures the topology of the overlay network based on this predicting information to reduce the overall traffic cost. A predicting path is also introduced in this paper to reduce the reconfiguration numbers in the process of the reconfigurations. Compared to other strategies, the experimental results show that the strategy proposed in this paper could reduce the overall traffic cost of the publish/subscribe system in less reconfigurations.

  7. Evaluation of diversion strategies in the context of advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) for an urban traffic corridor with heterogeneous traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korlapati, D.R.

    2007-07-01

    Due to urbanization and accelerated growth in vehicular traffic, most big cities in India face problems related to traffic management resulting in severe congestion, pollution, and a high rate of accidents during peak hours. Lane blocking incidents on arterials or urban traffic corridors cause major disruption to traffic flow. Peak hour congestion with low average speeds and high accident rates are commonly associated with traffic in major cities in India. The situation is deteriorating further as creation of new facilities are almost impossible, with resource and space constraints. In such scenarios, application of advanced technologies seems to offer hope. One such application area is Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS), a component of intelligent transportation system (ITS). Due to the unique traffic characteristics prevailing in India, the application of such systems needs to first be evaluated before implementation. This paper proposed a research methodology for the evaluation of diversion strategies in the context of ATMS for an urban corridor in India. The evaluation framework combined several relevant modules related to various aspects of traffic control, surveillance and advisory. As part of this study, a simulation model and a simulation optimization model were developed. The simulation model was microscopic in nature and captured the driver behaviour and traffic characteristics realistically by modeling the complex interactions among vehicles traversing a corridor. It was concluded that the results and observations were useful indicators to gauge the potential success of diversion plans. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. Examining perimeter gating control of urban traffic networkswith locally adaptive traffic signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyvan Ekbatani, M.; Gao, X.; Gayah, V.V.; Knoop, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, urban traffic is controlled by traffic lights. Recent findings of the Macroscopic or Network Fundamental Diagram (MFD or NFD) have led to the development of novel traffic control strategies that can be applied at a networkwide level. One pertinent example is perimeter flow control

  9. Social justifications for moral emotions: when reasons for disgust are less elaborated than for anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Pascale Sophie; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2011-06-01

    In the present research, we tested the unreasoning disgust hypothesis: moral disgust, in particular in response to a violation of a bodily norm, is less likely than moral anger to be justified with cognitively elaborated reasons. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to explain why they felt anger and disgust toward pedophiles. Participants were more likely to invoke elaborated reasons, versus merely evaluative responses, when explaining their anger, versus disgust. Experiment 2 used a between-participants design; participants explained why they felt either anger or disgust toward seven groups that either violated a sexual or nonsexual norm. Again, elaborated reasons were less prevalent when explaining their disgust versus anger and, in particular, when explaining disgust toward a group that violated a sexual norm. Experiment 3 further established that these findings are due to a lower accessibility of elaborated reasons for bodily disgust, rather than inhibition in using them when provided. From these findings, it can be concluded that communicating external reasons for moral disgust at bodily violations is made more difficult due to the unavailability of those reasons to people.

  10. Management of developmental dysplasia of the hip in less than 24 months old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no consensus on the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip in children less than 24 months of age. The aim of this study was to present the results of open reduction and concomitant primary soft-tissue intervention in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip in children less than 24 months of age. Materials and Methods: Sixty hips of 50 patients (4 male, 46 female with mean age of 14.62 ± 5.88 (range 5-24 months months with a mean followup of 40.00 ± 6.22 (range 24-58 months months were included. Twenty five right and 35 left hips (10 bilaterally involved were operated. Open reduction was performed using the medial approach in patients aged < 20 months (with Tönnis type II-III and IV hip dysplasias and for those aged 20-24 months with Tönnis type II and III hip dysplasias ( n = 47. However for 13 patients aged 20-24 months with Tönnis type IV hip dysplasias, anterior bikini incision was used. Results: Mean acetabular index was 41.03 ± 3.78° (range 34°-50° in the preoperative period and 22.98 ± 3.01° (range 15°-32° at the final visits. Mean center-edge angle at the final visits was 22.85 ± 3.35° (18°-32°. Based on Severin radiological classification, 29 (48.3% were type I (very good, 25 (41.7% were type II (good and 6 (10% were type III (fair hips. According to the McKay clinical classification, postoperatively the hips were evaluated as excellent ( n = 42; 70%, good ( n = 14; 23.3% and fair ( n = 4; 6.7%. Reduction of all hip dislocations was achieved. Additional pelvic osteotomies were performed in 14 (23.3% hips for continued acetabular dysplasia and recurrent subluxation. (Salter [ n = 12]/Pemberton [ n = 2] osteotomy was performed. Avascular necrosis (AVN developed in 7 (11.7% hips. Conclusion: In DDH only soft-tissue procedures are not enough, because of the high rate of the secondary surgery and AVN for all cases aged less than 24 months. Bone procedures may be necessary in the walking

  11. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P swimming (P swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Traffic management simulation development : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, Florida traffic is monitored electronically by components of the Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), which send data to regional traffic management centers and assist management of traffic flows and incident response using software called...

  13. A prospect theory explanation of the disposition to trade losing investments for less than market price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, D J

    2002-06-01

    Investors have a proven general reluctance to realize losses. The theory of "mental accounting" suggests that losses are easier to accept when mentally integrated with either preceding losses or with compensatory gains. Mental integration is made easier when a failed asset is exchanged against a new, apparently profitable, acquisition. The alternative is to sell the existing asset on the open market before re-investing the proceeds as desired. This is emotionally less appealing than "rolling over" a losing investment into a new venture by way of an asset trade. The psychological benefits of exchanging rather than selling a failed asset come at a cost. It is typical of trade-in arrangements, e.g., where one trades an old car against a new one, that the effective sale price of the existing asset is less than current market value. Acceptance of this low price adds to the investor's total monetary loss on the existing asset but is essential to an overall package deal apart from which that asset would often remain belatedly unsold.

  14. Why Are Girls Less Physically Active than Boys? Findings from the LOOK Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan M Telford

    Full Text Available A gender-based disparity in physical activity (PA among youth, whereby girls are less active than boys is a persistent finding in the literature. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying this difference has potential to guide PA intervention strategies.Data were collected at age 8 and 12 years (276 boys, 279 girls from 29 schools as part of the LOOK study. Multilevel linear models were fitted separately for boys and girls to examine effects of individual, family and environmental level correlates on pedometer measured PA. Cardio-respiratory fitness (multi-stage run, percent fat (DEXA, eye-hand coordination (throw and catch test and perceived competence in physical education (questionnaire were used as individual level correlates. At the family level, parent's support and education (questionnaire were used. School attended and extracurricular sport participation were included as environmental level correlates.Girls were 19% less active than boys (9420 vs 11360 steps/day, p<0.001, 95%CI [1844, 2626]. Lower PA among girls was associated with weaker influences at the school and family levels and through lower participation in extracurricular sport. School attended explained some of the variation in boys PA (8.4% but not girls. Girls compared to boys had less favourable individual attributes associated with PA at age 8 years, including 18% lower cardio-respiratory fitness (3.5 vs 4.2, p<0.001, CI [0.5,0.9], 44% lower eye-hand coordination (11.0 vs 17.3, p<0.001, CI [5.1,9.0], higher percent body fat (28% vs 23%, p<0.001, CI [3.5,5.7] and 9% lower perceived competence in physical education (7.7 vs 8.4, p<0.001, CI [0.2,0.9]. Participation in extracurricular sport at either age 8 or 12 years was protective against declines in PA over time among boys but not girls.Girls PA was less favourably influenced by socio-ecological factors at the individual, family, school and environmental levels. These factors are potentially modifiable suggesting

  15. Fibrous cartilage of human menisci is less shock-absorbing and energy-dissipating than hyaline cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, Mario; Wirz, Dieter; Ronken, Sarah; Hafner, Mirjam; Göpfert, Beat; Friederich, Niklaus F; Elke, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    To test meniscal mechanical properties such as the dynamic modulus of elasticity E* and the loss angle δ at two loading frequencies ω at different locations of the menisci and compare it to E* and δ of hyaline cartilage in indentation mode with spherical indenters. On nine pairs of human menisci, the dynamic E*-modulus and loss angle δ (as a measure of the energy dissipation) were determined. The measurements were performed at two different strain rates (slow sinusoidal and fast single impact) to show the strain rate dependence of the material. The measurements were compared to previous similar measurements with the same equipment on human hyaline cartilage. The resultant E* at fast indentation (median 1.16 MPa) was significantly higher, and the loss angle was significantly lower (median 10.2°) compared to slow-loading mode's E* and δ (median 0.18 MPa and 16.9°, respectively). Further, significant differences for different locations are shown. On the medial meniscus, the anterior horn shows the highest resultant dynamic modulus. In dynamic measurements with a spherical indenter, the menisci are much softer and less energy-dissipating than hyaline cartilage. Further, the menisci are stiffer and less energy-dissipating in the middle, intermediate part compared to the meniscal base. In compression, the energy dissipation of meniscus cartilage plays a minor role compared to hyaline cartilage. At high impacts, energy dissipation is less than on low impacts, similar to cartilage.

  16. enviroCar - citizen science for sustainable traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Christoph; Remke, Albert; Jirka, Simon; Nuest, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Optimizing traffic flow is a challenging task, affecting both the mobility of people and the environment. Up to now, traffic monitoring is based on small samples using GPS devices or remote sensors such as cameras. Citizens are usually not actively involved in the process of collecting or analyzing traffic data. The enviroCar project (www.envirocar.org) aims at addressing this situation by providing an open platform that can be used by everyone to collect and analyze traffic-related data and thus to achieve sustainable traffic management by answering questions such as: How is the average speed on a certain route? Where are exceptionally long waiting times in front of traffic lights? At which crossings do more cars stop than drive through? Where are hotspots of fuel consumption and air pollutant emission during a certain time interval? In this presentation, an overview on the enviroCar project is given and current research challenges addressed in the context of the project are presented. Citizens are able to participate by registering at the enviroCar portal and downloading the enviroCar Android app. Once installed, the Android app allows citizens to collect car sensor data, e.g. speed, mass air flow, or intake temperature via an On-Board Diagnosis 2 (OBD-II) Adapter. After finishing a car ride, the data can be uploaded to the central enviroCar server where the data is anonymized and published as open data. Each enviroCar member has a profile page giving control on his own data and providing statistics on personal driving behavior. The portal also allows comparing personal statistics with the statistics of other members. It thus facilitates analysis whether, for example, a member is driving in a more fuel saving manner than other users. Besides only acting as a data collector, citizens can also explore the enviroCar data in online maps or download the data in standard formats for certain spatial areas and/or time intervals allowing them to conduct spatio

  17. Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Margie

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road traffic crashes every year and 20 million to 50 million more are injured or disabled. These injuries account for 2.1% of global mortality and 2.6% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Low- and middle-income countries account for about 85% of the deaths and 90% of the DALYs lost annually. Without appropriate action, by 2020, road traffic injuries are predicted to be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The economic cost of road traffic crashes is enormous. Globally it is estimated that US$518 billion is spent on road traffic crashes with low- and middle-income countries accounting for US$65 billion--more than these countries receive in development assistance. But these costs are just the tip of the iceberg. For everyone killed, injured or disabled by a road traffic crash there are countless others deeply affected. Many families are driven into poverty by the expenses of prolonged medical care, loss of a family breadwinner or the added burden of caring for the disabled. There is an urgent need for global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. Since 2000, WHO has stepped up its response to the road safety crisis by firstly developing a 5-year strategy for road traffic injury prevention and following this by dedicating World Health Day 2004 to road safety and launching the WHO/World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention at the global World Health Day event in Paris, France. This short article highlights the main messages from the World Report and the six recommendations for action on road safety at a national and international level. It goes on to briefly discuss other international achievements since World Health Day and calls for countries to take up the challenge of implementing the recommendations of the World Report.

  18. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  19. The role of spirituality as a coping mechanism for South African traffic officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Jacobs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic officers are faced with many stressful situations, yet each traffic officer might cope differently with these stressors. Spirituality is regarded as an essential defence in stressful situations. Therefore, this article provides a basic framework guiding traffic officers and practitioners, on how spirituality can be used as a coping mechanism when faced with various work-related stressors. An interpretative, qualitative study was conducted utilising purposive sampling in which 10 traffic officers participated in in-depth interviews. In line with the interpretive paradigm, data were analysed using content analysis. The research findings indicate when utilising spirituality to various degrees in their workplace, traffic officers displayed adaptive coping capabilities. Traffic officers associated less spirituality or a lack thereof with weaker coping capability. Furthermore, spirituality in traffic officers is informed by their spiritual or religious foundation, their purpose in work and life, their connection to a spiritual source, and the fruits of spirituality. The coping ability of traffic officers is influenced by their upbringing and background, by stressors in their work environment and by their coping mechanisms. The role of spirituality in the coping of traffic officers culminated in their ability to interpret the meaning of spirituality, and then implementing spirituality as a coping mechanism.

  20. High-level traffic-violation detection for embedded traffic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, J.A.; de Koning, A.H.M.; Han, Jungong; de With, P.H.N.; Cornelissen, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a robust and real-time traffic-violation detection system for cameras on intersections. We use background segmentation and a novel road-model to obtain the candidate traffic participants. A region-based tracking system, equipped with static occlusion-reasoning,

  1. Theoretical Aspects of Erroneous Actions During the Process of Decision Making by Air Traffic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersone Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Theoretical Aspects of Erroneous Actions During the Process of Decision Making by Air Traffic Control evaluates the factors affecting the operational decision-making of a human air traffic controller, interacting in a dynamic environment with the flight crew, surrounding aircraft traffic and environmental conditions of the airspace. This article reviews the challenges of air traffic control in different conditions, ranging from normal and complex to emergency and catastrophic. Workload factors and operating conditions make an impact on air traffic controllers’ decision-making. The proposed model compares various operating conditions within an assumed air traffic control environment subsequently comparing them against a theoretically “perfect” air traffic control system. A mathematical model of flight safety assessment has been proposed for the quantitative assessment of various hazards arising during the process of Air Traffic Control. The model assumes events of various severity and probability ranging from high frequency and low severity up to less likely and catastrophic ones. Certain limitations of the model have been recognised and further improvements for effective hazard evaluation have been suggested.

  2. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; He, Hongshen

    2016-01-01

    Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish) under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise). We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions.

  3. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise. We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions.

  4. Traffic Accident Propagation Properties and Control Measures for Urban Links Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-sheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two of the typical methods used at present to study the traffic congestion propagation properties. The latter was more widespread as it is more consistent with the actual traffic flow and more visual than the former. In this paper, an improved cellular automata (CA model was presented to analyze traffic congestion propagation properties and to evaluate control strategies. In order to apply them to urban traffic flow simulation, the CA models have been improved and expanded on. Computer simulations were built for congestion not only extending to the upstream intersection, but also the upstream intersection and the entire road network, respectively. Congestion propagation characteristics after road traffic accidents were obtained, and controls of different severities and durations were analyzed. The results provide the theoretical foundation and practical means for the control of congestion.

  5. Right-­turn traffic volume adjustment in traffic signal warrant analysis : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    This report was based on the research project, Right-Turn Traffic Volume Adjustment in Traffic Signal Warrants, sponsored by the Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) and SOLARIS. Right-turn traffic does not affect intersection performance in th...

  6. Emotional reactivity: Beware its involvement in traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'bailara, Katia; Atzeni, Thierry; Contrand, Benjamin; Derguy, Cyrielle; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Galéra, Cédric

    2018-04-01

    Reducing risk attributable to traffic accidents is a public health challenge. Research into risk factors in the area is now moving towards identification of the psychological factors involved, particularly emotional states. The aim of this study was to evaluate the link between emotional reactivity and responsibility in road traffic accidents. We hypothesized that the more one's emotional reactivity is disturbed, the greater the likelihood of being responsible for a traffic accident. This case-control study was based on a sample of 955 drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash. Responsibility levels were determined with a standardized method adapted from the quantitative Robertson and Drummer crash responsibility instrument. Emotional reactivity was assessed with the MATHYS. Hierarchical cluster analysis discriminated four distinctive driver's emotional reactivity profiles: basic emotional reactivity (54%), mild emotional hyper-reactivity (29%), emotional hyper-reactivity (11%) and emotional hypo-reactivity (6%). Drivers who demonstrated emotional hypo-reactivity had a 2.3-fold greater risk of being responsible for a traffic accident than those with basic emotional reactivity. Drivers' responsibility in traffic accidents depends on their emotional status. The latter can change the ability of drivers, modifying their behavior and thus increasing their propensity to exhibit risk behavior and to cause traffic accidents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight among Mothers Exposed to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, Mateus; Gouveia, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Background Atmospheric pollution is a major public health concern. It can affect placental function and restricts fetal growth. However, scientific knowledge remains too limited to make inferences regarding causal associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse effects on pregnancy. This study evaluated the association between low birth weight (LBW) and maternal exposure during pregnancy to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods and findings Analysis included 5,772 cases of term-LBW (<2,500 g) and 5,814 controls matched by sex and month of birth selected from the birth registration system. Mothers’ addresses were geocoded to estimate exposure according to 3 indicators: distance from home to heavy traffic roads, distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) and levels of particulate matter ≤10 µg/m3 estimated through land use regression (LUR-PM10). Final models were evaluated using multiple logistic regression adjusting for birth, maternal and pregnancy characteristics. We found decreased odds in the risk of LBW associated with DWTD and LUR-PM10 in the highest quartiles of exposure with a significant linear trend of decrease in risk. The analysis with distance from heavy traffic roads was less consistent. It was also observed that mothers with higher education and neighborhood-level income were potentially more exposed to TRAP. Conclusions This study found an unexpected decreased risk of LBW associated with traffic related air pollution. Mothers with advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) although residing in areas of higher vehicular traffic might not in fact be more expose to air pollution. It can also be that the protection against LBW arising from a better SEP is stronger than the effect of exposure to air pollution, and this exposure may not be sufficient to increase the risk of LBW for these mothers. PMID:25426640

  8. SOME EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TRAVEL SPEED, TRAFFIC VOLUME AND TRAFFIC COMPOSITION IN URBAN ARTERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni I. VLAHOGIANNI, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traffic mix (the percentage of cars, trucks, buses and so on are of particular interest in the speed-volume relationship in urban signalized arterials under various geometric and control characteristics. The paper presents some empirical observations on the relation between travel speed, traffic volume and traffic composition in urban signalized arterials. A methodology based on emerging self-organizing structures of neural networks to identify regions in the speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition and Bayesian networks to evaluate the effect of different types of motorized vehicles on prevailing traffic conditions is proposed. Results based on data from a large urban network indicate that the variability in traffic conditions can be described by eight regions in speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition. Further evaluation of the effect of motorized vehicles in each region separately indicates that the effect of traffic composition decreases with the onset of congestion. Moreover, taxis and motorcycles are the primary affecting parameter of the form of the speed-volume relationship in urban arterials.

  9. Modeling Air Traffic Situation Complexity with a Dynamic Weighted Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the flight delays and risks associated with the forecasted increase in air traffic, there is a need to increase the capacity of air traffic management systems. This should be based on objective measurements of traffic situation complexity. In current air traffic complexity research, no simple means is available to integrate airspace and traffic flow characteristics. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the measurement of air traffic situation complexity. This approach considers the effects of both airspace and traffic flow and objectively quantifies air traffic situation complexity. Considering the aircraft, waypoints, and airways as nodes, and the complexity relationships among these nodes as edges, a dynamic weighted network is constructed. Air traffic situation complexity is defined as the sum of the weights of all edges in the network, and the relationships of complexity with some commonly used indices are statistically analyzed. The results indicate that the new complexity index is more accurate than traffic count and reflects the number of trajectory changes as well as the high-risk situations. Additionally, analysis of potential applications reveals that this new index contributes to achieving complexity-based management, which represents an efficient method for increasing airspace system capacity.

  10. Pedestrian Traffic Conditions of Rural Roads and Built-Up Areas: The Analysis of the Existing Situation and Possibilities of Improving Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemunas Abukauskas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of lengthy thorough investigations into traffic safety situation show that the percentage of pedestrians getting involved in road traffic accidents on Lithuanian roads is significantly higher (more than 33 % of the total number of injury and fatal accidents than that compared to the other European Union member-states. The article studies traffic safety problems and their factors causing the largest influence on the occurrence of these accidents. Considering valuable experience gained by foreign countries, investigation was carried out to establish general and main factors causing insufficient road safety conditions and significance of these factors to road safety. The article also shows the main activity improving road safety in Lithuania and discusses the effectiveness of strategic and local (temporary and long term measures to improve conditions for pedestrian road safety. Article in Lithuanian

  11. The impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeibe, Christian; Ilo, Chukwudi; Oguonu, Chika; Ali, Alphonsus; Abada, Ifeanyi; Ezeibe, Ezinwanne; Oguonu, Chukwunonso; Abada, Felicia; Izueke, Edwin; Agbo, Humphrey

    2018-04-04

    This study assesses the impact of traffic sign deficit on road traffic accidents in Nigeria. The participants were 720 commercial vehicle drivers. While simple random sampling was used to select 6 out of 137 federal highways, stratified random sampling was used to select six categories of commercial vehicle drivers. The study used qual-dominant mixed methods approach comprising key informant interviews; group interviews; field observation; policy appraisal and secondary literature on traffic signs. Result shows that the failure of government to provide and maintain traffic signs in order to guide road users through the numerous accident black spots on the highways is the major cause of road accidents in Nigeria. The study argues that provision and maintenance of traffic signs present opportunity to promoting safety on the highways and achieving the sustainable development goals.

  12. Using Traffic Conflict Method in Evaluating Traffic Safety at the Reconstructed Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bukljaš

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of organised social system, traffic is subjected togeneral social tendency towards adequate safety and sustainabilityof relations in such a system, probabilistically marked bythe risk of danger. Inte1polation of subjective factor facilitatesthe occwTence of negative phenomena. Road traffic system ischaracterised by extremely massive participation in traffic, contributingthus to a greater possibility of negative features characteristicfor imperfect human mechanism. This is precisely thereason why this paper deals with the problem of traffic safety onthe concrete example of the intersection between the SavskaStreet and the Slavonska and LjubljanskaAvenues over the periodof time prior to constmcting the new unde1pass solution,and the period of time immediately after the construction workswere completed. The used data have been provided by the TrafficPolice Department - Lucko.

  13. 49 CFR Appendix II to Subpart A of... - Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier... to Subpart A of Part 1139—Financial Ratios (Traffic and Cost Study Carrier _____) [Complete appendix... shareholders' equity less intangibles L. 7+L. 18 $ $ $ 20 Operating ratio (2 decimals) L. 11÷L. 9 % % % 21...

  14. Traffic congestion forecasting model for the INFORM System. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarm, A.; Mughabghab, S.; Stock, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a computerized traffic forecasting model, developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a portion of the Long Island INFORM Traffic Corridor. The model has gone through a testing phase, and currently is able to make accurate traffic predictions up to one hour forward in time. The model will eventually take on-line traffic data from the INFORM system roadway sensors and make projections as to future traffic patterns, thus allowing operators at the New York State Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) INFORM Traffic Management Center to more optimally manage traffic. It can also form the basis of a travel information system. The BNL computer model developed for this project is called ATOP for Advanced Traffic Occupancy Prediction. The various modules of the ATOP computer code are currently written in Fortran and run on PC computers (pentium machine) faster than real time for the section of the INFORM corridor under study. The following summarizes the various routines currently contained in the ATOP code: Statistical forecasting of traffic flow and occupancy using historical data for similar days and time (long term knowledge), and the recent information from the past hour (short term knowledge). Estimation of the empirical relationships between traffic flow and occupancy using long and short term information. Mechanistic interpolation using macroscopic traffic models and based on the traffic flow and occupancy forecasted (item-1), and the empirical relationships (item-2) for the specific highway configuration at the time of simulation (construction, lane closure, etc.). Statistical routine for detection and classification of anomalies and their impact on the highway capacity which are fed back to previous items.

  15. Traffic risk behaviors at nightlife: drinking, taking drugs, driving, and use of public transport by young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, A; Blay, N; Juan, M; Adrover, D; Bellis, M A; Hughes, K; Stocco, P; Siamou, I; Mendes, F; Bohrn, K

    2009-04-01

    Road traffic crashes associated with nightlife alcohol and recreational drug use are a major health problem for young people. This study explores use of different forms of transport to and from nightlife environments and the relationships between traffic risk behaviors, drunkenness, and drug consumption. 1363 regular nightlife users from nine European cities in 2006 completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire. Sampling utilized a variation of respondent-driven sampling. Private car was the most frequent form of transport used when going out, especially by males and older individuals. Drug use was related to crashes and traffic risk behaviors, including having a lift from someone drunk or driving drunk or driving having taken drugs; drunkenness was related to risk behaviors but not to crashes (possibly because drunk people tend to use the private car less). Males showed higher levels of drunkenness and drug consumption, traffic risk behaviors, and traffic crashes. Age is not related to the traffic risk behaviors, but older individuals had less crashes. There are serious health problems related to transport and recreational nightlife activities. It is necessary to improve later public transport services, complemented by actions that deter the use of private cars. The relationships of both drunkenness and cannabis/cocaine use with traffic risk behaviors should be addressed and programs implemented to change risk perceptions on the effects of illegal drugs on driving.

  16. [Nutritional state associated with social determinants in Arhuaco children aged less than 5 years-old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mónica; Tarazona, María C; Lamus, Francisco; Granados, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Misinformation concerning indigenous communities is an obstacle to ascertaining their healthcare status; however, the role of malnutrition concerning their morbidity and mortality is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to ascertain food security levels and identify social determinants and their association with the nutritional status of children aged less than five years-old. This was a cross-sectional, analytical study of an Arhuaco population which used non-probability sampling for convenience. Anthropometry included analyzing weight, length and head circumference based on WHO 2006 references for nutritional diagnosis. Social determinants were obtained using an instrument adapted from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Relevant ethical considerations were taken into account. 169 children were evaluated and 132 surveys conducted. Growth delay regarding size was less frequent in children aged less than 6 months (p=0.03)and acute malnutrition was higher in those who went to see a traditional doctor first (p=0.01) and whose mothers had no formal schooling (p=0.05); the latter association was also found regarding obesity (p=0.00) and in those having risk factors concerning neurodevelopment too (p=0.00). Nutritional transition was higher in males (p=0.03), in children lacking complete vaccination (p=0.03) and in those whose mothers had 4 or fewer children (p=0.00). Strategies aimed at taking action regarding acute malnutrition and being overweight must be formulated, plans for monitoring growth in this population must be promoted and communication between traditional and Western medicine must be optimized, involving mothers as the main actors.

  17. Modelling the effects of road traffic safety measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng

    2006-05-01

    A model is presented for assessing the effects of traffic safety measures, based on a breakdown of the process in underlying components of traffic safety (risk and consequence), and five (speed and conflict related) variables that influence these components, and are influenced by traffic safety measures. The relationships between measures, variables and components are modelled as coefficients. The focus is on probabilities rather than historical statistics, although in practice statistics may be needed to find values for the coefficients. The model may in general contribute to improve insight in the mechanisms between traffic safety measures and their safety effects. More specifically it allows comparative analysis of different types of measures by defining an effectiveness index, based on the coefficients. This index can be used to estimate absolute effects of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) related measures from absolute effects of substitutional (in terms of safety effects) infrastructure measures.

  18. A Hidden Markov Model for Urban-Scale Traffic Estimation Using Floating Car Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Peng, Ling; Chi, Tianhe; Li, Mengzhu; Yao, Xiaojing; Shao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Urban-scale traffic monitoring plays a vital role in reducing traffic congestion. Owing to its low cost and wide coverage, floating car data (FCD) serves as a novel approach to collecting traffic data. However, sparse probe data represents the vast majority of the data available on arterial roads in most urban environments. In order to overcome the problem of data sparseness, this paper proposes a hidden Markov model (HMM)-based traffic estimation model, in which the traffic condition on a road segment is considered as a hidden state that can be estimated according to the conditions of road segments having similar traffic characteristics. An algorithm based on clustering and pattern mining rather than on adjacency relationships is proposed to find clusters with road segments having similar traffic characteristics. A multi-clustering strategy is adopted to achieve a trade-off between clustering accuracy and coverage. Finally, the proposed model is designed and implemented on the basis of a real-time algorithm. Results of experiments based on real FCD confirm the applicability, accuracy, and efficiency of the model. In addition, the results indicate that the model is practicable for traffic estimation on urban arterials and works well even when more than 70% of the probe data are missing.

  19. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web...

  20. Research on the Method of Traffic Organization and Optimization Based on Dynamic Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-bin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern transportation system is becoming sluggish by traffic jams, so much so that it can harm the economic and society in our country. One of the reasons is the surging vehicles day by day. Another reason is the shortage of the traffic supply seriously. But the most important reason is that the traffic organization and optimization hardly met the conditions of modern transport development. In this paper, the practical method of the traffic organization and optimization used in regional area is explored by the dynamic traffic network analysis method. Firstly, the operational states of the regional traffic network are obtained by simulation method based on the self-developed traffic simulation software DynaCHINA, in which the improved traffic flow simulation model was proposed in order to be more suitable for actual domestic urban transport situation. Then the appropriated optimization model and algorithm were proposed according to different optimized content and organization goals, and the traffic simulation processes more suitable to regional optimization were designed exactly. Finally, a regional network in Tai’an city was selected as an example. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible. It can provide strong scientific and technological support for the traffic management department.

  1. Rationale for nonlinear dose response functions of power greater or less than one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1977-08-01

    Risk estimates and radiation protection standards are generally made using a nonthreshold premise and linear extrapolations from existing data to estimate biological radiation effects at lower doses and at lower dose rates. This seems reasonable in light of the variety of shapes of dose-effect relations which have been observed both in animal studies and in human epidemiological studies. An unexplained observation in several studies was a response which followed a power function of dose with exponent less than one. One explanation offered for this type of response in humans was a postulated population of heterogeneous sensitivity. An alternate, though related, way of considering this question is in terms of multiple-stresses, and this postulate is discussed

  2. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to

  4. [Traffic deaths and traffic injuries: also an economic problem for society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinoli, S

    1993-02-09

    Based on an epidemiological observation on traffic accidents in the Swiss canton of Ticino, 1985, the following statement is possible: In Switzerland, 900 people die every year as a result of traffic casualties. Many victims of these accidents will be disabled for life. Direct and indirect costs of traffic injuries reach 3 billion Swiss francs a year. Only a small amount (6%) is devoted to medical treatment. The biggest part is due as compensation for lost income, disability allocations and loss of productivity. Among the avoidable fatalities those caused by traffic accidents have a very undesirable effect, because they involve mainly the young. More efforts should be undertaken to lower the mortality on the road, because it changes the Swiss population pyramid in a significant manner.

  5. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Diarrhea in children less than two years of age with known HIV status in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, A.M.; Brooks, J.T.; Adcock, P.M.; Garrett, V.; Eberhard, M.; Rosen, D.H.; Ayisi, J.G.; Ochieng, J.B.; Kumar, L.; Gentsch, J.R.; Nahlen, B.L.; Mintz, E.D.; Slutsker, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency and etiology of diarrhea in children aged less than 2 years with known HIV status. Methods: This was a nested cohort study, whereby children were followed during monthly routine and unscheduled visits. The HIV status of children was determined with PCR. A stool

  7. Why do women still earn less than men? Decomposing the Dutch gender pay gap, 1996-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, E.; Plantenga, J.; Vlasblom, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite major improvements in women’s labour market attachment, women still earn considerably less than men. International research shows that the persistence of the gender pay gap may be due to the fact that although the gap in characteristics between men and women is diminishing, changes in the

  8. Exclusive Preference Develops Less Readily on Concurrent Ratio Schedules with Wheel-Running than with Sucrose Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggested that allocation of responses on concurrent schedules of wheel-running reinforcement was less sensitive to schedule differences than typically observed with more conventional reinforcers. To assess this possibility, 16 female Long Evans rats were exposed to concurrent FR FR schedules of reinforcement and the schedule…

  9. Breakdowns in Coordination Between Air Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Chris; Orasanu, Judith; Miller, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    This talk outlines the complexity of coordination in air traffic control, introduces the NextGen technologies, identifies common causes for coordination breakdowns in air traffic control and examines whether these causes are likely to be reduced with the introduction of NextGen technologies. While some of the common causes of breakdowns will be reduced in a NextGen environment this conclusion should be drawn carefully given the current stage of development of the technologies and the observation that new technologies often shift problems rather than reduce them.

  10. Traffic Flow Prediction with Rainfall Impact Using a Deep Learning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate traffic flow prediction is increasingly essential for successful traffic modeling, operation, and management. Traditional data driven traffic flow prediction approaches have largely assumed restrictive (shallow model architectures and do not leverage the large amount of environmental data available. Inspired by deep learning methods with more complex model architectures and effective data mining capabilities, this paper introduces the deep belief network (DBN and long short-term memory (LSTM to predict urban traffic flow considering the impact of rainfall. The rainfall-integrated DBN and LSTM can learn the features of traffic flow under various rainfall scenarios. Experimental results indicate that, with the consideration of additional rainfall factor, the deep learning predictors have better accuracy than existing predictors and also yield improvements over the original deep learning models without rainfall input. Furthermore, the LSTM can outperform the DBN to capture the time series characteristics of traffic flow data.

  11. Right-\\0xADturn traffic volume adjustment in traffic signal warrant analysis : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    This report was based on the research project, Right-Turn Traffic Volume Adjustment in : Traffic Signal Warrants, sponsored by the Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) : and SOLARIS. Right-turn traffic does not affect intersection performance i...

  12. Sub clinical vitamin A deficiency and anemia among Vietnamese children less than five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.C.; Ninh, N.X.; Nhien, N.V.; Khoi, H.H.; West, C.E.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of sub clinical vitamin A deficiency and anemia in Vietnamese children. For this, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 40 villages (clus-ters) of four ecological regions in Vietnam during Apr-May 2001. In total 1657 children less than 5

  13. Effect of Traffic Noise and Relaxations Sounds on Pedestrian Walking Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Franěk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to noise in everyday urban life is considered to be an environmental stressor. A specific outcome of reactions to environmental stress is a fast pace of life that also includes a faster pedestrian walking speed. The present study examined the effect of listening to annoying acoustical stimuli (traffic noise compared with relaxation sounds (forest birdsong on walking speed in a real outdoor urban environment. The participants (N = 83 walked along an urban route of 1.8 km. They listened to either traffic noise or forest birdsong, or they walked without listening to any acoustical stimuli in the control condition. The results showed that participants listening to traffic noise walked significantly faster on the route than both the participants listening to forest birdsong sounds and the participants in the control condition. Participants who listened to forest birdsong walked slightly slower than those under control conditions; however, this difference was not significant. Analysis of the walk experience showed that participants who listened to forest birdsong during the walk liked the route more than those who listened to traffic sounds. The study demonstrated that exposure to traffic noise led to an immediate increase in walking speed. It was also shown that exposure to noise may influence participants’ perception of an environment. The same environment may be more liked in the absence of noise or in the presence of relaxation sounds. The study also documented the positive effect of listening to various kinds of relaxation sounds while walking in an outdoor environment with traffic noise.

  14. Traffic Flow Visualization and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... Air Force Research Laboratory. It is a video-camera-based, wide-area, traffic surveillance and detection system that provides real-time traffic information to traffic management center operators...

  15. The potential risk of toxoplasmosis for traffic accidents: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohardehi, Shaban; Sharif, Mehdi; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Abdollah; Amouei, Afsaneh; Pagheh, Abdolsattar; Sadeghi, Mitra; Daryani, Ahmad

    2018-06-12

    Toxoplasmosis is a prevalent infectious disease. Although most people infected by Toxoplasma gondii are asymptomatic, evidence has suggested that this disease might affect some aspects of a host's behavior and associate with schizophrenia, suicide attempt, changes in various aspects of personality, and poor neurocognitive performance. These associations may play roles in increasing the risk of a number of incidents, such as traffic accidents, among infected people. In this regard, this study aimed to provide summary estimates for the available data on the potential risk of toxoplasmosis for traffic accidents. To this end, using a number of search terms, i.e. toxoplasmosis, Toxoplasma gondii, traffic accident, road accident, car accident, crash, and prevalence, literature searches (up to October 1, 2017) were carried out via 6 databases. The meta-analysis was conducted using the StatsDirect statistical software and a P-value less than 0.05 was regarded as significant in all statistical analyses. Out of 1841 identified studies, 9 studies were finally considered eligible for carrying out this systematic review. Reviewing results of these studies indicated that 5 out of 9 studies reported a significant relationship between Toxoplasma gondii and traffic accidents. Additionally, data related to gender showed significant differences between infected and control men and women. Considering age, reviewing the results of these studies revealed a significant difference between the infected people and the Toxoplasma-negative subjects under 45 years of age. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups aged 45 or older. Given these results, it can be concluded that Toxoplasma gondii significantly increases the risk of having traffic accidents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of mental workload on physiological and subjective responses during traffic density monitoring: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated operators' mental workload while monitoring traffic density in a city traffic control center. To determine the mental workload, physiological signals (ECG, EMG) were recorded and the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was administered for 16 operators. The results showed that the operators experienced a larger mental workload during high traffic density than during low traffic density. The traffic control center stressors caused changes in heart rate variability features and EMG amplitude, although the average workload score was significantly higher in HTD conditions than in LTD conditions. The findings indicated that increasing traffic congestion had a significant effect on HR, RMSSD, SDNN, LF/HF ratio, and EMG amplitude. The results suggested that when operators' workload increases, their mental fatigue and stress level increase and their mental health deteriorate. Therefore, it maybe necessary to implement an ergonomic program to manage mental health. Furthermore, by evaluating mental workload, the traffic control center director can organize the center's traffic congestion operators to sustain the appropriate mental workload and improve traffic control management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. High-speed web attack detection through extracting exemplars from HTTP traffic

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we propose an effective method for high-speed web attack detection by extracting exemplars from HTTP traffic before the detection model is built. The smaller set of exemplars keeps valuable information of the original traffic while it significantly reduces the size of the traffic so that the detection remains effective and improves the detection efficiency. The Affinity Propagation (AP) is employed to extract the exemplars from the HTTP traffic. K-Nearest Neighbor(K-NN) and one class Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used for anomaly detection. To facilitate comparison, we also employ information gain to select key attributes (a.k.a. features) from the HTTP traffic for web attack detection. Two large real HTTP traffic are used to validate our methods. The extensive test results show that the AP based exemplar extraction significantly improves the real-time performance of the detection compared to using all the HTTP traffic and achieves a more robust detection performance than information gain based attribute selection for web attack detection. © 2011 ACM.

  18. Intelligent Traffic Information System a Real-Time Traffic Information System on the Shiraz Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodagaran Amir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time traffic information system is an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS that allows commuters to make their traveling plan better. In this regard, an intelligent and real-time traffic information system was developed based on the video detection and an image processing algorithm was applied to measure traffic-flow according to the average speed of vehicles. Then, traffic status of each pass way is broadcasted to the electronic boards installed on all decision making entrance / exit. Different levels of congestion related to the routes ahead are shown on the boards with different colors in order to assist commuters. This system was implemented on the Shiraz Dry River’s bypasses which account as vital routes to moderate traffic of city center. Experimental results are promising due to the proximity of determined traffic status by the system compared to the detection done by traffic experts. Average speed improvement is another result of using this system. This intelligent system developed and implemented in Shiraz city for the first time in Iran.s.

  19. Ambulance traffic accidents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hao; Wu, Chen-Long; Fang, Pin-Hui; Lu, Chien-Hsin; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Chi, Chih-Hsien

    2018-04-01

    Ambulance traffic accidents (ATAs) are the leading cause of occupation-related fatalities among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. We aim to use the Taiwan national surveillance system to analyze the characteristics of ATAs and to assist EMS directors in developing policies governing ambulance operations. A retrospective, cross-sectional and largely descriptive study was conducted using Taiwan national traffic accidents surveillance data from January 1, 2011 to October 31, 2016. Among the 1,627,217 traffic accidents during the study period, 715 ATAs caused 8 deaths within 24 h and 1844 injured patients. On average, there was one ATA for every 8598 ambulance runs. Compared to overall traffic accidents, ATAs were 1.7 times more likely to result in death and 1.9 times more likely to have injured patients. Among the 715 ATAs, 8 (1.1%) ATAs were fatal and 707 (98.9%) were nonfatal. All 8 fatalities were associated with motorcycles. The urban areas were significantly higher than the rural areas in the annual number of ATAs (14.2 ± 7.3 [7.0-26.7] versus 3.1 ± 1.9 [0.5-8.4], p = 0.013), the number of ATA-associated fatalities per year (0.2 ± 0.2 [0.0-0.7] versus 0.1 ± 0.1 [0.0-0.2], p = 0.022), and the annual number of injured patients (who needed urgent hospital visits) in ATAs (19.4 ± 7.3 [10.5-30.9] versus 5.2 ± 3.8 [0.9-15.3], p traffic accident reporting system should be built to provide EMS policy guidance for ATA reduction and outcome improvements. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Stormwater Management: Calculation of Traffic Area Runoff Loads and Traffic Related Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Huber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metals such as antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can be highly relevant pollutants in stormwater runoff from traffic areas because of their occurrence, toxicity, and non-degradability. Long-term measurements of their concentrations, the corresponding water volumes, the catchment areas, and the traffic volumes can be used to calculate specific emission loads and annual runoff loads that are necessary for mass balances. In the literature, the annual runoff loads are often specified by a distinct catchment area (e.g., g/ha. These loads were summarized and discussed in this paper for all seven metals and three types of traffic areas (highways, parking lots, and roads; 45 sites. For example, the calculated median annual runoff loads of all sites are 355 g/ha for copper, 110 g/ha for lead (only data of the 21st century, and 1960 g/ha for zinc. In addition, historical trends, annual variations, and site-specific factors were evaluated for the runoff loads. For Germany, mass balances of traffic related emissions and annual heavy metal runoff loads from highways and total traffic areas were calculated. The influences on the mass fluxes of the heavy metal emissions and the runoff pollution were discussed. However, a statistical analysis of the annual traffic related metal fluxes, in particular for different traffic area categories and land uses, is currently not possible because of a lack of monitoring data.

  1. Frogs Call at a Higher Pitch in Traffic Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Parris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Male frogs call to attract females for mating and to defend territories from rival males. Female frogs of some species prefer lower-pitched calls, which indicate larger, more experienced males. Acoustic interference occurs when background noise reduces the active distance or the distance over which an acoustic signal can be detected. Birds are known to call at a higher pitch or frequency in urban noise, decreasing acoustic interference from low-frequency noise. Using Bayesian linear regression, we investigated the effect of traffic noise on the pitch of advertisement calls in two species of frogs, the southern brown tree frog (Litoria ewingii and the common eastern froglet (Crinia signifera. We found evidence that L. ewingii calls at a higher pitch in traffic noise, with an average increase in dominant frequency of 4.1 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 123 Hz. This frequency shift is smaller than that observed in birds, but is still large enough to be detected by conspecific frogs and confer a significant benefit to the caller. Mathematical modelling predicted a 24% increase in the active distance of a L. ewingii call in traffic noise with a frequency shift of this size. Crinia signifera may also call at a higher pitch in traffic noise, but more data are required to be confident of this effect. Because frog calls are innate rather than learned, the frequency shift demonstrated by L. ewingii may represent an evolutionary adaptation to noisy conditions. The phenomenon of frogs calling at a higher pitch in traffic noise could therefore constitute an intriguing trade-off between audibility and attractiveness to potential mates.

  2. Are conservatives less likely to be prosocial than liberals? From games to ideology, political preferences and voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lange, P.A.M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Chirumbolo, A.; Leone, L.

    2012-01-01

    Do political preferences reflect individual differences in interpersonal orientations? Are conservatives less other-regarding than liberals? On the basis of past theorising, we hypothesised that, relative to individuals with prosocial orientations, those with individualistic and competitive

  3. Synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hermanns, Gerhard; Hemmerle, Peter; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we reveal that moving queues (moving jams) in oversaturated city traffic dissolve at some distance upstream of the traffic signal while transforming into synchronized flow. It is found that, as in highway traffic [Kerner, Phys. Rev. E 85, 036110 (2012)], such a jam-absorption effect in city traffic is explained by a strong driver's speed adaptation: Time headways (space gaps) between vehicles increase upstream of a moving queue (moving jam), resulting in moving queue dissolution. It turns out that at given traffic signal parameters, the stronger the speed adaptation effect, the shorter the mean distance between the signal location and the road location at which moving queues dissolve fully and oversaturated traffic consists of synchronized flow only. A comparison of the synchronized flow in city traffic found in this Brief Report with synchronized flow in highway traffic is made.

  4. Disability related to road traffic crashes among adults in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmera-Suárez, Rocío; López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Galán, Iñaki

    2015-09-01

    Road traffic accidents cause substantial morbidity and disease burden; few studies have examined their impact on disability. To estimate the magnitude and distribution of disability due to road traffic accidents according to socio-demographic variables, and its main socioeconomic and health determinants. A cross-sectional study was conducted in community-dwelling participants in the "2008 Spanish National Disability Survey", a representative sample of 91,846 households with 20,425 disabled persons older than 15 years; 443 had disability due to road traffic accidents. The prevalence was 2.1 per 1000 inhabitants (95% CI:1.8-2.3), with no differences by sex. Risk was highest among persons aged 31 to 64 years, and onset of disability showed a sharp inflection point at age 16 years in both sexes. Odds ratios (ORs) were higher (OR=1.3; 95% CI:1.1- 1.7) for participants with secondary education than for those with the lowest educational levels and were lower (OR: 0.5; 95% CI:0.3-0.8) for participants with the highest household income levels than for those with lowest. Only 24% of disabled participants were gainfully employed. As compared to other sources of disability, traffic crashes caused greater disability in terms of mobility (OR=3.1;p<0.001), a greater need for health/social services (OR=1.5;p=0.003), and more problems with private transportation (OR=1.6;p<0.001), moving around outside the home (OR=1.6;p<0.001) and changes in economic activity (OR=2.4;p<0.001). The prevalence of disability due to road traffic accidents in Spain is lower than in other developed countries, with middle-aged and socio-economically underprivileged persons being the most affected. Disability due to road traffic accidents is related to a greater demand for social/health care support, problems of accessibility/commuting, and major changes in economic activity. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Duration of the action of rocuronium in patients with BMI of less than 25: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Osamu; Takahoko, Ken-Ichi; Sasakawa, Tomoki; Inagaki, Yasuyoshi; Takahoko, Hiroyuki; Kunisawa, Takayuki

    2018-05-02

    The duration of rocuronium in patients with BMI more than 30 kg m is prolonged. Whether the reverse is true when BMI is less than 18.5 kg m is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a BMI less than 25 kg m affects the duration of rocuronium in doses adjusted for actual body weight. A prospective, observational, single-centre study. The operating room of a teaching hospital from 1 June 2008 to 30 June 2015. Thirty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery (BMI rocuronium (D1) was defined as the time from injection of rocuronium 0.6 mg kg to return of first twitch height to 25% of the control. Duration of additional doses (D2) was the time from a supplement of 0.15 mg kg rocuronium to return of first twitch height to 25% of the control. The relationship between D1 or D2 and BMI was examined using linear regression analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between duration of initial dose and BMI (R = 0.246; P = 0.00531). A significant correlation between the duration of the additional dose and BMI was also found (R = 0.316; P = 0.00122). The lower the BMI, the shorter the duration of rocuronium at initial and additional doses determined by the actual body weight in adult patients with a BMI less than 25 kg m. www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm with registry number UMIN 00009337 and UMIN 000015407.

  6. Self-organized natural roads for predicting traffic flow: a sensitivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Bin; Zhao, Sijian; Yin, Junjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we extended road-based topological analysis to both nationwide and urban road networks, and concentrated on a sensitivity study with respect to the formation of self-organized natural roads based on the Gestalt principle of good continuity. Both annual average daily traffic (AADT) and global positioning system (GPS) data were used to correlate with a series of ranking metrics including five centrality-based metrics and two PageRank metrics. It was found that there exists a tipping point from segment-based to road-based network topology in terms of correlation between ranking metrics and their traffic. To our great surprise, (1) this correlation is significantly improved if a selfish rather than utopian strategy is adopted in forming the self-organized natural roads, and (2) point-based metrics assigned by summation into individual roads tend to have a much better correlation with traffic flow than line-based metrics. These counter-intuitive surprising findings constitute emergent properties of self-organized natural roads, which are intelligent enough for predicting traffic flow, thus shedding substantial light on the understanding of road networks and their traffic from the perspective of complex networks

  7. Expanding the Use of Time-Based Metering: Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Steven J.; Farley, Todd; Hoang, Ty

    2005-01-01

    Time-based metering is an efficient air traffic management alternative to the more common practice of distance-based metering (or "miles-in-trail spacing"). Despite having demonstrated significant operational benefit to airspace users and service providers, time-based metering is used in the United States for arrivals to just nine airports and is not used at all for non-arrival traffic flows. The Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor promises to bring time-based metering into the mainstream of air traffic management techniques. Not constrained to operate solely on arrival traffic, Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor is flexible enough to work in highly congested or heavily partitioned airspace for any and all traffic flows in a region. This broader and more general application of time-based metering is expected to bring the operational benefits of time-based metering to a much wider pool of beneficiaries than is possible with existing technology. It also promises to facilitate more collaborative traffic management on a regional basis. This paper focuses on the operational concept of the Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, touching also on its system architecture, field test results, and prospects for near-term deployment to the United States National Airspace System.

  8. The immigrant paradox: immigrants are less antisocial than native-born Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; DeLisi, Matt; Maynard, Brandy R

    2014-07-01

    Although recent research on crime and violence among immigrants suggests a paradox--where immigrants are more socially disadvantaged yet less likely to commit crime--previous research is limited by issues of generalizability and assessment of the full depth of antisocial behavior. We surmount these limitations using data from waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare immigrants (N = 7,320) from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans (N = 34,622) with respect to violent and nonviolent forms of antisocial behavior. After controlling for an extensive array of confounds, results indicate that immigrants are significantly less antisocial despite being more likely to have lower levels of income, less education, and reside in urban areas. These findings hold for immigrants from major regions of the world including Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America. This study confirms and extends prior research on crime and antisocial behavior, but suggests that it is premature however to think of immigrants as a policy intervention for treating high crime areas.

  9. Correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis of network traffics with different application protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun-Song; Yuan Jing; Li Qiang; Yuan Rui-Xi

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a correlation dimension based nonlinear analysis approach to analyse the dynamics of network traffics with three different application protocols—HTTP, FTP and SMTP. First, the phase space is reconstructed and the embedding parameters are obtained by the mutual information method. Secondly, the correlation dimensions of three different traffics are calculated and the results of analysis have demonstrated that the dynamics of the three different application protocol traffics is different from each other in nature, i.e. HTTP and FTP traffics are chaotic, furthermore, the former is more complex than the later; on the other hand, SMTP traffic is stochastic. It is shown that correlation dimension approach is an efficient method to understand and to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of HTTP, FTP and SMTP protocol network traffics. This analysis provided insight into and a more accurate understanding of nonlinear dynamics of internet traffics which have a complex mixture of chaotic and stochastic components. (general)

  10. Packet traffic features of IPv6 and IPv4 protocol traffic

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİFLİKLİ, Cebrail; GEZER, Ali; ÖZŞAHİN, Abdullah Tuncay

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the IPv6 protocol is in a transition phase in operational networks. The ratio of its traffic volume is increasing day by day. The many provided facilities for IPv6 connection increasethe total IPv6 traffic load. IPv6-over-IPv4 tunnels, pilot programsto provide IPv6 connections, IPv6/IPv4 dual stack operating systems,and free IPv6 tunnel brokers cause the IPv6 protocol to expand quickly. For efficient resource utilization, the characteristics of network traffic should be determ...

  11. Investigating the role of transportation models in epidemiologic studies of traffic related air pollution and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Valois, Marie-France; Goldberg, Mark S; Crouse, Dan; Ross, Nancy; Parent, Marie-Elise; Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2015-07-01

    In two earlier case-control studies conducted in Montreal, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker for traffic-related air pollution was found to be associated with the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer and prostate cancer. These studies relied on a land use regression model (LUR) for NO2 that is commonly used in epidemiologic studies for deriving estimates of traffic-related air pollution. Here, we investigate the use of a transportation model developed during the summer season to generate a measure of traffic emissions as an alternative to the LUR model. Our traffic model provides estimates of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the level of individual roads, as does the LUR model. Our main objective was to compare the distribution of the spatial estimates of NOx computed from our transportation model to the distribution obtained from the LUR model. A secondary objective was to compare estimates of risk using these two exposure estimates. We observed that the correlation (spearman) between our two measures of exposure (NO2 and NOx) ranged from less than 0.3 to more than 0.9 across Montreal neighborhoods. The most important factor affecting the "agreement" between the two measures in a specific area was found to be the length of roads. Areas affected by a high level of traffic-related air pollution had a far better agreement between the two exposure measures. A comparison of odds ratios (ORs) obtained from NO2 and NOx used in two case-control studies of breast and prostate cancer, showed that the differences between the ORs associated with NO2 exposure vs NOx exposure differed by 5.2-8.8%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Traffic-related air pollution and obesity formation in children: a longitudinal, multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Wolch, Jennifer; Chang, Roger; Lam, Claudia; Dunton, Genevieve; Gilliland, Frank; Lurmann, Fred; Islam, Talat; Berhane, Kiros

    2014-06-09

    Biologically plausible mechanisms link traffic-related air pollution to metabolic disorders and potentially to obesity. Here we sought to determine whether traffic density and traffic-related air pollution were positively associated with growth in body mass index (BMI = kg/m2) in children aged 5-11 years. Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort of children who lived in 13 communities across Southern California (N = 4550). Children were enrolled while attending kindergarten and first grade and followed for 4 years, with height and weight measured annually. Dispersion models were used to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Multilevel models were used to estimate and test traffic density and traffic pollution related to BMI growth. Data were collected between 2002-2010 and analyzed in 2011-12. Traffic pollution was positively associated with growth in BMI and was robust to adjustment for many confounders. The effect size in the adjusted model indicated about a 13.6% increase in annual BMI growth when comparing the lowest to the highest tenth percentile of air pollution exposure, which resulted in an increase of nearly 0.4 BMI units on attained BMI at age 10. Traffic density also had a positive association with BMI growth, but this effect was less robust in multivariate models. Traffic pollution was positively associated with growth in BMI in children aged 5-11 years. Traffic pollution may be controlled via emission restrictions; changes in land use that promote jobs-housing balance and use of public transit and hence reduce vehicle miles traveled; promotion of zero emissions vehicles; transit and car-sharing programs; or by limiting high pollution traffic, such as diesel trucks, from residential areas or places where children play outdoors, such as schools and parks. These measures may have beneficial effects in terms of reduced obesity formation in children.

  13. Nearly penalty-free, less than 4 ps supercontinuum Gbit/s pulse generation over 1535-1560 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, T.; Kawanishi, S.; Mori, K.; Saruwatari, M.

    1994-05-01

    Nearly penalty-free less than 4ps supercontinuum WDM pulses are generated at 6.3 Gbit/s over 1535-1560 nm for the first time using a 200 nm superbroadened supercontinuum in an optical fibre pumped by 1.7 W, 3.3 ps, 1542 nm short pulses from an Er(3+)-doped fibre ring laser.

  14. Traffic Sign Detection System for Locating Road Intersections and Roundabouts: The Chilean Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón-Sepúlveda, Gabriel; Torres-Torriti, Miguel; Flores-Calero, Marco

    2017-05-25

    This paper presents a traffic sign detection method for signs close to road intersections and roundabouts, such as stop and yield (give way) signs. The proposed method relies on statistical templates built using color information for both segmentation and classification. The segmentation method uses the RGB-normalized (ErEgEb) color space for ROIs (Regions of Interest) generation based on a chromaticity filter, where templates at 10 scales are applied to the entire image. Templates consider the mean and standard deviation of normalized color of the traffic signs to build thresholding intervals where the expected color should lie for a given sign. The classification stage employs the information of the statistical templates over YCbCr and ErEgEb color spaces, for which the background has been previously removed by using a probability function that models the probability that the pixel corresponds to a sign given its chromaticity values. This work includes an analysis of the detection rate as a function of the distance between the vehicle and the sign. Such information is useful to validate the robustness of the approach and is often not included in the existing literature. The detection rates, as a function of distance, are compared to those of the well-known Viola-Jones method. The results show that for distances less than 48 m, the proposed method achieves a detection rate of 87.5 % and 95.4 % for yield and stop signs, respectively. For distances less than 30 m, the detection rate is 100 % for both signs. The Viola-Jones approach has detection rates below 20 % for distances between 30 and 48 m, and barely improves in the 20-30 m range with detection rates of up to 60 % . Thus, the proposed method provides a robust alternative for intersection detection that relies on statistical color-based templates instead of shape information. The experiments employed videos of traffic signs taken in several streets of Santiago, Chile, using a research platform implemented at

  15. Traffic Sign Detection System for Locating Road Intersections and Roundabouts: The Chilean Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Villalón-Sepúlveda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a traffic sign detection method for signs close to road intersections and roundabouts, such as stop and yield (give way signs. The proposed method relies on statistical templates built using color information for both segmentation and classification. The segmentation method uses the RGB-normalized (ErEgEb color space for ROIs (Regions of Interest generation based on a chromaticity filter, where templates at 10 scales are applied to the entire image. Templates consider the mean and standard deviation of normalized color of the traffic signs to build thresholding intervals where the expected color should lie for a given sign. The classification stage employs the information of the statistical templates over YCbCr and ErEgEb color spaces, for which the background has been previously removed by using a probability function that models the probability that the pixel corresponds to a sign given its chromaticity values. This work includes an analysis of the detection rate as a function of the distance between the vehicle and the sign. Such information is useful to validate the robustness of the approach and is often not included in the existing literature. The detection rates, as a function of distance, are compared to those of the well-known Viola–Jones method. The results show that for distances less than 48 m, the proposed method achieves a detection rate of 87.5 % and 95.4 % for yield and stop signs, respectively. For distances less than 30 m, the detection rate is 100 % for both signs. The Viola–Jones approach has detection rates below 20 % for distances between 30 and 48 m, and barely improves in the 20–30 m range with detection rates of up to 60 % . Thus, the proposed method provides a robust alternative for intersection detection that relies on statistical color-based templates instead of shape information. The experiments employed videos of traffic signs taken in several streets of Santiago, Chile, using a research

  16. Urban Road Traffic Simulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicoleta Mocofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For achieving a reliable traffic control system it is necessary to first establish a network parameter evaluation system and also a simulation system for the traffic lights plan. In 40 years of history, the computer aided traffic simulation has developed from a small research group to a large scale technology for traffic systems planning and development. In the following thesis, a presentation of the main modeling and simulation road traffic applications will be provided, along with their utility, as well as the practical application of one of the models in a case study.

  17. Why are freeform telescopes less alignment sensitive than a traditional unobscured TMA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin P.; Schiesser, Eric; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2015-10-01

    As freeform optical systems emerge as interesting and innovative solutions for imaging in 3D packages there is an assumption they are going to be more sensitive particularly at assembly. While it is true that the clocking of the component becomes a relatively weak new tolerance, for the most effective new class of freeform systems the alignment sensitivity is actually lower in most cases than for a comparable traditional unobscured three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope. Traditional unobscured TMA telescopes, whose designs emerged in the mid-70s and which begin to appear as hardware in the literature in the early 90s, are based on using increasingly offset apertures with otherwise coaxial rotationally symmetric mirrors. The mirrors (typically 3 to correct spherical, coma, and astigmatism) have evolved to contain more high order terms as the designs are pushed to more compact and wider field packages - the NIRCAM camera for the JWST is an excellent example of this [1]. As the higher order terms are added, the mirrors become increasingly sensitive to decenters and tilts. An emerging class of freeform telescopes that provide wider field of view and/or faster f/numbers than the traditional TMA are based on a strategy where the surface shape remains a low order Zernike-type surface even in compact, unobscured packages. This optical design strategy results in an optical form that is not only higher performance but simultaneously less sensitive to alignment.

  18. Traffic Flow Management Wrap-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon

    2011-01-01

    Traffic Flow Management involves the scheduling and routing of air traffic subject to airport and airspace capacity constraints, and the efficient use of available airspace. Significant challenges in this area include: (1) weather integration and forecasting, (2) accounting for user preferences in the Traffic Flow Management decision making process, and (3) understanding and mitigating the environmental impacts of air traffic on the environment. To address these challenges, researchers in the Traffic Flow Management area are developing modeling, simulation and optimization techniques to route and schedule air traffic flights and flows while accommodating user preferences, accounting for system uncertainties and considering the environmental impacts of aviation. This presentation will highlight some of the major challenges facing researchers in this domain, while also showcasing recent innovations designed to address these challenges.

  19. URBAN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS BY USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SAPLIOĞLU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, traffic accidents that cause more social and economic losses than that of natural disasters,have become a national problem in Turkey. To solve this problem and to reduce the casualties, road safety programs are tried to be developed. It is necessary to develop the most effective measures with low investment cost due to limited budgets allocated to such road safety programs. The most important program is to determine dangerous locations of traffic accidents and to improve these sections from the road safety view point. New Technologies are driving a cycle of continuous improvement that causes rapid changes in the traffic engineering and any engineering services within it. It is obvious that this developed services will be the potential for forward-thinking engineering studies to take a more influence role. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify the hazardous locations of traffic accidents in Isparta. Isparta city map was digitized by using Arcinfo 7.21. Traffic accident reports occurred between 1998-2002 were obtained from Directory of Isparta Traffic Region and had been used to form the database. Topology was set up by using Crash Diagrams and Geographic Position Reference Systems. Tables are formed according to the obtained results and interpreted.

  20. Attentional costs and failures in air traffic control notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Jean-Paul; Hodgetts, Helen M; Parise, Robert; Vachon, François; Dehais, Frédéric; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Large display screens are common in supervisory tasks, meaning that alerts are often perceived in peripheral vision. Five air traffic control notification designs were evaluated in their ability to capture attention during an ongoing supervisory task, as well as their impact on the primary task. A range of performance measures, eye-tracking and subjective reports showed that colour, even animated, was less effective than movement, and notifications sometimes went unnoticed. Designs that drew attention to the notified aircraft by a pulsating box, concentric circles or the opacity of the background resulted in faster perception and no missed notifications. However, the latter two designs were intrusive and impaired primary task performance, while the simpler animated box captured attention without an overhead cognitive cost. These results highlight the need for a holistic approach to evaluation, achieving a balance between the benefits for one aspect of performance against the potential costs for another. Practitioner summary: We performed a holistic examination of air traffic control notification designs regarding their ability to capture attention during an ongoing supervisory task. The combination of performance, eye-tracking and subjective measurements demonstrated that the best design achieved a balance between attentional power and the overhead cognitive cost to primary task performance.

  1. Disability related to road traffic crashes among adults in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Palmera-Suárez

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of disability due to road traffic accidents in Spain is lower than in other developed countries, with middle-aged and socio-economically underprivileged persons being the most affected. Disability due to road traffic accidents is related to a greater demand for social/health care support, problems of accessibility/commuting, and major changes in economic activity.

  2. Monitoring road traffic congestion using a macroscopic traffic model and a statistical monitoring scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Zeroual, Abdelhafid; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Messai, Nadhir

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring vehicle traffic flow plays a central role in enhancing traffic management, transportation safety and cost savings. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for detection of traffic congestion. Specifically, we combine the flexibility and simplicity of a piecewise switched linear (PWSL) macroscopic traffic model and the greater capacity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. Macroscopic models, which have few, easily calibrated parameters, are employed to describe a free traffic flow at the macroscopic level. Then, we apply the EWMA monitoring chart to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the constructed PWSL model to detect congested situations. In this strategy, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of data has been used before the application of the EWMA scheme to improve further the robustness of this method to measurement noise and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors. The performance of the PWSL-EWMA approach is successfully tested on traffic data from the three lane highway portion of the Interstate 210 (I-210) highway of the west of California and the four lane highway portion of the State Route 60 (SR60) highway from the east of California, provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). Results show the ability of the PWSL-EWMA approach to monitor vehicle traffic, confirming the promising application of this statistical tool to the supervision of traffic flow congestion.

  3. Monitoring road traffic congestion using a macroscopic traffic model and a statistical monitoring scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Zeroual, Abdelhafid

    2017-08-19

    Monitoring vehicle traffic flow plays a central role in enhancing traffic management, transportation safety and cost savings. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for detection of traffic congestion. Specifically, we combine the flexibility and simplicity of a piecewise switched linear (PWSL) macroscopic traffic model and the greater capacity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. Macroscopic models, which have few, easily calibrated parameters, are employed to describe a free traffic flow at the macroscopic level. Then, we apply the EWMA monitoring chart to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the constructed PWSL model to detect congested situations. In this strategy, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of data has been used before the application of the EWMA scheme to improve further the robustness of this method to measurement noise and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors. The performance of the PWSL-EWMA approach is successfully tested on traffic data from the three lane highway portion of the Interstate 210 (I-210) highway of the west of California and the four lane highway portion of the State Route 60 (SR60) highway from the east of California, provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). Results show the ability of the PWSL-EWMA approach to monitor vehicle traffic, confirming the promising application of this statistical tool to the supervision of traffic flow congestion.

  4. Presence of small parathyroid glands in renal transplant patients supports less-than-total parathyroidectomy to treat hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Mark D; Emmanouilidis, Nikos; Jackobs, Steffan; Kespohl, Holger; Hett, Julian; Musatkin, Denis; Tränkenschuh, Wolfgang; Schrem, Harald; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Scheumann, Georg F W

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid glands (PG) are rarely analyzed in renal transplant (RTX) patients. This study analyzes comparatively PG of RTX and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The clinical part of the study evaluates if total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation (TPT+AT) treats appropriately hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism in RTX patients. TPT+AT was performed in 15 of 23 RTX and 21 of 27 ESRD patients. Remaining patients underwent less-than-total PT. Volume and stage of hyperplasia were determined from 86 PG of RTX and 109 PG of ESRD patients. Patients were categorized according to the presence of small PG (volume hyperparathyroidism were evaluated 2 years after PT in RTX patients. PG of RTX patients were significantly smaller, but similar hyperplastic in comparison to PG of ESRD patients. Small PG were more frequent in RTX than in ESRD patients (19% vs 6%) and mainly graded normal or diffuse hyperplastic (94%). Forty-seven percent of RTX, but only 14% of ESRD, patients receiving a total PT possessed ≥1 small PG (P hyperparathyroidism. However, TPT+AT caused permanent hypocalcemia in 50% of RTX patients without small PG and even in 83% of RTX patients with small PG. All RTX patients receiving less-than-total PT were normocalcemic at 2-year follow-up. Logistic regression revealed a 10.7 times greater risk of permanent hypocalcemia in RTX patients with small PG receiving TPT+AT compared with RTX patients without small PG receiving TPT+AT or RTX patients undergoing less-than-total PT. Surgeons performing PT should be aware of the high frequency of small and less diseased PG in RTX patients. In this context, TPT+AT might overtreat hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism in RTX patients, especially when small PG are present. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Institutional innovation in less than ideal conditions: management of commons by an Alaska Native village corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixie Dayo; Gary Kofinas

    2010-01-01

    Alaska Natives have experienced less than ideal conditions for engaging in management of their homeland commons. During the first 100 years after the Treaty of Cession of 1867, Alaska Natives received limited recognition by the United States. The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 (ANCSA) was signed into law by President Richard Nixon after tedious...

  6. Pedestrian Friendly Traffic Signal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This project continues research aimed at real-time detection and use of pedestrian : traffic flow information to enhance adaptive traffic signal control in urban areas : where pedestrian traffic is substantial and must be given appropriate attention ...

  7. Malnutrition is associated with HIV infection in children less than 5 years in Bobo-Dioulasso City, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, Ghislain Gnimbar; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Chao, Jane C-J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and malnutrition are still 2 major health issues in sub-Saharan Africa including Burkina Faso where few studies have been conducted on child malnutrition and HIV infection. This study assessed the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV infection and also compared the prevalence of malnutrition in terms of an inadequate diet, underweight, stunting, and wasting among HIV-infected and uninfected children less than 5 years in Bobo-Dioulasso city, Burkina Faso. This was a case–control study matching for age and sex in 164 HIV-infected and 164 HIV-uninfected children. The sociodemographic characteristics of mothers and children, household food security, drinking water source, child feeding and care practices, and child anthropometric data such as body weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference were collected. The prevalence of food insecurity and inadequate diet was 58% and 92% of children less than 5 years of age, respectively. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 77% versus 35%, 65% versus 61%, and 63% versus 26% in HIV-infected and uninfected children less than 5 years of age, respectively. Out of 164 HIV-infected children, 59% were on ART initiation during data collection and the median of CD4 cell counts was 1078 cells/μL. HIV-infected children on ART had greater CD4 cell counts (P = .04) and higher weight-for-age Z (P = .01) and weight-for-height Z scores (P = .03) than those without ART. HIV infection was a risk factor for those who had inadequate dietary intake [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17–3.62, P = .04]. In addition, HIV-infected children were more likely of being underweight (AOR = 10.24, 95% CI 4.34–24.17, P children less than 5 years of age. High prevalence of malnutrition was observed in HIV-infected children compared with HIV-uninfected children. Except for ART, nutritional assessment and

  8. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...... injury was €1406 (2009 price level) in the first year, and €8950 over a 10-year period. Per 100 000 population, the 10-year cost was €6 565 668. A severe traffic injury costs €4969 per person in the first year, and €4 006 685 per 100 000 population over a 10-year period. Victims of traffic injuries...

  9. Traffic simulation for mixed traffic systems | Mbam | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are used as the most popular transportation system. The aim of this paper is to introduce the motorbike symbol into the traffic light control system to separate cars/lorries indicator from that of motorbike. This is likely ...

  10. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  11. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zongtao; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xibin; Liu, Yan; Dai, Jiting; Kang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users

  12. Impact of Incidents on Traffic Congestion in Dar es Salaam City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mfinanga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poorly managed traffic incidents have largely contributed to congestion and delay in the city of Dar es Salaam. A thorough understanding of travel delays caused by incidents is therefore essential for effective countermeasures against the increasing congestion. The method used to determine delays in this research is based on the deterministic queuing theory. Information on incidents was obtained from traffic surveys, traffic police and road users. Counting of the number of vehicles passing the incident location was done on incident and incident-free days. The cumulative traffic counts on incident and incident-free days were then calculated and used to plot the queuing diagram used to determine incident induced delay. This method turned out to be a useful tool for estimating incident induced delay in areas with less sophisticated equipment i.e. where there are no sensors, CCTV cameras, etc. The method provided good estimates of incident induced delay which may help planners and transportation officials in better understanding incident related congestion and in selecting more effective countermeasures against incident related traffic congestion in the city. It was found out that the effects of incidents were different for the different zones, types of incidents and the periods the incident occurred. In addition to the incident duration and the number of vehicles affected, the impact of incidents also depended on availability of alternative routes, number of lanes on the road, discipline of the driver in manoeuvring at incident location and traffic control at the scene.

  13. Online Traffic Condition Evaluation Method for Connected Vehicles Based on Multisource Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-wei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of connected vehicle (CV and Vehicle to X (V2X communication, more traffic data is being collected from the road network. In order to predict future traffic condition from connected vehicles’ data in real-time, we present an online traffic condition evaluation model utilizing V2X communication. This model employs the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and the multilevel fuzzy set theory to fuse multiple sources of information for prediction. First, the contemporary vehicle data from the On Board Diagnostic (OBD is fused with the static road data in the Road Side Unit (RSU. Then, the real-time traffic evaluation scores are calculated using the variable membership model. The real data collected by OBU in field test demonstrates the feasibility of the evaluation model. Compared with traditional evaluation systems, the proposed model can handle more types of data but demands less data transfer.

  14. Ratios of regioisomers of minor acylglycerols less polar than triricinolein in castor oil estimated by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently reported the identification of forty new minor molecular species of acylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids less polar than triricinolein by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts. The ratios of regioisomers of triacylglycerols (ABC and AAB types) and ...

  15. Bastion on the Border: Fort Bliss, 1854-1943

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Journals , Record Group (RG) 165, Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs, National Archives, Washington, D.C. "’Richard Estrada, Border...it was the Fort Bliss garrison and the other troops deployed by Steever in the El Paso Patrol District that would have to provide the figurative glue ...little military value. For example, on March 30 three carloads of oats, flour , corn, and hay were dispatched; on April 7 fourteen carloads of hay, gasoline

  16. A Novel Multisensor Traffic State Assessment System Based on Incomplete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel multisensor system with incomplete data is presented for traffic state assessment. The system comprises probe vehicle detection sensors, fixed detection sensors, and traffic state assessment algorithm. First of all, the validity checking of the traffic flow data is taken as preprocessing of this method. And then a new method based on the history data information is proposed to fuse and recover the incomplete data. According to the characteristics of space complementary of data based on the probe vehicle detector and fixed detector, a fusion model of space matching is presented to estimate the mean travel speed of the road. Finally, the traffic flow data include flow, speed and, occupancy rate, which are detected between Beijing Deshengmen bridge and Drum Tower bridge, are fused to assess the traffic state of the road by using the fusion decision model of rough sets and cloud. The accuracy of experiment result can reach more than 98%, and the result is in accordance with the actual road traffic state. This system is effective to assess traffic state, and it is suitable for the urban intelligent transportation system.

  17. Traffic intensity monitoring using multiple object detection with traffic surveillance cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, H. G. Muhammad; Khalifah, O. O.

    2017-11-01

    Object detection and tracking is a field of research that has many applications in the current generation with increasing number of cameras on the streets and lower cost for Internet of Things(IoT). In this paper, a traffic intensity monitoring system is implemented based on the Macroscopic Urban Traffic model is proposed using computer vision as its source. The input of this program is extracted from a traffic surveillance camera which has another program running a neural network classification which can identify and differentiate the vehicle type is implanted. The neural network toolbox is trained with positive and negative input to increase accuracy. The accuracy of the program is compared to other related works done and the trends of the traffic intensity from a road is also calculated. relevant articles in literature searches, great care should be taken in constructing both. Lastly the limitation and the future work is concluded.

  18. Understanding the T2 traffic in CMS during Run-1

    CERN Document Server

    T, Wildish

    2015-01-01

    In the run-up to Run-1 CMS was operating its facilities according to the MONARC model, where data-transfers were strictly hierarchical in nature. Direct transfers between Tier-2 nodes was excluded, being perceived as operationally intensive and risky in an era where the network was expected to be a major source of errors. By the end of Run-1 wide-area networks were more capable and stable than originally anticipated. The original data-placement model was relaxed, and traffic was allowed between Tier-2 nodes.Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic in 2012 already exceeded the amount of Tier-2 to Tier-1 traffic, so it clearly has the potential to become important in the future. Moreover, while Tier-2 to Tier-1 traffic is mostly upload of Monte Carlo data, the Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic represents data moved in direct response to requests from the physics analysis community. As such, problems or delays there are more likely to have a direct impact on the user community.Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic may also traverse parts of the WAN ...

  19. Intelligent Traffic Light Based on PLC Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lin; Zhang, Lijian; Wang, Lingling

    2017-11-01

    The traditional traffic light system with a fixed control mode and single control function is contradicted with the current traffic section. The traditional one has been unable to meet the functional requirements of the existing flexible traffic control system. This paper research and develop an intelligent traffic light called PLC control system. It uses PLC as control core, using a sensor module for receiving real-time information of vehicles, traffic control mode for information to select the traffic lights. Of which control mode is flexible and changeable, and it also set the countdown reminder to improve the effectiveness of traffic lights, which can realize the goal of intelligent traffic diversion, intelligent traffic diversion.

  20. Behaviour of dairy cows under free or forced cow traffic in a simulated automatic milking system environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwere, de C.C.K.; Hendriks, M.M.B.; Metz, J.H.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    1998-01-01

    The introduction of fully automatic milking systems (AMS) on dairy farms can only succeed if cows visit the system more or less voluntarily, at regular intervals. This can be arranged by either forced or free cow traffic. In the case of forced cow traffic, the AMS is the only route from the lying

  1. ITSA: Internet Traffic Statistics Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Motivated by the fact that comprehensive and long term Internet traffic measurements can be hard to obtain, we have proposed and developed the Internet Traffic Statistics Archive (ITSA). Since 2013, ITSA concentrates reports on high-level statistics of Internet traffic worldwide. Examples of

  2. Fuzzy Multiobjective Traffic Light Signal Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shahsavari Pour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a major concern for many cities throughout the world. In a general traffic light controller, the traffic lights change at a constant cycle time. Hence it does not provide an optimal solution. Many traffic light controllers in current use are based on the “time-of-the-day” scheme, which use a limited number of predetermined traffic light patterns and implement these patterns depending upon the time of the day. These automated systems do not provide an optimal control for fluctuating traffic volumes. In this paper, the fuzzy traffic light controller is used to optimize the control of fluctuating traffic volumes such as oversaturated or unusual load conditions. The problem is solved by genetic algorithm, and a new defuzzification method is introduced. The performance of the new defuzzification method (NDM is compared with the centroid point defuzzification method (CPDM by using ANOVA. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to show the competency of proposed algorithm.

  3. Traffic Management as a Service: The Traffic Flow Pattern Classification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos T. Calafate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transportation System (ITS technologies can be implemented to reduce both fuel consumption and the associated emission of greenhouse gases. However, such systems require intelligent and effective route planning solutions to reduce travel time and promote stable traveling speeds. To achieve such goal these systems should account for both estimated and real-time traffic congestion states, but obtaining reliable traffic congestion estimations for all the streets/avenues in a city for the different times of the day, for every day in a year, is a complex task. Modeling such a tremendous amount of data can be time-consuming and, additionally, centralized computation of optimal routes based on such time-dependencies has very high data processing requirements. In this paper we approach this problem through a heuristic to considerably reduce the modeling effort while maintaining the benefits of time-dependent traffic congestion modeling. In particular, we propose grouping streets by taking into account real traces describing the daily traffic pattern. The effectiveness of this heuristic is assessed for the city of Valencia, Spain, and the results obtained show that it is possible to reduce the required number of daily traffic flow patterns by a factor of 4210 while maintaining the essence of time-dependent modeling requirements.

  4. Nuclear-related training and education offered by academic institutions (less-than-baccalaureate degree)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, L.

    1982-01-01

    Current projections indicate that in addition to the 10,100 technician positions and 6100 existing operator positions in the nuclear power industry, another 9100 technicians and 9700 operators will be required over the next decade. With 56 nuclear plants currently in operation and an additional 35 plants under construction, it is essential that trained technical personnel be available for employment in the nuclear utilities. Because of the growing demand for technicians in the nuclear utility industry, this report has been prepared to identify the nuclear-related, less-than-baccalaureate, technical educational programs provided by academic institutions and to ascertain both the current number of students and the maximum number that could be trained, given present staff and facilities. The data serve as a gauge for the proportion of technician training required by the nuclear industry that can be provided by academic institutions

  5. Lagrangian Multi-Class Traffic State Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic is important to everybody in the world. People travel and commute everyday. For those who travel by cars (or other types of road vehicles), traffic congestion is a daily experience. One essential goal of traffic researchers is to reduce traffic congestion and to improve the whole

  6. Traffic analysis toolbox volume XI : weather and traffic analysis, modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a weather module for the traffic analysis tools program. It provides traffic engineers, transportation modelers and decisions makers with a guide that can incorporate weather impacts into transportation system analysis and mode...

  7. Modeling of speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance for highway systems. There were lots of results for the speed characteristics of motorized vehicles. In this article, we studied the speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic which was ignored in the past. Field speed data were collected from Hangzhou, China, under different survey sites, traffic conditions, and percentages of electric bicycle. The statistics results of field data show that the total mean speed of electric bicycles is 17.09 km/h, 3.63 km/h faster and 27.0% higher than that of regular bicycles. Normal, log-normal, gamma, and Weibull distribution models were used for testing speed data. The results of goodness-of-fit hypothesis tests imply that the log-normal and Weibull model can fit the field data very well. Then, the relationships between mean speed and electric bicycle proportions were proposed using linear regression models, and the mean speed for purely electric bicycles or regular bicycles can be obtained. The findings of this article will provide effective help for the safety and traffic management of mixed bicycle traffic.

  8. State Traffic Safety Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  9. Dynamic control of traffic lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, Rene; Hendrix, Eligius M.T.; Wal, van der Jan

    2017-01-01

    Traffic lights are put in place to dynamically change priority between traffic participants. Commonly, the duration of green intervals and the grouping, and ordering in which traffic flows are served are pre-fixed. In this chapter, the problem of minimizing vehicle delay at isolated intersections is

  10. Mobile phone conversations, listening to music and quiet (electric) cars: Are traffic sounds important for safe cycling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelling-Konczak, A; van Wee, G P; Commandeur, J J F; Hagenzieker, M

    2017-09-01

    Listening to music or talking on the phone while cycling as well as the growing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road can make the use of auditory cues challenging for cyclists. The present study examined to what extent and in which traffic situations traffic sounds are important for safe cycling. Furthermore, the study investigated the potential safety implications of limited auditory information caused by quiet (electric) cars and by cyclists listening to music or talking on the phone. An Internet survey among 2249 cyclists in three age groups (16-18, 30-40 and 65-70year old) was carried out to collect information on the following aspects: 1) the auditory perception of traffic sounds, including the sounds of quiet (electric) cars; 2) the possible compensatory behaviours of cyclists who listen to music or talk on their mobile phones; 3) the possible contribution of listening to music and talking on the phone to cycling crashes and incidents. Age differences with respect to those three aspects were analysed. Results show that listening to music and talking on the phone negatively affects perception of sounds crucial for safe cycling. However, taking into account the influence of confounding variables, no relationship was found between the frequency of listening to music or talking on the phone and the frequency of incidents among teenage cyclists. This may be due to cyclists' compensating for the use of portable devices. Listening to music or talking on the phone whilst cycling may still pose a risk in the absence of compensatory behaviour or in a traffic environment with less extensive and less safe cycling infrastructure than the Dutch setting. With the increasing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road, cyclists in the future may also need to compensate for the limited auditory input of these cars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  12. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  13. Dynamic Traffic Congestion Simulation and Dissipation Control Based on Traffic Flow Theory Model and Neural Network Data Calibration Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a common problem in many countries, especially in big cities. At present, China’s urban road traffic accidents occur frequently, the occurrence frequency is high, the accident causes traffic congestion, and accidents cause traffic congestion and vice versa. The occurrence of traffic accidents usually leads to the reduction of road traffic capacity and the formation of traffic bottlenecks, causing the traffic congestion. In this paper, the formation and propagation of traffic congestion are simulated by using the improved medium traffic model, and the control strategy of congestion dissipation is studied. From the point of view of quantitative traffic congestion, the paper provides the fact that the simulation platform of urban traffic integration is constructed, and a feasible data analysis, learning, and parameter calibration method based on RBF neural network is proposed, which is used to determine the corresponding decision support system. The simulation results prove that the control strategy proposed in this paper is effective and feasible. According to the temporal and spatial evolution of the paper, we can see that the network has been improved on the whole.

  14. Early Hydrodynamic Escape Limits Rocky Planets to Less Than or Equal to 1.6 Earth Radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, O. R.; Catling, D. C.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade thousands of exoplanet candidates and hundreds of confirmed exoplanets have been found. For sub-Neptune-sized planets, those less than approx. 10 Earth masses, we can separate planets into two broad categories: predominantly rocky planets, and gaseous planets with thick volatile sheaths. Observations and subsequent analysis of these planets show that rocky planets are only found with radii less than approx. 1.6 Earth radii. No rocky planet has yet been found that violates this limit. We propose that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen rich protoatmospheres, accreted by forming planets, explains the limit in rocky planet size. Following the hydrodynamic escape model employed by Luger et al. (2015), we modelled the XUV driven escape from young planets (less than approx.100 Myr in age) around a Sun-like star. With a simple, first-order model we found that the rocky planet radii limit occurs consistently at approx. 1.6 Earth radii across a wide range of plausible parameter spaces. Our model shows that hydrodynamic escape can explain the observed cutoff between rocky and gaseous planets. Fig. 1 shows the results of our model for rocky planets between 0.5 and 10 Earth masses that accrete 3 wt. % H2/He during formation. The simulation was run for 100 Myr, after that time the XUV flux drops off exponentially and hydrodynamic escape drops with it. A cutoff between rocky planets and gaseous ones is clearly seen at approx. 1.5-1.6 Earth radii. We are only interested in the upper size limit for rocky planets. As such, we assumed pure hydrogen atmospheres and the highest possible isothermal atmospheric temperatures, which will produce an upper limit on the hydrodynamic loss rate. Previous work shows that a reasonable approximation for an upper temperature limit in a hydrogen rich protoatmosphere is 2000-3000 K, consistent with our assumptions. From these results, we propose that the observed dichotomy between mini-Neptunes and rocky worlds is simply explained by

  15. Bayes classifiers for imbalanced traffic accidents datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujalli, Randa Oqab; López, Griselda; Garach, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Traffic accidents data sets are usually imbalanced, where the number of instances classified under the killed or severe injuries class (minority) is much lower than those classified under the slight injuries class (majority). This, however, supposes a challenging problem for classification algorithms and may cause obtaining a model that well cover the slight injuries instances whereas the killed or severe injuries instances are misclassified frequently. Based on traffic accidents data collected on urban and suburban roads in Jordan for three years (2009-2011); three different data balancing techniques were used: under-sampling which removes some instances of the majority class, oversampling which creates new instances of the minority class and a mix technique that combines both. In addition, different Bayes classifiers were compared for the different imbalanced and balanced data sets: Averaged One-Dependence Estimators, Weightily Average One-Dependence Estimators, and Bayesian networks in order to identify factors that affect the severity of an accident. The results indicated that using the balanced data sets, especially those created using oversampling techniques, with Bayesian networks improved classifying a traffic accident according to its severity and reduced the misclassification of killed and severe injuries instances. On the other hand, the following variables were found to contribute to the occurrence of a killed causality or a severe injury in a traffic accident: number of vehicles involved, accident pattern, number of directions, accident type, lighting, surface condition, and speed limit. This work, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first that aims at analyzing historical data records for traffic accidents occurring in Jordan and the first to apply balancing techniques to analyze injury severity of traffic accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Framework for Traffic Congestion Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaki, J.F.W.; Ali-Eldin, A.M.T.; Hussein, S.E.; Saraya, S.F.; Areed, F.F.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic Congestion is a complex dilemma facing most major cities. It has undergone a lot of research since the early 80s in an attempt to predict traffic in the short-term. Recently, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) became an integral part of traffic research which helped in modeling and

  17. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field...

  18. Cyclists and traffic sounds : the results of an internet survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, G.P. van

    2014-01-01

    Many cyclists, especially youngsters, listen to music and talk on their mobile phones while cycling. As a result, auditory traffic information that can be used by cyclists to make safe decisions is less available. Also the growing number of quiet (electric) vehicles on the road makes use of auditory

  19. Thyroxine administration to infants of less than 30 weeks' gestational age does not increase plasma triiodothyronine concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wassenaer, A. G.; Kok, J. H.; Endert, E.; Vulsma, T.; de Vijlder, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Very preterm infants (less than 30 weeks' gestational age) were treated with thyroxine in three different dosage schemes: 10, 8 and 6 micrograms.kg-1 birthweight.day-1 during the first 6 weeks of life. The aim was to prevent transient hypothyroxinemia of the preterm infant. Plasma levels of

  20. Application of Internet in Road Traffic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dadić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the implementation of Internet in trafficengineering with the purpose of improving the professionaland scientific research development of the traffic system in theRepublic of Croatia.Fast growth of the world computer network, Internet, andits applications in almost all the fields of human activities,change the picture of the modern world. The current exchangeof data in all their forms and the daily growth of the network,supplemented by almost incredible amounts of data that can bealmost instantly accessible, indicates that Internet is not just theinfomwtion technology revolution, but that it is a revolutionper se. More than 100 million computers are estimated to benetworked beginning of the 21" century.Internet seems almost as if it were created for the purposesof knowledge and expe1ience exchange in traffic, a relativelyyoung scientific branch. 11 can be concluded that the presenceof traffic engineers in Internet is today's reality and tomon·ow'snecessity.

  1. Forecasting Multivariate Road Traffic Flows Using Bayesian Dynamic Graphical Models, Splines and Other Traffic Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anacleto, Osvaldo; Queen, Catriona; Albers, Casper J.

    Traffic flow data are routinely collected for many networks worldwide. These invariably large data sets can be used as part of a traffic management system, for which good traffic flow forecasting models are crucial. The linear multiregression dynamic model (LMDM) has been shown to be promising for

  2. 41 CFR 101-26.602-4 - Procurement of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of coal. 101... PROGRAM 26.6-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.602-4 Procurement of coal. (a) Federal agencies desiring to participate in the Defense Fuel Supply Center coal contracting program for carload delivery...

  3. Detecting Traffic Anomalies in Urban Areas Using Taxi GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale GPS data contain hidden information and provide us with the opportunity to discover knowledge that may be useful for transportation systems using advanced data mining techniques. In major metropolitan cities, many taxicabs are equipped with GPS devices. Because taxies operate continuously for nearly 24 hours per day, they can be used as reliable sensors for the perceived traffic state. In this paper, the entire city was divided into subregions by roads, and taxi GPS data were transformed into traffic flow data to build a traffic flow matrix. In addition, a highly efficient anomaly detection method was proposed based on wavelet transform and PCA (principal component analysis for detecting anomalous traffic events in urban regions. The traffic anomaly is considered to occur in a subregion when the values of the corresponding indicators deviate significantly from the expected values. This method was evaluated using a GPS dataset that was generated by more than 15,000 taxies over a period of half a year in Harbin, China. The results show that this detection method is effective and efficient.

  4. Traffic and Granular Flow ’07

    CERN Document Server

    Chevoir, François; Gondret, Philippe; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This book covers several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Three main topics are treated: road traffic, granular matter, and biological transport. Different points of view, i.e. modelling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations, are considered. Sub-topics include: highway or urban vehicular traffic (dynamics of traffic, macro/micro modelling, measurements, data analysis, security issues, psychological issues), pedestrian traffic, animal traffic (e.g. social insects), collective motion in biological systems (molecular motors...), granular flow (dense flows, intermittent flows, solid/liquid transition, jamming, force networks, fluid and solid friction), networks (biological networks, urban traffic, the internet, vulnerability of networks, optimal transport networks) and cellular automata applied to the various aforementioned fields.

  5. [Universal cytomegalovirus infection screening in premature newborns less than 1500 g].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botet, F; Figueras Aloy, J; Álvarez, E; de Alba, C; Dorronsolo, I; Echaniz Urcelay, I; Rite, S; Moreno, J; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Herranz Carrillo, G; Salguero, E; Sánchez Luna, M

    2014-10-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is endemic, and children who attend day care are the most important source of infection. To establish recommendations based on the medical evidence on the vertical transmission of cytomegalovirus in preterm infants weighing less than 1500g at birth. Infection in pregnant women may be primary or secondary. Although there is fetal infection, 85% of newborn infants are asymptomatic. Symptoms of infection include low birth weight, hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, microcephaly and neurological disorders. The prognosis of symptomatic children is very poor, with high mortality and neurological disorders. The virus can be reactivated during breast feeding, and early infection is possible through breast milk, probably with little impact in term infants, although the long-term neurological outcome worsens in preterm infants. The diagnostic method of choice is the identification of CMV in urine; the determination in the first two weeks of life suggests congenital infection; later it can be acquired at birth or through breast milk or contaminated blood transfusion. Determine viral DNA at 4-6 weeks of life by protease chain reaction. If it is positive, monitoring of samples from the first days of life and breast milk are mandatory. This should allow the newborn to be classified into three states: "Without CMV infection", "Congenital CMV infection", "Acquired CMV infection". Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. A CANDELS-3d-HST Synergy: Resolved Star Formation Patterns at 0.7 less than z less than 1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Nelson, Erica J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabe; Chang, Yu-Yen; Faber, Sandra M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; hide

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the resolved stellar populations of 473 massive star-forming galaxies at 0.7 3D-HST. Together, this unique data set sheds light on how the assembled stellar mass is distributed within galaxies, and where new stars are being formed. We find the Halpha morphologies to resemble more closely those observed in the ACS I band than in the WFC3 H band, especially for the larger systems. We next derive a novel prescription for Halpha dust corrections, which accounts for extra extinction toward H II regions. The prescription leads to consistent star formation rate (SFR) estimates and reproduces the observed relation between the Halpha/UV luminosity ratio and visual extinction, on both a pixel-by-pixel and a galaxy-integrated level. We find the surface density of star formation to correlate with the surface density of assembled stellar mass for spatially resolved regions within galaxies, akin to the so-called "main sequence of star formation" established on a galaxy-integrated level. Deviations from this relation toward lower equivalent widths are found in the inner regions of galaxies. Clumps and spiral features, on the other hand, are associated with enhanced H alpha equivalent widths, bluer colors, and higher specific SFRs compared to the underlying disk. Their Halpha/UV luminosity ratio is lower than that of the underlying disk, suggesting that the ACS clump selection preferentially picks up those regions of elevated star formation activity that are the least obscured by dust. Our analysis emphasizes that monochromatic studies of galaxy structure can be severely limited by mass-to-light ratio variations due to dust and spatially inhomogeneous star formation histories.

  7. 32 CFR 634.32 - Traffic violation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic violation reports. 634.32 Section 634.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.32 Traffic violation reports. (a) Most traffic violations...

  8. Probabilistic description of traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnke, R.; Kaupuzs, J.; Lubashevsky, I.

    2005-01-01

    A stochastic description of traffic flow, called probabilistic traffic flow theory, is developed. The general master equation is applied to relatively simple models to describe the formation and dissolution of traffic congestions. Our approach is mainly based on spatially homogeneous systems like periodically closed circular rings without on- and off-ramps. We consider a stochastic one-step process of growth or shrinkage of a car cluster (jam). As generalization we discuss the coexistence of several car clusters of different sizes. The basic problem is to find a physically motivated ansatz for the transition rates of the attachment and detachment of individual cars to a car cluster consistent with the empirical observations in real traffic. The emphasis is put on the analogy with first-order phase transitions and nucleation phenomena in physical systems like supersaturated vapour. The results are summarized in the flux-density relation, the so-called fundamental diagram of traffic flow, and compared with empirical data. Different regimes of traffic flow are discussed: free flow, congested mode as stop-and-go regime, and heavy viscous traffic. The traffic breakdown is studied based on the master equation as well as the Fokker-Planck approximation to calculate mean first passage times or escape rates. Generalizations are developed to allow for on-ramp effects. The calculated flux-density relation and characteristic breakdown times coincide with empirical data measured on highways. Finally, a brief summary of the stochastic cellular automata approach is given

  9. Traffic Flow Prediction Using MI Algorithm and Considering Noisy and Data Loss Conditions: An Application to Minnesota Traffic Flow Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hadi Hosseini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic flow forecasting is useful for controlling traffic flow, traffic lights, and travel times. This study uses a multi-layer perceptron neural network and the mutual information (MI technique to forecast traffic flow and compares the prediction results with conventional traffic flow forecasting methods. The MI method is used to calculate the interdependency of historical traffic data and future traffic flow. In numerical case studies, the proposed traffic flow forecasting method was tested against data loss, changes in weather conditions, traffic congestion, and accidents. The outcomes were highly acceptable for all cases and showed the robustness of the proposed flow forecasting method.

  10. Effects of traffic and ditch maintenance on forest road sediment production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Luce; Thomas A. Black

    2001-01-01

    Observations of sediment yield from road segments in the Oregon Coast Range show that either heavy traffic during rainfall or blading the road ditch will increase erosion from forest roads. For the fine soils and high quality aggregate surfacing on the study plots, ditch blading increased sediment yield more than traffic equivalent to 12 log trucks per day. The...

  11. 76 FR 39645 - Exemptions for Advisers to Venture Capital Funds, Private Fund Advisers With Less Than $150...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Exemptions for Advisers to Venture Capital Funds, Private Fund Advisers With Less Than $150 Million in Assets... Investment Advisers Registration Act of 2010--the new rules define ``venture capital fund'' and provide an... Venture Capital Strategy 8. Is a Private Fund 9. Application to Non-U.S. Advisers 10. Grandfathering...

  12. 29 CFR 520.403 - What information is required when applying for authority to pay less than the minimum wage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pay less than the minimum wage? 520.403 Section 520.403 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF... than the minimum wage? (a) A separate application must be made for each plant or establishment...

  13. Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children's blood pressure: results from the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, Natalya; van Rossem, Lenie; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Houthuijs, Danny; de Jongste, Johan C; van Kempen, Elise; Koppelman, Gerard H; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Smit, Henriette A; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Elevation of a child's blood pressure may cause possible health risks in later life. There is evidence for adverse effects of exposure to air pollution and noise on blood pressure in adults. Little is known about these associations in children. We investigated the associations of air pollution and noise exposure with blood pressure in 12-year-olds. Blood pressure was measured at age 12 years in 1432 participants of the PIAMA birth cohort study. Annual average exposure to traffic-related air pollution [NO2, mass concentrations of particulate matter with diameters of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and less than 10 µm (PM10), and PM2.5 absorbance] at the participants' home and school addresses at the time of blood pressure measurements was estimated by land-use regression models. Air pollution exposure on the days preceding blood pressure measurements was estimated from routine air monitoring data. Long-term noise exposure was assessed by linking addresses to modelled equivalent road traffic noise levels. Associations of exposures with blood pressure were analysed by linear regression. Effects are presented for an interquartile range increase in exposure. Long-term exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, in children who lived at the same address since birth [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval) [mmHg] 0.83 (0.06 to 1.61) and 0.75 (-0.08 to 1.58), respectively], but not with systolic blood pressure. We found no association of blood pressure with short-term air pollution or noise exposure. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase diastolic blood pressure in children. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  15. Emergent traffic jams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, K.; Paczuski, M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)∼t -3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results

  16. Emergent traffic jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-04-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)~t-3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  17. Simulation of traffic control signal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, P. J.; Concannon, P. A.; Ricci, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in the development and testing of control strategies for networks of urban traffic signal systems by simulation. Simulation is an inexpensive and timely method for evaluating the effect of these traffic control strategies since traffic phenomena are too complex to be defined by analytical models and since a controlled experiment may be hazardous, expensive, and slow in producing meaningful results. This paper describes the application of an urban traffic corridor program, to evaluate the effectiveness of different traffic control strategies for the Massachusetts Avenue TOPICS Project.

  18. [Comics for traffic education: evaluation of a traffic safety campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfadelli, H

    1989-01-01

    Traffic safety campaigns often are ineffective to change driving behavior because they don't reach the target group or are recognized only by people who are already interested or concerned. The evaluation of a traffic safety campaign called "Leo Lässig", addressed to young new drivers, shows that recognition and acceptance by the target group were stimulated by the age-conform means of comic-strips.

  19. Impact Analysis of Land Use on Traffic Congestion Using Real-Time Traffic and POI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new method to describe, compare, and classify the traffic congestion points in Beijing, China, by using the online map data and further revealed the relationship between traffic congestion and land use. The data of the point of interest (POI and the real-time traffic was extracted from an electronic map of the area in the fourth ring road of Beijing. The POIs were quantified based on the architectural area of the land use; the congestion points were identified based on real-time traffic. Then, the cluster analysis using the attributes of congestion time was conducted to identify the main traffic congestion areas. The result of a linear regression analysis between the congestion time and the land use showed that the influence of the high proportion of commercial land use on the traffic congestion was significant. Also, we considered five types of land use through performing a linear regression analysis between the congestion time and the ratio of four types of land use. The results showed that the reasonable ratio of land use types could efficiently reduce congestion time. This study makes contributions to the policy-making of urban land use.

  20. Understanding the T2 traffic in CMS during Run-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Wildish

    2015-12-01

    In the run-up to Run-1 CMS was operating its facilities according to the MONARC model, where data-transfers were strictly hierarchical in nature. Direct transfers between Tier-2 nodes was excluded, being perceived as operationally intensive and risky in an era where the network was expected to be a major source of errors. By the end of Run-1 wide-area networks were more capable and stable than originally anticipated. The original data-placement model was relaxed, and traffic was allowed between Tier-2 nodes. Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic in 2012 already exceeded the amount of Tier-2 to Tier-1 traffic, so it clearly has the potential to become important in the future. Moreover, while Tier-2 to Tier-1 traffic is mostly upload of Monte Carlo data, the Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic represents data moved in direct response to requests from the physics analysis community. As such, problems or delays there are more likely to have a direct impact on the user community. Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic may also traverse parts of the WAN that are at the 'edge' of our network, with limited network capacity or reliability compared to, say, the Tier-0 to Tier-1 traffic which goes the over LHCOPN network. CMS is looking to exploit technologies that allow us to interact with the network fabric so that it can manage our traffic better for us, this we hope to achieve before the end of Run-2. Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic would be the most interesting use-case for such traffic management, precisely because it is close to the users' analysis and far from the 'core' network infrastructure. As such, a better understanding of our Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic is important. Knowing the characteristics of our data-flows can help us place our data more intelligently. Knowing how widely the data moves can help us anticipate the requirements for network capacity, and inform the dynamic data placement algorithms we expect to have in place for Run-2. This paper presents an analysis of the CMS Tier-2 traffic during Run 1.

  1. SAE for the prediction of road traffic status from taxicab operating data and bus smart card data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhengfeng, Huang; Pengjun, Zheng; Wenjun, Xu; Gang, Ren

    Road traffic status is significant for trip decision and traffic management, and thus should be predicted accurately. A contribution is that we consider multi-modal data for traffic status prediction than only using single source data. With the substantial data from Ningbo Passenger Transport Management Sector (NPTMS), we wished to determine whether it was possible to develop Stacked Autoencoders (SAEs) for accurately predicting road traffic status from taxicab operating data and bus smart card data. We show that SAE performed better than linear regression model and Back Propagation (BP) neural network for determining the relationship between road traffic status and those factors. In a 26-month data experiment using SAE, we show that it is possible to develop highly accurate predictions (91% test accuracy) of road traffic status from daily taxicab operating data and bus smart card data.

  2. Residential exposure to traffic noise and leisure-time sports - A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-08-01

    Traffic levels have been found a significant environmental predictor for physical inactivity. A recent study suggested that traffic noise annoyance was associated with lower physical activity. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and leisure-time sports. In the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from the baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). People reported participation (yes/no) and hours of leisure-time sport, from which we calculated MET hrs/week. Present and historical addresses from 1987 to 2002 were found in national registries, and traffic noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression. Traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was associated with higher prevalence odds ratio of non-participation in leisure-time sports; significantly for road traffic noise (odds ratio (OR): 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.13) and borderline for railway noise (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99-1.07), per 10dB. In longitudinal analyses, a 10dB higher road traffic noise was associated with a higher prevalence odds ratio of ceasing (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07-1.18) and a lower prevalence odds ratio of initiating (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.96) leisure-time sports. Exposure to railway noise was negatively associated with baseline MET hrs/week, whereas no association was found in longitudinal analyses, or for road traffic noise. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise is negatively associated with leisure-time sports. Results for railway noise were less consistent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Noise, air pollutants and traffic: continuous measurement and correlation at a high-traffic location in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Zev; Kheirbek, Iyad; Clougherty, Jane E; Ito, Kazuhiko; Matte, Thomas; Markowitz, Steven; Eisl, Holger

    2011-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked both noise and air pollution to common adverse health outcomes such as increased blood pressure and myocardial infarction. In urban settings, noise and air pollution share important sources, notably traffic, and several recent studies have shown spatial correlations between noise and air pollution. The temporal association between these exposures, however, has yet to be thoroughly investigated despite the importance of time series studies in air pollution epidemiology and the potential that correlations between these exposures could at least partly confound statistical associations identified in these studies. An aethelometer, for continuous elemental carbon measurement, was co-located with a continuous noise monitor near a major urban highway in New York City for six days in August 2009. Hourly elemental carbon measurements and hourly data on overall noise levels and low, medium and high frequency noise levels were collected. Hourly average concentrations of fine particles and nitrogen oxides, wind speed and direction and car, truck and bus traffic were obtained from nearby regulatory monitors. Overall temporal patterns, as well as day-night and weekday-weekend patterns, were characterized and compared for all variables. Noise levels were correlated with car, truck, and bus traffic and with air pollutants. We observed strong day-night and weekday-weekend variation in noise and air pollutants and correlations between pollutants varied by noise frequency. Medium and high frequency noise were generally more strongly correlated with traffic and traffic-related pollutants than low frequency noise and the correlation with medium and high frequency noise was generally stronger at night. Correlations with nighttime high frequency noise were particularly high for car traffic (Spearman rho=0.84), nitric oxide (0.73) and nitrogen dioxide (0.83). Wind speed and direction mediated relationships between pollutants and noise. Noise levels are

  4. Eliciting road traffic injuries cost among Iranian drivers’ public vehicles using willingness to pay method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Baghfalaki, Taban

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: To allocate resources at the national level and ensure the safety level of roads with the aim of economic efficiency, cost calculation can help determine the size of the problem and demonstrate the economic benefits resulting from preventing such injuries. This study was carried out to elicit the cost of traffic injuries among Iranian drivers of public vehicles. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 410 drivers of public vehicles were randomly selected from all the drivers in city of Tehran, Iran. The research questionnaire was prepared based on the standard for willingness to pay (WTP) method (stated preference (SP), contingent value (CV), and revealed preference (RP) model). Data were collected along with a scenario for vehicle drivers. Inclusion criteria were having at least high school education and being in the age range of 18 to 65 years old. Final analysis of willingness to pay was carried out using Weibull model. Results: Mean WTP was 3,337,130 IRR among drivers of public vehicles. Statistical value of life was estimated 118,222,552,601,648 IRR, for according to 4,694 dead drivers, which was equivalent to 3,940,751,753 $ based on the dollar free market rate of 30,000 IRR (purchase power parity). Injury cost was 108,376,366,437,500 IRR, equivalent to 3,612,545,548 $. In sum, injury and death cases came to 226,606,472,346,449 IRR, equivalent to 7,553,549,078 $. Moreover in 2013, cost of traffic injuries among the drivers of public vehicles constituted 1.25% of gross national income, which was 604,300,000,000$. WTP had a significant relationship with gender, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, more pay to less traffic, and minibus drivers. Conclusion: Cost of traffic injuries among drivers of public vehicles included 1.25% of gross national income, which was noticeable; minibus drivers had less perception of risk reduction than others. PMID:26157655

  5. Eliciting road traffic injuries cost among Iranian drivers' public vehicles using willingness to pay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainy, Elaheh; Soori, Hamid; Ganjali, Mojtaba; Baghfalaki, Taban

    2015-01-01

    To allocate resources at the national level and ensure the safety level of roads with the aim of economic efficiency, cost calculation can help determine the size of the problem and demonstrate the economic benefits resulting from preventing such injuries. This study was carried out to elicit the cost of traffic injuries among Iranian drivers of public vehicles. In a cross-sectional study, 410 drivers of public vehicles were randomly selected from all the drivers in city of Tehran, Iran. The research questionnaire was prepared based on the standard for willingness to pay (WTP) method (stated preference (SP), contingent value (CV), and revealed preference (RP) model). Data were collected along with a scenario for vehicle drivers. Inclusion criteria were having at least high school education and being in the age range of 18 to 65 years old. Final analysis of willingness to pay was carried out using Weibull model. Mean WTP was 3,337,130 IRR among drivers of public vehicles. Statistical value of life was estimated 118,222,552,601,648 IRR, for according to 4,694 dead drivers, which was equivalent to 3,940,751,753 $ based on the dollar free market rate of 30,000 IRR (purchase power parity). Injury cost was 108,376,366,437,500 IRR, equivalent to 3,612,545,548 $. In sum, injury and death cases came to 226,606,472,346,449 IRR, equivalent to 7,553,549,078 $. Moreover in 2013, cost of traffic injuries among the drivers of public vehicles constituted 1.25% of gross national income, which was 604,300,000,000$. WTP had a significant relationship with gender, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, more pay to less traffic, and minibus drivers. Cost of traffic injuries among drivers of public vehicles included 1.25% of gross national income, which was noticeable; minibus drivers had less perception of risk reduction than others.

  6. Parenting Programmes for Preventing Tobacco, Alcohol or Drugs Misuse in Children Less than 18: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Jane; Bunn, Frances; Byrne, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of parenting programmes to prevent tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse in children less than 18. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, specialized Register of Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, Pub Med, psych INFO, CINALH and SIGLE. Two reviewers independently screened studies,…

  7. Traffic citation rates among drivers of different residency status in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Eduardo; Tippetts, Scott; Fell, James; Eichelberger, Angela; Grosz, Milton; Wiliszowski, Connie

    2013-03-01

    Racial/ethnic groups in the United States may be overrepresented in motor-vehicle incidents (crashes and violations), particularly among low-acculturated immigrants coming from countries in which traffic laws are not well enforced. Some evidence suggests just the opposite. We collected and analyzed information on the residency status of licensed drivers in Florida and Tennessee to examine the hypothesis that the prevalence of seat-belt nonuse, DWI, speeding, and failures to obey a traffic signal was higher among recent immigrants than among US citizens. We rejected this hypothesis. Both in Florida and Tennessee, US citizens were more likely to be cited for DWI, seat-belt, or speeding violations than the noncitizens. However, immigrants were more often cited for failure-to-obey than US citizens. We concluded that residency status does, appear to play a role in the likelihood of traffic violations, but this role is far from uniform; varying depending upon the type of traffic violation, the racial/ethnic group, and the state in which the violation occurred. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Actual situation analyses of rat-run traffic on community streets based on car probe data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Yuki; Matsuo, Kojiro; Sugiki, Nao

    2017-10-01

    Lowering of so-called "rat-run" traffic on community streets has been one of significant challenges for improving the living environment of neighborhood. However, it has been difficult to quantitatively grasp the actual situation of rat-run traffic by the traditional surveys such as point observations. This study aims to develop a method for extracting rat-run traffic based on car probe data. In addition, based on the extracted rat-run traffic in Toyohashi city, Japan, we try to analyze the actual situation such as time and location distribution of the rat-run traffic. As a result, in Toyohashi city, the rate of using rat-run route increases in peak time period. Focusing on the location distribution of rat-run traffic, in addition, they pass through a variety of community streets. There is no great inter-district bias of the route frequently used as rat-run traffic. Next, we focused on some trips passing through a heavily used route as rat-run traffic. As a result, we found the possibility that they habitually use the route as rat-run because their trips had some commonalities. We also found that they tend to use the rat-run route due to shorter distance than using the alternative highway route, and that the travel speeds were faster than using the alternative highway route. In conclusions, we confirmed that the proposed method can quantitatively grasp the actual situation and the phenomenal tendencies of the rat-run traffic.

  9. Remotely Accessed Vehicle Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Raida

    2010-06-01

    The ever increasing number of vehicles in most metropolitan cities around the world and the limitation in altering the transportation infrastructure, led to serious traffic congestion and an increase in the travelling time. In this work we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as the internet, to design an intelligent Traffic Management System (TMS) that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. The system is based on utilizing Embedded Web Servers (EWS) technology to design a web-based TMS. The EWS located at each intersection uses IP technology for communicating remotely with a Central Traffic Management Unit (CTMU) located at the traffic department authority. Friendly GUI software installed at the CTMU will be able to monitor the sequence of operation of the traffic lights and the presence of traffic at each intersection as well as remotely controlling the operation of the signals. The system has been validated by constructing a prototype that resembles the real application.

  10. Traffic analysis and control using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ellappan, Vijayan; Arun, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper shows the work on traffic analysis and control till date. It shows an approach to regulate traffic the use of image processing and MATLAB systems. This concept uses computational images that are to be compared with original images of the street taken in order to determine the traffic level percentage and set the timing for the traffic signal accordingly which are used to reduce the traffic stoppage on traffic lights. They concept proposes to solve real life scenarios in the streets, thus enriching the traffic lights by adding image receivers like HD cameras and image processors. The input is then imported into MATLAB to be used. as a method for calculating the traffic on roads. Their results would be computed in order to adjust the traffic light timings on a particular street, and also with respect to other similar proposals but with the added value of solving a real, big instance.

  11. Risk factors for exclusive breastfeeding lasting less than two months-Identifying women in need of targeted breastfeeding support.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Cato

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding rates in Sweden are declining, and it is important to identify women at risk for early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding.The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding lasting less than two months postpartum.A population-based longitudinal study was conducted at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. Six hundred and seventy-nine women were included in this sub-study. Questionnaires were sent at five days, six weeks and six months postpartum, including questions on breastfeeding initiation and duration as well as several other background variables. The main outcome measure was exclusive breastfeeding lasting less than two months postpartum. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used in order to calculate adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI.Seventy-seven percent of the women reported exclusive breastfeeding at two months postpartum. The following variables in the multivariate regression analysis were independently associated with exclusive breastfeeding lasting less than two months postpartum: being a first time mother (AOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.32-3.49, reporting emotional distress during pregnancy (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.35-3.62 and giving birth by cesarean section (AOR 2.63, 95% CI 1.34-5.17.Factors associated with shorter exclusive breastfeeding duration were determined. Identification of women experiencing emotional distress during pregnancy, as well as scrutiny of caregiving routines on cesarean section need to be addressed, in order to give individual targeted breastfeeding support and promote longer breastfeeding duration.

  12. Traffic management simulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    Microscopic simulation can provide significant support to traffic management center (TMC) operations. However, traffic simulation applications require data that are expensive and time-consuming to collect. Data collected by TMCs can be used as a prim...

  13. Finite size scaling analysis on Nagel-Schreckenberg model for traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchi, Ashkan; Browne, Dana

    2015-03-01

    The traffic flow problem as a many-particle non-equilibrium system has caught the interest of physicists for decades. Understanding the traffic flow properties and though obtaining the ability to control the transition from the free-flow phase to the jammed phase plays a critical role in the future world of urging self-driven cars technology. We have studied phase transitions in one-lane traffic flow through the mean velocity, distributions of car spacing, dynamic susceptibility and jam persistence -as candidates for an order parameter- using the Nagel-Schreckenberg model to simulate traffic flow. The length dependent transition has been observed for a range of maximum velocities greater than a certain value. Finite size scaling analysis indicates power-law scaling of these quantities at the onset of the jammed phase.

  14. Hoarseness and vocal tract discomfort and associated risk factors in air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Gustavo Polacow; Villar, Anna Carolina; Azevedo, Renata Rangel

    2018-04-05

    An air traffic controller is a professional who performs air traffic control functions in air traffic control units and is responsible for controlling the various stages of a flight. To compare hoarseness and vocal tract discomfort and their risk factors among air traffic controllers in the approach control of São Paulo. In a cross-sectional survey, a voice self-evaluation adapted from to self-evaluation prepared by the Brazilian Ministry of Labor for teachers was administered to 76 air traffic controllers at approach control of São Paulo, Brazil. The percentage of hoarseness and vocal tract discomfort was 19.7% and 38.2%, respectively. In relation to air pollution, the percentages of hoarseness and vocal tract discomfort were higher among those who consider their working environment to be intolerable than among those in a comfortable or disturbing environment. The percentage of hoarseness was higher among those who seek medical advice due to vocal complaints and among those who experience difficulty using their voice at work than among those who experience mild or no difficulty. The percentage of vocal tract discomfort was higher among those in a very tense and stressful environment than among those who consider their work environment to be mild or moderately tense and stressful. The percentage of vocal tract discomfort was higher among those who describe themselves as very tense and stressed or tense and stressed than among those who describe themselves as calm. Additionally, the percentage of vocal tract discomfort was higher among those who care about their health. Among air traffic controllers, the percentage of vocal tract discomfort was almost twice that of hoarseness. Both symptoms are prevalent among air traffic controllers who considered their workplace intolerable in terms of air pollution. Vocal tract discomfort was related to a tense and stressful environment, and hoarseness was related to difficulty using the voice at work. Copyright © 2018 Associa

  15. Green supply chain: Simulating road traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Muhammad Zulqarnain Hakim Abd; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Laailatul Hanim Mat Desa, Wan; Khalid, Ruzelan; Khalid Abduljabbar, Waleed; Ramli, Razamin

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing awareness of the consumers about environmental issues, businesses, households and governments increasingly want use green products and services which lead to green supply chain. This paper discusses a simulation study of a selected road traffic system that will contribute to the air pollution if in the congestion state. Road traffic congestion (RTC) can be caused by a temporary obstruction, a permanent capacity bottleneck in the network itself, and stochastic fluctuation in demand within a particular sector of the network, leading to spillback and queue propagation. A discrete-event simulation model is developed to represent the real traffic light control (TLC) system condition during peak hours. Certain performance measures such as average waiting time and queue length were measured using the simulation model. Existing system uses pre-set cycle time to control the light changes which is fixed time cycle. In this research, we test several other combination of pre-set cycle time with the objective to find the best system. In addition, we plan to use a combination of the pre-set cycle time and a proximity sensor which have the authority to manipulate the cycle time of the lights. The sensors work in such situation when the street seems to have less occupied vehicles, obviously it may not need a normal cycle for green light, and automatically change the cycle to street where vehicle is present.

  16. Fair and efficient prices in traffic. Propositions on price policy for the sustainable development of traffic in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maibach, M.; Ott, W.; Schreyer, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    Fair and efficient prices are a central topic in traffic policy, both at the EU level and in Switzerland. They should allow the efficient use of the infrastructure, set up fair terms of competition between road and rail traffic and reduce traffic loading. At the same time, they should also make it possible to finance traffic in a sustainable manner. One of the main directions of attack is letting those responsible pay the external costs which result from traffic jams, accidents and environmental pollution. With the planned introduction of the usage-dependent heavy traffic levy, Switzerland has made an important step in the direction of true cost-allocation for goods vehicles. As for the rest of road traffic, however, considerable external costs are still not covered. On the other hand, rail traffic is not able to cover its infrastructure costs itself in spite of compensation it receives for the provision of public services

  17. Fair and efficient prices in traffic. Propositions on price policy for the sustainable development of traffic in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maibach, M.; Ott, W.; Schreyer, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    Fair and efficient prices are a central topic in traffic policy, both at the European Union level and in Switzerland. They should allow the efficient use of the infrastructure, set up fair terms of competition between road and rail traffic and reduce traffic loading. At the same time, they should also make it possible to finance traffic in a sustainable manner. One of the main directions of attack is letting those responsible pay the external costs which result from traffic jams, accidents and environmental pollution. With the planned introduction of the usage-dependent heavy traffic levy, Switzerland has made an important step in the direction of true cost-allocation for goods vehicles. As for the rest of road traffic, however, considerable external costs are still not covered. On the other hand, rail traffic is not able to cover its infrastructure costs itself in spite of compensation it receives for the provision of public services [de

  18. A computerized traffic control algorithm to determine optimal traffic signal settings. Ph.D. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldner, K.

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to optimally control the traffic signals at each intersection using a discrete time traffic model applicable to heavy or peak traffic. Off line optimization procedures were applied to compute the cycle splits required to minimize the lengths of the vehicle queues and delay at each intersection. The method was applied to an extensive traffic network in Toledo, Ohio. Results obtained with the derived optimal settings are compared with the control settings presently in use.

  19. Women are not less field independent than men-the role of stereotype threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drążkowski, Dariusz; Szwedo, Jakub; Krajczewska, Aleksandra; Adamczuk, Anna; Piątkowski, Krzysztof; Jadwiżyc, Marcin; Rakowski, Adam

    2017-10-01

    Prior research has shown that females are less field independent (FI) than males. However, when gender identity is salient, performance on tests assessing constructs similar to FI may be hindered, because of stereotype threat. This study examined the impact of stereotype threat on gender differences in FI. We expected that (a) reporting one's own gender prior to FI testing and (b) having an opposite-gender experimenter would activate stereotype threat, and in turn result in lower performance on a test of FI among females. Overall, 170 participants were randomly assigned to one of eight conditions in a between-participants design varying the participant's gender, experimenter's gender and timing of the gender question (before vs. after test). Results showed that reporting one's gender before the FI test led to lower FI performance among females. Furthermore, females achieved higher FI when experimenters were females and gender questions were administered after the FI test. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. Combined 8-MOP and UVA damages of peripheral lymphocytes within less than one second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, F.; Meffert, H.; Bauer, E.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Jena. Zentralinstitut fuer Mikrobiologie und Experimentelle Therapie)

    1982-01-01

    Cell membranes are the main target of PUVA-therapy. Combined stopped flow and irradiation experiments allow to conclude from the speed of a photoreaction to its anatomical place. Isolated human lymphocytes were mixed with 8-MOP solution in a time less than 20 ms (total concentration 5 μM) and irradiated with UVA (0.05 J/cm 2 ). One second after irradiation 1/5 of the cells used were damaged. The rate of trypan blue-stainable cells was not enhanced by prolongating the time of incubation up to 45 minutes and following irradiation with 0.3 J/cm 2 UVA. These results are exaplained by a membrane attack due to the combined action of 8-MOP and UVA to the lymphocytes. (author)

  1. Corneal Biomechanical Properties after FS-LASIK with Residual Bed Thickness Less Than 50% of the Original Corneal Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The changes in corneal biomechanical properties after LASIK remain an unknown but important topic for surgical design and prognostic evaluation. This study aims to observe the postoperative corneal biomechanical properties one month after LASIK with amount of corneal cutting (ACC greater than 50% of the central corneal thickness (CCT. Methods. FS-LASIK was performed in 10 left rabbit eyes with ACC being 60% (L60 and 65% (L65 of the CCT, while the right eyes (R were the control. After 4 weeks, rabbits were executed and corneal strip samples were prepared for uniaxial tensile tests. Results. At the same strain, the stresses of L65 and L60 were larger than those of R. The elastic moduli of L60 and L65 were larger than those of R when the stress was 0.02 MPa, while they began to be less than those of R when stress exceeds the low-stress region. After 10 s relaxation, the stress of specimens L65, L60, and R increased in turn. Conclusion. The elastic moduli of the cornea after FS-LASIK with ACC greater than 50% of the CCT do not become less under normal rabbit IOP. The limit stress grows with the rise of ACC when relaxation becomes stable.

  2. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  3. [Reduction of automobile traffic: urgent health promotion policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, J A

    1998-03-01

    During the last few decades, traffic injuries have become one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. In urban areas, traffic congestion, noise, and emissions from motor vehicles produce subjective disturbances and detectable pathological effects. More than one billion people are exposed to harmful levels of environmental pollution. Because its combustion engine generates carbon dioxide (CO2), the automobile is one of the chief sources of the gases that are causing the greenhouse effect. The latter has already caused a rise in the average ambient temperature, and over the next decades it will predictable cause significant climatic changes whose consequences, though uncertain, are likely to be harmful and possibly catastrophic. Aside from the greenhouse effect, the relentless growth of parking zones, traffic, and the roadway infrastructure in urban and rural areas is currently one of the leading causes of environmental degradation. Urban development, which is nearly always "planned" around traffic instead of people, leads to a significant deterioration in the quality of life, while it also destroys the social fabric. Unlike the private automobile, public transportation, bicycles, and walking help reduce pollution, congestion, and traffic volume, as well as the morbidity and mortality resulting from injuries and ailments related to pollution. Non-automobile transportation also encourages physical activity--with its positive effect on general health--and helps reduce the greenhouse effect. The drop in traffic volume and the increased use of alternate means of transportation are thus an integrated health promotion policy which should become an inherent part of the movement for the promotion of healthy cities and of transportation policies and economic policy in general.

  4. Coconut oil has less satiating properties than medium chain triglyceride oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, R; Maher, T; Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Many media articles promote the use of coconut oil for weight loss advocating similar health benefits to that of MCT. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MCT oil compared to coconut oil and control oil on food intake and satiety. Following an overnight fast, participants consumed a test breakfast smoothie containing 205kcal of either (i) MCT oil (ii) coconut oil or (iii) vegetable oil (control) on three separate test days. Participants recorded appetite ratings on visual analogue scales and were presented with an ad libitum lunch meal of preselected sandwiches 180min after consumption of the breakfast. The results showed a significant difference in energy and macronutrient intakes at the ad libitum meal between the three oils with the MCT oil reducing food intake compared to the coconut and control oil. Differences in food intake throughout the day were found for energy and fat, with the control having increased food intake compared to the MCT and coconut. The MCT also increased fullness over the three hours after breakfast compared to the control and coconut oils. The coconut oil was also reported as being less palatable than the MCT oil. The results of this study confirm the differences that exist between MCT and coconut oil such that coconut oil cannot be promoted as having similar effects to MCT oil on food intake and satiety. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  6. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators’ situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen. PMID:29672543

  7. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashi, Mohamed; Vickers, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators' situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen.

  8. Nasogastric Hydration in Infants with Bronchiolitis Less Than 2 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Ed; Bata, Sonny; Rengasamy, Sharmila; Krieser, David; Cheek, John; Jachno, Kim; Babl, Franz E

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether nasogastric hydration can be used in infants less than 2 months of age with bronchiolitis, and characterize the adverse events profile of these infants compared with infants given intravenous (IV) fluid hydration. A descriptive retrospective cohort study of children with bronchiolitis under 2 months of age admitted for hydration at 3 centers over 3 bronchiolitis seasons was done. We determined type of hydration (nasogastric vs IV fluid hydration) and adverse events, intensive care unit admission, and respiratory support. Of 491 infants under 2 months of age admitted with bronchiolitis, 211 (43%) received nonoral hydration: 146 (69%) via nasogastric hydration and 65 (31%) via IV fluid hydration. Adverse events occurred in 27.4% (nasogastric hydration) and 23.1% (IV fluid hydration), difference of 4.3%; 95%CI (-8.2 to 16.9), P = .51. The majority of adverse events were desaturations (21.9% nasogastric hydration vs 21.5% IV fluid hydration, difference 0.4%; [-11.7 to 12.4], P = .95). There were no pulmonary aspirations in either group. Apneas and bradycardias were similar in each group. IV fluid hydration use was positively associated with intensive care unit admission (38.5% IV fluid hydration vs 19.9% nasogastric hydration; difference 18.6%, [5.1-32.1], P = .004); and use of ventilation support (27.7% IV fluid hydration vs 15.1% nasogastric hydration; difference 12.6 [0.3-23], P = .03). Fewer infants changed from nasogastric hydration to IV fluid hydration than from IV fluid hydration to nasogastric hydration (12.3% vs 47.7%; difference -35.4% [-49 to -22], P hydration can be used in the majority of young infants admitted with bronchiolitis. Nasogastric hydration and IV fluid hydration had similar rates of complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Air Traffic Management Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control systems aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Part of NASA's current mission in aeronautics research is to invent new technologies and procedures for ATC that will enable our national airspace system to accommodate the increasing demand for air transportation well into the next generation while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we'll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and we'll highlight some new NASA technologies coming down the pike.

  10. Reconfigurable origami sonic barriers with tunable bandgaps for traffic noise mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, M.; Wang, K. W.

    2017-10-01

    An origami sonic barrier composed of cylindrical inclusions attached onto an origami sheet is proposed. The idea allows for tunable sound blocking properties for application in attenuating complex traffic noise spectra. Folding of the underlying origami sheet transforms the periodicity of the inclusions between different Bravais lattices, viz. between a square and a hexagonal lattice, and such significant lattice re-configuration leads to drastic tuning of dispersion characteristics. The wave tuning capabilities are corroborated via performing theoretical and numerical investigations using a plane wave expansion method and an acoustic simulation package of COMSOL, while experiments are performed on a one-seventh scaled-down model of origami sonic barrier to demonstrate the lattice re-configuration between different Bravais lattices and the associated bandgap adaptability. Good sound blocking performance in the frequency range of traffic noise spectra combined with less efforts, required for actuating one-degree of freedom folding mechanism, makes the origami sonic barrier a potential candidate for mitigating complex traffic noise.

  11. 25 CFR 12.33 - Are Indian country law enforcement officers paid less than other law enforcement officers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Indian country law enforcement officers paid less than other law enforcement officers? 12.33 Section 12.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Qualifications and Training Requirements § 12.33 Are Indian country law enforcement...

  12. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moynihan, P.I. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  13. Association of long-term exposure to community noise and traffic-related air pollution with coronary heart disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Davies, Hugh W; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In metropolitan areas, road traffic is a major contributor to ambient air pollution and the dominant source of community noise. The authors investigated the independent and joint influences of community noise and traffic-related air pollution on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in a population-based cohort study with a 5-year exposure period (January 1994-December 1998) and a 4-year follow-up period (January 1999-December 2002). Individuals who were 45-85 years of age and resided in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known CHD at baseline were included (n = 445,868). Individual exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollutants, including black carbon, particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric oxide, were estimated at each person's residence using a noise prediction model and land-use regression models, respectively. CHD deaths were identified from the provincial death registration database. After adjustment for potential confounders, including traffic-related air pollutants or noise, elevations in noise and black carbon equal to the interquartile ranges were associated with 6% (95% confidence interval: 1, 11) and 4% (95% confidence interval: 1, 8) increases, respectively, in CHD mortality. Subjects in the highest noise decile had a 22% (95% confidence interval: 4, 43) increase in CHD mortality compared with persons in the lowest decile. These findings suggest that there are independent effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution on CHD mortality.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE AUTOMATED ROAD TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS IN MINSK AS PART OF THE INTELLECTUAL CITY TRANSPORT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of Minsk city transport system performance. It is shown that the growth of car ownership has caused a number of problems, among which the low-speed communication, bad driving modes, the presence of elevated levels of congestion and accidents. The corresponding figures for accidents in Minsk and some cities in the world that allow to characterize the transport system of the city of Minsk, as satisfactory. To improve the system and improve the quality of traffic necessary to create intelligent transport system of the city of Minsk. Intelligent Transportation System, being a global trend, enables dramatically improve road quality. Automated traffic control system and other subsystems as part of the Intelligent Transportation Systems are tools for achieving the goals for improving the safety and comfort of road users. It is proposed as a base for its creation to choose an automated traffic control system, which has a corresponding functional, structural, organizational and institutional provisions for its development. The technological requirements for the functioning of an integrated system, which relate to the level of efficiency, including accidents on sections of the road network included in the created system. Modernization of the automated traffic control system and its transformation into an intelligent transport system will reduce emergency, economic and environmental, and social costs in the road traffic is not less than 15 % from their current level, despite the steady growth of car ownership in the city. It is planned to create a complete intelligent transportation system.

  15. Traffic density determination and its applications using smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sayed Ahmed Al-Sobky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone is progressively becoming a dominant platform for many transportation applications. This paper introduces a new application for using smartphones to measure traffic density and speed. The proposed system consists of two smartphones and two cars, with observer to count vehicles between the two cars. This count is utilized with tracking data to give “measured” density and “measured” speed. The travel speed and manual traffic counts were used to derive “calculated” density. Measured density was validated against calculated one, and statistical t-test confirmed that the mean difference between two densities is not significant at 5% level. Calculated flow rates were also comparable to actual counts, with an average error of 8.2%. The proposed system was then applied to measure density on 6 of October Elevated Road in Egypt, and the level of service was determined accordingly on 15 road sections studied on this road. Furthermore, actual speed-density data were fitted using exponential model with R2 of 0.85. Advantages of proposed system qualify it for potential applications in developing countries where available resources limit installation of more costly systems. The application of proposed system is limited to daytime, uninterrupted flow conditions, and traffic streams with less percentage of heavy vehicles.

  16. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Congested Marine Traffic Environment – An Application Using Marine Traffic Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Hasegawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Difficulty of sailing is quite subjective matter. It depends on various factors. Using Marine Traffic Simulation System (MTSS developed by Osaka University this challenging subject is discussed. In this system realistic traffic flow including collision avoidance manoeuvres can be reproduced in a given area. Simulation is done for southward of Tokyo Bay, Strait of Singapore and off-Shanghai area changing traffic volume from 5 or 50 to 150 or 200% of the present volume. As a result, strong proportional relation between near-miss ratio and traffic density per hour per sailed area is found, independent on traffic volume, area size and configuration. The quantitative evaluation index of the difficulty of sailing, here called risk rate of the area is defined using thus defined traffic density and near-miss ratio.

  17. 32 CFR 634.28 - Traffic accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation. 634.28 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.28 Traffic accident investigation. Installation law enforcement personnel must make detailed investigations of...

  18. Flow level performance approximations for elastic traffic integrated with prioritized stream traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, R.; Berg, J.L. van den

    2007-01-01

    Almost all traffic in todays networks can be classified as being either stream or elastic. The support of these two traffic types is possible either with a Differentiated (DiffServ) or an Integrated Services (IntServ) architecture. However, both DiffServ and IntServ rely on efficient scheduling

  19. Comparison of the quality of life in cerebral palsy children with physical therapy more and less than 10 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Anggreany

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common cause of severe physical disability in childhood. These limitations may cause lower level experience or quality of life (QoL. Physical therapy (PT plays a central role in managing CP. Objective To compare QoL in CP children with PT more and less than 10 months and to compare gross motoric level before and after PT. Methods A cross sectional study was performed from June 2012 to March 2013 in Medan. Eligible population were four to twelve year old CP children who received PT. Subjects were divided into 2 group, group I was CP children with PT more than 10 months, group II was CP children with PT less than 10 months. Parents were asked to fill CP QOL questionnaires. To evaluate motor impairment level we used gross motor function classification system (GMFCS that classified the motoric impairment into 5 levels. Data was analyzed by using independent T-test and MannWhitney U test with 95% confidence interval. Results There were 60 CP children divided into 2 groups of 30 children. The mean duration of PT in group I was 35.7 (SD 19.37 months and group II was 4.2 (SD 3.13 months. Gross motoric level in both group increased from GMFCS IV to GMFCS II in group I (P=0.0001 and from GMFCS IV to GMFCS III (P=0.002 in group II. The mean total CP QoL scores in group I and II were 79.63 (SD 5.73 and 47.71 (SD 6.85, respectively (P=0.0001. Conclusions Cerebral palsy children who received more than 10 months PT have higher QoL than children with less than 10 months PT. There was significant gross motor improvement after PT in both groups.

  20. Criterion for traffic phases in single vehicle data and empirical test of a microscopic three-phase traffic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hiller, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical and numerical microscopic analyses, the physical nature of a qualitatively different behaviour of the wide moving jam phase in comparison with the synchronized flow phase-microscopic traffic flow interruption within the wide moving jam phase-is found. A microscopic criterion for distinguishing the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in single vehicle data measured at a single freeway location is presented. Based on this criterion, empirical microscopic classification of different local congested traffic states is performed. Simulations made show that the microscopic criterion and macroscopic spatiotemporal objective criteria lead to the same identification of the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in congested traffic. Microscopic models in the context of three-phase traffic theory have been tested based on the microscopic criterion for the phases in congested traffic. It is found that microscopic three-phase traffic models can explain both microscopic and macroscopic empirical congested pattern features. It is obtained that microscopic frequency distributions for vehicle speed difference as well as fundamental diagrams and speed correlation functions can depend on the spatial co-ordinate considerably. It turns out that microscopic optimal velocity (OV) functions and time headway distributions are not necessarily qualitatively different, even if local congested traffic states are qualitatively different. The reason for this is that important spatiotemporal features of congested traffic patterns are lost in these as well as in many other macroscopic and microscopic traffic characteristics, which are widely used as the empirical basis for a test of traffic flow models, specifically, cellular automata traffic flow models

  1. Regulatory measures for traffic safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerapur, R.D.; Bharambe, S.D.; Patnaik, S.K.; Tandle, A.K.; Sonawane, K.A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Venkat Subramanian, K.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic safety is an issue related to occupational safety not restricted alone to the transportation but extends beyond. BARC has many facilities spread across large area in Mumbai and outside Mumbai. BARC deploys large number of buses, mini buses, jeeps and cars for commuting its employees to reach BARC and for commuting within BARC premises. Additionally, trucks, fire tenders, trailers etc. are also deployed for transportation of materials. No moving vehicle is ever free of the possibility of involvement in an accident. Vehicular accidents and the fatalities on road are the result of inter-play of a number of factors. The vehicle population has been steadily increasing with the pace picking up significantly in recent past. Increase in vehicle population in the face of limited road space used by a large variety of traffic has heightened the need and urgency for a well-thought-out road safety. Therefore, existence of regulatory authority to regulate traffic and vehicles to ensure safety of its employees and vehicles is very essential. BARC Traffic Safety Committee (BTSC), which is the regulating body for traffic safety is responsible for ensuring overall traffic safety. (author)

  2. Traffic Management for Emergency Vehicle Priority Based on Visual Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapileswar Nellore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular traffic is endlessly increasing everywhere in the world and can cause terrible traffic congestion at intersections. Most of the traffic lights today feature a fixed green light sequence, therefore the green light sequence is determined without taking the presence of the emergency vehicles into account. Therefore, emergency vehicles such as ambulances, police cars, fire engines, etc. stuck in a traffic jam and delayed in reaching their destination can lead to loss of property and valuable lives. This paper presents an approach to schedule emergency vehicles in traffic. The approach combines the measurement of the distance between the emergency vehicle and an intersection using visual sensing methods, vehicle counting and time sensitive alert transmission within the sensor network. The distance between the emergency vehicle and the intersection is calculated for comparison using Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance and Canberra distance techniques. The experimental results have shown that the Euclidean distance outperforms other distance measurement techniques. Along with visual sensing techniques to collect emergency vehicle information, it is very important to have a Medium Access Control (MAC protocol to deliver the emergency vehicle information to the Traffic Management Center (TMC with less delay. Then only the emergency vehicle is quickly served and can reach the destination in time. In this paper, we have also investigated the MAC layer in WSNs to prioritize the emergency vehicle data and to reduce the transmission delay for emergency messages. We have modified the medium access procedure used in standard IEEE 802.11p with PE-MAC protocol, which is a new back off selection and contention window adjustment scheme to achieve low broadcast delay for emergency messages. A VANET model for the UTMS is developed and simulated in NS-2. The performance of the standard IEEE 802.11p and the proposed PE-MAC is analysed in detail. The NS-2

  3. Traffic Management for Emergency Vehicle Priority Based on Visual Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellore, Kapileswar; Hancke, Gerhard P

    2016-11-10

    Vehicular traffic is endlessly increasing everywhere in the world and can cause terrible traffic congestion at intersections. Most of the traffic lights today feature a fixed green light sequence, therefore the green light sequence is determined without taking the presence of the emergency vehicles into account. Therefore, emergency vehicles such as ambulances, police cars, fire engines, etc. stuck in a traffic jam and delayed in reaching their destination can lead to loss of property and valuable lives. This paper presents an approach to schedule emergency vehicles in traffic. The approach combines the measurement of the distance between the emergency vehicle and an intersection using visual sensing methods, vehicle counting and time sensitive alert transmission within the sensor network. The distance between the emergency vehicle and the intersection is calculated for comparison using Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance and Canberra distance techniques. The experimental results have shown that the Euclidean distance outperforms other distance measurement techniques. Along with visual sensing techniques to collect emergency vehicle information, it is very important to have a Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol to deliver the emergency vehicle information to the Traffic Management Center (TMC) with less delay. Then only the emergency vehicle is quickly served and can reach the destination in time. In this paper, we have also investigated the MAC layer in WSNs to prioritize the emergency vehicle data and to reduce the transmission delay for emergency messages. We have modified the medium access procedure used in standard IEEE 802.11p with PE-MAC protocol, which is a new back off selection and contention window adjustment scheme to achieve low broadcast delay for emergency messages. A VANET model for the UTMS is developed and simulated in NS-2. The performance of the standard IEEE 802.11p and the proposed PE-MAC is analysed in detail. The NS-2 simulation results

  4. Why do women still earn less than men? Decomposing the Dutch gender pay gap, 1996-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen , Eva; Plantenga , Janneke; Vlasblom , Jan Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Despite major improvements in women?s labour market attachment, women still earn considerably less than men. International research shows that the persistence of the gender pay gap may be due to the fact that although the gap in characteristics between men and women is diminishing, changes in the wage structure counteract this change. This article will study whether this `swimming upstream? phenomenon is also playing a role in the rather slow convergence between male and f...

  5. Traffic calming for the prevention of road traffic injuries: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-09-01

    To assess whether area-wide traffic calming schemes can reduce road crash related deaths and injuries. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts Science (and social science) citation index, National Technical Information service, Psychlit, Transport Research Information Service, International Road Research Documentation, and Transdoc, and web sites of road safety organisation were searched; experts were contacted, conference proceedings were handsearched, and relevant reference lists were checked. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before/after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes designed to discourage and slow down through traffic on residential roads. Data were collected on road user deaths, injuries, and traffic crashes. For each study rate ratios were calculated, the ratio of event rates before and after intervention in the traffic calmed area divided by the corresponding ratio of event rates in the control area, which were pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. Sixteen controlled before/after studies met our inclusion criteria. Eight studies reported the number of road user deaths: pooled rate ratio 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 2.59). Sixteen studies reported the number of injuries (fatal and non-fatal): pooled rate ratio 0.89 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.00). All studies were in high income countries. Area-wide traffic calming in towns and cities has the potential to reduce road traffic injuries. However, further rigorous evaluations of this intervention are needed, especially in low and middle income countries.

  6. Model for traffic emissions estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, A.; Assimacopoulos, D.; Mitsoulis, E.

    A model is developed for the spatial and temporal evaluation of traffic emissions in metropolitan areas based on sparse measurements. All traffic data available are fully employed and the pollutant emissions are determined with the highest precision possible. The main roads are regarded as line sources of constant traffic parameters in the time interval considered. The method is flexible and allows for the estimation of distributed small traffic sources (non-line/area sources). The emissions from the latter are assumed to be proportional to the local population density as well as to the traffic density leading to local main arteries. The contribution of moving vehicles to air pollution in the Greater Athens Area for the period 1986-1988 is analyzed using the proposed model. Emissions and other related parameters are evaluated. Emissions from area sources were found to have a noticeable share of the overall air pollution.

  7. Identifying the Onset of Congestion Rapidly with Existing Traffic Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Coifman, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    From an operations standpoint, the most important task of a traffic surveillance system is determining reliably whether the facility is free flowing or congested. The second most important task is responding rapidly when the facility becomes congested. Other tasks, such as quantifying the magnitude of congestion, are desirable, but tertiary. To address the first two tasks, this paper presents a new approach for traffic surveillance using existing detectors. Rather than expending a considerabl...

  8. OPTIMASI BANDWITH MENGGUNAKAN TRAFFIC SHAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Riadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan layanan komunikasi telah berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan penggunaan bandwith untuk mengakases jaringan Internet. Traffic shapping bandwidth dapat memberikan efesiensi dalam hal pemanfaatan bandwidth pada instansi yang melakukan manajemen dalam lalulintas jaringannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode literatur yaitu metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan sumber- sumber data yang terkait dan metode eksperimen yaitu melakukan penelitian dengan mengkonfigurasi Mikrotik RouterOS untuk melakukan traffic shapping bandwidth. Hasil penelitian ini adalah router yang dapat melakukan traffic shapping sehingga kualitas koneksi menjadi lebih baik untuk mengakses dan mengambil data dari sebuah website. Kata kunci : Optimasi, Bandwith, Traffic Shapping, MikroTik. 

  9. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  10. Clinical, instrumental, serological and histological findings suggest that hemophilia B may be less severe than hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Daniela; Linari, Silvia; Manetti, Mirko; Romano, Eloisa; Sofi, Francesco; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo; Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia; Castaman, Giancarlo

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that patients with severe hemophilia B may have a less severe disease compared to severe hemophilia A. To investigate clinical, radiological, laboratory and histological differences in the arthropathy of severe hemophilia A and hemophilia B, 70 patients with hemophilia A and 35 with hemophilia B with at least one joint bleeding were consecutively enrolled. Joint bleedings (50), regimen of treatment (prophylaxis/on demand), World Federation of Hemophilia, Pettersson and ultrasound scores, serum soluble RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin were assessed in all patients. RANK, RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin expression was evaluated in synovial tissue from 18 hemophilia A and 4 hemophilia B patients. The percentage of patients with either 10-50 or more than 50 hemarthrosis was greater in hemophilia A than in hemophilia B (Phemophilia B (PHemophilia (36.6 vs. 20.2; Phemophilia A patients. Serum osteoprotegerin and soluble RANK ligand were decreased in hemophilia A versus hemophilia B (Phemophilia A patients. In conclusion, the reduced number of hemarthrosis, the lower World Federation of Hemophilia and ultrasound scores, and higher osteoprotegerin expression in serum and synovial tissue in hemophilia B suggest that hemophilia B is a less severe disease than hemophilia A. Osteoprotegerin reduction seems to play a pivotal role in the progression of arthropathy in hemophilia A. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  11. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  12. Investigating the relationship between jobs-housing balance and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengcheng; Li, Haojie; Zhao, Jingya; Chen, Jun; Wang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of jobs-housing balance on traffic safety. The crash, demographic characteristics, employment, road network, household characteristics and traffic data were collected from the Los Angeles in 2010. One-way ANOVA tests indicated that the jobs-housing ratio significantly affects traffic safety in terms of crash frequency at traffic analysis zone (TAZ). To quantify the safety impacts of jobs-housing balance, the semi-parametric geographically weighted Poisson regression (S-GWPR) was further used to link crash frequency at TAZ with jobs-housing ratio and other contributing factors. The S-GWPR provides better fitness to the data than do the generalized linear regression, as the S-GWPR accounts for the spatial heterogeneity. The S-GWPR results showed that the jobs-housing relationship has a significant association with crash frequency at TAZ when the factors of traffic, network, and household characteristics are controlled. Crash frequency at TAZ level increases with an increase in the jobs-housing ratio. To further investigate the interactive effects between jobs-housing ratio and other factors, a comparative analysis was conducted to compare the variable elasticities under different jobs-housing ratios. The results indicate considerable interactive effects that traffic conditions and road network characteristics have different effects on crash frequency under various jobs-housing ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Problems of radiotherapy on the brain tumors in children less than two years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagami, Mitsusuke; Tsubokawa, Takashi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Ueno, Yuhichi

    1990-06-01

    Impaired growth and mental or developmental disturbance due to radiotherapy for 10 cases of brain tumors in the children ages less than 2 years old were evaluated. Six cases of brain tumor which did not involve the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, were followed more than 2 years after cranial or craniospinal irradiation. Four cases irradiated greater than 2900 rad to the whole brain all revealed markedly lower body heights than -2 SD of the medium. Growth impairment was found to be progressive over time, and markedly evident after 2 years following cranial or craniospinal radiotherapy. Somatomedin C in the blood was measured in 8 cases of brain tumors in childhood receiving radiotherapy. The measurement of Somatomedin C showed markedly low values measuring 0.19 to 0.54 U/ml (medium; 0.36 U/ml) in children having lower body height than -2 SD. Mental retardation or developmental disturbances were found in IQ or DQ tests in all of 5 infants or children younger than 2 years with brain tumors who got radiotherapy over 2900 rad to the whole brain. A case of craniopharyngioma, which had 5400 rad for tumor localization at the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and showed markedly low height, was given growth hormone and grew to normal height without distinct side effects. It was suggested that radiotherapy for brain tumors in infants or children should have special care in deciding the dose, field and time of radiation. If low height due to radiotherapy results, growth hormone therapy should be used for its treatment in childhood. (author).

  14. Traffic light control by multiagent reinforcement learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.; Groen, F.C.A.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  15. Traffic Light Control by Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  16. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  17. Navigators’ Behavior in Traffic Separation Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pietrzykowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of decision support in the navigational ship conduct process is a Traffic Separation Scheme. TSSs are established in areas with high traffic density, often near the shore and in port approaches. The main purpose of these schemes is to improve maritime safety by channeling vessel traffic into streams. Traffic regulations as well as ships behavior in real conditions in chosen TSSs have been analyzed in order to develop decision support algorithms.

  18. Peri-intraventricular hemorrhage in newborns weighing less than 1500 grams: comparative analysis between 2 institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponte Marinice Duarte da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aims to characterize the peri-intraventricular hemorrhages in the neonatal period in very low birth weight newborns in 2 institutions that provide neonatal tertiary assistance. METHOD: This was a comparative and observational study in 2 neonatal intensive care units, the Maternity Hospital of Campinas and the "Centro de Atenção Integrada à Saúde da Mulher" of the State University of Campinas, from December 01, 1998 to November 30, 1999. We examined 187 newborns for peri-intraventricular hemorrhages, using transfontanel ultrasound (76 and 11 respectively at the first and second unit, and classified them into 4 grades. We observed their gender, intrauterine growth, weight, and gestational age at birth. RESULTS: We diagnosed 34 cases of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages (13 and 21, respectively, and both groups differed as to the birth weight and the adequacy of weight to the gestational age at birth. There was no difference in the prevalence or extent of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages among cases. There was a statistically significant occurrence of lower birth weight at gestational ages of less than 30 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages in our study was compared to that reported in the world literature. Although the cases of the second institution had a smaller mean birth weight, the prevalence of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages was similar to that at the first institution, probably because in the first one, 69% of the gestational ages of the neonates with hemorrhage were less than 30 weeks as compared to 48% in the second one. We stress the importance of the ultrasonographic method for diagnosing peri-intraventricular hemorrhages in very low birth weight newborns.

  19. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  20. Photonics approach to traffic signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; CzyŻewski, Adam; Rymsza, Barbara; Kornalewski, Leszek; Kryszczyński, Tadeusz; Mikucki, Jerzy; Wikliński, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Malasek, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The automotive industry has been always a driving force for all economies. Despite of its beneficial meaning to every society it brings also many issues including wide area of road safety. The latter has been enforced by the increasing number of cars and the dynamic development of the traffic as a whole. Road signs and traffic lights are crucial in context of good traffic arrangement and its fluency. Traffic designers are used to treat horizontal road signs independently of vertical signs. However, modern light sources and growing flexibility in shaping optical systems create opportunity to design more advanced and smart solutions. In this paper we present an innovative, multidisciplinary approach that consists in tight interdependence of different traffic signals. We describe new optical systems together with their influence on the perception of the road user. The analysis includes maintenance and visibility in different weather conditions. A special attention has been focused on intersections of complex geometry.

  1. FLOW PATTERNS OF VEHICULAR TRAFFIC ALONG HIGHWAY TOLL PLAZA IN OGUN STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashiru A. Raji

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Congestion on our highways, freeways and arterials are increasing at an alarming rate. This occurs because there is an increase in vehicular growth without a corresponding increase in road size, and this has made free flow of traffic a preponderant problem in our highways. Toll plaza causes delay on our highways and results are formation of queue. This paper examined how simple queuing model can be used to determine traffic intensity and the flow pattern of car traffic at a toll plaza. The study was carried out with twelve field assistants at Ogere toll plaza in Ogun State. Findings show a significant variation in the degree of hourly traffic intensities at the four pay points for cars at the toll plaza. However, variation in the daily traffic intensities at the four pay points for cars showed no significant variation. The study also revealed that bumps constructed to check vehicles speed, hawker’s trading activities are among other factors that constitute hindrance to free flow of traffic other than service time and inter-arrival time of cars at the toll plaza. It is therefore recommended that appropriate authority should look into these factors and take necessary steps towards ensuring free flow of traffic at the plaza.

  2. Traffic accidents: an econometric investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Moreira; Adolfo Sachsida; Loureiro Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of drivers in Brasilia's streets, this article investigates whether distraction explains traffic accidents. A probit model is estimated to determine the predictive power of several variables on traffic accidents. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that the proxies used to measure distraction, such as the use of cell phones and cigarette smoking in a moving vehicle, are significant factors in determining traffic accidents.

  3. Radiotherapy for tongue cancer in young adults less than 40 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Ken; Koizumi, Masahiko; Inoue, Toshihiko; Inoue, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Hideya; Kagawa, Kazufumi; Teshima, Teruki; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Nose, Takayuki; Tanaka, Eiichi

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Radiotherapy for tongue cancer in young adults less than 40 years is studied, retrospectively. Some reports say young tongue cancer patient has worse prognosis. We investigate treatment results of them treated in our department, compared with elder patients. Materials and Methods: Our department registered 1289 patients with tongue cancer during 26 years between Jan. 1967 and Dec. 1992. One hundred and eighty-eight patients were under 40 years old. One hundred and forty-eight patients were primarily treated by radiotherapy. Follow-up terms are among 2 and 25 years (median; 15 years). They consisted of 99 males and 49 females. They were divided into 3 age groups, 3 teenagers, 39 twenties, and 106 thirties. The youngest was 18 years old. T and N categories were T1: 33, T2: 77, T3: 34, T4: 4, N0: 111, N1: 25, N2: 4, and N3: 8 patients, respectively. One hundred and twenty patients were treated only with radiotherapy. Twenty-four and 4 patients were treated with chemotherapy and surgery adding to radiotherapy respectively. Radiotherapy consisted of 29 external, 60 brachytherapy, and 59 both. One hundred and nineteen brachytherapies consisted of Ir: 66, Ra: 50, Ir+Ra: 1, and Au: 2. Eighty-one patients with T1 or2N0M0 treated only by radiotherapy were compared with the similar 454 patients more and equal to 40 years old. Results: The 5-and 10-year survival rates of 148 patients were 69% and 65%, respectively. The 5-and 10-year local control rates were 77% and 76%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates of T1, T2, T3, and T4 patients were 90%, 70%, 50%, and 43%, respectively. The corresponding 10-year survival rates were 81%, 66%, 50%, and 43%, respectively. The 5-year local control rates were 87%, 79%, 71%, and 25%, respectively. With respect to T1 or 2N0M0 patients, the 5-and 10-year local control rates were 80% and 75% under 40 years old, 77% and 73% over 40 years old patients. (p=0.99) The 5-and 10-year cause-specific survival rates were 79% and 72

  4. Multiobjective Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Signal Control Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houli Duan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiobjective control algorithm based on reinforcement learning for urban traffic signal control, named multi-RL. A multiagent structure is used to describe the traffic system. A vehicular ad hoc network is used for the data exchange among agents. A reinforcement learning algorithm is applied to predict the overall value of the optimization objective given vehicles' states. The policy which minimizes the cumulative value of the optimization objective is regarded as the optimal one. In order to make the method adaptive to various traffic conditions, we also introduce a multiobjective control scheme in which the optimization objective is selected adaptively to real-time traffic states. The optimization objectives include the vehicle stops, the average waiting time, and the maximum queue length of the next intersection. In addition, we also accommodate a priority control to the buses and the emergency vehicles through our model. The simulation results indicated that our algorithm could perform more efficiently than traditional traffic light control methods.

  5. ReFlow: Reports on Internet Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the traffic, technologies and main characteristics of today’s networks. For many years Internet2 maintained a public website with statistics about the traffic in the Abilene network. This site was

  6. 32 CFR 634.25 - Installation traffic codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Installation traffic codes. 634.25 Section 634.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.25 Installation traffic codes. (a) Installation or activit...

  7. Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Matthias; Ivina, Olga; von Klot, Stephanie; Babisch, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    self-reported road traffic noise annoyance is commonly used in epidemiological studies for assessment of potential health effects. Alternatively, some studies have used geographic information system (GIS) modelled exposure to road traffic noise as an objective parameter. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between noise exposure due to neighbouring road traffic and the noise annoyance of adults, taking other determinants into consideration. parents of 951 Munich children from the two German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus reported their annoyance due to road traffic noise at home. GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure (L(den), maximum within a 50 m buffer) from the noise map of the city of Munich was available for all families. GIS-based calculated distance to the closest major road (≥10,000 vehicles per day) and questionnaire based-information about family income, parental education and the type of the street of residence were explored for their potential influence. An ordered logit regression model was applied. The noise levels (L(den)) and the reported noise annoyance were compared with an established exposure-response function. the correlation between noise annoyance and noise exposure (L(den)) was fair (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.37). The distance to a major road and the type of street were strong predictors for the noise annoyance. The annoyance modelled by the established exposure-response function and that estimated by the ordered logit model were moderately associated (Pearson's correlation r(p) = 0.50). road traffic noise annoyance was associated with GIS modelled neighbouring road traffic noise exposure (L(den)). The distance to a major road and the type of street were additional explanatory factors of the noise annoyance appraisal.

  8. Model petri net of adaptive traffic lights and its collaboration with a special event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristono Tomi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic lights have an important role as the system control of vehicles flow on the urban network. Commonly, most countries still using fixed time strategy. Our research proposes the adaptive traffic lights model to response the traffic demand. It uses basic Petri net as a general modeling framework. Foractuating method of minimum and maximum green signal time interval, the green traffic lights have three-time extension units. Next, we collaborate on a case of the existence of railways that crosses on the southern arm of an intersection. We introduce both of collaboration model design of traffic lights and the railway's gate which always closes while a train passing. Verification and validation of the model are based on the simulation result of vehicles queue. The collaboration model design of traffic lights has excellent performance, and it can resolve the congestion problem better than conventional schedule.

  9. Lipid induced insulin resistance affects women less than men and is not accompanied by inflammation or impaired proximal insulin signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Louise D; Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    than men. We therefore hypothesized that women would be less prone to lipid induced insulin resistance. Research and design methods: Insulin sensitivity of whole body and leg glucose disposal was studied in 16 young well matched healthy men and women infused with intralipid or saline for 7h. Muscle...... ratio was decreased by intralipid. Conclusion: Intralipid infusion causes less insulin resistance of muscle glucose uptake in women than in men. This insulin resistance is not due to decreased canonical insulin signaling, accumulation of lipid intermediates, inflammation or direct inhibition of glucose......AbstractObjective: We have previously shown that overnight fasted women have higher insulin stimulated whole body and leg glucose uptake despite a higher intramyocellular triacylglycerol concentration than men. Women also express higher muscle mRNA levels of proteins related to lipid metabolism...

  10. Predicting Information Flows in Network Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinich, Melvin J.; Molyneux, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses information flow in networks and predicting network traffic and describes a study that uses time series analysis on a day's worth of Internet log data. Examines nonlinearity and traffic invariants, and suggests that prediction of network traffic may not be possible with current techniques. (Author/LRW)

  11. Using spatial context to support prospective memory in simulated air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Finnerty, Dannielle; Remington, Roger W

    2011-12-01

    The aim was to examine whether prospective memory error and response costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation could be reduced by providing spatial context. Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action at an appropriate point in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. For this study, three conditions of participants performed an air traffic control task that required them to accept and hand off aircraft and to prevent conflicts. The prospective memory task required participants to remember to press an alternative key rather than the routine key when accepting target aircraft. A red line separated the display into upper and lower regions. Participants in the context condition were told that the prospective memory instruction would apply only to aircraft approaching from one region (upper or lower). Those in the standard condition were not provided this information. In the control condition, participants did not have to perform the prospective memory task. In the context condition, participants made fewer prospective memory errors than did those in the standard condition and made faster acceptance decisions for aircraft approaching from irrelevant compared with relevant regions. Costs to hand-off decision time were also reduced in the context condition. Spatial context provided no benefit to conflict detection. Participants could partially localize their allocation of attentional resources to the prospective memory task to relevant display regions. The findings are potentially applicable to air traffic control, whereby regularities in airspace structure and standard traffic flows allow controllers to anticipate the location of specific air traffic events.

  12. Spectral Analysis of Traffic Functions in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Nemtanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the Fourier transform application in urban traffic analysis and the use of said transform in traffic decomposition. The traffic function is defined as traffic flow generated by different categories of traffic participants. A Fourier analysis was elaborated in terms of identifying the main traffic function components, called traffic sub-functions. This paper presents the results of the method being applied in a real case situation, that is, an intersection in the city of Bucharest where the effect of a bus line was analysed. The analysis was done using different time scales, while three different traffic functions were defined to demonstrate the theoretical effect of the proposed method of analysis. An extension of the method is proposed to be applied in urban areas, especially in the areas covered by predictive traffic control.

  13. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  14. Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Ahlström, Christer; Fors, Carina; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2018-01-01

    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day. Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers. Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness. Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

  15. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gallons of gasoline. (a) You must not allow gasoline to be handled in a manner that would result in vapor...

  16. Analysis of Malicious Traffic in Modbus/TCP Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Filho, José Macedo F.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Pires, Paulo S. Motta

    This paper presents the results of our analysis about the influence of Information Technology (IT) malicious traffic on an IP-based automation environment. We utilized a traffic generator, called MACE (Malicious trAffic Composition Environment), to inject malicious traffic in a Modbus/TCP communication system and a sniffer to capture and analyze network traffic. The realized tests show that malicious traffic represents a serious risk to critical information infrastructures. We show that this kind of traffic can increase latency of Modbus/TCP communication and that, in some cases, can put Modbus/TCP devices out of communication.

  17. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of self-propelled...

  18. Life Times of Simulated Traffic Jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Kai

    We study a model for freeway traffic which includes strong noise taking into account the fluctuations of individual driving behavior. The model shows emergent traffic jams with a self-similar appearance near the throughput maximum of the traffic. The lifetime distribution of these jams shows a short scaling regime, which gets considerably longer if one reduces the fluctuations when driving at maximum speed but leaves the fluctuations for slowing down or accelerating unchanged. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes into this state of maximum throughput.

  19. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsroom SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and ...

  20. Epidemiology of deaths due to traffic accidents in Kermanshah province (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Malekifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing trend of traffic accidents is one of the most serious problems of public health. The aim of this paper was to investigate the fatal traffic accidents in Kermanshah province. Method: All research data required were obtained from Legal Medicine Organization and analyzed by Stata-11 software. Traffic statistics available on the Road Maintenance and Transportation Organization website were used to study the death rate per month and day according to traffic level on suburban highways. Results: The incidence rate of age-standardized deaths due to road traffic accidents was 26.1per 100,000 people, and the mean age of the dead was 39.98±21.60 years. The mortality rate was higher in men, those more than 40 years old, married, illiterate and self-employed. Considering the traffic rate on suburban roads, the highest death rate occurred in the warmest months of the year during the day. Furthermore, most deaths were due to collisions and the highest frequency of death was reported for the car occupants. In most cases, head injuries and head traumas were the final cause of death. A significant correlation was reported between the type of vehicle and the cause of death and how the accident occurred (P<0.05. Conclusion: The mortality rate due to traffic accidents in Kermanshah province is high. Surveillance over the suburban roads in hot seasons and male drivers is of particular importance.

  1. LESS SKILLED READERS HAVE LESS EFFICIENT SUPPRESSION MECHANISMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    1993-09-01

    One approach to understanding the component processes and mechanisms underlying adult reading skill is to compare the performance of more skilled and less skilled readers on laboratory experiments. The results of some recent experiments employing this approach demonstrate that less skilled adult readers suppress less efficiently the inappropriate meanings of ambiguous words (e.g., the playing card vs. garden tool meanings of spade ), the incorrect forms of homophones (e.g., patients vs. patience ), the typical-but-absent members of scenes (e.g., a tractor in a farm scene), and words superimposed on pictures. Less skilled readers are not less efficient in activating contextually appropriate information; in fact, they activate contextually appropriate information more strongly than more skilled readers do. Therefore, one conclusion that can be drawn from these experiments is that less skilled adult readers suffer from less efficient suppression mechanisms.

  2. Computed tomography findings in patients less than 20 years old with lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Adriana Moreira Viana; Skinner, Luis Flavio

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the general findings of lymphoma and their histological patterns in patients less than 20 years old. Materials And Methods: Twenty-two cases (16 male and 6 female, mean age 11.5 years) from the digital archive of computed tomography at the Cancer Control Center of Hospital Universitario Pedro Ernesto - Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, were retrospectively analyzed in the period between March 2003 and July 2005. Of these 22 cases, 12 were Hodgkin's and 10 were non-Hodgkin's. Results: Overall, mediastinal lymphadenomegaly was the most frequent finding (59%), with predominance in the Hodgkin's subgroup (75%), followed by hepatosplenomegaly (50%) and cervical and retroperitoneal lymphadenomegaly (27.3%). The Hodgkin's subgroup presented a prevalence of lymphadenopathy, in many lymph node chains, followed by hepatosplenomegaly (50%). One case was found with unilateral tonsillar mass, pulmonary ground-glass opacities, and renal nodules. In the non-Hodgkin's subgroup, the disease was predominantly extranodal, characterized by hepatosplenomegaly (50%), thickening of the intestinal wall (40%), pleural effusion (30%), pulmonary nodule (20%), ascites (10%), pericardial effusion (10%) and mixed bone lesions (10%). Conclusion: Computed tomography is an extremely useful method for detection, staging and follow-up of lymphomas, with alert findings like mediastinal lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, unilateral tonsillar mass and thickening of intestinal wall. (author)

  3. Impact Analysis of Land Use on Traffic Congestion Using Real-Time Traffic and POI

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tianqi; Sun, Lishan; Yao, Liya; Rong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed a new method to describe, compare, and classify the traffic congestion points in Beijing, China, by using the online map data and further revealed the relationship between traffic congestion and land use. The data of the point of interest (POI) and the real-time traffic was extracted from an electronic map of the area in the fourth ring road of Beijing. The POIs were quantified based on the architectural area of the land use; the congestion points were identified based on ...

  4. Systemic Approach to Traffic Evaluation of Mostar Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldo Raguž

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The attempt of this work is to systematically find solutionsfor Mostar Airport development through technical and technologicalharmonization of traffic processes undertaken in twoseparate organizations - airport and air traffic control and coordinationbetween other traffic branches. The work uses theindicators of traffic flows and tourist trends in the region, andtogether with the mentioned simulations it attempts to evaluatethe traffic potentials in the region by affecting the change in thecurrent negative traffic flows at Mostar Airport.

  5. Traffic noise in Hyderabad city, part-II. vehicular contribution to road traffic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a road traffic noise survey carried out in Hyderabad city showed that the levels of traffic noise in the City are alarmingly high and much beyond the comfortable limits. There, in order to investigate the level of the noise emitted by different types of vehicles plying on the city roads and to assess their individual contribution to high level traffic noise, studies have been carried out on the measurement of noise emitted by motorcycles, buses, auto-rickshaws, and motor vehicle horns as they normally move on the city roads. The data collected has been analyzed for L/sub v99/, L/sub v90/, L/sub v50/, L/sub v10/ and L/sub v1/ and results are discussed with reference to the existing motor vehicle rules in Pakistan and motor vehicle noise emission limits set by the EEC and other developed countries. Some suggestion have also been made to limit high level traffic noise. (author)

  6. Are intravenous injections of contrast media really less nephrotoxic than intra-arterial injections?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, Ulf [University of Lund, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Trelleborg (Sweden); Almen, Torsten [Skaane University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences/Medical Radiology, University of Lund, Malmoe (Sweden); Jacobsson, Bo [University of Gothenburg and the Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The Queen Silvia Children' s Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Aspelin, Peter [Karolinska Institute and University Hospital, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    We oppose the opinion that the intra-arterial administration of iodine-based contrast media (CM) appears to pose a greater risk of contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) than intravenous administration since (1) in intra-arterial coronary procedures and most other intra-arterial angiographic examinations, CM injections are also intravenous relative to the kidneys, (2) there is a lack of comparative trials studying the risk of CIN between intra-arterial and intravenous procedures with matched risk factors and CM doses, (3) a bias selection of patients with fewer risk factors may explain the seemingly lower rate of CIN after CT in comparison with coronary interventions, (4) the rate of CIN following intra-arterial coronary procedures may also be exaggerated owing to other causes of acute kidney failure, such as haemodynamic instability and microembolisation, (5) roughly the same gram-iodine/GFR ratio ({approx}1:1) as a limit of relatively safe CM doses has preliminarily been found for both intravenous CT and intra-arterial coronary procedures and (6) the substantially higher injected intravenous CM dose rate during CT relative to an intra-arterial coronary procedure might actually pose a higher risk of CIN following CT. Key Points circle Most intra-arterial injections of contrast media are intravenous relative to the kidneys. circle No evidence that intravenous CM injections should be less nephrotoxic than intra-arterial. circle Considerably higher dose rates of CM are used for CT relative to intra-arterial procedures. circle Higher dose rates may pose higher nephrotoxic risk for intravenous based CT studies. (orig.)

  7. Light signals for road traffic control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Signals for road traffic control are a major constituent of the modern traffic scene, particularly in built-up areas. A vast amount of research has been executed in the last two decennia, resulting in a fairly generally accepted view on what the requirements for effective traffic lights are. For the

  8. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Less Truth Than Error: Massachusetts Teacher Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Haney

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Scores on the Massachusetts Teacher Tests of reading and writing are highly unreliable. The tests' margin of error is close to double to triple the range found on well-developed tests. A person retaking the MTT several times could have huge fluctuations in their scores even if their skill level did not change significantly. In fact, the 9 to 17 point margin of error calculated for the tests represents more than 10 percent of the grading scale (assumed to be 0 to 100. The large margin of error means there is both a high false-pass rate and a high false-failure rate. For example, a person who received a score of 72 on the writing test could have scored an 89 or a 55 simply because of the unreliability of the test. Since adults' reading and writing skills do not change a great deal over several months, this range of scores on the same test should not be possible. While this test is being touted as an accurate assessment of a person's fitness to be a teacher, one would expect the scores to accurately reflect a test-taker's verbal ability level. In addition to the large margin of error, the MTT contain questionable content that make them poor tools for measuring test-takers' reading and writing skills. The content and lack of correlation between the reading and writing scores reduces the meaningfulness, or validity, of the tests. The validity is affected not just by the content, but by a host of factors, such as the conditions under which tests were administered and how they were scored. Interviews with a small sample of test-takers confirmed published reports concerning problems with the content and administration.

  10. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  11. Bangkok: Anatomy of a traffic disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poboon, C.; Kenworthy, J.; Barter, P.

    1995-12-31

    Traditional urban and transport policy which relies on road-base planning has been proven inadequate for tackling Bangkok`s traffic chaos. After employing such policy for more than three decades Bangkok traffic has become a disaster and the city has become notorious world-wide for its traffic congestion and air pollution. The simplistic application of theses largely American models took little consideration if any of the walking city and transit city structure of Bangkok. The policies recommended by the authors rely on the awareness of Bangkok`s unique characteristics and also encompass social and environmental aspects. The worldwide comparison has contributed substantially to more insight in selecting the appropriate measures for Bangkok. The introduction of a mass rapid transit system, water transport improvement, control of car use, provision of infrastructure for walking and cycling, improvement in paratransit together with transit-oriented land use development are believed to be able to work effectively in Bangkok. Nevertheless, institutional improvement including public participation is very necessary to achieve these urban planning and transport strategies. With the combination of these sustainable urban and transport policies, it is possible for Bangkok to be converted into a city for people again, though it will take probably 10 to 20 years or more for substantial improvements.

  12. On traffic modelling in GPRS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Prasad, Ramjee

    2005-01-01

    Optimal design and dimensioning of wireless data networks, such as GPRS, requires the knowledge of traffic characteristics of different data services. This paper presents an in-detail analysis of an IP-level traffic measurements taken in an operational GPRS network. The data measurements reported...... here are done at the Gi interface. The aim of this paper is to reveal some key statistics of GPRS data applications and to validate if the existing traffic models can adequately describe traffic volume and inter-arrival time distribution for different services. Additionally, we present a method of user...

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Wavelet Neural Network Model for Short-Term Traffic Volume Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a more accurate and robust traffic volume prediction model, the sensitivity of wavelet neural network model (WNNM is analyzed in this study. Based on real loop detector data which is provided by traffic police detachment of Maanshan, WNNM is discussed with different numbers of input neurons, different number of hidden neurons, and traffic volume for different time intervals. The test results show that the performance of WNNM depends heavily on network parameters and time interval of traffic volume. In addition, the WNNM with 4 input neurons and 6 hidden neurons is the optimal predictor with more accuracy, stability, and adaptability. At the same time, a much better prediction record will be achieved with the time interval of traffic volume are 15 minutes. In addition, the optimized WNNM is compared with the widely used back-propagation neural network (BPNN. The comparison results indicated that WNNM produce much lower values of MAE, MAPE, and VAPE than BPNN, which proves that WNNM performs better on short-term traffic volume prediction.

  14. Enhancing the Quality of Service for Real Time Traffic over Optical Burst Switching (OBS Networks with Ensuring the Fairness for Other Traffics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Al-Shargabi

    Full Text Available Optical burst switching (OBS networks have been attracting much consideration as a promising approach to build the next generation optical Internet. A solution for enhancing the Quality of Service (QoS for high priority real time traffic over OBS with the fairness among the traffic types is absent in current OBS' QoS schemes. In this paper we present a novel Real Time Quality of Service with Fairness Ratio (RT-QoSFR scheme that can adapt the burst assembly parameters according to the traffic QoS needs in order to enhance the real time traffic QoS requirements and to ensure the fairness for other traffic. The results show that RT-QoSFR scheme is able to fulfill the real time traffic requirements (end to end delay, and loss rate ensuring the fairness for other traffics under various conditions such as the type of real time traffic and traffic load. RT-QoSFR can guarantee that the delay of the real time traffic packets does not exceed the maximum packets transfer delay value. Furthermore, it can reduce the real time traffic packets loss, at the same time guarantee the fairness for non real time traffic packets by determining the ratio of real time traffic inside the burst to be 50-60%, 30-40%, and 10-20% for high, normal, and low traffic loads respectively.

  15. Modernizing the Professional Capabilities of Driving Instructors and Traffic Safety Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarov Ivan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effective traffic safety training is a long process; it starts from very young age and continues throughout life. This is not only a process of acquiring knowledge and skills, but also a matter of social importance. Pedagogical forms of education depend on the position of a man in society, respectively, on abilities to percept the environment. The recent investigations of traffic accidents show, that the young drivers generally have poorer than average self-reflection skills. It is therefore important to foster self-reflection skills and attitudes from an early age, especially in matters that relate to road and driving safety. All of staff that have career in traffic safety training (mainly instructors for driving and traffic safety teachers in Europe have their responsibility for decreasing the traffic accidents and incidents by polishing their skills. They work under variety conditions, specific National Lows and Regulations, but the features of their target groups are one and the same. In order to meet the new challenges put by EU Commission they need to have common vision about traffic safety training in Europe, to know what traffic safety means for different age groups, to know what is the best practice of their colleagues, including curricula, methods, training materials, and to be aware their work is very important for traffic safety. Aim of this paper is to present an approach for non-formal instructors for driving and traffic safety teachers training for modernizing their professional capabilities with students form 0 to 30 years old. The investigations and main results are based on the theoretical investigation for hierarchical level of behavior, made by Hatakka for instructors for driving training. The students are divided in four age groups: pre-school children (0-6 years, schoolchildren (7-12 years, teenagers (13-17 years and young adults (18-30 years. For each age group a curriculum is developed according to common EU rules and

  16. Factors Affecting Road Traffic Accident in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Him, Norziha; Roslan, Rozaini; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Khalid, Kamil; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Azbi Arobi, Farquis; Mohamad, Nazeera

    2018-04-01

    A road traffic accident resulted from the combination of factors related to the few components of the system involving environment, roads, road users, vehicles and the interaction between those systems. Road traffic accident (RTA) in Malaysia recorded as the highest fatality rate (per 100,000 population) among the ASEAN countries. In 2016, more than half of million cases accident recorded with more than 7,000 people were killed. Therefore, the RTA is one of the most critical issue in Malaysia even become the worldwide burden to authority. Generally, driving is a complex process which involves movement of a vehicle by either a computer or human controller. However, failure to control and coordinate will contribute to an accident. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of accident in Johor Malaysia and to examine the relationship between the number of accident and the types of vehicles and roads. The results could help the government to recognise the different patterns, types of vehicles and roads that show major factors in the increasing of road traffic accident in Malaysia.

  17. Visual Analysis in Traffic & Re-identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas

    and analysis, and person re-identification. In traffic sign detection, the work comprises a thorough survey of the state of the art, assembly of the worlds largest public dataset with U.S. traffic signs, and work in machine learning based detection algorithms. It was shown that detection of U.S. traffic signs...

  18. Some random models in traffic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorth, U.

    1996-06-01

    We give an overview of stochastic models for the following traffic phenomena. Models for traffic flow including gaps and capacities for lanes, crossings and roundabouts. Models for wanted and achieved speed distributions. Mode selection models including dispersed equilibrium models and traffic accident models. Also some statistical questions are discussed. 60 refs, 1 tab

  19. Autosolitons in applied physics and traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    A review of investigations of autosolitons in nonlinear systems which are of interest for the applied physics and for the transportation research is presented. Autosolitons are solitary intrinsic states which can be formed in a broad class of physical, chemical, biological dissipative distributed media and in traffic flow. Properties of autosolitons which are general for physical systems and for traffic flow will be discussed. Based on results of recent investigations of traffic jams in traffic flow, a comparison of nonlinear characteristics of traffic jams and with nonlinear properties of autosolitons which can be formed in active systems with diffusion will be given. Forms, properties, processes of evolution of autosolitons in traffic flow, in semiconductors and in gas discharge plasma are considered. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports ... while driving. Keywords: Distraction, prevention, road traffic collision, mobile phone. ..... keeps us connected with others with great advantages.

  2. [Children less than 3 months hospitalised due to acute febrile syndrome. 5 years clinical experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Espinola, Benigno Miguel; Herrera Labarca, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Acute fever of unknown origin (AFUO) is established when the anamnesis and physical examination cannot identify the cause. In infants less than 3 months-old this is situation for concern, due to the risk of a serious bacterial infection. To describe the clinical and laboratory variable of patients with AFUO, in order to look for clues in order to base studies on the decisions arising drom this problem. A report is presented on a retrospective study conducted on a cohort of children less than three months-old admitted to the Hospital Roberto del Río (2007-2011) due to an AFUO. Clinical histories were reviewed and the patients were grouped, according to the severity of the admission diagnosis, into severe and non-severe. They were compared in strata determined by the variables of clinical interest. A total of 550 children were admitted with AFUO during the study period. There was low agreement between the severity on admission and at discharge (kappa=0.079; P=.26). There were 23.8% of children in the severe group and 76.2% in the non-severe group. Urinary tract infection predominated in the severe group (68.7%) and 40.7% with acute febrile syndrome in the non-severe group. The cut-off levels for C-reactive protein, white cells, and neutrophils per mm(3), to calculate the fixed and variable indices, only showed negative predictive values of some use for ruling out serious bacterial infection. The ROC curves with white cell and neutrophil counts and C-reactive protein, did not provide andy fixed indices of clinical use. More than one-third (34.6%) of lumbar punctures were traumatic or failures. According to the results of this study, there is an obvious excess of hospital admissions, little usefulness in the examinations to identify serious bacterial infection, a high percentage lumbar punctures traumatic and lumbar punctures failures, and an excess of antibiotic treatments. A review of clinical criteria and procedures is needed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de

  3. The Study of Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Self-Adaptive Control under Multiagent Markov Game Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Hui Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban traffic self-adaptive control problem is dynamic and uncertain, so the states of traffic environment are hard to be observed. Efficient agent which controls a single intersection can be discovered automatically via multiagent reinforcement learning. However, in the majority of the previous works on this approach, each agent needed perfect observed information when interacting with the environment and learned individually with less efficient coordination. This study casts traffic self-adaptive control as a multiagent Markov game problem. The design employs traffic signal control agent (TSCA for each signalized intersection that coordinates with neighboring TSCAs. A mathematical model for TSCAs’ interaction is built based on nonzero-sum markov game which has been applied to let TSCAs learn how to cooperate. A multiagent Markov game reinforcement learning approach is constructed on the basis of single-agent Q-learning. This method lets each TSCA learn to update its Q-values under the joint actions and imperfect information. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is analyzed theoretically. The simulation results show that the proposed method is convergent and effective in realistic traffic self-adaptive control setting.

  4. [Need for resuscitation in preterm neonates less than 32 weeks treated with antenatal magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloreda-Garcia, Jose María; Lorente-Nicolás, Ana; Bermejo-Costa, Francisca; Martínez-Uriarte, Juan; López-Pérez, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium sulphate administration is recommended for foetal neuroprotection in pregnant women at imminent risk of early preterm birth. To evaluate the relationship between intrapartum magnesium sulphate for foetal neuroprotection and delivery room resuscitation of preterm infants less 32 weeks. A prospective observational study was conducted on preterm infants less 32 weeks exposed to magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection, and a comparison made with another historic group immediately before starting this treatment. Cases in both groups that had not reached lung maturity with corticosteroids were rejected. The rates of resuscitation, morbidity and mortality for each of the groups were analysed and compared. There was a total of 107 preterm, with 56 exposed to magnesium sulphate. Rate of advanced resuscitation were similar between the two groups. There were no other differences in mortality, invasive mechanical ventilation, time to first stool, and other comorbidities. Intrapartum magnesium sulphate for foetal neuroprotection was not associated with an increased need for intensive delivery room resuscitation and other morbidities in these cohorts of less than 32 weeks preterm infants. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of traffic parameters in image sequence using spatio-temporal information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Daeho; Park, Youngtae

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for measurement of traffic parameters, such as the number of passed vehicles, velocity and occupancy rate, by video image analysis. The method is based on a region classification followed by spatio-temporal image analysis. Local detection region images in traffic lanes are classified into one of four categories: the road, the vehicle, the reflection and the shadow, by using statistical and structural features. Misclassification at a frame is corrected by using temporally correlated features of vehicles in the spatio-temporal image. This capability of error correction results in the accurate estimation of traffic parameters even in high traffic congestion. Also headlight detection is employed for nighttime operation. Experimental results show that the accuracy is more than 94% in our test database of diverse operating conditions such as daytime, shadowy daytime, highway, urban way, rural way, rainy day, snowy day, dusk and nighttime. The average processing time is 30 ms per frame when four traffic lanes are processed, and real-time operation could be realized while ensuring robust detection performance even for high-speed vehicles up to 150 km h −1

  6. [Motorcycle couriers: characteristics of traffic accidents in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Dorotéia Fátima Pelissari de Paula; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas; da Silva, Daniela Wosiack; de Andrade, Selma Maffei

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding characteristics of traffic accidents with motorcycle couriers in the cities of Londrina and Maringá, in the State of Paraná (Brazil). A total of 327 couriers who reported, in 2005/2006, motorcycle accident in the previous 12 months took part in the study (147 in Londrina and 180 in Maringá). Of all the interviewed, 39.6% reported more than one traffic accident. The accidents were perceived as serious by 21.4% of them and 56.3% reported knowing a convalescing courier due to a traffic accident. Most injuries (82.9%) occurred during work hours. Significant differences were observed between the cities concerning climatic conditions (p=0.013), time of the day (p=0.002), pre-hospital care (p=0.032) and hospital admission (paccidents highlight the susceptibility of motorcycle couriers to these events and the need for strategies and specific prevention policies.

  7. Sonographic and Clinical Features of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma Less than or Equal to Five Millimeters: A Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjian Lai

    Full Text Available To retrospectively compare the sonographic and clinical features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC ≤5 mm and PTMC >5 mm to improve the diagnostic value of ultrasonography.A total of 367 cases of PTMC between January 2013 and December 2014 was included in this study. The patients were classified into group A (≤5 mm, n = 181 or group B (>5 mm, n = 186, and the sonographic and clinical features were reviewed and compared between the two groups.There was no significant difference in the shape, ratio of length/width, boundary, peripheral halo ring, echogenicity, cystic change and accompanying Hashimoto's thyroiditis between these two groups. However, the calcification (61.3% vs. 72.6% and hypervascularity (13.8% vs. 24.7% were more frequent in group B (p = 0.026 and 0.008, respectively. The patients were younger, and more patients were aged less than 45 years (41.4% vs. 57.0% in group B. Capsular invasion (7.2% vs. 34.4%, multifocality (21.5% vs. 48.9%, bilaterality (17.1% vs. 39.8%, central lymph node metastasis (13.8% vs. 38.2% and lateral lymph node metastasis (1.1% vs. 5.4% were more frequent in group B. No clinical or sonographic feature was related to cervical lymph node metastasis in group A, while less than 45 years in age (p = 0.010, male gender (p = 0.040, capsular invasion (p5 mm, including an irregular shape, a length/width ratio of ≥1, an unclear boundary, no peripheral halo ring, hypoechogenicity, no cystic change, calcification, no hypervascularity and no accompanying Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The clinical features of PTMC ≤5 mm were less aggressive than those of PTMC >5 mm.

  8. 19 CFR 351.406 - Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.406 Calculation of normal value if sales are made at less than cost of production. (a) Introduction. In determining normal value, the Secretary may disregard sales of... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of normal value if sales are made at...

  9. Traffic noise in Hyderabad city. part I: road traffic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Shaikh, Q.

    2000-01-01

    Traffic noise survey was conducted at 20 sites in different areas and localities in Hyderabad city and each site noise data was collected continuously from 0800 to 2000 h. The data was analyzed for L/sub A99/, L/sub A90/, L/sub A50/, L/sub 10/ and L/sub A1/, and approximate values of L/sub Aeq12h/ were evaluated for each site. The results are discussed with reference to some criteria for community annoyance and means and ways to limit high-level traffic noise are suggested. (author)

  10. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  11. Modeling Network Traffic in Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Ma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discovers that although network traffic has the complicated short- and long-range temporal dependence, the corresponding wavelet coefficients are no longer long-range dependent. Therefore, a "short-range" dependent process can be used to model network traffic in the wavelet domain. Both independent and Markov models are investigated. Theoretical analysis shows that the independent wavelet model is sufficiently accurate in terms of the buffer overflow probability for Fractional Gaussian Noise traffic. Any model, which captures additional correlations in the wavelet domain, only improves the performance marginally. The independent wavelet model is then used as a unified approach to model network traffic including VBR MPEG video and Ethernet data. The computational complexity is O(N for developing such wavelet models and generating synthesized traffic of length N, which is among the lowest attained.

  12. Human performance interfaces in air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yeh, Chung-Hsing

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how human performance factors in air traffic control (ATC) affect each other through their mutual interactions. The paper extends the conceptual SHEL model of ergonomics to describe the ATC system as human performance interfaces in which the air traffic controllers interact with other human performance factors including other controllers, software, hardware, environment, and organisation. New research hypotheses about the relationships between human performance interfaces of the system are developed and tested on data collected from air traffic controllers, using structural equation modelling. The research result suggests that organisation influences play a more significant role than individual differences or peer influences on how the controllers interact with the software, hardware, and environment of the ATC system. There are mutual influences between the controller-software, controller-hardware, controller-environment, and controller-organisation interfaces of the ATC system, with the exception of the controller-controller interface. Research findings of this study provide practical insights in managing human performance interfaces of the ATC system in the face of internal or external change, particularly in understanding its possible consequences in relation to the interactions between human performance factors.

  13. Fixed Point Learning Based Intelligent Traffic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongyao, Wang; Cong, Sui; Cheng, Shao

    2017-10-01

    Fixed point learning has become an important tool to analyse large scale distributed system such as urban traffic network. This paper presents a fixed point learning based intelligence traffic network control system. The system applies convergence property of fixed point theorem to optimize the traffic flow density. The intelligence traffic control system achieves maximum road resources usage by averaging traffic flow density among the traffic network. The intelligence traffic network control system is built based on decentralized structure and intelligence cooperation. No central control is needed to manage the system. The proposed system is simple, effective and feasible for practical use. The performance of the system is tested via theoretical proof and simulations. The results demonstrate that the system can effectively solve the traffic congestion problem and increase the vehicles average speed. It also proves that the system is flexible, reliable and feasible for practical use.

  14. System and method for traffic signal timing estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Dumazert, Julien; Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-01-01

    A method and system for estimating traffic signals. The method and system can include constructing trajectories of probe vehicles from GPS data emitted by the probe vehicles, estimating traffic signal cycles, combining the estimates, and computing the traffic signal timing by maximizing a scoring function based on the estimates. Estimating traffic signal cycles can be based on transition times of the probe vehicles starting after a traffic signal turns green.

  15. System and method for traffic signal timing estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Dumazert, Julien

    2015-12-30

    A method and system for estimating traffic signals. The method and system can include constructing trajectories of probe vehicles from GPS data emitted by the probe vehicles, estimating traffic signal cycles, combining the estimates, and computing the traffic signal timing by maximizing a scoring function based on the estimates. Estimating traffic signal cycles can be based on transition times of the probe vehicles starting after a traffic signal turns green.

  16. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  17. Less than one implies zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenninger, Felix L.; Zwart, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show that from an estimate of the form supt≥0 C(t) - cos(at)I < 1, we can conclude that C(t) equals cos(at)I. Here (C(t)) t≥0 is a strongly continuous cosine family on a Banach space.

  18. Delays at signalised intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under Heavy Traffic (HT) conditions,

  19. Delays at signalized intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  20. Delays at signalised intersections with exhaustive traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Winands, E.M.M.; Down, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a traffic intersection with vehicle-actuated traffic signal control. Traffic lights stay green until all lanes within a group are emptied. Assuming general renewal arrival processes, we derive exact limiting distributions of the delays under heavy traffic (HT) conditions.

  1. Linking network usage patterns to traffic Gaussianity fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sadre, R.; Melnikov, Nikolay; Schönwälder, Jürgen; Pras, Aiko

    Gaussian traffic models are widely used in the domain of network traffic modeling. The central assumption is that traffic aggregates are Gaussian distributed. Due to its importance, the Gaussian character of network traffic has been extensively assessed by researchers in the past years. In 2001,

  2. Will Automated Vehicles Negatively Impact Traffic Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Calvert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With low-level vehicle automation already available, there is a necessity to estimate its effects on traffic flow, especially if these could be negative. A long gradual transition will occur from manual driving to automated driving, in which many yet unknown traffic flow dynamics will be present. These effects have the potential to increasingly aid or cripple current road networks. In this contribution, we investigate these effects using an empirically calibrated and validated simulation experiment, backed up with findings from literature. We found that low-level automated vehicles in mixed traffic will initially have a small negative effect on traffic flow and road capacities. The experiment further showed that any improvement in traffic flow will only be seen at penetration rates above 70%. Also, the capacity drop appeared to be slightly higher with the presence of low-level automated vehicles. The experiment further investigated the effect of bottleneck severity and truck shares on traffic flow. Improvements to current traffic models are recommended and should include a greater detail and understanding of driver-vehicle interaction, both in conventional and in mixed traffic flow. Further research into behavioural shifts in driving is also recommended due to limited data and knowledge of these dynamics.

  3. Fast Drawing of Traffic Sign Using Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.; Tan, B.; Huang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Traffic sign provides road users with the specified instruction and information to enhance traffic safety. Automatic detection of traffic sign is important for navigation, autonomous driving, transportation asset management, etc. With the advance of laser and imaging sensors, Mobile Mapping System (MMS) becomes widely used in transportation agencies to map the transportation infrastructure. Although many algorithms of traffic sign detection are developed in the literature, they are still a tradeoff between the detection speed and accuracy, especially for the large-scale mobile mapping of both the rural and urban roads. This paper is motivated to efficiently survey traffic signs while mapping the road network and the roadside landscape. Inspired by the manual delineation of traffic sign, a drawing strategy is proposed to quickly approximate the boundary of traffic sign. Both the shape and color prior of the traffic sign are simultaneously involved during the drawing process. The most common speed-limit sign circle and the statistic color model of traffic sign are studied in this paper. Anchor points of traffic sign edge are located with the local maxima of color and gradient difference. Starting with the anchor points, contour of traffic sign is drawn smartly along the most significant direction of color and intensity consistency. The drawing process is also constrained by the curvature feature of the traffic sign circle. The drawing of linear growth is discarded immediately if it fails to form an arc over some steps. The Kalman filter principle is adopted to predict the temporal context of traffic sign. Based on the estimated point,we can predict and double check the traffic sign in consecutive frames.The event probability of having a traffic sign over the consecutive observations is compared with the null hypothesis of no perceptible traffic sign. The temporally salient traffic sign is then detected statistically and automatically as the rare event of having a

  4. Fine-Tuning ADAS Algorithm Parameters for Optimizing Traffic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the development of the Connected Vehicle technology that facilitates wirelessly communication among vehicles and road-side infrastructure, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be adopted as an effective tool for accelerating traffic safety and mobility optimization at various highway facilities. To this end, the traffic management centers identify the optimal ADAS algorithm parameter set that enables the maximum improvement of the traffic safety and mobility performance, and broadcast the optimal parameter set wirelessly to individual ADAS-equipped vehicles. After adopting the optimal parameter set, the ADAS-equipped drivers become active agents in the traffic stream that work collectively and consistently to prevent traffic conflicts, lower the intensity of traffic disturbances, and suppress the development of traffic oscillations into heavy traffic jams. Successful implementation of this objective requires the analysis capability of capturing the impact of the ADAS on driving behaviors, and measuring traffic safety and mobility performance under the influence of the ADAS. To address this challenge, this research proposes a synthetic methodology that incorporates the ADAS-affected driving behavior modeling and state-of-the-art microscopic traffic flow modeling into a virtually simulated environment. Building on such an environment, the optimal ADAS algorithm parameter set is identified through an optimization programming framework to enable th

  5. Rail-induced Traffic in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of China’s railway has exerted an enormous influence on the intercity passenger transport structure in recent years. However, it has not satisfied the passengers’ travel demand due to induced traffic. This paper is committed to solving such issue, with the aim of satisfying the current travel demand, and of anticipating the demand of the predicted traffic growth over the next 20 to 30 years. The paper has considered the increase in rail passenger kilometres caused by the growth of rail kilometres as rail-induced traffic. Based on the concept and former research of induced traffic, the panel data of 26 provinces and 3 municipalities of China between the year 2000 and 2014 were collected, and the elasticity models (including elasticity-based model, distributed lag model, high-speed rail (HSR elasticity model and rail efficiency model have been constructed. The results show the importance of model formation incorporation of rail-induced traffic. It is better to get the correct value in divided zones with different train frequencies or incorporation rail efficiency in cities or provinces. The lag time and rail types also need to be considered. In summary, the results analysis not only confirms the existence of rail-induced traffic, but also provides substantial recommendations to train operation planning.

  6. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  7. 11th Traffic and Granular Flow Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Daamen, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinar...

  8. Texas traffic thermostat software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  9. Texas traffic thermostat marketing package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  10. Assessing the impact of road traffic on cycling for leisure and cycling to work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham Nicholas J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the relationship between leisure and commuter cycling with objectively measured levels of road traffic and whether any relationship was affected by traffic levels directly outside of home or in local neighbourhood. Findings We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the UK European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC Norfolk cohort in 2009. We used a geographical information system (GIS and gender specific multivariate models to relate 13 927 participants' reported levels of cycling with an index of road traffic volume (Road Traffic Volume Index Score - RTVIS. RTVIS were calculated around each participants home, using four distance based buffers, (0.5 km, 1 km, 2 km and 3.2 km. Models were adjusted for age, social status, education, car access and deprivation. Both genders had similar decreases in leisure cycling as traffic volumes increased at greater distances from home (OR 0.42, (95% CI 0.32-0.52, p Conclusions Traffic volumes appear to have greater impact on leisure cycling than commuter cycling. Future research should investigate the importance of traffic on different types of cycling and include psychosocial correlates.

  11. Assessment, analysis and appraisal of road traffic noise pollution in Rourkela city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shreerup; Swain, Bijay Kumar; Panda, Santosh Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The problem of road traffic noise pollution has become a concern for both the public and the policy makers. Noise level was assessed in 12 different squares of Rourkela city during different specified times (7-10 a.m., 11 a.m.-2 p.m., 3-6 p.m., 7-10 p.m., 10 p.m.-12 midnight and 4-6 a.m.). Noise descriptors such as L,eq, traffic noise index, noise pollution level, noise climate, Lday, Levening, Lnight and Lden were assessed to reveal the extent of noise pollution due to heavy traffic in this city. The equivalent noise levels of all the 12 squares were found to be much beyond the permissible limit (70dB during day time and 55dB during night time). Appallingly, even the minimum L eq and NPL values were more than 82 dB and 96 dB during day time and 69 dB and 91 dB during night time respectively. Lden values of investigated squares ranged from 83.4 to 86.1 dB and were even more than the day time permissible limit of traffic noise. The prediction model was used in the present study to predict noise pollution level instead of Leq. Comparison of predicted with that of the actual measured data demonstrated that the model used for the prediction has the ability to calibrate the multicomponent traffic noise and yield reliable results close to that by direct measurement. Lastly, it is inferred that the dimension of the traffic generated noise pollution in Rourkela is critical.

  12. Traffic accidents on expressways: new threat to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinbao; Deng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    As China is building one of the largest expressway systems in the world, expressway safety problems have become serious concerns to China. This article analyzed the trends in expressway accidents in China from 1995 to 2010 and examined the characteristics of these accidents. Expressway accident data were obtained from the Annual Report for Road Traffic Accidents published by the Ministry of Public Security of China. Expressway mileage data were obtained from the National Statistics Yearbook published by the National Bureau of Statistics of China. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted based on these data. Expressway deaths increased by 10.2-fold from 616 persons in 1995 to 6300 persons in 2010, and the average annual increase was 17.9 percent over the past 15 years, and the overall other road traffic deaths was -0.33 percent. China's expressway mileage accounted for only 1.85 percent of highway mileage driven in 2010, but expressway deaths made up 13.54 percent of highway traffic deaths. The average annual accident lethality rate [accident deaths/(accident deaths + accident injuries)] for China's expressways was 27.76 percent during the period 1995 to 2010, which was 1.33 times higher than the accident lethality rate of highway traffic accidents. China's government should pay attention to expressway construction and safety interventions during the rapid development period of expressways. Related causes, such as geographic patterns, speeding, weather conditions, and traffic flow composition, need to be studied in the near future. An effective and scientific expressway safety management services system, composed of a speed monitoring system, warning system, and emergency rescue system, should be established in developed and underdeveloped provinces in China to improve safety on expressway.

  13. Assessment of Traffic Noise Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe Husted; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2004-01-01

    A steady growth in traffic intensities in most urban areas throughout the world has forced planners and politicians to seriously consider the resulting environmental impact, such as traffic noise, accidents and air pollution. The assessment of such negative factors is needed in order to reveal...... the true social benefit of infrastructure plans. The paper presents a noise assessment model for the Copenhagen region, which brings together GIS technology and non-linear hedonic regression models to reveal the implicit costs of traffic noise measured as the marginal percentage loss in property values...

  14. National guidelines for traffic calming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schermers, G

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available and provides a policy framework on traffic calming. It also describes the administrative and management procedures required to meet policy objectives in the implementation and monitoring of traffic calming in urban areas. Related legal requirements, liability...

  15. Indicators of residential traffic exposure: Modelled NOX, traffic proximity, and self-reported exposure in RHINE III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Bäck, Erik; Eneroth, Kristina; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Janson, Christer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Johannessen, Ane; Kaasik, Marko; Modig, Lars; Segersson, David; Sigsgaard, Torben; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Orru, Hans

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have investigated associations between self-reported and modelled exposure to traffic pollution. The objective of this study was to examine correlations between self-reported traffic exposure and modelled (a) NOX and (b) traffic proximity in seven different northern European cities; Aarhus (Denmark), Bergen (Norway), Gothenburg, Umeå, and Uppsala (Sweden), Reykjavik (Iceland), and Tartu (Estonia). We analysed data from the RHINE III (Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, http://www.rhine.nu)

  16. Capacity of Freeway Merge Areas with Different On-Ramp Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Shen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at investigating the influence of different types of traffic flows on the capacity of freeway merge areas. Based on the classical gap-acceptance model, two calculating models were established specifically considering randomly arriving vehicles and individual difference in driving behaviours. Monte-Carlo simulation was implemented to reproduce the maximum traffic volume on the designed freeway merge area under different situations. The results demonstrated that the proposed calculating models have better performance than the conventional gap-acceptance theory on accurately predicting the capacity of freeway merge areas. The findings of research could be helpful to improve the microscopic traffic flow simulation model from a more practical perspective and support the designing of freeway merge areas as well.

  17. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area.

  18. 32 CFR 636.13 - Traffic accident investigation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Traffic accident investigation reports. 636.13... Stewart, Georgia § 636.13 Traffic accident investigation reports. In addition to the requirements in § 634... record traffic accident investigations on DA Form 3946 (Military Police Traffic Accident Report) and DA...

  19. The drivers and their passengers: at the traffic and its pollution first lodges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    In relation with air pollution in urban areas, studies on air quality in towns have been already tackled but the question of air quality breathed by the vehicle occupants was not studied until now. for the first time in france in the town of Rouen during 500 km in the traffic measurements were made and the strong levels surprised the experts. For particulates and nitrogen oxides the driver and his passengers breath concentrations three times higher than in situation of traffic proximity on the pavement along great axes and ten times higher in situation of back, far from the traffic. (N.C.)

  20. Speed support through the intelligent vehicle : perspective, estimated effects and implementation aspects.[Deliverable of the Intelligent Vehicles project, part of the Traffic Management project within TRANSUMO (TRANsition to SUstainable MObility).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P. Goldenbeld, C. Dragutinovic, N. Marchau, V. Walta, L. & Brookhuis, K.

    2008-01-01

    Speed management is a central theme in traffic management, aiming to optimize traffic in terms of safety, efficiency and the environment, by reducing speeding and speed differences in traffic. Intelligent vehicles can perform tasks that conventional measures cannot do at all, or do less efficiently.