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Sample records for lesions fatty streaks

  1. Effect of rosella extract on development of fatty streaks lesions in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Al-Kennany

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to explore the effect of rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa on female rats on oxidative stress which induced by 0.5% H2O2. Oxidative stress has been investigated via tissue (aorta and heart malonadyaldehyde (MDA as indirect lipid peroxidation index. For atherosclerotic lesions follow up light microscopical technique has been applied. The result elucidate significant reduction in lipid profit parameters namely: low density lipoprotein (LDL-c, triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein (vLDL-c, atherogenic index and significant elevation in high density lipoprotein (HDL-c in few animals treated with H2O2 and rosella extract, parallely, this research illustrate reduction in aorta and heart MDA concentration, concomitant with significant rising in glutathione (GSH level. Histopathologically, this study revealed fatty streaks associated with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells have been detected after 60 days, in animal treated with rosella revealed reduction in lipid vacuoles and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMcs in media toward intimal layers after 40 days from treatment.

  2. ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF L-SERINE AGAINST FATTY STREAK FORMATION IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC ANIMALS

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    Ahmad Movahedian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract INTRODUCTION: Peroxidation of blood lipoproteins is regarded as a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. Evidence suggests that oxidative modification of amino acids in low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles leads to its convert into an atherogenic form, which is taken up by macrophages. Therefore the reduction of oxidative modification of lipoproteins by increasing plasma antioxidant capacity may prevent cardiovascular disease. methods: In this study, the antioxidant and anti-fatty streak effects of L-serine were investigated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Rabbits were randomly divided into three groups which were fed high-cholesterol diet (hypercholesterolemic control group, high-cholesterol + L-serine diet (treatment group, and normal diet (control for twelve weeks and then blood samples were obtained to measure plasma cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, antioxidant capacity (AC, malondialdehyde (MDA, and conjugated dienes (CDS. Right and left coronary arteries were also obtained for histological evaluation. results: No significant difference was observed in plasma cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL and CDS levels between treatment and hypercholesterolemic control groups (P>0.05. The levels of plasma MDA and AC were 0.29‌ µM and 56%, respectively in the treatment group which showed a significant change in comparison with hypercholesterolemic control groups (P<0.05. The mean size of produced fatty streak also showed significant reduction in the treatment group compared to the hypercholesterolemic group (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that L-serine has antioxidant and anti-fatty streak effects without any influence on plasma lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.     Keywords: Atherosclerosis, cholesterol, L-serine, antioxidant, lipids, fatty streak.

  3. The effect of germinated fenugreek seeds and clofibrat on blood cholesterol level and aortic fatty streak in rabbit.

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    bahram delfan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the excess of fat and stiffness of arteries sidewalls in which specific areas of the circulatory system are involved, causing specific signs based on the involved area, the characteristics of the lesion, and the severity of involvement. The only factor necessary to cause atherosclerosis is the high level of LDL cholesterol. Today, drugs such as lovastatin, clofibrate, and Klystramyn are applied to reduce LDL and increase HDL levels. Material and methods: The effect of fenugreek seeds without any drugs or with clofibrat on blood lipids profile and fatty streak forming were evaluated in 25 male healthy rabbits. The rabbits were divided into 5 group of 5 and received the following diets and drugs for 45 days: Group Ι, normal diet without any drugs Group Π, high cholesterol diet without any drugs Group ΙΙΙ, high cholesterol diet in addition to germinated fenugreek seeds powder (600 mg bid Group ΙV, high cholesterol diet in addition to clofibrat (50 mg bid and GroupV, high cholesterol diet in addition to clofibrat (50 mg bid and germinated fenugreek seeds powder (600 mg bid. The blood samples were collected after overnight fasting at the beginning and at the end of the test period and were estimated for lipids profile. Also autopsy and aortic cross-sectional sampling was conducted for microscopic study after the experiment. Result: The serum total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels of groups ΙΙΙ, ΙV,V increased less than those in group Π but HDL levels in groups ΙΙΙ, ΙV and V increased more than that in group Π (P<0.001. Furthermore, the intensity of fatty streak was less in group V. Conclusion: This result indicates the usefulness of fenugreek seeds in the management of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis (P<0.05

  4. Ethanolic extract of Artemisia aucheri induces regression of aorta wall fatty streaks in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

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    Asgary, S; Dinani, N Jafari; Madani, H; Mahzouni, P

    2008-05-01

    Artemisia aucheri is a native-growing plant which is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of A. aucheri on regression of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twenty five rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of five each and treated 3-months as follows: 1: normal diet, 2: hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD), 3 and 4: HCD for 60 days and then normal diet and normal diet + A. aucheri (100 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) respectively for an additional 30 days (regression period). In the regression period dietary use of A. aucheri in group 4 significantly decreased total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol, while HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased. The atherosclerotic area was significantly decreased in this group. Animals, which received only normal diet in the regression period showed no regression but rather progression of atherosclerosis. These findings suggest that A. aucheri may cause regression of atherosclerotic lesions.

  5. Impact of variations in fatty liver on sonographic detection of focal hepatic lesions originally identified by CT

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    Wu, Size; Tu, Rong; Nan, Ruixia; Liu, Guangqing; Cui, Xiaojing; Liang, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of variations in fatty liver on the ultrasonographic detection of focal liver lesions. Methods: A total of 229 patients with varying degrees of fatty liver and focal liver lesions and 200 patients with focal liver lesions but no fatty liver were randomly selected for inclusion in groups I and II, respectively. Findings of focal liver lesions identified on computed tomography were taken as the reference, and findings on ultrasonog...

  6. Impact of variations in fatty liver on sonographic detection of focal hepatic lesions originally identified by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Size; Tu, Rong; Nan, Ruixia; Liu, Guang Qing; Cui, Xiao Jing; Liang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of variations in fatty liver on the ultrasonographic detection of focal liver lesions. A total of 229 patients with varying degrees of fatty liver and focal liver lesions and 200 patients with focal liver lesions but no fatty liver were randomly selected for inclusion in groups I and II, respectively. Findings of focal liver lesions identified on computed tomography were taken as the reference, and findings on ultrasonography were compared with them. The number of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 501 and 413, respectively. The ultrasonographic detection rates of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 86.8% (435/501) and 94.2% (389/413), respectively. Comparison of the detection of the focal lesions between patients with and without fatty liver or different grades of fatty liver were as follows: mild fatty liver (162/177) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P=0.277); mild fatty liver (162/177) vs. moderate fatty liver (190/212) (P=0.604); mild fatty liver (162/177) vs. severe fatty liver (83/112) (P<0.001); moderate fatty liver (190/212) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P=0.051); moderate fatty liver (190/212) vs. severe fatty liver (83/112) (P<0.001); severe fatty liver (83/112) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P<0.001); and fatty liver (435/501) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P<0.001). Mild and moderate fatty liver are not significantly associated with the visualization of the lesion, while severe fatty liver usually impairs the detection of focal lesions in the liver. If a patient with severe fatty liver is suspected to have a liver tumor, ultrasonography should only be chosen cautiously in case of a missed diagnosis

  7. Impact of variations in fatty liver on sonographic detection of focal hepatic lesions originally identified by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Size; Tu, Rong; Nan, Ruixia; Liu, Guang Qing; Cui, Xiao Jing; Liang, Xian [Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of variations in fatty liver on the ultrasonographic detection of focal liver lesions. A total of 229 patients with varying degrees of fatty liver and focal liver lesions and 200 patients with focal liver lesions but no fatty liver were randomly selected for inclusion in groups I and II, respectively. Findings of focal liver lesions identified on computed tomography were taken as the reference, and findings on ultrasonography were compared with them. The number of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 501 and 413, respectively. The ultrasonographic detection rates of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 86.8% (435/501) and 94.2% (389/413), respectively. Comparison of the detection of the focal lesions between patients with and without fatty liver or different grades of fatty liver were as follows: mild fatty liver (162/177) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P=0.277); mild fatty liver (162/177) vs. moderate fatty liver (190/212) (P=0.604); mild fatty liver (162/177) vs. severe fatty liver (83/112) (P<0.001); moderate fatty liver (190/212) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P=0.051); moderate fatty liver (190/212) vs. severe fatty liver (83/112) (P<0.001); severe fatty liver (83/112) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P<0.001); and fatty liver (435/501) vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413) (P<0.001). Mild and moderate fatty liver are not significantly associated with the visualization of the lesion, while severe fatty liver usually impairs the detection of focal lesions in the liver. If a patient with severe fatty liver is suspected to have a liver tumor, ultrasonography should only be chosen cautiously in case of a missed diagnosis.

  8. Imaging patterns and focal lesions in fatty liver: a pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Hennedige, Tiffany; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Hough, David M; Fletcher, Joel G

    2017-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and affects nearly one-third of US population. With the increasing trend of obesity in the population, associated fatty change in the liver will be a common feature observed in imaging studies. Fatty liver causes changes in liver parenchyma appearance on imaging modalities including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and may affect the imaging characteristics of focal liver lesions (FLLs). The imaging characteristics of FLLs were classically described in a non-fatty liver. In addition, focal fatty change and focal fat sparing may also simulate FLLs. Knowledge of characteristic patterns of fatty change in the liver (diffuse, geographical, focal, subcapsular, and perivascular) and their impact on the detection and characterization of FLL is therefore important. In general, fatty change may improve detection of FLLs on MRI using fat suppression sequences, but may reduce sensitivity on a single-phase (portal venous) CT and conventional ultrasound. In patients with fatty liver, MRI is generally superior to ultrasound and CT for detection and characterization of FLL. In this pictorial essay, we describe the imaging patterns of fatty change in the liver and its effect on detection and characterization of FLLs on ultrasound, CT, MRI, and PET.

  9. Impact of variations in fatty liver on sonographic detection of focal hepatic lesions originally identified by CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Size Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of variations in fatty liver on the ultrasonographic detection of focal liver lesions. Methods: A total of 229 patients with varying degrees of fatty liver and focal liver lesions and 200 patients with focal liver lesions but no fatty liver were randomly selected for inclusion in groups I and II, respectively. Findings of focal liver lesions identified on computed tomography were taken as the reference, and findings on ultrasonography were compared with them. Results: The number of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 501 and 413, respectively. The ultrasonographic detection rates of focal liver lesions in groups I and II were 86.8% (435/501 and 94.2% (389/413, respectively. Comparison of the detection of the focal lesions between patients with and without fatty liver or different grades of fatty liver were as follows: mild fatty liver (162/177 vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413 (P=0.277; mild fatty liver (162/177 vs. moderate fatty liver (190/212 (P=0.604; mild fatty liver (162/177 vs. severe fatty liver (83/112 (P<0.001; moderate fatty liver (190/212 vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413 (P=0.051; moderate fatty liver (190/212 vs. severe fatty liver (83/112 (P<0.001; severe fatty liver (83/112 vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413 (P<0.001; and fatty liver (435/501 vs. liver without fat infiltration (389/413 (P<0.001. Conclusion: Mild and moderate fatty liver are not significantly associated with the visualization of the lesion, while severe fatty liver usually impairs the detection of focal lesions in the liver. If a patient with severe fatty liver is suspected to have a liver tumor, ultrasonography should only be chosen cautiously in case of a missed diagnosis.

  10. Influences of a-tocopherol on cholesterol metabolism and fatty streak development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed an atherogenic diet

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    Peluzio M.C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the role of oxidized lipoproteins is well known in atherogenesis, the role of vitamin E supplementation is still controversial. There is also little information about cholesterol metabolism (hepatic concentration and fecal excretion in the new models of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of moderate vitamin E supplementation on cholesterol metabolism and atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E (apo E-deficient mice. Apo E-deficient mice were fed an atherogenic diet containing 40 or 400 mg/kg of alpha-tocopherol acetate for 6 weeks. Total cholesterol in serum and liver and 3-OH-alpha-sterols in feces, and fecal excretion of bile acids were determined and histological analyses of aortic lesion were performed. A vitamin E-rich diet did not affect body weight, food intake or serum cholesterol. Serum and hepatic concentrations of cholesterol as well as sterol concentration in feces were similar in both groups. However, when compared to controls, the alpha-tocopherol-treated mice showed a reduction of about 60% in the atherosclerotic lesions when both the sum of lesion areas and the average of the largest lesion area were considered. These results demonstrate that supplementation of moderate doses of alpha-tocopherol was able to slow atherogenesis in apo E-deficient mice and to reduce atherogenic lipoproteins without modifying the hepatic pool or fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids.

  11. Streak tube development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, C.K.; Estrella, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A research program for the development of a high-speed, high-resolution streak image tube is described. This is one task in the development of a streak camera system with digital electronic readout, whose primary application is for diagnostics in underground nuclear testing. This program is concerned with the development of a high-resolution streak image tube compatible with x-ray input and electronic digital output. The tube must be capable of time resolution down to 100 psec and spatial resolution to provide greater than 1000 resolution elements across the cathode (much greater than presently available). Another objective is to develop the capability to make design changes in tube configurations to meet different experimental requirements. A demountable prototype streak tube was constructed, mounted on an optical bench, and placed in a vacuum system. Initial measurements of the tube resolution with an undeflected image show a resolution of 32 line pairs per millimeter over a cathode diameter of one inch, which is consistent with the predictions of the computer simulations. With the initial set of unoptmized deflection plates, the resolution pattern appeared to remain unchanged for static deflections of +- 1/2-inch, a total streak length of one inch, also consistent with the computer simulations. A passively mode-locked frequency-doubled dye laser is being developed as an ultraviolet pulsed light source to measure dynamic tube resolution during streaking. A sweep circuit to provide the deflection voltage in the prototype tube has been designed and constructed and provides a relatively linear ramp voltage with ramp durations adjustable between 10 and 1000 nsec

  12. Streaking tremor in Cascadia

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    Vidale, J. E.; Ghosh, A.; Sweet, J. R.; Creager, K. C.; Wech, A.; Houston, H.

    2009-12-01

    Details of tremor deep in subduction zones is damnably difficult to glimpse because of the lack of crisp initial arrivals, low waveform coherence, uncertain focal mechanisms, and the probability of simultaneous activity across extended regions. Yet such details hold out the best hope to illuminate the unknown mechanisms underlying episodic tremor and slip. Attacking this problem with brute force, we pointed a small, very dense seismic array down at the migration path of a good-sized episodic tremor and slip (ETS) event. In detail, it was an 84-element, 1300-m-aperture temporary seismic array in northern Washington, and the migration path of the May 2008 ETS event was 30-40 km directly underneath. Our beamforming technique tracked the time, incident angle, and azimuth of tremor radiation in unprecedented detail. We located the tremor by assuming it occurs on the subduction interface, estimated relative tremor moment released by each detected tremor window, and mapped it on the interface [Ghosh et al., GRL, 2009]. Fortunately for our ability to image it, the tremor generally appears to emanate from small regions, and we were surprised by how steadily the regions migrated with time. For the first time in Cascadia, we found convergence-parallel transient streaks of tremor migrating at velocities of several tens of km/hr, with movement in both up- and down-dip directions. Similar patterns have been seen in Japan [Shelly, G3, 2007]. This is in contrast to the long-term along-strike marching of tremor at 10 km/day. These streaks tend to propagate steadily and often repeat the same track on the interface multiple times. They light up persistent moment patches on the interface by a combination of increased amplitude and longer residence time within the patches. The up- and down-dip migration dominates the 2 days of tremor most clearly imaged by our array. The tendency of the streaks to fill in bands is the subject of the presentation of Ghosh et al. here. The physical

  13. Triton's streaks as windblown dust

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    Sagan, Carl; Chyba, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Explanations for the surface streaks observed by Voyager 2 on Triton's southern hemisphere are discussed. It is shown that, despite Triton's tenuous atmosphere, low-cohesion dust trains with diameters of about 5 micron or less may be carried into suspension by aeolian surface shear stress, given expected geostrophic wind speeds of about 10 m/s. For geyser-like erupting dust plumes, it is shown that dust-settling time scales and expected wind velocities can produce streaks with length scales in good agreement with those of the streaks. Thus, both geyserlike eruptions or direct lifting by surface winds appear to be viable mechanisms for the origin of the streaks.

  14. Omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids suppress the cystic lesion formation of peritoneal endometriosis in transgenic mouse models.

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    Kensuke Tomio

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs play a role in controlling pathological inflammatory reactions. Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue on the peritoneum and an exaggerated inflammatory environment around ectopic tissues. Here peritoneal endometriosis was reproduced using a mouse model in which murine endometrial fragments were inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice. Fat-1 mice, in which omega-6 can be converted to omega-3 PUFAs, or wild type mice, in which it cannot, were used for the endometriosis model to address the actions of omega-3 PUFAs on the development of endometriotic lesions. The number and weight of cystic endometriotic lesions in fat-1 mice two weeks after inoculation were significantly less than half to those of controls. Mediator lipidomics revealed that cystic endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluids were abundant in 12/15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12/15-HEPE, derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and their amount in fat-1 mice was significantly larger than that in controls. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX-knockout (KO and control mice with or without EPA administration were assessed for the endometriosis model. EPA administration decreased the number of lesions in controls but not in 12/15-LOX-KO mice. The peritoneal fluids in EPA-fed 12/15-LOX-KO mice contained reduced levels of EPA metabolites such as 12/15-HEPE and EPA-derived resolvin E3 even after EPA administration. cDNA microarrays of endometriotic lesions revealed that Interleukin-6 (IL-6 expression in fat-1 mice was significantly lower than that in controls. These results suggest that both endogenous and exogenous EPA-derived PUFAs protect against the development of endometriosis through their anti-inflammatory effects and, in particular, the 12/15-LOX-pathway products of EPA may be key mediators to suppress endometriosis.

  15. Omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids suppress the cystic lesion formation of peritoneal endometriosis in transgenic mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomio, Kensuke; Kawana, Kei; Taguchi, Ayumi; Isobe, Yosuke; Iwamoto, Ryo; Yamashita, Aki; Kojima, Satoko; Mori, Mayuyo; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Arimoto, Takahide; Oda, Katsutoshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Taketani, Yuji; Kang, Jing X; Arai, Hiroyuki; Arita, Makoto; Kozuma, Shiro; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) play a role in controlling pathological inflammatory reactions. Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue on the peritoneum and an exaggerated inflammatory environment around ectopic tissues. Here peritoneal endometriosis was reproduced using a mouse model in which murine endometrial fragments were inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice. Fat-1 mice, in which omega-6 can be converted to omega-3 PUFAs, or wild type mice, in which it cannot, were used for the endometriosis model to address the actions of omega-3 PUFAs on the development of endometriotic lesions. The number and weight of cystic endometriotic lesions in fat-1 mice two weeks after inoculation were significantly less than half to those of controls. Mediator lipidomics revealed that cystic endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluids were abundant in 12/15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12/15-HEPE), derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and their amount in fat-1 mice was significantly larger than that in controls. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX)-knockout (KO) and control mice with or without EPA administration were assessed for the endometriosis model. EPA administration decreased the number of lesions in controls but not in 12/15-LOX-KO mice. The peritoneal fluids in EPA-fed 12/15-LOX-KO mice contained reduced levels of EPA metabolites such as 12/15-HEPE and EPA-derived resolvin E3 even after EPA administration. cDNA microarrays of endometriotic lesions revealed that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in fat-1 mice was significantly lower than that in controls. These results suggest that both endogenous and exogenous EPA-derived PUFAs protect against the development of endometriosis through their anti-inflammatory effects and, in particular, the 12/15-LOX-pathway products of EPA may be key mediators to suppress endometriosis.

  16. Angioid streaks, clinical course, complications, and current therapeutic management

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    Ilias Georgalas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ilias Georgalas1, Dimitris Papaconstantinou2, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea2, George Kalantzis2, Dimitris Karagiannis2, Gerasimos Georgopoulos2, Ioannis Ladas21Department of Ophthalmology, “G. Gennimatas” Hospital of Athens, NHS, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, “G. Gennimatas” Hospital of Athens, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Angioid streaks are visible irregular crack-like dehiscences in Bruch’s membrane that are associated with atrophic degeneration of the overlying retinal pigmented epithelium. Angioid streaks may be associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Paget’s disease, sickle-cell anemia, acromegaly, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, and diabetes mellitus, but also appear in patients without any systemic disease. Patients with angioid streaks are generally asymptomatic, unless the lesions extend towards the foveola or develop complications such as traumatic Bruch’s membrane rupture or macular choroidal neovascularization (CNV. The visual prognosis in patients with CNV secondary to angioid streaks if untreated, is poor and most treatment modalities, until recently, have failed to limit the devastating impact of CNV in central vision. However, it is likely that treatment with antivascular endothelial growth factor, especially in treatment-naive eyes to yield favorable results in the future and this has to be investigated in future studies.Keywords: angioid streaks, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, choroidal neovascularization

  17. Streaking into middle school science: The Dell Streak pilot project

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    Austin, Susan Eudy

    A case study is conducted implementing the Dell Streak seven-inch android device into eighth grade science classes of one teacher in a rural middle school in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. The purpose of the study is to determine if the use of the Dell Streaks would increase student achievement on standardized subject testing, if the Streak could be used as an effective instructional tool, and if it could be considered an effective instructional resource for reviewing and preparing for the science assessments. A mixed method research design was used for the study to analyze both quantitative and qualitative results to determine if the Dell Streaks' utilization could achieve the following: 1. instructional strategies would change, 2. it would be an effective instructional tool, and 3. a comparison of the students' test scores and benchmark assessments' scores would provide statistically significant difference. Through the use of an ANOVA it was determined a statistically significant difference had occurred. A Post Hoc analysis was conducted to identify where the difference occurred. Finally a T-test determined was there was no statistically significance difference between the mean End-of-Grade tests and four quarterly benchmark scores of the control and the experimental groups. Qualitative research methods were used to gather results to determine if the Streaks were an effective instructional tool. Classroom observations identified that the teacher's teaching styles and new instructional strategies were implemented throughout the pilot project. Students had an opportunity to complete a questionnaire three times during the pilot project. Results revealed what the students liked about using the devices and the challenges they were facing. The teacher completed a reflective questionnaire throughout the pilot project and offered valuable reflections about the use of the devices in an educational setting. The reflection data supporting the case study was drawn

  18. Streak cameras and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernet, J.M.; Imhoff, C.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last several years, development of various measurement techniques in the nanosecond and pico-second range has led to increased reliance on streak cameras. This paper will present the main electronic and optoelectronic performances of the Thomson-CSF TSN 506 cameras and their associated devices used to build an automatic image acquisition and processing system (NORMA). A brief survey of the diversity and the spread of the use of high speed electronic cinematography will be illustrated by a few typical applications [fr

  19. Notes on the IMACON 500 streak camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The notes provided are intended to supplement the instruction manual for the IMACON 500 streak camera system. The notes cover the streak analyzer, instructions for timing the streak camera, and calibration

  20. Ultra fast x-ray streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.; McConaghy, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    A unique ultrafast x-ray sensitive streak camera, with a time resolution of 50psec, has been built and operated. A 100A thick gold photocathode on a beryllium vacuum window is used in a modified commerical image converter tube. The X-ray streak camera has been used in experiments to observe time resolved emission from laser-produced plasmas. (author)

  1. Nonlinear streak computation using boundary region equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J A; Martel, C, E-mail: juanangel.martin@upm.es, E-mail: carlos.martel@upm.es [Depto. de Fundamentos Matematicos, E.T.S.I Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    The boundary region equations (BREs) are applied for the simulation of the nonlinear evolution of a spanwise periodic array of streaks in a flat plate boundary layer. The well-known BRE formulation is obtained from the complete Navier-Stokes equations in the high Reynolds number limit, and provides the correct asymptotic description of three-dimensional boundary layer streaks. In this paper, a fast and robust streamwise marching scheme is introduced to perform their numerical integration. Typical streak computations present in the literature correspond to linear streaks or to small-amplitude nonlinear streaks computed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) or the nonlinear parabolized stability equations (PSEs). We use the BREs to numerically compute high-amplitude streaks, a method which requires much lower computational effort than DNS and does not have the consistency and convergence problems of the PSE. It is found that the flow configuration changes substantially as the amplitude of the streaks grows and the nonlinear effects come into play. The transversal motion (in the wall normal-streamwise plane) becomes more important and strongly distorts the streamwise velocity profiles, which end up being quite different from those of the linear case. We analyze in detail the resulting flow patterns for the nonlinearly saturated streaks and compare them with available experimental results. (paper)

  2. Multislit streak photography for plasma dynamics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tou, T.Y.; Lee, S.

    1988-01-01

    A microscope slide with several transparent slits installed in a streak camera is used to record time-resolved two-dimensional information when a curved luminous plasma sheath traverses these slits. Applying this method to the plasma focus experiment, the axial run-down trajectory and the shapes of the plasma sheath at various moments can be obtained from a single streak photograph

  3. Wind Streaks on Earth; Exploration and Interpretation

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    Cohen-Zada, Aviv Lee; Blumberg, Dan G.; Maman, Shimrit

    2015-04-01

    Wind streaks, one of the most common aeolian features on planetary surfaces, are observable on the surface of the planets Earth, Mars and Venus. Due to their reflectance properties, wind streaks are distinguishable from their surroundings, and they have thus been widely studied by remote sensing since the early 1970s, particularly on Mars. In imagery, these streaks are interpreted as the presence - or lack thereof - of small loose particles on the surface deposited or eroded by wind. The existence of wind streaks serves as evidence for past or present active aeolian processes. Therefore, wind streaks are thought to represent integrative climate processes. As opposed to the comprehensive and global studies of wind streaks on Mars and Venus, wind streaks on Earth are understudied and poorly investigated, both geomorphologically and by remote sensing. The aim of this study is, thus, to fill the knowledge gap about the wind streaks on Earth by: generating a global map of Earth wind streaks from modern high-resolution remotely sensed imagery; incorporating the streaks in a geographic information system (GIS); and overlaying the GIS layers with boundary layer wind data from general circulation models (GCMs) and data from the ECMWF Reanalysis Interim project. The study defines wind streaks (and thereby distinguishes them from other aeolian features) based not only on their appearance in imagery but more importantly on their surface appearance. This effort is complemented by a focused field investigation to study wind streaks on the ground and from a variety of remotely sensed images (both optical and radar). In this way, we provide a better definition of the physical and geomorphic characteristics of wind streaks and acquire a deeper knowledge of terrestrial wind streaks as a means to better understand global and planetary climate and climate change. In a preliminary study, we detected and mapped over 2,900 wind streaks in the desert regions of Earth distributed in

  4. Streak camera recording of interferometer fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.L.; Chau, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The use of an electronic high-speed camera in the streaking mode to record interference fringe motion from a velocity interferometer is discussed. Advantages of this method over the photomultiplier tube-oscilloscope approach are delineated. Performance testing and data for the electronic streak camera are discussed. The velocity profile of a mylar flyer accelerated by an electrically exploded bridge, and the jump-off velocity of metal targets struck by these mylar flyers are measured in the camera tests. Advantages of the streak camera include portability, low cost, ease of operation and maintenance, simplified interferometer optics, and rapid data analysis

  5. Compact Optical Technique for Streak Camera Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curt Allen; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Ronald Justin; Bruce Marshall; Oliver Sweningsen; Perry Bell; Roger Griffith; Karla Hagans; Richard Lerche

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation. To accurately reduce data from the streak cameras a temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for generating trains of precisely timed short-duration optical pulses that are suitable for temporal calibrations

  6. Soft x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the development and of the current state of the art in picosecond soft x-ray streak camera technology. Accomplishments from a number of institutions are discussed. X-ray streak cameras vary from standard visible streak camera designs in the use of an x-ray transmitting window and an x-ray sensitive photocathode. The spectral sensitivity range of these instruments includes portions of the near UV and extends from the subkilovolt x- ray region to several tens of kilovolts. Attendant challenges encountered in the design and use of x-ray streak cameras include the accommodation of high-voltage and vacuum requirements, as well as manipulation of a photocathode structure which is often fragile. The x-ray transmitting window is generally too fragile to withstand atmospheric pressure, necessitating active vacuum pumping and a vacuum line of sight to the x-ray signal source. Because of the difficulty of manipulating x-ray beams with conventional optics, as is done with visible light, the size of the photocathode sensing area, access to the front of the tube, the ability to insert the streak tube into a vacuum chamber and the capability to trigger the sweep with very short internal delay times are issues uniquely relevant to x-ray streak camera use. The physics of electron imaging may place more stringent limitations on the temporal and spatial resolution obtainable with x-ray photocathodes than with the visible counterpart. Other issues which are common to the entire streak camera community also concern the x-ray streak camera users and manufacturers

  7. Compact Optical Technique for Streak Camera Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P; Griffith, R; Hagans, K; Lerche, R; Allen, C; Davies, T; Janson, F; Justin, R; Marshall, B; Sweningsen, O

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation. To accurately reduce data from the streak cameras a temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for generating trains of precisely timed short-duration optical pulses1 (optical comb generators) that are suitable for temporal calibrations. These optical comb generators (Figure 1) are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced, optical pulses. Comb generators have been produced with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, and 10-GHz pulse trains of 780-nm wavelength light with individual pulse durations of ∼25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector. Signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fibers. At the NIF, ultra-fast streak-cameras are used by the Laser Fusion Program experimentalists to record fast transient optical signals. Their temporal resolution is unmatched by any other transient recorder. Their ability to spatially discriminate an image along the input slit allows them to function as a one-dimensional image recorder, time-resolved spectrometer, or multichannel transient recorder. Depending on the choice of photocathode, they can be made sensitive to photon energies from 1.1 eV to 30 keV and beyond. Comb generators perform two important functions for LLNL streak-camera users. First, comb generators are used as a precision time-mark generator for calibrating streak camera sweep rates. Accuracy is achieved by averaging many streak camera images of comb generator signals. Time-base calibrations with portable comb generators are easily done in both the calibration laboratory and in situ. Second, comb signals are applied

  8. Feijoeiro manteiga, planta-teste para os vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca do fumo A bean variety useful as a local-lesion test plant for tomato spotted wilt and Brazilian tobacco streak viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1957-01-01

    mistura de búfer e sulfito de sódio deu o maior aumento.Out of 200 bean varieties tested, plants of the var. Manteiga were the most sensitive to tomato spotted wilt (TSW and Brazilian tobacco streak (BTS viruses. The inoculated plants developed local chlorotic spots adequate for counts within 3-6 days after inoculation with the TSW virus; pin point or rings in 2-4 days following inoculation with the BTS virus. Bean plants with the primary leaves 2/3 expanded or slightly older gave better results for the TSW virus, whereas they were more sensitive to BTS virus when 2/3 expanded or slightly younger. The TSW virus did not become systemic in the bean plants. Most strains of the BTS virus also did not become systemic in the inoculated plants. A yellow strain of this virus usually did. Sodium sulfite at 0.01 M added to the infected tissues during extraction of the inoculum increased the number of lesions formed in the bean leaves inoculated with the TSW virus; the increase was greater when extraction was made in presence of phosphate buffer at pH 7 and at the concentration of 0.1 M. A mixture of buffer and sulfite did not cause a greater increase than buffer alone. Por the BTS virus the addition of sodium sulfite at 0.01 M during extraction gave a large increase in the number of lesions; buffer alone caused only a small increase, but a mixture of buffer and sodium sulfite gave the highest increase. Phosphate buffer at 0.05 M and with pH 7 or 8, added prior to extraction, gave a higher number of lesions in case of both viruses than the same concentration of buffer at pH 5 or 6. The use of butter at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.0125 M were tried and did not cause great differences in the number of local lesions, but the best ones seemed to be 0.05 or 0.025 M. Four concentrations of sodium sulfite, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 M were compared as diluents for the same inocula in presence of phosphate buffer. The two lowest ones gave the highest number of lesions for both

  9. The LLL compact 10-ps streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.W.; Houghton, J.W.; Tripp, G.R.; Coleman, L.W.

    1975-01-01

    The 10-ps streak camera has been redesigned to simplify its operation, reduce manufacturing costs, and improve its appearance. The electronics have been simplified, a film indexer added, and a contacted slit has been evaluated. Data support a 10-ps resolution. (author)

  10. Pea Streak Virus Recorded in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarkisova, Tatiana; Bečková, M.; Fránová, Jana; Petrzik, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2016), s. 164-166 ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71145 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Pea streak virus * alfalfa * carlavirus * partial sequence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

  11. Nondipole effects in attosecond photoelectron streaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiewanowski, Maciek; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2012-01-01

    The influence of nondipole terms on the time delay in photoionization by an extreme-ultraviolet attosecond pulse in the presence of a near-infrared femtosecond laser pulse from 1s, 2s, and 2p states in hydrogen is investigated. In this attosecond photoelectron streaking process, the relative...

  12. Atomic and molecular phases through attosecond streaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-01-01

    phase of the atomic or molecular ionization matrix elements from the two states through the interference from the two channels. The interference may change the phase of the photoelectron streaking signal within the envelope of the infrared field, an effect to be accounted for when reconstructing short...... pulses from the photoelectron signal and in attosecond time-resolved measurements....

  13. Baccaurea angulata fruit juice reduces atherosclerotic lesions in diet-induced Hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ishola, Afeez Adekunle; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2017-07-07

    Atherosclerosis is the most common disease of large and medium-sized arteries linked to oxidative stress, dyslipidemia as well as chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata (BA) fruit juice on the aorta of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits, to detect an accumulation of fatty streak and evaluate the percentage of atherosclerotic lesion accrued. Thirty-five healthy male adults New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to seven different groups. Four groups were fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL of BA fruit juice per kg of rabbit daily (atherogenic groups), while the other three groups were fed commercial rabbit pellet and 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mL of juice per kg of rabbit daily (normocholesterolemic groups) for 90 days. The thoracic and abdominal aorta between the heart origin and bifurcation into iliac arteries of all the rabbits were carefully removed and analyzed accordingly. The supplementation of the high-cholesterol diet of hypercholesterolemic rabbits with only 0.5 mL BA/kg rabbit per day significantly (p < 0.001) improved aortic lipid profile, attenuated aortic fatty streak development and reduced intima thickening. Higher BA doses used (1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg rabbit per day) also significantly (p < 0.001) decreased further the development of aortic fatty streaks, reduced the thickening of the tunica intima layer and preserved endothelial healing following arterial injury. Therefore, BA fruit is a potential novel functional food with effective anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and hypocholesterolemic activities.

  14. Dynamic range studies of the RCA streak tube in the LLL streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.W.; Phillips, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    As indicated by tests on several cameras, the dynamic range of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory streak-camera system appears to be about two orders of magnitude greater than those reported for other systems for 10- to 200-ps pulses. The lack of a fine mesh grid in the RCA streak tube used in these cameras probably contributes to a lower system dynamic noise and therefore raises the dynamic range. A developmental tube with a mesh grid was tested and supports this conjecture. Order-of-magnitude variations in input slit width do not affect the spot size on the phosphor or the dynamic range of the RCA tube. (author)

  15. MULTIMODAL IMAGING OF ANGIOID STREAKS ASSOCIATED WITH TURNER SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Bing Q; Tsui, Edmund; Hussnain, Syed Amal; Barbazetto, Irene A; Smith, R Theodore

    2018-02-13

    To report multimodal imaging in a novel case of angioid streaks in a patient with Turner syndrome with 10-year follow-up. Case report of a patient with Turner syndrome and angioid streaks followed at Bellevue Hospital Eye Clinic from 2007 to 2017. Fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography angiography were obtained. Angioid streaks with choroidal neovascularization were noted in this patient with Turner syndrome without other systemic conditions previously correlated with angioid streaks. We report a case of angioid streaks with choroidal neovascularization in a patient with Turner syndrome. We demonstrate that angioid streaks, previously associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Paget disease of bone, and hemoglobinopathies, may also be associated with Turner syndrome, and may continue to develop choroidal neovascularization, suggesting the need for careful ophthalmic examination in these patients.

  16. Traveling wave deflector design for femtosecond streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli; Luo, Duan; Wen, Wenlong; Xu, Junkai; Tian, Jinshou; Zhang, Minrui; Chen, Pin; Chen, Jianzhong; Liu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a traveling wave deflection deflector (TWD) with a slow-wave property induced by a microstrip transmission line is proposed for femtosecond streak cameras. The pass width and dispersion properties were simulated. In addition, the dynamic temporal resolution of the femtosecond camera was simulated by CST software. The results showed that with the proposed TWD a femtosecond streak camera can achieve a dynamic temporal resolution of less than 600 fs. Experiments were done to test the femtosecond streak camera, and an 800 fs dynamic temporal resolution was obtained. Guidance is provided for optimizing a femtosecond streak camera to obtain higher temporal resolution.

  17. Traveling wave deflector design for femtosecond streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Luo, Duan [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wen, Wenlong [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Xu, Junkai [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tian, Jinshou, E-mail: tianjs@opt.ac.cn [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); Zhang, Minrui; Chen, Pin [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jianzhong [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Liu, Rong [Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710021 (China)

    2017-05-21

    In this paper, a traveling wave deflection deflector (TWD) with a slow-wave property induced by a microstrip transmission line is proposed for femtosecond streak cameras. The pass width and dispersion properties were simulated. In addition, the dynamic temporal resolution of the femtosecond camera was simulated by CST software. The results showed that with the proposed TWD a femtosecond streak camera can achieve a dynamic temporal resolution of less than 600 fs. Experiments were done to test the femtosecond streak camera, and an 800 fs dynamic temporal resolution was obtained. Guidance is provided for optimizing a femtosecond streak camera to obtain higher temporal resolution.

  18. Compact optical technique for streak camera calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Perry; Griffith, Roger; Hagans, Karla; Lerche, Richard; Allen, Curt; Davies, Terence; Janson, Frans; Justin, Ronald; Marshall, Bruce; Sweningsen, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    To produce accurate data from optical streak cameras requires accurate temporal calibration sources. We have reproduced an older technology for generating optical timing marks that had been lost due to component availability. Many improvements have been made which allow the modern units to service a much larger need. Optical calibrators are now available that produce optical pulse trains of 780 nm wavelength light at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 GHz, with individual pulse widths of approximately 25 ps full width half maximum. Future plans include the development of single units that produce multiple frequencies to cover a wide temporal range, and that are fully controllable via an RS232 interface

  19. Compact optical technique for streak camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Perry; Griffith, Roger; Hagans, Karla; Lerche, Richard; Allen, Curt; Davies, Terence; Janson, Frans; Justin, Ronald; Marshall, Bruce; Sweningsen, Oliver

    2004-10-01

    To produce accurate data from optical streak cameras requires accurate temporal calibration sources. We have reproduced an older technology for generating optical timing marks that had been lost due to component availability. Many improvements have been made which allow the modern units to service a much larger need. Optical calibrators are now available that produce optical pulse trains of 780 nm wavelength light at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 GHz, with individual pulse widths of approximately 25 ps full width half maximum. Future plans include the development of single units that produce multiple frequencies to cover a wide temporal range, and that are fully controllable via an RS232 interface.

  20. Picosecond x-ray streak cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averin, V. I.; Bryukhnevich, Gennadii I.; Kolesov, G. V.; Lebedev, Vitaly B.; Miller, V. A.; Saulevich, S. V.; Shulika, A. N.

    1991-04-01

    The first multistage image converter with an X-ray photocathode (UMI-93 SR) was designed in VNIIOFI in 1974 [1]. The experiments carried out in IOFAN pointed out that X-ray electron-optical cameras using the tube provided temporal resolution up to 12 picoseconds [2]. The later work has developed into the creation of the separate streak and intensifying tubes. Thus, PV-003R tube has been built on base of UMI-93SR design, fibre optically connected to PMU-2V image intensifier carrying microchannel plate.

  1. X-ray streak crystal spectography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.; Brown, T.; Medecki, H.

    1983-01-01

    We have built an x-ray streaked crystal spectrograph for making time-resolved x-ray spectral measurements. This instrument can access Bragg angles from 11 0 to 38 0 and x-ray spectra from 200 eV to greater than 10 keV. We have demonstrated resolving powers, E/δE > 200 at 1 keV and time resolution less than 20 psec. A description of the instrument and an example of the data is given

  2. Streaked, x-ray-transmission-grating spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.; Roth, M.; Hawryluk, A.M.

    1981-08-01

    A free standing x-ray transmission grating has been coupled with a soft x-ray streak camera to produce a time resolved x-ray spectrometer. The instrument has a temporal resolution of approx. 20 psec, is capable of covering a broad spectral range, 2 to 120 A, has high sensitivity, and is simple to use requiring no complex alignment procedure. In recent laser fusion experiments the spectrometer successfully recorded time resolved spectra over the range 10 to 120 A with a spectral resolving power, lambda/Δlambda of 4 to 50, limited primarily by source size and collimation effects

  3. Approaches to diagnosis and detection of cassava brown streak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has been a problem in the East African coastal cassava growing areas for more than 70 years. The disease is caused by successful infection with Cassava Brown Streak Virus (CBSV) (Family, Potyviridae: Genus, Ipomovirus). Diagnosis of CBSD has for long been primarily leaf ...

  4. Time-resolved brightness measurements by streaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Joshua S.; Speirs, Rory W.; McCulloch, Andrew J.; Scholten, Robert E.

    2018-03-01

    Brightness is a key figure of merit for charged particle beams, and time-resolved brightness measurements can elucidate the processes involved in beam creation and manipulation. Here we report on a simple, robust, and widely applicable method for the measurement of beam brightness with temporal resolution by streaking one-dimensional pepperpots, and demonstrate the technique to characterize electron bunches produced from a cold-atom electron source. We demonstrate brightness measurements with 145 ps temporal resolution and a minimum resolvable emittance of 40 nm rad. This technique provides an efficient method of exploring source parameters and will prove useful for examining the efficacy of techniques to counter space-charge expansion, a critical hurdle to achieving single-shot imaging of atomic scale targets.

  5. Sweep time performance of optic streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhebin; Yang Dong; Zhang Huige

    2012-01-01

    The sweep time performance of the optic streak camera (OSC) is of critical importance to its application. The systematic analysis of full-screen sweep velocity shows that the traditional method based on the averaged velocity and its nonlinearity would increase the uncertainty of sweep time and can not reflect the influence of the spatial distortion of OSC. A elaborate method for sweep time has been developed with the aid of full-screen sweep velocity and its uncertainty. It is proved by the theoretical analysis and experimental study that the method would decrease the uncertainty of sweep time within 1%, which would improve the accuracy of sweep time and the reliability of OSC application. (authors)

  6. Postprocessing method to clean up streaks due to noisy detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuy, H.K.; Mattson, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that occasionally, one of the thousands of detectors in a CT scanner will intermittently produce erroneous data, creating streaks in the reconstructed image. The authors propose a method to identify and clean up the streaks automatically. To find the rays along which the data values are bad, a binary image registering the edges of the original image is created. Forward projection is applied to the binary image to single out edges along rays. Data along views containing the identified bad rays are estimated by means of forward projecting the original image. Back projection of the negative of the estimated convolved data along these views onto the streaky image will remove streaks from the image. Image enhancement is achieved by means of back projecting the convolved data estimated from the image after the streak removal along views of bad rays

  7. traits and resistance to maize streak virus disease in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 14. No. 4, pp. ... Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Muguga-South, P.O. Box 30148, Nairobi, Kenya .... streak disease has been identified in various maize recycling and development of pure-lines at.

  8. Triggered streak and framing rotating-mirror cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huston, A.E.; Tabrar, A.

    1975-01-01

    A pulse motor has been developed which enables a mirror to be rotated to speeds in excess of 20,000 rpm with 10 -4 s. High-speed cameras of both streak and framing type have been assembled which incorporate this mirror drive, giving streak writing speeds up to 2,000ms -1 , and framing speeds up to 500,000 frames s -1 , in each case with the capability of triggering the camera from the event under investigation. (author)

  9. Streak detection and analysis pipeline for optical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, J.; Granvik, M.; Torppa, J.; Muinonen, K.; Poikonen, J.; Lehti, J.; Säntti, T.; Komulainen, T.; Flohrer, T.

    2014-07-01

    We describe a novel data processing and analysis pipeline for optical observations of moving objects, either of natural (asteroids, meteors) or artificial origin (satellites, space debris). The monitoring of the space object populations requires reliable acquisition of observational data to support the development and validation of population models, and to build and maintain catalogues of orbital elements. The orbital catalogues are, in turn, needed for the assessment of close approaches (for asteroids, with the Earth; for satellites, with each other) and for the support of contingency situations or launches. For both types of populations, there is also increasing interest to detect fainter objects corresponding to the small end of the size distribution. We focus on the low signal-to-noise (SNR) detection of objects with high angular velocities, resulting in long and faint object trails, or streaks, in the optical images. The currently available, mature image processing algorithms for detection and astrometric reduction of optical data cover objects that cross the sensor field-of-view comparably slowly, and, particularly for satellites, within a rather narrow, predefined range of angular velocities. By applying specific tracking techniques, the objects appear point-like or as short trails in the exposures. However, the general survey scenario is always a 'track-before-detect' problem, resulting in streaks of arbitrary lengths. Although some considerations for low-SNR processing of streak-like features are available in the current image processing and computer vision literature, algorithms are not readily available yet. In the ESA-funded StreakDet (Streak detection and astrometric reduction) project, we develop and evaluate an automated processing pipeline applicable to single images (as compared to consecutive frames of the same field) obtained with any observing scenario, including space-based surveys and both low- and high-altitude populations. The algorithmic

  10. Orientation tuning of contrast masking caused by motion streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Deborah; Cass, John; Alais, David

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether the oriented trails of blur left by fast-moving dots (i.e., "motion streaks") effectively mask grating targets. Using a classic overlay masking paradigm, we varied mask contrast and target orientation to reveal underlying tuning. Fast-moving Gaussian blob arrays elevated thresholds for detection of static gratings, both monoptically and dichoptically. Monoptic masking at high mask (i.e., streak) contrasts is tuned for orientation and exhibits a similar bandwidth to masking functions obtained with grating stimuli (∼30 degrees). Dichoptic masking fails to show reliable orientation-tuned masking, but dichoptic masks at very low contrast produce a narrowly tuned facilitation (∼17 degrees). For iso-oriented streak masks and grating targets, we also explored masking as a function of mask contrast. Interestingly, dichoptic masking shows a classic "dipper"-like TVC function, whereas monoptic masking shows no dip and a steeper "handle". There is a very strong unoriented component to the masking, which we attribute to transiently biased temporal frequency masking. Fourier analysis of "motion streak" images shows interesting differences between dichoptic and monoptic functions and the information in the stimulus. Our data add weight to the growing body of evidence that the oriented blur of motion streaks contributes to the processing of fast motion signals.

  11. A compact large-format streak tube for imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Dandan; Luo, Duan; Tian, Liping; Lu, Yu; Chen, Ping; Wang, Junfeng; Sai, Xiaofeng; Wen, Wenlong; Wang, Xing; Xin, Liwei; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Jinshou

    2018-04-01

    The streak tubes with a large effective photocathode area, large effective phosphor screen area, and high photocathode radiant sensitivity are essential for improving the field of view, depth of field, and detectable range of the multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar. In this paper, a high spatial resolution, large photocathode area, and compact meshless streak tube with a spherically curved cathode and screen is designed and tested. Its spatial resolution reaches 20 lp/mm over the entire Φ28 mm photocathode working area, and the simulated physical temporal resolution is better than 30 ps. The temporal distortion in our large-format streak tube, which is shown to be a non-negligible factor, has a minimum value as the radius of curvature of the photocathode varies. Furthermore, the photocathode radiant sensitivity and radiant power gain reach 41 mA/W and 18.4 at the wavelength of 550 nm, respectively. Most importantly, the external dimensions of our streak tube are no more than Φ60 mm × 110 mm.

  12. Characteristics of uranium oxide cathode for neutron streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niki, H.; Itoga, K.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamanaka, C.

    1986-01-01

    In laser fusion research, time-resolved neutron measurements require 20ps resolution in order to obtain the time history of the D-T burn. Uranium oxide was expected to be a sensitive material as a cathode of a neutron streak camera because of its large fission cross section. The authors report their measurements of some characteristics of the uranium oxide cathode connected to a conventional streak tube. 14 MeV neutron signal were observed as the bright spots on a TV monitor using a focus mode opration. Detection efficiency was ∼ 1 x 10 -6 for 1 μm thick cathode. Each signal consisted of more than several tens of components, which were corresponding to the secondary electrons dragged out from the cathode by a fission fragment. Time resolution is thought to be limited mainly by the transit time spread of the secondary electrons. 14ps resolution was obtained by a streak mode operation for a single fission event

  13. A time-resolved image sensor for tubeless streak cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutomi, Keita; Han, SangMan; Seo, Min-Woong; Takasawa, Taishi; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Kawahito, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a time-resolved CMOS image sensor with draining-only modulation (DOM) pixels for tube-less streak cameras. Although the conventional streak camera has high time resolution, the device requires high voltage and bulky system due to the structure with a vacuum tube. The proposed time-resolved imager with a simple optics realize a streak camera without any vacuum tubes. The proposed image sensor has DOM pixels, a delay-based pulse generator, and a readout circuitry. The delay-based pulse generator in combination with an in-pixel logic allows us to create and to provide a short gating clock to the pixel array. A prototype time-resolved CMOS image sensor with the proposed pixel is designed and implemented using 0.11um CMOS image sensor technology. The image array has 30(Vertical) x 128(Memory length) pixels with the pixel pitch of 22.4um. .

  14. Sweep devices for picosecond image-converter streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunin, B.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.; Schelev, M.Ya.; Serduchenko, J.N.; Thebault, J.

    1979-01-01

    Four different sweep devices based on microwave tubes, avalanche transistors, krytrons, and laser-triggered spark gaps are treated in detail. These control circuits are developed for picosecond image-converter cameras and generate sweep pulses providing streak speeds in the range of 10 7 to 5x10 10 cm/sec with maximum time resolution better than 10 -12 sec. Special low-jitter triggering schemes reduce the jitter to less than 5x10 -11 sec. Some problems arising in the construction and matching of the sweep devices and image-streak tube are discussed. Comparative parameters of nanosecond switching elements are presented. The results described can be used by other authors involved in streak camera development

  15. Streak artifacts on Kidney CT: Ionic vs nonionic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Ok; Kim, Won Hong; Jung, Myung Suk; Kim, Yong Hoon; Hur, Gham

    1993-01-01

    The authors reviewed findings of enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans to know the difference between a higher dose of conventional ionic contrast media(iothalamate meglumine) and a lower dose of a new, nonionic contrast material(ioversol). One hundred adult patients were divided into two groups. Each group consisted of 50 patients. Iothalamate meglumine and ioversol were intravenously administered in each group. The radio of the male to female in the former was 28:22, and the latter 29:21. We examine the degree of renal streak artifact and measure the Hounsfield number of urine in renal collecting system. There were significant differences of the degree of the streak artifact depending upon the osmolality of contrast media used and that was related with urine CT number(P value<0.005). We authors conclude that nonionic low osmolar contrast media is prone to cause streak artifacts and distortions of renal image than conventional ionic high osmolar contrast media

  16. Picosecond X-ray streak camera dynamic range measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail: celine.zuber@cea.fr; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Gontier, D.; Raimbourg, J.; Rubbelynck, C.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J.-P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)

    2016-09-15

    Streak cameras are widely used to record the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-induced plasma. A prototype of picosecond X-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to answer the Laser MegaJoule specific needs. The dynamic range of this instrument is measured with picosecond X-ray pulses generated by the interaction of a laser beam and a copper target. The required value of 100 is reached only in the configurations combining the slowest sweeping speed and optimization of the streak tube electron throughput by an appropriate choice of high voltages applied to its electrodes.

  17. Design of neutron streak camera for fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.; Kalibjian, R.; Singh, M.S.

    1982-06-01

    The D-T burn time for advanced laser-fusion targets is calculated to be very short, 2 . Each fission fragment leaving the cathode generates 400 secondary electrons that are all < 20 eV. These electrons are focussed to a point with an extractor and an anode, and are then purified with an electrostatic deflector. The electron beam is streaked and detected with the standard streak camera techniques. Careful shielding is needed for x-rays from the fusion target and general background. It appears that the neutron streak camera can be a viable and unique tool for studying temporal history of fusion burns in D-T plasmas of a few keV ion temperature

  18. Streak camera imaging of single photons at telecom wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Markus; Ansari, Vahid; Eigner, Christof; Quiring, Viktor; Ricken, Raimund; Donohue, John Matthew; Czerniuk, Thomas; Aßmann, Marc; Bayer, Manfred; Brecht, Benjamin; Silberhorn, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Streak cameras are powerful tools for temporal characterization of ultrafast light pulses, even at the single-photon level. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio in the infrared range prevents measurements on weak light sources in the telecom regime. We present an approach to circumvent this problem, utilizing an up-conversion process in periodically poled waveguides in Lithium Niobate. We convert single photons from a parametric down-conversion source in order to reach the point of maximum detection efficiency of commercially available streak cameras. We explore phase-matching configurations to apply the up-conversion scheme in real-world applications.

  19. MR imaging of medullary streaks in osteosclerosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Soo; Joo, Kyung Bin; Park, Tae Soo; Song, Ho Taek; Kim, Yong Soo; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki

    2000-01-01

    We present a case of medullary sclerosis of the appendicular skeleton in a patient with chronic renal insufficiency for whom MR imaging findings were characteristic. T1- and T2-weighted MR images showed multiple vertical lines (medullary streaks) of low signal intensity in the metaphyses and diaphyses of the distal femur and proximal tibia

  20. Cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites and pigment accumulation. ... Total reducing sugar and starch content also dropped significantly (-30 and -60%, respectively), much as NASE 14 maintained a relatively higher amount of carbohydrates. Leaf protein levels were significantly reduced at a rate of 0.07 ...

  1. Soft x-ray streak camera for laser fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1981-04-01

    This thesis reviews the development and significance of the soft x-ray streak camera (SXRSC) in the context of inertial confinement fusion energy development. A brief introduction of laser fusion and laser fusion diagnostics is presented. The need for a soft x-ray streak camera as a laser fusion diagnostic is shown. Basic x-ray streak camera characteristics, design, and operation are reviewed. The SXRSC design criteria, the requirement for a subkilovolt x-ray transmitting window, and the resulting camera design are explained. Theory and design of reflector-filter pair combinations for three subkilovolt channels centered at 220 eV, 460 eV, and 620 eV are also presented. Calibration experiments are explained and data showing a dynamic range of 1000 and a sweep speed of 134 psec/mm are presented. Sensitivity modifications to the soft x-ray streak camera for a high-power target shot are described. A preliminary investigation, using a stepped cathode, of the thickness dependence of the gold photocathode response is discussed. Data from a typical Argus laser gold-disk target experiment are shown

  2. Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 6. 2DE gel images ... Number of acidic streaks. Fedyunin et al. 2012. 4.02. 6. Zuo et al. 2000. 2.54. 9. Valenete et ... CE, 3rd 2009 Proteasomal protein degradation in ... Nandakumar MP, Shen J, Raman B and Marten MR.

  3. Improved approach to characterizing and presenting streak camera performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedwald, J.D.; Jones, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of a streak camera recording system is strongly linked to the technique used to amplify, detect and quantify the streaked image. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) streak camera images have been recorded both on film and by fiber-optically coupling to charge-coupled devices (CCD's). During the development of a new process for recording these images (lens coupling the image onto a cooled CCD) the definitions of important performance characteristics such as resolution and dynamic range were re-examined. As a result of this development, these performance characteristics are now presented to the streak camera user in a more useful format than in the past. This paper describes how these techniques are used within the Laser Fusion Program at LLNL. The system resolution is presented as a modulation transfer function, including the seldom reported effects that flare and light scattering have at low spatial frequencies. Data are presented such that a user can adjust image intensifier gain and pixel averaging to optimize the useful dynamic range in any particular application

  4. Laparoscopic Removal of Streak Gonads in Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelberger, Adrienne; Mathews, Shyama; Andikyan, Vaagn; Chuang, Linus

    To demonstrate the skills necessary for complete resection of bilateral streak gonads in Turner syndrome. Video case presentation with narration highlighting the key techniques used. The video was deemed exempt from formal review by our institutional review board. Turner syndrome is a form of gonadal dysgenesis that affects 1 in 2500 live births. Patients often have streak gonads and may present with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian failure. Patients with a mosaic karyotype that includes a Y chromosome are at increased risk for gonadoblastoma and subsequent transformation into malignancy. Gonadectomy is recommended for these patients, typically at adolescence. Streak gonads can be difficult to identify, and tissue margins are often in close proximity to critical retroperitoneal structures. Resection can be technically challenging and requires a thorough understanding of retroperitoneal anatomy and precise dissection techniques to ensure complete removal. Laparoscopic approach to bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy of streak gonads. Retroperitoneal dissection and ureterolysis are performed, with the aid of the Ethicon Harmonic Ace, to ensure complete gonadectomy. Careful and complete resection of gonadal tissue in the hands of a skilled laparoscopic surgeon is key for effective cancer risk reduction surgery in Turner syndrome mosaics. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Significance and transmission of maize streak virus disease in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... soil nutrients, altitude and temperature on the biology of maize streak virus (MSV) / vector populations is discussed. ... status of maize host plants and its effects on population dynamics of Cicadulina mbila Naudé. (Homoptera: ..... time necessary for the leafhopper to reach the mesophyll of the leaf and ingest ...

  6. Reliable and repeatable characterization of optical streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charest, Michael R. Jr.; Torres, Peter III; Silbernagel, Christopher T.; Kalantar, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information.

  7. Reliable and Repeatable Characterization of Optical Streak Cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D; Charest, M; Torres III, P; Charest, M

    2008-01-01

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information

  8. Reliable and Repeatable Characterization of Optical Streak Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Charest Jr., Peter Torres III, Christopher Silbernagel, and Daniel Kalantar

    2008-10-31

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information.

  9. Reliable and Repeatable Characterication of Optical Streak Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalantar, D; Charest, M; Torres III, P; Charest, M

    2008-05-06

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information.

  10. The Association between Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Plasma Omega-3 to Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Ratio to Cognitive Impairment Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Suwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has a potential for predicting cognitive impairment. Serum polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels are important for evaluating the extent of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether abnormal PUFA levels affected WMH grading and cognitive function in patients without significant cognitive impairment. Methods. Atherosclerotic risk factors, the internal carotid artery (ICA plaque, and serum ratios of eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acids (EPA/AA and docosahexaenoic to arachidonic acids (DHA/AA were assessed in 286 patients. The relationship among these risk factors, WMH, and cognitive function was evaluated using WMH grading and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results. The development of WMH was associated with aging, hypertension, ICA plaques, and a low serum EPA/AA ratio (<0.38, obtained as the median value but was not related to dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and a low serum DHA/AA ratio (<0.84, obtained as the median value. In addition, the MMSE score deteriorated slightly with the progression of WMH (29.7 ± 1.0 compared to 28.4 ± 2.1, P<0.0001. Conclusions. The progression of WMH was associated with a low serum EPA/AA ratio and accompanied minimal deterioration in cognitive function. Sufficient omega-3 PUFA intake may be effective in preventing the development of cognitive impairment.

  11. rf streak camera based ultrafast relativistic electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, P; Moody, J T; Scoby, C M; Gutierrez, M S; Tran, T

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate the possibility of using a rf streak camera to time resolve in a single shot structural changes at the sub-100 fs time scale via relativistic electron diffraction. We experimentally tested this novel concept at the UCLA Pegasus rf photoinjector. Time-resolved diffraction patterns from thin Al foil are recorded. Averaging over 50 shots is required in order to get statistics sufficient to uncover a variation in time of the diffraction patterns. In the absence of an external pump laser, this is explained as due to the energy chirp on the beam out of the electron gun. With further improvements to the electron source, rf streak camera based ultrafast electron diffraction has the potential to yield truly single shot measurements of ultrafast processes.

  12. Electron streaking in the autoionization region of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Alicia; González-Castrillo, Alberto; Martín, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We use a UV-pump/IR-probe scheme, combining a single attosecond UV pulse and a 750 nm IR pulse, to explore laser-assisted photoionization of the hydrogen molecule in the autoionization region. The electron energy distributions exhibit unusual streaking patterns that are explored for different angles of the electron ejection with respect to the polarization vector and the molecular axis. Moreover, by controlling the time delay between the pulses, we observe that one can suppress the autoionization channel. (paper)

  13. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M. J.; Upadhyay, J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  14. Electro-optical design of a long slit streak tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liping; Tian, Jinshou; Wen, Wenlong; Chen, Ping; Wang, Xing; Hui, Dandan; Wang, Junfeng

    2017-11-01

    A small size and long slit streak tube with high spatial resolution was designed and optimized. Curved photocathode and screen were adopted to increase the photocathode working area and spatial resolution. High physical temporal resolution obtained by using a slit accelerating electrode. Deflection sensitivity of the streak tube was improved by adopting two-folded deflection plates. The simulations indicate that the photocathode effective working area can reach 30mm × 5mm. The static spatial resolution is higher than 40lp/mm and 12lp/mm along scanning and slit directions respectively while the physical temporal resolution is higher than 60ps. The magnification is 0.75 and 0.77 in scanning and slit directions. And also, the deflection sensitivity is as high as 37mm/kV. The external dimension of the streak tube are only ∅74mm×231mm. Thus, it can be applied to laser imaging radar system for large field of view and high range precision detection.

  15. Slope streaks on Mars: A new “wet” mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    2009-06-01

    Slope steaks are one of the most intriguing modern phenomena observed on Mars. They have been mostly interpreted as some specific type of granular flow. We propose another mechanism for slope streak formation on Mars. It involves natural seasonal formation of a modest amount of highly concentrated chloride brines within a seasonal thermal skin, and runaway propagation of percolation fronts. Given the current state of knowledge of temperature regimes and the composition and structure of the surface layer in the slope streak regions, this mechanism is consistent with the observational constraints; it requires an assumption that a significant part of the observed chlorine to be in form of calcium and ferric chloride, and a small part of the observed hydrogen to be in form of water ice. This "wet" mechanism has a number of appealing advantages in comparison to the widely accepted "dry" granular flow mechanism. Potential tests for the "wet" mechanism include better modeling of the temperature regime and observations of the seasonality of streak formation.

  16. Reliable and Repeatable Characterization of Optical Streak Cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael R. Charest, Peter Torres III, Christopher Silbernagel

    2008-01-01

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser performance verification experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electronic components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases the characterization data is used to 'correct' data images, to remove some of the nonlinearities. In order to obtain these camera characterizations, a specific data set is collected where the response to specific known inputs is recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, temporal resolution, etc., from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information

  17. A novel simultaneous streak and framing camera without principle errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingzhen, L.; Fengshan, S.; Ningwen, L.; Xiangdong, G.; Bin, H.; Qingyang, W.; Hongyi, C.; Yi, C.; Xiaowei, L.

    2018-02-01

    A novel simultaneous streak and framing camera with continuous access, the perfect information of which is far more important for the exact interpretation and precise evaluation of many detonation events and shockwave phenomena, has been developed. The camera with the maximum imaging frequency of 2 × 106 fps and the maximum scanning velocity of 16.3 mm/μs has fine imaging properties which are the eigen resolution of over 40 lp/mm in the temporal direction and over 60 lp/mm in the spatial direction and the framing frequency principle error of zero for framing record, and the maximum time resolving power of 8 ns and the scanning velocity nonuniformity of 0.136%~-0.277% for streak record. The test data have verified the performance of the camera quantitatively. This camera, simultaneously gained frames and streak with parallax-free and identical time base, is characterized by the plane optical system at oblique incidence different from space system, the innovative camera obscura without principle errors, and the high velocity motor driven beryllium-like rotating mirror, made of high strength aluminum alloy with cellular lateral structure. Experiments demonstrate that the camera is very useful and reliable to take high quality pictures of the detonation events.

  18. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M J; Upadhyay, J; Deshpande, P P; Sharma, M L; Navathe, C P

    2010-08-01

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  19. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, M. J.; Upadhyay, J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P. [Laser Electronics Support Division, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India)

    2010-08-15

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  20. Transition due to streamwise streaks in a supersonic flat plate boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2016-12-01

    Transition induced by stationary streaks undergoing transient growth in a supersonic flat plate boundary layer flow is studied using numerical computations. While the possibility of strong transient growth of small-amplitude stationary perturbations in supersonic boundary layer flows has been demonstrated in previous works, its relation to laminar-turbulent transition cannot be established within the framework of linear disturbances. Therefore, this paper investigates the nonlinear evolution of initially linear optimal disturbances that evolve into finite amplitude streaks in the downstream region, and then studies the modal instability of those streaks as a likely cause for the onset of bypass transition. The nonmodal evolution of linearly optimal stationary perturbations in a supersonic, Mach 3 flat plate boundary layer is computed via the nonlinear plane-marching parabolized stability equations (PSE) for stationary perturbations, or equivalently, the perturbation form of parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. To assess the effect of the nonlinear finite-amplitude streaks on transition, the linear form of plane-marching PSE is used to investigate the instability of the boundary layer flow modified by the spanwise periodic streaks. The onset of transition is estimated using an N -factor criterion based on modal amplification of the secondary instabilities of the streaks. In the absence of transient growth disturbances, first mode instabilities in a Mach 3, zero pressure gradient boundary layer reach N =10 at Rex≈107 . However, secondary instability modes of the stationary streaks undergoing transient growth are able to achieve the same N -factor at Rex<2 ×106 when the initial streak amplitude is sufficiently large. In contrast to the streak instabilities in incompressible flows, subharmonic instability modes with twice the fundamental spanwise wavelength of the streaks are found to have higher amplification ratios than the streak instabilities at fundamental

  1. Intellectual streaking: The value of teachers exposing minds (and hearts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Margaret; Molloy, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    As teachers we often ask learners to be vulnerable and yet present ourselves as high status, knowledgeable experts, often with pre-prepared scripts. This paper investigates the metaphoric notion of "intellectual streaking" - the nimble exposure of a teacher's thought processes, dilemmas, or failures - as a way of modeling both reflection-in-action and resilience. While there is a tension between credibility and vulnerability, both of which are necessary for trust, we argue that taking a few risks and revealing deficits in knowledge or performance can be illuminating and valuable for all parties.

  2. Angioid streaks in a case of Camurati–Engelmann disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Tugcu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Camurati–Engelmann disease (CED is a rare autosomal dominant disease with various phenotypic expressions. The hallmark of the disease is bilateral symmetric diaphyseal hyperostosis of the long bones with progressive involvement of the metaphysis. Ocular manifestations occur rarely and mainly result from bony overgrowth of the orbit and optic canal stenosis. We report a case of CED showing angioid streaks (ASs in both fundi with no macular involvement and discuss the possible theories of the pathogenesis of AS in this disease.

  3. Mechanism for propagation of the step leader of streak lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, A.I.; Zolotovskil, V.I.; Ivanovskil, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    A hypothetical scheme for the development of the step leader of streak lightning is discussed. The mathematical problem of modeling the propagation of the leader in this scheme is stated. The main parameters of the leader are estimated: the length and propagation velocity of the step, the average propagation velocity, etc. This is compared with data from observations in nature. The propagation of the leader is simulated numerically. Results of the calculation are presented for two 'flashes' of the step leader. 25 refs., 6 figs

  4. Automated computer analysis of plasma-streak traces from SCYLLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, R.L.; Jahoda, F.C.; Kruger, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    An automated computer analysis technique that locates and references the approximate centroid of single- or dual-streak traces from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory SCYLLAC facility is described. The technique also determines the plasma-trace width over a limited self-adjusting region. The plasma traces are recorded with streak cameras on Polaroid film, then scanned and digitized for processing. The analysis technique uses scene segmentation to separate the plasma trace from a reference fiducial trace. The technique employs two methods of peak detection; one for the plasma trace and one for the fiducial trace. The width is obtained using an edge-detection, or slope, method. Timing data are derived from the intensity modulation of the fiducial trace. To smooth (despike) the output graphs showing the plasma-trace centroid and width, a technique of ''twicing'' developed by Tukey was employed. In addition, an interactive sorting algorithm allows retrieval of the centroid, width, and fiducial data from any test shot plasma for post analysis. As yet, only a limited set of sixteen plasma traces has been processed using this technique

  5. Microprocessor-controlled wide-range streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy E.; Hollabaugh, Craig

    2006-08-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  6. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amy E. Lewis; Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-01-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized

  7. Automated computer analysis of plasma-streak traces from SCYLLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteman, R.L.; Jahoda, F.C.; Kruger, R.P.

    1977-11-01

    An automated computer analysis technique that locates and references the approximate centroid of single- or dual-streak traces from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory SCYLLAC facility is described. The technique also determines the plasma-trace width over a limited self-adjusting region. The plasma traces are recorded with streak cameras on Polaroid film, then scanned and digitized for processing. The analysis technique uses scene segmentation to separate the plasma trace from a reference fiducial trace. The technique employs two methods of peak detection; one for the plasma trace and one for the fiducial trace. The width is obtained using an edge-detection, or slope, method. Timing data are derived from the intensity modulation of the fiducial trace. To smooth (despike) the output graphs showing the plasma-trace centroid and width, a technique of ''twicing'' developed by Tukey was employed. In addition, an interactive sorting algorithm allows retrieval of the centroid, width, and fiducial data from any test shot plasma for post analysis. As yet, only a limited set of the plasma traces has been processed with this technique

  8. STREAK CAMERA MEASUREMENTS OF THE APS PC GUN DRIVE LASER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooling, J. C.; Lumpkin, A. H.

    2017-06-25

    We report recent pulse-duration measurements of the APS PC Gun drive laser at both second harmonic and fourth harmonic wavelengths. The drive laser is a Nd:Glass-based chirped pulsed amplifier (CPA) operating at an IR wavelength of 1053 nm, twice frequency-doubled to obtain UV output for the gun. A Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera and an M5675 synchroscan unit are used for these measurements; the synchroscan unit is tuned to 119 MHz, the 24th subharmonic of the linac s-band operating frequency. Calibration is accomplished both electronically and optically. Electronic calibration utilizes a programmable delay line in the 119 MHz rf path. The optical delay uses an etalon with known spacing between reflecting surfaces and is coated for the visible, SH wavelength. IR pulse duration is monitored with an autocorrelator. Fitting the streak camera image projected profiles with Gaussians, UV rms pulse durations are found to vary from 2.1 ps to 3.5 ps as the IR varies from 2.2 ps to 5.2 ps.

  9. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy E. Lewis, Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-09-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera’s user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  10. Relationships between early spring wheat streak mosaic severity levels and grain yield: Implications for management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) caused by Wheat streak mosaic virus, which is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella), is a major yield-limiting disease in the Texas High Plains. In addition to its impact on grain production, the disease reduces water-use efficiency by affecting root develo...

  11. Characterization of X-ray streak cameras for use on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D.H.; Bell, P.M.; Costa, R.L.; Hammel, B.A.; Landen, O.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Hares, J.D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A.K.L.

    1996-09-01

    There are many different types of measurements that require a continuous time history of x-ray emission that can be provided with an x-ray streak camera. In order to properly analyze the images that are recorded with the x-ray streak cameras operated on Nova, it is important to account for the streak characterization of each camera. We have performed a number of calibrations of the streak cameras both on the bench as well as with Nova disk target shots where we use a time modulated laser intensity profile (self-beating of the laser) on the target to generate an x-ray comb. We have measured the streak camera sweep direction and spatial offset, curvature of the electron optics, sweep rate, and magnification and resolution of the electron optics

  12. Betting Decision Under Break-Streak Pattern: Evidence from Casino Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Lawrence Hoc Nang; So, Amy Siu Ian; Law, Rob

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive bias is prevalent among gamblers, especially those with gambling problems. Grounded in the heuristics theories, this study contributes to the literature by examining a cognitive bias triggered by the break streak pattern in the casino setting. We postulate that gamblers tend to bet on the latest outcome when there is a break-streak pattern. Moreover, three determinants of the betting decision under break-streak pattern, including the streak length of the alternative outcome, the frequency of the latest outcome, and gender, were identified and examined in this study. A non-participatory observational study was conducted among the Cussec gamblers in a casino in Macao. An analysis of 1229 bets confirms our postulation, particularly when the streak of the alternative outcome is long, the latest outcome is frequent, and the gamblers are females. The findings provide meaningful implications for casino management and public policymakers regarding the minimization of gambling harm.

  13. Fabry-Perot interferometry using an image-intensified rotating-mirror streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, W.L.; Stacy, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    A Fabry-Perot velocity interferometer system is described that uses a modified rotating mirror streak camera to recrod the dynamic fringe positions. A Los Alamos Model 72B rotating-mirror streak camera, equipped with a beryllium mirror, was modified to include a high aperture (f/2.5) relay lens and a 40-mm image-intensifier tube such that the image normally formed at the film plane of the streak camera is projected onto the intensifier tube. Fringe records for thin (0.13 mm) flyers driven by a small bridgewire detonator obtained with a Model C1155-01 Hamamatsu and Model 790 Imacon electronic streak cameras are compared with those obtained with the image-intensified rotating-mirror streak camera (I 2 RMC). Resolution comparisons indicate that the I 2 RMC gives better time resolution than either the Hamamatsu or the Imacon for total writing times of a few microseconds or longer

  14. Diving-related visual loss in the setting of angioid streaks: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo Bocco, Maria I; Spielberg, Leigh; Coppens, Greet; Catherine, Janet; Verougstraete, Claire; Leys, Anita M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report diving-related visual loss in the setting of angioid streaks. Observational case reports of two patients with angioid streaks suffering sudden visual loss immediately after diving. Two young adult male patients presented with visual loss after diving headfirst. Funduscopy revealed angioid streaks, peau d'orange, subretinal hemorrhages, and ruptures of Bruch membrane. Choroidal neovascularization developed during follow-up. Both patients had an otherwise uneventful personal and familial medical history. In patients with angioid streaks, diving headfirst can lead to subretinal hemorrhages and traumatic ruptures in Bruch membrane and increase the risk of maculopathy. Ophthalmologists should caution patients with angioid streaks against diving headfirst.

  15. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-mu ZHANG; Hua-di WANG; Jian YANG; Michael J ADAMS; Jian-ping CHEN

    2013-01-01

    The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV). Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurren...

  16. Major QTL Conferring Resistance to Rice Bacterial Leaf Streak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) is one of the important limiting factors to rice production in southern China and other tropical and sub-tropical areas in Asia. Resistance to BLS was found to be a quantitative trait and no major resistant gene was located in rice until date. In the present study, a new major quantitative trait locus (QTL) conferring resistance to BLS was identified from a highly resistant variety Dular by the employment of Dular/Balilla (DB) and Dular/IR24 (DI) segregation populations and was designated qBLSR-11-1. This QTL was located between the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers RM120 and RM441 on chromosome 11 and could account for 18.1-21.7% and 36.3% of the variance in DB and DI populations, respectively. The genetic pattern of rice resistance to BLS was discussed.

  17. StreakDet data processing and analysis pipeline for space debris optical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jenni; Flohrer, Tim; Muinonen, Karri; Granvik, Mikael; Torppa, Johanna; Poikonen, Jonne; Lehti, Jussi; Santti, Tero; Komulainen, Tuomo; Naranen, Jyri

    We describe a novel data processing and analysis pipeline for optical observations of space debris. The monitoring of space object populations requires reliable acquisition of observational data, to support the development and validation of space debris environment models, the build-up and maintenance of a catalogue of orbital elements. In addition, data is needed for the assessment of conjunction events and for the support of contingency situations or launches. The currently available, mature image processing algorithms for detection and astrometric reduction of optical data cover objects that cross the sensor field-of-view comparably slowly, and within a rather narrow, predefined range of angular velocities. By applying specific tracking techniques, the objects appear point-like or as short trails in the exposures. However, the general survey scenario is always a “track before detect” problem, resulting in streaks, i.e., object trails of arbitrary lengths, in the images. The scope of the ESA-funded StreakDet (Streak detection and astrometric reduction) project is to investigate solutions for detecting and reducing streaks from optical images, particularly in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) domain, where algorithms are not readily available yet. For long streaks, the challenge is to extract precise position information and related registered epochs with sufficient precision. Although some considerations for low-SNR processing of streak-like features are available in the current image processing and computer vision literature, there is a need to discuss and compare these approaches for space debris analysis, in order to develop and evaluate prototype implementations. In the StreakDet project, we develop algorithms applicable to single images (as compared to consecutive frames of the same field) obtained with any observing scenario, including space-based surveys and both low- and high-altitude populations. The proposed processing pipeline starts from the

  18. Flat-field response and geometric distortion measurements of optical streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.S.; Drake, R.P.; Jones, B.A.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1987-08-01

    To accurately measure pulse amplitude, shape, and relative time histories of optical signals with an optical streak camera, it is necessary to correct each recorded image for spatially-dependent gain nonuniformity and geometric distortion. Gain nonuniformities arise from sensitivity variations in the streak-tube photocathode, phosphor screen, image-intensifier tube, and image recording system. These nonuniformities may be severe, and have been observed to be on the order of 100% for some LLNL optical streak cameras. Geometric distortion due to optical couplings, electron-optics, and sweep nonlinearity not only affects pulse position and timing measurements, but affects pulse amplitude and shape measurements as well. By using a 1.053-μm, long-pulse, high-power laser to generate a spatially and temporally uniform source as input to the streak camera, the combined effects of flat-field response and geometric distortion can be measured under the normal dynamic operation of cameras with S-1 photocathodes. Additionally, by using the same laser system to generate a train of short pulses that can be spatially modulated at the input of the streak camera, we can effectively create a two-dimensional grid of equally-spaced pulses. This allows a dynamic measurement of the geometric distortion of the streak camera. We will discuss the techniques involved in performing these calibrations, will present some of the measured results for LLNL optical streak cameras, and will discuss software methods to correct for these effects. 6 refs., 6 figs

  19. Earth aeolian wind streaks: Comparison to wind data from model and stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zada, A. L.; Maman, S.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2017-05-01

    Wind streak is a collective term for a variety of aeolian features that display distinctive albedo surface patterns. Wind streaks have been used to map near-surface winds and to estimate atmospheric circulation patterns on Mars and Venus. However, because wind streaks have been studied mostly on Mars and Venus, much of the knowledge regarding the mechanism and time frame of their formation and their relationship to the atmospheric circulation cannot be verified. This study aims to validate previous studies' results by a comparison of real and modeled wind data with wind streak orientations as measured from remote-sensing images. Orientations of Earth wind streaks were statistically correlated to resultant drift direction (RDD) values calculated from reanalysis and wind data from 621 weather stations. The results showed good agreement between wind streak orientations and reanalysis RDD (r = 0.78). A moderate correlation was found between the wind streak orientations and the weather station data (r = 0.47); a similar trend was revealed on a regional scale when the analysis was performed by continent, with r ranging from 0.641 in North America to 0.922 in Antarctica. At sites where wind streak orientations did not correspond to the RDDs (i.e., a difference of 45°), seasonal and diurnal variations in the wind flow were found to be responsible for deviation from the global pattern. The study thus confirms that Earth wind streaks were formed by the present wind regime and they are indeed indicative of the long-term prevailing wind direction on global and regional scales.

  20. Stabilization of the hypersonic boundary layer by finite-amplitude streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Fu, Song; Hanifi, Ardeshir

    2016-02-01

    Stabilization of two-dimensional disturbances in hypersonic boundary layer flows by finite-amplitude streaks is investigated using nonlinear parabolized stability equations. The boundary-layer flows at Mach numbers 4.5 and 6.0 are studied in which both first and second modes are supported. The streaks considered here are driven either by the so-called optimal perturbations (Klebanoff-type) or the centrifugal instability (Görtler-type). When the streak amplitude is in an appropriate range, i.e., large enough to modulate the laminar boundary layer but low enough to not trigger secondary instability, both first and second modes can effectively be suppressed.

  1. Improvements in Off-Center Focusing in an X-ray Streak Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J W; Weber, F; Holder, J P; Bell, P M

    2003-01-01

    Due to the planar construction of present x-ray streak tubes significant off-center defocusing is observed in both static and dynamic images taken with one-dimensional resolution slits. Based on the streak tube geometry curved photocathodes with radii of curvature ranging from 3.5 to 18 inches have been fabricated. We report initial off-center focusing performance data on the evaluation of these ''improved'' photocathodes in an X-ray streak camera and an update on the theoretical simulations to predict the optimum cathode curvature

  2. Computed tomographic demonstration of rapid changes in fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashist, B.; Hecht, H.L.; Harely, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    Two alcoholic patients in whom computed tomography (CT) demonstrated reversal of fatty infiltration of the liver are described. The rapid reversibility of fatty infiltration can be useful in monitoring alcoholics with fatty livers. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat scans can be utilized to assess changes in CT attenuation values when this condition is suspected

  3. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Sseruwagi, Peter; Tairo, Fred; Stomeo, Francesca; Maina, Solomon; Djinkeng, Appolinaire; Kehoe, Monica; Boykin, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa’s most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production. PMID:26439260

  4. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ndunguru

    Full Text Available Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa's most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production.

  5. Structured photocathodes for improved high-energy x-ray efficiency in streak cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opachich, Y. P., E-mail: opachiyp@nv.doe.gov; Huffman, E.; Koch, J. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Hatch, B.; Landen, O. L.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Chen, N.; Gopal, A.; Udin, S. [Nanoshift LLC, Emeryville, California 94608 (United States); Feng, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We have designed and fabricated a structured streak camera photocathode to provide enhanced efficiency for high energy X-rays (1–12 keV). This gold coated photocathode was tested in a streak camera and compared side by side against a conventional flat thin film photocathode. Results show that the measured electron yield enhancement at energies ranging from 1 to 10 keV scales well with predictions, and that the total enhancement can be more than 3×. The spatial resolution of the streak camera does not show degradation in the structured region. We predict that the temporal resolution of the detector will also not be affected as it is currently dominated by the slit width. This demonstration with Au motivates exploration of comparable enhancements with CsI and may revolutionize X-ray streak camera photocathode design.

  6. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to maize streak virus disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... development ... Biotechnology Center, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 58711-00200, Nairobi, ... Maize streak virus disease is an important disease of maize in Kenya.

  7. Laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera for the temporal characterization of ultrashort processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, Bernd

    2011-09-01

    In this work, a novel laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera is presented. It allows for a pulse length characterization of femtosecond (fs) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses by a cross-correlation with terahertz (THz) pulses generated with a Ti:sapphire laser. The XUV pulses are emitted by a source of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in which an intense near-infrared (NIR) fs laser pulse is focused into a gaseous medium. The design and characterization of a high-intensity THz source needed for the streak camera is also part of this thesis. The source is based on optical rectification of the same NIR laser pulse in a lithium niobate crystal. For this purpose, the pulse front of the NIR beam is tilted via a diffraction grating to achieve velocity matching between NIR and THz beams within the crystal. For the temporal characterization of the XUV pulses, both HHG and THz beams are focused onto a gas target. The harmonic radiation creates photoelectron wavepackets which are then accelerated by the THz field depending on its phase at the time of ionization. This principle adopted from a conventional streak camera and now widely used in attosecond metrology. The streak camera presented here is an advancement of a terahertz-field-driven streak camera implemented at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). The advantages of the laser-based streak camera lie in its compactness, cost efficiency and accessibility, while providing the same good quality of measurements as obtained at FLASH. In addition, its flexibility allows for a systematic investigation of streaked Auger spectra which is presented in this thesis. With its fs time resolution, the terahertz-field-driven streak camera thereby bridges the gap between attosecond and conventional cameras. (orig.)

  8. Laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera for the temporal characterization of ultrashort processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, Bernd

    2011-09-15

    In this work, a novel laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera is presented. It allows for a pulse length characterization of femtosecond (fs) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses by a cross-correlation with terahertz (THz) pulses generated with a Ti:sapphire laser. The XUV pulses are emitted by a source of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in which an intense near-infrared (NIR) fs laser pulse is focused into a gaseous medium. The design and characterization of a high-intensity THz source needed for the streak camera is also part of this thesis. The source is based on optical rectification of the same NIR laser pulse in a lithium niobate crystal. For this purpose, the pulse front of the NIR beam is tilted via a diffraction grating to achieve velocity matching between NIR and THz beams within the crystal. For the temporal characterization of the XUV pulses, both HHG and THz beams are focused onto a gas target. The harmonic radiation creates photoelectron wavepackets which are then accelerated by the THz field depending on its phase at the time of ionization. This principle adopted from a conventional streak camera and now widely used in attosecond metrology. The streak camera presented here is an advancement of a terahertz-field-driven streak camera implemented at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). The advantages of the laser-based streak camera lie in its compactness, cost efficiency and accessibility, while providing the same good quality of measurements as obtained at FLASH. In addition, its flexibility allows for a systematic investigation of streaked Auger spectra which is presented in this thesis. With its fs time resolution, the terahertz-field-driven streak camera thereby bridges the gap between attosecond and conventional cameras. (orig.)

  9. Streak detection and analysis pipeline for space-debris optical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jenni; Poikonen, Jonne; Säntti, Tero; Komulainen, Tuomo; Torppa, Johanna; Granvik, Mikael; Muinonen, Karri; Pentikäinen, Hanna; Martikainen, Julia; Näränen, Jyri; Lehti, Jussi; Flohrer, Tim

    2016-04-01

    We describe a novel data-processing and analysis pipeline for optical observations of moving objects, either of natural (asteroids, meteors) or artificial origin (satellites, space debris). The monitoring of the space object populations requires reliable acquisition of observational data, to support the development and validation of population models and to build and maintain catalogues of orbital elements. The orbital catalogues are, in turn, needed for the assessment of close approaches (for asteroids, with the Earth; for satellites, with each other) and for the support of contingency situations or launches. For both types of populations, there is also increasing interest to detect fainter objects corresponding to the small end of the size distribution. The ESA-funded StreakDet (streak detection and astrometric reduction) activity has aimed at formulating and discussing suitable approaches for the detection and astrometric reduction of object trails, or streaks, in optical observations. Our two main focuses are objects in lower altitudes and space-based observations (i.e., high angular velocities), resulting in long (potentially curved) and faint streaks in the optical images. In particular, we concentrate on single-image (as compared to consecutive frames of the same field) and low-SNR detection of objects. Particular attention has been paid to the process of extraction of all necessary information from one image (segmentation), and subsequently, to efficient reduction of the extracted data (classification). We have developed an automated streak detection and processing pipeline and demonstrated its performance with an extensive database of semisynthetic images simulating streak observations both from ground-based and space-based observing platforms. The average processing time per image is about 13 s for a typical 2k-by-2k image. For long streaks (length >100 pixels), primary targets of the pipeline, the detection sensitivity (true positives) is about 90% for

  10. Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2013-06-12

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian banana plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in banana fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots.

  11. Spatiotemporal mechanical variation reveals critical role for rho kinase during primitive streak morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkels, Julia; Oh, Jaeho; Xu, Wenwei; Owen, Drew; Sulchek, Todd; Zamir, Evan

    2013-02-01

    Large-scale morphogenetic movements during early embryo development are driven by complex changes in biochemical and biophysical factors. Current models for amniote primitive streak morphogenesis and gastrulation take into account numerous genetic pathways but largely ignore the role of mechanical forces. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to obtain for the first time precise biomechanical properties of the early avian embryo. Our data reveal that the primitive streak is significantly stiffer than neighboring regions of the epiblast, and that it is stiffer than the pre-primitive streak epiblast. To test our hypothesis that these changes in mechanical properties are due to a localized increase of actomyosin contractility, we inhibited actomyosin contractility via the Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway using the small-molecule inhibitor Y-27632. Our results using several different assays show the following: (1) primitive streak formation was blocked; (2) the time-dependent increase in primitive streak stiffness was abolished; and (3) convergence of epiblast cells to the midline was inhibited. Taken together, our data suggest that actomyosin contractility is necessary for primitive streak morphogenesis, and specifically, ROCK plays a critical role. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of this fundamental process, future models should account for the findings presented in this study.

  12. Characterization results from several commercial soft X-ray streak cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradling, G. L.; Studebaker, J. K.; Cavailler, C.; Launspach, J.; Planes, J.

    The spatio-temporal performance of four soft X-ray streak cameras has been characterized. The objective in evaluating the performance capability of these instruments is to enable us to optimize experiment designs, to encourage quantitative analysis of streak data and to educate the ultra high speed photography and photonics community about the X-ray detector performance which is available. These measurements have been made collaboratively over the space of two years at the Forge pulsed X-ray source at Los Alamos and at the Ketjak laser facility an CEA Limeil-Valenton. The X-ray pulse lengths used for these measurements at these facilities were 150 psec and 50 psec respectively. The results are presented as dynamically-measured modulation transfer functions. Limiting temporal resolution values were also calculated. Emphasis is placed upon shot noise statistical limitations in the analysis of the data. Space charge repulsion in the streak tube limits the peak flux at ultra short experiments duration times. This limit results in a reduction of total signal and a decrease in signal to no ise ratio in the streak image. The four cameras perform well with 20 1p/mm resolution discernable in data from the French C650X, the Hadland X-Chron 540 and the Hamamatsu C1936X streak cameras. The Kentech X-ray streak camera has lower modulation and does not resolve below 10 1p/mm but has a longer photocathode.

  13. Control of Vascular Streak Dieback Disease of Cocoa with Flutriafol Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrilia Nur'aini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular streak dieback caused by the fungus Oncobasidium theobromae is one of the important diseases in cocoa crop in Indonesia. One approach to control the disease is by using fungicides. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of class triazole fungicides to the intensity of the vascular streak dieback disease on cocoa seedling phase, immature and mature cocoa. Experiments were conducted in Kotta Blater, PTPN XII and Kaliwining, Indonesian  Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Flutriafol 250 g/l with a concentration 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% foliar sprayed on cocoa seedlings, immature and mature cocoa. Active compound combination of Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole with 0,1% concentration used as a comparation fungicides. The result showed that Flutriafol with 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% concentration and Azoxystrobin & Difenoconazol with 0,1% concentration could suppress the vascular streak dieback disease on seedlings. On immature plants, the application of Flutriafol was not effectively suppress the vascular streak dieback disease whereas the fungicide comparison could suppress with the efficacy level of 46.22%. On mature plants,both of fungicides could not suppress the vascular streak dieback disease. Key words: Fungicide, cocoa, vascular streak dieback, triazole, flutriafol, azoxystrobin+difenoconazol

  14. Flat-field response and geometric distortion measurements of optical streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.S.; Drake, R.P.; Jones, B.A.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    To accurately measure pulse amplitude, shape, and relative time histories of optical signals with an optical streak camera, it is necessary to correct each recorded image for spatially-dependent gain nonuniformity and geometric distortion. Gain nonuniformities arise from sensitivity variations in the streak-tube photocathode, phosphor screen, image-intensifier tube, and image recording system. By using a 1.053-μm, long-pulse, high-power laser to generate a spatially and temporally uniform source as input to the streak camera, the combined effects of flat-field response and geometric distortion can be measured under the normal dynamic operation of cameras with S-1 photocathodes. Additionally, by using the same laser system to generate a train of short pulses that can be spatially modulated at the input of the streak camera, the authors can create a two-dimensional grid of equally-spaced pulses. This allows a dynamic measurement of the geometric distortion of the streak camera. The author discusses the techniques involved in performing these calibrations, present some of the measured results for LLNL optical streak cameras, and will discuss software methods to correct for these effects

  15. Effects of Hot Streak Shape on Rotor Heating in a High-Subsonic Single-Stage Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Gundy-Burlet, Karen L.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data have shown that combustor temperature non-uniformities can lead to the excessive heating of first-stage rotor blades in turbines. This heating of the rotor blades can lead to thermal fatigue and degrade turbine performance. The results of recent studies have shown that variations in the circumferential location (clocking) of the hot streak relative to the first-stage vane airfoils can be used to minimize the adverse effects of the hot streak. The effects of the hot streak/airfoil count ratio on the heating patterns of turbine airfoils have also been evaluated. In the present investigation, three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes simulations have been performed for a single-stage high-pressure turbine operating in high subsonic flow. In addition to a simulation of the baseline turbine, simulations have been performed for circular and elliptical hot streaks of varying sizes in an effort to represent different combustor designs. The predicted results for the baseline simulation show good agreement with the available experimental data. The results of the hot streak simulations indicate: that a) elliptical hot streaks mix more rapidly than circular hot streaks, b) for small hot streak surface area the average rotor temperature is not a strong function of hot streak temperature ratio or shape, and c) hot streaks with larger surface area interact with the secondary flows at the rotor hub endwall, generating an additional high temperature region.

  16. C.C.D. readout of a picosecond streak camera with an intensified C.C.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemonier, M.; Richard, J.C.; Cavailler, C.; Mens, A.; Raze, G.

    1984-08-01

    This paper deals with a digital streak camera readout device. The device consists in a low light level television camera made of a solid state C.C.D. array coupled to an image intensifier associated to a video-digitizer coupled to a micro-computer system. The streak camera images are picked-up as a video signal, digitized and stored. This system allows the fast recording and the automatic processing of the data provided by the streak tube

  17. Novel technique for addressing streak artifact in gated dual-source MDCT angiography utilizing ECG-editing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Laura T.; Boll, Daniel T. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Streak artifact is an important source of image degradation in computed tomographic imaging. In coronary MDCT angiography, streak artifact from pacemaker leads in the SVC can render segments of the right coronary artery uninterpretable. With current technology in clinical practice, there is no effective way to eliminate streak artifact in coronary MDCT angiography entirely. We propose a technique to minimize the impact of streak artifact in retrospectively gated coronary MDCT angiography by utilizing small shifts in the reconstruction window. In our experience, previously degraded portions of the coronary vasculature were able to be well evaluated using this technique. (orig.)

  18. Code-assisted discovery of TAL effector targets in bacterial leaf streak of rice reveals contrast with bacterial blight and a novel susceptibility gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul A Cernadas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf streak of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc is an increasingly important yield constraint in this staple crop. A mesophyll colonizer, Xoc differs from X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, which invades xylem to cause bacterial blight of rice. Both produce multiple distinct TAL effectors, type III-delivered proteins that transactivate effector-specific host genes. A TAL effector finds its target(s via a partially degenerate code whereby the modular effector amino acid sequence identifies nucleotide sequences to which the protein binds. Virulence contributions of some Xoo TAL effectors have been shown, and their relevant targets, susceptibility (S genes, identified, but the role of TAL effectors in leaf streak is uncharacterized. We used host transcript profiling to compare leaf streak to blight and to probe functions of Xoc TAL effectors. We found that Xoc and Xoo induce almost completely different host transcriptional changes. Roughly one in three genes upregulated by the pathogens is preceded by a candidate TAL effector binding element. Experimental analysis of the 44 such genes predicted to be Xoc TAL effector targets verified nearly half, and identified most others as false predictions. None of the Xoc targets is a known bacterial blight S gene. Mutational analysis revealed that Tal2g, which activates two genes, contributes to lesion expansion and bacterial exudation. Use of designer TAL effectors discriminated a sulfate transporter gene as the S gene. Across all targets, basal expression tended to be higher than genome-average, and induction moderate. Finally, machine learning applied to real vs. falsely predicted targets yielded a classifier that recalled 92% of the real targets with 88% precision, providing a tool for better target prediction in the future. Our study expands the number of known TAL effector targets, identifies a new class of S gene, and improves our ability to predict functional targeting.

  19. The effect of wall temperature distribution on streaks in compressible turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Tao, Yang; Xiong, Neng; Qian, Fengxue

    2018-05-01

    The thermal boundary condition at wall is very important for the compressible flow due to the coupling of the energy equation, and a lot of research works about it were carried out in past decades. In most of these works, the wall was assumed as adiabatic or uniform isothermal surface; the flow over a thermal wall with some special temperature distribution was seldom studied. Lagha studied the effect of uniform isothermal wall on the streaks, and pointed out that higher the wall temperature is, the longer the streak (POF, 2011, 23, 015106). So, we designed streamwise stripes of wall temperature distribution on the compressible turbulent boundary layer at Mach 3.0 to learn the effect on the streaks by means of direct numerical simulation in this paper. The mean wall temperature is equal to the adiabatic case approximately, and the width of the temperature stripes is in the same order as the width of the streaks. The streak patterns in near-wall region with different temperature stripes are shown in the paper. Moreover, we find that there is a reduction of friction velocity with the wall temperature stripes when compared with the adiabatic case.

  20. The origin and structure of streak-like instabilities in laminar boundary layer flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollner, Michael; Miller, Colin; Tang, Wei; Finney, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Streamwise streaks are consistently observed in wildland fires, at the base of pool fires, and in other heated flows within a boundary layer. This study examines both the origin of these structures and their role in influencing some of the macroscopic properties of the flow. Streaks were reproduced and characterized via experiments on stationary heated strips and liquid and gas-fueled burners in laminar boundary layer flows, providing a framework to develop theory based on both observed and measured physical phenomena. The incoming boundary layer was established as the controlling mechanism in forming streaks, which are generated by pre-existing coherent structures, while the amplification of streaks was determined to be compatible with quadratic growth of Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities, providing credence to the idea that the downstream growth of streaks is strongly tied to buoyancy. These local instabilities were also found to affect macroscopic properties of the flow, including heat transfer to the surface, indicating that a two-dimensional assumption may fail to adequately describe heat and mass transfer during flame spread and other reacting boundary layer flows. This work was supported by NSF (CBET-1554026) and the USDA-FS (13-CS-11221637-124).

  1. X-ray streak camera for observation of tightly pinched relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A pinhole camera is coupled with a Pilot-B scintillator and image-intensified TRW streak camera to study pinched electron beam profiles via observation of anode target bremsstrahlung. Streak intensification is achieved with an EMI image intensifier operated at a gain of up to 10 6 which allows optimizing the pinhole configuration so that resolution is simultaneously limited by photon-counting statistics and pinhole geometry. The pinhole used is one-dimensional and is fabricated by inserting uranium shims with hyperbolic curved edges between two 5-cm-thick lead blocks. The loss of spatial resolution due to the x-ray transmission through the perimeter of the pinhole is calculated and a streak photograph of a Gamble I pinched beam interacting with a brass anode is presented

  2. Absolute calibration method for fast-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Frogget, Brent; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Maron, Yitzhak; Droemer, Darryl W.; Crain, Marlon D.

    2010-01-01

    This report outlines a convenient method to calibrate fast (<1ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in the A-K gap of electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA). On RITS, light is collected through a small diameter (200 micron) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator (F/7 optics). To calibrate such a system, it is necessary to efficiently couple light from a spectral lamp into a 200 micron diameter fiber, split it into its spectral components, with 10 Angstroms or less resolution, and record it on a streak camera with 1ns or less temporal resolution.

  3. Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the black leaf streak pathogen of banana: progress towards understanding pathogen biology and detection, disease development, and the challenges of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Alice C L

    2011-05-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is grown throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits are a key staple food in many developing countries and a source of income for subsistence farmers. Bananas are also a major, multibillion-dollar export commodity for consumption primarily in developed countries, where few banana cultivars are grown. The fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis causes black leaf streak disease (BLSD; aka black Sigatoka leaf spot) on the majority of edible banana cultivars grown worldwide. The fact that most of these cultivars are sterile and unsuitable for the breeding of resistant lines necessitates the extensive use of fungicides as the primary means of disease control. BLSD is a significant threat to the food security of resource-poor populations who cannot afford fungicides, and increases the environmental and health hazards where large-acreage monocultures of banana (Cavendish subgroup, AAA genome) are grown for export. Mycosphaerella fijiensis M. Morelet is a sexual, heterothallic fungus having Pseudocercospora fijiensis (M. Morelet) Deighton as the anamorph stage. It is a haploid, hemibiotrophic ascomycete within the class Dothideomycetes, order Capnodiales and family Mycosphaerellaceae. Its taxonomic placement is based on DNA phylogeny, morphological analyses and cultural characteristics. Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a leaf pathogen that causes reddish-brown streaks running parallel to the leaf veins, which aggregate to form larger, dark-brown to black compound streaks. These streaks eventually form fusiform or elliptical lesions that coalesce, form a water-soaked border with a yellow halo and, eventually, merge to cause extensive leaf necrosis. The disease does not kill the plants immediately, but weakens them by decreasing the photosynthetic capacity of leaves, causing a reduction in the quantity and quality of fruit, and inducing the premature ripening of fruit harvested from infected plants. Although Musa spp. are the

  4. Performance of Laser Megajoule’s x-ray streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail: celine.zuber@cea.fr; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Gontier, D.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Rubbelynck, C.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J. P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis France SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)

    2016-11-15

    A prototype of a picosecond x-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to provide plasma-diagnostic support for the Laser Megajoule. We report on the measured performance of this streak camera, which almost fulfills the requirements: 50-μm spatial resolution over a 15-mm field in the photocathode plane, 17-ps temporal resolution in a 2-ns timebase, a detection threshold lower than 625 nJ/cm{sup 2} in the 0.05–15 keV spectral range, and a dynamic range greater than 100.

  5. Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, A.; Digiovandomenico, V.; Digiovandomenico, E.; Genovesi, N.; Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience with the combined use of US and CT in the study of diffuse and subtotal fatty infiltration of the liver. An apparent disagreement was initially found between the two examinations in the study of fatty infiltration. Fifty-five patients were studied with US and CT of the upper abdomen, as suggested by clinics. US showed normal liver echogenicity in 30 patients and diffuse increased echogenicity (bright liver) in 25 cases. In 5 patients with bright liver, US demonstrated a solitary hypoechoic area, appearing as a 'skip area', in the quadrate lobe. In 2 patients with bright liver, the hypoechoic area was seen in the right lobe and exhibited no typical US features of 'Skip area'. Bright liver was quantified by measuring CT density of both liver and spleen. The relative attenuation values of spleen and liver were compared on plain and enhanced CT scans. In 5 cases with a hypoechoic area in the right lobe, CT findings were suggestive of hemangioma. A good correlation was found between broght liver and CT attenuation values, which decrease with increasing fat content of the liver. Moreover, CT attenuation values confirmed US findings in the study of typical 'skip area', by demonstrating normal density - which suggests that CT can characterize normal tissue in atypical 'skip area'

  6. Optical Comb Generation for Streak Camera Calibration for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald Justin; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Bruce Marshall; Perry Bell; Daniel Kalantar; Joseph Kimbrough; Stephen Vernon; Oliver Sweningsen

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is coming on-line to support physics experimentation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and Stockpile Stewardship (SS). Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation at NIF. To accurately reduce streak camera data a highly accurate temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for simultaneously generating a precise +/- 2 ps optical marker pulse (fiducial reference) and trains of precisely timed, short-duration optical pulses (so-called 'comb' pulse trains) that are suitable for the timing calibrations. These optical pulse generators are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that, in the comb mode, produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced optical pulses, using a laser diode source. Comb generators have been produced with pulse-train repetition rates up to 10 GHz at 780 nm, and somewhat lower frequencies at 664 nm. Individual pulses can be as short as 25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector on the front panel of the generator box. The optical signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fiber

  7. X-ray streak-camera study of the dynamics of laser-imploded microballoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Lamb, M.J.; Lewis, C.L.S.; Moore, A.; Evans, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    The time and space development of the x-ray emission from the irradiated target surface and the implosion core in laser-compressed glass microballoons is recorded by x-ray streak photography. The experimental variation of implosion time with target mass and laser energy is considered and compared with computer modeling of the implosion

  8. Pedicle streaking: A novel and simple aid in pedicle positioning in free tissue transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Aggarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pedicle positioning in free tissue transfer is critical to its success. Long thin pedicles are especially prone to this complication where even a slight twist in the perforator can result in flap loss. Pedicles passing through the long tunnels are similarly at risk. Streaking the pedicle with methylene blue is a simple and safe method which increases the safety of free tissue transfer. Materials and Methods: Once the flap is islanded on the pedicle and the vascularity of the flap is confirmed, the pedicle is streaked with methylene blue dye at a distance of 6-7 mm. The streaking starts from the origin of the vessels and continued distally on to the under surface of flap to mark the complete course of the pedicle in alignment. The presence of streaking in some parts and not in rest indicates twist in the pedicle. Observation and Results: Four hundred and sixty five free flaps have been done at our centre in the last 5 years. The overall success rate of free flaps is 95.3% (22 free flap failures. There has not been a single case of pedicle twist leading to flap congestion and failure. Conclusion: This simple and novel method is very reliable for pedicle positioning avoiding any twist necessary for successful free tissue transfer.

  9. Nuclear import of Maize fine streak virus proteins in Drosophila S2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) is a member of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae and is transmitted by the leafhopper Graminella nigrifons. The virus replicates in both its plant host and in its insect vector. Nucleorhabdoviruses replicate in the nucleus and assemble at the inner nu...

  10. Streak camera measurements of laser pulse temporal dispersion in short graded-index optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Phillips, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Streak camera measurements were used to determine temporal dispersion in short (5 to 30 meter) graded-index optical fibers. Results show that 50-ps, 1.06-μm and 0.53-μm laser pulses can be propagated without significant dispersion when care is taken to prevent propagation of energy in fiber cladding modes

  11. Evaluation of banana hybrids for tolerance to black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Puerto Rico, bananas (including plantains) are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black leaf streak (BLS) and Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola, respectively, are responsible for significant los...

  12. Two-color spatial and temporal temperature measurements using a streaked soft x-ray imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A. S., E-mail: alastair.moore@physics.org; Ahmed, M. F.; Soufli, R.; Pardini, T.; Hibbard, R. L.; Bailey, C. G.; Bell, P. M.; Hau-Riege, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Benstead, J.; Morton, J.; Guymer, T. M.; Garbett, W. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Skidmore, J. W. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Regan, S. P.; Agliata, T.; Jungquist, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Schmidt, D. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); and others

    2016-11-15

    A dual-channel streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed and used on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility. This streaked imager creates two images of the same x-ray source using two slit apertures and a single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror. Thin filters are used to create narrow band pass images at 510 eV and 360 eV. When measuring a Planckian spectrum, the brightness ratio of the two images can be translated into a color-temperature, provided that the spectral sensitivity of the two images is well known. To reduce uncertainty and remove spectral features in the streak camera photocathode from this photon energy range, a thin 100 nm CsI on 50 nm Al streak camera photocathode was implemented. Provided that the spectral shape is well-known, then uncertainties on the spectral sensitivity limits the accuracy of the temperature measurement to approximately 4.5% at 100 eV.

  13. POD analysis of the instability mode of a low-speed streak in a laminar boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Si-Chao; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jin-Jun; Rinoshika, Akira

    2017-12-01

    The instability of one single low-speed streak in a zero-pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer is investigated experimentally via both hydrogen bubble visualization and planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement. A single low-speed streak is generated and destabilized by the wake of an interference wire positioned normal to the wall and in the upstream. The downstream development of the streak includes secondary instability and self-reproduction process, which leads to the generation of two additional streaks appearing on either side of the primary one. A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis of PIV measured velocity field is used to identify the components of the streak instability in the POD mode space: for a sinuous/varicose type of POD mode, its basis functions present anti-symmetric/symmetric distributions about the streak centerline in the streamwise component, and the symmetry condition reverses in the spanwise component. It is further shown that sinuous mode dominates the turbulent kinematic energy (TKE) through the whole streak evolution process, the TKE content first increases along the streamwise direction to a saturation value and then decays slowly. In contrast, varicose mode exhibits a sustained growth of the TKE content, suggesting an increasing competition of varicose instability against sinuous instability.

  14. Clinical analysis of bone scanning in solitary lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Zhu Ruisen; Zhu Jifang

    2002-01-01

    A rational analysis procedure for solitary lesions on whole bone scanning was offered. This study was undertaken to analyze retrospectively solitary lesions which obtained final diagnose through the following aspects: (1) diagnosis of bone metastasis, (2) the incidence of bone metastasis in different tumor, (3) the most possible lesion sites indicating bone metastasis, (4) morphological analysis of solitary lesions. The results are: (1) The incidence of solitary lesions in 2465 cases on whole bone scanning is 15.3%. (2) The rate of bone metastasis is 24.8% in 282 patients with primary malignancy. The rate of bone metastasis of 6.3% in 64 patients without primary malignancy, and the total diagnostic rate of bone metastasis is 21.4% in 346 patients. (3) In patients with primary malignancy, the incidence of bone metastasis of solitary lesions is as follows respectively; bronchi cancer 36.1%(22/61); breast cancer 23.8%(20/84); prostate gland 17.2%(5/29); other urinary system cancer 22.2%(4/18); G.I. system cancer 16.9%(10/59); others 29.0%(9/31). There is no significant difference in different cancer. (4) In patients without primary malignancy, 93.7%(60/64) of solitary lesions are benign. (5) From anatomical point of view, the authors found the diagnostic rate of bone metastasis is as follow: 30% in spine; 34.2% in pelvis; 36.4% in skull; 10.8% in other bones. There are significant differences in four groups. It is concluded that: (1) The diagnostic rate of bone metastasis in solitary lesions is 21.4%. (2) The most possible solitary lesions indicating osseous tumor spread are at spine, pelvic and skull. (3) Special attention to 'cold' and streak like lesions should be paid. (4) A clinical analysis procedure for diagnosis of solitary lesions has been summarized out here

  15. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPhee, A. G., E-mail: macphee2@llnl.gov; Hatch, B. W.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Datte, P. S.; Landen, O. L.; Palmer, N. E.; Piston, K. W.; Rekow, V. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.; Hares, J. D. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Isis Building, Howbery Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BD (United Kingdom); Hassett, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Meadowcroft, A. L. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  16. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, A G; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L; Hares, J D; Hassett, J; Hatch, B W; Meadowcroft, A L; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Datte, P S; Landen, O L; Palmer, N E; Piston, K W; Rekow, V V; Hilsabeck, T J; Kilkenny, J D

    2016-11-01

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  17. A Demographic Model to Evaluate Population Declines in the Endangered Streaked Horned Lark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaine F. Camfield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Streaked Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris strigata is listed as endangered by the State of Washington, USA and by Canada under the Species at Risk Act and is also classified as a federal candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act in the USA. A substantial portion of Streaked Horned Lark habitat has been lost or degraded, and range contraction has occurred in Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. We estimate the vital rates (fecundity, adult and juvenile survival and population growth rate (λ for Streaked Horned Larks breeding in Washington, USA and conduct a Life-Stage Simulation Analysis (LSA to evaluate which vital rate has the greatest influence on λ. We simulated changes in the three vital rates to examine how much they would need to be adjusted either independently or in concert to achieve a stable Streaked Horned Lark population (λ = 1. We also evaluated which fecundity component (the number of fledglings per egg laid or renesting interval had the greatest impact on λ. The estimate of population growth suggests that Streaked Horned Larks in Washington are declining rapidly (λ = 0.62 ± 0.10 and that local breeding sites are not sustainable without immigration. The LSA results indicate that adult survival had the greatest influence on λ, followed by juvenile survival and fecundity. However, increases in vital rates led to λ = 1 only when adult survival was raised from 0.47 to 0.85, juvenile survival from 0.17 to 0.58, and fecundity from 0.91 to 3.09. Increases in breeding success and decreases in the renesting interval influenced λ similarly; however, λ did not reach 1 even when breeding success was raised to 100% or renesting intervals were reduced to 1 day. Only when all three vital rates were increased simultaneously did λ approach 1 without requiring highly unrealistic increases in each vital rate. We conclude that conservation activities need to target all or multiple vital rates to be successful. The

  18. Simultaneous streak and frame interferometry for electron density measurements of laser produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, H. J., E-mail: hjquevedo@utexas.edu; McCormick, M.; Wisher, M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, T. [Center for High Energy Density Science, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A system of two collinear probe beams with different wavelengths and pulse durations was used to capture simultaneously snapshot interferograms and streaked interferograms of laser produced plasmas. The snapshots measured the two dimensional, path-integrated, electron density on a charge-coupled device while the radial temporal evolution of a one dimensional plasma slice was recorded by a streak camera. This dual-probe combination allowed us to select plasmas that were uniform and axisymmetric along the laser direction suitable for retrieving the continuous evolution of the radial electron density of homogeneous plasmas. Demonstration of this double probe system was done by measuring rapidly evolving plasmas on time scales less than 1 ns produced by the interaction of femtosecond, high intensity, laser pulses with argon gas clusters. Experiments aimed at studying homogeneous plasmas from high intensity laser-gas or laser-cluster interaction could benefit from the use of this probing scheme.

  19. Temporal resolution limit estimation of x-ray streak cameras using a CsI photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang; Gu, Li; Zong, Fangke; Zhang, Jingjin; Yang, Qinlao, E-mail: qlyang@szu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-08-28

    A Monte Carlo model is developed and implemented to calculate the characteristics of x-ray induced secondary electron (SE) emission from a CsI photocathode used in an x-ray streak camera. Time distributions of emitted SEs are investigated with an incident x-ray energy range from 1 to 30 keV and a CsI thickness range from 100 to 1000 nm. Simulation results indicate that SE time distribution curves have little dependence on the incident x-ray energy and CsI thickness. The calculated time dispersion within the CsI photocathode is about 70 fs, which should be the temporal resolution limit of x-ray streak cameras that use CsI as the photocathode material.

  20. Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a host-specific long-distance transport determinant in oat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral determinants involved in systemic infection of hosts by monocot-infecting plant viruses are poorly understood. Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) exclusively infects monocotyledonous crops such as wheat, oat, barley, maize, triticale, and rye. Previously, ...

  1. Initial tests of the dual-sweep streak camera system planned for APS particle-beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A.; Yang, B.; Gai, W.; Cieslik, W.

    1995-01-01

    Initial tests of a dual-sweep streak system planned for use on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been performed using assets of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. The short light pulses from the photoelectric injector drive laser in both the visible (λ=496 nm, Δt∼1.5 ps (FWHM)), and the ultraviolet (λ=248 nm, Δt∼5 ps (FWHM)) were used. Both a UV-visible S20 photocathode streak tube and a UV-to-x-ray Au photocathode streak tube were tested. Calibration data with an etalon were also obtained. A sample of dual-sweep streak data using optical synchrotron radiation on the APS injector synchrotron is also presented

  2. Cassava brown streak disease in Rwanda, the associated viruses and disease phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munganyinka, E; Ateka, E M; Kihurani, A W; Kanyange, M C; Tairo, F; Sseruwagi, P; Ndunguru, J

    2018-02-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was first observed on cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) in Rwanda in 2009. In 2014 eight major cassava-growing districts in the country were surveyed to determine the distribution and variability of symptom phenotypes associated with CBSD, and the genetic diversity of cassava brown streak viruses. Distribution of the CBSD symptom phenotypes and their combinations varied greatly between districts, cultivars and their associated viruses. The symptoms on leaf alone recorded the highest (32.2%) incidence, followed by roots (25.7%), leaf + stem (20.3%), leaf + root (10.4%), leaf + stem + root (5.2%), stem + root (3.7%), and stem (2.5%) symptoms. Analysis by RT-PCR showed that single infections of Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) were most common (74.2% of total infections) and associated with all the seven phenotypes studied. Single infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) were predominant (15.3% of total infections) in CBSD-affected plants showing symptoms on stems alone. Mixed infections (CBSV + UCBSV) comprised 10.5% of total infections and predominated in the combinations of leaf + stem + root phenotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and the estimates of evolutionary divergence, using partial sequences (210 nt) of the coat protein gene, revealed that in Rwanda there is one type of CBSV and an indication of diverse UCBSV. This study is the first to report the occurrence and distribution of both CBSV and UCBSV based on molecular techniques in Rwanda.

  3. Molecular characterization of Banana streak virus isolate from Musa Acuminata in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Zhi-Xin

    2011-12-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV), a member of genus Badnavirus, is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world. The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated, but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated) BSV genomes isolated from China. Here, the complete genome, a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436), of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan, China was determined. The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses. The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop, which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs). The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs, ORF1 with a non-AUG start codon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein. Besides the complete genome, a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants. Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vietnam (BSAcVNV). The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and -95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  4. Molecular confirmation of Maize rayado fino virus as the Brazilian corn streak virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond,Rosemarie Wahnbaeck; Bedendo,Ivan Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas G...

  5. Ultrafast streak and framing technique for the observation of laser driven shock waves in transparent solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kessel, C.G.M.; Sachsenmaier, P.; Sigel, R.

    1975-01-01

    Shock waves driven by laser ablation in plane transparent plexiglass and solid hydrogen targets have been observed with streak and framing techniques using a high speed image converter camera, and a dye laser as a light source. The framing pictures have been made by mode locking the dye laser and using a wide streak slit. In both materials a growing hemispherical shock wave is observed with the maximum velocity at the onset of laser radiation. (author)

  6. Rho kinase activity controls directional cell movements during primitive streak formation in the rabbit embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankova, Viktoria; Tsikolia, Nikoloz; Viebahn, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    During animal gastrulation, the specification of the embryonic axes is accompanied by epithelio-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first major change in cell shape after fertilization. EMT takes place in disparate topographical arrangements, such as the circular blastopore of amphibians, the straight primitive streak of birds and mammals or in intermediate gastrulation forms of other amniotes such as reptiles. Planar cell movements are prime candidates to arrange specific modes of gastrulation but there is no consensus view on their role in different vertebrate classes. Here, we test the impact of interfering with Rho kinase-mediated cell movements on gastrulation topography in blastocysts of the rabbit, which has a flat embryonic disc typical for most mammals. Time-lapse video microscopy, electron microscopy, gene expression and morphometric analyses of the effect of inhibiting ROCK activity showed - besides normal specification of the organizer region - a dose-dependent disruption of primitive streak formation; this disruption resulted in circular, arc-shaped or intermediate forms, reminiscent of those found in amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Our results reveal a crucial role of ROCK-controlled directional cell movements during rabbit primitive streak formation and highlight the possibility that temporal and spatial modulation of cell movements were instrumental for the evolution of gastrulation forms. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Picosecond Streaked K-Shell Spectroscopy of Near Solid-Density Aluminum Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, C. R.; Nilson, P. M.; Ivancic, S. T.; Mileham, C.; Froula, D. H.; Golovkin, I. E.

    2016-10-01

    The thermal x-ray emission from rapidly heated solid targets containing a buried-aluminum layer was measured. The targets were driven by high-contrast 1 ω or 2 ω laser pulses at focused intensities up to 1 ×1019W/Wcm2 cm2 . A streaked x-ray spectrometer recorded the Al Heα and lithium-like satellite lines with 2-ps temporal resolution and moderate resolving power (E/E ΔE 700). Time-integrated measurements over the same spectral range were used to correct the streaked data for variations in photocathode sensitivity. Line widths and intensity ratios from the streaked data were interpreted using a collisional radiative atomic model to provide the average plasma conditions in the buried layer as a function of time. It was observed that the resonance line tends toward lower photon energies at high electron densities. The measured shifts will be compared to predicted shifts from Stark-operator calculations at the inferred plasma conditions. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944, the office of Fusion Energy Sciences Award Number DE-SC0012317, and the Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship Grant Number DE-NA0002135.

  8. Development of intelligent control system for X-ray streak camera in diagnostic instrument manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wu, Shengli, E-mail: slwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Tian, Jinshou [Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Liu, Zhen [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Fang, Yuman [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Gao, Guilong; Liang, Lingliang [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wen, Wenlong [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-11-01

    An intelligent control system for an X ray streak camera in a diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM) is proposed and implemented, which can control time delay, electric focusing, image gain adjustment, switch of sweep voltage, acquiring environment parameters etc. The system consists of 16 A/D converters and 16 D/A converters, a 32-channel general purpose input/output (GPIO) and two sensors. An isolated DC/DC converter with multi-outputs and a single mode fiber were adopted to reduce the interference generated by the common ground among the A/D, D/A and I/O. The software was designed using graphical programming language and can remotely access the corresponding instrument from a website. The entire intelligent control system can acquire the desirable data at a speed of 30 Mb/s and store it for later analysis. The intelligent system was implemented on a streak camera in a DIM and it shows a temporal resolution of 11.25 ps, spatial distortion of less than 10% and dynamic range of 279:1. The intelligent control system has been successfully used in a streak camera to verify the synchronization of multi-channel laser on the Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility.

  9. A new streaked soft x-ray imager for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benstead, J., E-mail: james.benstead@awe.co.uk; Morton, J.; Guymer, T. M.; Garbett, W. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Skidmore, J. W. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Moore, A. S.; Ahmed, M. F.; Soufli, R.; Pardini, T.; Hibbard, R. L.; Bailey, C. G.; Bell, P. M.; Hau-Riege, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Reagan, S.; Agliata, T.; Jungquist, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Schmidt, D. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); and others

    2016-05-15

    A new streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed for use on high energy-density (HED) physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility based at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This streaked imager uses a slit aperture, single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror, and soft x-ray filtering to, when coupled to one of the NIF’s x-ray streak cameras, record a 4× magnification, one-dimensional image of an x-ray source with a spatial resolution of less than 90 μm. The energy band pass produced depends upon the filter material used; for the first qualification shots, vanadium and silver-on-titanium filters were used to gate on photon energy ranges of approximately 300–510 eV and 200–400 eV, respectively. A two-channel version of the snout is available for x-ray sources up to 1 mm and a single-channel is available for larger sources up to 3 mm. Both the one and two-channel variants have been qualified on quartz wire and HED physics target shots.

  10. Target 3-D reconstruction of streak tube imaging lidar based on Gaussian fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingyu; Niu, Lihong; Hu, Cuichun; Wu, Lei; Yang, Hongru; Yu, Bing

    2018-02-01

    Streak images obtained by the streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) contain the distance-azimuth-intensity information of a scanned target, and a 3-D reconstruction of the target can be carried out through extracting the characteristic data of multiple streak images. Significant errors will be caused in the reconstruction result by the peak detection method due to noise and other factors. So as to get a more precise 3-D reconstruction, a peak detection method based on Gaussian fitting of trust region is proposed in this work. Gaussian modeling is performed on the returned wave of single time channel of each frame, then the modeling result which can effectively reduce the noise interference and possesses a unique peak could be taken as the new returned waveform, lastly extracting its feature data through peak detection. The experimental data of aerial target is for verifying this method. This work shows that the peak detection method based on Gaussian fitting reduces the extraction error of the feature data to less than 10%; utilizing this method to extract the feature data and reconstruct the target make it possible to realize the spatial resolution with a minimum 30 cm in the depth direction, and improve the 3-D imaging accuracy of the STIL concurrently.

  11. Precise measurement of a subpicosecond electron single bunch by the femtosecond streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, M.; Ueda, T.; Kozawa, T.; Kobayashi, T.

    1998-01-01

    Precise measurement of a subpicosecond electron single bunch by the femtosecond streak camera is presented. The subpicosecond electron single bunch of energy 35 MeV was generated by the achromatic magnetic pulse compressor at the S-band linear accelerator of nuclear engineering research laboratory (NERL), University of Tokyo. The electric charge per bunch and beam size are 0.5 nC and the horizontal and vertical beam sizes are 3.3 and 5.5 mm (full width at half maximum; FWHM), respectively. Pulse shape of the electron single bunch is measured via Cherenkov radiation emitted in air by the femtosecond streak camera. Optical parameters of the optical measurement system were optimized based on much experiment and numerical analysis in order to achieve a subpicosecond time resolution. By using the optimized optical measurement system, the subpicosecond pulse shape, its variation for the differents rf phases in the accelerating tube, the jitter of the total system and the correlation between measured streak images and calculated longitudinal phase space distributions were precisely evaluated. This measurement system is going to be utilized in several subpicosecond analyses for radiation physics and chemistry. (orig.)

  12. Development of intelligent control system for X-ray streak camera in diagnostic instrument manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Zhen; Fang, Yuman; Gao, Guilong; Liang, Lingliang; Wen, Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    An intelligent control system for an X ray streak camera in a diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM) is proposed and implemented, which can control time delay, electric focusing, image gain adjustment, switch of sweep voltage, acquiring environment parameters etc. The system consists of 16 A/D converters and 16 D/A converters, a 32-channel general purpose input/output (GPIO) and two sensors. An isolated DC/DC converter with multi-outputs and a single mode fiber were adopted to reduce the interference generated by the common ground among the A/D, D/A and I/O. The software was designed using graphical programming language and can remotely access the corresponding instrument from a website. The entire intelligent control system can acquire the desirable data at a speed of 30 Mb/s and store it for later analysis. The intelligent system was implemented on a streak camera in a DIM and it shows a temporal resolution of 11.25 ps, spatial distortion of less than 10% and dynamic range of 279:1. The intelligent control system has been successfully used in a streak camera to verify the synchronization of multi-channel laser on the Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility

  13. Oct4 is required ~E7.5 for proliferation in the primitive streak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian DeVeale

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Oct4 is a widely recognized pluripotency factor as it maintains Embryonic Stem (ES cells in a pluripotent state, and, in vivo, prevents the inner cell mass (ICM in murine embryos from differentiating into trophectoderm. However, its function in somatic tissue after this developmental stage is not well characterized. Using a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase and floxed alleles of Oct4, we investigated the effect of depleting Oct4 in mouse embryos between the pre-streak and headfold stages, ~E6.0-E8.0, when Oct4 is found in dynamic patterns throughout the embryonic compartment of the mouse egg cylinder. We found that depletion of Oct4 ~E7.5 resulted in a severe phenotype, comprised of craniorachischisis, random heart tube orientation, failed turning, defective somitogenesis and posterior truncation. Unlike in ES cells, depletion of the pluripotency factors Sox2 and Oct4 after E7.0 does not phenocopy, suggesting that ~E7.5 Oct4 is required within a network that is altered relative to the pluripotency network. Oct4 is not required in extraembryonic tissue for these processes, but is required to maintain cell viability in the embryo and normal proliferation within the primitive streak. Impaired expansion of the primitive streak occurs coincident with Oct4 depletion ∼E7.5 and precedes deficient convergent extension which contributes to several aspects of the phenotype.

  14. A maize resistance gene functions against bacterial streak disease in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingyu; Lin, Xinghua; Poland, Jesse; Trick, Harold; Leach, Jan; Hulbert, Scot

    2005-10-25

    Although cereal crops all belong to the grass family (Poacea), most of their diseases are specific to a particular species. Thus, a given cereal species is typically resistant to diseases of other grasses, and this nonhost resistance is generally stable. To determine the feasibility of transferring nonhost resistance genes (R genes) between distantly related grasses to control specific diseases, we identified a maize R gene that recognizes a rice pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, which causes bacterial streak disease. Bacterial streak is an important disease of rice in Asia, and no simply inherited sources of resistance have been identified in rice. Although X. o. pv. oryzicola does not cause disease on maize, we identified a maize gene, Rxo1, that conditions a resistance reaction to a diverse collection of pathogen strains. Surprisingly, Rxo1 also controls resistance to the unrelated pathogen Burkholderia andropogonis, which causes bacterial stripe of sorghum and maize. The same gene thus controls resistance reactions to both pathogens and nonpathogens of maize. Rxo1 has a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat structure, similar to many previously identified R genes. Most importantly, Rxo1 functions after transfer as a transgene to rice, demonstrating the feasibility of nonhost R gene transfer between cereals and providing a valuable tool for controlling bacterial streak disease.

  15. Genetic Analysis of Streaked and Abnormal Floret Mutant st-fon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-xi CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A double mutant with streaked leaf and abnormal floret was found and temporarily named streaked leaf and floral organ number mutant (st-fon. For this mutant, besides white streak appeared on culm, leaves and panicles, the number of floral organs increased and florets cracked. The extreme phenotype was that several small florets grew from one floret or branch rachis in small florets extended and developed into panicles. By using transmission electron microscope to observe the ultrastructure of white histocytes of leaves at the seedling stage, the white tissues which showed abnormal plastids, lamellas and thylakoids could not develop into normal chloroplast, and the development of chloroplast was blocked at the early growth stage of plastid. Scanning electron microscope and paraffin section were also used to observe the development of floral organs, and the results indicated that the development of floral meristem was out of order and unlimited, whereas in the twisty leaves, vascular bundle sheath cells grew excessively, or some bubbly cells increased. Genetic analyses carried out by means of cross and backcross with four normal-leaf-color materials revealed that the mutant is of cytoplasm inheritance.

  16. Development of a Data Reduction Algorithm for Optical Wide Field Patrol (OWL) II: Improving Measurement of Lengths of Detected Streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Youp; Choi, Jin; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Maru; Jo, Jung Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Young-Sik; Bae, Young-Ho; Park, Jang-Hyun; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Choi, Young-Jun; Cho, Sungki; Choi, Eun-Jung

    2016-09-01

    As described in the previous paper (Park et al. 2013), the detector subsystem of optical wide-field patrol (OWL) provides many observational data points of a single artificial satellite or space debris in the form of small streaks, using a chopper system and a time tagger. The position and the corresponding time data are matched assuming that the length of a streak on the CCD frame is proportional to the time duration of the exposure during which the chopper blades do not obscure the CCD window. In the previous study, however, the length was measured using the diagonal of the rectangle of the image area containing the streak; the results were quite ambiguous and inaccurate, allowing possible matching error of positions and time data. Furthermore, because only one (position, time) data point is created from one streak, the efficiency of the observation decreases. To define the length of a streak correctly, it is important to locate the endpoints of a streak. In this paper, a method using a differential convolution mask pattern is tested. This method can be used to obtain the positions where the pixel values are changed sharply. These endpoints can be regarded as directly detected positional data, and the number of data points is doubled by this result.

  17. Benign focal liver lesions: discrimination from malignant mimickers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaidi, Mohammad; Shirkhoda, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Focal lesions of the liver often have various imaging characteristics which may be interpreted as either benign or malignant. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology of these liver lesions may lead to characteristic imaging manifestations, which direct the radiologist to the diagnosis. Benign lesions include congenital hepatic cyst, autosomal dominant polycystic disease, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), hepatic adenoma, inflammatory pseudotumor, peliosis hepatis, focal fatty infiltration, hamartoma, and infectious processes such as hepatic abscess, echinococcal cyst, and candidiasis. Characteristic imaging features, clinical symptoms, and treatment/prognosis will be discussed. Emphasis will be placed on key reliable features of each disease to develop a method of discriminating these lesions from other benign and malignant disorders.

  18. Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is fatty liver disease? Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat builds ...

  19. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  20. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  1. Sonographic Findings of Cavernous Hemangioma in Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung; Kim, Ki Whang; Yoon, Sang Wook; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Myung Jin; Ji, Hoon

    1995-01-01

    Typical cavernous hemangioma presents no diagnostic difficulty at sonography. However, in cases of atypical hemangioma, further evaluation is needed to differentiate it from malignancy. On the other hand, thcechogenicity of the lesion may be iso echo or hypoecho when it occurs in association with fatty liver. We analyzed the sonographic features of hemangioma in fatty liver. We reviewed the sonograms of 22 lesions from 19 patients. We divided the lesions into two groups; the lesion measuring less than 3cm in diameter (group I) and the lesions measuring same or greater than 3cm (group II). The lesions of each group were analyzed in terms of location, shape, distinction of margin, internal echogenicity, posterior enhancement, lateral shadowing, and peritumoral hypoechoic halo. The lesions were located in subcapsular or perivascular areain 86%. They strowed round or lobulated shape with well defined margin in 82%. Internal echo of the lesions was hypoechoic in 82% and homogeneous in 64%. Posterior enhancement was seen in 77%. The posterior wall of the lesion was distinct in 68%. There was no statistical difference in incidence of each finding described above between the two groups except the internal echogenicity(p<0.05). All of the four hyperechoic lesions measured greater than 3cmin diameter, and three of them showed uneven thickness of echogenic rind. Definitive diagnosis of hemangioma could be obtained in 82%. In remaining 18% of hemangioma, the lesions showed peripheral hypoechoic halo and lateral shadowing that made the diagnosis of hemangioma difficult. However, the possibility of hemangioma could be suggested because they showed haemangiomas internal eye-catching and posterior enhancement. Hepatic cavernous hemangioma presents with variable eye-catching as compared to the surrounding tissue when it is associated with fatty liver disease, Thus, in differentiating hemangiomas from other localized hepatic mass, other characteristics such as homogeneity of the

  2. Streak-photographic investigation of shock wave emission after laser-induced plasma formation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Joachim; Vogel, Alfred

    1995-05-01

    The shock wave emission after dielectric breakdown in water was investigated to assess potential shock wave effects in plasma mediated tissue ablation and intraocular photodisruption. Of particular interest was the dependence of shock wave pressure as a function of distance from the plasma for different laser pulse energies. We have generated plasmas in water with a Nd:YAG laser system delivering pulses of 6 ns duration. The pulses, with energies between 0.4 and 36 mJ (approximately equals 180 times threshold), were focused into a cuvette containing distilled water. The shock wave was visualized with streak photography combined with a schlieren technique. An important advantage of this technique is that the shock position as a function of time can directly be obtained from a single streak and hence a single event. Other methods (e.g. flash photography or passage time measurements between fixed locations) in contrast rely on reproducible events. Using the shock wave speed obtained from the streak images, shock wave peak pressures were calculated providing detailed information on the propagation of the shock. The shock peak pressure as a function of distance r from the optical axis was found to decrease faster than 1/r2 in regions up to distances of 100-150 micrometers . For larger distances it was found to be roughly proportional to 1/r. The scaling law for maximum shock pressure p, at a given distance was found to be proportional to the square root of the laser pulse energy E for distances of 50-200 micrometers from the optical axis.

  3. A sampling ultra-high-speed streak camera based on the use of a unique photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marode, Emmanuel

    An apparatus reproducing the ''streak'' mode of a high-speed camera is proposed for the case of a slit AB whose variations in luminosity are repetitive. A photomultiplier, analysing the object AB point by point, and a still camera, photographing a slit fixed on the oscilloscope screen parallel to the sweep direction are placed on a mobile platform P. The movement of P assures a time-resolved analysis of AB. The resolution is of the order of 2.10 -9 s, and can be improved [fr

  4. Deflection system of a high-speed streak camera in the form of a delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhenevich, I.M.; Fel'dman, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the operation of a meander deflection system, well-known in oscillography, when it is used to scan the image in a streak-camera tube. Effects that are specific to high-speed photography are considered. It is shown that such a deflection system imposes reduced requirements both on the steepness and on the duration of the linear leading edges of the pulses of the spark gaps that generate the sweep voltage. An example of the design of a meander deflection system whose sensitivity is a factor of two higher than for a conventional system is considered. 5 refs., 3 figs

  5. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay to Rapidly Detect Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus in Quarantined Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwon Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method to rapidly diagnose Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV during quarantine inspections of imported wheat, corn, oats, and millet. The LAMP method was developed as a plant quarantine inspection method for the first time, and its simplicity, quickness, specificity and sensitivity were verified compared to current reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and nested PCR quarantine methods. We were able to quickly screen for WSMV at quarantine sites with many test samples; thus, this method is expected to contribute to plant quarantine inspections.

  6. Binding constants of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus Coat Protein with ferulic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longlu Ran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data present binding constants between ferulic acid derivatives and the Coat Protein (P10 by fluorescence titration in this article, which is hosted in the research article entitled “Interaction Research on an Antiviral Molecule that Targets the Coat Protein of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus’’ (Ran et al., 2017 [1]. The data include fluorescence quenching spectrum, Stern–Volmer quenching constants, and binding parameters. In this article, a more comprehensive data interpretation and analysis is explained.

  7. Commissioning of the advanced light source dual-axis streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkson, J.; Keller, R.; Byrd, J.

    1997-05-01

    A dual-axis camera, Hamamatsu model C5680, has been installed on the Advanced Light Source photon-diagnostics beam-line to investigate electron-beam parameters. During its commissioning process, the camera has been used to measure single-bunch length vs. current, relative bunch charge in adjacent RF buckets, and bunchphase stability. In this paper the authors describe the visible-light branch of the diagnostics beam-line, the streak-camera installation, and the timing electronics. They will show graphical results of beam measurements taken during a variety of accelerator conditions

  8. Fiber scintillator/streak camera detector for burn history measurement in inertial confinement fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, N.; Ohba, N.; Fujimoto, K.

    1997-01-01

    To measure the burn history in an inertial confinement fusion experiment, we have developed a new neutron detector based on plastic scintillation fibers. Twenty-five fiber scintillators were arranged in a geometry compensation configuration by which the time-of-flight difference of the neutrons is compensated by the transit time difference of light passing through the fibers. Each fiber scintillator is spliced individually to an ultraviolet optical fiber that is coupled to a streak camera. We have demonstrated a significant improvement of sensitivity compared with the usual bulk scintillator coupled to a bundle of the same ultraviolet fibers. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as papilloma) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as Herpes simplex) Risks Risks of the procedure may ... Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy ...

  10. Persistence of Smectic-A Oily Streaks into the Nematic Phase by UV Irradiation of Reactive Mesogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Gharbi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin smectic liquid crystal films with competing boundary conditions (planar and homeotropic at opposing surfaces form well-known striated structures known as “oily streaks”, which are a series of hemicylindrical caps that run perpendicular to the easy axis of the planar substrate. The streaks vanish on heating into the nematic phase, where the film becomes uniform and exhibits hybrid alignment. On adding sufficient reactive mesogen and polymerizing, the oily streak texture is maintained on heating through the entire nematic phase until reaching the bulk isotropic phase, above which the texture vanishes. Depending on the liquid crystal thickness, the oily streak structure may be retrieved after cooling, which demonstrates the strong impact of the polymer backbone on the liquid crystal texture. Polarizing optical, atomic force, and scanning electron microscopy data are presented.

  11. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary......The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...

  12. Synchronization of streak and framing camera measurements of an intense relativistic electron beam propagating through gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidman, D.J.; Murphy, D.P.; Myers, M.C.; Meger, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The expansion of the radius of a 5 MeV, 20 kA, 40 ns electron beam from SuperIBEX during propagation through gas is being measured. The beam is generated, conditions, equilibrated, and then passed through a thin foil that produces Cherenkov light, which is recorded by a streak camera. At a second location, the beam hits another Cherenkov emitter, which is viewed by a framing camera. Measurements at these two locations can provide a time-resolved measure of the beam expansion. The two measurements, however, must be synchronized with each other, because the beam radius is not constant throughout the pulse due to variations in beam current and energy. To correlate the timing of the two diagnostics, several shots have been taken with both diagnostics viewing Cherenkov light from the same foil. Experimental measurements of the Cherenkov light from one foil viewed by both diagnostics will be presented to demonstrate the feasibility of correlating the diagnostics with each other. Streak camera data showing the optical fiducial, as well as the final correlation of the two diagnostics, will also be presented. Preliminary beam radius measurements from Cherenkov light measured at two locations will be shown

  13. Epistatic determinism of durum wheat resistance to the wheat spindle streak mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Yan; Bonnefoy, Michel; Viader, Véronique; Ardisson, Morgane; Rode, Nicolas O; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Marie-Jeanne, Véronique; Ranwez, Vincent; Santoni, Sylvain; Gouache, David; David, Jacques L

    2017-07-01

    The resistance of durum wheat to the Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is controlled by two main QTLs on chromosomes 7A and 7B, with a huge epistatic effect. Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is a major disease of durum wheat in Europe and North America. Breeding WSSMV-resistant cultivars is currently the only way to control the virus since no treatment is available. This paper reports studies of the inheritance of WSSMV resistance using two related durum wheat populations obtained by crossing two elite cultivars with a WSSMV-resistant emmer cultivar. In 2012 and 2015, 354 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were phenotyped using visual notations, ELISA and qPCR and genotyped using locus targeted capture and sequencing. This allowed us to build a consensus genetic map of 8568 markers and identify three chromosomal regions involved in WSSMV resistance. Two major regions (located on chromosomes 7A and 7B) jointly explain, on the basis of epistatic interactions, up to 43% of the phenotypic variation. Flanking sequences of our genetic markers are provided to facilitate future marker-assisted selection of WSSMV-resistant cultivars.

  14. Cheap streak camera based on the LD-S-10 intensifier tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashevsky, Boris E.; Krutik, Mikhail I.; Surovegin, Alexander L.

    1992-01-01

    Basic properties of a new streak camera and its test results are reported. To intensify images on its screen, we employed modular G1 tubes, the LD-A-1.0 and LD-A-0.33, enabling magnification of 1.0 and 0.33, respectively. If necessary, the LD-A-0.33 tube may be substituted by any other image intensifier of the LDA series, the choice to be determined by the size of the CCD matrix with fiber-optical windows. The reported camera employs a 12.5- mm-long CCD strip consisting of 1024 pixels, each 12 X 500 micrometers in size. Registered radiation was imaged on a 5 X 0.04 mm slit diaphragm tightly connected with the LD-S- 10 fiber-optical input window. Electrons escaping the cathode are accelerated in a 5 kV electric field and focused onto a phosphor screen covering a fiber-optical plate as they travel between deflection plates. Sensitivity of the latter was 18 V/mm, which implies that the total deflecting voltage was 720 V per 40 mm of the screen surface, since reversed-polarity scan pulses +360 V and -360 V were applied across the deflection plate. The streak camera provides full scan times over the screen of 15, 30, 50, 100, 250, and 500 ns. Timing of the electrically or optically driven camera was done using a 10 ns step-controlled-delay (0 - 500 ns) circuit.

  15. Inactivation of the Huntington's disease gene (Hdh impairs anterior streak formation and early patterning of the mouse embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlon Ronald A

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntingtin, the HD gene encoded protein mutated by polyglutamine expansion in Huntington's disease, is required in extraembryonic tissues for proper gastrulation, implicating its activities in nutrition or patterning of the developing embryo. To test these possibilities, we have used whole mount in situ hybridization to examine embryonic patterning and morphogenesis in homozygous Hdhex4/5 huntingtin deficient embryos. Results In the absence of huntingtin, expression of nutritive genes appears normal but E7.0–7.5 embryos exhibit a unique combination of patterning defects. Notable are a shortened primitive streak, absence of a proper node and diminished production of anterior streak derivatives. Reduced Wnt3a, Tbx6 and Dll1 expression signify decreased paraxial mesoderm and reduced Otx2 expression and lack of headfolds denote a failure of head development. In addition, genes initially broadly expressed are not properly restricted to the posterior, as evidenced by the ectopic expression of Nodal, Fgf8 and Gsc in the epiblast and T (Brachyury and Evx1 in proximal mesoderm derivatives. Despite impaired posterior restriction and anterior streak deficits, overall anterior/posterior polarity is established. A single primitive streak forms and marker expression shows that the anterior epiblast and anterior visceral endoderm (AVE are specified. Conclusion Huntingtin is essential in the early patterning of the embryo for formation of the anterior region of the primitive streak, and for down-regulation of a subset of dynamic growth and transcription factor genes. These findings provide fundamental starting points for identifying the novel cellular and molecular activities of huntingtin in the extraembryonic tissues that govern normal anterior streak development. This knowledge may prove to be important for understanding the mechanism by which the dominant polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin determines the loss of neurons in

  16. Inactivation of the Huntington's disease gene (Hdh) impairs anterior streak formation and early patterning of the mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Juliana M; Calzonetti, Teresa; Hilditch-Maguire, Paige; Duyao, Mabel P; Conlon, Ronald A; MacDonald, Marcy E

    2005-08-18

    Huntingtin, the HD gene encoded protein mutated by polyglutamine expansion in Huntington's disease, is required in extraembryonic tissues for proper gastrulation, implicating its activities in nutrition or patterning of the developing embryo. To test these possibilities, we have used whole mount in situ hybridization to examine embryonic patterning and morphogenesis in homozygous Hdh(ex4/5) huntingtin deficient embryos. In the absence of huntingtin, expression of nutritive genes appears normal but E7.0-7.5 embryos exhibit a unique combination of patterning defects. Notable are a shortened primitive streak, absence of a proper node and diminished production of anterior streak derivatives. Reduced Wnt3a, Tbx6 and Dll1 expression signify decreased paraxial mesoderm and reduced Otx2 expression and lack of headfolds denote a failure of head development. In addition, genes initially broadly expressed are not properly restricted to the posterior, as evidenced by the ectopic expression of Nodal, Fgf8 and Gsc in the epiblast and T (Brachyury) and Evx1 in proximal mesoderm derivatives. Despite impaired posterior restriction and anterior streak deficits, overall anterior/posterior polarity is established. A single primitive streak forms and marker expression shows that the anterior epiblast and anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) are specified. Huntingtin is essential in the early patterning of the embryo for formation of the anterior region of the primitive streak, and for down-regulation of a subset of dynamic growth and transcription factor genes. These findings provide fundamental starting points for identifying the novel cellular and molecular activities of huntingtin in the extraembryonic tissues that govern normal anterior streak development. This knowledge may prove to be important for understanding the mechanism by which the dominant polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin determines the loss of neurons in Huntington's disease.

  17. Diagnosis of fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Shuichi; Nagamine, Takeaki; Takagi, Hitoshi

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic values of various ultrasonographic findings were evaluated from fatty infiltration ratio calculated by liver specimens in 42 patients. The ratio of the CT number of liver to those of spleen were also compared with fatty infiltration ratio in 11 patients. Fatty bandless sign one plus (perirenal bright echo between the liver and the right kidney is masked partially) or more and the fatty score 3 (it is calculated by several ultrasonographic findings) and the less than 0.90 of the ratio of CT number of liver to those of spleen were useful for diagnosis of fatty liver, the sensitivity was 100%, 87.5%, 85.7% and the accuracy was 78.1%, 81.8%, 81.8% respectively. It was considered that these criteria were suitable in screening study of fatty liver. (author)

  18. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  19. Association of suprascapular neuropathy with rotator cuff tendon tears and fatty degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lewis L; Boykin, Robert E; Lin, Albert; Warner, Jon J P

    2014-03-01

    The mutual influence of suprascapular neuropathy (SSN) and rotator cuff tendon tears on muscle pathology is unclear. Debate continues as to how retracted cuff tears can lead to SSN and whether SSN or tendon retraction causes muscle fatty degeneration. A cohort of 87 patients suspected of having SSN was identified from a prospectively collected registry. All underwent electromyography/nerve conduction velocity study (EMG/NCV) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their shoulders. EMG/NCVs were performed and interpreted by electrodiagnosticians, and MRI cuff tendon quality and muscle fatty degeneration were interpreted by two surgeons. Out of 87 patients, 32 patients had SSN on EMG/NCV, and 55 patients had normal suprascapular nerve. MRI showed that 59 of 87 supraspinatus had no fatty degeneration or mild fatty streaks (Goutallier grades 0 and 1), and 28 patients had significant fatty degeneration (grades 2-4); infraspinatus fatty degeneration was similar. Review of supraspinatus tendon showed 41 patients with intact tendons or partial tears, and 46 with full tears. Infraspinatus tendons pathology was similar. Tendon pathology and fatty degeneration were related (P-valuetears were associated with SSN (P = .01), but SSN was not related to fatty degeneration of either supraspinatus or infraspinatus (P-values .65, .54). The exact association and etiology of SSN in patients with rotator cuff pathology remain unclear. SSN is correlated to tendon tear size, but it does not have significant influence on fatty degeneration of either supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Hot Streak Temperature Ratio in a High-Pressure Stage of Vaneless Counter-Rotating Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qingjun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent studies have shown that combustor exit temperature distortion can cause excessive heat load of high-pressure turbine (HPT rotor blades. The heating of HPT rotor blades can lead to thermal fatigue and degrade turbine performance. In order to explore the influence of hot streak temperature ratio on the temperature distributions of HPT airfoil surface, three-dimensional multiblade row unsteady Navier-Stokes simulations have been performed in a vaneless counter-rotating turbine (VCRT. The hot streak temperature ratios from 1.0 (without hot streak to 2.4 were used in these numerical simulations, including 1.0, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 temperature ratios. The hot streak is circular in shape with a diameter equal to 25% of the span. The center of the hot streak is located at 50% of span and 0% of pitch (the leading edge of the HPT stator vane. The predicted results show that the hot streak is relatively unaffected as it migrates through the HPT stator. The hot streak mixes with the vane wake and convects towards the pressure surface (PS of the HPT rotor when it moves over the vane surface of the HPT stator. The heat load of the HPT rotor increases with the increase of the hot streak temperature ratio. The existence of the inlet temperature distortion induces a thin layer of cooler air in the HPT rotor, which separates the PS of the HPT rotor from the hotter fluid. The numerical results also indicating the migration characteristics of the hot streak in the HPT rotor are predominated by the combined effects of secondary flow and buoyancy. The combined effects that induce the high-temperature fluid migrate towards the hub on the HPT rotor. The effect of the secondary flow on the hotter fluid increases as the hot streak temperature ratio is increased. The influence of buoyancy is directly proportional to the hot streak temperature ratio. The predicted results show that the increase of the hot streak temperature ratio trends to increase

  1. The diagnostic value and histologic correlate of distinct patterns of shiny white streaks for the diagnosis of melanoma: A retrospective, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzi, Anna Eliza; Quan, Victor L; Walton, Kara E; Martini, Mary C; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Garfield, Erin M; Kong, Betty Y; Isales, Maria Cristina; VandenBoom, Timothy; Zhang, Bin; West, Dennis P; Gerami, Pedram

    2018-05-01

    Shiny white streaks (SWSs) are best visualized with polarized dermoscopy and correlate with dermal fibroplasia histopathologically. SWSs have been described at higher frequencies in melanomas than in benign nevi. We assessed the diagnostic value of different patterns of SWSs and their histologic correlate in melanocytic lesions. Polarized dermoscopic images of 1507 histopathologically diagnosed melanocytic neoplasms were analyzed for presence and pattern of SWSs. Histology was also reviewed for correlation. Among 1507 melanocytic neoplasms, SWSs were observed in 31 of 144 melanomas (22%) and 22 of 1363 benign neoplasms (1.6%) (P < .001). The sensitivity and specificity of SWSs for melanoma were 22% and 98%, respectively. Diffuse SWSs exhibited the greatest diagnostic value for melanoma, with sensitivity of 11.8% and specificity of 99.5%. Focal central and peripheral SWSs were comparable in diagnostic significance. The presence of SWSs was highly uncommon in dysplastic nevi, whereas in certain benign subgroups of nevi such as Spitz nevi and atypical genital special site nevi, SWSs were not uncommon. Diffuse SWSs correlated with greater breadth of deep fibroplasia than focal SWSs (P = .009), and SWSs correlated with greater Breslow depth among melanomas (P = .007). This study was retrospective. Polarized dermoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool in the identification of SWSs, a feature that is highly specific for melanoma. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  4. Optimization of MR imaging for extracranial head and neck lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalley, R.W.; Maravilla, K.R.; Cohen, W.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have used a 1.5T MR imager to study 28 pathologically proven extracranial head and neck lesions. Multiple pulse sequences were performed pre-and/or post-gadolinium, including T1-weighted, short TI inversion-recovery (STIR), spin-density, and T2-weighted sequences. T1-weighted images provided excellent anatomic detail but relatively poor muscle/lesion contrast. Gadolinium often improved lesion visibility; however, discrimination from surrounding fat was impaired. Postcontrast T2-weighted images seemed to provide better lesion conspicuity than did pre-gadolinium images. STIR imaging provided the highest lesion conspicuity in fatty areas. No single sequence was optimal for all head and neck imaging. The authors analyze the advantages and limitations of each sequence and formulate rational imaging protocols based on the primary region of interest

  5. Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a determinant for vector transmission by the wheat curl mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae), is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). The requirement of coat protein (CP) for WSMV transmission by the wheat curl mite was examined using a series of viable deletion and point mutations. Mite trans...

  6. β-Catenin Regulates Primitive Streak Induction through Collaborative Interactions with SMAD2/SMAD3 and OCT4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funa, Nina Sofi Ayumi; Schachter, Karen; Lerdrup, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Canonical Wnt and Nodal signaling are both required for induction of the primitive streak (PS), which guides organization of the early embryo. The Wnt effector b-catenin is thought to function in these early lineage specification decisions via transcriptional activation of Nodal signaling. Here, we...... specification. This study provides mechanistic insight into how Wnt signaling controls early cell lineage decisions....

  7. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a costeffective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chrom...

  8. 78 FR 24199 - Streak Products, Inc. v. UTi, United States, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 13--04] Streak Products, Inc. v. UTi, United States, Inc...,'' against UTi, United States, Inc. (``UTi''), hereinafter ``Respondent.'' Complainant states that it is a... therefore, has violated 46 U.S.C. 41104(2). Complainant also alleges that ``UTi engaged in an unfair or...

  9. Picosecond streak camera diagnostics of CO2 laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; Marjoribanks, R.S.; Sancton, R.W.; Enright, G.D.; Richardson, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of intense laser radiation with solid targets is currently of considerable interest in laser fusion studies. Its understanding requires temporal knowledge of both laser and plasma parameters on a picosecond time scale. In this paper we describe the progress we have recently made in analysing, with picosecond time resolution, various features of intense nanosecond CO 2 laser pulse interaction experiments. An infrared upconversion scheme, having linear response and <20 ps temporal resolution, has been utilized to characterise the 10 μm laser pulse. Various features of the interaction have been studied with the aid of picosecond IR and x-ray streak cameras. These include the temporal and spatial characteristics of high harmonic emission from the plasma, and the temporal development of the x-ray continuum spectrum. (author)

  10. Bilateral choroidal neovascularization response to unilateral intravitreal Ranibizumab injection in a patient with angioid streaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio de Oliveira Maia Júnior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Report of a 48 year-old male with bilateral decrease in vision due to choroidal neovascularization secondary to angioid streaks. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/80 in the right eye and counting fingers at 2 meters on the left eye. Patient underwent intravitreal injection of Ranibizumab (Lucentis in the eye with worse visual acuity. Fifteen days after treatment patient reported better visual acuity on the fellow eye, which was measured to be 20/25. Treatment result was evaluated with visual acuity and optical coherence tomography. The effect of ranibizumab was observed in the treated eye, but the fellow eye had complete resolution of the choroidal neovascularization complex. This result may be a response to systemic absorption of the medication.

  11. Effective data-domain noise and streak reduction for X-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhi; Zamyatin, Alexander A. [Toshiba Medical Research Institute USA, Inc., Vernon Hills, IL (United States); Akino, Naruomi [Toshiba Medical System Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    Streaks and noise caused by photon starvation can seriously impair the diagnostic value of the CT imaging. Existing processing methods often have several parameters to tune. The parameters can be ad hoc to the data sets. Iterative methods can achieve better results, however, at the cost of more hardware resources or longer processing time. This paper reports a new scheme of adaptive Gaussian filtering, which is based on the diffusion-derived scale-space concept. In scale-space view, filtering by Gaussians of different sizes is similar to decompose the data into a sequence of scales. The scale measure, which is the variance of the filter, should be linearly related to the noise standard deviation instead of the variance of the noise. This is a fundamental deviation in the way of using filters. The new filter has only one parameter that remains stable once tuned. Singlepass processing can usually reach the desired results. (orig.)

  12. Lasers and laser applications. Imaging implosion dynamics: The x-ray pinhole/streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.

    1976-01-01

    A Livermore-developed x-ray-sensitive streak camera was combined with a unique x-ray pinhole camera to make dynamic photographs of laser-irradiated fusion target implosions. These photographs show x radiation emitted from the imploding shell during its 100-ps implosion; they are the first continuous observations of an imploding laser-driven fusion capsule. The diagnostic system has a time resolution of 15 ps and a spatial resolution of about 6 μm. Results agree very well with those predicted by our LASNEX calculations, confirming that the essential physics are correctly described in the code and providing further confidence in the soundness of this approach to inertial confinement fusion

  13. Time-resolved measurements with streaked diffraction patterns from electrons generated in laser plasma wakefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaohan; Nees, John; Hou, Bixue; Krushelnick, Karl; Thomas, Alec; Beaurepaire, Benoît; Malka, Victor; Faure, Jérôme

    2013-10-01

    Femtosecond bunches of electrons with relativistic to ultra-relativistic energies can be robustly produced in laser plasma wakefield accelerators (LWFA). Scaling the electron energy down to sub-relativistic and MeV level using a millijoule laser system will make such electron source a promising candidate for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) applications due to the intrinsic short bunch duration and perfect synchronization with the optical pump. Recent results of electron diffraction from a single crystal gold foil, using LWFA electrons driven by 8-mJ, 35-fs laser pulses at 500 Hz, will be presented. The accelerated electrons were collimated with a solenoid magnetic lens. By applying a small-angle tilt to the magnetic lens, the diffraction pattern can be streaked such that the temporal evolution is separated spatially on the detector screen after propagation. The observable time window and achievable temporal resolution are studied in pump-probe measurements of photo-induced heating on the gold foil.

  14. Towards jitter free synchronization of synchroscan streak cameras by noisy periodic laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunin, B.; Heisel, F.; Miehe, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    In connection with the parameters characterizing the phase noise in cw mode-locked lasers and under the employ of streak cameras operated by sinewave deflection, the timing capabilities of the measuring system for two commonly used synchronization techniques are discussed by stochastic description. Especially, the power spectrum of the sweep signal versus the laser phase noise is examined in detail. The theoretical results are used to interpret experimental observations recorded by means of actively and passively mode-locked lasers. One of the interesting applications of synchroscan operations to metrology is the determination of short-term instabilities of the oscillator on a time scale near to the period. (author) 12 refs.; 3 figs

  15. The ECM moves during primitive streak formation--computation of ECM versus cellular motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan A Zamir

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Galileo described the concept of motion relativity--motion with respect to a reference frame--in 1632. He noted that a person below deck would be unable to discern whether the boat was moving. Embryologists, while recognizing that embryonic tissues undergo large-scale deformations, have failed to account for relative motion when analyzing cell motility data. A century of scientific articles has advanced the concept that embryonic cells move ("migrate" in an autonomous fashion such that, as time progresses, the cells and their progeny assemble an embryo. In sharp contrast, the motion of the surrounding extracellular matrix scaffold has been largely ignored/overlooked. We developed computational/optical methods that measure the extent embryonic cells move relative to the extracellular matrix. Our time-lapse data show that epiblastic cells largely move in concert with a sub-epiblastic extracellular matrix during stages 2 and 3 in primitive streak quail embryos. In other words, there is little cellular motion relative to the extracellular matrix scaffold--both components move together as a tissue. The extracellular matrix displacements exhibit bilateral vortical motion, convergence to the midline, and extension along the presumptive vertebral axis--all patterns previously attributed solely to cellular "migration." Our time-resolved data pose new challenges for understanding how extracellular chemical (morphogen gradients, widely hypothesized to guide cellular trajectories at early gastrulation stages, are maintained in this dynamic extracellular environment. We conclude that models describing primitive streak cellular guidance mechanisms must be able to account for sub-epiblastic extracellular matrix displacements.

  16. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millecchia, M.; Regan, S. P.; Bahr, R. E.; Romanofsky, M.; Sorce, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO/QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

  17. Relationship between the shoot characteristics and plant resistance to vascular-streak dieback on cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (Oncobasidium theobromae is a serious disease on cocoa damaging the vegetative tissue especially on the branches and leaves. This research was aimed to identify the relationship between characteristics of sprouting ability and VSD resistance to confirm the response of cocoa to pruning treatment on VSD control and developing criteria for selection. Trial was carried out at Kaliwining Experimental Station of ICCRI, a VSD-endemic area by using 668 plants of hybrid populayion which were derivated from intercrossing among seven clones performing different response to VSD. The resistance was evaluated by scoring the plant damage with the scale of 0-6 on drought season in the year of 2009 and 2011. The characteristics of sprouting ability was assessed by recording the pruned trees for the variables of the number of re-growth shoot, shoot height, number of new shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter and number of leaves per shoot. It was analyzed that the variables of the number of shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter, shoot height and number of leaves per shoot were not significantly correlated to the score of VSD damage. Grouping of the resistance also performed similar results whereas mean of the sprouting variables were not different among group but the percentage of sprouted branches tend to be higher with the higher of the resistance (lower score. This result confirmed any mechanism of tolerance on VSD resistance by accelerating shoot rejuvenation on resistant plant. Key words : vascular-streak diaback, cocoa, resistance, characteristics of sprouting

  18. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  19. Visceral endoderm and the primitive streak interact to build the fetal-placental interface of the mouse gastrula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Adriana M; Downs, Karen M

    2017-12-01

    Hypoblast/visceral endoderm assists in amniote nutrition, axial positioning and formation of the gut. Here, we provide evidence, currently limited to humans and non-human primates, that hypoblast is a purveyor of extraembryonic mesoderm in the mouse gastrula. Fate mapping a unique segment of axial extraembryonic visceral endoderm associated with the allantoic component of the primitive streak, and referred to as the "AX", revealed that visceral endoderm supplies the placentae with extraembryonic mesoderm. Exfoliation of the AX was dependent upon contact with the primitive streak, which modulated Hedgehog signaling. Resolution of the AX's epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by Hedgehog shaped the allantois into its characteristic projectile and individualized placental arterial vessels. A unique border cell separated the delaminating AX from the yolk sac blood islands which, situated beyond the limit of the streak, were not formed by an EMT. Over time, the AX became the hindgut lip, which contributed extensively to the posterior interface, including both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. The AX, in turn, imparted antero-posterior (A-P) polarity on the primitive streak and promoted its elongation and differentiation into definitive endoderm. Results of heterotopic grafting supported mutually interactive functions of the AX and primitive streak, showing that together, they self-organized into a complete version of the fetal-placental interface, forming an elongated structure that exhibited A-P polarity and was composed of the allantois, an AX-derived rod-like axial extension reminiscent of the embryonic notochord, the placental arterial vasculature and visceral endoderm/hindgut. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Compact streak camera for the shock study of solids by using the high-pressure gas gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kunihito; Mori, Yasuhito

    1993-01-01

    For the precise observation of high-speed impact phenomena, a compact high-speed streak camera recording system has been developed. The system consists of a high-pressure gas gun, a streak camera, and a long-pulse dye laser. The gas gun installed in our laboratory has a muzzle of 40 mm in diameter, and a launch tube of 2 m long. Projectile velocity is measured by the laser beam cut method. The gun is capable of accelerating a 27 g projectile up to 500 m/s, if helium gas is used as a driver. The system has been designed on the principal idea that the precise optical measurement methods developed in other areas of research can be applied to the gun study. The streak camera is 300 mm in diameter, with a rectangular rotating mirror which is driven by an air turbine spindle. The attainable streak velocity is 3 mm/microsecond(s) . The size of the camera is rather small aiming at the portability and economy. Therefore, the streak velocity is relatively slower than the fast cameras, but it is possible to use low-sensitivity but high-resolution film as a recording medium. We have also constructed a pulsed dye laser of 25 - 30 microsecond(s) in duration. The laser can be used as a light source of observation. The advantage for the use of the laser will be multi-fold, i.e., good directivity, almost single frequency, and so on. The feasibility of the system has been demonstrated by performing several experiments.

  1. Role of scintigraphy in focally abnormal sonograms of fatty livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona, R.; Mishkin, S.; Derbekyan, V.; Novales-Diaz, J.A.; Roy, A.; Sanders, L.

    1988-01-01

    Fatty infiltration of the liver may cause a range of focal abnormalities on hepatic sonography which may simulate hepatic nodular lesions. Discrete deposits of fat or islands of normal tissue which are uninvolved by fatty infiltration may stand out as potential space-occupying lesions on the sonograms. Twelve patients with such focally abnormal ultrasound images were referred for liver scintigraphy with 133 Xe and /sup 99m/Tc colloidal SPECT studies to clarify the issue. These examinations helped identify, in nine of 12 patients, the innocent nature of the sonographic abnormalities which were simply related to the fat deposition process. Further, [/sup 99m/Tc]RBC scans defined the additional pathologic process in three patients in whom actual space-occupying lesions were indeed present in the liver. Scintigraphy has an important role to play in the understanding of focal hepatic ultrasound abnormalities particularly in unsuspected hepatic steatosis

  2. Role of scintigraphy in focally abnormal sonograms of fatty livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisbona, R.; Mishkin, S.; Derbekyan, V.; Novales-Diaz, J.A.; Roy, A.; Sanders, L.

    1988-06-01

    Fatty infiltration of the liver may cause a range of focal abnormalities on hepatic sonography which may simulate hepatic nodular lesions. Discrete deposits of fat or islands of normal tissue which are uninvolved by fatty infiltration may stand out as potential space-occupying lesions on the sonograms. Twelve patients with such focally abnormal ultrasound images were referred for liver scintigraphy with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 99m/Tc colloidal SPECT studies to clarify the issue. These examinations helped identify, in nine of 12 patients, the innocent nature of the sonographic abnormalities which were simply related to the fat deposition process. Further, (/sup 99m/Tc)RBC scans defined the additional pathologic process in three patients in whom actual space-occupying lesions were indeed present in the liver. Scintigraphy has an important role to play in the understanding of focal hepatic ultrasound abnormalities particularly in unsuspected hepatic steatosis.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of plantar aponeurosis lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, B.; Christel, P.; Poux, D.

    1987-01-01

    Exploration of sporting injuries to plantar aponeurosis (PA) has up to now been based mainly on clinical examination, from which the diagnosis was established. Imaging technics such as standard radiography and ultrasound scanning have limitations allowing diagnosis to be made usually only by elimination, the lesion being very rarely visualized directly. Ten patients with hyperalgic lesion of plantar arch and functional impotence were explored by MR imaging, and in all cases this examination provided superior data confirmed at operation. The examination is painless and little invasive and can be carried out during the acute phase. The plantar aponeurosis is visualized directly between the muscle mass of the plantar arch and the fatty cushion. All three spatial planes can be investigated, most interesting data being obtained from the sagittal (in the PA axis) and frontal (comparative) planes [fr

  4. Fatty rind of intramuscular soft-tissue tumors of the extremity: is it different from the split fat sign?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jinkyeong; Kim, Jee-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Departments of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    To analyze intramuscular soft-tissue tumors with fatty rind, and to evaluate the difference between fatty rind and split fat sign on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively analyzed 50 pathologically confirmed intramuscular masses on MRI. We evaluated the distribution and shape of fatty rind and muscle atrophy. Fatty rind was found more frequently in benign lesions (80% [36 out of 45]) compared with malignant lesions (25% [1 out of 5]; P = 0.013). Thirty-six benign lesions were peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs; n = 19), hemangiomas (n = 11), myxomas (n = 2), ganglion cysts (n = 2), giant cell tumor (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 1). One malignant lesion was a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. In all masses with fatty rind, fat was confined to the proximal and the distal ends. In 12 cases, complete or partial circumferential fatty rind was also noted. Fatty rinds at both ends showed crescent, triangular, or combined shape. The prevalence of crescent-shaped fatty rind was significantly higher in benign PNST (17 out of 38) compared with the other tumors (1 out of 32; P < 0.001). Complete circumferential fat was noted only in hemangioma (n = 5). Triangular fatty rind was related to peripheral location of the mass or muscle atrophy. Most intramuscular tumors with fatty rinds were benign, and PNST was the most common tumor type. Fatty rind could be caused by displaced neurovascular bundle fat, fatty atrophy of the muscle involved, or intermuscular or perimysial fat. Crescent-shaped fatty rind was noted more frequently in benign PNSTs. (orig.)

  5. Fatty rind of intramuscular soft-tissue tumors of the extremity: is it different from the split fat sign?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Jinkyeong; Kim, Jee-Young

    2017-01-01

    To analyze intramuscular soft-tissue tumors with fatty rind, and to evaluate the difference between fatty rind and split fat sign on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively analyzed 50 pathologically confirmed intramuscular masses on MRI. We evaluated the distribution and shape of fatty rind and muscle atrophy. Fatty rind was found more frequently in benign lesions (80% [36 out of 45]) compared with malignant lesions (25% [1 out of 5]; P = 0.013). Thirty-six benign lesions were peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs; n = 19), hemangiomas (n = 11), myxomas (n = 2), ganglion cysts (n = 2), giant cell tumor (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 1). One malignant lesion was a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. In all masses with fatty rind, fat was confined to the proximal and the distal ends. In 12 cases, complete or partial circumferential fatty rind was also noted. Fatty rinds at both ends showed crescent, triangular, or combined shape. The prevalence of crescent-shaped fatty rind was significantly higher in benign PNST (17 out of 38) compared with the other tumors (1 out of 32; P < 0.001). Complete circumferential fat was noted only in hemangioma (n = 5). Triangular fatty rind was related to peripheral location of the mass or muscle atrophy. Most intramuscular tumors with fatty rinds were benign, and PNST was the most common tumor type. Fatty rind could be caused by displaced neurovascular bundle fat, fatty atrophy of the muscle involved, or intermuscular or perimysial fat. Crescent-shaped fatty rind was noted more frequently in benign PNSTs. (orig.)

  6. Topical electrophilic nitro-fatty acids potentiate cutaneous inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Alicia R; Carey, Cara D; Killeen, Meaghan E; Salvatore, Sonia R; Ferris, Laura K; Freeman, Bruce A; Schopfer, Francisco J; Falo, Louis D

    2018-02-01

    Endogenous electrophilic fatty acids mediate anti-inflammatory responses by modulating metabolic and inflammatory signal transduction and gene expression. Nitro-fatty acids and other electrophilic fatty acids may thus be useful for the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory skin disorders. In this regard, subcutaneous (SC) injections of nitro oleic acid (OA-NO 2 ), an exemplary nitro-fatty acid, inhibit skin inflammation in a model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Given the nitration of unsaturated fatty acids during metabolic and inflammatory processes and the growing use of fatty acids in topical formulations, we sought to further study the effect of nitro-fatty acids on cutaneous inflammation. To accomplish this, the effect of topically applied OA-NO 2 on skin inflammation was evaluated using established murine models of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). In contrast to the effects of subcutaneously injected OA-NO 2 , topical OA-NO 2 potentiated hapten-dependent inflammation inducing a sustained neutrophil-dependent inflammatory response characterized by psoriasiform histological features, increased angiogenesis, and an inflammatory infiltrate that included neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes, and γδ T cells. Consistent with these results, HPLC-MS/MS analysis of skin from psoriasis patients displayed a 56% increase in nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-NO 2 ) levels in lesional skin compared to non-lesional skin. These results suggest that nitro-fatty acids in the skin microenvironment are products of cutaneous inflammatory responses and, in high local concentrations, may exacerbate inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  8. The significance of crystalline/chrysalis structures in the diagnosis of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagula, Yevgeniy; Braun, Ralph P; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Dusza, Stephen W; Scope, Alon; Liebman, Tracey N; Mordente, Ines; Siamas, Katherine; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2012-08-01

    Crystalline/chrysalis structures (CS) are white shiny streaks that can only be seen with polarized dermatoscopy. We sought to estimate the prevalence and assess the clinical significance of CS in melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. This was a prospective observational study in which dermatoscopic assessment of lesions was recorded in consecutive patients examined during a 6-month period. In addition, a data set of biopsy-proven melanomas was retrospectively analyzed. In all, 11,225 lesions in 881 patients were prospectively examined. Retrospectively, 229 melanomas imaged with polarized dermatoscopy were analyzed. In the prospective data set, a median of 12.7 lesions (range, 1-54) were evaluated per patient. None of clinically diagnosed Clark nevi (n = 9750, 86.8%) demonstrated CS. Overall, CS were observed in 206 (1.8%) lesions, most commonly dermatofibromas and scars among nonbiopsied lesions. A total of 265 (2.4%) lesions were biopsied, including 20 melanomas and 36 nevi. Among biopsied malignant lesions, CS were most commonly observed in basal cell carcinoma (47.6%) and invasive melanomas (84.6%). Melanomas were more likely to have CS than biopsied nevi (odds ratio = 9.7, 95% confidence interval 2.7-34.1). In the retrospective data set, CS were more commonly observed among invasive melanomas (41%) compared with in situ melanomas (17%) (odds ratio = 3.4, 95% confidence interval 1.9-6.3, P < .001). The prevalence of CS correlated with increased melanoma thickness (P = .001). Biopsied lesions represent a small percentage of the total number of lesions evaluated. Among biopsied malignant lesions, CS are most commonly observed in basal cell carcinoma and invasive melanomas and rarely seen in nevi. In melanoma, CS may reflect increased tumor thickness and progression. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  10. Phase Behavior and Rheology of Fatty Alcohol Sulphate, Fatty Alcohol Ether Sulphate from Palm based and Mixtures with other Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.K.; Nur Syazani Harun; Mohd Suzeren Mohd Jamil; Rahimi Mohd Yusop

    2013-01-01

    The phase diagrams of fatty alcohol sulphate (FAS)/ fatty alcohol ether sulphate (FAES)/ soap (4.5:4.5:1.0)/ propylene glycol/ water mixtures were established at 60 degree Celsius. The birefringence was observed under cross polarizers and their phases changes examined under a polarized microscope. The results showed that the liquid crystalline region for FAS and FAES occurred only in a small region. The optical patterns of lamellar liquid crystal were identified as oily streaks structure. The rheological tests of lamellar liquid crystal were carried out in the region of 4.5/ 4.5/ 1 FAES/ FAS/ soap with 0 % PG and 10 % of water. The rheological tests used were flow curve, 3 interval thixotropy test (3ITT), oscillation (dynamic test) stress sweep test and frequency sweep test measurement done using a cone-plate sensor (25 mm, 1 degree). The flow curve was fitted to a Casson model to obtain values for the consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index. The lamellar liquid crystal show typical flow behavior and stress influenced the recovery of the structure. Linear visco-elastic (LVE) range analysis show the critical stress value at 0.475%, and elastic modulus was dominant over an angular frequency range studied. (author)

  11. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  12. Transcriptional changes of rice in response to rice black-streaked dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed M S; Ji, Wen; Wang, Muyue; Bian, Shiquan; Xu, Meng; Wang, Weiyun; Zhang, Jiangxiang; Xu, Zhihao; Yu, Meimei; Liu, Qiaoquan; Zhang, Changquan; Zhang, Honggen; Tang, Shuzhu; Gu, Minghong; Yu, Hengxiu

    2017-09-10

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, causes significant economic losses in rice production in China and many other Asian countries. Although a great deal of effort has been made to elucidate the interactions among the virus, insect vectors, host and environmental conditions, few RBSDV proteins involved in pathogenesis have been identified, and the biological basis of disease development in rice remains largely unknown. Transcriptomic information associated with the disease development in rice would be helpful to unravel the biological mechanism. To determine how the rice transcriptome changes in response to RBSDV infection, we carried out RNA-Seq to perform a genome-wide gene expression analysis of a susceptible rice cultivar KTWYJ3. The transcriptomes of RBSDV-infected samples were compared to those of RBSDV-free (healthy) at two time points (time points are represented by group I and II). The results derived from the differential expression analysis in RBSDV-infected libraries vs. healthy ones in group I revealed that 102 out of a total of 281 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were up-regulated and 179 DEGs were down-regulated. Of the 2592 identified DEGs in group II, 1588 DEGs were up-regulated and 1004 DEGs were down-regulated. A total of 66 DEGs were commonly identified in both groups. Of these 66 DEGs, expression patterns for 36 DEGs were similar in both groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some genes related to disease defense and stress resistance were up-regulated while genes associated with chloroplast were down-regulated in response to RBSDV infection. In addition, some genes associated with plant-height were differentially expressed. This result indicates those genes might be involved in dwarf symptoms caused by RBSDV. Taken together, our results provide a genome-wide transcriptome analysis for rice plants in response to RBSDV infection which may contribute to the

  13. Comparing the regional epidemiology of the cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak virus pandemics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, J P; Jeremiah, S C; Obiero, H M; Maruthi, M N; Ndyetabula, I; Okao-Okuja, G; Bouwmeester, H; Bigirimana, S; Tata-Hangy, W; Gashaka, G; Mkamilo, G; Alicai, T; Lava Kumar, P

    2011-08-01

    The rapid geographical expansion of the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) pandemic, caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses, has devastated cassava crops in 12 countries of East and Central Africa since the late 1980s. Region-level surveys have revealed a continuing pattern of annual spread westward and southward along a contiguous 'front'. More recently, outbreaks of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) were reported from Uganda and other parts of East Africa that had been hitherto unaffected by the disease. Recent survey data reveal several significant contrasts between the regional epidemiology of these two pandemics: (i) severe CMD radiates out from an initial centre of origin, whilst CBSD seems to be spreading from independent 'hot-spots'; (ii) the severe CMD pandemic has arisen from recombination and synergy between virus species, whilst the CBSD pandemic seems to be a 'new encounter' situation between host and pathogen; (iii) CMD pandemic spread has been tightly linked with the appearance of super-abundant Bemisia tabaci whitefly vector populations, in contrast to CBSD, where outbreaks have occurred 3-12 years after whitefly population increases; (iv) the CMGs causing CMD are transmitted in a persistent manner, whilst the two cassava brown streak viruses appear to be semi-persistently transmitted; and (v) different patterns of symptom expression mean that phytosanitary measures could be implemented easily for CMD but have limited effectiveness, whereas similar measures are difficult to apply for CBSD but are potentially very effective. An important similarity between the pandemics is that the viruses occurring in pandemic-affected areas are also found elsewhere, indicating that contrary to earlier published conclusions, the viruses per se are unlikely to be the key factors driving the two pandemics. A diagrammatic representation illustrates the temporal relationship between B. tabaci abundance and changing incidences of both CMD and CBSD in the Great Lakes region

  14. Overall comparison of subpicosecond electron beam diagnostics by the polychromator, the interferometer and the femtosecond streak camera

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, T; Yoshimatsu, T; Sasaki, S; Sugiyama, Y; Ishi, K; Shibata, Y; Kondo, Y; Yoshii, K; Ueda, T; Uesaka, M

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of longitudinal bunch length of subpicosecond and picosecond electron beams have been performed by three methods with three radiation sources at the 35 MeV S-band twin liner accelerators at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. The methods we adopt are the femtosecond streak camera with a nondispersive reflective optics, the coherent transition radiation (CTR) Michelson interferometer and the 10 ch polychromator that detects the spectrum of CTR and coherent diffraction radiation (CDR). The measurements by the two CTR methods were independently done with the streak camera and their results were consistent with one another. As a result, the reliability of the polychromator for the diagnostics of less than picosecond electron bunch and the usefulness of the diagnostics for the single shot measurement were verified. Furthermore, perfect nondestructive diagnostics for subpicosecond bunches was performed utilizing CDR interferometry. Then the good agreement between CDR interfero...

  15. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  16. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  17. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  18. Molecular insights into Cassava brown streak virus susceptibility and resistance by profiling of the early host response

    OpenAIRE

    Anjanappa, Ravi B; Mehta, Devang; Okoniewski, Michal J; Szabelska-Berȩsewicz, Alicja; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2018-01-01

    Cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) are responsible for significant cassava yield losses in eastern sub-Saharan Africa. To study the possible mechanisms of plant resistance to CBSVs we inoculated CBSV-susceptible and -resistant cassava varieties with a mixed infection of CBSVs using top-cleft grafting. Transcriptome profiling of the two cassava varieties was performed at the earliest time-point of full infection (28 days after grafting) in the susceptible scions. The expression of genes enco...

  19. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  20. Streaks of Life: The Introduction and Translation of a Passage from the Autobiography of Ethel Smyth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Dragičević

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the translated passage, taken from the autobiography of Ethel Smyth, Streaks of Life, the author writes about the position of women in music, her own position—that of a female composer in the early 20th century England. The author speaks of terror and the patronizing diction of patriarchal society. She continues with a critique of media representations, but mostly focuses on difficulties in the attempts to place one’s (woman’s artwork in public space. Despite the fact that she was romantically involved with women throughout her life and wrote about them in her other autobiographical texts, she refuses to connect lesbian identity with her work—perhaps the reason lies in the ‘safety’ of being in a closet, or because of her perceived irrelevance of lesbian identities towards artist’s output. What she emphasizes more is a woman’s perspective—reasonably so, since she was deeply involved with the suffrage movement. In her descriptions, she considers economic and political contexts of the First World War era, which gave the opportunity of holding a (temporary job for women—both in factories and in orchestras. At the end, she returns to specifics of women’s position in society, and calls for a rebellion against the tyranny of the patriarchy.

  1. Drivers Behind Adoption Of Cassava Brown Streak Disease Control Measures In Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyirahorana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava Brown Streak Disease CBSD continues to spread and its effect on productivity remains at high level losses 50- 100 in Sub-Saharan Africa. However there is little knowledge about the drivers of adoption on CBSD control measures in Rwanda. Thus this study investigated the drivers to adopt CBSD control measures in Rwanda during 2015-2016 agricultural seasons. A total of 152 households were randomly sampled in Bugesera and Ruhango districts where cassava demonstration plots are established. A multi stage sampling techniques was used. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate drivers behind adoption of CBSD control measures. The key factors that influenced adoption of CBSD control measures was farm size farmers experience access to credit period of plantation access to demonstration plot. In order to increase adoption of CBSD control measures policy makers and implementers in Rwanda should improve farmers social economic and Insistutional characteristics sensitize and mobilize farmers on the importance of adopting the CBSD control measures.

  2. Research on the underwater target imaging based on the streak tube laser lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zihao; Tian, Zhaoshuo; Zhang, Yanchao; Bi, Zongjie; Yang, Gang; Gu, Erdan

    2018-03-01

    A high frame rate streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) for real-time 3D imaging of underwater targets is presented in this paper. The system uses 532nm pulse laser as the light source, the maximum repetition rate is 120Hz, and the pulse width is 8ns. LabVIEW platform is used in the system, the system control, synchronous image acquisition, 3D data processing and display are realized through PC. 3D imaging experiment of underwater target is carried out in a flume with attenuation coefficient of 0.2, and the images of different depth and different material targets are obtained, the imaging frame rate is 100Hz, and the maximum detection depth is 31m. For an underwater target with a distance of 22m, the high resolution 3D image real-time acquisition is realized with range resolution of 1cm and space resolution of 0.3cm, the spatial relationship of the targets can be clearly identified by the image. The experimental results show that STIL has a good application prospect in underwater terrain detection, underwater search and rescue, and other fields.

  3. Hairpin RNA Targeting Multiple Viral Genes Confers Strong Resistance to Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangquan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV belongs to the genus Fijivirus in the family of Reoviridae and causes severe yield loss in rice-producing areas in Asia. RNA silencing, as a natural defence mechanism against plant viruses, has been successfully exploited for engineering virus resistance in plants, including rice. In this study, we generated transgenic rice lines harbouring a hairpin RNA (hpRNA construct targeting four RBSDV genes, S1, S2, S6 and S10, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the putative core protein, the RNA silencing suppressor and the outer capsid protein, respectively. Both field nursery and artificial inoculation assays of three generations of the transgenic lines showed that they had strong resistance to RBSDV infection. The RBSDV resistance in the segregating transgenic populations correlated perfectly with the presence of the hpRNA transgene. Furthermore, the hpRNA transgene was expressed in the highly resistant transgenic lines, giving rise to abundant levels of 21–24 nt small interfering RNA (siRNA. By small RNA deep sequencing, the RBSDV-resistant transgenic lines detected siRNAs from all four viral gene sequences in the hpRNA transgene, indicating that the whole chimeric fusion sequence can be efficiently processed by Dicer into siRNAs. Taken together, our results suggest that long hpRNA targeting multiple viral genes can be used to generate stable and durable virus resistance in rice, as well as other plant species.

  4. Hairpin RNA Targeting Multiple Viral Genes Confers Strong Resistance to Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangquan; Li, Wenqi; Zhu, Jinyan; Fan, Fangjun; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Weigong; Wang, Ming-Bo; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Zhou, Tong; Lan, Ying; Zhou, Yijun; Yang, Jie

    2016-05-11

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) belongs to the genus Fijivirus in the family of Reoviridae and causes severe yield loss in rice-producing areas in Asia. RNA silencing, as a natural defence mechanism against plant viruses, has been successfully exploited for engineering virus resistance in plants, including rice. In this study, we generated transgenic rice lines harbouring a hairpin RNA (hpRNA) construct targeting four RBSDV genes, S1, S2, S6 and S10, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the putative core protein, the RNA silencing suppressor and the outer capsid protein, respectively. Both field nursery and artificial inoculation assays of three generations of the transgenic lines showed that they had strong resistance to RBSDV infection. The RBSDV resistance in the segregating transgenic populations correlated perfectly with the presence of the hpRNA transgene. Furthermore, the hpRNA transgene was expressed in the highly resistant transgenic lines, giving rise to abundant levels of 21-24 nt small interfering RNA (siRNA). By small RNA deep sequencing, the RBSDV-resistant transgenic lines detected siRNAs from all four viral gene sequences in the hpRNA transgene, indicating that the whole chimeric fusion sequence can be efficiently processed by Dicer into siRNAs. Taken together, our results suggest that long hpRNA targeting multiple viral genes can be used to generate stable and durable virus resistance in rice, as well as other plant species.

  5. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Raza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1–97.6% and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8–97.1%. Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  6. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa) in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M; Abdalla, Omer A; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1-97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8-97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum , Nicotiana occidentalis , Chenopodium glaucum , and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  7. Electron streaking and dissociation in laser-assisted photoionization of molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Alicia; González-Castrillo, Alberto; Martín, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations on laser-assisted photoionization of the hydrogen molecule in the energy region where autoionization from doubly excited states is expected to occur. We use a UV-pump/IR-probe scheme in which an isolated attosecond UV pulse and a 750 nm IR pulse are combined. The IR pulse has a relatively low intensity (10 12 W cm −2 ), which allows us to perform a perturbative analysis of the calculated ionization probabilities differential in either electron or nuclear energy or both. We show that, for dissociative ionization, the electron energy distributions as a function of time delay exhibit unusual streaking patterns that are due to the presence of autoionizing states. These patterns significantly differ from the standard ones observed in direct single ionization of atoms and molecules. We also show that, by using such a pump–probe scheme, one can suppress autoionization from doubly excited states for time delays between 0 and 4 fs. (paper)

  8. Benign fibroosseous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Köseoğlu Seçgin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibroosseous lesions represent a group of lesions that share the same basic evolutive mechanism and are characterized by replacement of normal bone with a fibrous connective tissue that gradually undergoes mineralization. These lesions are presented by a variety of diseases including developmental, reactive-dysplastic processes and neoplasms. Depending on the nature and amount of calcified tissue, they can be observed as radiolucent, mixed or radiopaque. Their radiographic features could be well-defined or indistinguishable from the surrounding bone tissue. They can be asymptomatic as in osseous dysplasias and can be detected incidentally on radiographs, or they can lead to expansion in the affected bone as in ossifying fibroma. All fibroosseous lesions seen in the jaws and face are variations of the same histological pattern. Therefore, detailed clinical and radiographic evaluation in differential diagnosis is important. In this review, fibroosseous benign lesions are classified as osseous dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia and fibroosseous tumors; and radiographic features and differential diagnosis of these lesions are reviewed taking into account this classification.

  9. Statistical iterative reconstruction for streak artefact reduction when using multidetector CT to image the dento-alveolar structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J; Hayakawa, Y; Kober, C

    2014-01-01

    When metallic prosthetic appliances and dental fillings exist in the oral cavity, the appearance of metal-induced streak artefacts is not avoidable in CT images. The aim of this study was to develop a method for artefact reduction using the statistical reconstruction on multidetector row CT images. Adjacent CT images often depict similar anatomical structures. Therefore, reconstructed images with weak artefacts were attempted using projection data of an artefact-free image in a neighbouring thin slice. Images with moderate and strong artefacts were continuously processed in sequence by successive iterative restoration where the projection data was generated from the adjacent reconstructed slice. First, the basic maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm was applied. Next, the ordered subset-expectation maximization algorithm was examined. Alternatively, a small region of interest setting was designated. Finally, the general purpose graphic processing unit machine was applied in both situations. The algorithms reduced the metal-induced streak artefacts on multidetector row CT images when the sequential processing method was applied. The ordered subset-expectation maximization and small region of interest reduced the processing duration without apparent detriments. A general-purpose graphic processing unit realized the high performance. A statistical reconstruction method was applied for the streak artefact reduction. The alternative algorithms applied were effective. Both software and hardware tools, such as ordered subset-expectation maximization, small region of interest and general-purpose graphic processing unit achieved fast artefact correction.

  10. A Robust In-Situ Warp-Correction Algorithm For VISAR Streak Camera Data at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaria, George R.; Warrick, Abbie L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Kalantar, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a 192-beam pulsed laser system for high-energy-density physics experiments. Sophisticated diagnostics have been designed around key performance metrics to achieve ignition. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) is the primary diagnostic for measuring the timing of shocks induced into an ignition capsule. The VISAR system utilizes three streak cameras; these streak cameras are inherently nonlinear and require warp corrections to remove these nonlinear effects. A detailed calibration procedure has been developed with National Security Technologies (NSTec) and applied to the camera correction analysis in production. However, the camera nonlinearities drift over time, affecting the performance of this method. An in-situ fiber array is used to inject a comb of pulses to generate a calibration correction in order to meet the timing accuracy requirements of VISAR. We develop a robust algorithm for the analysis of the comb calibration images to generate the warp correction that is then applied to the data images. Our algorithm utilizes the method of thin-plate splines (TPS) to model the complex nonlinear distortions in the streak camera data. In this paper, we focus on the theory and implementation of the TPS warp-correction algorithm for the use in a production environment.

  11. A Robust In-Situ Warp-Correction Algorithm For VISAR Streak Camera Data at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labaria, George R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Warrick, Abbie L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Celliers, Peter M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kalantar, Daniel H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a 192-beam pulsed laser system for high-energy-density physics experiments. Sophisticated diagnostics have been designed around key performance metrics to achieve ignition. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) is the primary diagnostic for measuring the timing of shocks induced into an ignition capsule. The VISAR system utilizes three streak cameras; these streak cameras are inherently nonlinear and require warp corrections to remove these nonlinear effects. A detailed calibration procedure has been developed with National Security Technologies (NSTec) and applied to the camera correction analysis in production. However, the camera nonlinearities drift over time, affecting the performance of this method. An in-situ fiber array is used to inject a comb of pulses to generate a calibration correction in order to meet the timing accuracy requirements of VISAR. We develop a robust algorithm for the analysis of the comb calibration images to generate the warp correction that is then applied to the data images. Our algorithm utilizes the method of thin-plate splines (TPS) to model the complex nonlinear distortions in the streak camera data. In this paper, we focus on the theory and implementation of the TPS warp-correction algorithm for the use in a production environment.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  13. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which fat ...

  14. RNAi-mediated resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf virus in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed M S; Bian, Shiquan; Wang, Muyue; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Bingwei; Liu, Qiaoquan; Zhang, Changquan; Tang, Shuzhu; Gu, Minghong; Yu, Hengxiu

    2017-04-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, causes significant economic losses in rice production in China and many other Asian countries. Development of resistant varieties by using conventional breeding methods is limited, as germplasm with high level of resistance to RBSDV have not yet been found. One of the most promising methods to confer resistance against RBSDV is the use of RNA interference (RNAi) technology. RBSDV non-structural protein P7-2, encoded by S7-2 gene, is a potential F-box protein and involved in the plant-virus interaction through the ubiquitination pathway. P8, encoded by S8 gene, is the minor core protein that possesses potent active transcriptional repression activity. In this study, we transformed rice calli using a mini-twin T-DNA vector harboring RNAi constructs of the RBSDV genes S7-2 or S8, and obtained plants harboring the target gene constructs and the selectable marker gene, hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT). From the offspring of these transgenic plants, we obtained selectable marker (HPT gene)-free plants. Homozygous T 5 transgenic lines which harbored either S7-2-RNAi or S8-RNAi exhibited high level resistance against RBSDV under field infection pressure from indigenous viruliferous small brown planthoppers. Thus, our results showed that RNA interference with the expression of S7-2 or S8 genes seemed an effective way to induce high level resistance in rice against RBSD disease.

  15. Neutron Radiation Shielding For The NIF Streaked X-Ray Detector (SXD) Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, P; Holder, J; Young, B; Kalantar, D; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2006-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is preparing for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) scheduled in 2010. The NIC is comprised of several ''tuning'' physics subcampaigns leading up to a demonstration of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. In some of these experiments, time-resolved x-ray imaging of the imploding capsule may be required to measure capsule trajectory (shock timing) or x-ray ''bang-time''. A capsule fueled with pure tritium (T) instead of a deutriun-tritium (DT) mixture is thought to offer useful physics surrogacy, with reduced yields of up to 5e14 neutrons. These measurements will require the use of the NIF streak x-ray detector (SXD). The resulting prompt neutron fluence at the planned SXD location (∼1.7 m from the target) would be ∼1.4e9/cm 2 . Previous measurements suggest the onset of significant background at a neutron fluence of ∼ 1e8/cm 2 . The radiation damage and operational upsets which starts at ∼1e8 rad-Si/sec must be factored into an integrated experimental campaign plan. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to predict the neutron and gamma/x-ray fluences and radiation doses for the proposed diagnostic configuration. A possible shielding configuration is proposed to mitigate radiation effects. The primary component of this shielding is an 80 cm thickness of Polyethylene (PE) between target chamber center (TCC) and the SXD diagnostic. Additionally, 6-8 cm of PE around the detector provide from the large number of neutrons that scatter off the inside of the target chamber. This proposed shielding configuration reduces the high-energy neutron fluence at the SXD by approximately a factor ∼50

  16. Neutron Radiation Shielding For The NIF Streaked X-Ray Detector (SXD) Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, P; Holder, J; Young, B; Kalantar, D; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2006-11-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is preparing for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) scheduled in 2010. The NIC is comprised of several ''tuning'' physics subcampaigns leading up to a demonstration of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. In some of these experiments, time-resolved x-ray imaging of the imploding capsule may be required to measure capsule trajectory (shock timing) or x-ray ''bang-time''. A capsule fueled with pure tritium (T) instead of a deutriun-tritium (DT) mixture is thought to offer useful physics surrogacy, with reduced yields of up to 5e14 neutrons. These measurements will require the use of the NIF streak x-ray detector (SXD). The resulting prompt neutron fluence at the planned SXD location ({approx}1.7 m from the target) would be {approx}1.4e9/cm{sup 2}. Previous measurements suggest the onset of significant background at a neutron fluence of {approx} 1e8/cm{sup 2}. The radiation damage and operational upsets which starts at {approx}1e8 rad-Si/sec must be factored into an integrated experimental campaign plan. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to predict the neutron and gamma/x-ray fluences and radiation doses for the proposed diagnostic configuration. A possible shielding configuration is proposed to mitigate radiation effects. The primary component of this shielding is an 80 cm thickness of Polyethylene (PE) between target chamber center (TCC) and the SXD diagnostic. Additionally, 6-8 cm of PE around the detector provide from the large number of neutrons that scatter off the inside of the target chamber. This proposed shielding configuration reduces the high-energy neutron fluence at the SXD by approximately a factor {approx}50.

  17. Precancerous Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Malvehy, J; Guillén, C; Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; Fernández-Figueras, M

    Certain clinically and histologically recognizable skin lesions with a degree of risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally grouped as precancerous skin conditions but now tend to be classified as in situ carcinomas. This consensus statement discusses various aspects of these lesions: their evaluation by means of clinical and histopathologic features, the initial evaluation of the patient, the identification of risk factors for progression, and the diagnostic and treatment strategies available today. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  19. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjunctival lesions are frequently seen in the eye clinic, because the conjunctiva is readily ... anti-histamine drops and mast cell stabilisers can be used. e more severe cases have to be .... Ehlers J, Shah C . The Wills Eye Manual. Office and.

  20. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  1. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  2. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  3. Maxillomandibular giant osteosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino LEDESMA-MONTES

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs are a group of rarely reported intraosseous lesions. Their precise diagnosis is important since they can be confused with malignant neoplasms. Objective This retrospective study aimed to record and analyze the clinical and radiographic Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs detected in the maxillomandibular area of patients attending to our institution. Materials and Methods: Informed consent from the patients was obtained and those cases of 2.5 cm or larger lesions with radiopaque or mixed (radiolucid-radiopaque appearance located in the maxillofacial bones were selected. Assessed parameters were: age, gender, radiographic aspect, shape, borders, size, location and relations to roots. Lesions were classified as radicular, apical, interradicular, interradicular-apical, radicular-apical or located in a previous teeth extraction area. Additionally, several osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs were assessed. Results Seventeen radiopacities in 14 patients were found and were located almost exclusively in mandible and were two types: idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis. GOLs were more frequent in females, and in the anterior and premolar zones. 94.2% of GOLs were qualified as idiopathic osteosclerosis and one case was condensing osteitis. All studied cases showed different osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs. The most common were: Microdontia, hypodontia, pulp stones, macrodontia and variations in the mental foramina. Conclusions GOLs must be differentiated from other radiopaque benign and malignant tumors. Condensing osteitis, was considered an anomalous osseous response induced by a chronic low-grade inflammatory stimulus. For development of idiopathic osteosclerosis, two possible mechanisms could be related. The first is modification of the normal turnover with excessive osseous deposition. The second mechanism will prevent the normal bone resorption, arresting the

  4. First Report of Paraburkholderia andropogonis Causing Bacterial Leaf Streak of Strelitzia reginae in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird-of-Paradise (Strelitzia reginae Banks) is a commonly grown ornamental in Hawaii. In March 2014, a nursery located in Panaewa on the eastern side of Hawaii Island noticed that a few liners of Bird-of-Paradise that were imported from Florida had water soaked lesions. By April 2014 a majority of t...

  5. Evaluation of dynamic range for LLNL streak cameras using high contrast pulsed and pulse podiatry on the Nova laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.B.; Weiland, T.L.; Prior, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a standard LLNL streak camera that has been used to analyze high contrast pulses on the Nova laser facility. These pulses have a plateau at their leading edge (foot) with an amplitude which is approximately 1% of the maximum pulse height. Relying on other features of the pulses and on signal multiplexing, we were able to determine how accurately the foot amplitude was being represented by the camera. Results indicate that the useful single channel dynamic range of the instrument approaches 100:1

  6. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  7. Method: a single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping method for Wheat streak mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon increased the concern about the potential for terrorist attacks on many vulnerable sectors of the US, including agriculture. The concentrated nature of crops, easily obtainable biological agents, and highly detrimental impacts make agroterrorism a potential threat. Although procedures for an effective criminal investigation and attribution following such an attack are available, important enhancements are still needed, one of which is the capability for fine discrimination among pathogen strains. The purpose of this study was to develop a molecular typing assay for use in a forensic investigation, using Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) as a model plant virus. Method This genotyping technique utilizes single base primer extension to generate a genetic fingerprint. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the coat protein and helper component-protease genes were selected as the genetic markers for this assay. Assay optimization and sensitivity testing was conducted using synthetic targets. WSMV strains and field isolates were collected from regions around the world and used to evaluate the assay for discrimination. The assay specificity was tested against a panel of near-neighbors consisting of genetic and environmental near-neighbors. Result Each WSMV strain or field isolate tested produced a unique SNP fingerprint, with the exception of three isolates collected within the same geographic location that produced indistinguishable fingerprints. The results were consistent among replicates, demonstrating the reproducibility of the assay. No SNP fingerprints were generated from organisms included in the near-neighbor panel, suggesting the assay is specific for WSMV. Using synthetic targets, a complete profile could be generated from as low as 7.15 fmoles of cDNA. Conclusion The molecular typing method presented is one tool that could be incorporated into the forensic

  8. Method: a single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping method for Wheat streak mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephanie M; Payton, Mark; Allen, Robert W; Melcher, Ulrich; Carver, Jesse; Fletcher, Jacqueline

    2012-05-17

    The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon increased the concern about the potential for terrorist attacks on many vulnerable sectors of the US, including agriculture. The concentrated nature of crops, easily obtainable biological agents, and highly detrimental impacts make agroterrorism a potential threat. Although procedures for an effective criminal investigation and attribution following such an attack are available, important enhancements are still needed, one of which is the capability for fine discrimination among pathogen strains. The purpose of this study was to develop a molecular typing assay for use in a forensic investigation, using Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) as a model plant virus. This genotyping technique utilizes single base primer extension to generate a genetic fingerprint. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the coat protein and helper component-protease genes were selected as the genetic markers for this assay. Assay optimization and sensitivity testing was conducted using synthetic targets. WSMV strains and field isolates were collected from regions around the world and used to evaluate the assay for discrimination. The assay specificity was tested against a panel of near-neighbors consisting of genetic and environmental near-neighbors. Each WSMV strain or field isolate tested produced a unique SNP fingerprint, with the exception of three isolates collected within the same geographic location that produced indistinguishable fingerprints. The results were consistent among replicates, demonstrating the reproducibility of the assay. No SNP fingerprints were generated from organisms included in the near-neighbor panel, suggesting the assay is specific for WSMV. Using synthetic targets, a complete profile could be generated from as low as 7.15 fmoles of cDNA. The molecular typing method presented is one tool that could be incorporated into the forensic science tool box after a thorough

  9. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained...

  10. Lesion progression in post-treatment persistent endodontic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victoria Soo Hoon; Messer, Harold Henry; Shen, Liang; Yee, Robert; Hsu, Chin-ying Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Radiographic lesions related to root-filled teeth may persist for long periods after treatment and are considered to indicate failure of initial treatment. Persistent lesions are found in a proportion of cases, but information on lesion progression is lacking. This study examined the incidence of lesion improvement, remaining unchanged, and deterioration among persistent lesions in a group of patients recruited from a university-based clinic and identified potential predictors for lesion progression. Patients of a university clinic with persistent endodontic lesions at least 4 years since treatment and with original treatment radiographs available were recruited with informed consent. Data were obtained by interview and from dental records and clinical and radiographic examinations. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS (version 19). One hundred fifty-one persistent lesions were identified in 114 patients. A majority of the lesions (107, 70.9%) received treatment between 4 and 5 years prior. Eighty-six lesions (57.0%) improved, 18 (11.9%) remained unchanged, and 47 (31.1%) deteriorated since treatment. Potential predictors for lesions that did not improve included recall lesion size, pain on biting at recall examination, history of a postobturation flare-up, and a non-ideal root-filling length (P < .05). Lesions that had persisted for a longer period appeared less likely to be improving (relative risk, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.077). A specific time interval alone should not be used to conclude that a lesion will not resolve without intervention. This study identified several clinical factors that are associated with deteriorating persistent lesions, which should aid in identifying lesions that require further intervention. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gadobenate-dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for hepatic lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavhan, Govind B.; Mann, Erika [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Kamath, Binita M. [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Toronto (Canada); Babyn, Paul S. [Royal University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging enhanced by hepatocyte-specific contrast media has been found useful to characterize liver lesions in adults and children. To present our experience with gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA)-enhanced MRI for evaluation of focal liver lesions in children. We retrospectively reviewed gadobenate-dimeglumine-enhanced MR images obtained for evaluation of suspected hepatic lesions in 30 children. Signal characteristics on various sequences including 45- to 60-min hepatobiliary phase images were noted by two radiologists. Chart review identified relevant clinical details including history of cancer treatment, available pathology and stability of lesion size on follow-up imaging. Of the 30 children who had gadobenate-enhanced MRI, 26 showed focal lesions. Diagnoses in 26 children were focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) in 15, hemangiomas in 3, regenerating nodules in 3, focal fatty infiltration in 2, indeterminate lesions in 3, and one patient each with adenomas, hepatoblastoma and metastasis. Two patients had multiple diagnoses. All FNH lesions (39), all regenerative nodules (19) and an indeterminate lesion were iso- or hyperintense on hepatobiliary-phase images while all other lesions (28) were hypointense to hepatic parenchyma. The average follow-up period was 21.7 months. Our experience with gadobenate-enhanced MRI indicates potential utility of gadobenate in the evaluation of pediatric hepatic lesions in differentiating FNH and regenerating nodules from other lesions. (orig.)

  12. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  13. Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peel extract containing anthocyanins on fatty streak formation in the renal arteries in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sharifiyan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that consumption of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins (polyphenol content 1 g/kg diet despite of a significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity cannot protect the kidneys from hypercholesterolemia-induced damages during the treatment period.

  14. Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract containing anthocyanins on fatty streak formation in the renal arteries in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifiyan, Fatemeh; Movahedian-Attar, Ahmad; Nili, Nafiseh; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the supplementation of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins on atherosclerotic plaque formation induced by hypercholesterolemia was investigated in renal arteries in rabbits. After the determination of polyphenol and anthocyanin's content of P. granatum peel hydroalcoholic extract, 30 male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. They were fed basic diet, hypercholesterolemic diet and hypercholesterolemic diet along with P. granatum peel extract (polyphenolic content for each rabbit 1 g/kg diet) for 2 month. Blood samples were collected at the begging, middle and end of the study in order to measure lipid concentration and oxidative and antioxidative status variables, and renal arteries were taken for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques at the end of the study. The results reveal that P. granatum peel extract significantly increases serum antioxidant capacity in the extract recipient group in comparison with hypercholesterolemic control (P 0.05). The results of this study indicate that consumption of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins (polyphenol content 1 g/kg diet) despite of a significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity cannot protect the kidneys from hypercholesterolemia-induced damages during the treatment period.

  15. Localization of lesions in aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Kei; Watanabe, Shunzo; Tasaki, Hiroichi; Sato, Tokijiro; Metoki, Hirobumi.

    1984-01-01

    Using a microcomputer, the locus and extent of the lesions, as demonstrated by computed tomography for 127 cases with various types of aphasia were superimposed onto standardized marices. The relationship between the foci of the lesions and the types of aphasia was investigated. Broca aphasics (n=39) : Since the accumulated site of the lesions highly involved the deep structures of the lower part of the precentral gyrus as well as the insula and lenticular nucleus, only 60% of the Broca aphasics had lesions on these areas. This finding has proved to have little localizing value. Wernicke aphasics (n=23) : The size of the lesion was significantly smaller than Broca's aphasia. At least 70% of the patients had the superior temporal lesions involving Wernicke's area and subcortical lesions of the superior and middle temporal gyri. Amnestic aphasics (n=18) : The size of the lesion was smaller than any other types. While there was some concentration of the lesions (maximum 40%) in the area of the subcortical region of the anterior temporal gyrus adjacent to Wernicke's area and the lenticular nucleus, the lesions were distributed throughout the left hemisphere. Amnestic aphasia was thought to be the least localizable. Conduction aphasics (n=11) : The lesions were relatively small in size. Many patients had posterior speech area lesions involving at least partially Wernicke's area. In particular, more than 80% of the conduction aphasics had lesions of the supramarginal gyrus and it's adjacent deep structures. Global aphasics (n=36) : In general, the size of the lesion was very large and 70% of the global aphasics had extensive lesions involving both Broca's and Wernicke's areas. However, there were observations showing that the lesions can be small and confined. (J.P.N.)

  16. Aluminum-coated optical fibers as efficient infrared timing fiducial photocathodes for synchronizing x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The timing fiducial system at the Nova Two-Beam Facility allows time-resolved x-ray and optical streak camera data from laser-produced plasmas to be synchronized to within 30 ps. In this system, an Al-coated optical fiber is inserted into an aperture in the cathode plate of each streak camera. The coating acts as a photocathode for a low-energy pulse of 1ω (λ = 1.054 μm) light which is synchronized to the main Nova beam. The use of the fundamental (1ω) for this fiducial pulse has been found to offer significant advantages over the use of the 2ω second harmonic (λ = 0.53 μm). These advantages include brighter signals, greater reliability, and a higher relative damage threshold, allowing routine use without fiber replacement. The operation of the system is described, and experimental data and interpretations are discussed which suggest that the electron production in the Al film is due to thermionic emission. The results of detailed numerical simulations of the relevant thermal processes, undertaken to model the response of the coated fiber to 1ω laser pulses, are also presented, which give qualitative agreement with experimental data. Quantitative discrepancies between the modeling results and the experimental data are discussed, and suggestions for further research are given

  17. ERK inhibition promotes neuroectodermal precursor commitment by blocking self-renewal and primitive streak formation of the epiblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zhai, Yanhua; Lu, Xukun; Ma, Haixia; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Tongbiao; Jiao, Jianwei; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Li, Lei

    2018-01-05

    Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine. However, before clinical application, reproducible protocols for pluripotent stem cell differentiation should be established. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling plays a central role for the self-renewal of epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), but its role for subsequent germ layer differentiation is still ambiguous. We proposed that ERK could modulate differentiation of the epiblast. PD0325901 was used to inhibit ERK activation during the differentiation of embryonic stem cells and EpiSCs. Immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, real-time PCR and flow cytometry were used to detect germ layer markers and pathway activation. We demonstrate that the ERK phosphorylation level is lower in neuroectoderm of mouse E7.5 embryos than that in the primitive streak. ERK inhibition results in neural lineage commitment of epiblast. Mechanistically, PD0325901 abrogates the expression of primitive streak markers by β-catenin retention in the cytoplasm, and inhibits the expression of OCT4 and NANOG during EpiSC differentiation. Thus, EpiSCs differentiate into neuroectodermal lineage efficiently under PD0325901 treatment. These results suggest that neuroectoderm differentiation does not require extrinsic signals, supporting the default differentiation of neural lineage. We report that a single ERK inhibitor, PD0325901, can specify epiblasts and EpiSCs into neural-like cells, providing an efficient strategy for neural differentiation.

  18. Effectiveness of several dosage formula of oil and nano emulsion of citronella against vascular streak dieback (VSD) disease on cocoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noveriza, R.; Trisno, J.; Rahma, H.; Yuliani, S.; Reflin; Martinius

    2018-02-01

    The disease of Vascular streak dieback (VSD) is a deadly disease of cocoa plants, because it attacks the vascular tissue of cocoa at growing point of the plant. In West Sumatra the disease was first reported in 2015 with an incidence of disease range 58.82% - 100% and an intensity of disease range 24.29% - 44.7%. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dosage application of oil formula and nano emulsion of citronella formula against Vascular streak dieback (VSD) disease on cocoa plants in West Sumatra (in Padang Pariaman District and Limapuluh Kota District). The results showed that the percentage of VSD disease attacks in both testing sites was 100%. The oil and nano emulsion of citronella formulas can reduce the intensity of VSD disease on cocoa plants in West Sumatra, particularly in Padang Pariaman District and Limapuluh Kota District. The reduction of VSD intensity in Padang Pariaman district ranged from 8.32 to 21.13%; while in Limapuluh Kota district ranged from 4.33 to 11.80%. The nano emulsion of citronella formulation is effective to suppress the intensity of VSD disease on cocoa plants at doses 0.1% (≥ 30% of effectiveness level).

  19. Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: case study with two bacterial whole cell protein extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Varshney, Umesh; Pal, Debnath

    2014-09-01

    Acidic region streaking (ARS) is one of the lacunae in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of bacterial proteome. This streaking is primarily caused by nucleic acid (NuA) contamination and poses major problem in the downstream processes like image analysis and protein identification. Although cleanup and nuclease digestion are practiced as remedial options, these strategies may incur loss in protein recovery and perform incomplete removal of NuA. As a result, ARS has remained a common observation across publications, including the recent ones. In this work, we demonstrate how ultrasound wave can be used to shear NuA in plain ice-cooled water, facilitating the elimination of ARS in the 2DE gels without the need for any additional sample cleanup tasks. In combination with a suitable buffer recipe, IEF program and frequent paper-wick changing approach, we are able to reproducibly demonstrate the production of clean 2DE gels with improved protein recovery and negligible or no ARS. We illustrate our procedure using whole cell protein extracts from two diverse organisms, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Our designed protocols are straightforward and expected to provide good 2DE gels without ARS, with comparable times and significantly lower cost.

  20. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  1. Effects of Hot Streak and Phantom Cooling on Heat Transfer in a Cooled Turbine Stage Including Particulate Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bons, Jeffrey [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Ameri, Ali [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-01-08

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a validated computational modeling capability for the characterization of the effects of hot streaks and particulate deposition on the heat load of modern gas turbines. This was accomplished with a multi-faceted approach including analytical, experimental, and computational components. A 1-year no cost extension request was approved for this effort, so the total duration was 4 years. The research effort succeeded in its ultimate objective by leveraging extensive experimental deposition studies complemented by computational modeling. Experiments were conducted with hot streaks, vane cooling, and combinations of hot streaks with vane cooling. These studies contributed to a significant body of corporate knowledge of deposition, in combination with particle rebound and deposition studies funded by other agencies, to provide suitable conditions for the development of a new model. The model includes the following physical phenomena: elastic deformation, plastic deformation, adhesion, and shear removal. It also incorporates material property sensitivity to temperature and tangential-normal velocity rebound cross-dependencies observed in experiments. The model is well-suited for incorporation in CFD simulations of complex gas turbine flows due to its algebraic (explicit) formulation. This report contains model predictions compared to coefficient of restitution data available in the open literature as well as deposition results from two different high temperature turbine deposition facilities. While the model comparisons with experiments are in many cases promising, several key aspects of particle deposition remain elusive. The simple phenomenological nature of the model allows for parametric dependencies to be evaluated in a straightforward manner. This effort also included the first-ever full turbine stage deposition model published in the open literature. The simulations included hot streaks and simulated vane cooling

  2. [Fatty acids in confectionery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniewski, M; Mielniczuk, E; Jacórzyński, B; Pawlicka, M; Balas, J; Filipek, A; Górnicka, M

    2000-01-01

    The content of fat and fatty acids in 144 different confectionery products purchased on the market in Warsaw region during 1997-1999 have been investigated. In examined confectionery products considerable variability of both fat and fatty acids content have been found. The content of fat varied from 6.6% (coconut cookies) up to 40% (chocolate wafers). Saturated fatty acids were present in both cis and trans form. Especially trans fatty acids reach (above 50%) were fats extracted from nut wafers, coconuts wafers.

  3. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  4. Analysis of pulmonary coin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, O; Kim, K. H.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    For A long time the solitary pulmonary nodule has remained a difficult problem to solve and has attracted a great deal of attension in recent years. Circumscribed coin lesions of the lung were generally peripheral in location with respect to the pulmonary hilus. Because of this, important clinical problem in management and diagnosis arise. Such a lesion is discovered through roentgenologic examination. So the roentgenologists is the first be in a position to offer advise. This presentation is an attempt to correlate a useful diagnosis with roentgenologic findings of pulmonary coin lesion which enables us to get differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesion. Histologically proven 120 cases of the pulmonary coin lesion during the period of 8 years were reviewed through plain film, tomogram, bronchoscopy, variable laboratory findings, and clinical history. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female sex ratio was 3 : 1. In age distribution, most of the malignant pulmonary coin lesion appeared in 6th decade (39%) and 5th decade (27%). In benign lesion, the most cases were in 3 rd decade. 2. Pathological cell type are as follows: Primary bronchogenic cancer 43.3%, tuberculoma 25.8%, inflammatory lesion 17.5%, benign tumor 10%, and bronchial adenoma, harmartoma, A.V. malformation, mesothelioma, are 1 case respectively. As a result benign and malignant lesion showed equal distribution (49.1% : 50.3%). 3. In symptom analysis ; cough is the most common (43.5%) symptom in malignant lesion, next follows hemoptysis (20.9%) and chest pain (14.5%). In benign lesion, most of the patient (32.7%) did not complain any symptom. 4. In malignant lesion, the most common nodular size was 4 cm (32.3%), and in benign lesion 2 cm sized coin was most common (39.3%). 5. In general, margin of nodule was very sharp and well demarcated in benign lesion (83.3%), and in malignant lesion that was less demarcated and poorly defined. 6. Most case of calcification (82.7%) was seen in benign

  5. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick-Melin, A J; Kalinski, M I; Kelly, K R

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rapidly emerging chronic liver disease and is reported to affect up to 70-80% of overweight and obese individuals. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver diseases that range from simple hepatic steatosis, to a more severe and treatment resistant stage...... that features steatosis plus inflammation, termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may in turn progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and sub-acute liver failure. Thus, NAFLD and its subsequent complications create a significant health burden, and currently there is no effective treatment strategy...

  6. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  7. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  8. Treatment of Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders Treatment of fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Fatty acid oxidation disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  9. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  10. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-02

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Realization of an optical multi and mono-channel analyzer, associated to a streak camera. Application to metrology of picosecond low intensity luminous pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.M.

    1985-02-01

    An electronic system including a low light level television tube (Nocticon) to digitize images from streak cameras is studied and realized. Performances (sensibility, signal-to-noise ratio) are studied and compared with a multi-channel analyzer using a linear network of photodiodes. It is applied to duration and amplitude measurement of short luminous pulses [fr

  12. Isolation and characterization of the mating type locus of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conde, L.; Waalwijk, C.; Canto-Canché, B.B.; Kema, G.H.J.; Crous, P.W.; James, A.C.; Abeln, E.C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Idiomorphs mat1-1 and mat1-2 from Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana, were isolated. Degenerate oligos were used to amplify the HMG box of the mat1-2 idiomorph from M. fijiensis, showing homology with the HMG box of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Using a

  13. Variable number of tandem repeat markers in the genome sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana (Musa spp)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, S.A.L.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Ferreira, C.F.; Lintel Hekkert, te B.; Zapater, M.F.; Goodwin, S.B.; Guzmán, M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Souza, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. We searched the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis for molecular markers that would allow population genetics analysis of this plant pathogen. M. fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas

  14. Genomic and phylogenetic evidence that Maize rough dwarf and Rice black-streaked dwarf fijiviruses should be classified as different geographic strains of a single species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L; Lv, M-F; Yang, J; Chen, J-P; Zhang, H-M

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) has long been known as one of the most devastating viral diseases of maize worldwide and is caused by single or complex infection by four fijiviruses: Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) in Europe and the Middle East, Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV) in South America, rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV or Rice black-streaked dwarf virus 2, RBSDV-2) in East Asia. These are currently classified as four distinct species in the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, but their taxonomic status has been questioned. To help resolve this, the nucleotide sequences of the ten genomic segments of an Italian isolate of MRDV have been determined, providing the first complete genomic sequence of this virus. Its genome has 29144 nucleotides and is similar in organization to those of RBSDV, SRBSDV, and MRCV. The 13 ORFs always share highest identities (81.3-97.2%) with the corresponding ORFs of RBSDV and phylogenetic analyses of the different genome segments and ORFs all confirm that MRDV clusters most closely with RBSDV and that MRCV and SRBSDV are slightly more distantly related. The results suggest that MRDV and RBSDV should be classified as different geographic strains of the same virus species and we suggest the name cereal black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (CBSDV) for consideration.

  15. Development of VNTR Markers to Assess Genetic Diversity of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease in Bananas (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak (BLS) disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export cultivars are highly susceptible. As a consequence, commercial banana plantations must be protected chemically with fungicides; up to 40 app...

  16. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Markers in the Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease of Banana (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease (commonly known as black Sigatoka), is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently the whole genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. This sequence was screened for the presence of Variable Num...

  17. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  18. Management of Preinvasive Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, Maria G; Corzo, Camila; Iniesta, Maria; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2017-12-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma is considered the precursor lesion of high-grade serous carcinoma, and found in both low-risk and high-risk populations. Isolated serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations are detected in ∼2% of patients undergoing risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and even with removal of the tubes and ovaries the rate of developing primary peritoneal carcinoma following remains up to 7.5%. Postoperative recommendations after finding incidental STICs remain unclear and surgical staging, adjuvant chemotherapy, or observation have been proposed. Discovery of STIC should prompt consideration of hereditary cancer program referral for BRCA1/2 mutation screening.

  19. Ecological Fitness of Non-vector Planthopper Sogatella furcifera on Rice Plants Infected with Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-chan HE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV-infested rice plants on the ecological parameters and its relevant defensive and detoxification enzymes of white-backed planthopper (WBPH in laboratory for exploring the relationship between RBSDV and the non-vector planthopper. The results showed that nymph survival rate, female adult weight and fecundity, and egg hatchability of WBPH fed on RBSDV-infested rice plants did not markedly differ from those on healthy plants, whereas the female adult longevity and egg duration significantly shortened on diseased plants. Furthermore, significantly higher activities of defensive enzymes (dismutase, catalase and peroxidase and detoxification enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase were found in WBPH adults fed on infected plants. Results implied that infestation by RBSDV increased the ecological fitness of non-vector planthopper population.

  20. Streak electronic camera with slow-scanning storage tube used in the field of high-speed cineradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marilleau, J.; Bonnet, L.; Garcin, G.; Guix, R.; Loichot, R.

    The cineradiographic machine designed for measurements in the field of detonics consists of a linear accelerator associated with a braking target, a scintillator and a remote controlled electronic camera. The quantum factor of X-ray detection and the energetic efficiency of the scintillator are given. The electronic camera is built upon a deflection-converter tube (RCA C. 73 435 AJ) coupled by optical fibres to a photosensitive storage tube (TH-CSF Esicon) used in a slow-scanning process with electronic recording of the information. The different parts of the device are described. Some capabilities such as data processing numerical outputs, measurements and display are outlined. A streak cineradiogram of a typical implosion experiment is given [fr

  1. Isolation and characterization of subgenomic DNAs encapsidated in 'single' T = 1 isometric particles of Maize streak virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, Carolina G.; Javier Ortiz, G.; Padron, Eric; Bean, Samantha J.; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Boulton, Margaret I.

    2004-01-01

    'Single' T = 1 isometric particles of Maize streak virus (MSV) have been isolated from infected maize leaves. Biochemical and genetic characterizations show that these particles contain subgenomic (sg) MSV DNA encapsidated by the MSV coat protein. The largest sg DNA is 1.56 kb, slightly larger than half genome size, although sg DNAs as small as 0.2 kb were also cloned. The sg DNAs are not infectious, and they do not appear to play a role in the pathogenicity of MSV. This is the first report of sg DNAs for MSV and, to our knowledge, the first time that encapsidated sg DNAs have been characterized at the sequence level for any geminivirus. These data will assist in our investigations into the role of genomic DNA in the formation of the unique geminate capsid architecture of the Geminiviridae

  2. Streaked spectrometry using multilayer x-ray-interference mirrors to investigate energy transport in laser-plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Henke, B.L.; Campbell, E.M.; Mead, W.C.

    1981-08-01

    Transport of energy in laser-produced plasmas is scrutinized by devising spectrally and temporally identifiable characteristics in the x-ray emission history which identify the heat-front position at various times in the heating process. Measurements of the relative turn-on times of these characteristics show the rate of energy transport between various points. These measurements can in turn constrain models of energy transport phenomena. We are time-resolving spectrally distinguishable subkilovolt x-ray emissions from different layers of a disk target to examine the transport rate of energy into the target. A similar technique is used to measure the lateral expansion rate of the plasma spot. A soft x-ray streak camera with 15-psec temporal resolution is used to make the temporal measurements. Spectral discrimination of the incident signal is provided by multilayer x-ray interference mirrors

  3. Development and performance test of picosecond pulse x-ray excited streak camera system for scintillator characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2010-01-01

    To observe time and wavelength-resolved scintillation events, picosecond pulse X-ray excited streak camera system is developed. The wavelength range spreads from vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) to near infrared region (110-900 nm) and the instrumental response function is around 80 ps. This work describes the principle of the newly developed instrument and the first performance test using BaF 2 single crystal scintillator. Core valence luminescence of BaF 2 peaking around 190 and 220 nm is clearly detected by our system, and the decay time turned out to be of 0.7 ns. These results are consistent with literature and confirm that our system properly works. (author)

  4. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper transmitted fijivirus threadening rice production in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui eZhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, a nonenveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus. Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  5. Terpene Profile, Leaf Anatomy, and Enzyme Activity of Resistant and Susceptible Cocoa Clonesto Vascular Streak Dieback Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (VSD, Oncobasidium theobromae is the most prevalent disease of Theobroma cacao L. in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze resistance mechanism to VSD based on terpene profile, leaf anatomy, chitinase, and peroxidase study. Resistant clones of Sulawesi 1 and Sca 6 and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used for terpene profile, leaf anatomy analysis, chitinase, peroxides, polyphenol, lignin, and cellulose analysis. Those clones and KEE 2, KKM 22 and ICS 13 were used for peroxides analysis. For trichome study, the resistant clones of Sulawesi 1, Sca 6, KEE 2, and KKM 22, and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used. GCMS analysis showed that chromatogram pattern of resistant and susceptible groups were quite similar, but resistant clones contained 22% more components than the susceptible ones. Resistant clones contained groups of pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, while those substances on usceptible clones were absent. Trichome was thicker on younger leaf, and its density on the basal was higher than that on the middle and tip leaf parts. Trichome density of resistant clone was not always thicker than that of susceptible ones. On resistant clones, stomatal density was lower and width of stomate pits was narrower, while thickness of epidermis layer and pallisade parenchym were higher. Polyphenol content of resistant clones were higher but lignin and cellulose of both groups were similar. Chitinase activity which has a role in hydrolysis of mycelia cell wall was higher on the resistant clones, but peroxides which has a role in polymeration of lignin biosynthesis was similar between both groups. It is concluded that groups of terpene pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, thickness of leaf epidermis, density and width of stomata pit, and chitinase activity plays important role in cocoa resistance to VSD. Key words: Theobroma cacaoL., clone, vascular-streak dieback, resistance, leaf

  6. Identification and Removal of High Frequency Temporal Noise in a Nd:YAG Macro-Pulse Laser Assisted with a Diagnostic Streak Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent Marlett; Ke-Xun Sun

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of a reference streak camera (SC) to diagnose laser performance and guide modifications to remove high frequency noise from Bechtel Nevada's long-pulse laser. The upgraded laser exhibits less than 0.1% high frequency noise in cumulative spectra, exceeding National Ignition Facility (NIF) calibration specifications. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments require full characterization of streak cameras over a wide range of sweep speeds (10 ns to 480 ns). This paradigm of metrology poses stringent spectral requirements on the laser source for streak camera calibration. Recently, Bechtel Nevada worked with a laser vendor to develop a high performance, multi-wavelength Nd:YAG laser to meet NIF calibration requirements. For a typical NIF streak camera with a 4096 x 4096 pixel CCD, the flat field calibration at 30 ns requires a smooth laser spectrum over 33 MHz to 68 GHz. Streak cameras are the appropriate instrumentation for measuring laser amplitude noise at these very high frequencies since the upper end spectral content is beyond the frequency response of typical optoelectronic detectors for a single shot pulse. The SC was used to measure a similar laser at its second harmonic wavelength (532 nm), to establish baseline spectra for testing signal analysis algorithms. The SC was then used to measure the new custom calibration laser. In both spatial-temporal measurements and cumulative spectra, 6-8 GHz oscillations were identified. The oscillations were found to be caused by inter-surface reflections between amplifiers. Additional variations in the SC spectral data were found to result from temperature instabilities in the seeding laser. Based on these findings, laser upgrades were made to remove the high frequency noise from the laser output

  7. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  8. Malignant fatty tumors: classification, clinical course, imaging appearance and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.J.; Kransdorf, M.J.; Bancroft, L.W.; O'Connor, M.I.

    2003-01-01

    Liposarcoma is a relatively common soft tissue malignancy with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and imaging appearances. Several subtypes are described, ranging from lesions nearly entirely composed of mature adipose tissue, to tumors with very sparse adipose elements. The imaging appearance of these fatty masses is frequently sufficiently characteristic to allow a specific diagnosis, while in other cases, although a specific diagnosis is not achievable, a meaningful limited differential diagnosis can be established. The purpose of this paper is to review the spectrum of malignant fatty tumors, highlighting the current classification system, clinical presentation and behavior, treatment and spectrum of imaging appearances. The imaging review will emphasize CT scanning and MR imaging, and will stress differentiating radiologic features. (orig.)

  9. Benign fatty tumors: classification, clinical course, imaging appearance, and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancroft, Laura W.; Kransdorf, Mark J.; Peterson, Jeffrey J.; O'Connor, Mary I.

    2006-01-01

    Lipoma is the most common soft-tissue tumor, with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and imaging appearances. Several subtypes are described, ranging from lesions entirely composed of mature adipose tissue to tumors intimately associated with nonadipose tissue, to those composed of brown fat. The imaging appearance of these fatty masses is frequently sufficiently characteristic to allow a specific diagnosis. However, in other cases, although a specific diagnosis is not achievable, a meaningful limited differential diagnosis can be established. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the spectrum of benign fatty tumors highlighting the current classification system, clinical presentation and behavior, spectrum of imaging appearances, and treatment. The imaging review emphasizes computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, differentiating radiologic features. (orig.)

  10. Supine breast US: how to correlate breast lesions from prone MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato A; Angelelli, Giuseppe; Moschetta, Marco

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate spatial displacement of breast lesions from prone MR to supine ultrasound positions, and to determine whether the degree of displacement may be associated with breast density and lesion histotype. 380 patients underwent breast MR and second-look ultrasound. The MR and ultrasound lesion location within the breast gland, distances from anatomical landmarks (nipple, skin and pectoral muscle), spatial displacement (distance differences from the landmarks within the same breast region) and region displacement (breast region change) were prospectively evaluated. Differences between MR and ultrasound measurements, association between the degree of spatial displacement and both breast density and lesion histotypes were calculated. In 290/380 (76%) patients, 300 MR lesions were detected. 285/300 (95%) lesions were recognized on ultrasound. By comparing MR and ultrasound, spatial displacement occurred in 183/285 (64.3%) cases while region displacement in 102/285 (35.7%) cases with a circumferential movement along an arc centred on the nipple, having supine ultrasound as the reference standard. A significant association between the degree of lesion displacement and breast density was found (p < 0.00001) with a significant higher displacement in case of fatty breasts. No significant association between the degree of displacement and lesion histotype was found (p = 0.1). Lesion spatial displacement from MRI to ultrasound may occur especially in adipose breasts. Lesion-nipple distance and circumferential displacement from the nipple need to be considered for ultrasound lesion detection. Second-look ultrasound breast lesion detection could be improved by calculating the lesion-nipple distance and considering that spatial displacement from MRI occurs with a circumferential movement along an arc centred on the nipple.

  11. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  12. Hepatic lesions in mollies (Poecilia latipinna) collected from Bayou Trepagnier, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajah, A.

    1993-01-01

    Mollies, Poecilia latipinna, are small fish species belonging to the Family Poeciliidae. Mollies are surface feeders and are commonly found in Louisiana waters. Bayou Trepagnier is located in the Lake Pontchatrain Basin, in St. Charles Parish of Louisiana, which receives treated wastewater and stormwater from an oil refinery and manufacturing complex. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of refinery discharges on mollies from Bayou Trepagnier. Fish were caught by beach seine, examined for gross lesions and then fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathological analysis. Paraffin-embedded fish were cut at 6 μm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Lesions observed in mollies were grouped into (1) neoplasms, (2) preneoplastic lesions, and (3) cytotoxic lesions. Hepatocellular carcinoma was the only neoplasm found in these fish. The preneoplastic lesions include basophilic foci, eosinophilic foci, and clear-cell foci. Cytotoxic lesions observed were fatty change, focal necrosis, hyaline degeneration of hepatocytes, and fatty change in pancreatic acinar cells. These preliminary results suggest the presence of carcinogens in Bayou Trepagnier

  13. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric...

  14. Fatty liver diagnostic from medical examination to analyze the accuracy between the abdominal ultrasonography and liver hounsfield units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Wang Kyun; Kim, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    In abdominal Ultrasonography, the fatty liver is diagnosed through hepatic parenchymal echo increased parenchymal density and unclear blood vessel boundary, and according to many studies, abdominal Ultrasonography has 60 ∼ 90% of sensitivity and 84 ∼ 95% of specificity in diagnosis of fatty liver, but the result of Ultrasonography is dependent on operators, so there can be difference among operators, and quantitative measurement of fatty infiltration is impossible. Among examinees who same day received abdominal Ultrasonography and chest computed tomography (CT), patients who were diagnosed with a fatty liver in the Ultrasonography were measured with liver Hounsfield Units (HU) of chest CT imaging to analyze the accuracy of the fatty liver diagnosis. Among 720 subject examinees, those who were diagnosed with a fatty liver through abdominal Ultrasonography by family physicians were 448, which is 62.2%. The result of Liver HU measurement in the chest CT imaging of those who were diagnosed with a fatty liver showed that 175 out of 720 had the measured value of less than 40 HU, which is 24.3%, and 173 were included to the 175 among 448 who were diagnosed through Ultrasonography, so 98.9% corresponded. This indicates that the operators' subjective ability has a great impact on diagnosis of lesion in Ultrasonography diagnosis of a fatty liver, and that in check up chest CT, under 40 HU in the measurement of Liver HU can be used for reference materials in diagnosis of a fatty liver

  15. Fatty liver diagnostic from medical examination to analyze the accuracy between the abdominal ultrasonography and liver hounsfield units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Wang Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Cheongju Medical Center, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Shinhan University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In abdominal Ultrasonography, the fatty liver is diagnosed through hepatic parenchymal echo increased parenchymal density and unclear blood vessel boundary, and according to many studies, abdominal Ultrasonography has 60 ∼ 90% of sensitivity and 84 ∼ 95% of specificity in diagnosis of fatty liver, but the result of Ultrasonography is dependent on operators, so there can be difference among operators, and quantitative measurement of fatty infiltration is impossible. Among examinees who same day received abdominal Ultrasonography and chest computed tomography (CT), patients who were diagnosed with a fatty liver in the Ultrasonography were measured with liver Hounsfield Units (HU) of chest CT imaging to analyze the accuracy of the fatty liver diagnosis. Among 720 subject examinees, those who were diagnosed with a fatty liver through abdominal Ultrasonography by family physicians were 448, which is 62.2%. The result of Liver HU measurement in the chest CT imaging of those who were diagnosed with a fatty liver showed that 175 out of 720 had the measured value of less than 40 HU, which is 24.3%, and 173 were included to the 175 among 448 who were diagnosed through Ultrasonography, so 98.9% corresponded. This indicates that the operators' subjective ability has a great impact on diagnosis of lesion in Ultrasonography diagnosis of a fatty liver, and that in check up chest CT, under 40 HU in the measurement of Liver HU can be used for reference materials in diagnosis of a fatty liver.

  16. Preoperative nonpalpable breast lesions localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardellin, G; Natale, F; Perin, B

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of real time sonography and mammography are examined in localizing with a hookwire (introduced via a straight needle) the nonpalpable breast lesions. The method, used for surgery or biopsy, was successful in a series of 13 patients with nonpalpable breast lesions, 4 affectd by carcinoma. 18 refs.

  17. Clonagem e purificação de fragmento da proteína capsidial de Banana streak OL virus Cloning and purification of Banana streak OL virus coat protein fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lombardi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi clonar e induzir a expressão de fragmento da proteína capsidial de Banana streak OL virus (BSOLV-CP em Escherichia coli, bem como purificar a proteína recombinante obtida. Empregou-se um par de iniciadores específicos para amplificar, em PCR, um fragmento de aproximadamente 390 pb, da região codificadora da porção central da BSOLV-CP. O fragmento obtido foi clonado em vetor pGEM-T Easy, subclonado em vetor pQE-30 e transformado em células de E. coli M15 (pREP4 por choque térmico. A expressão da proteína foi induzida por tiogalactopiranosídeo de isopropila (IPTG, e a proteína recombinante BSOLV-rcCP de 14 kDa foi detectada em Western blot e Dot blot. A expressão da proteína BSOLV-rcCP abre novas possibilidades para a obtenção de antígenos para a produção de antissoros contra o BSOLV.The objective of this work was to clone and to induce the expression of a fragment of Banana streak OL virus coat protein (BSOLV-CP in Escherichia coli, as well as to purify the obtained recombinant protein. Two specific primers were used for the PCR-amplification of approximately 390-bp fragment of the codifying region of the BSOLV-CP central portion. The obtained fragment was cloned in pGEM-T Easy vector, subcloned in pQE-30 expression vector and transformed into competent E. coli M15 (pREP4 cells by heat shock. The protein expression was induced by isopropyl thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG and the 14-kDa BSOLV-rcCP recombinant protein was detected in Western and Dot blotting. The expression of the BSOLV-rcCP protein enables new approaches to the obtention of antigens for the antisera production against BSOLV.

  18. Molecular Genetic Analysis and Evolution of Segment 7 in Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhou

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV causes maize rough dwarf disease or rice black-streaked dwarf disease and can lead to severe yield losses in maize and rice. To analyse RBSDV evolution, codon usage bias and genetic structure were investigated in 111 maize and rice RBSDV isolates from eight geographic locations in 2013 and 2014. The linear dsRNA S7 is A+U rich, with overall codon usage biased toward codons ending with A (A3s, S7-1: 32.64%, S7-2: 29.95% or U (U3s, S7-1: 44.18%, S7-2: 46.06%. Effective number of codons (Nc values of 45.63 in S7-1 (the first open reading frame of S7 and 39.96 in S7-2 (the second open reading frame of S7 indicate low degrees of RBSDV-S7 codon usage bias, likely driven by mutational bias regardless of year, host, or geographical origin. Twelve optimal codons were detected in S7. The nucleotide diversity (π of S7 sequences in 2013 isolates (0.0307 was significantly higher than in 2014 isolates (0.0244, P = 0.0226. The nucleotide diversity (π of S7 sequences in isolates from Jinan (0.0391 was higher than that from the other seven locations (P < 0.01. Only one S7 recombinant was detected in Baoding. RBSDV isolates could be phylogenetically classified into two groups according to S7 sequences, and further classified into two subgroups. S7-1 and S7-2 were under negative and purifying selection, with respective Ka/Ks ratios of 0.0179 and 0.0537. These RBSDV populations were expanding (P < 0.01 as indicated by negative values for Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F. Genetic differentiation was detected in six RBSDV subpopulations (P < 0.05. Absolute Fst (0.0790 and Nm (65.12 between 2013 and 2014, absolute Fst (0.1720 and Nm (38.49 between maize and rice, and absolute Fst values of 0.0085-0.3069 and Nm values of 0.56-29.61 among these eight geographic locations revealed frequent gene flow between subpopulations. Gene flow between 2013 and 2014 was the most frequent.

  19. Usefulness of US-guided automated gun biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Min Sook; Kim, Hak Soo; Lee, Han Kyung; Koh, Sung Hye; O, Eun Young; Yoon, Myung Hwan; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Hyung Sik

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of ultrasonography(US)-guided automated gun biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions. In 30 nonpalpable breast lesions over 0.6cm and detected on US, we performed US-guided biopsy using an 18-gauge automated biopsy gun. Two to four specimens were obtained from each lesion. We analyzed the site, size and depth of the lesions, and the length and histopathologic results of the specimens. In four lesions, surgical biopsy and gun biopsy results were compared. In 29 of 30 lesions(96.7%), specimens were adequate for histopathologic diagnosis, and this was as follows : one case of infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 13 of fibrocystic disease, 10 of fibrocystic disease versus fibroadenoma and one of fibrodenoma. There was also one reactive hyperplasia of LN, and one fatty one and two normal tissues, and in these four lesions, agreement between gun and surgical biopsy results was 100%. The only complication was minor bleeding, which was controlled by compression. US-guided automated gun biopsy is a clinically useful and safe procedure for evaluating nonpalpable breast lesions detected on US

  20. Usefulness of US-guided automated gun biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Min Sook; Kim, Hak Soo; Lee, Han Kyung; Koh, Sung Hye; O, Eun Young; Yoon, Myung Hwan; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Hyung Sik [Chungang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of ultrasonography(US)-guided automated gun biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions. In 30 nonpalpable breast lesions over 0.6cm and detected on US, we performed US-guided biopsy using an 18-gauge automated biopsy gun. Two to four specimens were obtained from each lesion. We analyzed the site, size and depth of the lesions, and the length and histopathologic results of the specimens. In four lesions, surgical biopsy and gun biopsy results were compared. In 29 of 30 lesions(96.7%), specimens were adequate for histopathologic diagnosis, and this was as follows : one case of infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 13 of fibrocystic disease, 10 of fibrocystic disease versus fibroadenoma and one of fibrodenoma. There was also one reactive hyperplasia of LN, and one fatty one and two normal tissues, and in these four lesions, agreement between gun and surgical biopsy results was 100%. The only complication was minor bleeding, which was controlled by compression. US-guided automated gun biopsy is a clinically useful and safe procedure for evaluating nonpalpable breast lesions detected on US.

  1. Automated diagnosis of focal liver lesions using bidirectional empirical mode decomposition features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Koh, Joel En Wei; Hagiwara, Yuki; Tan, Jen Hong; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Yaakup, Nur Adura; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Bin Mohd Fabell, Mohd Kamil; Yeong, Chai Hong

    2018-03-01

    Liver is the heaviest internal organ of the human body and performs many vital functions. Prolonged cirrhosis and fatty liver disease may lead to the formation of benign or malignant lesions in this organ, and an early and reliable evaluation of these conditions can improve treatment outcomes. Ultrasound imaging is a safe, non-invasive, and cost-effective way of diagnosing liver lesions. However, this technique has limited performance in determining the nature of the lesions. This study initiates a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to aid radiologists in an objective and more reliable interpretation of ultrasound images of liver lesions. In this work, we have employed radon transform and bi-directional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) to extract features from the focal liver lesions. After which, the extracted features were subjected to particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique for the selection of a set of optimized features for classification. Our automated CAD system can differentiate normal, malignant, and benign liver lesions using machine learning algorithms. It was trained using 78 normal, 26 benign and 36 malignant focal lesions of the liver. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of lesion classification were 92.95%, 90.80%, and 97.44%, respectively. The proposed CAD system is fully automatic as no segmentation of region-of-interest (ROI) is required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Changing activity in MS lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermode, A.G.; Tofts, P.S.; Thompson, A.J.; Rudge, P.; MacManus, D.G.; Kendall, B.E.; Moseley, I.F.; Kingsley, D.P.E.; McDonald, W.I.

    1989-01-01

    Gd-DTPA enhanced T1 weighted MRI is a discriminating test for a defective blood-brain barrier, with MS lesions showing considerable variation in the pattern of enhancement. Since little is known of the changes in the blood-brain barrier in the active plaque over time, the natural history of blood-brain barrier disturbance in the MS lesion was examined to confirm earlier reports that Gd-DTPA enhancement is a consistent early event in new lesions of relapsing/remitting MS. This knowledge is essential for the use of MRI in monitoring treatment. (author). 9 refs

  3. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  4. OCT investigation of dental lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiac, Eugen; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Scrieciu, Monica; Mercuţ, Rǎzvan; Mercuţ, Veronica; Vǎtu, Mihaela

    2018-03-01

    There are several important non carious lesions affecting the tooth structure, lesions which may be classified into four clinical forms of dental wear: abfraction, erosion, attrition and abrasion, and different types of root resorption. Search for new, non-invasive and fast methods able to detect and describe such injuries is of utmost importance. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) proved itself as an appropriate investigation method for several medical fields including ophthalmology, dermatology, cardiology etc. Our study reveals OCT preliminary investigations as a promising tool for detecting and evaluating of the mentioned lesions.

  5. Preoperative detection of colorectal liver metastases in fatty liver: MDCT or MRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulemann, Vanessa; Schima, Wolfgang; Tamandl, Dietmar; Kaczirek, Klaus; Gruenberger, Thomas; Wrba, Friedrich; Weber, Michael; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic value of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative detection of colorectal liver metastases in diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver, associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and methods: Twenty preoperative tri-phasic MDCT (4-64-row, Siemens) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (1.5 T or 3.0 T, Siemens) examinations of patients with colorectal cancer and liver metastases in diffuse steatosis were retrospectively evaluated. All patients underwent surgical resection for liver metastases (time interval 1-60 days). The amount of fatty infiltration of the liver was determined histopathologically by semi-quantitative percent-wise estimation and ranged from 25 to 75%. Results: Overall, 51 metastases were found by histopathology of the resected liver segments/lobes. The size of the metastases ranged from 0.4 to 13 cm, with 18 (35%) being up to 1 cm in diameter. In the overall rating, MDCT detected 33/51 lesions (65%), and MRI 45/51 (88%). For lesions up to 1 cm, MDCT detected only 2/18 (11%) and MRI 12/18 (66%). One false positive lesion was detected by MDCT. Statistical analysis showed that MRI is markedly superior to MDCT, with a statistically significant difference (p 1 cm. Conclusion: For the detection of colorectal liver metastases after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and consecutive diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver, MRI is superior to MDCT, especially for the detection of small lesions.

  6. Construction of Double Right-Border Binary Vector Carrying Non-Host Gene Rxol Resistant to Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Mei-rong; XIA Zhi-hui; ZHAI Wen-xue; XU Jian-long; ZHOU Yong-li; LI Zhi-kang

    2008-01-01

    Rxol cloned from maize is a non-host gene resistant to bacterial leaf streak of rice. pCAMBIA1305-1 with Rxol was digested with Sca Ⅰ and NgoM Ⅳ and the double right-border binary vector pMNDRBBin6 was digested with Hpa Ⅰ and Xma Ⅰ.pMNDRBBin6 carrying the gene Rxol was acquired by ligation of blunt-end and cohesive end. The results of PCR, restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing indicated that the Rxol gene had been cloned into pMNDRBBin6. This double right-border binary vector,named as pMNDRBBin6-Rxol, will play a role in breeding marker-free plants resistant to bacterial leaf streak of rice by genetic transformation.

  7. Post-radiotherapeutic heart lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testart, F.M.

    1979-05-01

    Heart structures have traditionally been considered radioresistant. In fact all tissues subjected to radiotherapy can develop lesions. Possible damage includes: - pericardiac fibrosis, the commonest and best individualized, associated with a constriction this leads to a stoppage pattern usually occurring late, around the 18th month. Its frequency depends directly on the total radiation dose; - fibrous myocarditis by direct damage to the heart muscle; - stenosis type lesions of the large coronary trunks; - in exceptional cases lesions of the aorta: hyperplastic degenerescence of the intima and adventitia or of the aortic sigmoid valvules and the mitral valves. Three observations are reported, concerning a coronary, a pericardiac and a coronary, myocardiac and pericardiac lesion. Following this account the irradiation techniques and main experimental data are reviewed and the prophylactic and therapeutic consequences to be derived from our observations and those of the literature are examined [fr

  8. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class......Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can...... be classified according to previously suggested radiologic characteristics and how this classification relates to prognosis. Searching the databases of eight tertiary referral centres we identified 90 adult patients (61 women, 29 men; mean age 34 years) with ≥1 AIIDL. We collected their demographic, clinical...

  9. MRI atlas of MS lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences Sina Hospital (Iran). Dept. of Neurology; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm [Univ. Hospital Basel (Switzerland). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2008-07-01

    MRI has become the main paraclinical test in the diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis. We have demonstrated more than 400 pictures of different typical and atypical MS lesions in this atlas. Each image has a teaching point. New diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis are discussed and the book is supported by a teaching DVD where the reader can see MS lesions in different slices and sequences. (orig.)

  10. The effect of strong pitch angle scattering on the use of artificial auroral streaks for echo detection - Echo 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, R.L.; Steffen, J.E.; Winckler, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    During the Echo 5 experiment launched 13 November 1979 from the Poker Flat Research Range (Fairbanks, Alaska), a 0.75 A, 37 keV electron beam was injected both up and down the field line to test the use of optical and X-ray methods to detect the beam as it interacted with the atmosphere below the rocket for both the downward injections (markers) and the upward injected electrons which mirrored at the Southern Hemisphere and returned echoes. The artificial auroral streaks created by the markers were easily visible on the ground TV system but the large intensity of photons produced around the rocket masked any response to the markers by the on-board photometers and X-ray detectors. No echoes were detected with any of the detection systems although the power in some of the upward injections was 7.6 times the power in a detected downward injection thus setting an upper limit on the loss-cone echo flux. The magnitude of the bounce averaged pitch angle diffusion coefficient necessary to explain the lack of observable echoes was found to be 4 x 10 -4 S -1 . It was found that an equatorial wave electric field of 11 mVm -1 would account for the lack of echoes. Such fields should cause strong pitch angle scattering of up to 10 keV natural electrons and thus be consistent with the presence of diffuse aurora on the Echo 5 trajectory. (author)

  11. Influence of rice black streaked dwarf virus on the ecological fitness of non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Xing; He, Xiao-Chan; Zheng, Xu-Song; Yang, Ya-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV) is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallen). Non-vector rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), shares the same host rice plants with SBPH in paddy fields. The changes in nutritional composition of rice plants infected by RBSDV and the ecological fitness of BPH feeding on the infected plants were studied under both artificial climate chamber and field conditions. Contents of 16 detected amino acids and soluble sugar in RBSDV infected rice plants were higher than those in the healthy ones. On the diseased plants BPH had significantly higher nymphal survival rates, nymphal duration of the males, weight of the female adults, as well as egg hatchability compared to BPH being fed on healthy plants. However, there was no obvious difference in female nymph duration, longevity and fecundity. Defense enzymes (superoxidase dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and detoxifying enzymes (carboxylesterase, CAE and glutathione S-transferase, GST) in BPH adults fed on diseased plants had markedly higher activities. The results indicate rice plants infected by RBSDV improved the ecological fitness of the brown planthopper, a serious pest but not a transmitter of the RBSDV virus. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Understanding the immune system architecture and transcriptome responses to southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in Sogatella furcifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Tang, Nan; Gao, Xinlei; Guo, Dongyang; Chang, Zhaoxia; Fu, Yating; Akinyemi, Ibukun A; Wu, Qingfa

    2016-11-02

    Sogatella furcifera, the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), has become one of the most destructive pests in rice production owing to its plant sap-sucking behavior and efficient transmission of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) in a circulative, propagative and persistent manner. The dynamic and complex SRBSDV-WBPH-rice plant interaction is still poorly understood. In this study, based on a homology-based genome-wide analysis, 348 immune-related genes belonging to 28 families were identified in WBPH. A transcriptome analysis of non-viruliferous (NVF) and viruliferous groups with high viral titers (HVT) and median viral titers (MVT) revealed that feeding on SRBSDV-infected rice plants has a significant impact on gene expression, regardless of viral titers in insects. We identified 278 up-regulated and 406 down-regulated genes shared among the NVF, MVT, and HVT groups and detected significant down-regulation of primary metabolism-related genes and oxidoreductase. In viruliferous WBPH with viral titer-specific transcriptome changes, 1,906 and 1,467 genes exhibited strict monotonically increasing and decreasing expression, respectively. The RNAi pathway was the major antiviral response to increasing viral titers among diverse immune responses. These results clarify the responses of immune genes and the transcriptome of WBPH to SRBSDV and improve our knowledge of the functional relationship between pathogen, vector, and host.

  13. Jasmonic acid-mediated defense suppresses brassinosteroid-mediated susceptibility to Rice black streaked dwarf virus infection in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuqing; Zhang, Hehong; Sun, Zongtao; Li, Junmin; Hong, Gaojie; Zhu, Qisong; Zhou, Xuebiao; MacFarlane, Stuart; Yan, Fei; Chen, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    Plant hormones play a vital role in plant immune responses. However, in contrast to the relative wealth of information on hormone-mediated immunity in dicot plants, little information is available on monocot-virus defense systems. We used a high-throughput-sequencing approach to compare the global gene expression of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV)-infected rice plants with that of healthy plants. Exogenous hormone applications and transgenic rice were used to test RBSDV infectivity and pathogenicity. Our results revealed that the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was induced while the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway was suppressed in infected plants. Foliar application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or brassinazole (BRZ) resulted in a significant reduction in RBSDV incidence, while epibrassinolide (BL) treatment increased RBSDV infection. Infection studies using coi1-13 and Go mutants demonstrated JA-mediated resistance and BR-mediated susceptibility to RBSDV infection. A mixture of MeJA and BL treatment resulted in a significant reduction in RBSDV infection compared with a single BL treatment. MeJA application efficiently suppressed the expression of BR pathway genes, and this inhibition depended on the JA coreceptor OsCOI1. Collectively, our results reveal that JA-mediated defense can suppress the BR-mediated susceptibility to RBSDV infection. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Streak-Camera Measurements with High Currents in PEP-II and Variable Optics in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Weixeng; Fisher, Alan, a Corbett, Jeff; /SLAC

    2008-06-05

    A dual-axis, synchroscan streak camera was used to measure longitudinal bunch profiles in three storage rings at SLAC: the PEP-II low- and high-energy rings, and SPEAR3. At high currents, both PEP rings exhibit a transient synchronous-phase shift along the bunch train due to RF-cavity beam loading. Bunch length and profile asymmetry were measured along the train for a range of beam currents. To avoid the noise inherent in a dual-axis sweep, we accumulated single-axis synchroscan images while applying a 50-ns gate to the microchannel plate. To improve the extinction ratio, an upstream mirror pivoting at 1 kHz was synchronized with the 2kHz MCP gate to deflect light from other bunches off the photocathode. Bunch length was also measured on the HER as a function of beam energy. For SPEAR3 we measured bunch length as a function of single-bunch current for several lattices: achromatic, low-emittance and low momentum compaction. In the first two cases, resistive and reactive impedance components can be extracted from the longitudinal bunch profiles. In the low-alpha configurations, we observed natural bunch lengths approaching the camera resolution, requiring special care to remove instrumental effects, and saw evidence of periodic bursting.

  15. Phylogeny of Banana Streak Virus reveals recent and repetitive endogenization in the genome of its banana host (Musa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2009-07-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a plant dsDNA pararetrovirus (family Caulimoviridae, genus badnavirus). Although integration is not an essential step in the BSV replication cycle, the nuclear genome of banana (Musa sp.) contains BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs). Some BSV EPRVs are infectious by reconstituting a functional viral genome. Recent studies revealed a large molecular diversity of episomal BSV viruses (i.e., nonintegrated) while others focused on BSV EPRV sequences only. In this study, the evolutionary history of badnavirus integration in banana was inferred from phylogenetic relationships between BSV and BSV EPRVs. The relative evolution rates and selective pressures (d(N)/d(S) ratio) were also compared between endogenous and episomal viral sequences. At least 27 recent independent integration events occurred after the divergence of three banana species, indicating that viral integration is a recent and frequent phenomenon. Relaxation of selective pressure on badnaviral sequences that experienced neutral evolution after integration in the plant genome was recorded. Additionally, a significant decrease (35%) in the EPRV evolution rate was observed compared to BSV, reflecting the difference in the evolution rate between episomal dsDNA viruses and plant genome. The comparison of our results with the evolution rate of the Musa genome and other reverse-transcribing viruses suggests that EPRVs play an active role in episomal BSV diversity and evolution.

  16. Evolution of endogenous sequences of banana streak virus: what can we learn from banana (Musa sp.) evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Blondin, Laurence; Guidolin, Olivier; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Perrier, Xavier; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2010-07-01

    Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are viral sequences of the family Caulimoviridae integrated into the nuclear genome of numerous plant species. The ability of some endogenous sequences of Banana streak viruses (eBSVs) in the genome of banana (Musa sp.) to induce infections just like the virus itself was recently demonstrated (P. Gayral et al., J. Virol. 83:6697-6710, 2008). Although eBSVs probably arose from accidental events, infectious eBSVs constitute an extreme case of parasitism, as well as a newly described strategy for vertical virus transmission in plants. We investigated the early evolutionary stages of infectious eBSV for two distinct BSV species-GF (BSGFV) and Imové (BSImV)-through the study of their distribution, insertion polymorphism, and structure evolution among selected banana genotypes representative of the diversity of 60 wild Musa species and genotypes. To do so, the historical frame of host evolution was analyzed by inferring banana phylogeny from two chloroplast regions-matK and trnL-trnF-as well as from the nuclear genome, using 19 microsatellite loci. We demonstrated that both BSV species integrated recently in banana evolution, circa 640,000 years ago. The two infectious eBSVs were subjected to different selective pressures and showed distinct levels of rearrangement within their final structure. In addition, the molecular phylogenies of integrated and nonintegrated BSVs enabled us to establish the phylogenetic origins of eBSGFV and eBSImV.

  17. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci in Spring Wheat Landraces Conferring Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Streak and Spot Blotch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika B. Adhikari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf streak (BLS, caused by pv. (Smith et al. Bragard et al., and spot blotch (SB, caused by (S. Ito & Kurib. Drechs. ex Dastur, are two emerging diseases of wheat ( L.. To achieve sustainable disease management strategies and reduce yield losses, identifying new genes that confer quantitative resistance would benefit resistance breeding efforts. The main objective of this study was to use association mapping (AM with 832 polymorphic Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers to identify genomic regions associated with resistance to BLS and SB in 566 spring wheat landraces. From data analysis of this diverse panel of wheat accessions, we discovered five novel genomic regions significantly associated with resistance to BLS on chromosomes 1A, 4A, 4B, 6B, and 7D. Similarly, four genomic regions were found to be associated with resistance to SB on chromosomes 1A, 3B, 7B, and 7D. A high degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD decayed over short genetic distance in the set of wheat accessions studied, and some of these genomic regions appear to be involved in multiple disease resistance (MDR. These results suggest that the AM approach provides a platform for discovery of resistance conditioned by multiple genes with quantitative effects, which could be validated and deployed in wheat breeding programs.

  18. Histomorphological spetrum of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, S; Koirala, U; Khatri, R; Acharya, L; Suwal, A

    2011-04-01

    Cancer of the breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. Mass in the breast, whether benign or malignant is a cause of anxiety to the patients and the family members. All breast lumps are considered to be carcinomas until proved otherwise and are the causes of concern both for the patient and surgeon. This is a retrospective study conducted in Kathmandu Model Hospital for a total duration of three years from August 2007 to August 2010. 114 sample of breast tissue sent for histopathology were studied. Peak incidence of benign lesion was in between 21-30 years and malignant lesions in between 31-50 years. No breast lesions were seen in the first decade of life. Cancer of the breast was seen in 12.28% of cases. Fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease were the commonest benign lesion and infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest malignant lesion. Specimens from 10 male breasts were received. Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion encountered in males. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was seen in a 70 year old male. Breast cancer is one of the commonest causes of breast lump particularly in women and is growing public health problem in Nepal.

  19. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  20. Significance of computed tomography in the diagnosis of the mediastinal mass lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Masanori; Takashima, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Masayuki; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hirose, Jinichiro; Choto, Shuichi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-08-01

    Thirty cases of the mediastinal mass lesions were examined by computed tomography and diagnostic ability of CT was retrospectively evaluated. We devided them into two major groups: cystic and solid lesions. Cysts and cystic teratomas were differentiated on the thickness of their wall. Pericardial cysts were typically present at the cardiophrenic angle. In the solid mediastinal lesions, the presence of calcific and/or fatty components, the presence of necrosis, the irregularity of the margin and the obliteration of the surrounding fat layer were the clues to differential diagnosis and of evaluation for their invasiveness. Although differential diagnosis of the solid anterior mediastinal tumors was often difficult, teratomas with calcific and fatty componets were easily diagnosed. Invasiveness of the malignant thymoma and other malignant lesions were successfully evaluated to some extent. Neurogenic posterior mediastinal tumors were easily diagnosed because of the presence of the spine deformity and typical dumbbell shaped appearance. We stress that our diagnostic approach is useful to differentiate the mediastinal mass lesions.

  1. Significance of computed tomography in the diagnosis of the mediastinal mass lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masanori; Takashima, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Masayuki; Itoh, Hiroshi; Hirose, Jinichiro; Choto, Shuichi

    1983-01-01

    Thirty cases of the mediastinal mass lesions were examined by computed tomography and diagnostic ability of CT was retrospectively evaluated. We devided them into two major groups: cystic and solid lesions. Cysts and cystic teratomas were differentiated on the thickness of their wall. Pericardial cysts were typically present at the cardiophrenic angle. In the solid mediastinal lesions, the presence of calcific and/or fatty components, the presence of necrosis, the irregularity of the margin and the obliteration of the surrounding fat layer were the clues to differential diagnosis and of evaluation for their invasiveness. Although differential diagnosis of the solid anterior mediastinal tumors was often difficult, teratomas with calcific and fatty componets were easily diagnosed. Invasiveness of the malignant thymoma and other malignant lesions were successfully evaluated to some extent. Neurogenic posterior mediastinal tumors were easily diagnosed because of the presence of the spine deformity and typical dumbbell shaped appearance. We stress that our diagnostic approach is useful to differentiate the mediastinal mass lesions. (author)

  2. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. MR imaging findings of anterior interosseous nerve lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Andrew J. [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Salonen, David C. [University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Anastakis, Dimitri J. [University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Plastic Surgery, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    To study and characterise the MR imaging findings of lesions of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the forearm of ten patients referred to our institution with suspected AIN lesions were retrospectively studied. Five healthy volunteers with normal forearm MRI findings formed a control group. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed the forearm musculature for oedema in the distribution of the AIN, median, posterior interosseous and radial nerves on T2-weighted (T2W) fat-saturated sequences. T1-weighted (T1W) images were assessed and graded for the presence of muscle atrophy and fatty involution. Six patients had undergone surgical exploration; five of these had surgically confirmed AIN compression. Four patients had diagnoses other than AIN compression made on imaging features. Of the cases of proven AIN compression, oedema within the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle was identified in all cases. PQ atrophy and fatty involution were seen in three (43%) surgically confirmed cases. Cases 2 and 3 also demonstrated oedema in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)1 and FDP2 muscles. These cases also showed oedema in the flexor-carpi radialis (FCR) and FDP3/FDP4 muscles, respectively. The four cases of non-AIN compression demonstrated muscle oedema patterns that were atypical for the AIN distribution. They included a rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon, brachial neuritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and compression of the proximal median nerve. MRI is a useful investigation in the diagnostic workup of AIN syndrome. AIN syndrome is likely when there is diffuse oedema of AIN innervated muscles on T2W fat-saturated images. The most reliable sign of an AIN lesion is oedema within the PQ. Oedema in the flexor carpi radialis, FDP3 and FDP4, although not in the classical distribution of the AIN, does not preclude the diagnosis of AIN syndrome. (orig.)

  4. MR imaging findings of anterior interosseous nerve lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Andrew J.; Salonen, David C.; Anastakis, Dimitri J.

    2007-01-01

    To study and characterise the MR imaging findings of lesions of the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the forearm of ten patients referred to our institution with suspected AIN lesions were retrospectively studied. Five healthy volunteers with normal forearm MRI findings formed a control group. Two musculoskeletal radiologists assessed the forearm musculature for oedema in the distribution of the AIN, median, posterior interosseous and radial nerves on T2-weighted (T2W) fat-saturated sequences. T1-weighted (T1W) images were assessed and graded for the presence of muscle atrophy and fatty involution. Six patients had undergone surgical exploration; five of these had surgically confirmed AIN compression. Four patients had diagnoses other than AIN compression made on imaging features. Of the cases of proven AIN compression, oedema within the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle was identified in all cases. PQ atrophy and fatty involution were seen in three (43%) surgically confirmed cases. Cases 2 and 3 also demonstrated oedema in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)1 and FDP2 muscles. These cases also showed oedema in the flexor-carpi radialis (FCR) and FDP3/FDP4 muscles, respectively. The four cases of non-AIN compression demonstrated muscle oedema patterns that were atypical for the AIN distribution. They included a rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon, brachial neuritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and compression of the proximal median nerve. MRI is a useful investigation in the diagnostic workup of AIN syndrome. AIN syndrome is likely when there is diffuse oedema of AIN innervated muscles on T2W fat-saturated images. The most reliable sign of an AIN lesion is oedema within the PQ. Oedema in the flexor carpi radialis, FDP3 and FDP4, although not in the classical distribution of the AIN, does not preclude the diagnosis of AIN syndrome. (orig.)

  5. Light field driven streak-camera for single-shot measurements of the temporal profile of XUV-pulses from a free-electron laser; Lichtfeld getriebene Streak-Kamera zur Einzelschuss Zeitstrukturmessung der XUV-Pulse eines Freie-Elektronen Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruehling, Ulrike

    2009-10-15

    The Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is a source for highly intense ultra short extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light pulses with pulse durations of a few femtoseconds. Due to the stochastic nature of the light generation scheme based on self amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), the duration and temporal profile of the XUV pulses fluctuate from shot to shot. In this thesis, a THz-field driven streak-camera capable of single pulse measurements of the XUV pulse-profile has been realized. In a first XUV-THz pump-probe experiment at FLASH, the XUV-pulses are overlapped in a gas target with synchronized THz-pulses generated by a new THz-undulator. The electromagnetic field of the THz light accelerates photoelectrons produced by the XUV-pulses with the resulting change of the photoelectron momenta depending on the phase of the THz field at the time of ionisation. This technique is intensively used in attosecond metrology where near infrared streaking fields are employed for the temporal characterisation of attosecond XUV-Pulses. Here, it is adapted for the analysis of pulse durations in the few femtosecond range by choosing a hundred times longer far infrared streaking wavelengths. Thus, the gap between conventional streak cameras with typical resolutions of hundreds of femtoseconds and techniques with attosecond resolution is filled. Using the THz-streak camera, the time dependent electric field of the THz-pulses was sampled in great detail while on the other hand the duration and even details of the time structure of the XUV-pulses were characterized. (orig.)

  6. FFA STUDY OF MACULAR LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vinayagamurthy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Macula is an important portion of retina that occupies the posterior pole of retina. Any disease that affects macula results in significant loss of central vision, form vision and colour vision to an extent. Macular lesions can be hereditary as well as acquired. Macular lesions occur in both younger and older individuals. Anatomically, a macular lesions can vary from a simple lesion like an RPF defect to a vision-threatening lesions like choroidal neovascular membrane. Many screening tests that are sensitive and specific are available to assess the functioning of macula called as ‘macular function test’. But, the greater understanding of the retinal vascular led to the usage of fluorescein angiogram in the detection and screening of macular, retinovascular and optic disc lesions. Through fundus fluorescein angiogram is a thirty-year-old procedure; it is still in vogue in almost all parts of the world. It has its own merits. The aim of the study is to study the role of fluorescein angiography in the evaluation of macular lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based prospective randomised study was done, which included 50 patients. Detailed patient history was taken and thorough ocular and systemic examination was done. All patients were examined by ophthalmoscopy (direct and indirect and slit-lamp examination with 90D followed by fluorescein angiography. Ophthalmoscopic and fluorescein angiography findings were analysed and categorised. Patients were advised proper ocular and systemic treatment and follow up. RESULTS 50 cases with macular lesions were analysed and categorised into conditions like ARMD, CSR, macular oedema, CME, degenerations and dystrophies and miscellaneous conditions. FFA altered the diagnosis in 8% cases and categorised the cases in all cases. 16% patients developed adverse reactions like allergy, vomiting and nausea. On statistical analysis, FFA proved to be cheap and superior diagnostic tool in confirming

  7. Tomato yellow vein streak virus: relationship with Bemisia tabaci biotype B and host range Tomato yellow vein streak virus: interação com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e gama de hospedeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Firmino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV is a putative species of begomovirus, which was prevalent on tomato crops in São Paulo State, Brazil, until 2005. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction between ToYVSV and its vector Bemisia tabaci biotype B and to identify alternative hosts for the virus. The minimum acquisition and inoculation access periods of ToYVSV by B. tabaci were 30 min and 10 min, respectively. Seventy five percent of tomato-test plants were infected when the acquisition and inoculation access periods were 24 h. The latent period of the virus in the insect was 16 h. The ToYVSV was retained by B. tabaci until 20 days after acquisition. First generation of adult whiteflies obtained from viruliferous females were virus free as shown by PCR analysis and did not transmit the virus to tomato plants. Out of 34 species of test-plants inoculated with ToYVSV only Capsicum annuum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Datura stramonium, Gomphrena globosa, Nicotiana clevelandii and N. tabacum cv. TNN were susceptible to infection. B. tabaci biotype B was able to acquire the virus from all these susceptible species, transmitting it to tomato plants.O Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV é uma espécie putativa de begomovirus que infecta o tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicon em diversas regiões do Brasil onde se cultiva essa solanácea, sendo a espécie prevalente no estado de São Paulo até 2005. Estudou-se a interação do ToYVSV com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e identificaram-se hospedeiras alternativas deste vírus. Os períodos de acesso mínimo de aquisição (PAA e de inoculação (PAI foram de 30 min e 10 min, respectivamente. A porcentagem de plantas infectadas chegou até cerca de 75% após um PAA e PAI de 24 h. O período de latência do vírus no vetor foi de 16 horas. O ToYVSV foi retido pela B. tabaci até 20 dias após a aquisição do vírus. Não foi detectada transmissão do vírus para prog

  8. Gas-contrasted computed tomography for evaluation of mediastinal lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuoka, A; Reshad, K; Kitano, M; Ishii, S [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)

    1981-03-01

    An application of gas-contrasted computed tomography (CT) was investigated for evaluation of mediastinal lesions. Findings of the gas-contrasted CT were compared with those of usual CT or conventional pneumomediastinography in nine patients with myasthenia gravis, four patients with mediastinal tumor, and five patients with other mediastinal lesions. As a result, the following results were obtained. 1) In examination for the thymus in myasthenia gravis, the shape of the thymus tissue was most accurately recognized by gas-contrasted CT, which enable one to discriminate the thymus tissue from the fatty tissue of the surrounding mediastinum with injected gas. 2) Gas-contrasted CT could most accurately evaluate adhesion or invasion of the mediastinal tumor to the surrounding organs. At the exact site of adhesion, injected gas to the mediastinum did not separate the tumor from the surroundings. Such diagnostic significance was considered to be available also to mediastinal lymphnode metastasis or suspected invasion of the malignant tumor from outside the mediastinum. 3) These findings of gas-contrasted CT were correlated well to those at operation. Hence, it was concluded that this diagnostic method presents good informations in assessing the resectability of the tumor or preoperative determination of the operation procedure. 4) However, it seemed difficult to distinguish between inflammatory (benign) adhesion and invasive (malignant) one even by gas-contrasted CT. 5) Finally, it was suggested that gas-contrasted CT might be widely adopted for clarification of lesions other than the mediastinal ones.

  9. Gas-contrasted computed tomography for evaluation of mediastinal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuoka, Akio; Reshad, K.; Kitano, Morihisa; Ishii, Shoukei

    1981-01-01

    An application of gas-contrasted computed tomography (CT) was investigated for evaluation of mediastinal lesions. Findings of the gas-contrasted CT were compared with those of usual CT or conventional pneumomediastinography in nine patients with myasthenia gravis, four patients with mediastinal tumor, and five patients with other mediastinal lesions. As a result, the following results were obtained. 1) In examination for the thymus in myasthenia gravis, the shape of the thymus tissue was most accurately recognized by gas-contrasted CT, which enable one to discriminate the thymus tissue from the fatty tissue of the surrounding mediastinum with injected gas. 2) Gas-contrasted CT could most accurately evaluate adhesion or invasion of the mediastinal tumor to the surrounding organs. At the exact site of adhesion, injected gas to the mediastinum did not separate the tumor from the surroundings. Such diagnostic significance was considered to be available also to mediastinal lymphnode metastasis or suspected invasion of the malignant tumor from outside the mediastinum. 3) These findings of gas-contrasted CT were correlated well to those at operation. Hence, it was concluded that this diagnostic method presents good informations in assessing the resectability of the tumor or preoperative determination of the operation procedure. 4) However, it seemed difficult to distinguish between inflammatory (benign) adhesion and invasive (malignant) one even by gas-contrasted CT. 5) Finally, it was suggested that gas-contrasted CT might be widely adopted for clarification of lesions other than the mediastinal ones. (author)

  10. MRI of the stener lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haramati, N.; Hiller, N.; Dowdle, J.; Jacobson, M.; Barax, C.N.; Lieberfarb, R.I.; Lester, B.; Kulick, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Six cadaver thumbs had ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears created surgically. MR examinations (2D STIR and 3D GRASS) were performed identically on all specimens both before displacement (non-Stener) and after displacement (Stener lesion) of the UCL. The MR images were then randomly numbered. Each image was evaluated separately in blinded fashion by four musculoskeletal radiologists for the presence or absence of a Stener lesion. Each radiologist reinterpreted the images after an interval of several days. The interpretation was based on previously published criteria for Stener lesion diagnosis by MR. The sensitivity of GRASS ranged from 0.17 to 0.67 with the most experienced reader scoring the lowest. The specificity of GRASS ranged from 0.33 to 1.0 (most experienced reader 0.67, 0.83). STIR had a sensitivity of 0.00-0.17 and a specificity of 0.53-0.83. The K values for inter- and intraobserver agreement were measured. The intraobserver K for GRASS was 0.27-0.75 (most experienced reader 0.75). 2D imaging is probably inadequate for the evaluation of Stener lesions. The most likely reason is that the STIR slice thickness of 3 mm limits resolution of small UCLs. The poor sensitivity and specificity of GRASS as well as poor interobserver agreement suggest that MR may not be sufficiently accurate for Stener lesion evaluation. (orig./MG)

  11. [Healing process of claw lesions in dairy cows in alpine mountain pastures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischer, C J; Wehrle, M; Geyer, H; Lutz, B; Ossent, P

    2000-07-01

    The field study investigated severity, localisation and incidence of claw lesions of dairy cows and their healing process during a period of three months on selected mountain pastures in the central part of Switzerland. In 60 cows, which were at least 120 days in their lactation, the healing process was compared with the biochemical profiles. In 141 cows 197 claw lesions were recorded. Diagnosed were only sole ulcers (38%) and white line lesions (62%). In the first and second half of the summer term, the number of claw lesions was equal, although more severe lesions occurred mainly during the second half (89%). The lesions were treated surgically and the affected claw was elevated on a wood block or a plastic shoe. Average time for formation of a close layer of horn was 14 days. A delayed healing process was observed in dairy cows with an milk yield over 5500 kg per lactation, as well as in the second half of the summer term. Cows with a delayed healing process had significantly higher concentrations of free fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate, and higher plasma enzyme activities for AST than cows with adequate healing process. This indicates that cows with a relatively high milk production touch upon the limits of their physical capacity under harder conditions on alpine pastures, which may affect also the healing process of claw lesions.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Benton, Jeannie L.; Sandeman, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play crucial roles in the development and function of the central nervous system. These components, which must be obtained from dietary sources, have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, the presence of omega-6 fatty acids may interfere with omega-3 fatty acid metabolism. The present study investigated whether changes in dietary ratios of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids influence neurogenesis in the lobster (Homarus america...

  13. Effects of elastase on fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kazuo; Shimizu, Yoshikazu; Hihara, Masafumi; Ando, Hideki; Nishiyama, Masateru; Tano, Hironobu

    1984-01-01

    Elastase (Elaszym 6T) was administered, in addition to the dietary instruction, to three patients with fatty liver. CT scanning revealed marked improvement in fatty liver. Transaminase levels returned to normal, total cholesterol levels tended to decrease, and HDL-cholesterol levels tended to increase. These results suggest that elastase is effective in the treatment of fatty liver. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. 40 CFR 721.3720 - Fatty amide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty amide. 721.3720 Section 721.3720... Fatty amide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a fatty amide (PMN P-91-87) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. The clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Choromańska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive levels of free fatty acids are toxic to cells. The human body has evolved a defense mechanism in the form of small cytoplasmic proteins called fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs that bind long-chain fatty acids (LCFA, and then refer them to appropriate intracellular disposal sites (oxidation in mitochondria and peroxisomes or storage in the endoplasmic reticulum. So far, nine types of these proteins have been described, and their name refers to the place in which they were first identified or where they can be found in the greatest concentration. The most important FABPs were isolated from the liver (L-FABP, heart (H-FABP, intestine (I-FABP, brain (B-FABP, epidermis (E-FABP and adipocytes (A-FABP. Determination of H-FABP is used in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and L-FABP in kidney lesions of different etiologies. It is postulated that FABPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Elevated levels of A-FABP have been found in the pericardial fat tissue and were associated with cardiac dysfunction in obese people. A rise in A-FABP has been observed in patients with type II diabetes. I-FABP is known as a marker of cell damage in the small intestine. Increased concentration of B-FABP has been associated with human brain tumors such as glioblastoma and astrocytoma, as well as with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other disorders of cognitive function. The aim of this work was to present current data on the clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins.

  16. Abfraction lesions reviewed: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Vasconcelos Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-carious cervical lesions are characterized by structural loss near the cementoenamel junction, without the presence of caries. Anumber of theories have arisen to explain the etiology of such lesions, although the real causes remain obscure, as is reflected by the contradictory terminology used in the literature. In addition to describing acidic and abrasive processes documented as etiological factors, attention is given to the role of mechanical stress from occlusal load, which is the most accepted theory for the development of abfraction lesions. Considering that tensile stress leads to the failure of restorations in the cervical region and that this is a fruitful area for future research, the present study has highlighted diagnosis, prognosis and the criteria for treatment.

  17. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  18. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  19. A case of alcoholic hepatitis demonstrating focal fatty infiltration of the liver on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Toshihiro; Kato, Masayoshi; Nagai, Tadayuki; Kametani, Tomio; Horigami, Tateyuki; Takimoto, Hiroaki; Tanino, Mikio

    1985-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a newly recognized entity that may be confused with primary neoplasm or tumor metastasis on computed tomography. We report a 31-year-old woman with a history of chronic alcoholism. Physical examination revealed jaundice, marked hepatomegaly and ascites. Laboratory studies revealed mild elevation of bilirubin, AlP, GOT, γ-GTP and marked leukocytosis. Abdominal CT showed a large area of decreased density in the right lobe. The radionuclide scan demonstrated the area of diminished activity located in the central portion of the right lobe. Ultrasonography demonstrated high echoic mass shadows in the right lobe. The rapid disappearance of the low density area on CT was recognized. The liver biopsy specimen revealed fatty metamorphosis, alcoholic hyaline bodies, pericellular fibrosis and mild lobular disorganization. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat CT scans are useful in diagnosis. (author)

  20. The radiology in the solitary bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, G.A.; Cardoso, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three methods of radiologic analysis of the solitary bone lesions are reviewed. 1. Radiological analysis of the lesions with the objective to suppose the histologic type; 2. To appreciate the velocity of growth and aggressiveness of the lesions. 3. To appreciate the biological behaviour of the bone lesions, making the diagnosis necessary for the treatment. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. Transcriptome of the Plant Virus Vector Graminella nigrifrons, and the Molecular Interactions of Maize fine streak rhabdovirus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; Cassone, Bryan J.; Bai, Xiaodong; Redinbaugh, Margaret G.; Michel, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) are plant-phloem feeders that are known for their ability to vector plant pathogens. The black-faced leafhopper (Graminella nigrifrons) has been identified as the only known vector for the Maize fine streak virus (MFSV), an emerging plant pathogen in the Rhabdoviridae. Within G. nigrifrons populations, individuals can be experimentally separated into three classes based on their capacity for viral transmission: transmitters, acquirers and non-acquirers. Understanding the molecular interactions between vector and virus can reveal important insights in virus immune defense and vector transmission. Results RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to characterize the transcriptome of G. nigrifrons. A total of 38,240 ESTs of a minimum 100 bp were generated from two separate cDNA libraries consisting of virus transmitters and acquirers. More than 60% of known D. melanogaster, A. gambiae, T. castaneum immune response genes mapped to our G. nigrifrons EST database. Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed significant down-regulation of three genes for peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRP – SB1, SD, and LC) in G. nigrifrons transmitters versus control leafhoppers. Conclusions Our study is the first to characterize the transcriptome of a leafhopper vector species. Significant sequence similarity in immune defense genes existed between G. nigrifrons and other well characterized insects. The down-regulation of PGRPs in MFSV transmitters suggested a possible role in rhabdovirus transmission. The results provide a framework for future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of plant virus vector competence. PMID:22808205

  2. Transcriptome of the plant virus vector Graminella nigrifrons, and the molecular interactions of maize fine streak rhabdovirus transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leafhoppers (HEmiptera: Cicadellidae are plant-phloem feeders that are known for their ability to vector plant pathogens. The black-faced leafhopper (Graminella nigrifrons has been identified as the only known vector for the Maize fine streak virus (MFSV, an emerging plant pathogen in the Rhabdoviridae. Within G. nigrifrons populations, individuals can be experimentally separated into three classes based on their capacity for viral transmission: transmitters, acquirers and non-acquirers. Understanding the molecular interactions between vector and virus can reveal important insights in virus immune defense and vector transmission. RESULTS: RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq was performed to characterize the transcriptome of G. nigrifrons. A total of 38,240 ESTs of a minimum 100 bp were generated from two separate cDNA libraries consisting of virus transmitters and acquirers. More than 60% of known D. melanogaster, A. gambiae, T. castaneum immune response genes mapped to our G. nigrifrons EST database. Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR showed significant down-regulation of three genes for peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRP - SB1, SD, and LC in G. nigrifrons transmitters versus control leafhoppers. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to characterize the transcriptome of a leafhopper vector species. Significant sequence similarity in immune defense genes existed between G. nigrifrons and other well characterized insects. The down-regulation of PGRPs in MFSV transmitters suggested a possible role in rhabdovirus transmission. The results provide a framework for future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of plant virus vector competence.

  3. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm.

  4. A requirement for FGF signalling in the formation of primitive streak-like intermediates from primitive ectoderm in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem (ES cells hold considerable promise as a source of cells with therapeutic potential, including cells that can be used for drug screening and in cell replacement therapies. Differentiation of ES cells into the somatic lineages is a regulated process; before the promise of these cells can be realised robust and rational methods for directing differentiation into normal, functional and safe cells need to be developed. Previous in vivo studies have implicated fibroblast growth factor (FGF signalling in lineage specification from pluripotent cells. Although FGF signalling has been suggested as essential for specification of mesoderm and endoderm in vivo and in culture, the exact role of this pathway remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a culture model based on early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL cells we have investigated the role of FGF signalling in the specification of mesoderm. We were unable to demonstrate any mesoderm inductive capability associated with FGF1, 4 or 8 signalling, even when the factors were present at high concentrations, nor any enhancement in mesoderm formation induced by exogenous BMP4. Furthermore, there was no evidence of alteration of mesoderm sub-type formed with addition of FGF1, 4 or 8. Inhibition of endogenous FGF signalling, however, prevented mesoderm and favoured neural differentiation, suggesting FGF signalling was required but not sufficient for the differentiation of primitive ectoderm into primitive streak-like intermediates. The maintenance of ES cell/early epiblast pluripotent marker expression was also observed in cultures when FGF signalling was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FGF signalling has been shown to be required for the differentiation of primitive ectoderm to neurectoderm. This, coupled with our observations, suggest FGF signalling is required for differentiation of the primitive ectoderm into the germ lineages at gastrulation.

  5. [The treatment of decubitus lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, G; Moroni, S; Bona, F

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a plan for pharmacological treatment of pressure sores in patients affected by neurological pathologies: cerebrovascular accidents, head injuries, spinal cord injuries. This plan is easily applicable to all pressure sores included between first and third degree of the Reuler and Cooney classification. Authors identified some drugs specifically usefull in different cutaneous lesion degrees. Skin lesions and employed medicines are described as follows: Erythema: semi occlusive bandage with porous adsorbing membrane. This dressing must be left in for five days at least. Excoriation: bactericidal or bacteriostatic medicines if it's situated in a non pressed area while the same dressing utilized for erythema if it's localized in a pressed area. Pressure sores: if there is local infection cleanse the wound from bacterial defilement using topic antibiotics apply compresses with vitamin C if the cutaneous lesion is larger than deeper, Cadexomero lodico if it's deeper than larger. Fistulas: wadding with tablets of collagen. Necrobiosis: complete or partial surgical removal of eschar preceded by the use of enzymatic drugs when eschar is firmly adherent to subcutaneous tissues. The first group collects 9 patients with stroke and head injury: 8 with sacral and 1 with heel pressure sores. First degree pressure sores heal within 45 days and third degree lesions within 160 days. The second group collects 10 spinal cord injury patients mostly with complete lesion among which: 7 sacral, 1 heel, 1 ischiatic and 1 malleolar lesions. First degree pressure sores heal within 30 days, third degree pressure sores heal within 200 days. Healing time are considered acceptable. Pressure sores recovery swiftness can be related to different factors such as pressure sores sterness, neurological pathology and arising of clinical complication (hyperthermia, infections, low serum albumin values, etc).

  6. Lesions of juxtacortical origin (surface lesions of bone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenan, S.; Abdelwahab, I.F.; Klein, M.J.; Hermann, G.; Lewis, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    A large variety of tumor and tumor-like conditions have been shown to originate from the surface of bone. Most surface lesions are associated with periosteal reaction. The periosteum is a multipotential membrane. Its cellular composition may give rise to a variety of both neoplasms and tumor-like conditions. To avoid misinterpretation, the orthopedist, radiologist, and pathologist should be familiar with the entire spectrum of surface lesions. A better understanding of the natural history and biological behavior at different lesional maturity stages and correlation of the history with the radiographic and pathological findings is essential to establish the correct diagnosis. A history of injury of blunt trauma is very important. A stress fracture may produce a periosteal reaction acd callus that can be difficult to distinguish from osteosarcoma. In this review article, the authors wish to describe and define each term by its anatomy and radiographic features while discussing the entire spectrum of surface lesions. All the illustrative cases in this review article have been proven histologically. (orig.)

  7. Periapical lesions: diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rubio, A.; Bujaldón-Daza, A.L.; Rodríguez-Archilla, A.

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones periapicales resultado de la necrosis de la pulpa dental son las patologías que más frecuentemente ocurren encontradas en el hueso alveolar. El tratamiento consiste en la eliminación de los agentes infecciosos mediante el tratamiento del canal radicular, permitiendo la cicatrización de la lesión. Periapical lesions, which are a result of the necrosis of the dental pulp, are the most frequently occurring diseases found in the alveolar bone. The treatment involves the removal of...

  8. Localized lesions in secondary syphillis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasid, N.; Syphilis, S.

    2008-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis are variable and can mimic many skin diseases, mostly being generalized and symmetrical in distribution. Localized lesions of secondary syphilis are rarely seen in dermatology clinics. We report an unusual presentation wherein a patient had localized lesions over face and soles only. There is a need for increased awareness on the part of physicians to recognize new patterns of syphilitic infection, together with a willingness to consider the diagnosis of syphilis in patients with unusual clinical features. (author)

  9. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  10. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  11. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Gompertz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases.

  12. Stereotactic lesioning for mental illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.-C.; Lee, T.-K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radiofrequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental illness. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were done for aggressive behavior. Limbic leucotomy or anterior cingulotomy was done for CCD and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was done for depression. In twenty-three patients, the lesions were made by a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator. In fifteen cases, the lesions were made with Cyberknife Radiosurgery (CKRS). The Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement during follow up period. With long-term follow up (meaning 57 months) in 25 OCDs, the mean Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (YBOCS) declined from 34 to 13 (n = 25). The Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) for ten patients with depression declined from 38.5 to 10.5 (n = 10). There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except one case with transient urinary incontinence. Authors suggest that stereotactic psychosurgery by RF and CKRS could be a safe and effective means of treating some medically intractable mental illnesses. (author)

  13. Secondary syphilis lesions resembling pityriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, N.R.; Ali, L.; Nawaz, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes a male patient who presented with generalized, centrally-ulcerated papules with crusts and hypopigmented macules. Initially, differential diagnostic considerations included pityriasis lichenoides but the serology for syphilis was positive and there was a rapid response to penicillin with clearing of the lesions at the end of three weeks treatment. (author)

  14. New radiohalogenated alkenyl tellurium fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids have diagnostic value as radiopharmaceutical tools in myocardial imaging. Some applications of these fatty acids are limited due to their natural metabolic degradation in vivo with subsequent washout of the radioactivity from the myocardium. The identification of structural features that will increase the myocardial residence time without decreasing the heart uptake of long-chain fatty acids is of interest. Fatty acids containing the tellurium heteroatom were the first modified fatty acids developed that show unique prolonged myocardial retention and low blood levels. Our detailed studies with radioiodinated vinyliodide substituted tellurium fatty acids demonstrate that heart uptake is a function of the tellurium position. New techniques of tellurium and organoborane chemistry have been developed for the synthesis of a variety of radioiodinated iodoalkenyl tellurium fatty acids. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Detecção e análise da variabilidade de seqüências do Banana streak virus (BSV em bananeiras no Brasil Detection and analysis of Banana streak virus (BSV sequences variability of banana from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Figueiredo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de PCR utilizando-se "primers" degenerados para o gênero Badnavirus foi utilizada para a detecção e análise da variabilidade de seqüências do Banana streak virus (BSV provenientes de bananeiras. A partir desta metodologia seqüências do vírus puderam ser detectadas em cultivares diplóides (AA, triplóides (AAA; AAB e tetraplóides (AAAB. Foram encontrados quatro padrões de seqüência do BSV (estirpes BSVBR-1, BSVBR-2, BSVBR-3 e BSVBR-4, diferenciadas através da análise do perfil eletroforético das amostras amplificadas. A estirpe BSVBR-1 prevalece nos estados do Acre, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Santa Catarina, e São Paulo, enquanto que, a estirpe BSVBR-2 foi encontrada em amostras oriundas do Amazonas e do Ceará. As estirpes BSVBR-3 e BSVBR-4 foram encontradas apenas no Ceará. Este trabalho revela a presença de diferentes estirpes do BSV no Brasil, bem como a existência de cultivares de bananeiras sadias e livres de seqüências virais do BSV integradas ao seu genoma.PCR assay using degenerate primers, designed to Badnavirus genus, was used to detect and analyse the variability of BSV strains sequences from banana. The virus was detected in diploid (AA, triploids (AAA; AAB and tetraploids (AAAB banana cultivars. Four BSV sequences patterns (BSVBR-1, BSVBR-2, BSVBR-3 and BSVBR-4 strains were found, and distinguished by eletrophoresis. The strain BSVBR-1 was found in the states of Acre, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Santa Catarina and São Paulo, while BSVBR-2 strain was detected in the states of Amazonas and Ceará. BSVBR-3 and BSVBR-4 strains were found only in the state of Ceará. This work demonstrated the presence of different BSV strains in Brazil and the existence of health banana cultivars as well as cultivars free of BSV integrated sequences.

  16. Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang; Ma, Jingfan; Zhong, Qionghong; Zhao, Mengyuan; Hu, Tianxing; Chen, Tong; Qiu, Longxin; Wen, Longping

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. - Highlights: • Aspirin increases mitochondrial—but inhibits peroxisomal—fatty acid oxidation. • Aspirin acetylates mitochondrial proteins including fatty acid oxidation enzymes. • SIRT3 does not influence the effect of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. • Increased fatty acid oxidation is likely due to altered mitochondrial morphology and respiration.

  18. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 ± 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 ± 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells

  19. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  20. Imaging review of lipomatous musculoskeletal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt Ashley M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipomatous lesions are common musculoskeletal lesions that can arise within the soft tissues, bone, neurovascular structures, and synovium. The majority of these lesions are benign, and many of the benign lesions can be diagnosed by radiologic evaluation. However, radiologic differences between benign and malignant lipomatous lesions may be subtle and pathologic correlation is often needed. The use of sonography, computed tomography (CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is useful not only in portraying fat within the lesion, but also for evaluating the presence and extent of soft tissue components. Lipomas make up most soft tissue lipomatous lesions, but careful evaluation must be performed to distinguish these lesions from a low-grade liposarcoma. In addition to the imaging appearance, the location of the lesion and the patient demographics can be utilized to help diagnose other soft tissue lipomatous lesions, such as elastofibroma dorsi, angiolipoma, lipoblastoma, and hibernoma. Osseous lipomatous lesions such as a parosteal lipoma and intraosseous lipoma occur less commonly as their soft tissue counterpart, but are also benign. Neurovascular and synovial lipomatous lesions are much rarer lesions but demonstrate more classic radiologic findings, particularly on MRI. A review of the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of these lesions is presented.

  1. Development of miniaturized proximity focused streak tubes for visible light and x-ray applications. Final report and progress, April-September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuny, J.J.; Knight, A.J.

    1978-02-01

    Research performed to develop miniaturized proximity focused streak camera tubes (PFST) for application in the visible and the x-ray modes of operation is described. The objective of this research was to provide an engineering design and to fabricate a visible and an x-ray prototype tube to be provided to LASL for test and evaluation. Materials selection and fabrication procedures, particularly the joining of beryllium to a suitable support ring for use as the x-ray window, are described in detail. The visible and x-ray PFST's were successfully fabricated

  2. Evaluation of dynamic range for LLNL streak cameras using high contrast pulses and pulse podiatry'' on the Nova laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, J.B.; Weiland, T.L.; Prior, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    A standard LLNL streak camera has been used to analyze high contrast pulses on the Nova laser facility. These pulses have a plateau at their leading edge (foot) with an amplitude which is approximately 1% of the maximum pulse height. Relying on other features of the pulses and on signal multiplexing, we were able to determine how accurately the foot amplitude was being represented by the camera. Results indicate that the useful single channel dynamic range of the instrument approaches 100:1. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Time- and wavelength-resolved luminescence evaluation of several types of scintillators using streak camera system equipped with pulsed X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Yuki, E-mail: f.yuki@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.j [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kamada, Kei [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kawaguchi, Noriaki [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Research and Development Division, Tokuyama., Co. Ltd., ICR-Building, Minamiyoshinari, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Ishizu, Sumito [Research and Development Division, Tokuyama., Co. Ltd., ICR-Building, Minamiyoshinari, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Uchiyama, Koro; Mori, Kuniyoshi [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 430-8587 (Japan); Kitano, Ken [Vacuum and Optical Instruments, 2-18-18 Shimomaruko, Ota, Tokyo 146-0092 (Japan); Nikl, Martin [Institute of Physics ASCR, Cukrovarnicka 10, Prague 6, 162-53 (Czech Republic); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); NICHe, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    To design new scintillating materials, it is very important to understand detailed information about the events, which occurred during the excitation and emission processes under the ionizing radiation excitation. We developed a streak camera system equipped with picosecond pulsed X-ray source to observe time- and wavelength-resolved scintillation events. In this report, we test the performance of this new system using several types of scintillators including bulk oxide/halide crystals, transparent ceramics, plastics and powders. For all samples, the results were consistent with those reported previously. The results demonstrated that the developed system is suitable for evaluation of the scintillation properties.

  4. Hock lesions and free-stall design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Taszkun, I

    2000-04-01

    We compared the prevalence and severity of skin lesions on the hocks of lactating dairy cows in southern British Columbia, comparing 20 farms using three common bedding surfaces: sawdust, sand, and geotextile mattresses. Skin lesions were scored at five positions on the hock. For each position we noted if the lesion showed inflammatory attributes, and then assigned a severity score. Of the 1752 lactating cows scored, 1267 cows (73%) had at least one hock lesion. Of those cows with lesions, 87% had lesions on both legs, 76% had lesions on more than one location on the hock, and 78% had a lesion of at least moderate severity (i.e., evidence of skin breakage or an area of hair loss >10 cm2). Lesions were most prevalent on farms that used geotextile mattresses (91% of cows) and least common on farms that used sand (24% of cows). Moreover, lesions on cows from farms using mattresses were more numerous and more severe than those on cows from sand-bedded farms. The prevalence and severity of lesions on farms using sawdust was intermediate. Lesions also varied in relation to location on the hock. For farms using geotextile mattresses, lesions were more common and more severe on the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. On farms using sawdust, lesions were common on the dorsal surface of the tuber calcis and the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. Lesions were rare on all five positions for cows from sand-bedded farms. Among the 10 farms sampled using sawdust, we found a significant negative relationship between the length of the stall and severity of lesions. For cows with lesions, the number and severity of lesions increased with age.

  5. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sadeghian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasing in pediatric age group parallel to the growing prevalence of obesity and overweight all around the world. So changing in life style and   interventions on obesogenic environment is cornerstone of NAFLD therapy in obese children. Some experts recommend that children and adolescents be encouraged to follow a low-fat, low-glycemic-index diet that includes eating a minimum of 5 servings of vegetables and fruits daily, engaging in physical activity for at least 1 hour daily, and minimizing television/computer time to 2 hours daily.  In spite of effectiveness of weight loss and exercise in improvement NAFLD, this goal is very difficult to be achieved and pharmacological approaches have become necessary. Pharmacologic therapies against one or more specific factors and/or molecules involved in the development of NAFLD (i.e., insulin resistance, free fatty acid lipid toxicity, and oxidative stress also might slow the progression of NAFLD to NASH or cirrhosis.  On this basis, insulin sensitizers, antioxidants, cytoprotective agents, and dietary supplementations have been evaluated in pediatric clinical trials but there is no approved pharmacologic therapy for NAFLD or NASH. Not all obese children affected by NAFLD. Diet modification and regular exercise beside to serial medical follow up highly suggested for this group of children. Normal weight and thin children with NAFLD or NASH should be investigated appropriately in a logical manner based on causes of primary liver steatosis in children and treatment of underlying disease can cause improvement fatty liver in these patients.   Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; Children; Steatosis; Treatment

  6. GLCM algorithm image analysis of nonalcoholic fatty liver and focal fat sparing zone in the ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jin Young; Ye, Soo Young

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for aggressive diagnosis and treatment in middle-aged and high-risk individuals who are more likely to progress from nonalcoholic fatty liver to hepatitis. In this study, nonalcoholic fatty liver was divided into severe, moderate, and severe, and classified by quantitative method using computer analysis of GLCM algorithm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of ultrasound images in the local fat avoidance region. Normal, mild, moderate, severe fatty liver, and focal fat sparing area, 80 cases, respectively. Among the parameters of the GLCM algorithm, the values of the Autocorrelation, Square of the deviation, Sum of averages and Sum of variances with high recognition rate of the liver ultrasound image were calculated. The average recognition rate of the GLCM algorithm was 97.5%. The result of local fat avoidance image analysis showed the most similar value to the normal parenchyma. Ultrasonography can be easily accessed by primary screening, but there may be differences in the accuracy of the test method or the correspondence of results depending on proficiency. GLCM algorithm was applied to quantitatively classify the degree of fatty liver. Local fat avoidance region was similar to normal parenchyma, so it could be predicted to be homogeneous liver parenchyma without fat deposition. We believe that GLCM computer image analysis will provide important information for differentiating not only fatty liver but also other lesions

  7. GLCM algorithm image analysis of nonalcoholic fatty liver and focal fat sparing zone in the ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiological Science, Graduate School of Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Soo Young [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    There is a need for aggressive diagnosis and treatment in middle-aged and high-risk individuals who are more likely to progress from nonalcoholic fatty liver to hepatitis. In this study, nonalcoholic fatty liver was divided into severe, moderate, and severe, and classified by quantitative method using computer analysis of GLCM algorithm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of ultrasound images in the local fat avoidance region. Normal, mild, moderate, severe fatty liver, and focal fat sparing area, 80 cases, respectively. Among the parameters of the GLCM algorithm, the values of the Autocorrelation, Square of the deviation, Sum of averages and Sum of variances with high recognition rate of the liver ultrasound image were calculated. The average recognition rate of the GLCM algorithm was 97.5%. The result of local fat avoidance image analysis showed the most similar value to the normal parenchyma. Ultrasonography can be easily accessed by primary screening, but there may be differences in the accuracy of the test method or the correspondence of results depending on proficiency. GLCM algorithm was applied to quantitatively classify the degree of fatty liver. Local fat avoidance region was similar to normal parenchyma, so it could be predicted to be homogeneous liver parenchyma without fat deposition. We believe that GLCM computer image analysis will provide important information for differentiating not only fatty liver but also other lesions.

  8. Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Gary J; Ismaiel, Adnan; Rosmana, Ade; Junaid, Muhammad; Guest, David; McMahon, Peter; Keane, Philip; Purwantara, Agus; Lambert, Smilja; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Cubeta, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The most characteristic symptoms of the disease are green-spotted leaf chlorosis or, commonly since about 2004, necrotic blotches, followed by senescence of leaves beginning on the second or third flush behind the shoot apex, and blackening of infected xylem in the vascular traces at the leaf scars resulting from the abscission of infected leaves. Eventually the shoot apex is killed and infected branches die. In susceptible cacao the fungus may grow through the xylem down into the main stem and kill a mature cacao tree. Infections in the stem of young plants prior to the formation of the first 3-4 lateral branches usually kill the plant. Basidiospores released from corticioid basidiomata developed on leaf scars or along cracks in the main vein of infected leaves infect young leaves. The pathogen commonly infects cacao but there are rare reports from avocado. As both crops are introduced to the region, the pathogen is suspected to occur asymptomatically in native vegetation. The pathogen is readily isolated but cultures cannot be maintained. In this study, DNA was extracted from pure cultures of O. theobromae obtained from infected cacao plants sampled from Indonesia. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), consisting of ITS1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA and ITS2, and a portion of nuclear large subunit (LSU) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences placed O. theobromae sister to Ceratobasidium anastomosis groups AG-A, AG-Bo, and AG-K with high posterior probability. Therefore the new combination Ceratobasidium theobromae is proposed. A PCR-based protocol was developed to detect and identify C. theobromae in plant tissue of cacao enabling early detection of the pathogen in plants. A second species of Ceratobasidium, Ceratobasidium ramicola

  9. A novel method for transmitting southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus to rice without insect vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Shi, Jing; Cao, Lianlian; Zhang, Guoping; Wang, Wenli; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2017-08-15

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread from the south of China to the north of Vietnam in the past few years, and has severely influenced rice production. However, previous study of traditional SRBSDV transmission method by the natural virus vector, the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera), in the laboratory, researchers are frequently confronted with lack of enough viral samples due to the limited life span of infected vectors and rice plants and low virus acquisition and inoculation efficiency by the vector. Meanwhile, traditional mechanical inoculation of virus only apply to dicotyledon because of the higher content of lignin in the leaves of the monocot. Therefore, establishing an efficient and persistent-transmitting model, with a shorter virus transmission time and a higher virus transmission efficiency, for screening novel anti-SRBSDV drugs is an urgent need. In this study, we firstly reported a novel method for transmitting SRBSDV in rice using the bud-cutting method. The transmission efficiency of SRBSDV in rice was investigated via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and the replication of SRBSDV in rice was also investigated via the proteomics analysis. Rice infected with SRBSDV using the bud-cutting method exhibited similar symptoms to those infected by the WBPH, and the transmission efficiency (>80.00%), which was determined using the PCR method, and the virus transmission time (30 min) were superior to those achieved that transmitted by the WBPH. Proteomics analysis confirmed that SRBSDV P1, P2, P3, P4, P5-1, P5-2, P6, P8, P9-1, P9-2, and P10 proteins were present in infected rice seedlings infected via the bud-cutting method. The results showed that SRBSDV could be successfully transmitted via the bud-cutting method and plants infected SRBSDV exhibited the symptoms were similar to those transmitted by the WBPH. Therefore, the use of the bud-cutting method to generate a cheap, efficient, reliable supply of

  10. Endophytic Association of Trichoderma asperellum within Theobroma cacao Suppresses Vascular Streak Dieback Incidence and Promotes Side Graft Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmana, Ade; Nasaruddin, Nasaruddin; Hendarto, Hendarto; Hakkar, Andi Akbar; Agriansyah, Nursalim

    2016-09-01

    Trichoderma species are able to persist on living sapwood and leaves of cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) in an endophytic relationship. In this research, we evaluated the ability of Trichodema asperellum introduced at the incision site in the bark for side grafting with the concentration of 4 g/10 mL, 4 g/100 mL, and 4 g/1,000 mL (suspended in water) in suppressing vascular streak dieback (VSD) incidence and promoting growth of side grafts in the field. The incidence of VSD in two local clones of cacao, MCC1 and M04, without application of T. asperellum was 71.2% and 70.1% at 21 wk after grafting, respectively. However, when the two clones were treated with a concentration of 4 g/10 mL T. asperellum , the incidence was 20.6% and 21.7%, respectively, compared to 29.1% and 20.9% at 4 g/100 mL and 18.2% and 15.6% at 4 g/1,000 mL. By comparing to the control, the treatment with the same concentrations of T. asperellum listed above, the total number of stomata in MCC1 decreased by 41.9%, 30.2%, and 14.0% and in M04 by 30.5%, 21.9%, and -2.5% (exception), respectively. Otherwise, the total area of stomata opening increased by 91.4%, 99.7%, and 28.6% in MCC1 and by 203.8%, 253.5%, and 35.9% in M04, respectively. Furthermore, the number of buds and branches treated with a mixture concentration on the the two clones increased by 90.7% and 21.7%, respectively. These data showed that the application of T. asperellum to cacao scions while grafting can decrease VSD incidence in side grafts and increase growth of grafts in addition to decreasing total number of stomata, increasing total area of opened stomata, and increasing number of buds and branches.

  11. Clinical investigation of fatty liver by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsumoto; Takayama, Tetsuo; Sano, Hiroshi; Katada, Naoyuki; Takeichi, Masayuki

    1984-01-01

    CT findings of 56 cases of diffuse fatty infiltration comfirmed by liver biopsy were investigated and compared with those of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. We found that the diagnosis of severe fatty infiltration (fatty liver) can be specifically possible when the ratios of CT values of liver to those of spleen are less than 0.85 and it is reasonable criterion for diagnosis of fatty liver by CT. This criterion was satisfied by 197 studies (2.9%), 169 cases with fatty liver (diffuse: 141 cases, focal: 28 cases) of 6800 CT studies of liver. Obesity, diabetes and alcohol abuse were main causative factors in both diffuse and focal fatty liver. The percentage of cases showing no abnormal results in blood chemistry tests was great compared with the previous report based on liver biopsy. The changes of CT values of liver faithfully reflected the improvement of each causal factor and reciprocal changes were observed between diffuse and focal fatty liver in repeated CT examination. So, CT is useful in estimating the effect of treatment as well as in diagnosis of fatty liver. Focal fatty liver is temporary manifestation during the proscess of development or improvement of fatty liver. (author)

  12. Do fatty acids affect fetal programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaran, Seray; Besler, H Tanju

    2015-08-13

    In this study discussed the primary and regulatory roles of fatty acids, and investigated the affects of fatty acids on metabolic programming. Review of the literature was carried out on three electronic databases to assess the roles of fatty acids in metabolic programming. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined, and the most relevant articles were selected for screening and inclusion in this review. The mother's nutritional environment during fetal period has important effects on long term health. Fatty acids play a primary role in growth and development. Alterations in fatty acid intake in the fetal period may increase the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. Maternal fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and lactation are passed to the fetus and the newborn via the placenta and breast milk, respectively. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during the fetal period change the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids, which can cause structural and functional problems in cells. Additionally, the metabolic and neuroendocrine environments of the fetus and the newborn play key roles in the regulation of energy balance. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during pregnancy and lactation may result in permanent changes in appetite control, neuroendocrine function and energy metabolism in the fetus, leading to metabolic programming. Further studies are needed to determine the role of fatty acid intake in metabolic programming.

  13. FACTS ABOUT TRANS FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Asgary

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fatty acids constitute the main class of lipids in the human diet, being found in nature mainly as glycerol esters that originate triacylglycerols. In the vegetal and animal kingdoms, fatty acids generally have cis unsaturations. In this form, the hydrogens bound to the double bond carbons are on the same side. In another possible configuration, called trans, the hydrogens are bound to un saturations, carbons on opposing sides. Fatty acids with one or more un saturations in the trans configuration are called trans fatty acids (TFAs.1-4      There are two major sources of TFA, those that come from ruminant animals and those that are industrially produced.      The majority of TFAs are found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, which contain 10–40% as TFA.5 Hydrogenation is based on the reaction of unsaturated fatty acids of either vegetable or marine oil in the presence of a catalyst, in general nickel. The objective is to increase the oxidative stability of oils by reduction of the concentration of more unsaturated fatty acids and changing their physical properties, thus extending their application. Hydrogenation depends mainly on oil temperature, hydrogen pressure, stirring speed, reaction time, and the catalyst type and concentration. According to the process conditions, hydrogenation is classified as either partial or total and either selective or nonselective.6 It has been estimated that dietary TFAs from partially hydrogenated oils may be responsible for between 30,000 and 100,000 premature coronary deaths per year in the United States.7      The concentration of TFA in meat and milk from ruminants (i.e., cattle, sheep, goats, etc. contain 3 to 8% of total fat.5 It is hypothesized that ruminant TFAs, or certain TFA isomers from ruminant sources, may confer some health benefits; however, since TFA from animal sources accompany saturated fatty acids (SFA, an increase in a single ruminant TFA in the diet is not

  14. Eye lesions in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1993-03-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent lesion (21/293, 8.7%), mainly found in cockatiels, parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva), budgerigars and finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae). These corneal crystals were negative to PAS and Kossa's stains. Six parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) had calcium salts deposited in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and occasionally in the iris and ciliary body. Neither inflammation nor neo-vascularization was observed when cataracts, corneal crystalline deposition, and retinal and ciliary calcification were present. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical for papovavirus infection were found in the eyelids of six budgerigars (2.5%). Similar inclusions were simultaneously found in the pars ciliaris retinae (4, 1.7%), inner plexiform of retina (1, 0.4%) and anterior epithelium of the cornea (1, 0.4%). Other lesions such as candidial endophthalmitis, conjunctival cryptosporidiosis, corneal dystrophy, keratitis, corneal perforation and iridocyclitis, were occasional findings.

  15. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  16. NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THE APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bryk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to present the clinical observations of neoplastic lesions of the appendix (one carcinoid and two mucous cysts and to discuss various manners of treatment and prognosis. Material and methods: The authors of the following paper present a description of three cases of appendix tumours, two patients with a mucous cyst and a patient with carcinoid, against the background of all the appendectomies performed at the Clinical Department of General, Endocrine and Oncological Surgery of the Provincial Polyclinical Hospital in Kielce in the years 2005–2011. Results : Within the 7-year period, a total of 11 719 surgical operations have been performed, where 834 (7.1% were that of appendectomy. Among all of the removed vermiform appendixes, neoplastic lesions occurred in three cases constituting a mere 0.3% of all of the appendectomies performed within that period. In two of the cases there was a suspicion of mucous cysts before the surgical operation. In none of the above-mentioned cases was is possible to ultimately establish the diagnosis before the operation. The patients were subjected to a simple appendectomy. The patients are in good clinical health, with no signs of relapse. Conclusions : The presented cases of patients with appendix tumours illustrate the difficulty of preoperative detection of a neoplastic lesion. This is mainly due to a scantily symptomatic course or symptoms typical of appendicitis. In light of this, histopathological examination of each appendix should be treated as obligatory.

  17. Potential applications of a dual-sweep streak camera system for characterizing particle and photon beams of VUV, XUV, and x-ray FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The success of time-resolved imaging techniques in the Characterization of particle beams and photon beams of the recent generation of L-band linac-driven or storage ring FELs in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet wavelength regions can be extended to the VUV, XUV, and x-ray FELs. Tests and initial data have been obtained with the Hamamatsu C5680 dual-sweep streak camera system which includes a demountable photocathode (thin Au) assembly and a flange that allows windowless operation with the transport vacuum system. This system can be employed at wavelengths shorter than 100 nm and down to 1 {Angstrom}. First tests on such a system at 248-nm wavelengths have been performed oil the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) drive laser source. A quartz window was used at the tube entrance aperture. A preliminary test using a Be window mounted on a different front flange of the streak tube to look at an x-ray bremsstrahlung source at the AWA was limited by photon statistics. This system`s limiting resolution of {sigma}{approximately}1.1 ps observed at 248 nm would increase with higher incoming photon energies to the photocathode. This effect is related to the fundamental spread in energies of the photoelectrons released from the photocathodes. Possible uses of the synchrotron radiation sources at the Advanced Photon Source and emerging short wavelength FELs to test the system will be presented.

  18. Variable number of tandem repeat markers in the genome sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S A L; Van der Lee, T A J; Ferreira, C F; Te Lintel Hekkert, B; Zapater, M-F; Goodwin, S B; Guzmán, M; Kema, G H J; Souza, M T

    2010-11-09

    We searched the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis for molecular markers that would allow population genetics analysis of this plant pathogen. M. fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently, the entire genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. We screened this database for VNTR markers. Forty-two primer pairs were selected for validation, based on repeat type and length and the number of repeat units. Five VNTR markers showing multiple alleles were validated with a reference set of isolates from different parts of the world and a population from a banana plantation in Costa Rica. Polymorphism information content values varied from 0.6414 to 0.7544 for the reference set and from 0.0400 and 0.7373 for the population set. Eighty percent of the polymorphism information content values were above 0.60, indicating that the markers are highly informative. These markers allowed robust scoring of agarose gels and proved to be useful for variability and population genetics studies. In conclusion, the strategy we developed to identify and validate VNTR markers is an efficient means to incorporate markers that can be used for fungicide resistance management and to develop breeding strategies to control banana black leaf streak disease. This is the first report of VNTR-minisatellites from the M. fijiensis genome sequence.

  19. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  20. Large-grazing-angle, multi-image Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope as the front end to a high-resolution streak camera for OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchev, O.V.; Hayes, L.J.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; Meyerhofer, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    A high-resolution x-ray microscope with a large grazing angle has been developed, characterized, and fielded at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. It increases the sensitivity and spatial resolution in planar direct-drive hydrodynamic stability experiments, relevant to inertial confinement fusion research. It has been designed to work as the optical front end of the PJX - a high-current, high-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera. Optical design optimization, results from numerical ray tracing, mirror-coating choice, and characterization have been described previously [O. V. Gotchev, et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2178 (2003)]. This work highlights the optics' unique mechanical design and flexibility and considers certain applications that benefit from it. Characterization of the microscope's resolution in terms of its modulation transfer function over the field of view is shown. Recent results from hydrodynamic stability experiments, diagnosed with the optic and the PJX, are provided to confirm the microscope's advantages as a high-resolution, high-throughput x-ray optical front end for streaked imaging

  1. Large-Grazing-Angle, Multi-Image Kirkpatrick-Baez Microscope as the Front End to a High-Resolution Streak Camera for OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchev, O.V.; Hayes, L.J.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2003-01-01

    (B204)A new, high-resolution x-ray microscope with a large grazing angle has been developed, characterized, and fielded at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. It increases the sensitivity and spatial resolution in planar direct-drive hydrodynamic stability experiments, relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. It has been designed to work as the optical front end of the PJX-a high-current, high-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera. Optical design optimization, results from numerical ray tracing, mirror-coating choice, and characterization have been described previously [O. V. Gotchev, et al./Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2178 (2003)]. This work highlights the optics' unique mechanical design and flexibility and considers certain applications that benefit from it. Characterization of the microscope's resolution in terms of its modulation transfer function (MTF) over the field of view is shown. Recent results from hydrodynamic stability experiments, diagnosed with the optic and the PJX, are provided to confirm the microscope's advantages as a high-resolution, high-throughput x-ray optical front end for streaked imaging

  2. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Yuan, Xia; Xu, Qiufang; Zhou, Tong; Fan, Yongjian; Zhou, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén). RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE) were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  3. Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Yasunori

    1975-01-01

    By incorporation of 3 H 2 O into the fatty acid chain in the presence of unlabelled precursor, we showed that fatty acids are synthesized from PGA, PEP and pyruvate by intact spinach chloroplasts in the light. 13 C-tracer experiments confirmed that 1-C of pyruvate is decarboxylated and 2-C is incorporated into fatty acids by the chloroplasts. The patterns of fatty acids synthesized from PGA and pyruvate were the same as that from acetate. The highest rate of fatty acid synthesis was reached at the physiological concentration of PGA (3 mM) and pyruvate (1 mM). These results indicate the operation of the following path in the chloroplasts in light: PGA→PEP→pyruvate→acetylCoA→fatty acids. Since citrate and OAA were much less active and malate and glyoxylate were inert as precursors for fatty acid synthesis, PEP or pyruvate carboxylation, citrate lyase reaction and malate synthetase reaction are not involved in the formation of acetylCoA and fatty acids. Since pyruvate was much more effective as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis than lactate, acetaldehyde or acetate, direct decarboxylation path is considered to be the primary path from pyruvate to acetylCoA. The insignificant effect of chloroplast-washing on fatty acid synthesis from PGA and pyruvate indicates that the glycolytic path from PGA to pyruvate is associated with the chloroplasts. Since pyruvate was more effectively incorporated into fatty acids than acetylCoA, it is unlikely that pyruvate decarboxylation to acetylCoA is due to mitochondria contaminating the chloroplast preparation. On the basis of measurements of 3 H 2 O incorporation in the light and dark, the activity of fatty acid synthesis in spincah leaves appears to be shared by the activities in chloroplasts (87%) and other organelles (13%). (author)

  4. Diagnostic methods of fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Traeber, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is defined as an abnormal accumulation of lipids into the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Different kinds of fatty liver diseases are becoming the most important etiologies of end-stage liver disease in the western world. Because fatty liver is a theoretically reversible process, timely and accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for potential therapeutic options. This work describes major diagnostic methods and discusses particular advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.

  5. Exogenous fatty acid metabolism in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) is a target for novel antibiotic development. All bacteria encode for mechanisms to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and some bacteria can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. Bacteria encode three different mechanisms for activating exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipid synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-CoA in Gammaproteobacteria such as E. coli. Acyl-CoA molecules constitute a separate pool from endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Acyl-CoA can be used for phospholipid synthesis or broken down by β-oxidation, but cannot be used for lipopolysaccharide synthesis. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-ACP in some Gram-negative bacteria. The resulting acyl-ACP undergoes the same fates as endogenously synthesized acyl-ACP. Exogenous fatty acids are converted into acyl-phosphates in Gram-positive bacteria, and can be used for phospholipid synthesis or become acyl-ACP. Only the order Lactobacillales can use exogenous fatty acids to bypass FASII inhibition. FASII shuts down completely in presence of exogenous fatty acids in Lactobacillales, allowing Lactobacillales to synthesize phospholipids entirely from exogenous fatty acids. Inhibition of FASII cannot be bypassed in other bacteria because FASII is only partially down-regulated in presence of exogenous fatty acid or FASII is required to synthesize essential metabolites such as β-hydroxyacyl-ACP. Certain selective pressures such as FASII inhibition or growth in biofilms can select for naturally occurring one step mutations that attenuate endogenous fatty acid synthesis. Although attempts have been made to estimate the natural prevalence of these mutants, culture-independent metagenomic methods would provide a better estimate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  6. A fast, noniterative approach for accelerated high-temporal resolution cine-CMR using dynamically interleaved streak removal in the power-spectral encoded domain with low-pass filtering (DISPEL) and modulo-prime spokes (MoPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaji, Keigo; Patel, Mita B; Cantrell, Charles G; Tanaka, Akiko; Marino, Marco; Tamura, Satoshi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yi; Carroll, Timothy J; Ota, Takeyoshi; Patel, Amit R

    2017-07-01

    To introduce a pair of accelerated non-Cartesian acquisition principles that when combined, exploit the periodicity of k-space acquisition, and thereby enable acquisition of high-temporal cine Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR). The mathematical formulation of a noniterative, undersampled non-Cartesian cine acquisition and reconstruction is presented. First, a low-pass filtering step that exploits streaking artifact redundancy is provided (i.e., Dynamically Interleaved Streak removal in the Power-spectrum Encoded domain with Low-pass filtering [DISPEL]). Next, an effective radial acquisition for the DISPEL approach that exploits the property of prime numbers is described (i.e., Modulo-Prime Spoke [MoPS]). Both DISPEL and MoPS are examined using numerical simulation of a digital heart phantom to show that high-temporal cine-CMR is feasible without removing physiologic motion vs aperiodic interleaving using Golden Angles. The combined high-temporal cine approach is next examined in 11 healthy subjects for a time-volume curve assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic performance vs conventional Cartesian cine-CMR reference. The DISPEL method was first shown using simulation under different streak cycles to allow separation of undersampled radial streaking artifacts from physiologic motion with a sufficiently frequent streak-cycle interval. Radial interleaving with MoPS is next shown to allow interleaves with pseudo-Golden-Angle variants, and be more compatible with DISPEL against irrational and nonperiodic rotation angles, including the Golden-Angle-derived rotations. In the in vivo data, the proposed method showed no statistical difference in the systolic performance, while diastolic parameters sensitive to the cine's temporal resolution were statistically significant (P cine). We demonstrate a high-temporal resolution cine-CMR using DISPEL and MoPS, whose streaking artifact was separated from physiologic motion. © 2017 American Association of Physicists

  7. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background...

  8. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They...

  9. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of

  10. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of...

  11. Theory of pairwise lesion interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Dietrich; Virsik-Peuckert, Patricia; Bartels, Ernst

    1992-01-01

    A comparison between repair time constants measured both at the molecular and cellular levels has shown that the DNA double strand break is the molecular change of key importance in the causation of cellular effects such as chromosome aberrations and cell inactivation. Cell fusion experiments provided the evidence that it needs the pairwise interaction between two double strand breaks - or more exactly between the two ''repair sites'' arising from them in the course of enzymatic repair - to provide the faulty chromatin crosslink which leads to cytogenetic and cytolethal effects. These modern experiments have confirmed the classical assumption of pairwise lesion interaction (PLI) on which the models of Lea and Neary were based. It seems worthwhile to continue and complete the mathematical treatment of their proposed mechanism in order to show in quantitative terms that the well-known fractionation, protraction and linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation effects are consequences of or can at least be partly attributed to PLI. Arithmetic treatment of PLI - a second order reaction - has also the advantage of providing a prerequisite for further investigations into the stages of development of misrepair products such as chromatin crosslinks. It has been possible to formulate a completely arithmetic theory of PLI by consequently applying three biophysically permitted approximations - pure first order lesion repair kinetics, dose-independent repair time constants and low yield of the ionization/lesion conversion. The mathematical approach will be summarized here, including several formulae not elaborated at the time of previous publications. We will also study an application which sheds light on the chain of events involved in PLI. (author)

  12. Benign clavicular lesions that may mimic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerscovich, E.G.; Greenspan, A.; Szabo, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Nontraumatic lesions of the clavicle are infrequent. Of these, malignant tumors are more common than benign lesions. From January 1988 to January 1990, we examined 17 patients with benign lesions of the clavicle; in 8, the morphologic appearance of the lesion raised the possibility of malignancy in the differential diagnosis. The radiologic findings in these patients are presented. We propose that the unique shape and embryologic development of the clavicle may contribute to the atypical, aggressive presentation of some benign lesions in that bone. (orig.)

  13. Quantitative angiography methods for bifurcation lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Carlos; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Cavalcante, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Bifurcation lesions represent one of the most challenging lesion subsets in interventional cardiology. The European Bifurcation Club (EBC) is an academic consortium whose goal has been to assess and recommend the appropriate strategies to manage bifurcation lesions. The quantitative coronary...... angiography (QCA) methods for the evaluation of bifurcation lesions have been subject to extensive research. Single-vessel QCA has been shown to be inaccurate for the assessment of bifurcation lesion dimensions. For this reason, dedicated bifurcation software has been developed and validated. These software...

  14. Solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, D.J.; Azouz, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    We evaluated retrospectively the varying radiographic appearances of 15 solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions occurring in children. Imaging modalities used included plain films, conventional tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and computed tomography. 40% of the lesions (6) were due to osteomyelitis. The remaining lesions included tuberculosis (1), foreign body granuloma (1), chondroblastoma (2), chondromyoxid fibroma (1), enchondroma (1), osteoid osteoma (2), and eosinophilic granuloma (1). Although the radiographic appearances of such lesions may be particularly characteristic, pathologic correlation is frequently necessary. The high incidence of osteomyelitis in our cases emphasizes its importance as a cause for a lucent epiphyseal lesion.

  15. Computerized tomography of orbital lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Mayumi

    1981-01-01

    Two different types of computerized tomography scanners (CT scanner), i.e. a whole-body CT scanner (GE-CT/T8800) and a cerebral CT scanner (EMI-1010), were compared in the assessment and diagnosis of various orbital lesions. The whole-body CT scanner was found to be advantageous over the cerebral CT scanner for the following reasons: (1) CT images were more informative due to thinner slices associated with smaller-sized and larger-numbered matrices; (2) less artifacts derived from motion of the head or eyeball were produced because of the shorter scanning time; (3) with a devised gantry, coronal dissections were available whenever demanded. (author)

  16. Roles of unsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) in the brain at various ages and during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, J M

    2004-01-01

    results have shown that dietary alpha-linolenic acid deficiency induces more marked abnormalities in certain cerebral structures than in others, as the frontal cortex and pituitary gland are more severely affected. These selective lesions are accompanied by behavioural disorders more particularly affecting certain tests (habituation, adaptation to new situations). Biochemical and behavioural abnormalities are partially reversed by a dietary phospholipid supplement, especially omega-3-rich egg yolk extracts or pig brain. A dose-effect study showed that animal phospholipids are more effective than plant phospholipids to reverse the consequences of alpha-linolenic acid deficiency, partly because they provide very long preformed chains. Alpha-linolenic acid deficiency decreases the perception of pleasure, by slightly altering the efficacy of sensory organs and by affecting certain cerebral structures. Age-related impairment of hearing, vision and smell is due to both decreased efficacy of the parts of the brain concerned and disorders of sensory receptors, particularly of the inner ear or retina. For example, a given level of perception of a sweet taste requires a larger quantity of sugar in subjects with alpha-linolenic acid deficiency. In view of occidental eating habits, as omega-6 fatty acid deficiency has never been observed, its impact on the brain has not been studied. In contrast, omega-9 fatty acid deficiency, specifically oleic acid deficiency, induces a reduction of this fatty acid in many tissues, except the brain (but the sciatic nerve is affected). This fatty acid is therefore not synthesized in sufficient quantities, at least during pregnancy-lactation, implying a need for dietary intake. It must be remembered that organization of the neurons is almost complete several weeks before birth, and that these neurons remain for the subject's life time. Consequently, any disturbance of these neurons, an alteration of their connections, and impaired turnover of their

  17. Genetics Home Reference: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individual is considered to have a fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) if the liver contains more than 5 to ... Resources Genetic Testing (2 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 1 Genetic Testing Registry: Fatty liver ...

  18. Plasma sCD36 is associated with markers of atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and fatty liver in a nondiabetic healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, A; Højlund, K; Gastaldelli, A

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with increased CD36 expression in a number of tissues. Moreover, excess macrophage CD36 may initiate atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma soluble CD36 (sCD36) was associated with insulin resistance, fatty liver and carotid...

  19. Ultrasonographic findings of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, In Sung; Kim, Yang Soo; Suh, Hyoung Sim

    1990-01-01

    Authors retrospectively analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 61 cases of breast lesions which were proven pathologically at Daerim St. Mary's Hospital from May 1987 to February 1990. The results were as follows : 1. Of all 61 cases, there were 27 fibroadenomas, 13 fibrocystic diseases, 11 carcinomas, 8 abscesses, 1 sclerosing adenosis, and 1 intraductal papilloma. 2. Findings suggesting benignancy were smooth contour, round or oval shape, homogeneously echolucent internal echo, echogenic boundary echo, and posterior enhancement. In the cases of abscess, the findings were rather irregular contour, strong posterior enhancement, and dirty, inhomogeneous internal echo. While irregular and lobulated shape, inhomogeneous and mixed internal echo and pectoral muscle invasion were suggested for malignancy. 3. The sensitivity was 98% and the specificity 58% in benign mass excluding abscesses, 63% and 98% in abscesses, and 55% and 98% in carcinomas. In conclusion, ultrasonography is one of the excellent imaging modality for detecting breast lesions larger than 5 mm in size, but unfortunately some of the malignant tumors simulated benignancy, thus we considered fine needle aspiration biopsy and adjunctive imaging modalities such as film mammography must be followed for better detection of breast cancer

  20. Ultrasonographic findings of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Sung; Kim, Yang Soo; Suh, Hyoung Sim [College of Medicine, Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Authors retrospectively analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 61 cases of breast lesions which were proven pathologically at Daerim St. Mary's Hospital from May 1987 to February 1990. The results were as follows : 1. Of all 61 cases, there were 27 fibroadenomas, 13 fibrocystic diseases, 11 carcinomas, 8 abscesses, 1 sclerosing adenosis, and 1 intraductal papilloma. 2. Findings suggesting benignancy were smooth contour, round or oval shape, homogeneously echolucent internal echo, echogenic boundary echo, and posterior enhancement. In the cases of abscess, the findings were rather irregular contour, strong posterior enhancement, and dirty, inhomogeneous internal echo. While irregular and lobulated shape, inhomogeneous and mixed internal echo and pectoral muscle invasion were suggested for malignancy. 3. The sensitivity was 98% and the specificity 58% in benign mass excluding abscesses, 63% and 98% in abscesses, and 55% and 98% in carcinomas. In conclusion, ultrasonography is one of the excellent imaging modality for detecting breast lesions larger than 5 mm in size, but unfortunately some of the malignant tumors simulated benignancy, thus we considered fine needle aspiration biopsy and adjunctive imaging modalities such as film mammography must be followed for better detection of breast cancer.

  1. Imaging in cardiac mass lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, A.; Gruber, H.P.; Dinkel, E.; Geibel, A.; Beck, A.; Wimmer, B.; Schlosser, V.

    1992-01-01

    In 26 patients with cardiac mass lesions confirmed by surgery, diagnostic imaging was performed preoperatively by means of two-dimensional echocardiography (26 patients), angiography (12 patients), correlative computed tomography (CT, 8 patients), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 patients). Two-dimensional echocardiography correctly identified the cardiac masses in all patients. Angiography missed two of 12 cardiac masses; CT missed one of eight. MRI identified three of three cardiac masses. Although the sensitivity of two-dimensional echocardiography was high (100%), all methods lacked specificity. None of the methods allowed differentiation between myxoma (n=13) and thrombus (n=7). Malignancy of the lesions was successfully predicted by noninvasive imaging methods in all six patients. However, CT and MRI provided additional information concerning cardiac mural infiltration, pericardial involvement, and extracardiac tumor extension, and should be integrated within a preoperative imaging strategy. Thus two-dimensional echocardiography is the method of choice for primary assessment of patients with suspected cardiac masses. Further preoperative imaging by CT or MRI can be limited to patients with malignancies suspected on the grounds of pericardial effusion or other clinical results. (author)

  2. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  3. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type β-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three β-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  4. ω-3 Fatty acids reverse lipotoxity through induction of autophagy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Xu, Chengfu; Yan, Tianlian; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease concerning hepatocyte lipid accumulation as well as apoptosis induced by free fatty acids (FFAs) and to explore the underlying mechanism involving autophagy. Hepatocytes were incubated with a mixture of free fatty acids (FFAs) to mimic in vitro lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, presented by lipid accumulation and cellular apoptosis. Chemical inhibitor or inducer of autophagy and genetic deficit cells, as well as ω-3 fatty acids were used as intervention. The autophagic role of ω-3 fatty acids was investigated using Western blot and immunofluorescence. The underlying mechanism of ω-3 fatty acids involving autophagy was preliminarily explored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. FFAs induce lipid accumulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Inhibition or genetic defect of autophagy increases lipid accumulation induced by FFA, whereas induction acts inversely. ω-3 Fatty acids reduced lipid accumulation and inhibited apoptosis induced by FFA. ω-3 Fatty acids induced autophagy by downregulating stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression in hepatocytes. ω-3 Fatty acids exert protective effects on hepatocytes against lipotoxicity through induction of autophagy, as demonstrated by inhibition of lipid accumulation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic regulation of fatty acid pools for improved production of fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teixeira, Paulo Goncalves; Ferreira, Raphael; Zhou, Yongjin J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In vivo production of fatty acid-derived chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires strategies to increase the intracellular supply of either acyl-CoA or free fatty acids (FFAs), since their cytosolic concentrations are quite low in a natural state for this organism. Deletion...... of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase genes FAA1 and FAA4 is an effective and straightforward way to disable re-activation of fatty acids and drastically increase FFA levels. However, this strategy causes FFA over-accumulation and consequential release to the extracellular medium, which results in a significant...... faa4 Delta strain constitutively expressing a carboxylic acid reductase from Mycobacterium marinum (MmCAR) and an endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh5) for in vivo production of fatty alcohols from FFAs. We observed production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols with different rates leading to high...

  6. Sedimentary Fatty Alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Farahin Amiruddin; Mohamad Iznul Muazim Mohamad Zabidi; Nurul Fathihah Mt Nanyan; Masni Mohd Ali; Masni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    A geochemical study was carried out to identify the composition and sources of fatty alcohols in Kapas Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Fatty alcohols in surface sediments were extracted and analyzed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 23 fatty alcohol compounds were identified in the Kapas Island sediment. Total concentrations of fatty alcohols ranged from 0.53 to 21.31 ng/ g dry weight and the highest total concentration was found at S2, which is probably due to its location profile that is located north of Kapas Island which is close to several small islands. The short chain/ long chain fatty alcohol ratio and alcohol source index (ASI) were used together to identify the dominant input in Kapas Island. Kapas Island sediments contained a mixture of organic sources, of which terrestrial sources were indicated to be the most abundant sources in these marine sediments. (author)

  7. Treatment of metastatic brain lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zaytsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Increasing survival in patients with secondary brain damage, and identifying the factors of favorable and adverse prognosis.Material and method. In P. A. Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Institute from 2007 to 2013 there were treated 268 patients with brain metastases. The mean age was 55.8 years (from 24 to 81 years. Metastases of colorectal cancer identified in 7.8%, cases of lung cancer in 34%, melanoma 9.3 %, breast cancer in 26%, kidney cancer in 11%, with non-identified primary tumor in 4.5%, other tumors accounted for 6.7%. Solitary metastasis was diagnosed in 164 (61,19% patients, oligometastasis (2-3 - 72 (26,87% patients with polymetastasis (more than 3 – 32 (11,94% patients. In 106 (39,55% of patients with brain metastases it was the only manifestation of the generalization process. To control the radical removal of the tumor in 93 (34,7% patients we used the method of fluorescence navigation (FN with the drug Alasens. In 66 (24,6% patients intraoperatively was held a session of photodynamic therapy (PDT. In 212 (79,1% cases, the removal of metastasis performed totally, 55 (20,9% patients stated Subtotal removal.Results. The observation period for the patients ranged from 3 to 79 months. Survival median among the entire group of patients with metastatic brain lesion was 12 months. Overall survival was significantly dependent on RPA class, the volume of postoperative treatment, histological type of primary tumor, number of intracerebral metastases and the timing of the relapse-free period.Conclusions. Factors that affects the overall survival are the features of the histology of the primary lesion, multiplicity of metastatic lesions, RPA class and the synchronous nature of the metastasis. The median of overall survival of patients who did not receive after surgical treatment of a particular type of therapy was only 4 months. If to use the combined treatment (surgical treatment with the irradiation of the whole brain median

  8. 'Emotional Intelligence': Lessons from Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, J; Salvi, C; Grafman, J

    2016-10-01

    'Emotional intelligence' (EI) is one of the most highly used psychological terms in popular nomenclature, yet its construct, divergent, and predictive validities are contentiously debated. Despite this debate, the EI construct is composed of a set of emotional abilities - recognizing emotional states in the self and others, using emotions to guide thought and behavior, understanding how emotions shape behavior, and emotion regulation - that undoubtedly influence important social and personal outcomes. In this review, evidence from human lesion studies is reviewed in order to provide insight into the necessary brain regions for each of these core emotional abilities. Critically, we consider how this neuropsychological evidence might help to guide efforts to define and measure EI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging of extradural spinal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Schulte-Altedorneburg, G.; Naumann, N.; Reith, W.; Nabhan, A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a wide variety of spinal extradural tumors. In addition to real neoplasms, degenerative diseases, congenital abnormalities and inflammatory disorders can be causes of extradural masses. Due to the bony boundary of the spinal canal, both benign as well as malignant masses can cause progressive neurological deficits including paraplegia. Most of the spinal tumors are benign (hemangioma of the vertebral body, degenerative diseases). In younger patients congenital abnormalities and primary tumors of the spine have to be considered, whereas in adults the list of differential diagnoses should include secondary malignancies such as metastases and lymphomas as well as metabolic disorders such as osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture and Paget's disease. Cross-sectional imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) of the spine often help to make a specific diagnosis of extradural spinal lesions and represent important tools for tumor staging and preoperative evaluation. (orig.) [de

  10. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  11. Imaging pattern of calvarial lesions in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garfinkle, Jarred; Melancon, Denis; Cortes, Maria; Tampieri, Donatella [Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital-McGill University Health Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Calvarial lesions often present themselves as clinically silent findings on skull radiographs or as palpable masses that may cause localized pain or soreness. This review aims to explore the radiographic, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of calvarial neoplastic, inflammatory, and congenital lesions that are common in adults in order to facilitate a structured approach to their diagnosis and limit the differential diagnosis. In addition to reviewing the literature, we reviewed the records of 141 patients of the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital with radiologically documented calvarial lesions between 2001 and June 2009. CT is ideal for detecting bony lesions and is helpful in precisely localizing a lesion pre-surgically. MRI is best at identifying intradiploic lesions before they affect the cortical tables and is able to establish extraosseous involvement, especially when paramagnetic contrast is employed. (orig.)

  12. Detection of Fundus Lesions Using Classifier Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Hiroto; Hiramatsu, Yoshitaka; Sako, Hiroshi; Himaga, Mitsutoshi; Kato, Satoshi

    A system for detecting fundus lesions caused by diabetic retinopathy from fundus images is being developed. The system can screen the images in advance in order to reduce the inspection workload on doctors. One of the difficulties that must be addressed in completing this system is how to remove false positives (which tend to arise near blood vessels) without decreasing the detection rate of lesions in other areas. To overcome this difficulty, we developed classifier selection according to the position of a candidate lesion, and we introduced new features that can distinguish true lesions from false positives. A system incorporating classifier selection and these new features was tested in experiments using 55 fundus images with some lesions and 223 images without lesions. The results of the experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system, namely, degrees of sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 81%, respectively.

  13. Hybrid Odontogenic Lesion: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Imani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid tumors are very rare tumors composed of two different tumor entities, each of which conforms to an exactly defined tumor category. A 14-year-old boy was referred for an intraosseous painless lesion with a histopathological feature of multiple odontogenic lesions including calcifying odontogenic cyst, complex odontoma and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. The final diagnosis considered to be a hybrid odontogenic lesion.

  14. Space Occupying Lesions in the Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani

    2009-01-01

    "nRadiology (imaging) plays a pivotal role for the diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of focal liver lesions. The differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a focal liver lesion is broad. "nThe size of the liver mass is an important consideration in guiding the evaluation. Lesions smaller than approximately 1.0 cm are commonly benign incidental findings on imaging studies, and in most cases represent small cysts, hemangiomas, or biliary hamartomas. Further...

  15. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  16. Metabolic encephalopathy and lipid storage myopathy associated with a presumptive mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defect in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R Biegen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A 1-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu presented for episodic abnormalities of posture and mentation. Neurologic examination was consistent with a bilaterally symmetric multifocal encephalopathy. The dog had a waxing-and-waning hyperlactemia and hypoglycemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilaterally symmetric cavitated lesions of the caudate nuclei with less severe abnormalities in the cerebellar nuclei. Empirical therapy was unsuccessful and the patient was euthanized. Post-mortem histopathology revealed bilaterally symmetric necrotic lesions of the caudate and cerebellar nuclei and multi-organ lipid accumulation, including a lipid storage myopathy. Malonic aciduria and ketonuria were found on urinary organic acid screen. Plasma acylcarnitine analysis suggested a fatty acid oxidation defect. Fatty acid oxidation disorders are inborn errors of metabolism documented in humans, but poorly described in dogs. Although neurologic signs have been described in humans with this group of diseases, descriptions of advanced imaging and histopathology are severely lacking. This report suggests that abnormalities of fatty acid metabolism may cause severe, bilateral gray matter necrosis and lipid accumulation in multiple organs including the skeletal muscles, liver, and kidneys. Veterinarians should be aware that fatty acid oxidation disorders, although potentially fatal, may be treatable. A timely definitive diagnosis is essential in guiding therapy.

  17. FATTY MUSCLE INFILTRATION IN CUFF TEAR: PRE AND POST OPERATIVE EVALUATION BY MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; Sella, Guilherme do Val; Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Zampieri, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the fatty infiltration and atrophy of the supraespinatus in the pre- and postoperative of a rotator cuff lesion (RCL), by MRI. Ten patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears who had undergone surgical arthroscopic rotator cuff repair between September and December 2011 were included. This is a prospective study, with analysis and comparison of fatty infiltration and atrophy of the supraespinatus. The occupation ratio was measured using the magic selection tool in Adobe Photoshop CS3((r)) on T1 oblique sagittal Y-view MRI. Through Photoshop, the proportion occupied by the muscle belly regarding its fossae was calculated. There was a statistically significant increase in the muscle ratio (p=0.013) comparing images pre and postoperative, analyzed by the Wilcoxon T test. The proportion of the supraspinal muscle above the pit increases in the immediate postoperative period, probably due to the traction exerted on the tendon at the time of repair. Level of Evidence II, Cohort Study.

  18. Lesion localization in aphasia without hemiparesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Midori; Senoh, Yoko; Okamoto, Koichi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of the lesions responsible for aphasia unassociated with right-sided hemiparesis was evaluated by cranial computed tomography (CT) among stroke patients. In the Broca aphasia group were observed atypical aphasic symptoms, and the lesions were far more localized than in ordinary Broca one. In the Wernicke aphasia group showed relatively large lesions in the left superior temporal gyrus, sometimes extending to supramarginal and angular gyri, which caused such additional symptoms as apraxia without motor paresis in some cases. In the Transcortical motor aphasia group showed the occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, though without obvious abnormality at CT. In another patient a circumscribed low density lesion was disclosed in the area anterior and superior to so-called Broca's area. In the Transcortical sensory aphasia group, the lesion involved the borderzone supplied by the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In the Amnestic aphasia group showed a lesion in the left parietal lobe, while in another no remarkable change was demonstrated. In the Global aphasia group, one had multiple isolated lesions in both anterior and posterior speech areas. Another showed a large lesion involving the whole territory of the left middle cerebral artery. In the remaining one a high density area was observed in the left superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri, not extending to the frontal lobe beyond with sylvian fissure. Therefore, in interpreting CTs of such aphasic patients we must take account of not only the extent of the lesion but also the severity of destruction. (J.P.N.)

  19. Lesion localization in aphasia without hemiparesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Midori; Senoh, Yoko; Okamoto, Koichi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-06-01

    The distribution of the lesions responsible for aphasia unassociated with right-sided hemiparesis was evaluated by cranial computed tomography (CT) among stroke patients. In the Broca aphasia group were observed atypical aphasic symptoms, and the lesions were far more localized than in ordinary Broca one. In the Wernicke aphasia group showed relatively large lesions in the left superior temporal gyrus, sometimes extending to supramarginal and angular gyri, which caused such additional symptoms as apraxia without motor paresis in some cases. In the Transcortical motor aphasia group showed the occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, though without obvious abnormality at CT. In another patient a circumscribed low density lesion was disclosed in the area anterior and superior to so-called Broca's area. In the Transcortical sensory aphasia group, the lesion involved the borderzone supplied by the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In the Amnestic aphasia group showed a lesion in the left parietal lobe, while in another no remarkable change was demonstrated. In the Global aphasia group, one had multiple isolated lesions in both anterior and posterior speech areas. Another showed a large lesion involving the whole territory of the left middle cerebral artery. In the remaining one a high density area was observed in the left superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri, not extending to the frontal lobe beyond with sylvian fissure. Therefore, in interpreting CTs of such aphasic patients we must take account of not only the extent of the lesion but also the severity of destruction.

  20. Thermophysical lesions caused by HZE particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Malachowski, M.; Nelson, A.; Philpott, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with a type of damage caused by heavy particles that may occur in subcellular structures. These lesions are called thermophysical radiation injury and are similar to damage produced in solids by HZE particles. This chapter summarizes some of the experimental evidence for the presence of these lesions in certain mammalian tissues including the retina, brain, cornea, lens of mice and seeds of corn. Of all tissues examined, only the cornea exhibited a type of lesion which would fulfill the criteria of thermophysical lesions

  1. MR imaging of sacral and perisacral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, L.H.; Levine, E.; Murphey, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    This exhibit demonstrates the utility of MR imaging in evaluating sacral and perisacral lesions. Thirty-two lesions were studied using a superconducting 1.0-T MR imager. Eleven primary and 13 metastatic tumors, four congenital lesions, and four arachnoid cysts were evaluated. MR did not usually enable a more specific histologic diagnosis than other imaging techniques. However, extraosseous and proximal spinal extent of tumors was well defined without use of oral or intravenous contrast material. MR imaging is an excellent noninvasive technique for evaluating most sacral and perisacral lesions and is particularly helpful when precise tumor extent must be determined for treatment planning

  2. Visible and occult microscopic lesions of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleque Newaz Khan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Even after 300 years, most of the literature claims that pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of endometriosis is still elusive. Recurrence of pain and lesion continues to occur after effective medical or surgical therapies. Once generated within the pelvis due to retrograde entry of menstrual debris, peritoneal endometriotic lesions time-dependently change their color appearance resulting from certain biochemical change within lesions. A variable pattern of endometriotic lesions within the pelvis can be detected by laparoscopy as visible peritoneal endometriosis. It is generally believed that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system in the pelvic microenvironment by their interaction with endometrial cells and immune cells. Even with the careful eyes of an expert surgeon, we may sometimes miss detecting peritoneal lesion within the peritoneal cavity or deep into the peritoneum. In such a case, random collection of normal peritoneum may carry the possibility to identify some hidden endometriotic lesions by microscopy and these lesions can be named as occult (invisible microscopic endometriosis (OME. Here, we discuss the color appearance of peritoneal lesions and activity of these lesions by analysis of a panel of activity markers. Finally we discuss our recent findings on OME, their biological and clinical significance, and try to make a possible link in the origin between visible endometriosis and OME.

  3. Measuring Cutaneous Lesions: Trends in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shali; Blalock, Travis W

    2018-03-01

    Knowing the size of a cutaneous lesion can be important for tracking its progression over time, selecting the proper treatment modality, surgical planning, determining prognosis, and accurate billing. However, providers vary in their consistency, accuracy, and methods of measuring cutaneous lesions. To investigate the clinical practices of US dermatologists and dermatologic surgeons regarding how they determine the size of cutaneous lesions. A survey was electronically distributed to members of the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery. Four hundred twenty-six dermatologists completed the online survey. When a lesion is suspected to be malignant, 85% of respondents obtained exact measurements most, if not all, of the time; however, only 8% did for benign lesions. Most providers determined lesion sizes themselves rather than delegating to staff. When performing visual estimation, approximately three-quarters believed that they were accurate to within 1 to 2 mm. The top reasons for obtaining exact measurements were for tracking atypical pigmented lesions, determining treatment pathways, and accurate billing. The majority of respondents believed that lesion size affected management decisions; however, the need for exact measurement remains controversial, particularly for benign lesions. Future studies may investigate whether taking exact versus estimated measurements has an effect on outcomes.

  4. Arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus mimicking intraosseous lesions of the skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Elnaz; Tadinada, Aditya [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus is a developmental variant that is not always well recognized and is often confused with other pathologies associated with the skull base. This report describes the case of a patient referred for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging for dental implant therapy. CBCT demonstrated a well-defined incidental lesion in the left sphenoid sinus with soft tissue-like density and sclerotic borders with internal curvilinear opacifications. The differential diagnoses included intraosseous lipoma, arrested pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus, chondrosarcoma, chondroid chordoma, and ossifying fibroma. The radiographic diagnosis of arrested pneumatization was based on the location of the lesion, its well-defined nature, the presence of internal opacifications, and lack of expansion. Gray-scale CBCT imaging of the area demonstrated values similar to fatty tissue. This case highlighted the fact that benign developmental variants associated with the skull base share similar radiographic features with more serious pathological entities.

  5. Localization of lesions in aphasia, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Kei; Watanabe, Shunzo; Tasaki, Hiroichi; Sato, Tokijiro; Metoki, Hirofumi.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the focus and the extent of the lesions and the various symptoms was investigated. 1. Broca aphasics: More than 80% of the group with obvious anarthric components had lesions of the third frontal gyrus involving Broca's area and the lower part of the precental gyrus as well as opercular and insular regions. The size of the lesions of this group was significantly larger than that of the group without marked anarthric components, and the latter was proved to have little localizing value. 2. Wernicke aphasics: The group with poor reading comprehension had cortical and/or subcortical lesions, involving posterior parts of both superior and middle temporal gyri as well as the supramarginal gyrus. On the other hand, lesions of the group with poor auditory comprehension were more anteriorly located and localized in the deep structures. Lesions of the group with poor Token test scores were large and scattered more anteriorly and/or posteriorly compared with those of the group with good Token test scores. 3. Amnestic aphaiscs: The group with poor naming scores had somewhat larger lesions than the group with good naming scores, and the lesions were scattered about the left hemisphere. The finding has proved that both groups had little localizing value. 4. Conduction aphasics: Lesions of the non-fluent type were significantly larger than those of the fluent type and distributed more anteriorly. However, highly involved lesions were located in the supramarginal gyrus and posterior parts of superior and/or middle temporal gyri. 5. Global aphasics: Lesions of the group with good articulation and prosody were observed to distribute more posteriorly in comparison with those of the other global aphasics. (J.P.N.)

  6. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid...

  7. Determination of the seasonal changes on total fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total fatty acid compositions and seasonal variations of Oncorhynchus mykiss in Ivriz Dam Lake, Turkey were investigated using gas chromatographic method. A total of 38 different fatty acids were determined in the fatty acid composition of rainbow trout. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be higher than ...

  8. Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 2. The path from PGA to fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Yasunori [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1975-02-01

    By incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into the fatty acid chain in the presence of unlabelled precursor, we showed that fatty acids are synthesized from PGA, PEP and pyruvate by intact spinach chloroplasts in the light. /sup 13/C-tracer experiments confirmed that 1-C of pyruvate is decarboxylated and 2-C is incorporated into fatty acids by the chloroplasts. The patterns of fatty acids synthesized from PGA and pyruvate were the same as that from acetate. The highest rate of fatty acid synthesis was reached at the physiological concentration of PGA (3 mM) and pyruvate (1 mM). These results indicate the operation of the following path in the chloroplasts in light: PGA..-->..PEP..-->..pyruvate..-->..acetylCoA..-->..fatty acids. Since citrate and OAA were much less active and malate and glyoxylate were inert as precursors for fatty acid synthesis, PEP or pyruvate carboxylation, citrate lyase reaction and malate synthetase reaction are not involved in the formation of acetylCoA and fatty acids. Since pyruvate was much more effective as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis than lactate, acetaldehyde or acetate, direct decarboxylation path is considered to be the primary path from pyruvate to acetylCoA. The insignificant effect of chloroplast-washing on fatty acid synthesis from PGA and pyruvate indicates that the glycolytic path from PGA to pyruvate is associated with the chloroplasts. Since pyruvate was more effectively incorporated into fatty acids than acetylCoA, it is unlikely that pyruvate decarboxylation to acetylCoA is due to mitochondria contaminating the chloroplast preparation. On the basis of measurements of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O incorporation in the light and dark, the activity of fatty acid synthesis in spincah leaves appears to be shared by the activities in chloroplasts (87%) and other organelles (13%).

  9. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez; Rafael A. Gutiérrez; Alicia Keszler; Maria Del Carmen Colacino; Lidia V. Alonio; Angélica R. Teyssie; Maria Alejandra Picconi

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell ...

  10. Computed tomographic and ultrasound appearances of focal spared areas in fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, A.; Gill, G.; Hennessy, O.; Pryde, D.

    1991-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and utrasound (US) appearances of diffuse and focal fatty infiltration of the liver (FIL) are well recognized as pseudo tumours of the liver. Characteristic appearances of fat free areas in FIL which help differentiate these areas from other focal liver lesions include location in the medical segment of the left lobe of the liver, absence of mass effect on surrounding vessels and liver tissue, and presence of typical changes of FIL elsewhere in the liver on CT or US examination. 16 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  11. Traumatic brain lesions in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nícollas Nunes Rabelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The neonatal period is a highly vulnerable time for an infant. The high neonatal morbidity and mortality rates attest to the fragility of life during this period. The incidence of birth trauma is 0.8%, varying from 0.2-2 per 1,000 births. The aim of this study is to describe brain traumas, and their mechanism, anatomy considerations, and physiopathology of the newborn traumatic brain injury. Methods A literature review using the PubMed data base, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, The Cochrane Database, Google Scholar, and clinical trials. Selected papers from 1922 to 2016 were studied. We selected 109 papers, through key-words, with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Discussion This paper discusses the risk factors for birth trauma, the anatomy of the occipito-anterior and vertex presentation, and traumatic brain lesions. Conclusion Birth-related traumatic brain injury may cause serious complications in newborn infants. Its successful management includes special training, teamwork, and an individual approach.

  12. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  13. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, A

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  14. Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Carolina R.; Montes D'Oca, Caroline da Ros; Duarte, Rodrigo da C.; Kurz, Marcia H.S.; Primel, Ednei G.; Clementin, Rosilene M.; Villarreyes, Joaquin Ariel M.; Montes D'Oca, Marcelo G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

  15. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl...... esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids......, respectively). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids were 49.2 +/- 3.1, 44.9 +/- 1.8, and 37.7 +/- 1.7, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 3.3 +/- 0.7, 5.8 +/- 2.0, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Beef contained 2.1 +/- 0.8 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids, about half...

  16. CT number of the fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kawai, Takeshi; Kanasaki, Yoshiki; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1981-01-01

    This report is studied on CT number and CT images of the eight cases with fatty liver. Five of these cases showed the reversal of densities of the liver and vessels. In these cases, the diagnoses of the fatty liver were easible. In other cases, the diagnoses were possible only by comparison of the CT number of the liver and spleen because the CT number of normal liver were higher than those of the spleen. In the results which we examined the correlation of the CT number and specific gravities of the blood, normal saline, distilled water, mayonnaise, eatable iol, ethyl alcohol and lard, we observed the linear relationship between CT number and specific gravities. And so, we think that the diagnosis of the fatty liver and the degree of fatty infiltration can be guessed by the CT number of the liver and spleen. (author)

  17. Uridine prevents fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuc T Le

    Full Text Available Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, can modulate liver lipid metabolism although its specific acting targets have not been identified. Using mice with fenofibrate-induced fatty liver as a model system, the effects of uridine on liver lipid metabolism are examined. At a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg, fenofibrate treatment causes reduction of liver NAD(+/NADH ratio, induces hyper-acetylation of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (ECHD and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1, and induces excessive accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA. Uridine co-administration at a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg raises NAD(+/NADH ratio, inhibits fenofibrate-induced hyper-acetylation of ECHD, ACOX1, and reduces accumulation of LCFA and VLCFA. Our data indicates a therapeutic potential for uridine co-administration to prevent fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

  18. Radioiodinated fatty acids for cardiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machulla, H.-J.; Knust, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The development of fatty acids labelled with iodine-123 is reviewed. The variety of methods for producing 123 I and introducing radioiodine into the molecule is discussed and the important points of the biochemical background are recalled with the aim of finding a broad application for 123 I-labelled fatty acids. The results of the pharmacokinetic studies and biochemical analysis are presented as they prove that both 17- 123 I-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) and 15-(rho- 123 I-phenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) exhibit analogous behaviour to that of the naturally occurring fatty acids. Clinical applications demonstrated two fields of importance: (i) applications solely for imaging the heart and (ii) assessment of myocardial turnover rates of fatty acids for functional diagnosis. Moreover, very recent studies show that the provision of information about prognosis of myocardial diseases and the applied cardiological therapy appear to be possible. (author)

  19. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jett, Marti

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that there is a distinct pattern of fatty acid binding protein (FAEP) expression in prostate cancer vs normal cells and that finding has be confirmed in patient samples of biopsy specimens...

  1. Malignant Lesions as Mammographically Appearing Intramammary Ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Miraveta, P.; Pons, M. J.; Pina, L. J.; Zornoza, G.

    2004-01-01

    Intramammary ganglia are frequent mammographic findings of no pathological importance. We present two cases of malignant breast lesions whose mammographic appearance could resemble that of intramammary ganglia. Although the mammographic appearance of a lesion is similar to that of intramammary ganglia, it should be carefully studied, especially if it presents a poorly defined border or is palpable. (Author)

  2. Amalgam Contact Hypersensitivity Lesion: An Unusual Presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contact allergic reactions due to hypersensitivity to dental materials in professionals and ... Keywords: Amalgam, Amalgam contact hypersensitivity lesion, Lichenoid reaction, Oral mucosa ... was associated with mild burning sensation. The patient did ... OLLD in which oral and/or skin lesions appear in temporal association ...

  3. Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens; Prause, Jan U; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    –brown, cystic and slow-growing. The antimitochondrial antibody MU213-UC produced a distinct and intense immunostaining of all oncocytic lesions and was found to be useful in substantiating oncocytic differentiation. Twenty-six of the lesions originated in the caruncle, three in the conjunctiva, two...

  4. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  5. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  6. The Post-Ureteroscopic Lesion Scale (PULS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenthaler, Martin; Buchholz, Noor; Farin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The Post-Ureteroscopic Lesion Scale (PULS) offers a simple grading system for the description of ureteral lesions after ureteroscopy. In this article, we present the results of a video-based multicenter evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of clinically important PULS grades 0-3....

  7. Hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, Jose Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; Joao, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima, E-mail: ecamic@uol.com.br [Hospital Universitario Onofre Lopes (HUOL/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Clinica Gastrocentro e Ambulatorios de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo e de Cirurgia Hepatobiliopancreatica

    2017-09-01

    Background: The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. Aim: To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. Method: This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Results: Eighty eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p< 0.001), personal history of cancer (p=0.020), presence of >3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. Conclusion: It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine amino transaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. (author)

  8. Pediatric Awake Craniotomy for Brain Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Ali; Rükşen, Mete; Çetin, H Yurday; Seval, H Özer; İşlekel, Sertaç

    2016-01-01

    Awake craniotomy is a special method to prevent motor deficits during the resection of lesions that are located in, or close to, functional areas. Although it is more commonly performed in adult patients, reports of pediatric cases undergoing awake craniotomy are limited in the literature. In our clinic, where we frequently use awake craniotomy in adult patients, we performed this method in 2 selected pediatric cases for lesion surgery. At an early age, these 2 cases diagnosed with epilepsy presented cerebral lesions, but since the lesions enclosed functional areas, surgical resection was not regarded as a treatment option at this time. In these 2 pediatric cases, we successfully completed lesion surgery with awake craniotomy. The method and the techniques employed during surgery are presented concomitant with other reports in the literature. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Bone scintigraphy in lesions of the skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Wasilewski, A.; Deitmer, T.

    1982-01-01

    The value of 3-phase-scintigraphy in bone lesions of the skull with a new seeking agent 99mTc-2,3-dicarboxypropane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (DPD) is studied. A high soft tissue-bone-ratio of DPD is emphasized. For this reason DPD is used for bone scintigraphy of the skull, because the mass of soft tissue in relation to bone is high and a higher clearance improves the interpretation of the images of the first two phases. An increased tracer uptake is found for skeletal neoplasms (malignant and benign lesions) and for acute osteomyelitis. By contrast, the chronic inflammatory bone lesions showed normal tracer uptake. This new bone seeking agent allows to localize and differentiate tumorous or acute inflammatory lesions and chronic inflammatory bone lesions of the skull

  10. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO 2 in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO 2 and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and ω-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by β-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the ω-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the β-ketothiolase step of the β-oxidation pathway. The [ 14 C]acetoacetate formed from the [1- 14 C]labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the [ 14 C]acetoacetate formed from the (ω-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1

  11. Significance of localization of nonpalpable breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Choi, Hyun Ju [Yongdong Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    As mammography has become more popular for the evaluation of breast symptoms and for the screening of asymptomatic women, the smaller lesions are being detected before they become palpable, therefore preoperative localization became necessary. This has led to the development of several methods for preoperative localization of nonpalpable lesions. Authors analyzed 50 cases with preoperative localization in 45 patients which had abnormal findings on film mammogram or ultrasonomammogram since October 1985 through March 1990 at Yongdong Severance Hospital, College of Medicine, Yonsei University. The results were as follows: 1. Techniques of localization were spot method in 8 cases, conventional needle localization method in 38 cases and Kopan's needle localization method in 4 cases. 2. The most common mammographic indication for localization was focal calcifications in 29 cases(58%), which was followed by a newly developed mass in 25 cases(50%). 3. Outcome of pathologically confirmed diagnosis put into benign lesions in 37 cases(74%) and malignant lesions in 13 cases(26%). 4. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as benign lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram,all cases(100%) were confirmed in benign lesions pathologically. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as malignant lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram, pathologic malignant has been proved of 44% and possible histopathologic precursor of malignant was resulted in 25% such as atypical hyperplasia and adenosis. Conclusively, authors consider that the abnormal areas should be removed in their entirety with the sacrifice of minimum volume of contiguous normal breast tissue through the preoperative localization, hence our preoperative localization has contributed favorable prognosis based on material lesions in early stage breast cancer.

  12. Significance of localization of nonpalpable breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Choi, Hyun Ju

    1990-01-01

    As mammography has become more popular for the evaluation of breast symptoms and for the screening of asymptomatic women, the smaller lesions are being detected before they become palpable, therefore preoperative localization became necessary. This has led to the development of several methods for preoperative localization of nonpalpable lesions. Authors analyzed 50 cases with preoperative localization in 45 patients which had abnormal findings on film mammogram or ultrasonomammogram since October 1985 through March 1990 at Yongdong Severance Hospital, College of Medicine, Yonsei University. The results were as follows: 1. Techniques of localization were spot method in 8 cases, conventional needle localization method in 38 cases and Kopan's needle localization method in 4 cases. 2. The most common mammographic indication for localization was focal calcifications in 29 cases(58%), which was followed by a newly developed mass in 25 cases(50%). 3. Outcome of pathologically confirmed diagnosis put into benign lesions in 37 cases(74%) and malignant lesions in 13 cases(26%). 4. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as benign lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram,all cases(100%) were confirmed in benign lesions pathologically. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as malignant lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram, pathologic malignant has been proved of 44% and possible histopathologic precursor of malignant was resulted in 25% such as atypical hyperplasia and adenosis. Conclusively, authors consider that the abnormal areas should be removed in their entirety with the sacrifice of minimum volume of contiguous normal breast tissue through the preoperative localization, hence our preoperative localization has contributed favorable prognosis based on material lesions in early stage breast cancer

  13. Evaluation of Hemodynamics in Focal Steatosis and Focal Spared Lesion of the Liver Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography with Sonazoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, K.; Watanabe, M.; Ikehara, T.; Kogame, M.; Shinohara, M.; Shinohara, M.; Ishii, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Sumino, Y.; Shiozawa, K.; Makino, H.

    2014-01-01

    We aim to investigate the hemodynamics in focal steatosis and focal spared lesion of the liver using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid. The subjects were 47 patients with focal steatosis and focal spared lesion. We evaluated enhancement patterns (hyper enhancement, iso enhancement, and hypo enhancement) in the vascular phase and the presence or absence of a hypoechoic area in the post vascular phase for these lesions using CEUS. Of the 24 patients with focal steatosis, the enhancement pattern was iso enhancement in 19 and hypo enhancement in 5. Hypoechoic areas were noted in the post vascular phase in 3 patients. Of the 23 patients with focal spared lesions, the enhancement pattern was iso enhancement in 18 and hyper enhancement in 5. No hypoechoic areas were noted in the post vascular phase in any patient. The hemodynamics in focal steatosis and focal spared lesions in non diffuse fatty liver can be observed using low-invasive procedures in real-time by CEUS. It was suggested that differences in the dynamics of enhancement in the vascular phase of CEUS were influenced by the fat deposits in the target lesion, the surrounding liver parenchyma, and the third inflow.

  14. Valproate induced hepatic steatosis by enhanced fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xupeng; Hong, Weipeng; Cai, Peiheng; Chen, Yibei; Xu, Chuncao; Cao, Di; Yu, Weibang; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Huang, Min; Jin, Jing

    2017-06-01

    Steatosis is the characteristic type of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and may result in life-threatening hepatic lesion. Approximately 61% of patients treated with VPA have been diagnosed with hepatic steatosis through ultrasound examination. However, the mechanisms underlying VPA-induced intracellular fat accumulation are not yet fully understood. Here we demonstrated the involvement of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis in VPA-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro and in vivo by using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, western blotting analysis, fatty acid uptake assays, Nile Red staining assays, and Oil Red O staining assays. Specifically, we found that the expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), an important fatty acid transport, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) were significantly up-regulated in HepG2 cells and livers of C57B/6J mice after treatment with VPA. Furthermore, VPA treatment remarkably enhanced the efficiency of fatty acid uptake mediated by CD36, while this effect was abolished by the interference with CD36-specific siRNA. Also, VPA treatment significantly increased DGAT2 expression as a result of the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) - extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway; however, DGAT2 knockdown significantly alleviated VPA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation. Additionally, we also found that sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c)-mediated fatty acid synthesis may be not involved in VPA-induced hepatic steatosis. Overall, VPA-triggered over-regulation of CD36 and DGAT2 could be helpful for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying VPA-induced hepatic steatosis and may offer novel therapeutic strategies to combat VPA-induced hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as risk factor for drug-induced hepatotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, Julie; Begriche, Karima; Moreau, Caroline; Fromenty, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is often associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which refers to a large spectrum of hepatic lesions including fatty liver, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Different investigations showed or suggested that obesity and NAFLD are able to increase the risk of hepatotoxicity of different drugs. Some of these drugs could induce more frequently an acute hepatitis in obese individuals whereas others could worsen pre-existing NAFLD. Aim The main objective of the present review was to collect the available information regarding the role of NAFLD as risk factor for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. For this purpose, we performed a data-mining analysis using different queries including drug-induced liver injury (or DILI), drug-induced hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (or NAFLD), steatosis and obesity. The main data from the collected articles are reported in this review and when available, some pathophysiological hypotheses are put forward. Relevance for patients Drugs that could pose a potential risk in obese patients include compounds belonging to different pharmacological classes such as acetaminophen, halothane, methotrexate, rosiglitazone, stavudine and tamoxifen. For some of these drugs, experimental investigations in obese rodents confirmed the clinical observations and unveiled different pathophysiological mechanisms which could explain why these pharmaceuticals are particularly hepatotoxic in obesity and NAFLD. Other drugs such as pentoxifylline, phenobarbital and omeprazole might also pose a risk but more investigations are required to determine whether this risk is significant or not. Because obese people often take several drugs for the treatment of different obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease, it is urgent to identify the main pharmaceuticals that can cause acute hepatitis on a fatty liver background or induce NAFLD worsening

  16. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF LIVER LESIONS IN AUTOPSY EXAMINATION- A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Konjengbam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Liver is the main site of various primary and secondary diseases including variety of external agents. Most of the chronic liver diseases remained asymptomatic even in the late stage. In apparently healthy persons, many liver lesions are detected incidentally following a postmortem examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was done for a period of 5 years in a tertiary hospital to evaluate the histopathological profile of liver specimen in autopsy examination. Haematoxylin and Eosin sections of liver specimen were studied. A total of 352 samples were evaluated with male predominates the female sex in the ratio of 5.2:1. RESULTS The most common lesion was fatty liver (19% followed by cirrhosis (11.8%, venous congestion (11.5%, portal triaditis (10.9%, chronic hepatitis (6.2%, granulomatous hepatitis (2.1%, autolysis (16% and others (0.96%. Liver finding was normal in 14% of the cases. CONCLUSION Silent liver diseases are a quite regular finding in autopsy cases and thereby may implicate a common occurrence in general population. Autopsy examination of liver is a must for detection of silent liver diseases like fatty change, cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis.

  17. Nora's lesion, a distinct radiological entity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhondt, E.; Oudenhoven, L.; Khan, S.; Kroon, H.M.; Hogendoorn, P.C.; Nieborg, A.; Bloem, J.L.; Schepper, A. de

    2006-01-01

    To describe the radiological findings of ''Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation''(BPOP) - otherwise known as Nora's lesion, to describe the natural evolution of BPOP and to assess radiologically if BPOP is indeed part of a spectrum of reactive lesions including florid reactive periostitis and turret exostosis. Four experienced musculoskeletal radiologists studied plain radiographs and other imaging documents of histologically-proven Nora's lesions, looking for soft-tissue changes, periosteal reaction/calcification and calcified/ossified pseudotumours, and compared those findings with findings on pathology reviewed by a peer group of pathologists. Twenty-four Nora's lesions originating from a series of 200 consecutive, histologically-verified bone (pseudo)tumours of the hand, seen by the ''Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumours'' for review and second opinion. Nora's lesions have a recognised presentation on radiographs without specific MR characteristics. Natural evolution could be assessed retrospectively in four cases. Recurrent lesions were seen in seven cases and are difficult to differentiate from primary Lesions. (orig.)

  18. How much we know about bisphosphonate lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bisphosphonate drugs are used in the treatment of the osteoporosis and malignant processes in the bone tissue. As a result of this use bisphosphonate lesions are formed in bone tissue and oral mucosis, which representing a remarkable therapeutic problem. The aim of this study was to determine how many dentists in general practice are familiar with the character, diagnosis and therapy bisphosphonate lesions. Material and Methods: An anonymous questionnaire of 13 questions was conducted in dental practices in Nis County in the period from October 2015 to December 2015. The obtained data were statistically analyzed. Results: A total of 60% dentists knew what drugs are used in the treatment of osteoporosis and malignant processes in the bones. 25% knew what the bisphosphonate bone lesions are . 66, 6% of dentists knewn what is the prevention of bisphosphonate lesions. 63.3% of dentists are aware of the complications bisphosphonate lesions. Conclusion: Dentists in general practices are insufficiently familiar with the character, diagnosis and treatment of bisphosphonate lesions. We should activate all entities that participate in more continuous medical education, in order to achieve a higher level of prevention of these therapeutic ungrateful lesions.

  19. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid composition and prostanoid synthesis in pregnant rats. Four groups consisting of seven rats per group of non pregnant rats were fed diets with either a very low n-6:n-3 ratio of 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil ...

  20. Plant fatty acyl reductases: enzymes generating fatty alcohols for protective layers with potential for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Primary fatty alcohols are found throughout the biological world, either in free form or in a combined state. They are common components of plant surface lipids (i.e. cutin, suberin, sporopollenin, and associated waxes) and their absence can significantly perturb these essential barriers. Fatty alcohols and/or derived compounds are also likely to have direct functions in plant biotic and abiotic interactions. An evolutionarily related set of alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases (FARs) is present in all kingdoms of life. Plant microsomal and plastid-associated FAR enzymes have been characterized, acting on acyl-coenzymeA (acyl-CoA) or acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) substrates, respectively. FARs have distinct substrate specificities both with regard to chain length and chain saturation. Fatty alcohols and wax esters, which are a combination of fatty alcohol and fatty acid, have a variety of commercial applications. The expression of FARs with desired specificities in transgenic microbes or oilseed crops would provide a novel means of obtaining these valuable compounds. In the present review, we report on recent progress in characterizing plant FAR enzymes and in understanding the biological roles of primary fatty alcohols, as well as describe the biotechnological production and industrial uses of fatty alcohols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Homogeneously catalysed hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, B.; Vlugter, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    The use of copper and cadmium oxides or soaps as catalysts for the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty alcohols has been investigated. It is shown that copper soaps homogeneously activate hydrogen. When copper and cadmium oxides are used as catalysts, they react with the

  2. The reduction of image noise and streak artifact in the thoracic inlet during low dose and ultra-low dose thoracic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, N S; Prezelj, E; Burey, P; Menezes, R J; Blobel, J; Ursani, A; Kashani, H; Siewerdsen, J H

    2010-01-01

    Increased pixel noise and streak artifact reduce CT image quality and limit the potential for radiation dose reduction during CT of the thoracic inlet. We propose to quantify the pixel noise of mediastinal structures in the thoracic inlet, during low-dose (LDCT) and ultralow-dose (uLDCT) thoracic CT, and assess the utility of new software (quantum denoising system and BOOST3D) in addressing these limitations. Twelve patients had LDCT (120 kV, 25 mAs) and uLDCT (120 kV, 10 mAs) images reconstructed initially using standard mediastinal and lung filters followed by the quantum denoising system (QDS) to reduce pixel noise and BOOST3D (B3D) software to correct photon starvation noise as follows: group 1 no QDS, no B3D; group 2 B3D alone; group 3 QDS alone and group 4 both QDS and B3D. Nine regions of interest (ROIs) were replicated on mediastinal anatomy in the thoracic inlet, for each patient resulting in 3456 data points to calculate pixel noise and attenuation. QDS reduced pixel noise by 18.4% (lung images) and 15.8% (mediastinal images) at 25 mAs. B3D reduced pixel noise by ∼8% in the posterior thorax and in combination there was a 35.5% reduction in effective radiation dose (E) for LDCT (1.63-1.05 mSv) in lung images and 32.2% (1.55-1.05 mSv) in mediastinal images. The same combination produced 20.7% reduction (0.53-0.42 mSv) in E for uLDCT, for lung images and 17.3% (0.51-0.42) for mediastinal images. This quantitative analysis of image quality confirms the utility of dedicated processing software in targeting image noise and streak artifact in thoracic LDCT and uLDCT images taken in the thoracic inlet. This processing software potentiates substantial reductions in radiation dose during thoracic LDCT and uLDCT.

  3. Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M G

    1990-02-01

    In recent years, there has been growing public awareness of the potential health benefits of dietary fatty acids, and of the distinction between the effects of the omega6 and omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are concentrated in vegetable and fish oils, respectively. A part of the biologic effectiveness of the two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids resides in their relative roles as precursors of the eicosanoids. However, we are also beginning to appreciate that as the major components of the hydrophobic core of the membrane bilayer, they can interact with and directly influence the functioning of select integral membrane proteins. Among the most important of these are the enzymes, receptors, and ion channels that are situated in the plasma membrane of the cell, since they carry out the communication and homeostatic processes that are necessary for normal cell function. This review examines current information regarding the effects of diet-induced changes in plasma membrane fatty acid composition on several specific enzymes (adenylate cyclase, 5'-nucleotidase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and cell-surface receptors (opiate, adrenergic, insulin). Dietary manipulation studies have demonstrated a sensitivity of each to a fatty acid environment that is variably dependent on the nature of the fatty acid(s) and/or source of the membrane. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve fatty acid-dependent effects on protein conformation, on the "fluidity" and/or thickness of the membrane, or on protein synthesis. Together, the results of these studies reinforce the concept that dietary fats have the potential to regulate physiologic function and to further our understanding of how this occurs at a membrane level.

  4. Imaging of nontraumatic benign splenic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Kyung; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Seong Joon [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Lu Ci A [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    The spleen is one of the largest organ in the reticuloendothelial system and plays an important role in the activation of immune response. It is the organ most commonly injured after blunt abdominal trauma, and malignant lesions such as lymphoma, or these due to metastasis, occur not infrequently. Even so, it is ignored even in abdominal ultrasonography. Some benign splenic lesions, however can cause severe symptoms and result in high mortality, and their accurate diagnosis is therefore essential. This study describes the imaging findings and histopathologic features of various nontraumatic benign splenic lesions.

  5. Imaging of nontraumatic benign splenic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Kyung; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Seong Joon; Kim, Lu Ci A

    1999-01-01

    The spleen is one of the largest organ in the reticuloendothelial system and plays an important role in the activation of immune response. It is the organ most commonly injured after blunt abdominal trauma, and malignant lesions such as lymphoma, or these due to metastasis, occur not infrequently. Even so, it is ignored even in abdominal ultrasonography. Some benign splenic lesions, however can cause severe symptoms and result in high mortality, and their accurate diagnosis is therefore essential. This study describes the imaging findings and histopathologic features of various nontraumatic benign splenic lesions

  6. Neural network recognition of mammographic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldham, W.J.B.; Downes, P.T.; Hunter, V.

    1987-01-01

    A method for recognition of mammographic lesions through the use of neural networks is presented. Neural networks have exhibited the ability to learn the shape andinternal structure of patterns. Digitized mammograms containing circumscribed and stelate lesions were used to train a feedfoward synchronous neural network that self-organizes to stable attractor states. Encoding of data for submission to the network was accomplished by performing a fractal analysis of the digitized image. This results in scale invariant representation of the lesions. Results are discussed

  7. Differential diagnosis of small solid pancreatic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph Frank; Sahai, Anand Vasante; D'Onofrio, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed at a late stage. Little is known about the incidental finding of early-stage PDAC. The aim of the current study was to determine the etiology of small solid pancreatic lesions (≤15 mm) to optimize clinical......-enhanced US allowed differential diagnosis of PDAC and non-PDAC in 189 of 219 patients (86%). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 40% of patients with small solid pancreatic lesions had very early stage PDAC. Approximately 60% of small solid pancreatic lesions ≤15 mm are not PDAC and, therefore, do not require radical...

  8. [Degenerative lesions of the peripheral retina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conart, J-B; Baron, D; Berrod, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative lesions of the peripheral retina are present from teenage years onwards and increase with age. These abnormabilities are frequent, some of them being benign while others predispose to retinal tears and detachment. In the latter case, the lesions are rhegmatogenous and may justify prophylactic treatment by laser photocoagulation. We distinguish congenital lesions of the peripheral retina and intraretinal, chorioretinal and vitreoretinal degenerations. The holes and tears observed in 2% of the population consist of round atrophic holes, "horseshoe" tears, oral dialyses and giant tears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Features of fatty acid synthesis in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, M [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Nakamura, Y

    1975-07-01

    In the biosynthesis of fatty acid in the presence of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O, /sup 3/H is incorporated into the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acid. The features in the fatty acid synthesis of higher plants were investigated by applying /sup 3/H/sub 2/O method to the measurement of the ability of spinach leaves synthesizing fatty acid. Sucrose, acetate, pyruvate, PGA, PEP, OAA, citrate, etc. were employed as the substrates of fatty acid synthesis to trace the process of synthesis of each fatty acid. The demand of various cofactors related to the ability of spinach chloroplast fatty acid synthesizing was also examined. Light dependence of the fatty acid synthesis of chloroplast as well as the influences of N,N'-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide, carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy phenyl hydrazone and NH/sub 4/Cl were discussed. The results were compared with the reports on the fatty acid synthesis of avocado pear, castor bean, etc.

  10. Detection of liver metastases in cancer patients with geographic fatty infiltration of the liver: the added value of contrast-enhanced sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Taibbi, Adele; Picone, Dario; Anastasi, Andrea; Midiri, Massimo; Lagalla, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the detection of liver metastases in cancer patients with geographic liver fatty deposition on greyscale ultrasonography (US). Thirty-seven consecutive cancer patients (24 women and 13 men; age, 33 to 80 years; mean, 58.1 years) with geographic liver fatty deposition, but without any detectable focal liver lesion on greyscale US, underwent sulphur hexafluoride-enhanced US. Two readers reported by consensus the presence, size, and location of any detected lesion. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a confirmatory study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), and accuracy were calculated. Seven focal liver lesions (size, 4 to 10 mm; mean, 6.1 mm) were detected in 4/37 patients (10.8%): four metastases (size, 5 to 10 mm; mean, 6.7 mm) were detected both by CEUS and MRI, with one hemangioma and two cysts (size range, 4 to 6 mm; mean, 5.3 mm) detected by MRI only. In 1/37 patients (2.7%), CEUS misdiagnosed geographic fatty change as three metastases. In 32/37 patients (86.5%), no lesions were detected. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of CEUS were 100% (95% confidence Interval [CI], 1.000 to 1.000), 97.1% (95% CI, 0.914 to 1.027), 75%, 100%, and 97.3%, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between CEUS and MRI in the detection of focal liver lesions (P=0.480), whereas both of them performed better than baseline US (P<0.001). CEUS improves the detection of liver metastases in cancer patients with geographic liver fatty deposition on greyscale US

  11. Detection of liver metastases in cancer patients with geographic fatty infiltration of the liver: the added value of contrast-enhanced sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Taibbi, Adele; Picone, Dario; Anastasi, Andrea; Midiri, Massimo; Lagalla, Roberto [Dept. of Radiology-Di.Bi.Med., University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the detection of liver metastases in cancer patients with geographic liver fatty deposition on greyscale ultrasonography (US). Thirty-seven consecutive cancer patients (24 women and 13 men; age, 33 to 80 years; mean, 58.1 years) with geographic liver fatty deposition, but without any detectable focal liver lesion on greyscale US, underwent sulphur hexafluoride-enhanced US. Two readers reported by consensus the presence, size, and location of any detected lesion. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a confirmatory study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), and accuracy were calculated. Seven focal liver lesions (size, 4 to 10 mm; mean, 6.1 mm) were detected in 4/37 patients (10.8%): four metastases (size, 5 to 10 mm; mean, 6.7 mm) were detected both by CEUS and MRI, with one hemangioma and two cysts (size range, 4 to 6 mm; mean, 5.3 mm) detected by MRI only. In 1/37 patients (2.7%), CEUS misdiagnosed geographic fatty change as three metastases. In 32/37 patients (86.5%), no lesions were detected. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of CEUS were 100% (95% confidence Interval [CI], 1.000 to 1.000), 97.1% (95% CI, 0.914 to 1.027), 75%, 100%, and 97.3%, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between CEUS and MRI in the detection of focal liver lesions (P=0.480), whereas both of them performed better than baseline US (P<0.001). CEUS improves the detection of liver metastases in cancer patients with geographic liver fatty deposition on greyscale US.

  12. [Linoleic acid emulsion on the peri-lesion skin of venal ulcers. Action and cicatrizant effect. Corpus study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicas, Vicente Tormo; Rochina, Iván Julián

    2008-04-01

    The authors present a clinical and documented follow up on the peri-lesion skin in 44 venal blood vessel ulcers which were treated by a hyper-oxygenized fatty acid emulsion. All the elderly in this study belonged to the Number 3 Health Department of the Valencia Sanitary Council. This study's protocol and its data collection register received a favourable report from the Committee on Research Ethics at the "La Plana" Hospital. With a total percentage of 60 in essential linoleic fatty acid, CORPITOLINOL 60, is the emulsion which has the greatest quantity of this element so necessary for human skin. In effect, this is the essential fatty acid which has the greatest presence in human skin, besides being a vital element for skin hydration and its viability to form part of a fundamental structure: intercellular layers in the corneum layer of the epidermis. On the other hand, in the hyper-oxygenation process, this product helps the skin to obtain molecules very similar to prostaglandins land 2 which favour tissue perfusion. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate, after the application of this emulsion over a four week time period, the reduction of erythema and peri-lesion hyperkeratosis in venal blood vessel ulcers. But at the same time, as a secondary objective, this study evaluated peri-lesion skin based on other criteria such as pruritus, lesions due to scratching, or edema; this study verified whether treatment of peri-lesion skin influences the cicatrisation of wounds, as well as treatment acceptance by health professionals and patients. Incidences of erythemas and hyperkeratosis totally disappeared in 40% and 50% of those cases, respectively; in those lesions where these symptoms continued after four weeks of treatment there was a significant reduction in the degree of both erythemas and hyperkeratosis, 25% in each case. These researchers consider that good treatment of peri-lesion skin combined with a standard cure protocol, using "Urgotul" as the

  13. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  14. Valproate induced hepatic steatosis by enhanced fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Xupeng; Hong, Weipeng; Cai, Peiheng; Chen, Yibei; Xu, Chuncao; Cao, Di; Yu, Weibang; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Huang, Min; Jin, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Steatosis is the characteristic type of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and may result in life-threatening hepatic lesion. Approximately 61% of patients treated with VPA have been diagnosed with hepatic steatosis through ultrasound examination. However, the mechanisms underlying VPA-induced intracellular fat accumulation are not yet fully understood. Here we demonstrated the involvement of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis in VPA-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro and in vivo by using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, western blotting analysis, fatty acid uptake assays, Nile Red staining assays, and Oil Red O staining assays. Specifically, we found that the expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), an important fatty acid transport, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) were significantly up-regulated in HepG2 cells and livers of C57B/6J mice after treatment with VPA. Furthermore, VPA treatment remarkably enhanced the efficiency of fatty acid uptake mediated by CD36, while this effect was abolished by the interference with CD36-specific siRNA. Also, VPA treatment significantly increased DGAT2 expression as a result of the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) – extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway; however, DGAT2 knockdown significantly alleviated VPA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation. Additionally, we also found that sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c)-mediated fatty acid synthesis may be not involved in VPA-induced hepatic steatosis. Overall, VPA-triggered over-regulation of CD36 and DGAT2 could be helpful for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying VPA-induced hepatic steatosis and may offer novel therapeutic strategies to combat VPA-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • VPA induced hepatic steatosis and modulated genes associated with lipid metabolism. • CD36-mediated fatty acid uptake contributed to VPA-induced lipid accumulation. • PA increased the hepatic

  15. Valproate induced hepatic steatosis by enhanced fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xupeng; Hong, Weipeng; Cai, Peiheng; Chen, Yibei; Xu, Chuncao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Cao, Di [School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Yu, Weibang [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhao, Zhongxiang [School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Huang, Min [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Jin, Jing, E-mail: jinjing@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-06-01

    Steatosis is the characteristic type of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and may result in life-threatening hepatic lesion. Approximately 61% of patients treated with VPA have been diagnosed with hepatic steatosis through ultrasound examination. However, the mechanisms underlying VPA-induced intracellular fat accumulation are not yet fully understood. Here we demonstrated the involvement of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis in VPA-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro and in vivo by using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, western blotting analysis, fatty acid uptake assays, Nile Red staining assays, and Oil Red O staining assays. Specifically, we found that the expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), an important fatty acid transport, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) were significantly up-regulated in HepG2 cells and livers of C57B/6J mice after treatment with VPA. Furthermore, VPA treatment remarkably enhanced the efficiency of fatty acid uptake mediated by CD36, while this effect was abolished by the interference with CD36-specific siRNA. Also, VPA treatment significantly increased DGAT2 expression as a result of the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) – extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway; however, DGAT2 knockdown significantly alleviated VPA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation. Additionally, we also found that sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c)-mediated fatty acid synthesis may be not involved in VPA-induced hepatic steatosis. Overall, VPA-triggered over-regulation of CD36 and DGAT2 could be helpful for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying VPA-induced hepatic steatosis and may offer novel therapeutic strategies to combat VPA-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • VPA induced hepatic steatosis and modulated genes associated with lipid metabolism. • CD36-mediated fatty acid uptake contributed to VPA-induced lipid accumulation. • PA increased the hepatic

  16. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[ 14 C]palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO 2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 μM). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 μM and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine

  17. Multiple intracerebral lesions in a young male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of his brain showed multiple ill-defined and nodular enhancing lesions in bilateral supratentorial and ... Toxoplasmosis occurs in patients with CD4 T cell ... or from undercooked meat. ... Yoganathan K. A “brain tumor” in an intravenous.

  18. Atherectomy in complex infrainguinal lesions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberger, S; van den Berg, J C

    2015-02-01

    In the femoropopliteal segment, endovascular revascularization techniques have gained the role as a first line treatment strategy. Nitinol stent placement has improved the short- and mid-term primary patency rates in most lesion types and is therefore widely applied. Stenting has several shortcomings as in-stent restenosis, stent fractures and foreign material being left behind in the vessel. The concept of atherectomy is plaque debulking. This results in a potential reduction of inflation pressure requirements in angioplasty. Stent placement and consecutive in-stent restenosis may be avoided. In this non systematic literature review, the performance of different atherectomy techniques, such as direct atherectomy, orbital atherectomy, laser debulking and rotational atherectomy in the treatment of complex femoropopliteal lesions, including long lesions, moderately to heavily calcified lesions as well as occlusions and in-stent restenosis, has been analyzed.

  19. PERONEAL TENDON LESIONS IN ATHLETES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Achkasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyzed scientific literature in respect of various issues in treatment of athletes with peroneal muscles lesions starting from 1987 till 2016. Key search and publications selection was made in PubMed and russian national electronic scientific library eLIBRARY. Peroneal tendons pathology is not the major but the underestimated cause of pain in lateral and hindfoot as well as of foot dysfunction which is difficult to distinguish from lesions of lateral ligaments of the ankle joint. Untreated lesions of peroneal tendons can result in chronic ankle pain and significant functional disorders. The purpose of the present paper is to improve the current comprehension of anatomy, to identify factors contributing to pathology, to perform diagnostic evaluation of peroneal tendons and to review current treatment options of such lesions.

  20. Evaluation of ureteral lesions in ureterorenoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lildal, Søren Kissow; Andreassen, Kim Hovgaard; Jung, Helene

    2018-01-01

    (PULS) classification system. RESULTS: The use of 10/12 Fr UASs resulted in less severe lesions than reported previously with larger diameter UASs. There was a higher risk of superficial lesions in the UAS group, with a calculated crude odds ratio (OR) of 1.84 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1...... with an endoscope alone, but when adjusting for age and gender the incidence of ureteral lesions was comparable between RIRS with and without the use of a 10/12 Fr UAS.......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of ureteral lesions in retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) with and without the use of a 10/12 Fr ureteral access sheath (UAS). A further objective was to search for preoperative factors that could influence the risk of ureteral damage...

  1. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory.

  2. Biological study of some labeled C16 fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Busquet, G.; Vidal, M.; Comet, M.; Pernin, C. (C.H.R.U. de Grenoble, 38 - La Tronche (France)); Godart, J.; Benabed, A. (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Bardy, A. (C.E.A.-ORIS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of myocardial, blood, liver and kidney activity is studied in mice after I.V. injection of some labelled C16 fatty acids. With ..omega.. iodo fatty acids, the presence or absence of a double bond and the character Z or E have no influence on the tissue activity. The presence of a triple bond decreases the fixation, modifies the intramyocardial metabolism of the fatty acid and accelerates the rate of decrease of myocardial activity. ..omega.. bromo fatty acid have the same maximal fixation as ..omega.. iodo fatty acid but a more rapid decrease of myocardial activity. ..cap alpha.. iodo fatty acid has a very low myocardial fixation.

  3. Biological study of some labeled C16 fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riche, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Busquet, G.; Vidal, M.; Comet, M.; Pernin, C.; Godart, J.; Benabed, A.; Bardy, A.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of myocardial, blood, liver and kidney activity is studied in mice after I.V. injection of some labelled C16 fatty acids. With ω iodo fatty acids, the presence or absence of a double bond and the character Z or E have no influence on the tissue activity. The presence of a triple bond decreases the fixation, modifies the intramyocardial metabolism of the fatty acid and accelerates the rate of decrease of myocardial activity. ω bromo fatty acid have the same maximal fixation as ω iodo fatty acid but a more rapid decrease of myocardial activity. α iodo fatty acid has a very low myocardial fixation [fr

  4. Fatty acid oxidation in skeletal and cardiac muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, J.F.C.

    1983-01-01

    The biochemical investigations described in this thesis deal with two aspects of fatty acid oxidation in muscle: a comparison of the use of cell-free and cellular systems for oxidation measurements, and studies on the assay and the role of the fatty acid binding protein in fatty acid metabolism. The fatty acid oxidation rates are determined radiochemically by the sum of 14 CO 2 and 14 C-labeled acid-soluble products formed during oxidation of [ 14 C]-fatty acids. A radiochemical procedure for the assay of fatty acid binding by proteins is described. (Auth.)

  5. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions. To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion reg...

  6. Computerized Analysis of MR and Ultrasound Images of Breast Lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giger, Maryellen Lissak

    2000-01-01

    ...) images of breast lesions to aid radiologists in their workup of suspect lesions. We currently have retrospectively collected over 400 ultrasound cases of mass lesions, all that had gone on to either biopsy or cyst aspiration...

  7. Aspects of atypical degenerative lesions of vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battikha, J.G.; Garcia, J.F.; Wettstein, P.

    1981-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, several authors have reported aspects of degenerative disease of the vertebral column with irregularity and sclerosis of the margins of the vertebral bodies [2, 4, 7-9, 13, 15, 17]. Twenty cases of such atypical degenerative vertebral lesions have been studied over a two year period and their radiological characteristics have been compared with vertebral lesions of infective origin and in the rheumatoid disorders. (orig.)

  8. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Filippo Del; Farahani, Sahar J; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted

  9. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  10. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Del Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  11. Bone involvement pattern in hypervascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjersand, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    The pattern of the focal bone lesion which consists partly or wholly of rounded holes with comparatively smooth edges is discussed. Twenty-two bone lesions were studied by angiography. The 'hypervascular pattern' occurred in five cases of widely different histology, all with strong intraosseous hypervascularity. Different pathogenic mechanisms in the creation of this pattern are discussed. It is probably the result of both destructive and reparative processes in the bone. (orig.)

  12. International Consensus for ultrasound lesions in gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Thiele, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To produce consensus-based definitions of the US elementary lesions in gout and to test their reliability in a web-based exercise. METHODS: The process consisted of two steps. In the first step a written Delphi questionnaire was developed from a systematic literature review and expert...... lesions in gout, demonstrated good reliability overall. It constitutes an essential step in developing a core outcome measurement that permits a higher degree of homogeneity and comparability between multicentre studies....

  13. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.F.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  14. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M.; Els, T.

    2001-01-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Inhibit Tumor Growth in a Rat Model of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmiro Parada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω-3 fatty acids have been tested on prevention and treatment of several cancer types, but the efficacy on “in vivo” bladder cancer has not been analyzed yet. This study aimed at evaluating the chemopreventive efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA mixture in an animal model of bladder cancer. Forty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups during a 20-week protocol: control; carcinogen—N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl nitrosamine (BBN; ω-3 (DHA + EPA; and ω-3 + BBN. BBN and ω-3 were given during the initial 8 weeks. At week 20 blood and bladder were collected and checked for the presence of urothelium lesions and tumors, markers of inflammation, proliferation, and redox status. Incidence of bladder carcinoma was, control (0%, ω-3 (0%, BBN (65%, and ω-3 + BBN (62.5%. The ω-3 + BBN group had no infiltrative tumors or carcinoma in situ, and tumor volume was significantly reduced compared to the BBN (0.9 ± 0.1 mm3 versus 112.5 ± 6.4 mm3. Also, it showed a reduced MDA/TAS ratio and BBN-induced serum CRP, TGF-β1, and CD31 were prevented. In conclusion, omega-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of premalignant and malignant lesions in a rat model of bladder cancer, which might be due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic properties.

  16. An operon for production of bioactive gibberellin A4 phytohormone with wide distribution in the bacterial rice leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Raimund; Turrini, Paula C G; Nett, Ryan S; Leach, Jan E; Verdier, Valérie; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Peters, Reuben J

    2017-05-01

    Phytopathogens have developed elaborate mechanisms to attenuate the defense response of their host plants, including convergent evolution of complex pathways for production of the GA phytohormones, which were actually first isolated from the rice fungal pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi. The rice bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) has been demonstrated to contain a biosynthetic operon with cyclases capable of producing the universal GA precursor ent-kaurene. Genetic (knock-out) studies indicate that the derived diterpenoid serves as a virulence factor for this rice leaf streak pathogen, serving to reduce the jasmonic acid-mediated defense response. Here the functions of the remaining genes in the Xoc operon are elucidated and the distribution of the operon in X. oryzae is investigated in over 100 isolates. The Xoc operon leads to production of the bioactive GA 4 , an additional step beyond production of the penultimate precursor GA 9 mediated by the homologous operons recently characterized from rhizobia. Moreover, this GA biosynthetic operon was found to be widespread in Xoc (> 90%), but absent in the other major X. oryzae pathovar. These results indicate selective pressure for production of GA 4 in the distinct lifestyle of Xoc, and the importance of GA to both fungal and bacterial pathogens of rice. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. The impact of dynamic data assimilation on the numerical simulations of the QE II cyclone and an analysis of the jet streak influencing the precyclogenetic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manobianco, John; Uccellini, Louis W.; Brill, Keith F.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa

    1992-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model is combined with a dynamic data assimilation via Newtonian relaxation, or 'nudging', to provide initial conditions for subsequent simulations of the QE II cyclone. Both the nudging technique and the inclusion of supplementary data are shown to have a large positive impact on the simulation of the QE II cyclone during the initial phase of rapid cyclone development. Within the initial development period (from 1200 to 1800 UTC 9 September 1978), the dynamic assimilation of operational and bogus data yields a coherent two-layer divergence pattern that is not well defined in the model run using only the operational data and static initialization. Diagnostic analysis based on the simulations show that the initial development of the QE II storm between 0000 UTC 9 September and 0000 UTC 10 September was embedded within an indirect circulation of an intense 300-hPa jet streak, was related to baroclinic processes extending throughout a deep portion of the troposphere, and was associated with a classic two-layer mass-divergence profile expected for an extratropical cyclone.

  18. Behavior of occurrence of Banana Streak virus in in vitro propagated plants from cultivars of Musa hybrids FHIA-20 and FHIA-21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orelvis Portal

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The losses taken place by the black and yellow Sigatoka have impelled the introduction to the country of the tetraploid hybrids from FHIA, however, at the present time, the high incidence of Banana Streak Virus in these hybrids is well known. To evaluate the effect of the micropropagatión process, on the fluctuations of the viral concentration in the tissue, they were introduced to the in vitro propagation positive and negative plants serologically tested of the cultivars FHIA 20 and 21, previously indexed in field (DAS-ELISA, later on they passed to phase of adaptation to evaluate the derived results of the diagnosis tests carried out after 3-6 months of transplanted. As a result of the DAS-ELISA carried out to the plants in phase of adaptation (37 22.2 % of the negative plants, indexed in field, was positive, while 68.4 % of the positive plants, indexed in field, was negative, in both cases all the plants were positive to the diagnosis for PCR. In some cases, given the implication of the obtained results, was used the ISEM as technique of diagnostic, for the corroboration of the same ones. Key Words: badnavirus, diagnostic, in vitro culture, Musa

  19. Identification and profiling of conserved and novel microRNAs in Laodelphax striatellus in response to rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Min Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that play important roles in various biological processes. This study examined microRNA profiles of Laodelphax striatellus using the small RNA libraries derived from virus free (VF and rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV infected (RB insects. A total of 59 mature miRNAs (46 miRNA families were identified as conserved insect miRNAs in both VF and RB libraries. Among these conserved miRNAs, 24 were derived from the two arms of 12 miRNA precursors. Nine conserved L. striatellus miRNAs were up-regulated and 12 were down-regulated in response to RBSDV infection. In addition, a total of 20 potential novel miRNA candidates were predicted in the VF and RB libraries. The miRNA transcriptome profiles and the identification of L. striatellus miRNAs differentially expressed in response to RBSDV infection will contribute to future studies to elucidate the complex miRNA-mediated regulatory network activated by pathogen challenge in insect vectors.

  20. Characterization of rice black-streaked dwarf virus- and rice stripe virus-derived siRNAs in singly and doubly infected insect vector Laodelphax striatellus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Li

    Full Text Available Replication of RNA viruses in insect cells triggers an antiviral defense that is mediated by RNA interference (RNAi which generates viral-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs. However, it is not known whether an antiviral RNAi response is also induced in insects by reoviruses, whose double-stranded RNA genome replication is thought to occur within core particles. Deep sequencing of small RNAs showed that when the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus was infected by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV (Reoviridae; Fijivirus, more viral-derived siRNAs accumulated than when the vector insect was infected by Rice stripe virus (RSV, a negative single-stranded RNA virus. RBSDV siRNAs were predominantly 21 and 22 nucleotides long and there were almost equal numbers of positive and negative sense. RBSDV siRNAs were frequently generated from hotspots in the 5'- and 3'-terminal regions of viral genome segments but these hotspots were not associated with any predicted RNA secondary structures. Under laboratory condition, L. striatellus can be infected simultaneously with RBSDV and RSV. Double infection enhanced the accumulation of particular genome segments but not viral coat protein of RBSDV and correlated with an increase in the abundance of siRNAs derived from RBSDV. The results of this study suggest that reovirus replication in its insect vector potentially induces an RNAi-mediated antiviral response.