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Sample records for lesions columnar cell

  1. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

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    Cassali Geovanni D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  2. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Enio; Gobbi, Helenice; Saraiva, Bruna S; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions

  3. Columnar cell lesions and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia like stroma: is there an epithelial-stromal interaction?

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    Recavarren, Rosemary A; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Dabbs, David J

    2009-10-10

    The significance of association between cancer and its microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. It has been shown in animal models that interaction between neoplastic epithelial cells and adjacent stroma can modulate tumor behavior. Carcinoma associated stromal cells can transform normal epithelial cells into neoplastic cells. In breast, columnar cell lesions are non-obligate precursors of low grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Columnar cell lesions can be seen intimately associated with PASH-like-stroma, a lesion we termed as CCPLS. Our aim is to investigate epithelial-stromal interactions in CCPLS and compare them to PASH without columnar cell lesions in breast core needle biopsies. Normal terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) epithelium was seen in association with columnar cell lesions as well as PASH. Eight (8) cases of each category were examined by a panel of immunostains: CD117 (C-kit), CD34, CD105, bFGF, AR, ER-beta, MIB-1. We observed a markedly decreased expression of c-kit in columnar cell lesions compared to TDLU-epithelium. CD105 showed a quantitative increase in activated vessels in CCPLS compared to PASH. A subset of CCPLS and PASH were androgen receptor positive. A strong nuclear positivity for ER-beta is observed in the epithelium and stroma of all CCPLS cases. We conclude that (1) activated blood vessels predominate in CCPLS; (2) A molecular alteration is signified by c-kit loss in columnar cell lesions; (3) ER-beta and androgen receptor positivity indicate CCPLS are hormonally responsive lesions. Our study suggests an intimate vascular and hormone dependent epithelial-stromal interaction exists in CCPLS lesions.

  4. Does flat epithelial atypia have rounder nuclei than columnar cell change/hyperplasia? A morphometric approach to columnar cell lesions of the breast.

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    Yamashita, Yoshiko; Ichihara, Shu; Moritani, Suzuko; Yoon, Han-Seung; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-06-01

    Columnar cell lesions of the breast encompass columnar cell change/hyperplasia (CCC/CCH) and flat epithelial atypia (FEA). These have attracted researchers because emerging data suggest that FEA may represent the earliest histologically detectable non-obligate precursor of breast cancer. However, it is occasionally difficult to distinguish FEA from CCC/CCH because of similar histology. Although the nuclei of FEA are frequently described as relatively round compared with those of CCC/CCH, there are few morphometric studies to support this statement. The aim of this study was to provide objective data as to the nuclear shape in columnar cell lesions. As a shape descriptor, we adopted ellipticity that is defined by the formula 2b/2a, where a is the length of the long axis of the ellipse and b is the length of the short axis. Contrary to circularity, ellipticity reflects the overall configuration of an ellipse irrespective of surface irregularity. Our image analysis included generating whole slide images, extracting glandular cell nuclei, measuring nuclear ellipticity, and superimposing graded colors based on execution of results on the captured images. A total of 7917 nuclei extracted from 22 FEA images and 5010 nuclei extracted from 13 CCC/CCH images were analyzed. There was a significant difference in nuclear roundness between FEA and CCC/CCH with mean ellipticity values of 0.723 and 0.679, respectively (p < 0.001, Welch's t test). Furthermore, FEA with malignancy had significantly rounder nuclei than FEA without malignancy (p < 0.001). Our preliminary results suggest that nuclear ellipticity is a key parameter in reproducibly classifying columnar cell lesions of the breast.

  5. A review of columnar cell lesions of the breast in a Lagos Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CCLs) in Nigerian women using Fibrocystic changes (FCC) of the breast as a surrogate lesion as well as to determine the variants of CCLs found using the standard histologic criteria.The materials for this study consisted of all consecutive ...

  6. Columnar metaplasia in a surgical mouse model of gastro-esophageal reflux disease is not derived from bone marrow-derived cell.

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    Aikou, Susumu; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo; Yamagata, Yukinori; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kaminishi, Michio; Nomura, Sachiyo

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased in the last 25 years. Columnar metaplasia in Barrett's mucosa is assumed to be a precancerous lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the induction process of Barrett's mucosa is still unknown. To analyze the induction of esophageal columnar metaplasia, we established a mouse gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) model with associated development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. C57BL/6 mice received side-to-side anastomosis of the esophagogastric junction with the jejunum, and mice were killed 10, 20, and 40 weeks after operation. To analyze the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to columnar metaplasia in this surgical GERD model, some mice were transplanted with GFP-marked bone marrow after the operation. Seventy-three percent of the mice (16/22) showed thickened mucosa in esophagus and 41% of mice (9/22) developed columnar metaplasia 40 weeks after the operation with a mortality rate of 4%. Bone marrow-derived cells were not detected in columnar metaplastic epithelia. However, scattered epithelial cells in the thickened squamous epithelia in regions of esophagitis did show bone marrow derivation. The results demonstrate that reflux induced by esophago-jejunostomy in mice leads to the development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. However, bone marrow-derived cells do not contribute directly to columnar metaplasia in this mouse model. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  7. Ghost cell lesions

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    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  8. Transitional basal cells at the squamous-columnar junction generate Barrett’s oesophagus

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    Jiang, Ming; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Yongchun; Yang, Ying; Lu, Rong; Liu, Kuancan; Lin, Sijie; Lan, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haikun; Wu, Han; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongren; Xu, Jianming; Lee, Dong-Kee; Zhang, Lanjing; Lee, Yuan-Cho; Yuan, Jingsong; Abrams, Julian A.; Wang, Timothy G.; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Wu, Qi; Chen, Huaiyong; Sun, Xin; She, Junjun; Chen, Xiaoxin; Que, Jianwen

    2017-01-01

    In several organ systems the transitional zone between different types of epithelia is a hotspot for pre-neoplastic metaplasia and malignancy1–3. However, the cell-of-origin for the metaplastic epithelium and subsequent malignancy, remains obscure1–3. In the case of Barrett’s oesophagus (BE), intestinal metaplasia occurs at the gastro-oesophageal junction, where stratified squamous epithelium transitions into simple columnar cells4. Based on different experimental models, several alternative cell types have been proposed as the source of the metaplasia, but in all cases the evidence is inconclusive and no model completely mimics BE with the presence of intestinal goblet cells5–8. Here, we describe a novel transitional columnar epithelium with distinct basal progenitor cells (p63+ KRT5+ KRT7+) in the squamous-columnar junction (SCJ) in the upper gastrointestinal tract of the mouse. We use multiple models and lineage tracing strategies to show that this unique SCJ basal cell population serves as a source of progenitors for the transitional epithelium. Moreover, upon ectopic expression of CDX2 these transitional basal progenitors differentiate into intestinal-like epithelium including goblet cells, thus reproducing Barrett’s metaplasia. A similar transitional columnar epithelium is present at the transitional zones of other mouse tissues, including the anorectal junction, and, importantly, at the gastro-oesophageal junction in the human gut. Acid reflux-induced oesophagitis and the multilayered epithelium (MLE) believed to be a precursor of BE are both characterized by the expansion of the transitional basal progenitor cells. Taken together our findings reveal the presence of a previously unidentified transitional zone in the epithelium of the upper gastrointestinal tract and provide evidence that the p63+ KRT7+ basal cells in this zone are the cell-of-origin for MLE and BE. PMID:29019984

  9. A study of the endocervical columnar cells I - morphology and frequency

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    Eitel Duarte

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available After the observation of many thousands of histological sections of the endocervical mucosa it became evident that its columnar cells present a great variety of aspects not only those of the surface of the canal but also those of the glands. A classification of these cells was made taking into account the staining affinity, the intensity staining of the cytoplasm, the presence or absence of cilia, the shape and location of the nucleus. The various combinations of these different data made possible the characterization of 26 types of cells which we labelled by the alphabetical letters. Two hundred and fifty cervices obtained by cervical amputation and by hysterectomy were studied. The uteri presented lesions in the course of routine laboratory examination. In each of the 250 histological sections there were specifically counted 2,000 columnar cells which cover the cervical canal and 2,000columnar cells which form the glands. A graphic representation of the frequency of both the superficial and glandular columnar cells was presented; this was given the name EPITHELIOGRAM. The variation of the cellular "composition" of each epithelium is discussed and the frequency of the various cellular types after the count of one million of cells is presented.O estudo minucioso do epitélio da mucosa endocervical possibilitou o reconhecimento de vinte e seis tipos de células cilíndricas, tanto na superfície de revestimento do canal, como nas chamadas glândulas endocervicais. Para a classificação destas 26 células, que tomaram, cada uma, uma letra do alfabeto, foram levados em consideração a intensidade de coloração, a apresença ou não de cílios, a forma e dimensões dos núcleos e sua posição na célula. Foram analisados inicialmente 250 cortes histológicos, sendo contadas especìficamente, em cada corte, 2000 células cilíndricas de revestimento e 2000 células cilíndricas das glândulas. Em cada caso foram anotados, nas tabelas, além dos

  10. Adaptive response to starvation in the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: cell viability and ultrastructural changes

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    Arias Covadonga R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ecology of columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare, is poorly understood despite the economic losses that this disease inflicts on aquaculture farms worldwide. Currently, the natural reservoir for this pathogen is unknown but limited data have shown its ability to survive in water for extended periods of time. The objective of this study was to describe the ultrastructural changes that F. columnare cells undergo under starvation conditions. Four genetically distinct strains of this pathogen were monitored for 14 days in media without nutrients. Culturability and cell viability was assessed throughout the study. In addition, cell morphology and ultrastructure was analyzed using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Revival of starved cells under different nutrient conditions and the virulence potential of the starved cells were also investigated. Results Starvation induced unique and consistent morphological changes in all strains studied. Cells maintained their length and did not transition into a shortened, coccus shape as observed in many other Gram negative bacteria. Flavobacterium columnare cells modified their shape by morphing into coiled forms that comprised more than 80% of all the cells after 2 weeks of starvation. Coiled cells remained culturable as determined by using a dilution to extinction strategy. Statistically significant differences in cell viability were found between strains although all were able to survive in absence of nutrients for at least 14 days. In later stages of starvation, an extracellular matrix was observed covering the coiled cells. A difference in growth curves between fresh and starved cultures was evident when cultures were 3-months old but not when cultures were starved for only 1 month. Revival of starved cultures under different nutrients revealed that cells return back to their original elongated rod shape upon

  11. Does cell lineage in the developing cerebral cortex contribute to its columnar organization?

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    Marcos R Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneer work of Lorente de Nó, Ramón y Cajal, Brodmann, Mountcastle, Hubel and Wiesel and others, the cerebral cortex has been seen as a jigsaw of anatomic and functional modules involved in the processing of different sets of information. In fact, a columnar distribution of neurons displaying similar functional properties throughout the cerebral cortex has been observed by many researchers. Although it has been suggested that much of the anatomical substrate for such organization would be already specified at early developmental stages, before activity-dependent mechanisms could take place, it is still unclear whether gene expression in the ventricular zone could play a role in the development of discrete functional units, such as minicolumns or columns. Cell lineage experiments using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have shown that the progeny of a single neuroepithelial/radial glial cell in the dorsal telencephalon is organized into discrete radial clusters of sibling excitatory neurons, which have a higher propensity for developing chemical synapses with each other rather than with neighbouring non-siblings. Here, we will discuss the possibility that the cell lineage of single neuroepithelial/radial glia cells could contribute for the columnar organization of the neocortex by generating radial columns of sibling, interconnected neurons. Borrowing some concepts from the studies on cell-cell recognition and transcription factor networks, we will also touch upon the potential molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment of sibling-neuron circuits.

  12. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

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    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  13. Immunoexpression of P16INK4a, Rb and TP53 proteins in bronchiolar columnar cell dysplasia (BCCD in lungs resected due to primary non-small cell lung cancer.

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    Lech Chyczewski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. High mortality comes out mainly of the fact that majority of the cases are diagnosed in advanced stadium. An expanded diagnostics of precancerous conditions would certainly contribute to lowering the mortality rate. Many of the molecular changes accompanying the multistep cancer development could be observed using the immunohistochemistry method. In this paper we describe the morphology and cell cycle proteins immunoexpression of the novel probable preinvasive lesion - bronchiolar columnar cell dysplasia (BCCD. Thirty cases of BCCD selected out of 193 patients population, treated for primary non-small cell lung cancer were investigated. Loss of P16INK4a protein was observed in 70% of all cases and was statistically significant in patients with adenocarcinoma. Two cases show abnormal cytoplasmic localization of this protein. TP53 protein accumulates in 26.7% of all BCCD. Rb protein was active in 48.3% of the BCCD cases. In two cases we observed differentiation of the cells composing BCCD into multilayer epithelium of the squamous type, which occurs with formation of desmosomes. We suppose that BCCD may be preneoplastic lesion leading to adenocarcinoma as well as to peripheral squamous cell lung cancer.

  14. Crypt base columnar stem cells in small intestines of mice are radioresistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, G.; Thin, T.H.; Feldman, R.; Haimovitz-Friedman, A.; Clevers, H.; Fuks, Z.; Kolesnick, R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adult stem cells have been proposed to be quiescent and radiation resistant, repairing DNA double-strand breaks by nonhomologous end joining. However, the population of putative small intestinal stem cells (ISCs) at position +4 from the crypt base contradicts this model, in that

  15. Unilateral giant cell lesion of the jaw in Noonan syndrome.

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    Eyselbergs, M; Vanhoenacker, F; Hintjens, J; Dom, M; Devriendt, K; Van Dijck, H

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an etiologically heterogeneous disorder caused by mutations in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Noonan-Like/Multiple Giant Cell Lesion (NL/MGCL) syndrome is initially described as the occurrence of multiple gnathic giant cell lesions in patients with phenotypic features of NS. Nowadays, NS/MGCL syndrome is considered a variant of the NS spectrum rather than a distinct entity. We report the case of a 14-year-old female patient carrying a SOS1 mutation with a unilateral giant cell lesion of the right mandible. Cross-sectional imaging such as CT and MRI are not specific for the diagnosis of oral giant cell lesions. Nonetheless, intralesional scattered foci of low SI on T2-WI, corresponding to hemosiderin deposits due to hemorrhage, can help the radiologist in narrowing down the differential diagnosis of gnathic lesions in patients with NS.

  16. A new strategy to engineer polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with thick active layers via self-assembly of the tertiary columnar phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongfei; Yang, Zhenhua; Pan, Cheng; Jiang, Naisheng; Satija, Sushil K; Xu, Di; Gersappe, Dilip; Nam, Chang-Yong; Rafailovich, Miriam H

    2017-08-17

    We report that the addition of a non-photoactive tertiary polymer phase in the binary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cell leads to a self-assembled columnar nanostructure, enhancing the charge mobilities and photovoltaic efficiency with surprisingly increased optimal active blend thicknesses over 300 nm, 3-4 times larger than that of the binary counterpart. Using the prototypical poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):fullerene blend as a model BHJ system, we discover that the inert poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) added in the binary BHJ blend self-assembles into vertical columns, which not only template the phase segregation of electron acceptor fullerenes but also induce the out-of-plane rotation of the edge-on-orientated crystalline P3HT phase. Using complementary interrogation methods including neutron reflectivity, X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the enhanced charge transport originates from the more randomized molecular stacking of the P3HT phase and the spontaneous segregation of fullerenes at the P3HT/PMMA interface, driven by the high surface tension between the two polymeric components. The results demonstrate a potential method for increasing the thicknesses of high-performance polymer BHJ solar cells with improved photovoltaic efficiency, alleviating the burden of stringently controlling the ultrathin blend thickness during the roll-to-roll-type large-area manufacturing environment.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of cells from periapical lesions.

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    Farber, P A

    1975-09-01

    Examination of lymphocytes from peripheral blood with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) has shown differences between B cells and T cells on the basis of their surface architecture. This study was initiated to determine whether the cellular components of periapical lesions could be identified with the use of similar criteria. Cells were dispersed from lesions by aspiration of fragments of tissue through syringe needles of decreasing diameters. The liberated cells were filtered on silver-coated Flotronic membranes and examined under the SEM. Lymphocytes, macrophages, epithelial cells, and mast cells were observed in granulomas and cysts. Most of the lymphocytes had smooth surfaces similar to that of T cells; others had villous projections similar to that of B cells. Epithelial nests were seen in the cyst linings while the cyst fluid was rich in lymphocytes. These findings suggest that SEM examination of periapical lesions can be a useful adjunct in studying cellular composition and possible immunological reactions in these tissues.

  18. Enhanced solar cell efficiency and stability using ZnS passivation layer for CdS quantum-dot sensitized actinomorphic hexagonal columnar ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanli; Tao, Qiang; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yanyan; Su, Shi; Wang, Peng; Li, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The synthetic of ZnS/CdS QDs/AHC-ZnO photoanode with a simple method. • The power conversion efficiency of the ZnS/CdS QDs/AHC-ZnO is 1.81%. • The effects of photovoltaic performances caused by CdS and ZnS amounts were studied. • ZnS passivation layer enhanced electron lifetime significantly. - Abstract: We report the photoanodes consisting of CdS quantum-dots (QDs) sensitized actinomorphic hexagonal columnar ZnO (CdS QDs/AHC-ZnO) with ZnS passivation layer are applied for solar cells. Simple chemical solution synthesized AHC-ZnO films on transparent conducting glass substrates, and then, AHC-ZnO is functionalized with uniform CdS and ZnS QDs via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, UV–vis diffused reflectance absorption spectra and photovoltaic performances analysis. Photovoltaic performances results indicate the quantity of CdS QDs as well as the visible light absorption threshold can be effectively controlled by varying the coating cycles during the SILAR process, and the photocurrent density (Jsc) is greatly improved by increasing the amount of ZnS. By optimizing the AHC-ZnO with the amount of CdS and ZnS, the best efficiency of 1.81% was achieved for solar cell under AM 1.5 G illumination with Jsc = 7.44 mA/cm 2 , Voc = 0.57 V and FF = 43%

  19. Comparison of cancer-associated genetic abnormalities in columnar-lined esophagus tissues with and without goblet cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandla, Santhoshi; Peters, Jeffrey H; Ruff, David; Chen, Shiaw-Min; Li, Chieh-Yuan; Song, Kunchang; Thoms, Kimberly; Litle, Virginia R; Watson, Thomas; Chapurin, Nikita; Lada, Michal; Pennathur, Arjun; Luketich, James D; Peterson, Derick; Dulak, Austin; Lin, Lin; Bass, Adam; Beer, David G; Godfrey, Tony E; Zhou, Zhongren

    2014-07-01

    To determine and compare the frequency of cancer-associated genetic abnormalities in esophageal metaplasia biopsies with and without goblet cells. Barrett's esophagus is associated with increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), but the appropriate histologic definition of Barrett's esophagus is debated. Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is defined by the presence of goblet cells whereas nongoblet cell metaplasia (NGM) lacks goblet cells. Both have been implicated in EAC risk but this is controversial. Although IM is known to harbor genetic changes associated with EAC, little is known about NGM. We hypothesized that if NGM and IM infer similar EAC risk, then they would harbor similar genetic aberrations in genes associated with EAC. Ninety frozen NGM, IM, and normal tissues from 45 subjects were studied. DNA copy number abnormalities were identified using microarrays and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Targeted sequencing of all exons from 20 EAC-associated genes was performed on metaplasia biopsies using Ion AmpliSeq DNA sequencing. Frequent copy number abnormalities targeting cancer-associated genes were found in IM whereas no such changes were observed in NGM. In 1 subject, fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed loss of CDKN2A and amplification of chromosome 8 in IM but not in a nearby NGM biopsy. Targeted sequencing revealed 11 nonsynonymous mutations in 16 IM samples and 2 mutations in 19 NGM samples. This study reports the largest and most comprehensive comparison of DNA aberrations in IM and NGM genomes. Our results show that IM has a much higher frequency of cancer-associated mutations than NGM.

  20. Adenoid basal hyperplasia of the uterine cervix: a lesion of reserve cell type, distinct from adenoid basal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdraon, Olivier; Cornélius, Aurélie; Farine, Marie-Odile; Boulanger, Loïc; Wacrenier, Agnès

    2012-12-01

    Adenoid basal hyperplasia is an underrecognized cervical lesion, resembling adenoid basal carcinoma, except the absence of deep invasion into the stroma. We report a series of 10 cases, all extending less than 1 mm from the basement membrane. Our results support the hypothesis that adenoid basal hyperplasia arises from reserve cells of the cervix. Lesions were found close to the squamocolumnar junction, in continuity with the nearby subcolumnar reserve cells. They shared the same morphology and immunoprofile using a panel of 4 antibodies (keratin 5/6, keratin 14, keratin 7 and p63) designed to differentiate reserve cells from mature squamous cells and endocervical columnar cells. We detected no human papillomavirus infection by in situ hybridization targeting high-risk human papillomavirus, which was concordant with the absence of immunohistochemical p16 expression. We demonstrated human papillomavirus infection in 4 (80%) of 5 adenoid basal carcinoma, which is in the same range as previous studies (88%). Thus, adenoid basal hyperplasia should be distinguished from adenoid basal carcinoma because they imply different risk of human papillomavirus infection and of subsequent association with high-grade invasive carcinoma. In our series, the most reliable morphological parameters to differentiate adenoid basal hyperplasia from adenoid basal carcinoma were the depth of the lesion and the size of the lesion nests. Furthermore, squamous differentiation was rare in adenoid basal hyperplasia and constant in adenoid basal carcinoma. Finally, any mitotic activity and/or an increase of Ki67 labeling index should raise the hypothesis of adenoid basal carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Unilateral giant cell lesion of the jaw in Noonan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Eyselbergs, M; Vanhoenacker, F; Hintjens, J; Dom, M; Devriendt, K; Dijck, H Van

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an etiologically heterogeneous disorder caused by mutations in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Noonan-Like/Multiple Giant Cell Lesion (NL/MGCL) syndrome is initially described as the occurrence of multiple gnathic giant cell lesions in patients with phenotypic features of NS. Nowadays, NS/MGCL syndrome is considered a variant of the NS spectrum rather than a distinct entity. We report the case of a 14-year-old female patient carrying a SOS1 mutation with a unilateral g...

  2. Quantification and localization of mast cells in periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahita, V N; Manjunatha, B S; Shah, R; Astekar, M; Purohit, S; Kovvuru, S

    2015-01-01

    Periapical lesions occur in response to chronic irritation in periapical tissue, generally resulting from an infected root canal. Specific etiological agents of induction, participating cell population and growth factors associated with maintenance and resolution of periapical lesions are incompletely understood. Among the cells found in periapical lesions, mast cells have been implicated in the inflammatory mechanism. Quantifications and the possible role played by mast cells in the periapical granuloma and radicular cyst. Hence, this study is to emphasize the presence (localization) and quantification of mast cells in periapical granuloma and radicular cyst. A total of 30 cases and out of which 15 of periapical granuloma and 15 radicular cyst, each along with the case details from the previously diagnosed cases in the department of oral pathology were selected for the study. The gender distribution showed male 8 (53.3%) and females 7 (46.7%) in periapical granuloma cases and male 10 (66.7%) and females 5 (33.3%) in radicular cyst cases. The statistical analysis used was unpaired t-test. Mean mast cell count in periapical granuloma subepithelial and deeper connective tissue, was 12.40 (0.99%) and 7.13 (0.83%), respectively. The mean mast cell counts in subepithelial and deeper connective tissue of radicular cyst were 17.64 (1.59%) and 12.06 (1.33%) respectively, which was statistically significant. No statistical significant difference was noted among males and females. Mast cells were more in number in radicular cyst. Based on the concept that mast cells play a critical role in the induction of inflammation, it is logical to use therapeutic agents to alter mast cell function and secretion, to thwart inflammation at its earliest phases. These findings may suggest the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions.

  3. Columnar apple primary roots share some features of the columnar-specific gene expression profile of aerial plant parts as evidenced by RNA-Seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Romina; Djozgic, Haris; Rieger, Benjamin; Rapp, Steffen; Schmidt, Erwin Robert

    2015-02-04

    Primary roots (radicles) represent the first visible developmental stages of the plant and are crucial for nutrient supply and the integration of environmental signals. Few studies have analyzed primary roots at a molecular level, and were mostly limited to Arabidopsis. Here we study the primary root transcriptomes of standard type, heterozygous columnar and homozygous columnar apple (Malus x domestica) by RNA-Seq and quantitative real-time PCR. The columnar growth habit is characterized by a stunted main axis and the development of short fruit spurs instead of long lateral branches. This compact growth possesses economic potential because it allows high density planting and mechanical harvesting of the trees. Its molecular basis has been identified as a nested Gypsy-44 retrotransposon insertion; however the link between the insertion and the phenotype as well as the timing of the phenotype emergence are as yet unclear. We extend the transcriptomic studies of columnar tissues to the radicles, which are the earliest developmental stage and investigate whether homozygous columnar seedlings are viable. Radicles mainly express genes associated with primary metabolism, growth and development. About 200 genes show differential regulation in a comparison of heterozygous columnar radicles with non-columnar radicles, whereas the comparison of homozygous columnar radicles with non-columnar radicles yields about 300 differentially regulated genes. Genes involved in cellulose and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, cell wall modification, transcription and translation, ethylene and jasmonate biosynthesis are upregulated in columnar radicles. Genes in the vicinity of the columnar-specific Gypsy-44 insertion experience an especially strong differential regulation: the direct downstream neighbor, dmr6-like, is downregulated in heterozygous columnar radicles, but strongly upregulated in columnar shoot apical meristems. The transcriptomic profile of primary roots reflects their pivotal

  4. Amelanotic Melanoma Masquerading as a Granular Cell Lesion

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    Deepak Pandiar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amelanotic melanoma (AM presents a diagnostic challenge due to its wide clinical presentations, lack of pigmentation, and varied histological appearances. Immunohistochemistry plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of these lesions. Amelanotic melanoma of oral mucosa is an uncommon lesion. We report a case of a 50-year-old male patient with a growth on the anterior mandibular gingiva of seven-month duration. In the present case, histologically, the tumour resembled a granular cell lesion, which has not been reported previously in AM. Diagnosis was possible by a sequential panel of immunohistochemical markers, of which finally vimentin, S100, HMB45, and Melan-A were positive. The tumor was surgically excised, and postsurgical radiotherapy was given.

  5. Composition of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) produced by Flavobacterium columnare isolated from tropical fish in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alexandre Sebastião, Fernanda; Pilarski, Fabiana; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco

    2013-01-01

    Thirty nine isolates of Flavobacterium columnare from Brazilian fish farms had their carbohydrate composition of EPS evaluated by high efficiency liquid chromatography, using the phenol-sulfuric acid method of EPS. The occurrence of capsules on F. columnare cells was not directly related to biofilm formation, and the predominant monosaccharide is glucose.

  6. Lobular neoplasia: frequency and association with other breast lesions

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    Gobbi Helenice

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using new molecular biology techniques, recent studies have implicated a common evolutionary pathway between lobular neoplasia, lobular carcinomas, and columnar cell lesions. Our aims were to assess the frequency of lobular neoplasia in a series of breast biopsies that were performed and examined in the same institution and to analyze the association between subtypes of lobular neoplasia and benign and malignant breast lesions. Methods Cases were selected after reviewing archived pathological reports in the Breast Pathology Laboratory, School of Medicine of Federal University of Minas Gerais (1999-2008. Cases of lobular neoplasia were reviewed and classified as atypical lobular hyperplasia, ductal involvement by cells of atypical lobular hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, and pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ. Coexistence of lobular neoplasia with other breast lesions, including columnar cell lesions, invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma, was evaluated. The association between lobular neoplasia and breast lesions was analyzed by Fisher's exact test and chi-square test for linear trend. Results We analyzed 5650 breast specimens, selecting 135 breast specimens (2.4% that had a diagnosis of lobular neoplasia, corresponding to 106 patients. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were available for 84 cases, 5 of which were excluded because they contained only "indeterminate" in situ lesions. Of the 79 remaining cases, columnar cell lesions were present in 78.5%, primarily with columnar cell changes without atypia (67.7%. Invasive carcinoma was present in 45.6% of cases of lobular neoplasia--a similar frequency (47.2% as invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. We noted a significant linear trend (p in situ compared with atypical lobular hyperplasia. Invasive lobular carcinomas were associated with lobular carcinoma in situ in 33% of cases, compared with 2.8% of atypical lobular

  7. Polyclonal T-cells express CD1a in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH lesions.

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    Jennifer A West

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a complex and poorly understood disorder that has characteristics of both inflammatory and neoplastic disease. By using eight-colour flow cytometry, we have identified a previously unreported population of CD1a(+/CD3(+ T-cells in LCH lesions. The expression of CD1a is regarded as a hallmark of this disease; however, it has always been presumed that it was only expressed by pathogenic Langerhans cells (LCs. We have now detected CD1a expression by a range of T-cell subsets within all of the LCH lesions that were examined, establishing that CD1a expression in these lesions is no longer restricted to pathogenic LCs. The presence of CD1a(+ T-cells in all of the LCH lesions that we have studied to date warrants further investigation into their biological function to determine whether these cells are important in the pathogenesis of LCH.

  8. Cutaneous lesions as presentation form of mantle cell lymphoma

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    Nayra Merino de Paz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mantle cell lymphoma is a type of no-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects extranodal areas, especially, bone narrow, digestive tract and Waldeyer ring. Here we report a case of mantle cell lymphoma IV Ann Arbor stage with cutaneous lesions on nasal dorsum and gland as the first manifestations. Skin involvement is a very rare manifestation and less than 20 cases have been reported in the literature. The importance of stablishing multidisciplinary relationships for a global approach has been shown by this clinical case.

  9. Columnar apple tree named 'Moonlight'

    OpenAIRE

    Tupý, J. (Jaroslav); Louda, O. (Otto); Zima, J. (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    A new and distinct Malus domestica (Borkh.) apple tree variety is provided which exhibits a columnar tree type, weakly vigorous compact growth, predominant bearing on spurs and V.sub.f-resistance against scab. The new variety yields late maturing, medium-sized, globose-conical to conical fruits having good storage quality. The fruit color is yellow-green to yellow with a partial red to orange blush. The fruits have a yellow-colored firm flesh that is crisp and juicy with a good sweet/sour bal...

  10. Th17 Cells and Activated Dendritic Cells Are Increased in Vitiligo Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Moussai, Dariush; Gulati, Nicholas; Sullivan-Whalen, Mary; Gilleaudeau, Patricia; Cohen, Jules A.; Krueger, James G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, characterized by progressive skin de-pigmentation due to the loss of cutaneous melanocytes. The exact cause of melanocyte loss remains unclear, but a large number of observations have pointed to the important role of cellular immunity in vitiligo pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we characterized T cell and inflammation-related dermal dendritic cell (DC) subsets in pigmented non-lesional, leading edge and depigmented lesional vitiligo skin. By immunohistochemistry staining, we observed enhanced populations of CD11c+ myeloid dermal DCs and CD207+ Langerhans cells in leading edge vitiligo biopsies. DC-LAMP+ and CD1c+ sub-populations of dermal DCs expanded significantly in leading edge and lesional vitiligo skin. We also detected elevated tissue mRNA levels of IL-17A in leading edge skin biopsies of vitiligo patients, as well as IL-17A positive T cells by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Langerhans cells with activated inflammasomes were also noted in lesional vitiligo skin, along with increased IL-1ß mRNA, which suggest the potential of Langerhans cells to drive Th17 activation in vitiligo. Conclusions/Significance These studies provided direct tissue evidence that implicates active Th17 cells in vitiligo skin lesions. We characterized new cellular immune elements, in the active margins of vitiligo lesions (e.g. populations of epidermal and dermal dendritic cells subsets), which could potentially drive the inflammatory responses. PMID:21541348

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma presenting as an endodontic-periodontic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Paul A; Kim, David M; Harsfield, Scott L; Jacobson, Erica R

    2005-10-01

    Regardless of advances in diagnosis and treatment during the past 40 years, the overall 5-year survival rates for oral and oropharyngeal squamous cancers have only slightly improved and remain around 50%. Thus, the early diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma by health care providers are essential in achieving a good prognosis. We report a case of invasive squamous cell carcinoma that presented as a benign endodontic-periodontic lesion with a 7-mm periodontal pocket on tooth #15 in a 40-year-old, non-smoking woman. The subsequent management of the case is also discussed. The study was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Our patient was seen for a comprehensive periodontal examination including a periodontal charting, occlusal analysis, study casts, electronic pulp test for tooth #15, and complete mouth periapical radiographs. As there was a periapical radiolucency, an endodontic consultation was obtained. A periodontal flap surgical procedure was performed on teeth #13 to #15, and as there was bone erosion into the maxillary sinus, a biopsy of the soft tissue was submitted to the local hospital for histological analysis. The biopsied lesion was diagnosed as invasive, moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with focal spindle and clear cell differentiation (grade II to III of IV). Bone invasion was also identified. The treatment of the carcinoma involved a hemimaxillectomy with the removal of the maxillary left posterior teeth. The patient remained free of tumor for 5 years after the initial presentation. Patient education and periodic oral cancer examinations by dental professionals are necessary to reduce diagnostic delay and improve prognosis. This case report emphasizes the important role of dental professionals, especially periodontists and endodontists, of being aware that squamous cell carcinoma may manifest itself clinically and/or radiographically as a common periodontal or endodontic lesion.

  12. Yield surface evolution for columnar ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Shujuan; Mu, Yanhu; Zhao, Shunpin; Li, Guoyu

    A series of triaxial compression tests, which has capable of measuring the volumetric strain of the sample, were conducted on columnar ice. A new testing approach of probing the experimental yield surface was performed from a single sample in order to investigate yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice under complex stress states. Based on the characteristic of the volumetric strain, a new method of defined the multiaxial yield strengths of the columnar ice is proposed. The experimental yield surface remains elliptical shape in the stress space of effective stress versus mean stress. The effect of temperature, loading rate and loading path in the initial yield surface and deformation properties of the columnar ice were also studied. Subsequent yield surfaces of the columnar ice have been explored by using uniaxial and hydrostatic paths. The evolution of the subsequent yield surface exhibits significant path-dependent characteristics. The multiaxial hardening law of the columnar ice was established experimentally. A phenomenological yield criterion was presented for multiaxial yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice. The comparisons between the theoretical and measured results indicate that this current model is capable of giving a reasonable prediction for the multiaxial yield and post-yield properties of the columnar ice subjected to different temperature, loading rate and path conditions.

  13. Fish mucus alters the Flavobacterium columnare transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease which is caused by Flavobacterium columnare severely impacts the production of freshwater finfish species. Due to the impact on the aquaculture industry, research efforts to better understand the biological processes of F. columnare including the formation of biofilms and their co...

  14. Widespread osteolytic lesions of the long bones in basal cell nevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinder, G.; Barki, Y.; Bar-Ziv, J.; Pezt, M.

    1984-01-01

    Three members of a family, father, daughter, and son, with the basal cell nevus syndrome are presented. A very unusual manifestation of widespread cyst-like osteolytic lesions in all the tubular bones was observed in the father, together with osteoblastic spotty 'osteopoikilotic' lesions in the skull and the mandible of the same patient. Cyst-like osteolytic lesions have been described previously in this syndrome, mainly in the phalanges. We believe that such lesions can occur in any bone. (orig.)

  15. Attenuation of Red Blood Cell Storage Lesions with Vitamin C

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    Kimberly Sanford

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stored red blood cells (RBCs undergo oxidative stress that induces deleterious metabolic, structural, biochemical, and molecular changes collectively referred to as “storage lesions”. We hypothesized that vitamin C (VitC, reduced or oxidized would reduce red cell storage lesions, thus prolonging their storage duration. Whole-blood-derived, leuko-reduced, SAGM (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol-preserved RBC concentrates were equally divided into four pediatric storage bags and the following additions made: (1 saline (saline; (2 0.3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Lo VitC; (3 3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Hi VitC; or (4 0.3 mmol/L oxidized VitC (dehydroascorbic acid, DHA as final concentrations. Biochemical and rheological parameters were serially assessed at baseline (prior to supplementation and Days 7, 21, 42, and 56 for RBC VitC concentration, pH, osmotic fragility by mechanical fragility index, and percent hemolysis, LDH release, glutathione depletion, RBC membrane integrity by scanning electron microscopy, and Western blot for β-spectrin. VitC exposure (reduced and oxidized significantly increased RBC antioxidant status with varying dynamics and produced trends in reduction in osmotic fragility and increases in membrane integrity. Conclusion: VitC partially protects RBC from oxidative changes during storage. Combining VitC with other antioxidants has the potential to improve long-term storage of RBC.

  16. Tracing the origin of glomerular extracapillary lesions from parietal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Bart; Uhlig, Sandra; Fuss, Astrid; Mooren, Fieke; Wetzels, Jack F M; Floege, Jürgen; Moeller, Marcus J

    2009-12-01

    Cellular lesions form in Bowman's space in both crescentic glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy. The pathomechanism and origin of the proliferating cells in these lesions are unknown. In this study, we examined proliferating cells by lineage tracing of either podocytes or parietal epithelial cells (PECs) in the nephrotoxic nephritis model of inflammatory crescentic glomerulonephritis. In addition, we traced the fate of genetically labeled PECs in the Thy-1.1 transgenic mouse model of collapsing glomerulopathy. In both models, cellular bridges composed of PECs were observed between Bowman's capsule and the glomerular tuft. Genetically labeled PECs also populated larger, more advanced cellular lesions. In these lesions, we detected de novo expression of CD44 in activated PECs. In contrast, we rarely identified genetically labeled podocytes within the cellular lesions of crescentic glomerulonephritis. In conclusion, PECs constitute the majority of cells that compose early extracapillary proliferative lesions in both crescentic glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy, suggesting similar pathomechanisms in both diseases.

  17. Tracing the origin of glomerular extracapillary lesions from parietal epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Uhlig, S.; Fuss, A.; Mooren, F.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Floege, J.; Moeller, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Cellular lesions form in Bowman's space in both crescentic glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy. The pathomechanism and origin of the proliferating cells in these lesions are unknown. In this study, we examined proliferating cells by lineage tracing of either podocytes or parietal

  18. A supramolecular ''Double-cable'' structure with a 129{sub 44} helix in a columnar porphyrin-C{sub 60} dyad and its application in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chien-Lung [College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States); Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Hao-Jan; Van Horn, Ryan M.; Kulkarni, Rahul R.; Tsai, Chi-Chun; Gong, Xiong; Cheng, Stephen Z.D. [College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States); Hsu, Chain-Shu [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lotz, Bernard [Institut Charles Sadron, Strasbourg (France)

    2012-11-15

    A novel porphyrin-C{sub 60} dyad (PCD1) is designed and synthesized to investigate and manipulate the supramolecular structure where geometrically isotropic [such as [60]fullerene (C{sub 60})] and anisotropic [such as porphyrin (Por)] units coexist. It is observed that PCD1 possesses an enantiomeric phase behavior. The melting temperature of the stable PCD1 thermotropic phase is 160 C with a latent heat ({Delta}H) of 18.5 kJ mol{sup -1}. The phase formation is majorly driven by the cooperative intermolecular Por-Por and C{sub 60}-C{sub 60} interactions. Structural analysis reveals that this stable phase possesses a supramolecular ''double-cable'' structure with one p-type Por core columnar channel and three helical n-type C{sub 60} peripheral channels. These ''double-cable'' columns further pack into a hexagonal lattice with a = b = 4.65 nm, c = 41.3 nm, {alpha} = {beta} = 90 , and {gamma} = 120 . The column repeat unit is determined to possess a 129{sub 44} helix. With both donor (D; Pro) and acceptor (A; C{sub 60}) units having their own connecting channels as well as the large D/A interface within the supramolecular ''double-cable'' structure, PCD1 has photogenerated carriers with longer lifetimes compared to the conventional electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester. A phase-separated columnar morphology is observed in a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) material made by the physical blend of a low band-gap conjugated polymer, poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothia-diazole)] (PCPDTBT), and PCD1. With a specific phase structure in the solid state and in the blend, PCD1 is shown to be a promising candidate as a new electron acceptor in high performance BHJ polymer solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. X-irradiation-induced nuclear lesions in cultured mammaliam cells: an ultrastructural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barham, S.S.; Walters, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Electron-dense chromatin aggregates, hereafter referred to as lesions, have been characterized morphologically within interphase nuclei of Chinese hamster cells (line CHO) after a single acute exposure to 400, 800, 1200, or 2000 rad of x irradiation. At all doses studied, lesions were observed only after termination of radiation-induced division delay. Cell profiles were scored by electron microscopy for the presence or absence of nuclear lesions at various times after irradiation. The mitotic fraction from each irradiated population was also scored for each sample by light and electron microscopy. From these data and from simultaneous cell-density counts for each sample, it is apparent that postirradiation cell division is a prerequisite to formation of interphase nuclear lesions. Irradiated cell populations blocked in mitosis by Colcemid beyond the normal period of postirradiation division-delay failed to display nuclear lesions until after Colcemid was removed and cell division was completed. Enzyme digestions of isolated nuclei from irradiated cells with DNase I, RNase A, and Pronase suggest that the nuclear lesions are comprised primarily of chromatin. Nucleolar lesions, as well as various aberrant morphological forms of nucleoli, were also observed in cell populations after the onset of postirradiation cell division during the first 72 hr following exposure to irradiation. Delayed radiation-induced ultrastructural alterations of the nucleus included the formation of cytoplasmic invaginations into the nuclear space and inclusions of membranes within nuclei

  20. Exogenous activated NK cells enhance trafficking of endogenous NK cells to endometriotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Mary Lourdes; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Basse, Per H

    2015-08-29

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at ectopic locations. Although the prevalence of endometriosis is as high as 35%-50%, its pathogenesis remains controversial. An increasing number of studies suggest that changes in immune reactivity may be primarily involved in the development of endometriosis development. In this sense, it has been strongly suggested that a fundamental part of immunologic system, the natural killer cells (NK cells), are an important part of this process. NK cells, a component of the innate immune system, have been extensively studied for their ability to defend the organism against infections and malignancy. Recent studies have shown that IL-2-activated NK (A-NK) cells are able to attack and destroy tumors in lungs and livers of mice, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of these cells. Similarly to metastatic tumor cells, endometrial cells are able to adhere, infiltrate and proliferate at ectopic locations. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the ability of adoptively transferred and endogenous NK cells to infiltrate endometriosis lesions. As NK cells donors were used C57BL/6 B6. PL- Thy 1.1 female mice. As uterine horns donors were used C57/BL6+GFP female mice and as endometriosis recipients C57BL/6 Thy1.2 female mice. Endometriosis induction was made by injection of endometrial tissue fragments. After 4 weeks, necessary for endometriosis lesions establishment the animals were divided in 3 experimental groups with 10 animals each. Group 1 received i.v doses of 5x106 A-NK in 200μl RPMI; Group 2 received i.p dose of 5x106 A-NK in 200μl RPMI and Group 3 received i.p dose of IL2 (0.5 mL RPMI containing 5.000U of IL2). Our data show that exogenous A-NK cells injected via ip combined with endogenous A-NK cells seems to be the most efficient way for activated NK cells track and infiltrate endometriosis. For the first time, it was shown that both endogenous as exogenous A-NK cells are able to track

  1. Detection and repair of a UV-induced photosensitive lesion in the DNA of human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.A.; Regan, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation with UV light results in damage to the DNA of human cells. The most numerous lesions are pyrimidine dimers; however, other lesions are known to occur and may contribute to the overall deleterious effect of UV irradiation. The authors have observed evidence of a UV-induced lesion other than pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of human cells by measuring DNA strand breaks induced by irradiating with 313-nm light following UV (254-nm) irradiation. The data suggest that, in normal cells, the lesion responsible for this effect is rapidly repaired or altered; whereas, in xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells it seems to remain unchanged. Some change apparently occurs in the DNA of xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells which results in an increase in photolability. These data indicate a deficiency in DNA repair of xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells as well as in xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells. (Auth.)

  2. Evaluation of mast cell counts and microvessel density in reactive lesions of the oral cavity

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    Maryam Kouhsoltani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reliable immunohistochemical assays to assess the definitive role of mast cells (MCs and angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of oral reactive lesions are generally not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mast cell counts (MCC and microvessel density (MVD in oral reactive lesions and determine the correlation between MCC and MVD. Methods. Seventy-five cases of reactive lesions of the oral cavity, including pyogenic granuloma, fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, peripheral ossifying fibroma (15 for each category were immunohisto-chemically stained with MC tryptase and CD31. Fifteen cases of normal gingival tissue were considered as the control group. The mean MCC and MVD in superficial and deep connective tissues were assessed and total MCC and MVD was computed for each lesion. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed in MCC and MVD between the study groups (P < 0.001. MC tryptase and CD31 expression increased in the superficial connective tissue of each lesion in comparison to the deep con-nective tissue. A significant negative correlation was not found between MCC and MVD in oral reactive lesions (P < 0.001, r = -0.458. Conclusion. Although MCs were present in the reactive lesions of the oral cavity, a direct correlation between MCC and MVD was not found in these lesions. Therefore, a significant interaction between MCs and endothelial cells and an active role for MCs in the growth of oral reactive lesions was not found in this study.

  3. Rhesus monkey neural stem cell transplantation promotes neural regeneration in rats with hippocampal lesions

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    Li-juan Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkey neural stem cells are capable of differentiating into neurons and glial cells. Therefore, neural stem cell transplantation can be used to promote functional recovery of the nervous system. Rhesus monkey neural stem cells (1 × 105 cells/μL were injected into bilateral hippocampi of rats with hippocampal lesions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that green fluorescent protein-labeled transplanted cells survived and grew well. Transplanted cells were detected at the lesion site, but also in the nerve fiber-rich region of the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum. Some transplanted cells differentiated into neurons and glial cells clustering along the ventricular wall, and integrated into the recipient brain. Behavioral tests revealed that spatial learning and memory ability improved, indicating that rhesus monkey neural stem cells noticeably improve spatial learning and memory abilities in rats with hippocampal lesions.

  4. Wong-Type Dermatomyositis Showing Porokeratosis-Like Changes (Columnar Dyskeratosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Nicole Umanoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wong-type dermatomyositis (DM exhibits simultaneous pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP features. Case Report: A 50-year-old woman presented with a heliotrope rash, Gottron's papules, and a poikilodermic, erythematous rash in shawl distribution without evidence of muscle weakness. Despite topical corticosteroids, the eruption progressed 9 months later to include generalized hyperkeratotic follicular papules, islands of sparing, and atrophic macules with a collarette of scale suggestive of porokeratosis. Mild dysphonia was the only sign of muscle weakness. Serology showed positive ANA. Histopathology revealed interface dermatitis with dermal mucin and melanophages, irregular psoriasiform hyperplasia, alternating mounds of para- and orthokeratosis, and tiers of dyskeratotic cells (columnar dyskeratosis. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was not tolerated; acitretin diminished the hyperkeratosis. While hyperpigmentation persisted, no progression of cutaneous or muscular symptoms has occurred after 22 months of follow-up and cessation of the therapy. Overall, her course did not differ from the natural history documented in the literature review of Wong-type DM. The most similar case also exhibited pseudocornoid lamella changes. Conclusion: Wong-type DM is a clinicopathologic DM-PRP hybrid that can also exhibit porokeratosis-like features best described as columnar dyskeratosis. Recognizing these types of lesions in DM is warranted in order to make an accurate assessment of their prognostic significance.

  5. Immunoreactivity of cytokeratins 7 and 20 in goblet cells and columnar blue cells in patients with endoscopic evidence of Barrett's esophagus Imunoreatividade das citoqueratinas 7 e 20 nas células caliciformes e células colunares azuis em pacientes com evidência endoscópica de esôfago de Barrett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Cantarelli Jr.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Barrett's esophagus is characterized by the presence of goblet cells. However, when alcian-blue is utilized, another type of cells, called columnar blue cells, is frequently present in the distal esophagus of patients with endoscopic evidence of Barrett's esophagus. Cytokeratin 7 and 20 immunoreactivity has been previously studied in areas of intestinal metaplasia at the esophagogastric junction. However, the expression of these cytokeratins in columnar blue cells has not been characterized. OBJECTIVE: To compare the expression of cytokeratin 7 and 20 in goblet cells and columnar blue cells in patients with endoscopic evidence of Barrett's esophagus. METHODS: Biopsies from 86 patients with endoscopic evidence of Barrett's esophagus were evaluated. The biopsies were stained for cytokeratin 7 and 20. RESULTS: Goblet cells were present in 75 cases and columnar blue cells in 50 cases. Overall, cytokeratin 7 expression was similar in goblet cells and columnar blue cells (P = 0.25, while cytokeratin 20 was more common in goblet cells (P CONTEXTO: Esôfago de Barrett é caracterizado pela presença de células caliciformes. Entretanto, quando "alcian blue" é utilizado, outro tipo de células, chamadas células colunares azuis, estão frequentemente presentes no esôfago distal de pacientes com evidência endoscópica de esôfago de Barrett. A imunoreatividade das citoqueratinas 7 e 20 tem sido estudada previamente em áreas de metaplasia intestinal na junção esôfago-gástrica. Entretanto, a expressão destas citoqueratinas nas células colunares azuis não foi caracterizada. OBJETIVO: Comparar a expressão das citoqueratinas 7 e 20 nas células caliciformes e células colunares azuis em pacientes com evidência endoscópica de esôfago de Barrett. MÉTODOS: Biopsias de 86 pacientes com evidência endoscópica de esôfago de Barrett foram avaliadas. Estas foram coradas com citoqueratinas 7 e 20. RESULTADOS: Células caliciformes estavam

  6. Radioautographic visualization of differences in the pattern of [3H]uridine and [3H]orotic acid incorporation into the RNA of migrating columnar cells in the rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.; Altmann, G.G.; Leblond, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    The epithelium of rat small intestine was radioautographed to examine whether RNA is synthesized by the salvage pathway as shown after [ 3 H]uridine injection or by the de novo pathway as shown after [ 3 H]orotic acid injection. The two modes of RNA synthesis were thus investigated during the migration of columnar cells from crypt base to villus top, and the rate of synthesis was assessed by counting silver grains over the nucleolus and nucleoplasm at six levels along the duodenal epithelium - that is, in the base, mid, and top regions of the crypts and in the base, mid, and top regions of the villi. Concomitant biochemical analyses established that, after injection of either [5- 3 H]uridine or [5- 3 H]orotic acid: (a) buffered glutaraldehyde fixative was as effective as perchloric acid or trichloroacetic acid in insolubilizing the nucleic acids of rat small intestine; (b) a major fraction of the nucleic acid label was in RNA, that is, 91% after [ 3 H]uridine and 72% after [ 3 H]orotic acid, with the rest in DNA; and (c) a substantial fraction of the RNA label was in poly A + RNA (presumed to be messenger RNA). In radioautographs of duodenum prepared after [ 3 H]uridine injection, the count of silver grains was high over nucleolus and nucleoplasm in crypt base cells and gradually decreased at the upper levels up to the villus base. In the rest of the villus, the grain count over the nucleolus was negligible, while over the nucleoplasm it was low but significant

  7. Clustered DNA lesion repair in eukaryotes: Relevance to mutagenesis and cell survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, Evelyne [Institut Curie, Bat. 110, Centre Universitaire, 91405 Orsay (France); CNRS UMR3348, Bat. 110, Centre Universitaire, 91405 Orsay (France); Harrison, Lynn, E-mail: lclary@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, LSUHSC-S, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130 (United States)

    2011-06-03

    A clustered DNA lesion, also known as a multiply damaged site, is defined as {>=}2 damages in the DNA within 1-2 helical turns. Only ionizing radiation and certain chemicals introduce DNA damage in the genome in this non-random way. What is now clear is that the lethality of a damaging agent is not just related to the types of DNA lesions introduced, but also to how the damage is distributed in the DNA. Clustered DNA lesions were first hypothesized to exist in the 1990s, and work has progressed where these complex lesions have been characterized and measured in irradiated as well as in non-irradiated cells. A clustered lesion can consist of single as well as double strand breaks, base damage and abasic sites, and the damages can be situated on the same strand or opposing strands. They include tandem lesions, double strand break (DSB) clusters and non-DSB clusters, and base excision repair as well as the DSB repair pathways can be required to remove these complex lesions. Due to the plethora of oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation, and the repair proteins involved in their removal from the DNA, it has been necessary to study how repair systems handle these lesions using synthetic DNA damage. This review focuses on the repair process and mutagenic consequences of clustered lesions in yeast and mammalian cells. By examining the studies on synthetic clustered lesions, and the effects of low vs high LET radiation on mammalian cells or tissues, it is possible to extrapolate the potential biological relevance of these clustered lesions to the killing of tumor cells by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and to the risk of cancer in non-tumor cells, and this will be discussed.

  8. Recent results on some columnar paramagnetic metallomesogens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A broader view on some physical properties of columnar paramagnetic ... was evident by X-ray crystal structure determination in the solid state on a homologous ... leading to interfacial polarization as described for other LC materials before [9]. ... dodecyloxy tail on the phenyl rings) was described to exhibit a Colho phase ...

  9. Quantification and Localization of Mast Cells in Periapical Lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Oral Biology, Basic Dental. Sciences, Faculty of ... vessels and are especially prominent near skin, mucosa of the lungs, and ... population and growth factors associated with maintenance ... Materials and Methods: A total of 30 cases and out of which ... diseases, including periapical lesions, inflammatory reactions.

  10. Central giant cell lesion of the mandible in a 2-year old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Takaaki; Sue, Mikiko; Okada, Yasuo; Kanri, Yoriaki; Ono, Junya; Ogura, Ichiro [The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, Niigata (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    Central giant cell lesions are rare, benign, osteolytic, pseudocystic, solitary, localized lesions that are common in the skeletal structure, but less so in the maxillofacial region. Furthermore, to perform panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography, it is necessary to prepare patients properly and to position their heads carefully. However, this can be difficult in pediatric patients, who may be anxious. In this report, we describe the case of a central giant cell lesion of the mandible in a 2-year-old girl that was evaluated with multidetector computed tomography.

  11. GIANT CELL-RICH LESIONS OF BONE AND JOINTS: A ONE YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nithisa H

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Giant cell-rich lesions constitute a group of biologically and morphologically diverse bone and joint tumours. The common feature is presence of numerous multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells. However, they differ from each other by in terms of clinical and radiographic features and in many cases by their distinct morphological features. METHODS All the bone and joint specimens with giant cell-rich lesions received in the period of one year were studied along with clinical and radiological data available. Gross and microscopic findings were noted. RESULTS In a period of one year, 10 cases of giant cell-rich lesions of bone and joints have been studied, which were and correlated with clinical and radiological findings. Five were lesions from bone and two were from joints, which are chondroblastoma, chondromyxoid fibroma, osteoclastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, pigmented villonodular synovitis, giant cell lesion of tendon sheath, and tendinous xanthoma. CONCLUSION In the present study, variety of giant cell lesions of bone and joints are studied. Of which, the mean age in young patients being 20 years and in elderly patients being 50 years. The common site being lower end of femur.

  12. Increased number of mast cells in the dermis in actinic keratosis lesions effectively treated with imiquimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Satomi; Funasaka, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Shin-Ichi; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2017-08-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) is a cutaneous cancer in situ which develops as a result of excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV). Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 agonist imiquimod is a topical immune response modifier and is effective for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers. Recently, the diagnostic role of the dermatoscope has been reported in the course of treatment of AK. In addition, mast cells are now considered to contribute to both the innate and adaptive immune systems in topical imiquimod therapy. We assessed the effect of imiquimod treatment by dermatoscopic and immunohistochemical findings in 14 patients with a total of 21 AK lesions. With the dermatoscope, though the mean erythema score was not significantly different between the cured lesions and the unresponsive lesions, the erythema/red pseudo-network ("strawberry") pattern was decreased significantly in the cured lesions. By immunohistochemistry, the number of Ki-67-positive proliferative cells in the epidermis was decreased and that of CD117-positive mast cells in the dermis was increased in the responding lesions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that the number of mast cells in the dermis was increased in AK lesions effectively treated with imiquimod. Our present result suggests that mast cells may contribute an antitumor effect in human skin treated with topical imiquimod. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  13. Cat retinal ganglion cell receptive-field alterations after 6-hydroxydopamine induced dopaminergic amacrine cell lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, G.W.; Smith, E.L. III

    1985-01-01

    Optic tract single-unit recordings were used to study ganglion cell response functions of the intact cat eye after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioning of the dopaminergic amacrine cell (AC) population of the inner retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC was verified by high pressure-liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection of endogenous dopamine content and by [ 3 H]dopamine high-affinity uptake; the dopaminergic ACs of the treated eyes demonstrated reduced endogenous dopamine content and reduced [ 3 H]dopamine uptake compared with that of their matched controls. Normal appearing [ 3 H]GABA and [ 3 H]-glycine uptake in the treated retinas suggests the absence of any nonspecific action of the 6-OHDA on the neural retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC population was found to alter a number of response properties in off-center ganglion cells, but this impairment had only a modest effect on the on-center cells. An abnormally high proportion of the off-center ganglion cells in the 6-OHDA treated eyes possessed nonlinear, Y-type receptive fields. These cells also possessed shift-responses of greater than normal amplitude, altered intensity-response functions, reduced maintained activities, and more transient center responses. Of the on-center type cells, only the Y-type on-center cells were affected by 6-OHDA, possessing higher than normal maintained activities and altered intensity-response functions. The on-center X-cells were unaffected by 6-OHDA treatment. The dopaminergic AC of the photopically adapted cat retina therefore modulates a number of ganglion cell response properties and within the limits of this study is most prominent in off-center ganglion cell circuitry

  14. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...... associated with each grain. (c) 2005 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Biochemical Storage Lesions Occurring in Nonirradiated and Irradiated Red Blood Cells: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Adams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells undergo a series of biochemical fluctuations during 35–42-day storage period at 1°C to 6°C. The sodium/potassium pump is immobilised causing a decrease in intracellular potassium with an increase in cytoplasmic sodium levels, glucose levels decline, and acidosis occurs as a result of low pH levels. The frailty of stored erythrocytes triggers the formation of haemoglobin-containing microparticles and the release of cell-free haemoglobin which may add to transfusion difficulties. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress to band 3 structures, and other morphological and structural molecular changes also occur leading to spheroechinocytes and osmotic fragility. These changes that transpire in the red cells during the storage period are referred to as “storage lesions.” It is well documented that gamma irradiation exacerbates storage lesions and the reports of increased potassium levels leading to adverse reactions observed in neonates and infants have been of particular concern. There are, however, remarkably few systematic studies comparing the in vitro storage lesions of irradiated and nonirradiated red cell concentrates and it has been suggested that the impact of storage lesions on leucocyte reduced red blood cell concentrate (RBCC is incomplete. The review examines storage lesions in red blood cells and their adverse effects in reference to blood transfusion.

  16. Giant cell lesions with a Noonan-like phenotype: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancino, Claudia Marcela H; Gaião, Léonilson; Sant'Ana Filho, Manoel; Oliveira, Flavio Augusto Marsiaj

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a case of multiple giant cell lesions of the mandible that occurred in a 14-year-old girl with phenotypic characteristics associated with Noonan Syndrome (NS). NS is a dysmorphic disorder characterized by hypertelorism, short stature, congenital heart defects, short and webbed neck, skeletal anomalies, and bleeding diathesis. A 14-year-old girl with a previous diagnosis of NS (sporadic case) presented with multiple radiolucent lesions in the body and ramus of her mandible. In terms of clinical behavior and the described radiographic characteristics, giant cells lesions with Noonan-like phenotype can be considered a form of cherubism. Therefore, surgical intervention is not necessary, but radiographic follow-up and observation is very important during the control and gradual regression of the lesions.

  17. Myelin-specific T cells induce interleukin-1beta expression in lesion-reactive microglial-like cells in zones of axonal degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebing, Manuela; Nielsen, Helle H; Fenger, Christina D

    2016-01-01

    lesion-reactive CD11b(+) ramified microglia. These results suggest that myelin-specific T cells stimulate lesion-reactive microglial-like cells to produce IL-1β. These findings are relevant to understand the consequences of T-cell infiltration in white and gray matter lesions in patients with MS. GLIA...

  18. Giant cell lesion of the jaw as a presenting feature of Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Bridget P; Patel, Maya

    2018-05-30

    This is a case of a 20-year-old woman who presented with a left jaw mass which was resected and found to be a giant cell granuloma of the mandible. Her history and physical examination were suggestive for Noonan syndrome which was confirmed with genetic testing and the finding of a PTPN11 gene mutation which has rarely been associated with giant cell lesions of the jaw. Given her particular genetic mutation and the presence of a giant cell lesion, we present a case of Noonan-like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Relapsing tumefactive lesion in an adult with medulloblastoma previously treated with chemoradiotherapy and stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahta, Ali; Qu, Yan; Nastic, Denis; Sundstrom, Maria; Kim, Ryan Y; Saria, Marlon; Santagata, Sandro; Kesari, Santosh

    2012-04-01

    Herein, we present an adult case of medulloblastoma who received chemotherapy, radiation therapy and stem cell transplantation, and underwent multiple surgical resections for what were thought to be recurrences; however pathology confirmed a diagnosis of relapsing tumefactive lesions. This phenomenon seems to be a consequence of stem cell transplantation rather than a simple radiation treatment effect.

  20. Celiac lesion T cells recognize epitopes that cluster in regions of gliadins rich in proline residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentz-Hansen, Helene; McAdam, Stephen N; Molberg, Øyvind

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Celiac disease is a gluten-induced enteropathy that shows a strong association with HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8. Gluten-specific T cells, invariably restricted by DQ2 or DQ8, can be isolated from celiac lesions. Such gut-derived T cells have a preference for recognition of gluten that has...

  1. Rosuvastatin reduces atherosclerotic lesions and promotes progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marco R; Humboldt, Tim; Schäfer, Katrin; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2009-07-01

    Statins enhance incorporation of bone marrow-derived cells into experimental neointimal lesions. However, the contribution of progenitor cells to progression of spontaneous atherosclerotic plaques, and the possible modulatory role of statins in this process, remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of rosuvastatin (1 and 10mg/kg BW) and pravastatin (10mg/kg) on progenitor cell mobilisation, recruitment into atherosclerotic plaques, and lesion growth. Statins were administered over 8 weeks to apolipoprotein E knockout mice on atherogenic diet. In addition, mice were lethally irradiated, followed by transplantation of bone marrow from LacZ transgenic mice. Rosuvastatin reduced lesion area and intima-to-media ratio at the brachiocephalic artery compared to vehicle, while both parameters were not significantly altered by pravastatin. Rosuvastatin also augmented endothelialisation (P<0.05) and reduced the smooth muscle cells (SMC) content (P=0.042) of lesions. Numbers of c-kit, sca-1 and flk-1, sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells were significantly increased in rosuvastatin compared to control-treated mice, both in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. Similarly, the number of spleen-derived acLDL, lectin double-positive progenitor cells (P=0.001) and colony-forming units (P=0.0104) was significantly increased in mice treated with rosuvastatin compared to vehicle alone. In the bone marrow, increased Akt and p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation and upregulated SDF1alpha mRNA expression were observed. Importantly, rosuvastatin treatment also increased the plasma levels of c-kit ligand (P=0.003), and the number of c-kit-positive cells within atherosclerotic lesions (P=0.041). Our findings suggest that rosuvastatin reduces the size of atherosclerotic plaques, and this effect appears to involve progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment into vascular lesions.

  2. Proinsulin-expressing dendritic cells in type 2 neuropathic diabetic patients with and without foot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, Maria; Sambado, Luisa; Trevisiol, Enrica; Cacciatore, Matilde; Furlan, Anna; Stefani, Piero Maria; Seganfreddo, Elena; Durante, Elisabetta; Conte, Stefania; Della Bella, Silvia; Paccagnella, Agostino; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo

    2018-02-12

    Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and is frequently associated with foot ischemia and infection, but its pathogenesis is controversial. We hypothesized that proinsulin expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is a process relevant to this condition and could represent a link among hyperglycemia, nerve susceptibility, and diabetic foot lesions. We assessed proinsulin expression by using flow cytometry in dendritic cells from control participants and patients with type 2 diabetic with or without peripheral neuropathy or accompanied by diabetic foot. Among 32 non-neuropathic and 120 neuropathic patients with type 2 diabetic, we performed leg electromyography and found average sensory sural nerve conduction velocities of 48 ± 4 and 30 ± 4 m/s, respectively ( P foot lesions, and 39 had neuroischemic foot lesions (allux oximetry diabetic population, but not in nondiabetic participants, a progressively increasing level of peripheral blood dendritic cell proinsulin expression was detected, which directly correlated with circulating TNF-α levels ( P diabetes, proinsulin-expressing blood cells, possibly via their involvement in innate immunity, may play a role in diabetic peripheral neuropathy and foot lesions.-Sambataro, M., Sambado, L., Trevisiol, E., Cacciatore, M., Furlan, A., Stefani, P. M., Seganfreddo, E., Durante, E., Conte, S., Della Bella, S., Paccagnella, A., dei Tos, A. P. Proinsulin-expressing dendritic cells in type 2 neuropathic diabetic patients with and without foot lesions.

  3. Increased sensitivity of DNA damage response-deficient cells to stimulated microgravity-induced DNA lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    Full Text Available Microgravity is a major stress factor that astronauts have to face in space. In the past, the effects of microgravity on genomic DNA damage were studied, and it seems that the effect on genomic DNA depends on cell types and the length of exposure time to microgravity or simulated microgravity (SMG. In this study we used mouse embryonic stem (MES and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF cells to assess the effects of SMG on DNA lesions. To acquire the insight into potential mechanisms by which cells resist and/or adapt to SMG, we also included Rad9-deleted MES and Mdc1-deleted MEF cells in addition to wild type cells in this study. We observed significant SMG-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs in Rad9-/- MES and Mdc1-/- MEF cells but not in their corresponding wild type cells. A similar pattern of DNA single strand break or modifications was also observed in Rad9-/- MES. As the exposure to SMG was prolonged, Rad9-/- MES cells adapted to the SMG disturbance by reducing the induced DNA lesions. The induced DNA lesions in Rad9-/- MES were due to SMG-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS. Interestingly, Mdc1-/- MEF cells were only partially adapted to the SMG disturbance. That is, the induced DNA lesions were reduced over time, but did not return to the control level while ROS returned to a control level. In addition, ROS was only partially responsible for the induced DNA lesions in Mdc1-/- MEF cells. Taken together, these data suggest that SMG is a weak genomic DNA stress and can aggravate genomic instability in cells with DNA damage response (DDR defects.

  4. Modeling of columnar and equiaxed solidification of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, P.

    2005-12-01

    This work deals with the modelling of dendritic solidification in binary mixtures. Large scale phenomena are represented by volume averaging of the local conservation equations. This method allows to rigorously derive the partial differential equations of averaged fields and the closure problems associated to the deviations. Such problems can be resolved numerically on periodic cells, representative of dendritic structures, in order to give a precise evaluation of macroscopic transfer coefficients (Drag coefficients, exchange coefficients, diffusion-dispersion tensors...). The method had already been applied for a model of columnar dendritic mushy zone and it is extended to the case of equiaxed dendritic solidification, where solid grains can move. The two-phase flow is modelled with an Eulerian-Eulerian approach and the novelty is to account for the dispersion of solid velocity through the kinetic agitation of the particles. A coupling of the two models is proposed thanks to an original adaptation of the columnar model, allowing for undercooling calculation: a solid-liquid interfacial area density is introduced and calculated. At last, direct numerical simulations of crystal growth are proposed with a diffuse interface method for a representation of local phenomena. (author)

  5. Premalignant lesions skew spleen cell responses to immune modulation by adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielma, Silvana A; Klein, Richard L; Levingston, Corinne A; Young, M Rita I

    2013-05-01

    Obesity can promote a chronic inflammatory state and is associated with an increased risk for cancer. Since adipocytes can produce mediators that can regulate conventional immune cells, this study sought to determine if the presence of premalignant oral lesions would skew how immune cells respond to adipocyte-derived mediators to create an environment that may be more favorable for their progression toward cancer. While media conditioned by adipocytes stimulated normal spleen cell production of the T helper (Th) type-1 cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-12 and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM CSF), media from premalignant lesion cells either blocked or had no added affect on the adipocyte-stimulated Th1 cytokine production. In contrast, media conditioned by premalignant lesion cells exacerbated adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of the Th2 cytokines IL-10 and IL-13, although it did not further enhance the adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of IL-4 and TGF-β. The premalignant lesion environment also heightened the adipocyte-stimulated spleen cell production of the inflammatory mediators IL 1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-9, although it did not further increase the adipocyte-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). IL 17 production was unaffected by the adipocyte-derived mediators, but was synergistically triggered by adding media from premalignant lesion cells. These stimulatory effects on spleen cell production of Th2 and inflammatory mediators were not induced in the absence of media conditioned by adipocytes. In contrast, media conditioned by adipocytes did not stimulate production of predominantly monocyte-derived chemokine C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL)9, chemokine C-C motif ligand (CCL)3 or CCL4, although it stimulated production of CCL2 and the predominantly T cell-derived chemokine CCL5, which was the only chemokine whose production was further increased by media from premalignant lesions

  6. Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Preinvasive Tubal Lesions of Ovarian Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, G; Ouellet, V; Rahimi, K; Barres, V; Meunier, L; De Ladurantaye, M; Provencher, D; Mes-Masson, A M

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the ovarian serous carcinogenic process with tubal origin, we investigated the expression of stem cell markers in premalignant tubal lesions (serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or STIC). We found an increased stem cell marker density in the normal fallopian tube followed by a high CD117 and a low ALDH and CD44 expression in STICs raising the question of the role of the stem cell markers in the serous carcinogenic process.

  7. Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Preinvasive Tubal Lesions of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the ovarian serous carcinogenic process with tubal origin, we investigated the expression of stem cell markers in premalignant tubal lesions (serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or STIC. We found an increased stem cell marker density in the normal fallopian tube followed by a high CD117 and a low ALDH and CD44 expression in STICs raising the question of the role of the stem cell markers in the serous carcinogenic process.

  8. Spontaneous chromosome aberrations in cancer cells. Evidence of existence of hidden genetic lesions in genetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poryadkova-Luchnik, N.A.; Kuz'mina, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations spontaneously observed in cancer cells were quantitively studied under the effect of non-mutagenic (suboptimal temperature, low content of propilgallate and caffeine) and mutagenic (ionizing radiation) factors. Human larynx cancer cells during several years or gamma-irradiation were used to carry out experiments. The experiments linked with cloning of the initial population and investigation into chromosome aberrations in 22 clones demonstrated persuasively the occurrence of latent genetic lesions in cancer cells

  9. Anomalous columnar order of charged colloidal platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Anda, L.; Wensink, H. H.; Galindo, A.; Gil-Villegas, A.

    2012-01-01

    Monte Carlo computer simulations are carried out for a model system of like-charged colloidal platelets in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble (NpT). The aim is to elucidate the role of electrostatic interactions on the structure of synthetic clay systems at high particle densities. Short-range repulsions between particles are described by a suitable hard-core model representing a discotic particle. This potential is supplemented with an electrostatic potential based on a Yukawa model for the screened Coulombic potential between infinitely thin disklike macro-ions. The particle aspect-ratio and electrostatic parameters were chosen to mimic an aqueous dispersion of thin, like-charged, rigid colloidal platelets at finite salt concentration. An examination of the fluid phase diagram reveals a marked shift in the isotropic-nematic transition compared to the hard cut-sphere reference system. Several statistical functions, such as the pair correlation function for the center-of-mass coordinates and structure factor, are obtained to characterize the structural organization of the platelets phases. At low salinity and high osmotic pressure we observe anomalous hexagonal columnar structures characterized by interpenetrating columns with a typical intercolumnar distance corresponding to about half of that of a regular columnar phase. Increasing the ionic strength leads to the formation of glassy, disordered structures consisting of compact clusters of platelets stacked into finite-sized columns. These so-called "nematic columnar" structures have been recently observed in systems of charge-stabilized gibbsite platelets. Our findings are corroborated by an analysis of the static structure factor from a simple density functional theory.

  10. Inflammation in disseminated lesions: an analysis of CD4+, CD20+, CD68+, CD31+ and vW+ cells in non-ulcerated lesions of disseminated leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Santos Mendes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL differs from other clinical forms of the disease due to the presence of many non-ulcerated lesions (papules and nodules in non-contiguous areas of the body. We describe the histopathology of DL non-ulcerated lesions and the presence of CD4-, CD20-, CD68-, CD31- and von Willebrand factor (vW-positive cells in the inflamed area. We analysed eighteen biopsies from non-ulcerated lesions and quantified the inflamed areas and the expression of CD4, CD20, CD68, CD31 and vW using Image-Pro software (Media Cybernetics. Diffuse lymphoplasmacytic perivascular infiltrates were found in dermal skin. Inflammation was observed in 3-73% of the total biopsy area and showed a significant linear correlation with the number of vW+ vessels. The most common cells were CD68+ macrophages, CD20+ B-cells and CD4+ T-cells. A significant linear correlation between CD4+ and CD20+ cells and the size of the inflamed area was also found. Our findings show chronic inflammation in all DL non-ulcerated lesions predominantly formed by macrophages, plasmacytes and T and B-cells. As the inflamed area expanded, the number of granulomas and extent of the vascular framework increased. Thus, we demonstrate that vessels may have an important role in the clinical evolution of DL lesions.

  11. Paucity of natural killer and cytotoxic T cells in human neuromyelitis optica lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoun, Samira; Bridges, Leslie R.; Verkman, A. S.; Papadopoulos, Marios C.

    2013-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Most patients with neuromyelitis optica have circulating immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the astrocytic water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which are pathogenic. Anti-AQP4 IgG-mediated complement-dependent astrocyte toxicity is a key mechanism of central nervous system damage in neuromyelitis optica, but the role of natural killer and cytotoxic T cells is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether natural killer and cytotoxic T cells play a role in human neuromyelitis optica lesions. We immunostained four actively demyelinating lesions, obtained from patients with anti-AQP4 IgG positive neuromyelitis optica, for Granzyme B and Perforin. The inflammatory cells were perivascular neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages, with only occasional Granzyme B+ or Perforin + cells. Greater than 95% of inflamed vessels in each lesion had no surrounding Granzyme B+ or Perforin + cells. Granzyme B+ or Perforin+ cells were abundant in human spleen (positive control). Although natural killer cells produce central nervous system damage in mice injected with anti-AQP4 IgG, our findings here indicate that natural killer-mediated and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity are probably not involved in central nervous system damage in human neuromyelitis optica. PMID:23108041

  12. Intracranial non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as an isolated intraparenchymal lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaram, Smitha; Shackley, Fiona; Raghavan, Ashok [Western Bank, Sheffield Children' s Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Wharton, Stephen B. [University of Sheffield, Department of Neurosciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Western Bank, Sheffield Children' s Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Sheffield, Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the absence of cutaneous or other organ involvement is very rare. A Caucasian boy age 3 years 11 months presented with episodes of recurrent right-side seizures over 2 weeks. Brain CT and MR imaging showed a single enhancing left frontal lobe lesion. Stereotactic biopsy was performed and histological examination showed diffuse infiltrate of macrophages with foamy cytoplasm. Four months later there was recurrence of seizure activity despite anti-epileptic medication and a repeat MR scan showed a persistent enhancing lesion in the left frontal lobe. Histological examination of the resection specimen resembled juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) involving the central nervous system. In the absence of skin lesions a diagnosis of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis was made. The child made a full recovery following surgery with resolution of his symptoms. (orig.)

  13. Immunohistochemical characterization of endometriosis-associated smooth muscle cells in human peritoneal endometriotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena de Arellano, Maria L; Gericke, Jessica; Reichelt, Uta; Okuducu, Ali Fuat; Ebert, Andreas D; Chiantera, Vito; Schneider, Achim; Mechsner, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMC) are common components of endometriotic lesions. SMC have been characterized previously in peritoneal, ovarian and deep infiltrating endometriotic lesions and adenomyosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the extent of differentiation in endometriosis-associated SMC (EMaSMC) in peritoneal endometriotic lesions. We obtained biopsies from peritoneal endometriotic lesions (n = 60) and peritoneal sites distant from the endometriotic lesion (n = 60), as well as healthy peritoneum from patients without endometriosis (control tissue, n = 10). These controls were hysterectomy specimens from patients without endometriosis or adenomyosis. Histopathological examination of peritoneal specimens using antibodies against oxytocin receptor (OTR), vasopressin receptor (VPR), smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC), estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) was performed. To identify SMC and their level of differentiation, antibodies for smooth muscle actin desmin and caldesmon were used. SMC were detected in all endometriotic lesions. SMC were more abundant in unaffected peritoneum of women with endometriosis (38%) compared with women without endometriosis (6%; P endometriosis.

  14. Vortex trapping by tilted columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladie, I.; Buzdin, A.

    2000-01-01

    The irradiation of high-T c superconductors by inclined heavy-ion beam can create columnar defects (CD's) practically at any angle towards the crystal c axis. We calculate the energy of a tilted vortex trapped on an inclined columnar defect within the framework of an electromagnetic model. Under a weak perpendicular magnetic field, and if the CD radius is larger than the superconducting coherence length, vortices always prefer to be on a tilted CD than to be aligned along the external field. We calculate also the interaction energy between two tilted vortices and find that large attractive regions appear. In particular, in the plane defined by c axis and the CD axis, tilted vortices attract each other at long distances, leading to the formation of vortex chains. The equilibrium distance between vortices in a chain is of the order of the magnitude of the in-plane London penetration depth. The existence of the inclined trapped vortices could be revealed by torque measurements, and could also lead to the anisotropy of the in-plane resistivity and the critical current

  15. Multiple giant cell lesions in a patient with Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk; Schreuder, Willem Hans; Jongmans, Marjolijn; van Bommel-Slee, Danielle; Witsenburg, Bart; de Lange, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A patient with Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) and multiple giant cell lesions (MGCL) in mandibles and maxillae is described. A mutation p.Thr468Met in the PTPN11-gene was found. This is the second reported NSML patient with MGCL. Our case adds to the assumption that, despite a

  16. Lesion-induced increase in survival and migration of human neural progenitor cells releasing GDNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Soshana; Ebert, Allison D.; Klein, Sandra; Schmitt, Melanie; Moore, Jeannette M.; Svendsen, Clive N.

    2009-01-01

    The use of human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) has been proposed to provide neuronal replacement or astrocytes delivering growth factors for brain disorders such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease. Success in such studies likely requires migration from the site of transplantation and integration into host tissue in the face of ongoing damage. In the current study, hNPC modified to release glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (hNPCGDNF) were transplanted into either intact or lesioned animals. GDNF release itself had no effect on the survival, migration or differentiation of the cells. The most robust migration and survival was found using a direct lesion of striatum (Huntington’s model) with indirect lesions of the dopamine system (Parkinson’s model) or intact animals showing successively less migration and survival. No lesion affected differentiation patterns. We conclude that the type of brain injury dictates migration and integration of hNPC which has important consequences when considering transplantation of these cells as a therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19044202

  17. Apoptosis in oral epithelial dysplastic lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma: A prognostic marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetha Nambiar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apoptotic index (AI using light microscopy as an indirect measure to assess the significance of apoptosis as a proliferative marker in dysplastic lesions and malignant epithelial lesions of the oral cavity. Aims: (1 To quantify the apoptotic bodies/cells in oral epithelial dysplastic (OED lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. (2 To measure AI in OED and OSCC. (3 To compare AI in OED and OSCC. Settings and Design: The proposed laboratory-based retrospective study involved the use of hematoxylin and eosin (H and E-stained slides of previously diagnosed OED lesions and OSCC from institutional archives. Materials and Methods: This study constituted 50 cases, each of H and E-stained slides of previously diagnosed cases of OED and OSCC. AI was calculated as the number of apoptotic bodies/cells expressed as a percentage of the total number of nonapoptotic tumor/dysplastic cells counted in each case. Statistical Analysis Used: Nonparametric tests such as Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney test were used. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in AI from OED to OSCC (P = 0.000. Conclusions: Further studies need to be undertaken to detect and understand the apoptotic mechanisms in the progression from OED to OSCC.

  18. Decreased Regulatory T Cells in Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Lesions: Imbalance between Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cells in Atherosclerosis

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    Ilonka Rohm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall in which presentation of autoantigens by dendritic cells (DCs leads to the activation of T cells. Anti-inflammatory cells like Tregs counterbalance inflammation in atherogenesis. In our study, human carotid plaque specimens were classified as stable (14 and unstable (15 according to established morphological criteria. Vessel specimens (n=12 without any signs of atherosclerosis were used as controls. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect different types of DCs (S100, fascin, CD83, CD209, CD304, and CD123, proinflammatory T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD161, and anti-inflammatory Tregs (FoxP3. The following results were observed: in unstable lesions, significantly higher numbers of proinflammatory cells like DCs, T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, and natural killer cells were detected compared to stable plaques. Additionally, there was a significantly higher expression of HLA-DR and more T cell activation (CD25, CD69 in unstable lesions. On the contrary, unstable lesions contained significantly lower numbers of Tregs. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between myeloid DCs and Tregs was shown. These data suggest an increased inflammatory state in vulnerable plaques resulting from an imbalance of the frequency of local pro- and anti-inflammatory immune cells.

  19. Oral plasma cell granuloma: A case report of an ambiguous lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manveen Kaur Jawanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell granuloma (PCG is a rare reactive tumor such as proliferation composed chiefly of plasmacytic infiltrate. Both clinically and histopathologically, it may be misinterpreted as various pathological entities thus necessitating the complete evaluation of patient and proper histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue to rule out other lesions with poor prognosis. Here, we present a case of PCG of gingiva in a female patient masquerading as pyogenic granuloma clinically and plasma cell neoplasms histopathologically.

  20. Evaluation of Mast Cell and Blood Vessel Density in Inflammatory Periapical Lesions

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    Safoura Seifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radicular cystsand periapical granulomas are the most common periapical inflammatory lesions. However, the role of cellular immunity and microvessels in their pathogenesis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mast cell density (MCD, mircovessel density (MVD and investigating the correlation between their densities with each other in the above mentioned lesions.Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 40 paraffin blocks of mentioned lesions were selected from achieves of School of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences. Three sections were prepared from each block and stained by hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue, and immunohistochemically for CD34 to determine the score of inflammation, presence of mast cells and degranulatedmast cells (DMCs, and MVD, respectively. The correlation between MCD and either inflammatory infiltrate or MVD was evaluated. Data analyzed by t student, Mann-Whitney and Spearman test.Results: Mast cells were present in all periapical inflammatory lesions; 15.4±14.8 for MCD, 7.2±6.1 for DMCs, and the ratio of DMCs to total number of MCs was 0.354±0.166 and 14.8+4.44 for blood vessel density in radicular cyst and 8.52±6.75, 2.91±2.1, 0.196±0.194 and 13±8.02 in periapical granulomas, respectively. There was a positive correlation between MCD and MVD in radicular cyst (P=0.03, r=0.341, but not in periapical granulomas (P=0.6, r=0.124. MCD and MVD increased with the score of inflammation in radicular cyst (P=0.001, r=0.7 and periapical granuloma (P=0.012, r=0.54.Conclusion: Mast cells and microvessels play a role in pathogenesis of periapical inflammatory lesions. In this study, the density of mast cells and DMCs in radicular cyst was higher than periapical granulomas, but no difference was observed regarding MVD in periapical inflammatory lesions. It seems that the relationship between MCD and MVD is different based on the clinical stage of periapical

  1. Medial Entorhinal Cortex Lesions Only Partially Disrupt Hippocampal Place Cells and Hippocampus-Dependent Place Memory

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    Jena B. Hales

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex provides the primary cortical projections to the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for memory. However, it remains unclear how the precise firing patterns of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC cells influence hippocampal physiology and hippocampus-dependent behavior. We found that complete bilateral lesions of the MEC resulted in a lower proportion of active hippocampal cells. The remaining active cells had place fields, but with decreased spatial precision and decreased long-term spatial stability. In addition, MEC rats were as impaired in the water maze as hippocampus rats, while rats with combined MEC and hippocampal lesions had an even greater deficit. However, MEC rats were not impaired on other hippocampus-dependent tasks, including those in which an object location or context was remembered. Thus, the MEC is not necessary for all types of spatial coding or for all types of hippocampus-dependent memory, but it is necessary for the normal acquisition of place memory.

  2. Human Langerhans Cells with Pro-inflammatory Features Relocate within Psoriasis Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsmo, Liv; Martini, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease that presents with well-demarcated patches of inflammation. Recurrent disease in fixed areas of the skin indicates a localized disease memory that is preserved in resolved lesions. In line with such concept, the involvement of tissue-resident immune cells in psoriasis pathology is increasingly appreciated. Langerhans cells (LCs) are perfectly placed to steer resident T cells and local tissue responses in psoriasis. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge of LCs in human psoriasis, including findings that highlight pro-inflammatory features of LCs in psoriasis lesions. We also review the literature on conflicting data regarding LC localization and functionality in psoriasis. Our review highlights that further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that drive LCs functionality in inflammatory diseases. PMID:29520279

  3. Identification of potentially cytotoxic lesions induced by UVA photoactivation of DNA 4-thiothymidine in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reelfs, Olivier; Macpherson, Peter; Ren, Xiaolin; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Karran, Peter; Young, Antony R.

    2011-01-01

    Photochemotherapy—in which a photosensitizing drug is combined with ultraviolet or visible radiation—has proven therapeutic effectiveness. Existing approaches have drawbacks, however, and there is a clinical need to develop alternatives offering improved target cell selectivity. DNA substitution by 4-thiothymidine (S4TdR) sensitizes cells to killing by ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. Here, we demonstrate that UVA photoactivation of DNA S4TdR does not generate reactive oxygen or cause direct DNA breakage and is only minimally mutagenic. In an organotypic human skin model, UVA penetration is sufficiently robust to kill S4TdR-photosensitized epidermal cells. We have investigated the DNA lesions responsible for toxicity. Although thymidine is the predominant UVA photoproduct of S4TdR in dilute solution, more complex lesions are formed when S4TdR-containing oligonucleotides are irradiated. One of these, a thietane/S5-(6-4)T:T, is structurally related to the (6-4) pyrimidine:pyrimidone [(6-4) Py:Py] photoproducts induced by UVB/C radiation. These lesions are detectable in DNA from S4TdR/UVA-treated cells and are excised from DNA more efficiently by keratinocytes than by leukaemia cells. UVA irradiation also induces DNA interstrand crosslinking of S4TdR-containing duplex oligonucleotides. Cells defective in repairing (6-4) Py:Py DNA adducts or processing DNA crosslinks are extremely sensitive to S4TdR/UVA indicating that these lesions contribute significantly to S4TdR/UVA cytotoxicity. PMID:21890905

  4. OCT4 and SOX2 are reliable markers in detecting stem cells in odontogenic lesions

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    Abhishek Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context (Background: Stem cells are a unique subpopulation of cells in the human body with a capacity to initiate differentiation into various cell lines. Tumor stem cells (TSCs are a unique subpopulation of cells that possess the ability to initiate a neoplasm and sustain self-renewal. Epithelial stem cell (ESC markers such as octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 and sex-determining region Y (SRY-box 2 (SOX2 are capable of identifying these stem cells expressed during the early stages of tooth development. Aims: To detect the expression of the stem cell markers OCT4 and SOX2 in the normal odontogenic tissues and the odontogenic cysts and tumors. Materials and Methods: Paraffin sections of follicular tissue, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, and ameloblastic carcinoma were obtained from the archives. The sections were subjected to immunohistochemical assay by the use of mouse monoclonal antibodies to OCT4 and SOX2. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Results: The results show the presence of stem cells in the normal and lesional tissues with these stem cell identifying markers. SOX2 was found to be more consistent and reliable in the detection of stem cells. Conclusion: The stem cell expressions are maintained in the tumor transformation of tissue and probably suggest that there is no phenotypic change of stem cells in progression from normal embryonic state to its tumor component. The quantification and localization reveals interesting trends that indicate the probable role of the cells in the pathogenesis of the lesions.

  5. Immunohistochemical/histochemical double staining method in the study of the columnar metaplasia of the oesophagus

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    D. Cabibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus (BO represents an important risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Instead, few and controversial data are reported about the progression risk of columnar-lined oesophagus without intestinal metaplasia (CLO, posing an issue about its clinical management. The aim was to evaluate if some immunophenotypic changes were present in CLO independently of the presence of the goblet cells. We studied a series of oesophageal biopsies from patients with endoscopic finding of columnar metaplasia, by performing some immunohistochemical stainings (CK7, p53, AuroraA combined with histochemistry (Alcian-blue and Alcian/PAS, with the aim of simultaneously assess the histochemical features in cells that shows an aberrant expression of such antigens. We evidenced a cytoplasmic expression of CK7 and a nuclear expression of Aurora A and p53,  both in goblet cells of BO and in non-goblet cells of CLO, some of which showing mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that some immunophenotypic changes are present in CLO and they can precede the appearance of the goblet cells or can be present independently of them, confirming the conception of BO as the condition characterized by any extention of columnar epithelium. This is the first study in which a combined immunohistochemical/histochemical method has been applied to Barrett pathology.

  6. CT bronchus sign in malignant solitary pulmonary lesions: value in the prediction of cell type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.A.; Kim, J.H.; Hong, K.T.; Kim, H.S.; Oh, Y.W.; Kang, E.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the prevalence of patterns of CT bronchus sign in malignant solitary pulmonary lesions (SPLs), according to their histologic cell types and with respect to size, location, and degree of cell differentiation. Computed tomography scans of 78 patients, in whom pathologically confirmed malignant SPLs with CT bronchus sign were present, were randomly selected and reviewed by two radiologists under consensus. All 78 were CT scans done using spiral technique with 10-mm collimation and 10-mm reconstruction intervals with enhancement, and 75 included additional high-resolution CT scans. Lesions were classified into four cell types as squamous cell carcinoma (n=24), small cell carcinoma (n=12), adenocarcinoma (n=23), bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC; n=9), and others (n=12), into three degrees of differentiation, into three size groups, and according to location (central or peripheral). Patterns of CT bronchus sign were classified into abruptly obstructing (I), patent (II), displacing (III), or tapered narrowing (IV) types. The relationships between the patterns of CT bronchus sign and cell type and degree of cell differentiation were evaluated. Eighty patterns of CT bronchus sign were observed in 78 patients. According to cell type, squamous cell carcinoma showed most often type-I pattern (45.8%) but no type-II pattern, which was the most common pattern observed in BAC (77.8%) and adenocarcinoma (34.8%; p<0.01). Small cell carcinoma showed a varied distribution among the four patterns of CT bronchus sign. According to location, in central squamous cell carcinomas, type-I pattern was more common(55%; p<0.01). Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma showed more peripheral lesions and in both central and peripheral lesions, type-II pattern was significantly more common (100 and 66.7%; p<0.01). In SPLs with CT bronchus sign of obstructing pattern, especially if central location, squamous cell carcinoma should be suspected, whereas in

  7. [Oral squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus vs. lichenoid lesions. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Pedraza, Lilly; Fernández-Cuevas, Laura; Ruelas-Villavicencio, Ana Lilia; Guerrero-Ramos, Brenda; Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Milke-García, María Pilar; Méndez-Flores, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The development of squamous cell carcinoma from oral lichen planus is controversial. We report a case of intraoral squamous cell carcinoma, which presents together with lesions of oral lichen planus. The aim of this report was to analyze the problem to distinguish between the incipient changes of squamous cell carcinoma from the features described in oral lichen planus, in order to establish an accurate diagnosis of both entities. A 57-year old man with a history of smoking and chronic alcohol intake, who had an ulcerated tumor mass located in the tongue, and bilateral white reticular patches on buccal mucosa and borders of the tongue. The histopathological report was moderately differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus respectively. The premalignant nature of OLP is still indeterminate and controversial, this is primarily due to inconsistency in the clinical and histological diagnostic criteria used to differentiate cases of oral lichen planus from lichenoid reactions or other lesions causing intraepithelial dysplasia with high potentially malignant transformation. Oral lichenoid reactions are possibly most likely to develop malignant transformation as compared to the classic OLP lesions.

  8. Branchial lesions associated with abundant apoptotic cells in oysters Ostrea edulis of Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirella da Silva, P; Villalba, Antonio; Sunila, Inke

    2006-06-12

    An experiment to evaluate differences in growth, mortality and disease susceptibility among Ostrea edulis stocks was performed. Five families were produced from each of 4 oyster populations (Irish, Greek and 2 Galician). The spat were transferred to a raft in the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, Spain) for grow-out. Monthly samples of each family were histologically processed from 2001 to 2003. One of the pathological conditions discovered by this study was the occurrence of extensive branchial lesions characterized by haemocytic infiltration and loss of branchial architecture. Furthermore, abundant atypical cells occurred among the haemocytes in the lesions in the branchial connective and epithelial tissues, but rarely in the mantle. These cells were contracted in size with nuclei showing chromatin condensation and fragmentation. Some nuclear chromatin aggregated under the nuclear membranes into crescent shapes, whereas others were uniformly dense. Those characteristics suggested that the cells were apoptotic haemocytes, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay using the Apoptag Kit on paraffin sections. A low prevalence of gill lesions was detected in some, but not all, families of every origin peaking in July 2002 and April 2003. No etiologic agent was identified by either histology or TEM; thus, the cause of the abundance of apoptotic cells remains unclear.

  9. Renal progenitor cells contribute to hyperplastic lesions of podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Bart; Angelotti, Maria Lucia; Rizzo, Paola; Dijkman, Henry; Lazzeri, Elena; Mooren, Fieke; Ballerini, Lara; Parente, Eliana; Sagrinati, Costanza; Mazzinghi, Benedetta; Ronconi, Elisa; Becherucci, Francesca; Benigni, Ariela; Steenbergen, Eric; Lasagni, Laura; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Wetzels, Jack; Romagnani, Paola

    2009-12-01

    Glomerular injury can involve excessive proliferation of glomerular epithelial cells, resulting in crescent formation and obliteration of Bowman's space. The origin of these hyperplastic epithelial cells in different glomerular disorders is controversial. Renal progenitors localized to the inner surface of Bowman's capsule can regenerate podocytes, but whether dysregulated proliferation of these progenitors contributes to crescent formation is unknown. In this study, we used confocal microscopy, laser capture microdissection, and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR to demonstrate that hypercellular lesions of different podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis consist of three distinct populations: CD133(+)CD24(+)podocalyxin (PDX)(-)nestin(-) renal progenitors, CD133(+)CD24(+)PDX(+)nestin(+) transitional cells, and CD133(-)CD24(-)PDX(+)nestin(+) differentiated podocytes. In addition, TGF-beta induced CD133(+)CD24(+) progenitors to produce extracellular matrix, and these were the only cells to express the proliferation marker Ki67. Taken together, these results suggest that glomerular hyperplastic lesions derive from the proliferation of renal progenitors at different stages of their differentiation toward mature podocytes, providing an explanation for the pathogenesis of hyperplastic lesions in podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis.

  10. Diospyros lotus leaf and grapefruit stem extract synergistically ameliorate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion in mice by suppressing infiltration of mast cells in skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong Hua; Shin, Jae Young; Jang, Seon Il

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis, a chronic relapsing and pruritic inflammation of the skin also thought to be involved in, or caused by immune system destruction is an upsetting health problem due to its continuously increasing incidence especially in developed countries. Mast cell infiltration in atopic dermatitis skin lesions and its IgE-mediated activation releases various cytokines and chemokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This study was aimed at investigating synergistic anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic and anti-atopic dermatitis effects of Diospyros lotus leaf extract (DLE) and Muscat bailey A grapefruit stem extract (GFSE) in atopic dermatitis-like induced skin lesions in mice. Combinations of DLE and GFSE inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 production more than DLE or GFSE in PMA plus calcium ionophore A23187-activated HMC-1 cells. DLE and GFSE synergistically inhibited compound 48/80-induced dermal infiltration of mast cells and reduced scratching behavior than DLE or GFSE. Furthermore, DLE and GFSE synergistically showed a stronger ameliorative effect in skin lesions by reducing clinical scores; dermal infiltration of mast cells; ear and dorsal skin thickness; serum IgE and IL-4 production in atopic dermatitis-like mice. Collectively, these results suggest that DLE and GFSE synergistically exhibit anti-atopic dermatitis effects in atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. The Vitamin D Analogue Calcipotriol Reduces the Frequency of CD8+IL-17+ T Cells in Psoriasis Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyring-Andersen, B; Bonefeld, C M; Bzorek, M

    2015-01-01

    (+) T cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILC) and their production of IL-17A, IFN-γ and IL-22 in psoriasis lesions in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Eighteen patients with psoriasis were included, and two similar psoriasis lesions were chosen for each patient. One lesion was treated......The vitamin D analogue calcipotriol is an immunomodulatory drug widely used to treat psoriasis; however, how calcipotriol affects the immune cells in psoriasis lesions is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcipotriol on the frequency of CD4(+) and CD8...... with calcipotriol (50 μg/g) and the other with vehicle twice a day for 14 days. The clinical effect was measured by degree of erythema, scaling and induration in each lesion (SUM score). Skin biopsies were collected for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Skin-derived cells were isolated and analysed...

  12. Mast cell heterogeneity and anti-inflammatory annexin A1 expression in leprosy skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Maurício B; Mimura, Kallyne K O; Freitas, Aline A; Hungria, Emerith M; Sousa, Ana Lúcia O M; Oliani, Sonia M; Stefani, Mariane M A

    2018-03-29

    Mast cells (MCs) have important immunoregulatory roles in skin inflammation. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory protein that can be expressed by mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, epithelial and T cells. This study investigated MCs heterogeneity and ANXA1 expression in human dermatoses with special emphasis in leprosy. Sixty one skin biopsies from 2 groups were investigated: 40 newly diagnosed untreated leprosy patients (18 reaction-free, 11 type 1 reaction/T1R, 11 type 2 reaction/T2R); 21 patients with other dermatoses. Tryptase/try+ and chymase/chy + phenotypic markers and toluidine blue stained intact/degranulated MC counts/mm 2 were evaluated. Try + /chy + MCs and ANXA1 were identified by streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunostaining and density was reported. In leprosy, degranulated MCs outnumbered intact ones regardless of the leprosy form (from tuberculoid/TT to lepromatous/LL), leprosy reactions (reactional/reaction-free) and type of reaction (T1R/T2R). Compared to other dermatoses, leprosy skin lesions showed lower numbers of degranulated and intact MCs. Try + MCs outnumbered chy + in leprosy lesions (reaction-free/reactional, particularly in T2R), but not in other dermatoses. Compared to other dermatoses, ANXA1 expression, which is also expressed in mast cells, was higher in the epidermis of leprosy skin lesions, independently of reactional episode. In leprosy, higher MC degranulation and differential expression of try + /chy + subsets independent of leprosy type and reaction suggest that the Mycobacterium leprae infection itself dictates the inflammatory MCs activation in skin lesions. Higher expression of ANXA1 in leprosy suggests its potential anti-inflammatory role to maintain homeostasis preventing tissue and nerve damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Computer-aided vaccine designing approach against fish pathogens Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare using bioinformatics softwares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendran R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Radha Mahendran,1 Suganya Jeyabaskar,1 Gayathri Sitharaman,1 Rajamani Dinakaran Michael,2 Agnal Vincent Paul1 1Department of Bioinformatics, 2Centre for Fish Immunology, School of Life Sciences, Vels University, Pallavaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare are two important intracellular pathogenic bacteria that cause the infectious diseases edwardsiellosis and columnaris in wild and cultured fish. Prediction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC binding is an important issue in T-cell epitope prediction. In a healthy immune system, the T-cells must recognize epitopes and induce the immune response. In this study, T-cell epitopes were predicted by using in silico immunoinformatics approach with the help of bioinformatics tools that are less expensive and are not time consuming. Such identification of binding interaction between peptides and MHC alleles aids in the discovery of new peptide vaccines. We have reported the potential peptides chosen from the outer membrane proteins (OMPs of E. tarda and F. columnare, which interact well with MHC class I alleles. OMPs from E. tarda and F. columnare were selected and analyzed based on their antigenic and immunogenic properties. The OMPs of the genes TolC and FCOL_04620, respectively, from E. tarda and F. columnare were taken for study. Finally, two epitopes from the OMP of E. tarda exhibited excellent protein–peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Five epitopes from the OMP of F. columnare had good protein–peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Further in vitro studies can aid in the development of potential peptide vaccines using the predicted peptides. Keywords: E. tarda, F. columnare, edwardsiellosis, columnaris, T-cell epitopes, MHC class I, peptide vaccine, outer membrane proteins 

  14. Effect of inner and outer hair cell lesions on electrically evoked otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, S; Ding, D; Sun, W; Salvi, R

    2001-08-01

    When the cochlea is stimulated by a sinusoidal current, the inner ear emits an acoustic signal at the stimulus frequency, termed the electrically evoked otoacoustic emission (EEOAE). Recent studies have found EEOAEs in birds lacking outer hair cells (OHCs), raising the possibility that other types of hair cells, including inner hair cells (IHCs), may generate EEOAEs. To determine the relative contribution of IHCs and OHCs to the generation of the EEOAE, we measured the amplitude of EEOAEs, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), the cochlear microphonic (CM) and the compound action potential (CAP) in normal chinchillas and chinchillas with IHC lesions or IHC plus OHC lesions induced by carboplatin. Selective IHC loss had little or no effect on CM amplitude and caused a slight reduction in mean DPOAE amplitude. However, IHC loss resulted in a massive reduction in CAP amplitude. Importantly, selective IHC lesions did not reduce EEOAE amplitude, but instead, EEOAE amplitude increased at high frequencies. When both IHCs and OHCs were destroyed, the amplitude of the CM, DPOAE and EEOAE all decreased. The increase in EEOAE amplitude seen with IHC loss may be due to (1) loss of tonic efferent activity to the OHCs, (2) change in the mechanical properties of the cochlea or (3) elimination of EEOAEs produced by IHCs in phase opposition to those from OHCs.

  15. Role of DNA lesions and repair in the transformation of human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Results of studies on the transformation of diploid human fibroblasts in culture into tumor-forming cells by exposure to chemical carcinogens or radiation indicate that such transformation is multi-stepped process that at least one step, acquisition of anchorage independence, occurs as a mutagenic event. Studies comparing normal-repairing human cells with DNA repair-deficient cells, such as those derived from cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum patients, indicate that excision repair in human fibroblasts is essentially an error-free process that the ability to excise potentially cytotoxic, mutagenic, or transforming lesions induced DNA by carcinogens determines their ultimate biological consequences. Cells deficient in excision repair are abnormally sensitive to these agents. Studies with cells treated at various times in the cell cycle show that there is a certain limited amount of time available for DNA repair between the initial exposure and the onset of the cellular event responsible for mutation induction and transformation to anchorage independence. The data suggest that DNA replication on a template containing unexcised lesions (photoproducts, adducts) is the critical event

  16. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from an Oral Lichenoid Lesion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghavi Zenouz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Lichenoid reactions represent a family of lesions with different etiologic factors and a common clinical and histologic appearance. Lichen planus is included with lichenoid reactions and is a relatively common chronic mucocutaneous disorder. The most important complication of lichenoid reactions is the possibility of malignant transformation. That is why it has been considered a precancerous condition. Although the malignant transformation rate varies widely in the literature, from 0.4 to 6.5 percent, in most studies it does not exceed 1%. The aim of this paper is to report a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising within an oral lichenoid lesion in a 17-year-old woman, where SCC is very uncommon. The patient did not have any risk factors and was healthy. The lesion was located on the border of the tongue. In view of the common occurrence of OLP (oral lichen planus and the unresolved issues regarding its premalignant potential, this case report illustrates the need for histologic confirmation and a close follow-up of clinical lesions with lichenoid features.

  17. High percentage of oral lichen planus and lichenoid lesion in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokonen, Hellevi M A; Juurikivi, Aino; Kauppila, Timo; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta

    2017-08-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and lichenoid lesions (OLL) are regarded as precursor lesions of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with potential for malignant transformation. This potential is not clear due to difficulties in diagnosis of OLP and OLL. Our aim was therefore to evaluate previously identified OLP and OLL as precursor lesions in OSCC and to identify cancer related etiological factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We retrospectively reviewed all cases (total 323, comprising 164 females and 159 males) with OSCC treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases and Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital during 2015. Confirmed by histopathological biopsy, 58 (17.9%) had OLP and 13 had OLL (4.0%) as precursor lesion. Patients with OLP were slightly older than those without it. OLP was more common in females than in males (p < .0001). TN class 1 tumors were more prevalent among patients with OLP or OLL (p = .006) and cancer relapses less common (p = .005). Smoking was less frequent in patients with OLP and OLL (p < .0001). Also alcohol abuse was less frequent among these patients (p < .001). Our findings confirm the importance of active follow-up of all patients with OLP and OLL even in patients who do not fit a traditional high-risk category for OSCC.

  18. Effects of radiation quality and oxygen on clustered DNA lesions and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert D; Yu, Victor K; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Koumenis, Constantinos; Park, Joo Han; Carlson, David J

    2011-11-01

    Radiation quality and cellular oxygen concentration have a substantial impact on DNA damage, reproductive cell death and, ultimately, the potential efficacy of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. To better understand and quantify the effects of radiation quality and oxygen on the induction of clustered DNA lesions, we have now extended the Monte Carlo Damage Simulation (MCDS) to account for reductions in the initial lesion yield arising from enhanced chemical repair of DNA radicals under hypoxic conditions. The kinetic energy range and types of particles considered in the MCDS have also been expanded to include charged particles up to and including (56)Fe ions. The induction of individual and clustered DNA lesions for arbitrary mixtures of different types of radiation can now be directly simulated. For low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiations, cells irradiated under normoxic conditions sustain about 2.9 times as many double-strand breaks (DSBs) as cells irradiated under anoxic conditions. New experiments performed by us demonstrate similar trends in the yields of non-DSB (Fpg and Endo III) clusters in HeLa cells irradiated by γ rays under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. The good agreement among measured and predicted DSBs, Fpg and Endo III cluster yields suggests that, for the first time, it may be possible to determine nucleotide-level maps of the multitude of different types of clustered DNA lesions formed in cells under reduced oxygen conditions. As particle LET increases, the MCDS predicts that the ratio of DSBs formed under normoxic to hypoxic conditions by the same type of radiation decreases monotonically toward unity. However, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of higher-LET radiations compared to (60)Co γ rays (0.24 keV/μm) tends to increase with decreasing oxygen concentration. The predicted RBE of a 1 MeV proton (26.9 keV/μm) relative to (60)Co γ rays for DSB induction increases from 1.9 to 2.3 as oxygen concentration

  19. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Catalán, Miguel A; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Cristóbal-Mondragón, Gema R; Adame-Gómez, Jesús; Valle-Flores, Heidi N del; Coppe, José Fco; Sierra-López, Laura; Romero-Hernández, Mirna A; Carmen Alarcón-Romero, Luz del; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL), 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression

  20. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002 from four tropical fish species in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pilarski

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish white spots, especially on the head, dorsal part and caudal fin of the fish. The sampling comprised 50 samples representing four different fish species selected for study. Samples for culture were obtained by skin and kidney scrapes with a sterile cotton swabs of columnaris disease fish and streaked onto Carlson and Pacha (1968 artificial culture medium (broth and solid which were used for isolation. The strains in the liquid medium were Gram negative, long, filamentous, exhibited flexing movements (gliding motility, contained a large number of long slender bacteria and gathered into ‘columns'. Strains on the agar produced yellow-pale colonies, rather small, flat that had rhizoid edges. A total of four Flavobacterium columnare were isolated: 01 Brycon orbignyanus strain, 01 Piaractus mesopotamicus strain, 01 Colossoma macropomum strain, and 01 Hypostomus plecostomus strain. Biochemical characterization, with its absorption of Congo red dye, production of flexirubin-type pigments, H2S production and reduction of nitrates proved that the isolate could be classified as Flavobacterium columnare.

  1. A Case of Mature Natural Killer-Cell Neoplasm Manifesting Multiple Choroidal Lesions: Primary Intraocular Natural Killer-Cell Lymphoma

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    Yoshiaki Tagawa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Natural killer (NK cell neoplasm is a rare disease that follows an acute course and has a poor prognosis. It usually emerges from the nose and appears in the ocular tissue as a metastasis. Herein, we describe a case of NK-cell neoplasm in which the eye was considered to be the primary organ. Case: A 50-year-old female displayed bilateral anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, bullous retinal detachment, and multiple white choroidal mass lesions. Although malignant lymphoma or metastatic tumor was suspected, various systemic examinations failed to detect any positive results. A vitrectomy was performed OS; however, histocytological analyses from the vitreous sample showed no definite evidence of malignancy, and IL-10 concentration was low. Enlarged choroidal masses were fused together. Three weeks after the first visit, the patient suddenly developed an attack of fever, night sweat, and hepatic dysfunction, and 5 days later, she passed away due to multiple organ failure. Immunohistochemisty and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of atypical cells positive for CD3, CD56, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs, resulting in the diagnosis of NK-cell neoplasm. With the characteristic clinical course, we concluded that this neoplasm was a primary intraocular NK-cell lymphoma. Conclusions: This is the first report to describe primary intraocular NK-cell neoplasm. When we encounter atypical choroidal lesions, we should consider the possibility of NK-cell lymphoma, even though it is a rare disease.

  2. Central nervous system lesions in adult T-cell leukaemia: MRI and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, M.; Korogi, Y.; Shigematsu, Y.; Liang, L.; Takahashi, M. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Matsuoka, M. [Second Division of Internal Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Jhono, M. [Department of Dermatology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Eto, K. [The National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is a T-cell lymphoid neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Radiological findings in central nervous system (CNS) involvement have not been well characterised. We reviewed the MRI of 18 patients with ATL who developed new neurological symptoms or signs, and pathology specimens from a 53-year-old woman who died of ATL. MRI findings were divided into three categories: definite, probable, and other abnormal. Definite and probable findings were defined as ATL-related. The characteristic findings were multiple parenchymal masses with or without contrast enhancement adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaced and the deep grey matter of both cerebral hemispheres, plus leptomeningeal lesion. One patient had both cerebral and spinal cord lesions. Other abnormal findings in eight patients included one case of leukoencephalopathy caused by methotrexate. The histology findings consisted of clusters of tumour cells along perivascular spaces, and scattered infiltration of the parenchyma, with nests of tumour cells. Leptomeningeal infiltration by tumour spread into the parenchyma and secondary degeneration of the neuronal tracts was observed. MRI was useful for detecting CNS invasion by ATL and differentiating it from other abnormalities. The MRI findings seemed to correlate well with the histological changes. (orig.)

  3. Central nervous system lesions in adult T-cell leukaemia: MRI and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, M.; Korogi, Y.; Shigematsu, Y.; Liang, L.; Takahashi, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Jhono, M.; Eto, K.

    2002-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is a T-cell lymphoid neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Radiological findings in central nervous system (CNS) involvement have not been well characterised. We reviewed the MRI of 18 patients with ATL who developed new neurological symptoms or signs, and pathology specimens from a 53-year-old woman who died of ATL. MRI findings were divided into three categories: definite, probable, and other abnormal. Definite and probable findings were defined as ATL-related. The characteristic findings were multiple parenchymal masses with or without contrast enhancement adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaced and the deep grey matter of both cerebral hemispheres, plus leptomeningeal lesion. One patient had both cerebral and spinal cord lesions. Other abnormal findings in eight patients included one case of leukoencephalopathy caused by methotrexate. The histology findings consisted of clusters of tumour cells along perivascular spaces, and scattered infiltration of the parenchyma, with nests of tumour cells. Leptomeningeal infiltration by tumour spread into the parenchyma and secondary degeneration of the neuronal tracts was observed. MRI was useful for detecting CNS invasion by ATL and differentiating it from other abnormalities. The MRI findings seemed to correlate well with the histological changes. (orig.)

  4. Critical currents in columnar vanadium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasova, V.G.; Kolin'ko, A.E.; Slatin, A.E.; Fogel, N.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The angular dependence of the critical current I/sub c/ is studied in columnar vanadium films. In measurements in constant magnetic fields an anomalous maximum I/sub c/ is found on the I/sub c/(theta) curves at arbitrary values of the external magnetic field and temperature, when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane of the specimen. The angular dependence of I/sub c/ measured in constant reduced magnetic fields h = H/H/sub c/2(T,theta) shows no singularities in the vicinity of the angle at which the I/sub c/ peak is found in the case H = const, i.e., the critical current is isotropic. This implies that a change in the relative orientation of the vortices and column boundaries produces no change in critical current. The experimental data obtained permit the conclusion that the anisotropy of I/sub c/ observed in a constant magnetic field H is merely a consequence of the anisotropy of the critical magnetic field H/sub c/: the critical current ''tracking'' the magnitude and angular dependence of H/sub c/

  5. Histological Lesions, Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and T Cell Subsets Changes of Spleen in Chicken Fed Aflatoxin-contaminated Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Peng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 on pathological lesions, apoptosis, cell cycle phases and T lymphocyte subsets of spleen, and to provide an experimental basis for understanding the mechanism of aflatoxin-induced immunosuppression. A total of 900 COBB500 male broilers were randomly allocated into five groups with six replicates per group and 30 birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks and the five dietary treatments consisted of control, 25% contaminated corn, 50% contaminated corn, 75% contaminated corn and 100% contaminated corn groups. The histopathological spleen lesions from the contaminated corn groups was characterized as congestion of red pulp, increased necrotic cells and vacuoles in the splenic corpuscle and periarterial lymphatic sheath. The contaminated corn intake significantly increased relative weight of spleen, percentages of apoptotic splenocytes, induced cell cycle arrest of splenocytes, increased the percentages of CD3+CD8+ T cells and decreased the ratios of CD3+CD4+ to CD3+CD8+. The results suggest that AFB-induced immunosuppression maybe closely related to the lesions of spleen.

  6. The involvement of cation leaks in the storage lesion of red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna F Flatt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored blood components are a critical life-saving tool provided to patients by health services worldwide. Red cells may be stored for up to 42 days, allowing for efficient blood bank inventory management, but with prolonged storage comes an unwanted side-effect known as the ‘storage lesion’, which has been implicated in poorer patient outcomes. This lesion is comprised of a number of processes that are inter-dependent. Metabolic changes include a reduction in glycolysis and ATP production after the first week of storage. This leads to an accumulation of lactate and drop in pH. Longer term damage may be done by the consequent reduction in anti-oxidant enzymes, which contributes to protein and lipid oxidation via reactive oxygen species. The oxidative damage to the cytoskeleton and membrane is involved in increased vesiculation and loss of cation gradients across the membrane. The irreversible damage caused by extensive membrane loss via vesiculation alongside dehydration is likely to result in immediate splenic sequestration of these dense, spherocytic cells. Although often overlooked in the literature, the loss of the cation gradient in stored cells will be considered in more depth in this review as well as the possible effects it may have on other elements of the storage lesion. It has now become clear that blood donors can exhibit quite large variations in the properties of their red cells, including microvesicle production and the rate of cation leak. Further study of stored red blood cells from donors known to have a high or low-rate of cation leak will shed more light on the relationship between cation gradients and the manifestation of the various elements of the storage lesion.

  7. Giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath may present radiologically as intrinsic osseous lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepper, A.M. de; Bloem, J.L. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, RC Leiden (Netherlands); Hogendoorn, P.C.W. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, RC Leiden (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to explain radiographic features of giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath (GCTTS), in particular, osseous extension, by correlating imaging findings with histology in order to increase the accuracy of radiological diagnosis. In a series of 200 consecutive osseous (pseudo) tumors of the hand, on radiography, six patients presented with an intrinsic osseous lesion caused by a histologically confirmed neighboring GCTTS. Available radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images were correlated with histology. Radiography showed osseous lesions consisting of well-defined cortical defects in four (one of whom also demonstrated cortical scalloping) and a slightly expansile, well-defined osteolytic lesion in two patients. MR obtained in four patients showed the extraosseous tumor invading/eroding bone and causing cortical scalloping (three and one patients, respectively). Extension depicted on MR was confirmed on the two available resection specimens. All lesions were polylobular (cauliflower or mushroom like) and neighbored tendon sheaths. Dense collagen and hemosiderin-loaded macrophages explained the high CT attenuation and the low MR signal intensity on T2-weighted images that was observed in all four MR and in all two CT scans. The high density of proliferative capillaries explained the marked enhancement observed in all four patients with gadolinium (Gd)-chelate-enhanced MR imaging. GCTTS is a soft tissue (pseudo) tumor that may invade bone and as a consequence mimick an intrinsic osseous lesion on radiographs. In such cases, specific MR and CT features that can be explained by histological findings can be used to suggest the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. Parietal Epithelial Cells Participate in the Formation of Sclerotic Lesions in Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Bart; Kuppe, Christoph; Sicking, Eva-Maria; Fuss, Astrid; Jirak, Peggy; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Endlich, Karlhans; Wetzels, Jack F.M.; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Floege, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the development of sclerotic lesions in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) remains unknown. Here, we selectively tagged podocytes or parietal epithelial cells (PECs) to determine whether PECs contribute to sclerosis. In three distinct models of FSGS (5/6-nephrectomy + DOCA-salt; the murine transgenic chronic Thy1.1 model; or the MWF rat) and in human biopsies, the primary injury to induce FSGS associated with focal activation of PECs and the formation of cellular adhesions to the capillary tuft. From this entry site, activated PECs invaded the affected segment of the glomerular tuft and deposited extracellular matrix. Within the affected segment, podocytes were lost and mesangial sclerosis developed within the endocapillary compartment. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that PECs contribute to the development and progression of the sclerotic lesions that define FSGS, but this pathogenesis may be relevant to all etiologies of glomerulosclerosis. PMID:21719782

  9. Proteomic analysis of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare

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    Lawrence Mark L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in cultured and wild fish populations worldwide. Columnaris is the second most prevalent bacterial disease of commercial channel catfish industry in the United States. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the expressed proteins and virulence mechanisms of F. columnare. Here, we report the first high throughput proteomic analysis of F. columnare using 2-D LC ESI MS/MS and 2-DE MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Results Proteins identified in this study and predicted from the draft F. columnare genome were clustered into functional groups using clusters of orthologous groups (COGs, and their subcellular locations were predicted. Possible functional relations among the identified proteins were determined using pathway analysis. The total number of unique F. columnare proteins identified using both 2-D LC and 2-DE approaches was 621, of which 10.95% (68 were identified by both methods, while 77.29% (480 and 11.76% (73 were unique in 2-D LC and 2-DE, respectively. COG groupings and subcellular localizations were similar between our data set and proteins predicted from the whole genome. Twenty eight pathways were significantly represented in our dataset (P Conclusion Results from this study provide experimental evidence for many proteins that were predicted from the F. columnare genome annotation, and they should accelerate functional and comparative studies aimed at understanding virulence mechanisms of this important pathogen.

  10. Mycobacterium-Host Cell Relationships in Granulomatous Lesions in a Mouse Model of Latent Tuberculous Infection

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    Elena Ufimtseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a dangerous infectious disease characterized by a tight interplay between mycobacteria and host cells in granulomatous lesions (granulomas during the latent, asymptomatic stage of infection. Mycobacterium-host cell relationships were analyzed in granulomas obtained from various organs of BALB/c mice with chronic TB infection caused by in vivo exposure to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine. Acid-fast BCG-mycobacteria were found to be morphologically and functionally heterogeneous (in size, shape, and replication rates in colonies in granuloma macrophages, dendritic cells, and multinucleate Langhans giant cells. Cord formation by BCG-mycobacteria in granuloma cells has been observed. Granuloma macrophages retained their ability to ingest damaged lymphocytes and thrombocytes in the phagosomes; however, their ability to destroy BCG-mycobacteria contained in these cells was compromised. No colocalization of BCG-mycobacteria and the LysoTracker dye was observed in the mouse cells. Various relationships between granuloma cells and BCG-mycobacteria were observed in different mice belonging to the same line. Several mice totally eliminated mycobacterial infection. Granulomas in the other mice had mycobacteria actively replicating in cells of different types and forming cords, which is an indicator of mycobacterial virulence and, probably, a marker of the activation of tuberculous infection in animals.

  11. Mycobacterium-Host Cell Relationships in Granulomatous Lesions in a Mouse Model of Latent Tuberculous Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a dangerous infectious disease characterized by a tight interplay between mycobacteria and host cells in granulomatous lesions (granulomas) during the latent, asymptomatic stage of infection. Mycobacterium-host cell relationships were analyzed in granulomas obtained from various organs of BALB/c mice with chronic TB infection caused by in vivo exposure to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Acid-fast BCG-mycobacteria were found to be morphologically and functionally heterogeneous (in size, shape, and replication rates in colonies) in granuloma macrophages, dendritic cells, and multinucleate Langhans giant cells. Cord formation by BCG-mycobacteria in granuloma cells has been observed. Granuloma macrophages retained their ability to ingest damaged lymphocytes and thrombocytes in the phagosomes; however, their ability to destroy BCG-mycobacteria contained in these cells was compromised. No colocalization of BCG-mycobacteria and the LysoTracker dye was observed in the mouse cells. Various relationships between granuloma cells and BCG-mycobacteria were observed in different mice belonging to the same line. Several mice totally eliminated mycobacterial infection. Granulomas in the other mice had mycobacteria actively replicating in cells of different types and forming cords, which is an indicator of mycobacterial virulence and, probably, a marker of the activation of tuberculous infection in animals. PMID:26064970

  12. Rhodium metalloinsertor binding generates a lesion with selective cytotoxicity for mismatch repair-deficient cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailis, Julie M; Weidmann, Alyson G; Mariano, Natalie F; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2017-07-03

    The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway recognizes and repairs errors in base pairing and acts to maintain genome stability. Cancers that have lost MMR function are common and comprise an important clinical subtype that is resistant to many standard of care chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin. We have identified a family of rhodium metalloinsertors that bind DNA mismatches with high specificity and are preferentially cytotoxic to MMR-deficient cells. Here, we characterize the cellular mechanism of action of the most potent and selective complex in this family, [Rh(chrysi)(phen)(PPO)] 2+ (Rh-PPO). We find that Rh-PPO binding induces a lesion that triggers the DNA damage response (DDR). DDR activation results in cell-cycle blockade and inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. Significantly, the lesion induced by Rh-PPO is not repaired in MMR-deficient cells, resulting in selective cytotoxicity. The Rh-PPO mechanism is reminiscent of DNA repair enzymes that displace mismatched bases, and is differentiated from other DNA-targeted chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin by its potency, cellular mechanism, and selectivity for MMR-deficient cells.

  13. Long-term engraftment of bone marrow-derived cells in the intimal hyperplasia lesion of autologous vein grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yanpeng; Guthrie, Steve; Xia, Shen-Ling; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Zhang, Li; Xue, Jing; Lee, Pui; Grant, Maria; Scott, Edward; Segal, Mark S

    2008-03-01

    Intimal hyperplasia of autologous vein grafts is a critical problem affecting the long-term patency of many types of vascular reconstruction. Within intimal hyperplasia lesions, smooth muscle cells are a major component, playing an essential role in the pathological process. Given that bone marrow-derived cells may differentiate into smooth muscle cells in the neointima of injured arteries, we hypothesized that the bone marrow may serve as a source for some of the smooth muscle cells within intimal hyperplasia lesions of vein grafts. To test this hypothesis, we used an established mouse model for intimal hyperplasia in wild-type mice that had been transplanted with bone marrow from a green fluorescent protein (GFP+/+) transgenic mouse. High-resolution confocal microscopy analysis performed 2 and 8 weeks after grafting demonstrated expression of GFP in 5.4 +/- 0.8% and 11.9 +/- 2.3%, respectively, of smooth muscle cells within intimal hyperplasia lesions. By 16 weeks, GFP expression in smooth muscle cells was not detected by immunohistochemistry; however, real-time PCR revealed that 20.2 +/- 1.7% of the smooth muscle cells captured from the neointima lesion by laser capture microdissection at 16 weeks contained GFP DNA. Our results suggest that bone marrow-derived cells differentiated into smooth muscle cells within the intimal lesion and may provide a novel clinical approach for decreasing intimal hyperplasia in vein grafts.

  14. Tracing a key player in the regulation of plant architecture: the columnar growth habit of apple trees (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Romina; Krost, Clemens

    2013-07-01

    Plant architecture is regulated by a complex interplay of some key players (often transcription factors), phytohormones and other signaling molecules such as microRNAs. The columnar growth habit of apple trees is a unique form of plant architecture characterized by thick and upright stems showing a compaction of internodes and carrying short fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. The molecular basis for columnar growth is a single dominant allele of the gene Columnar, whose identity, function and gene product are unknown. As a result of marker analyses, this gene has recently been fine-mapped to chromosome 10 at 18.51-19.09 Mb [according to the annotation of the apple genome by Velasco (2010)], a region containing a cluster of quantitative trait loci associated with plant architecture, but no homologs to the well-known key regulators of plant architecture. Columnar apple trees have a higher auxin/cytokinin ratio and lower levels of gibberellins and abscisic acid than normal apple trees. Transcriptome analyses corroborate these results and additionally show differences in cell membrane and cell wall function. It can be expected that within the next year or two, an integration of these different research methodologies will reveal the identity of the Columnar gene. Besides enabling breeders to efficiently create new apple (and maybe related pear, peach, cherry, etc.) cultivars which combine desirable characteristics of commercial cultivars with the advantageous columnar growth habit using gene technology, this will also provide new insights into an elevated level of plant growth regulation.

  15. Transplanted Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitate Lesion Repair in B6.Fas Mice

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    Guang-ping Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disease that is characterized by the appearance of serum autoantibodies. No effective treatment for SLE currently exists. Methods. We used human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (H-UC-MSC transplantation to treat B6.Fas mice. Results. After four rounds of cell transplantation, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the levels of mouse anti-nuclear, anti-histone, and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in transplanted mice compared with controls. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in mouse peripheral blood significantly increased after H-UC-MSC transplantation. Conclusions. The results showed that H-UC-MSCs could repair lesions in B6.Fas mice such that all of the relevant disease indicators in B6.Fas mice were restored to the levels observed in normal C57BL/6 mice.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma developing in a cutaneous lichen planus lesion: a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Kotne, Sivasankar; Ananda Rao, P B; Turlapati, S P V; Kumar Soren, Dillip

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus is a benign disorder characterized by an itchy, noninfectious skin rash. Though lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely and should be borne in mind while treating nonhealing longstanding lesions of lichen planus. Studies suggest an estimated 0.3-3% risk of malignancy in patients with oral lichen planus, however, cutaneous lichen planus does not carry an increased risk of malignant degeneration. We present a case of a 36-year-old male with a 10-year-long history of hypertrophic lichen planus who presented with a nonhealing ulcer in the left popliteal fossa. The patient underwent wide local excision with superficial skin grafting. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed verrucous squamous cell carcinoma complicating lichen planus. In view of underlying structure involvement, adjuvant radiation therapy was given. This case is being reported to emphasize the infrequent possibility of development of malignancy in cutaneous lichen planus, especially if it presents as a longstanding, nonhealing, itchy lesion with patchy areas of depigmentation in the lower limbs.

  17. Osteopontin mediates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia and attaching-effacing lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, Eytan; Shen-Tu, Grace; Gareau, Mélanie G; Goldberg, Harvey A; Licht, Christoph; Ngan, Bo-Yee; Sorensen, Esben S; Greenaway, James; Sodek, Jaro; Zohar, Ron; Sherman, Philip M

    2010-09-01

    Although osteopontin (OPN) is up-regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases, its role in disease pathogenesis remains controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the role of OPN in host responses to a non-invasive bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, which serves as a murine infectious model of colitis. OPN gene knockout and wild-type mice were infected orogastrically with either C. rodentium or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth. Mouse-derived OPN(+/+) and OPN(-/-) fibroblasts were incubated with C. rodentium and attaching-effacing lesions were demonstrated using transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Colonic expression of OPN was increased by C. rodentium infection of wild-type mice. Furthermore, colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia, the hallmark of C. rodentium infection, was reduced in OPN(-/-) mice, and spleen enlargement by infection was absent in OPN(-/-) mice. Rectal administration of OPN to OPN(-/-) mice restored these effects. There was an 8- to 17-fold reduction in bacterial colonization in OPN(-/-) mice, compared with wild-type mice, which was accompanied by reduced attaching-effacing lesions, both in infected OPN(-/-) mice and OPN(-/-) mouse fibroblasts. Moreover, adhesion pedestals were restored in OPN(-/-) cells complemented with human OPN. Therefore, lack of OPN results in decreased pedestal formation, colonization, and colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia responses to C. rodentium infection, indicating that OPN impacts disease pathogenesis through bacterial attachment and altered host immune responses.

  18. Multiple giant cell lesions in patients with Noonan syndrome and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Thomas E; Allanson, Judith; Kavamura, Ines; Kerr, Bronwyn; Neri, Giovanni; Noonan, Jacqueline; Cordeddu, Viviana; Gibson, Kate; Tzschach, Andreas; Krüger, Gabriele; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Goecke, Timm O; Kehl, Hans Gerd; Albrecht, Beate; Luczak, Klaudiusz

    2008-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS) are related developmental disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding various components of the RAS-MAPK signaling cascade. NS is associated with mutations in the genes PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, or KRAS, whereas CFCS can be caused by mutations in BRAF, MEK1, MEK2, or KRAS. the NS phenotype is rarely accompanied by multiple giant cell lesions (MGCL) of the jaw (Noonan-like/MGCL syndrome (NL/MGCLS)). PTPN11 mutations are the only gen...

  19. Two rare entities in the same palate lesion: hyalinizing-type clear cell carcinoma and necrotizing sialometaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaci, Rabia Bozdoğan; Kara, Tuba; Porgali, Canan; Serinsoz, Ebru; Polat, Ayse; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2014-05-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma is a low-grade malignant epithelial neoplasm of the salivary glands. The tumor has epithelial cells and lacks myoepithelial cells. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a benign, self-limiting lesion of the salivary glands. The clinical and histologic features mimic those of mucoepidermoid carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. The importance of these entities are the rarity of both of them and their potential to be misdiagnosed as other lesions. Pathologists and clinicians should be aware of these entities to prevent misdiagnosis. This is the first clinical report of 2 rare and consecutive different entities of the same location on the hard palate to our knowledge.

  20. Measuring telomere length for the early detection of precursor lesions of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shih-Wen; Wang, Guo-Qing; Wei, Wen-Qiang; Lu, Ning; Taylor, Philip R; Qiao, You-Lin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C; Freedman, Neal D; Murphy, Gwen; Risques, Rosana; Prunkard, Donna; Rabinovitch, Peter; Pan, Qin-Jing; Roth, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide; current early detection screening tests are inadequate. Esophageal balloon cytology successfully retrieves exfoliated and scraped superficial esophageal epithelial cells, but cytologic reading of these cells has poor sensitivity and specificity for detecting esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Measuring telomere length, a marker for chromosomal instability, may improve the utility of balloon cytology for detecting ESD and early ESCC. We examined balloon cytology specimens from 89 asymptomatic cases of ESD (37 low-grade and 52 high-grade) and 92 age- and sex-matched normal controls from an esophageal cancer early detection screening study. All subjects also underwent endoscopy and biopsy, and ESD was diagnosed histopathologically. DNA was extracted from the balloon cytology cells, and telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Telomere lengths were comparable among the low- and high-grade dysplasia cases and controls, with means of 0.96, 0.96, and 0.92, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.55 for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Further adjustment for subject characteristics, including sex, age, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and body mass index did not improve the use of telomere length as a marker for ESD. Telomere length of esophageal balloon cytology cells was not associated with ESCC precursor lesions. Therefore, telomere length shows little promise as an early detection marker for ESCC in esophageal balloon samples

  1. Distribution of class ii major histocompatibility complex antigenexpressing cells in human dental pulp with carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection which causes destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. Exposure of the dentin to the oral environment as a result of caries inevitably results in a cellular response in the pulp. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a group of genes that code for cell-surface histocompatibility antigens. Cells expressing class II MHC molecules participate in the initial recognition and the processing of antigenic substances to serve as antigen-presenting cells. Purpose: The aim of the study was to elucidate the alteration in the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in human dental pulp as carious lesions progressed toward the pulp. Methods: Fifteen third molars with caries at the occlusal site at various stages of decay and 5 intact third molars were extracted and used in this study. Before decalcifying with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, all the samples were observed by micro-computed tomography to confirm the lesion condition three-dimensionally. The specimens were then processed for cryosection and immunohistochemistry using an anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibody. Results: Class II MHC antigen-expressing cells were found both in normal and carious specimens. In normal tooth, the class II MHC-immunopositive cells were observed mainly at the periphery of the pulp tissue. In teeth with caries, class II MHC-immunopositive cells were located predominantly subjacent to the carious lesions. As the caries progressed, the number of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells was increased. Conclusion: The depth of carious lesions affects the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in the dental pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit infeksi bakteri yang mengakibatkan destruksi jaringan keras gigi. Dentin yang terbuka akibat karies akan menginduksi respon imun seluler pada pulpa. Kompleks histokompatibilitas utama (MHC merupakan sekumpulan gen yang mengkode histokompatibilitas

  2. Oxidized low density lipoprotein induced caspase-1 mediated pyroptotic cell death in macrophages: implication in lesion instability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophage death in advanced lesion has been confirmed to play an important role in plaque instability. However, the mechanism underlying lesion macrophage death still remains largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry showed that caspase-1 activated in advanced lesion and co-located with macrophages and TUNEL positive reaction. In in-vitro experiments showed that ox-LDL induced caspase-1 activation and this activation was required for ox-LDL induced macrophages lysis, IL-1β and IL-18 production as well as DNA fragmentation. Mechanism experiments showed that CD36 and NLRP3/caspase-1/pathway involved in ox-LDL induced macrophage pyroptosis. CONCLUSION: Our study here identified a novel cell death, pyroptosis in ox-LDL induced human macrophage, which may be implicated in lesion macrophages death and play an important role in lesion instability.

  3. Columnar structure of reactively sputtered aluminium nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chisan; Hwang Binghwai; Lu Hongyang; Hsu Tzuchien

    2002-01-01

    Columnar structure of thin aluminium nitride (AlN) films is examined by x-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The films were deposited on SiO 2 /Si(100) substrate using radiofrequency reactive sputtering method. Strong [0001] preferred orientation is observed by XRD and confirmed by selected area diffraction pattern of TEM. Columnar grains of ∼50-100 nm inclined at an angle of ∼10 deg. to the substrate normal are observed by SEM. As revealed by TEM, each columnar grain is composed of nano-grains of the order of 10 nm and no faceting is observed in the nano-grains and columns. The [0001] preferred orientation results as columnar grains are oriented at various azimuthal angles with their c-axes perpendicular to the substrate surface. A slight tilt of a few tenths of a degree between adjacent nano-grains within a column is also observed. The random azimuthal orientation of columnar grains and small tilt between nano-grains in the films are accommodated by the amorphous phase present in the grain boundaries

  4. Disclosing the temperature of columnar jointing in lavas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamur, Anthony; Lavallée, Yan; Iddon, Fiona E; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Wadsworth, Fabian B

    2018-04-12

    Columnar joints form by cracking during cooling-induced contraction of lava, allowing hydrothermal fluid circulation. A lack of direct observations of their formation has led to ambiguity about the temperature window of jointing and its impact on fluid flow. Here we develop a novel thermo-mechanical experiment to disclose the temperature of columnar jointing in lavas. Using basalts from Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) we show that contraction during cooling induces stress build-up below the solidus temperature (980 °C), resulting in localised macroscopic failure between 890 and 840 °C. This temperature window for incipient columnar jointing is supported by modelling informed by mechanical testing and thermal expansivity measurements. We demonstrate that columnar jointing takes place well within the solid state of volcanic rocks, and is followed by a nonlinear increase in system permeability of <9 orders of magnitude during cooling. Columnar jointing may promote advective cooling in magmatic-hydrothermal environments and fluid loss during geothermal drilling and thermal stimulation.

  5. Fibulin-2 is present in murine vascular lesions and is important for smooth muscle cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ström, A.; Olin, A. I.; Aspberg, A.

    2006-01-01

    /hyaluronan complexes, an ECM network that has been suggested to be important during tissue repair. In this study we have analysed the presence of fibulin-2 in two different models of murine vascular lesions. We have also examined how the fibulin-2/versican network influences SMC migration. Methods: Presence of fibulin......Objective: The vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) can affect smooth muscle cell (SMC) adhesion, migration and proliferation-events that are important during the atherosclerotic process. Fibulin-2 is a member of the ECM protein family of fibulins and has been found to cross-link versican...... and is upregulated during SMC phenotypic modulation in cell culture. Moreover, treatments with peptides that block the interaction between versican and fibulin-2 inhibit SMC migration in vitro. Conclusions: Fibulin-2 can be produced by SMC as a response to injury and may participate in the ECM organisation...

  6. Does the cerebral cortex exacerbate dopaminergic cell death in the substantia nigra of 6OHDA-lesioned rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquin, Natasha; Mitrofanis, John

    2008-01-01

    We have explored the survival of dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in 6 hydroxydopamine (6OHDA)-lesioned rats with prior cortical removal. There were approximately 35% more dopaminergic cells in the ventral sector of SNc (vSNc) of 6OHDA-lesioned rats that had prior cortical removal compared to those that did not. By contrast, there were no differences in dopaminergic cell number between these experimental groups in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the dorsal sector of SNc (dSNc). Hence, prior cortical removal in 6OHDA-lesioned rats neuroprotected vSNc--but not VTA or dSNc--dopaminergic cells from death.

  7. Regulatory T cells with reduced repressor capacities are extensively amplified in pulmonary sarcoid lesions and sustain granuloma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappl, Gunter; Pabst, Stefan; Riemann, Dagmar; Schmidt, Annette; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Schütte, Wolfgang; Hombach, Andreas A; Seliger, Barbara; Grohé, Christian; Abken, Hinrich

    2011-07-01

    Sarcoidosis can evolve into a chronic disease with persistent granulomas accompanied by progressive fibrosis. While an unlimited inflammatory response suggests an impaired immune control in sarcoid lesions, it stands in contrast to the massive infiltration with CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. We here revealed that those Treg cells in affected lung lesions were mainly derived from activated natural Treg cells with GARP (LRRC32)-positive phenotype but exhibited reduced repressor capacities despite high IL-10 and TGF-beta 1 levels. The repressive capacity of blood Treg cells, in contrast, was not impaired compared to age-matched healthy donors. Treg derived cells in granuloma lesions have undergone extensive rounds of amplifications indicated by shortened telomeres compared to blood Treg cells of the same patient. Lesional Treg derived cells moreover secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4 which sustains granuloma formation through fibroblast amplification and the activation of mast cells, the latter indicated by the expression of membrane-bound oncostatin M. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of thymus-dependent T cells in hexachlorobenzene-induced inflammatory skin and lung lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, CCPPC; Bloksma, N; Klatter, FA; Rozing, J; Vos, JG; van Dijk, JE

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of thymus-dependent T cells in the inflammatory skin and lung lesions and spleen effects induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated by using genetically athymic and euthymic WAG/Rij rats and Brown Norway (BN) rats with or without depletion of T cells by adult thymectomy,

  9. Testis sparing surgery for treatment of small testicular lesions: Is it feasible even in germ cell tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanic, Nebojsa; Bumbasirevic, Uros; Bojanic, Gordana; Vukovic, Ivan; Milojevic, Bogomir; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the results of testis-sparing surgery (TSS) in patients, with small testicular lesions and a normal contralateral testicle. In all, 28 patients were treated with TSS for small testicular lesions and a normal contralateral testicle. TSS was considered in patients with testicular lesions smaller than 2 cm and no evidence of metastatic disease. The mean age of patients was 35.3 ± 7.3 years, while the mean diameter of the testicular lesions was 11.4 ± 3.7 mm. After pathological examination, 18 patients (64.3%) were diagnosed with stromal tumors and miscellaneous lesions, while 10 (35.7%) had a germ cell tumor. The median follow-up time for the former group was 33 months and no recurrences were observed. In one patient with germ cell tumor, immediate orchiectomy was performed, while the remaining nine were followed-up (median time, 45 months). One patient developed local recurrence after 39 months. Excellent outcomes for benign lesions could be achieved using TSS. TSS could be offered safely in highly selected patients with germ cell tumors, specifically within a clinical trial but there is more data needed regarding the potential risks and benefits. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:287-290. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Treatment of osteochondral lesions in the knee using a cell-free scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, P; Dhollander, A; Almqvist, K F; Verdonk, R; Victor, J

    2015-03-01

    The treatment of osteochondral lesions is of great interest to orthopaedic surgeons because most lesions do not heal spontaneously. We present the short-term clinical outcome and MRI findings of a cell-free scaffold used for the treatment of these lesions in the knee. A total of 38 patients were prospectively evaluated clinically for two years following treatment with an osteochondral nanostructured biomimetic scaffold. There were 23 men and 15 women; the mean age of the patients was 30.5 years (15 to 64). Clinical outcome was assessed using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Tegner activity scale and a Visual Analgue scale for pain. MRI data were analysed based on the Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (MOCART) scoring system at three, 12 and 24 months post-operatively. There was a continuous significant clinical improvement after surgery. In two patients, the scaffold treatment failed (5.3%) There was a statistically significant improvement in the MOCART precentage scores. The repair tissue filled most of the defect sufficiently. We found subchondral laminar changes in all patients. Intralesional osteophytes were found in two patients (5.3%). We conclude that this one-step scaffold-based technique can be used for osteochondral repair. The surgical technique is straightforward, and the clinical results are promising. The MRI aspects of the repair tissue continue to evolve during the first two years after surgery. However, the subchondral laminar and bone changes are a concern. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  11. A novel method for monitoring functional lesion-specific recruitment of repair proteins in live cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodrick, Jordan; Gupta, Suhani; Khatkar, Pooja; Dave, Kalpana; Levashova, Darya; Choudhury, Sujata; Elias, Hadi; Saha, Tapas; Mueller, Susette; Roy, Rabindra

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method of monitoring lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo is described. • Recruitment of repair enzymes to abasic sites is monitored by co-localization. • Repair protein recruitment is consistent with known protein–protein relationships. • Cells demonstrated complete repair of abasic sites by 90 min. - Abstract: DNA–protein relationships have been studied by numerous methods, but a particular gap in methodology lies in the study of DNA adduct-specific interactions with proteins in vivo, which particularly affects the field of DNA repair. Using the repair of a well-characterized and ubiquitous adduct, the abasic (AP) site, as a model, we have developed a comprehensive method of monitoring DNA lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo over time. We utilized a surrogate system in which a Cy3-labeled plasmid containing a single AP-site was transfected into cells, and the interaction of the labeled DNA with BER enzymes, including APE1, Polβ, LIG1, and FEN1, was monitored by immunofluorescent staining of the enzymes by Alexafluor-488-conjugated secondary antibody. The recruitment of enzymes was characterized by quantification of Cy3-Alexafluor-488 co-localization. To validate the microscopy-based method, repair of the transfected AP-site DNA was also quantified at various time points post-transfection using a real time PCR-based method. Notably, the recruitment time kinetics for each enzyme were consistent with AP-site repair time kinetics. This microscopy-based methodology is reliable in detecting the recruitment of proteins to specific DNA substrates and can be extended to study other in vivo DNA–protein relationships in any DNA sequence and in the context of any DNA structure in transfectable proliferating or quiescent cells. The method may be applied to a variety of disciplines of nucleic acid transaction pathways, including repair, replication, transcription, and recombination

  12. A novel method for monitoring functional lesion-specific recruitment of repair proteins in live cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodrick, Jordan; Gupta, Suhani; Khatkar, Pooja; Dave, Kalpana; Levashova, Darya; Choudhury, Sujata; Elias, Hadi; Saha, Tapas; Mueller, Susette; Roy, Rabindra, E-mail: rr228@georgetown.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A method of monitoring lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo is described. • Recruitment of repair enzymes to abasic sites is monitored by co-localization. • Repair protein recruitment is consistent with known protein–protein relationships. • Cells demonstrated complete repair of abasic sites by 90 min. - Abstract: DNA–protein relationships have been studied by numerous methods, but a particular gap in methodology lies in the study of DNA adduct-specific interactions with proteins in vivo, which particularly affects the field of DNA repair. Using the repair of a well-characterized and ubiquitous adduct, the abasic (AP) site, as a model, we have developed a comprehensive method of monitoring DNA lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo over time. We utilized a surrogate system in which a Cy3-labeled plasmid containing a single AP-site was transfected into cells, and the interaction of the labeled DNA with BER enzymes, including APE1, Polβ, LIG1, and FEN1, was monitored by immunofluorescent staining of the enzymes by Alexafluor-488-conjugated secondary antibody. The recruitment of enzymes was characterized by quantification of Cy3-Alexafluor-488 co-localization. To validate the microscopy-based method, repair of the transfected AP-site DNA was also quantified at various time points post-transfection using a real time PCR-based method. Notably, the recruitment time kinetics for each enzyme were consistent with AP-site repair time kinetics. This microscopy-based methodology is reliable in detecting the recruitment of proteins to specific DNA substrates and can be extended to study other in vivo DNA–protein relationships in any DNA sequence and in the context of any DNA structure in transfectable proliferating or quiescent cells. The method may be applied to a variety of disciplines of nucleic acid transaction pathways, including repair, replication, transcription, and recombination.

  13. Skin tags: A link between lesional mast cell count/tryptase expression and obesity and dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Abdallah M Salem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The etiology of skin tags (STs is not fully understood. A relation to diabetes mellitus and obesity was suggested. Few studies of possible mast cells (MCs involvement were reported. Tyrptase is a mast cell mediator and a potent fibroblast growth factor. It may provide a molecular link between mast cell activation and fibrosis. Aims: The aim was to assess clinical and laboratory findings in patients with STs, and the possible link between obesity, dyslipidemia, and lesional MC count/tryptase expression. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with STs were subjected to clinical examination, estimation of body mass index (BMI, fasting blood glucose (FBG, postprandial blood glucose (PPBG, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, abdominal ultrasound for fatty liver assessment, in addition to study of MCs through staining for MC tryptase in two skin biopsies; lesional and nonlesional (control. Results:All patients showed abnormally high BMI and hypertriglyceridemia, with abnormal sonographic pattern in 15 patients (75%. STs number positively correlated with the age of patients. STs showed significantly higher MC counts and tryptase expression, compared with control skin ( P < 0.001, with no correlation of the STs number or MC count with BMI, FBG, PPBG or serum cholesterol. Obese patients showed a significantly higher MC count than overweight and there was a positive correlation between MC count and serum triglycerides. Axilla and under breast STs showed a higher MC count compared with other sites. Conclusions:STs seem to be related to obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. MCs with their tryptase are possibly involved in pathogenesis of STs. MC count is related to the associated factors; obesity and serum triglycerides. MC tryptase expression is a reliable method for accurate tissue MC counting.

  14. UV laser micromachining of ceramic materials: formation of columnar topographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, V.; Vilar, R.; Conde, O.

    2001-01-01

    Laser machining is increasingly appearing as an alternative for micromachining of ceramics. Using ceramic materials using excimer lasers can result in smooth surfaces or in the formation of cone-like or columnar topography. Potential applications of cone-shaped or columnar surface topography include, for example, light trapping in anti-reflection coatings and improvement of adhesion bonding between ceramic materials. In this communication results of a comparative study of surface topography change during micromachining of several ceramic materials with different ablation behaviors are reported. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology and cell block in solid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Bhat Balekuduru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA is a procedure of choice for the diagnostic evaluation of submucosal and periluminal lesions. Tissue sample can be obtained by EUS-FNA cytology (FNAC or cell block (CB. The aim of the present study is to compare diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA CB and cytology in the absence of onsite pathologist following a protocol-based EUS-FNA approach in solid lesions. Patients and Methods: Participants who underwent EUS-FNA at our center for solid submucosal or periluminal lesions (pancreas, lymph node, and liver between 2014 and 2016 were included, retrospectively. The indication for the procedure along with the clinical and other investigation details and the final etiological diagnosis were recorded on uniform structured data forms. The diagnostic yield of cytology and CB were compared using McNemar's test. The P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: EUS-FNA for solid lesion was performed in 130 lesions in 101 patients during the study period. Their mean age was 52.5 ± 12 years and 42.5% were female. Pancreatic masses were the most common lesions (37.7% followed by lymph nodes (36.9%. Submucosal lesions (17.7% and liver lesions (7.7% accounted for rest of the cases. The overall diagnostic yield for EUS-FNAC (70% and CB (74.6% was not significantly different (P = 0.3 and their combined yield was 85.3%. For the 23 patients with submucosal lesion, diagnostic yield of CB (82.6% was significantly better than cytology (47.8%, P = 0.04. Conclusions: EUS-guided CB has better yield compared to cytology in gastrointestinal submucosal lesions. The combination of CB with cytology improves the overall yield of the procedure; and hence, they should be considered complimentary rather than alternatives.

  16. Functional, electrophysiological recoveries of rats with sciatic nerve lesions following transplantation of elongated DRG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayawansa, Samantha; Zhang, Jun; Shih, Chung-Hsuan; Tharakan, Binu; Huang, Jason H

    2016-04-01

    Functional data are essential when confirming the efficacy of elongated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells as a substitute for autografting. We present the quantitative functional motor, electrophysiological findings of engineered DRG recipients for the first time. Elongated DRG neurons and autografts were transplanted to bridge 1-cm sciatic nerve lesions of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Motor recoveries of elongated DRG recipients (n=9), autograft recipients (n=9), unrepaired rats (n=9) and intact rats (n=6) were investigated using the angle board challenge test following 16 weeks of recovery. Electrophysiology studies were conducted to assess the functional recovery at 16 weeks. In addition, elongated DRGs were subjected to histology assessments. At threshold levels (35° angle) of the angle board challenge test, the autograft recipients', DRG recipients' and unrepaired group's performances were equal to each other and were less than the intact group (pDRG recipients' performance was similar to both the intact group and the autograft nerve recipients, and was better (pDRG constructs had intact signal transmission when recorded over the lesion, while the unrepaired rats did not. It was observed that elongated DRG neurons closely resembled an autograft during histological assessments. Performances of autograft and elongated DRG construct recipients were similar. Elongated DRG neurons should be further investigated as a substitute for autografting.

  17. The prognostic effect of subpleural lesions in early stage non-small cell lung cancer: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Hyung Sik; Hur, Won Joo; Lee, Ki Nam; Choi, Pill Jo

    1998-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the impact of subpleural lesions of early stage non-small cell lung cancer on the patterns of failure to support selection of postoperative adjuvant therapy. The study included 91 patients who underwent surgery for early stage non-small cell lung cancer at Donga University hospital from Dec 1990 to Sep 1996. Twenty five patients were excluded due to postoperative mortality (four patients, 4.4%) and stage III (21 patients). Of 66 patients, 22 patients were subpleural lesions (15 patients in stage I, and seven patients in stage II). Postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy was given to seven patients with T2N1 disease. The median follow-up duration was 29.5 months (range; 8-84 months). The overall survival rate was 69.5% at 3 years. For all patients who presented with (22 patients) and without (44 patients) subpleural lesions, 3-year overall survival rates were 35.5% and 84.6%, respectively (p=0.0017). For stage I patients who presented with (15 patients) and without (29 patients) subpleural lesions, 3-year overall survival rates were 33.1% and 92.3%, respectively (p=0.001). For stage II patients who presented with (7 patients) and without (15 patients) subpleural lesions, 3-year overall survival rates were 53.3% and 45.7%, respectively (p=0.911). For patients with T2NO disease (34 patients) who presented with (11 patients) and without (23 patients) subpleural lesions, 3-year overall survival rates were 27.3% and 90.3%,respectively (p=0.009).These observations suggest that the subpleural lesion play an important role as a prognostic factor for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Especially for T2NO disease, patients with subpleural lesions showed significantly lower survival rate than those without that

  18. Reappraisal of in situ immunophenotypic analysis of psoriasis skin: interaction of activated HLA-DR+ immunocompetent cells and endothelial cells is a major feature of psoriatic lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, O. J.; van der Loos, C. M.; Hamerlinck, F.; Bos, J. D.; Das, P. K.

    1994-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease of unknown aetiology. Many observations indicate that T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Upregulation of MHC class-II molecules on immunocompetent cells, endothelial cells and keratinocytes on lesional psoriatic skin has been

  19. B cell receptor signaling pathway involved in benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the lacrimal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Na Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To detect the expression of B cell receptor signaling pathway (BCRSP in lacrimal gland benign lymphoepithelial lesions (LGBLEL. METHODS: Gene microarray was used to compare whole-genome expression in lacrimal gland tissues from LGBLEL patients to tissues from orbital cavernous hemangioma (control tissues. Expression of BCRSP was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The expression of 22 genes of the BCRSP increased significantly in LGBLEL patients. PCR analysis showed that CD22, CR2, and BTK were all highly expressed in LGBLEL tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that CR2 protein was present in LGBLEL, but CD22 and BTK proteins were negative. CR2, CD22, and BTK were not observed in the orbital cavernous hemangiomas with either PCR or immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSION: BCRSP might be involved in the pathogenesis of LGBLEL.

  20. Tumor-induced Osteomalacia in a 3-Year-Old With Unresectable Central Giant Cell Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Stephanie S; Zambrano, Eduardo; Newman, Beverley; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Messner, Anna H; Bachrach, Laura K; Twist, Clare J

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare cause of hypophosphatemia involving overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23. TIO has been described largely in adults with small mesenchymal tumors. We report a case of TIO in a child who presented with knee pain and radiographic findings concerning for rickets, and was found to have maxillomandibular giant cell lesions. The patient was treated with oral phosphorus and calcitriol, surgical debulking, and intralesional corticosteroids, which resulted in tumor regression and normalization of serum fibroblast growth factor 23 and phosphorus. This case illustrates the occurrence of this rare paraneoplastic syndrome in children and adds to our knowledge about clinical manifestations and pathologic findings associated with pediatric TIO.

  1. Evaluation of photodynamic treatment efficiency on glioblastoma cells received from malignant lesions: initial studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Kyurkchiev, Dobroslav; Tumangelova-Yuzeir, Kalina; Angelov, Ivan; Genova-Hristova, Tsanislava; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Minkin, Krassimir

    2018-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy is well-established and extensively used method in treatment of different cancer types. This research reveals its potential in the treatment of cultivated human glioblastoma cells with adherent morphology. As the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of the drugs is a significant problem that could not be solved easily for large biomolecules, we search for an appropriate low-molecular weight photosensitizer that could be applied for photodynamic treatment of glioblastoma cells. We used delta-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), which could pass BBB and plays the role of precursor of a protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) - photosensitizer, that is accumulated selectively in the tumour cells and could be a proper tool in PDT of glioblastoma. However, differences from patient to patient and between the cell activities could also lead to different effectiveness of the PDT treatment of the tumour areas. Therefore in our study we investigated not only the effect of using different fluence rates and light doses, but aims to establish more efficient values for further clinical applications for each sub-type of the GBM lesions. For the needs of PDT application an illumination device was developed in Laboratory of Biophotonics, BAS based on light-emitting diode (LED) matrix light sources for therapeutic application emitting at 635 nm. The device is optimized for PDT in combination with aminolevulinic acid/protoporphyrin IX applied as a photosensitizer drug. By the means of FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson, USA) and Cell Quest Software was made evaluation of PDT effect on used human glioblastoma cells. Treatment of glioblastoma tumours continues to be a very serious issue and there is growing need in development of new concepts, methods and cancer-fighting strategies. PDT may contribute in accomplishing better results in cancer treatment and can be applied as well in combination with other techniques.

  2. Multiple giant cell lesions in patients with Noonan syndrome and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Thomas E; Allanson, Judith; Kavamura, Ines; Kerr, Bronwyn; Neri, Giovanni; Noonan, Jacqueline; Cordeddu, Viviana; Gibson, Kate; Tzschach, Andreas; Krüger, Gabriele; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Goecke, Timm O; Kehl, Hans Gerd; Albrecht, Beate; Luczak, Klaudiusz; Sasiadek, Maria M; Musante, Luciana; Laurie, Rohan; Peters, Hartmut; Tartaglia, Marco; Zenker, Martin; Kalscheuer, Vera

    2009-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS) are related developmental disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding various components of the RAS-MAPK signaling cascade. NS is associated with mutations in the genes PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, or KRAS, whereas CFCS can be caused by mutations in BRAF, MEK1, MEK2, or KRAS. The NS phenotype is rarely accompanied by multiple giant cell lesions (MGCL) of the jaw (Noonan-like/MGCL syndrome (NL/MGCLS)). PTPN11 mutations are the only genetic abnormalities reported so far in some patients with NL/MGCLS and in one individual with LEOPARD syndrome and MGCL. In a cohort of 75 NS patients previously tested negative for mutations in PTPN11 and KRAS, we detected SOS1 mutations in 11 individuals, four of whom had MGCL. To explore further the relevance of aberrant RAS-MAPK signaling in syndromic MGCL, we analyzed the established genes causing CFCS in three subjects with MGCL associated with a phenotype fitting CFCS. Mutations in BRAF or MEK1 were identified in these patients. All mutations detected in these seven patients with syndromic MGCL had previously been described in NS or CFCS without apparent MGCL. This study demonstrates that MGCL may occur in NS and CFCS with various underlying genetic alterations and no obvious genotype–phenotype correlation. This suggests that dysregulation of the RAS-MAPK pathway represents the common and basic molecular event predisposing to giant cell lesion formation in patients with NS and CFCS rather than specific mutation effects. PMID:18854871

  3. Multiple giant cell lesions in patients with Noonan syndrome and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Thomas E; Allanson, Judith; Kavamura, Ines; Kerr, Bronwyn; Neri, Giovanni; Noonan, Jacqueline; Cordeddu, Viviana; Gibson, Kate; Tzschach, Andreas; Krüger, Gabriele; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Goecke, Timm O; Kehl, Hans Gerd; Albrecht, Beate; Luczak, Klaudiusz; Sasiadek, Maria M; Musante, Luciana; Laurie, Rohan; Peters, Hartmut; Tartaglia, Marco; Zenker, Martin; Kalscheuer, Vera

    2009-04-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS) are related developmental disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding various components of the RAS-MAPK signaling cascade. NS is associated with mutations in the genes PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, or KRAS, whereas CFCS can be caused by mutations in BRAF, MEK1, MEK2, or KRAS. The NS phenotype is rarely accompanied by multiple giant cell lesions (MGCL) of the jaw (Noonan-like/MGCL syndrome (NL/MGCLS)). PTPN11 mutations are the only genetic abnormalities reported so far in some patients with NL/MGCLS and in one individual with LEOPARD syndrome and MGCL. In a cohort of 75 NS patients previously tested negative for mutations in PTPN11 and KRAS, we detected SOS1 mutations in 11 individuals, four of whom had MGCL. To explore further the relevance of aberrant RAS-MAPK signaling in syndromic MGCL, we analyzed the established genes causing CFCS in three subjects with MGCL associated with a phenotype fitting CFCS. Mutations in BRAF or MEK1 were identified in these patients. All mutations detected in these seven patients with syndromic MGCL had previously been described in NS or CFCS without apparent MGCL. This study demonstrates that MGCL may occur in NS and CFCS with various underlying genetic alterations and no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation. This suggests that dysregulation of the RAS-MAPK pathway represents the common and basic molecular event predisposing to giant cell lesion formation in patients with NS and CFCS rather than specific mutation effects.

  4. Polyelectrolyte-mediated bridging interactions: columnar macromolecular phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licer, Matjaz; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    We present a mean-field theory for charged polymer chains in an external electrostatic field in the weak and strong coupling limits. We apply the theory to describe the statistical mechanics of flexible polyelectrolyte chains in a hexagonal columnar lattice of stiff cylindrical macroions, such as DNA, in a bathing solution of a uni-univalent salt (e.g. NaCl). The salt effects are first described in the Debye-Hueckel framework. This yields the macroion electrostatic field in the screened Coulomb form, which we take to represent the mean field into which the chains are immersed. We introduce the Green's function for the polyelectrolyte chains and derive the corresponding Edwards equation which we solve numerically in the Wigner-Seitz cylindrical cell using the ground state dominance ansatz. The solutions indicate the presence of polyelectrolyte bridging, which results in a like-charge attraction between stiff macroions. Then we reformulate the Edwards theory for the strong coupling case and use the standard Poisson-Boltzmann picture to describe the salt solution. We begin with the free energy which we minimize to obtain the Euler-Lagrange equations. The solutions yield self-consistently determined monomer density and electrostatic fields. We furthermore calculate the free energy density as well as the total osmotic pressure in the system. We again show that bridging implicates like-charge attractions of entropic origin between stiff cylindrical macroions. By analyzing the osmotic pressure we demonstrate that, in certain parts of the parameter space, a phase transition occurs between two phases of the same hexagonal symmetry.

  5. Ensemble averaged multi-phase Eulerian model for columnar/equiaxed solidification of a binary alloy: II. Simulation of the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanas, A I; Fautrelle, Y

    2007-01-01

    A new multi-phase Eulerian model for the columnar and equiaxed dendritic solidification has been developed. In this paper we first focus on the numerical simulation of quasi-steady solidification experiments in order to obtain corresponding CET maps. We have identified three main zones on the CET map: the pure columnar, the pure equiaxed zone and finally the mixed columnar+equiaxed zone. The mixed c/e zone was further quantified by means of a columnar fraction ε c which quantifies in a rigorous way the two coexisting structures. Since it intrinsically includes the solutal and the mechanical blocking effects, the new ensemble model unifies the semi-empirical Hunt's approach (pure mechanical blocking mechanism) and the Martorano et al approach (pure solutal blocking mechanism). Secondly the present model was used to simulate unidirectional solidification experiments. It was found that the columnar front evolved in a quasi-steady state until a time very close to the critical CET moment. It is also found that the equiaxed nucleation undercooling is close to the maximum columnar dendrite tip undercooling and that the CET is virtually independent of the equiaxed zone ahead of the columnar front. If the equiaxed zone is not taken into account it is observed that the columnar front velocity exhibits a sudden increase at the beginning of the solidification followed by a quasi-plateau corresponding to a quasi-state at the columnar tips and finally, above a critical time, an oscillatory evolution. The beginning of the oscillatory evolution of the columnar front was well correlated with the CET position measured in the experiments. We also find that this oscillatory evolution of the columnar front is very favourable for the fragmentation of the columnar dendrites and thus for the CET. In this respect, it seems that the unsteady regime of the columnar front with respect to the local cooling conditions represents the main cause for the CET phenomena, at least for the non

  6. Spindle cell carcinoma of the breast as complex cystic lesion: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Masahiro; Hayashi, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yoshinari; Ishibashi, Kei; Oikawa, Keisuke; Miyokawa, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor. This tumor can proliferate rapidly and cause cystic changes because of internal tissue necrosis. We evaluated a 54-year-old woman with right breast lump. Mammography showed a category four mass with a diameter of 2.5 cm. Ultrasonography (US) revealed a complex cystic lesion, and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology demonstrated bloody fluid and malignant cells. Partial breast resection and sentinel lymph node biopsy were performed. Immunohistology revealed spindle cells with positive results for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and vimentin, partially positive results for s-100, and negative results for desmin and α-actin. The pathological stage was IIA, and biochemical characterization showed that the tumor was triple negative. Six courses of FEC-100 chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m 2 , epirubicin 100 mg/m 2 , and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m 2 ) were administered. Radiotherapy was performed. This case is discussed with reference to the literature

  7. Fast Formation of Opal-like Columnar Colloidal Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, D.; Radstake, P.B.; Petukhov, A.V.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that highly polydisperse colloidal gibbsite platelets easily form an opal-like columnar crystal with striking iridescent Bragg reflections. The formation process can be accelerated by orders of magnitude under a centrifugation force of 900g without arresting the system in a disordered

  8. Influence of columnar defects on the thermodynamic properties of BSCCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, C. J.; Indenbom, M. V.; Berseth, V.; Konczykowski, M.; Li, T. W.; Kes, P. H.; Benoit, W.

    1996-03-01

    Amorphous columnar defects strongly affect the reversible magnetization of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals both in the vortex solid, where the change reflects the change in vortex energy due to pinning, and in the vortex liquid, where the randomly positioned columns disrupt the interaction between superconducting fluctuations.

  9. Fractional Hoppinglike Motion in Columnar Mesophases of Semiflexible Rodlike Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naderi, S.; Pouget, E.; Ballesta, P.; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.; Lettinga, M.P.; Grelet, E

    2013-01-01

    We report on single-particle dynamics of strongly interacting filamentous fd virus particles in the liquid-crystalline columnar state in aqueous solution. From fluorescence microscopy, we find that rare, discrete events take place, in which individual particles engage in sudden, jumplike motion

  10. Walleye Autochthonous Bacteria as Promising Probiotic Candidates against Flavobacterium columnare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Seghouani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Walleye (Sander vitreus is the second most fished freshwater species in Canada. While much sought by anglers, walleye also supports substantial commercial fisheries. To cope with the recent decline of wild walleye populations, fish farmers produce juveniles for lake stocking. However, walleye breeding is particularly tedious, mostly due to high disease susceptibility at larval and juvenile developmental stages. The main threat is the columnaris disease, which is caused by Flavobacterium columnare, an opportunistic bacteria. As F. columnare strains exhibit increasing antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to develop efficient and sustainable alternative strategies to control columnaris disease. Bacterial probiotics have been shown to mitigate infections either by enhancing host immune response or by inhibiting pathogen growth. Being successfully assessed in many fish/pathogen combinations, we developed a tailored probiotic strategy for walleye to prevent and treat columnaris disease. Thirty-seven endogenous bacterial strains were isolated from healthy walleye’s skin and gut, were tested in vitro against F. columnare. Significant antagonistic effect against F. columnare was measured for 2 out of 37 endogenous strains. These two probiotic strains were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. The antagonistic effect of these two successful probiotics was further validated in vivo during a 2-month stress trial: groups receiving probiotic treatments showed on average 53.74% survival improvement.

  11. Orientation dependent emission properties of columnar quantum dash laser structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, S.; Podemski, P.; Sek, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Ridha, P.; Fiore, A.; Patriarche, G.; Höfling, S.; Forchel, A.

    2009-01-01

    InAs columnar quantum dash (CQDash) structures on (100) InP have been realized by gas source molecular beam epitaxy for stacking numbers of up to 24. Laser devices show low threshold current densities between 0.73 and 3.5 kA/ cm2, dependent on the CQDash orientation within the cavity.

  12. Comparison of Mast Cells and Inflammatory Cells within Periapical Lesions and Comparison of Degranulated Mast Cells Between Fibrous and Inflamed Area in Radicular Cysts: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiromany, Aseem; Sood, Rahul; Akifuddin, Syed; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Khan, Nadia; Singla, Kapil

    2014-12-01

    The role of mast cells as the key effector of allergic inflammation, anaphylactic inflammatory reactions and in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, is well-known. The present study is adopted to compare mast cells and inflammatory cells within periapical granuloma and cysts and localize the mast cells and quantify their number in the periapical cysts so as to propose a role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of this lesion. Biopsy specimens of 30 periapical lesions were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and immunohistochemical Mast Cell Tryptase from Bio SB (IHC detection system kit) antibody. The tryptase positive mast cells and mononuclear inflammatory cells were counted in 10 consecutive high power fields (100X) using the binocular microscope from Motic attached to a computer with Motic Advanced Images 3.2 software. Comparative microscopic analysis indicated that periapical cyst shows more percentage of mast cells and less percentage of inflammatory cell than periapical granuloma (comparison of mean and standard deviation of total number of mast cells and inflammatory cells, mast cells 3.15±1.39 in the granuloma group and 4.43±1.91in the cyst group, inflammatory cells, 67.11±1.2 in the granuloma group and 52.66±0.8 in the cyst group). Numerous degranulated mast cells were observed in the fibrous wall than the inflammatory infiltrate of the periapical cysts. The mean and standard deviation of degranulated mast cells between the inflammatory and fibrous zone within the cyst group, being 0.95±1.10 and1.68±1.34 respectively. The values varied significantly between the two zones. The number of inflammatory cells in the cyst group is less than periapical granuloma and total number of mast cells in the cyst group is more as compared to periapical granuloma. The degranulated cells were quantified and they were higher in the fibrous area of the cysts than the inflammatory zone. This study could support the fact that the various mediators released on

  13. Familial disseminated plaque type porokeratosis with multiple horns and squamous cell carcinoma involving anal skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratosis is a disorder of keratinization showing a well-defined lesion with a hyperkeratotic ridge on the border that contains the coronoid lamella. We report familial (autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance disseminated plaque type (Mibelli′s type porokeratosis in a father and son. In the father, there were multiple horns and a large squamous cell carcinoma in a large lesion over the perianal region that reached up to the squamo-columnar junction of the anal mucosa and even invaded the anal sphincteric muscles. Disseminated lesions of the Mibelli′s type, development of horns, and malignancy in this unusual location have not been previously reported.

  14. Correlation of serum GP73, SOD and GPC3 contents with cell proliferation and angiogenesis in liver cancer lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum GP73, SOD and GPC3 contents with cell proliferation and angiogenesis in liver cancer lesion. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with primary liver cancer in Jianghan Oilfield General Hospital between June 2014 and February 2017 were selected as liver cancer group, and healthy subjects who received physical examination in Jianghan Oilfield General Hospital during the same period were selected as control group. Serum was collected from two groups of subjects to determine the contents of GP73, SOD and GPC3; liver cancer lesion and adjacent lesion were collected from liver cancer group to determine the expression of cell proliferation molecules and angiogenesis molecules. Results: Serum GP73 and GPC3 levels of liver cancer group were obviously higher than those of control group while SOD content was obviously lower than that of control group; DNMT3B, STC2, SIRT6, LETM1, EphB4, SULT2B1, HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-2, HGF and TGF-β1 protein expression levels in liver cancer lesion of liver cancer group were significantly higher than those in adjacent lesion; DNMT3B, STC2, SIRT6, LETM1, EphB4, SULT2B1, HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-2, HGF and TGF-β1 protein expression levels in liver cancer lesion of liver cancer group were positively correlated with serum GP73 and GPC3 levels, and negatively correlated with serum SOD level. Conclusion: The changes of GP73, SOD and GPC3 levels in the serum of patients with liver cancer are closely related to the cell proliferation and angiogenesis in liver cancer lesion.

  15. Comparative analysis of the Flavobacterium columnare genomovar I and II genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease caused by Gram-negative rod Flavobacterium columnare is one of the most common diseases of catfish. F. columnare is also a common problem in other cultured fish species worldwide. F. columnare has three major genomovars; we have sequenced a representative strain from genomovar I (...

  16. Constitutive activation of p38 MAPK in tumor cells contributes to osteolytic bone lesions in multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; He, Jin; Wang, Ji; Cao, Yabing; Ling, Jianhua; Qian, Jianfei; Lu, Yong; Li, Haiyan; Zheng, Yuhuan; Lan, Yongsheng; Hong, Sungyoul; Matthews, Jairo; Starbuck, Michael W; Navone, Nora M; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Lin, Pei; Kwak, Larry W.; Yi, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Bone destruction is a hallmark of multiple myeloma and affects more than 80% of patients. However, current therapy is unable to completely cure and/or prevent bone lesions. Although it is accepted that myeloma cells mediate bone destruction by inhibition of osteoblasts and activation of osteoclasts, the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. This study demonstrates that constitutive activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in myeloma cells is responsible for myeloma-induced osteolysis. Our results show that p38 is constitutively activated in most myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells from patients. Myeloma cells with high/detectable p38 activity, but not those with low/undetectable p38 activity, injected into SCID or SCID-hu mice caused bone destruction. Inhibition or knockdown of p38 in human myeloma reduced or prevented myeloma-induced osteolytic bone lesions without affecting tumor growth, survival, or homing to bone. Mechanistic studies showed that myeloma cell p38 activity inhibited osteoblastogenesis and bone formation and activated osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in myeloma-bearing SCID mice. This study elucidates a novel molecular mechanism—sactivation of p38 signaling in myeloma cells—by which myeloma cells induce osteolytic bone lesions and indicates that targeting myeloma cell p38 may be a viable approach to treating or preventing myeloma bone disease. PMID:22425892

  17. Increased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosje, P J; van Kooten, P J; Thepen, T; Bihari, I C; Rutten, V P; Koeman, J P; Willemse, T

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize T cells in the skin of cats with an allergic dermatitis histologically compatible with atopic dermatitis, since T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in humans. We observed a significantly greater number of T cells in lesional skin of domestic short-haired cats with allergic dermatitis (n = 10; median age 5.8 years) than in the skin of healthy control animals (n = 10; median age 5.0 years). In the skin of the healthy control animals, one or two CD4+ cells and no CD8+ cells were found. A predominant increase of CD4+ T cells and a CD4+/CD8+ ratio (mean +/- SD: 3.9 +/- 2.0) was found in the lesional skin of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the skin of healthy control animals could not be determined because of the absence of CD8+ cells. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio in the peripheral blood of 10 cats with allergic dermatitis (mean +/- SD: 1.9 +/- 0.4) did not differ significantly from that in 10 healthy control animals (2.2 +/- 0.4). The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and predominance of CD4+ T cells in the lesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis is comparable to that found in atopic dermatitis in humans. In addition, the observed increase of CD4+ T cells in the nonlesional skin of cats with allergic dermatitis compared to the skin of healthy cats is similar to what is seen in humans. Cytokines produced by T cells and antigen-specific T cells are important mediators in the inflammatory cascade resulting in atopic dermatitis in humans. This study is a first step to investigate their role in feline allergic dermatitis.

  18. Spectrum of lesions derived from branchial arches occurring in the thyroid: from solid cell nests to tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbecka, Kristyna; Michalova, Kvetoslava; Curcikova, Radmila; Michal, Michael; Dubova, Magdalena; Svajdler, Marian; Michal, Michal; Daum, Ondrej

    2017-09-01

    There is a group of lesions in the head and neck region derived from branchial arches and related structures which, when inflamed, are characterized by the formation of cysts lined by squamous or glandular epithelium and surrounded by a heavy inflammatory infiltrate rich in germinal centers. In the thyroid, the main source of various structures which may cause diagnostic dilemma is the ultimobranchial body. To investigate the spectrum of such thyroid lesions, the consultation files were reviewed for thyroid samples containing pathological structures regarded to arise from the ultimobranchial body. Positive reaction with antibodies against CK5/6, p63, galectin 3, and CEA, and negative reaction with antibodies against thyroglobulin, TTF-1, and calcitonin were used to confirm the diagnosis. The specific subtype of the ultimobranchial body-derived lesion was then determined based on histological examination of H&E-stained slides. Twenty-one cases of ultimobranchial body-derived lesions were retrieved from the consultation files, 20 of them along with clinical information (M/F = 6/14, mean age 55 years, range 36-68 years). Lesions derived from the ultimobranchial body were classified as follows: (hyperplastic) solid cell nests (nine cases), solid cell nests with focal cystic change (five cases), cystic solid cell nests (two cases), branchial cleft-like cyst (four cases), and finally a peculiar Warthin tumor-like lesion (one case). We suggest that the common denominator of these structures is that they all arise due to activation of inflammatory cells around the vestigial structures, which leads to cystic dilatation and proliferation of the epithelial component.

  19. Oxidative Glial Cell Damage Associated with White Matter Lesions in the Aging Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mashhadi, Sufana; Simpson, Julie E; Heath, Paul R; Dickman, Mark; Forster, Gillian; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Ince, Paul G; Wharton, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are common in brain aging and are associated with dementia. We aimed to investigate whether oxidative DNA damage and occur in WML and in apparently normal white matter in cases with lesions. Tissue from WML and control white matter from brains with lesions (controls lesional) and without lesions (controls non-lesional) were obtained, using post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging-guided sampling, from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Oxidative damage was assessed by immunohistochemistry to 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxoguanosine (8-OHdG) and Western blotting for malondialdehyde. DNA response was assessed by phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), p53, senescence markers and by quantitative Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) panel for candidate DNA damage-associated genes. 8-OHdG was expressed in glia and endothelium, with increased expression in both WML and controls lesional compared with controls non-lesional (P glial dysfunction. Their expression in apparently normal white matter in cases with WML suggests that white matter dysfunction is not restricted to lesions. The role of this field-effect lesion pathogenesis and cognitive impairment are areas to be defined. © 2014 The Authors. Brain Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Neuropathology.

  20. A prospective study on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of testicular lesions: distinctive features of Leydig cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganaro, Lucia; Vinci, Valeria; Saldari, Matteo; Bernardo, Silvia; Cantisani, Vito; Catalano, Carlo; Pozza, Carlotta; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pofi, Riccardo; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M.; Scialpi, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Up to 20 % of incidentally found testicular lesions are benign Leydig cell tumours (LCTs). This study evaluates the role of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the identification of LCTs in a large prospective cohort study. We enrolled 44 consecutive patients with at least one solid non-palpable testicular lesion who underwent scrotal MRI. Margins of the lesions, signal intensity and pattern of wash-in and wash-out were analysed by two radiologists. The frequency distribution of malignant and benign MRI features in the different groups was compared by using the chi-squared or Fisher's exact test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. The sensitivity of scrotal MRI to diagnose LCTs was 89.47 % with 95.65 % specificity; sensitivity for malignant lesions was 95.65 % with 80.95 % specificity. A markedly hypointense signal on T2-WI, rapid and marked wash-in followed by a prolonged washout were distinctive features significantly associated with LCTs. Malignant lesions were significantly associated with blurred margins, weak hypointense signal on T2-WI,and weak and progressive wash-in. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 93 %. LCTs have distinctive contrast-enhanced MRI features that allow the differential diagnosis of incidental testicular lesions. (orig.)

  1. A prospective study on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of testicular lesions: distinctive features of Leydig cell tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganaro, Lucia; Vinci, Valeria; Saldari, Matteo; Bernardo, Silvia; Cantisani, Vito; Catalano, Carlo [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Pozza, Carlotta; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pofi, Riccardo; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M. [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Experimental Medicine, Rome (Italy); Scialpi, Michele [Perugia University, S. Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Department of Surgical and Biomedical Sciences, Division of Radiology 2, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    Up to 20 % of incidentally found testicular lesions are benign Leydig cell tumours (LCTs). This study evaluates the role of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the identification of LCTs in a large prospective cohort study. We enrolled 44 consecutive patients with at least one solid non-palpable testicular lesion who underwent scrotal MRI. Margins of the lesions, signal intensity and pattern of wash-in and wash-out were analysed by two radiologists. The frequency distribution of malignant and benign MRI features in the different groups was compared by using the chi-squared or Fisher's exact test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. The sensitivity of scrotal MRI to diagnose LCTs was 89.47 % with 95.65 % specificity; sensitivity for malignant lesions was 95.65 % with 80.95 % specificity. A markedly hypointense signal on T2-WI, rapid and marked wash-in followed by a prolonged washout were distinctive features significantly associated with LCTs. Malignant lesions were significantly associated with blurred margins, weak hypointense signal on T2-WI,and weak and progressive wash-in. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 93 %. LCTs have distinctive contrast-enhanced MRI features that allow the differential diagnosis of incidental testicular lesions. (orig.)

  2. Hierarchical columnar silicon anode structures for high energy density lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwko, Markus; Kuntze, Thomas; Winkler, Sebastian; Straach, Steffen; Härtel, Paul; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material for next generation lithium secondary batteries. To significantly increase the energy density of state of the art batteries with silicon, new concepts have to be developed and electrode structuring will become a key technology. Structuring is essential to reduce the macroscopic and microscopic electrode deformation, caused by the volume change during cycling. We report pulsed laser structuring for the generation of hierarchical columnar silicon films with outstanding high areal capacities up to 7.5 mAh cm-2 and good capacity retention. Unstructured columnar electrodes form a micron-sized block structure during the first cycle to compensate the volume expansion leading to macroscopic electrode deformation. At increased silicon loading, without additional structuring, pronounced distortion and the formation of cracks through the current collector causes cell failure. Pulsed laser ablation instead is demonstrated to avoid macroscopic electrode deformation by initial formation of the block structure. A full cell with lithiated silicon versus a carbon-sulfur cathode is assembled with only 15% overbalanced anode and low electrolyte amount (8 μl mgsulfur-1). While the capacity retention over 50 cycles is identical to a cell with high excess lithium anode, the volumetric energy density could be increased by 30%.

  3. Effects of myelin or cell body brainstem lesions on 3-channel Lissajous' trajectories of feline auditory brainstem evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, H; Zaaroor, M; Bleich, N; Starr, A

    1991-06-01

    Auditory brainstem evoked potentials (ABEP) were recorded from 16 awake cats to obtain 3-Channel Lissajous' Trajectories (3CLTs) using three orthogonal differential electrode configurations (nasion-midline nuchal ridge, left-right mastoids, vertex-midline under the mandible). Potentials, evoked by monaural 80 dBnHL (re, human threshold) clicks, were studied before, and up to 7 weeks after inducing neuronal lesions localized to the cochlear nucleus (CN) or the superior olivary complex (SOC), or myelin lesions localized to the fibers of the trapezoid body connecting these two structures. Neuronal lesions were induced by injection of kainic acid (KA), while myelin lesions were induced by injection of L-alpha-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). With CN neuronal lesions the major changes in 3CLT were in the time domain of 'b', 'c' and 'd' (components P2, P3 and P4 of single-channel ABEP). With SOC neuronal lesions the major changes were in 'c' and 'd' of 3CLT (P3 and P4 of ABEP). With trapezoid body lesions the major change was in 'c' (P3 of ABEP). The results are compatible with the peripheral generation of the first ABEP components (P1a and P1b). The second component (P2) is generated by ipsilateral CN neurones and their outputs. The third component (P3) is generated primarily by ipsilateral SOC neurones and their outputs, with the ipsilateral CN providing input. The The fourth component (P4) is generated bilaterally by the SOC neurones and their outputs, receiving their inputs from ipsilateral CN. The fifth ABEP component (P5) is generated by structures central to the SOCs and their immediate outputs. Neither focal neuronal nor myelin lesions were sufficient to produce obliteration of any component, consistent with a set of generators for each of the ABEP components, consisting of both cell bodies and their output fibers, that is distributed spatially in the brainstem.

  4. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia masquerading as cutaneous indeterminate dendritic cell tumor: Expanding the spectrum of skin lesions in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loghavi, Sanam; Curry, Jonathan L; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Patel, Keyur P; Xu, Jie; Khoury, Joseph D; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Aung, Phyu P; Gibson, Bernard R; Goodwin, Brandon P; Kelly, Brent C; Korivi, Brinda R; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Prieto, Victor G; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Tetzlaff, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a hematopoietic stem cell neoplasm exhibiting both myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative features. Cutaneous involvement by CMML is critical to recognize as it typically is a harbinger of disease progression and an increased incidence of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Cutaneous lesions of CMML exhibit heterogeneous histopathologic features that can be challenging to recognize as CMML. We describe a 67-year-old man with a 3-year history of CMML who had been managed on single-agent azacitidine with stable disease before developing splenomegaly and acute onset skin lesions. Examination of these skin lesions revealed a dense infiltrate of histiocytic cells morphologically resembling Langerhans type cells (lacking frank histopathologic atypia), and with the immunophenotype of an indeterminate cell histiocytosis (S100+ CD1a+ and langerin-). Given the history of CMML, next-generation sequencing studies were performed on the skin biopsy. These revealed a KRAS (p.G12R) mutation identical to that seen in the CMML 3 years prior, establishing a clonal relationship between the 2 processes. This case expands the spectrum for and underscores the protean nature of cutaneous involvement by CMML and underscores the importance of heightened vigilance when evaluating skin lesions of CMML patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Early lesion-specific 18F-FDG PET response to chemotherapy predicts time to lesion progression in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Lotte; Vogelius, Ivan Richter; Fischer, Barbara M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesize that the lesion-to-lesion variability in FDG-PET response after one cycle of chemotherapy for NSCLC in an individual patient may inform radiation dose redistribution. To test this hypothesis, we investigate if time to lesion-progression in patients with mult...... patient response involves a loss of biological information on heterogeneity between lesions. Poor lesion-specific response after one cycle chemotherapy may identify lesions that would benefit from an individualized radiotherapy strategy.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesize that the lesion-to-lesion variability in FDG-PET response after one cycle of chemotherapy for NSCLC in an individual patient may inform radiation dose redistribution. To test this hypothesis, we investigate if time to lesion-progression in patients...... with multiple lesions is dependent on lesion-specific response to chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 81 patients with 184 lesions referred to curative chemo-radiotherapy for NSCLC 2010-2012. (18)F-FDG PET scans were performed at diagnosis and after one series of chemotherapy. Response of each...

  6. Surgical Treatment, Oral Rehabilitation, and Orthognathic Surgery After Failure of Pharmacologic Treatment of Central Giant Cell Lesion: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia Nogueira, Renato Luiz; Osterne, Rafael Lima Verde; Cavalcante, Roberta Barroso; Abreu, Ricardo Teixeira

    2016-12-01

    Although pharmacologic treatments for central giant cell lesions have gained much emphasis, these treatment modalities do not always have successful outcomes, and surgical treatment may be necessary. The purpose of the present study was to report a case of aggressive central giant cell lesion initially treated by nonsurgical methods without satisfactory results, necessitating segmental mandibular resection for definitive treatment and oral rehabilitation. A 20-year-old woman was diagnosed with an aggressive central giant cell lesion in the mandible. The patient was first treated with intralesional corticosteroid injections. Subsequently, the lesion increased in size. Therefore, a second pharmacologic treatment was proposed with salmon calcitonin nasal spray, but no signs of a treatment response were noted. Because of the lack of response, surgical excision was performed, and a mandibular reconstruction plate was installed. At 12 months after surgical resection, the patient underwent mandibular reconstruction with bone grafts. After 6 months, 7 dental implants were installed, and fixed prostheses were made. After installation of the prostheses, the patient experienced persistent mandibular laterognathism, and a mandibular orthognathic surgery was performed to correct the laterognathia. The follow-up examination 4 years after orthognathic surgery showed no signs of recurrence and good facial symmetry. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is often found in lesions, previously diagnosed as lichen sclerosus, which have progressed to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Nieuwenhof, Hedwig P.; Bulten, Johan; Hollema, Harrie; Dommerholt, Rianne G.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; de Hullu, Joanne A.; van Kempen, Leon C. L. T.

    Lichen sclerosus is considered to be the precursor lesion of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, of which only 2-5% progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) has been proposed to be the direct precursor lesion, but this is a recently recognized, and a

  8. Embryonic Cell Grafts in a Culture Model of Spinal Cord Lesion: Neuronal Relay Formation is Essential for Functional Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Tscherter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Presently there exists no cure for spinal cord injury. However, transplantation of embryonic tissue into spinal cord lesions resulted in axon outgrowth across the lesion site and some functional recovery, fostering hope for future stem cell therapies. Although in vivo evidence for functional recovery is given, the exact cellular mechanism of the graft support remains elusive: either the grafted cells provide a permissive environment for the host tissue to regenerate itself or the grafts actually integrate functionally into the host neuronal network reconnecting the separated spinal cord circuits. We tested the two hypotheses in an in vitro spinal cord lesion model that is based on propagation of activity between two rat organotypic spinal cord slices in culture. Transplantation of dissociated cells from E14 rat spinal cord or forebrain re-established the relay of activity over the lesion site and, thus, provoked functional regeneration. Combining patch-clamp recordings from transplanted cells with network activity measurements from the host tissue on multi-electrode arrays we here show that neurons differentiate from the grafted cells and integrate into the host circuits. Optogenetic silencing of neurons developed from transplanted embryonic mouse forebrain cells provides clear evidence that they replace the lost neuronal connections to relay and synchronize activity between the separated spinal cord circuits. In contrast, transplantation of neurospheres induced neither the differentiation of mature neurons from the grafts nor an improvement of functional regeneration. Together these findings suggest, that the formation of neuronal relays from grafted embryonic cells is essential to re-connect segregated spinal cord circuits.

  9. Repositioning chloroquine and metformin to eliminate cancer stem cell traits in pre-malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; López-Bonetc, Eugeni; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Del Barco, Sonia; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Menendez, Javier A

    2011-01-01

    Ideal oncology drugs would be curative after a short treatment course if they could eliminate epithelium-originated carcinomas at their non-invasive, pre-malignant stages. Such ideal molecules, which are expected to molecularly abrogate all the instrumental mechanisms acquired by migrating cancer stem cells (CSCs) to by-pass tumour suppressor barriers, might already exist. We here illustrate how system biology strategies for repositioning existing FDA-approved drugs may accelerate our therapeutic capacity to eliminate CSC traits in pre-invasive intraepithelial neoplasias. First, we describe a signalling network signature that overrides bioenergetics stress- and oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) phenomena in CSCs residing at pre-invasive lesions. Second, we functionally map the anti-malarial chloroquine and the anti-diabetic metformin ("old drugs") to their recently recognized CSC targets ("new uses") within the network. By discussing the preclinical efficacy of chloroquine and metformin to inhibiting the genesis and self-renewal of CSCs we finally underscore the expected translational impact of the "old drugs-new uses" repurposing strategy to open a new CSC-targeted chemoprevention era. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Photophysical properties of columnar phases formed by triphenylene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigal, Herve

    1997-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the spectroscopic properties and of the migration of excitation energy in the singlet state in columnar phases formed by alkyloxy and alkylthio derivatives of triphenylene. First, the author studied the spectroscopic properties of chromophores in solutions, and characterized excited states by using computation codes (CS-INDO-CIPSI). Then, by using the excitonic theory in the case of the considered triphenylene derivatives, the author studied the influence of molecular movements and of the intra-columnar order on the spectroscopic properties. In some circumstances, the non-radiative transfer of excitation energy is governed by a mechanism displaying a random evolution. This stochastic movement is studied by using Monte Carlo simulations. The author shows that the energy migration is one-dimensional on short times, and then becomes three-dimensional. The evolution of excitation energy in space and in time is determined [fr

  11. Electrodeposited Ni-W magnetic thin films with columnar nanocrystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulitanu, N.; Brinza, F.

    2002-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni-W thin films (140 nm) containing from zero to 18 wt % W were electrolytically prepared and structural and magnetic characterized. XRD, SEM and TEM investigations have revealed that all segregated Ni columns are fcc-type whose [111] axis is oriented perpendicular to the film plane and have 140 nm in height and 6-27 nm in diameter. Depending on film composition, two types of nanostructures were observed: (a) single-phase nanostructure ( i nterphases , namely W enriched particles boundaries, and (b) two-phase nanostructure (7-18 wt %) in which a second Ni-W amorphous phase or even amorphous-disordered mixture separates the magnetic columnar Ni nanocrystallites (d = 6-14 nm). The columnar crystallites have an easy magnetization direction along their long axis mainly due to the in-plane internal biaxial stresses. Magnetic characteristics of prepared thin films are presented. (Authors)

  12. Quantum depinning of flux lines from columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.; Ferrera, A.; Vilenkin, A.

    1995-01-01

    The depinning of a flux line from a columnar defect is studied within the path-integral approach. Instantons of the quantum field theory in 1+1 dimensions are computed for the flux line whose dynamics is dominated by the Magnus force. The universal temperature dependence of the decay rate in the proximity of the critical current is obtained. This problem provides an example of macroscopic quantum tunneling, which is accessible to the direct comparison between theory and experiment

  13. Comparison of mesencephalic free-floating tissue culture grafts and cell suspension grafts in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Morten; Widmer, H R; Wagner, B

    1998-01-01

    days in culture or directly as dissociated cell suspensions, and compared with regard to neuronal survival and ability to normalize rotational behavior in adult rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions. Other lesioned rats received injections of cell-free medium and served as controls...... of grafted dopaminergic neurons and to correlate that with the behavioral effects. Additional cultures and acutely prepared explants were also fixed and stored for histological investigation in order to estimate the loss of dopaminergic neurons in culture and after transplantation. Similar behavioral...... improvements in terms of significant reductions in amphetamine-induced rotations were observed in rats grafted with FFRT cultures (127%) and rats grafted with cell suspensions (122%), while control animals showed no normalization of rotational behavior. At 84 days after transplantation, there were similar...

  14. Virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Jason P; LaFrentz, Benjamin R

    2016-08-09

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and is responsible for significant economic losses in aquaculture. F. columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium, and 5 genetic types or genomovars have been described based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA gene. Previous research has suggested that genomovar II isolates are more virulent than genomovar I isolates to multiple species of fish, including rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In addition, improved genotyping methods have shown that some isolates previously classified as genomovar I, and used in challenge experiments, were in fact genomovar III. Our objective was to confirm previous results with respect to genomovar II virulence, and to determine the susceptibility of rainbow trout to other genomovars. The virulence of 8 genomovar I, 4 genomovar II, 3 genomovar II-B, and 5 genomovar III isolates originating from various sources was determined through 3 independent challenges in rainbow trout using an immersion challenge model. Mean cumulative percent mortality (CPM) of ~49% for genomovar I isolates, ~1% for genomovar II, ~5% for the II-B isolates, and ~7% for the III isolates was observed. The inability of genomovar II isolates to produce mortalities in rainbow trout was unanticipated based on previous studies, but may be due to a number of factors including rainbow trout source and water chemistry. The source of fish and/or the presence of sub-optimal environment may influence the susceptibility of rainbow trout to different F. columnare genomovars.

  15. Expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in oral potentially malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalley, Andrew J; Pitty, Luke P; Major, Aidan G; AbdulMajeed, Ahmad A; Farah, Camile S

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis is vital for effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The optimal time for clinical intervention is prior to malignancy when patients present with oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia or erythroplakia. Transformation rates for oral dysplasia vary greatly and more rigorous methods are needed to predict the malignant potential of oral lesions. We hypothesized that the expression of two putative stem cell markers, ABCG2 and Bmi-1, would correlate with disease severity for non diseased, potentially malignant and OSCC specimens and cell lines derived from an equivalent range of tissues. We compared immunoreactive protein and relative gene expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in eight cell lines derived from source tissues ranging in disease severity from normal (OKF6-TERT2) through mild and moderate/severe dysplasia (DOK, POE-9n) to OSCC (PE/CA-PJ15, SCC04, SCC25, SCC09, SCC15). We also analyzed immunoreactive protein expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in 189 tissue samples with the same range of disease severity. A trend between oral lesion severity to ABCG2 and Bmi-1 immunostain intensity was observed. Flow cytometry of oral cell lines confirmed this trend and gave good correlation with RT-PCR results for ABCG2 (r = 0.919, P = 0.001; Pearson) but not Bmi-1 (r = −0.311). The results provide evidence of increased density of ABCG2 and Bmi-1-positive populations in malignant and oral potentially malignant lesions and derived cell lines, but that intragroup variability within IHC, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR results compromise the diagnostic potential of these techniques for discriminating oral dysplasia from normal tissue or OSCC

  16. Clonal expansion of T-cell receptor beta gene segment in the retrocochlear lesions of EAE mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K C; Lee, K M; Yoo, T J

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that the T cell receptor V beta 8.2 (TcrbV8.2) gene segment is predominantly expressed in encephalomyelitic T cells responding to myelin basic protein (MBP) in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. We have demonstrated retrocochlear hearing loss in EAE mice in previous studies. Administration of a monoclonal antibody specific to the T cell receptor V beta 8 (TcrbV8) subfamily prevented both this type of hearing loss and the central nerve disease. In this study, we examined the role of the TcrbV8.2 gene segment in the retrocochlear lesions of EAE mice. A clonal expression of T cell receptor beta chain gene segment (TcrbV8.2-TcrbD2-TcrbJ2.7) was identified in the retrocochlear lesions. The TcrbV8.2 gene segment appears to recombine only with TcrbJ2.1 (32.1%) and TcrbJ2.7 (67.9%) gene segments. The TcrbJ2.7 gene segment has also been previously identified as the dominant TcrbJ gene in the lymph nodes of EAE mice. Only TcrbD2, with a length of 4 amino acids, was observed recombining with these TcrbV8.2 sequences. G and C nucleotides are predominantly expressed at the N regions between the V-D and D-J junctions. This dominant TcrbV gene segment (TcrbV8.2-TcrbD2-TcrbJ2.7) observed in the retrocochlear lesions has been identified in the MBP-specific T cells from the lymph nodes of EAE mice. These results suggest that a small subset of antigen-specific T cells migrate to, and expand at, the retrocochlear lesions, which leads to hearing loss.

  17. TRB3 is elevated in psoriasis vulgaris lesions and mediates HaCaT cells proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing; Song, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Lu-Wei; Su, Ying; Wang, Ke-Yu; Sun, Qing

    2017-10-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease characterized by abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Overexpression of tribbles homolog3 (TRB3), which belongs to the tribbles family of pseudokinases, has been found in several human tumors and metabolic diseases, but its role in psoriasis has not been fully clarified. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of TRB3 in psoriasis and explore its roles in the proliferation of keratinocytes. Twenty-four patients with psoriasis vulgaris were recruited for the study. Diagnosis of psoriasis was based on clinical and histologic examinations. Immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) were performed to determine protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of TRB3 in psoriasis lesions. 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine (BrdU) incorporation assay were performed for cell proliferation. Cell cycle distribution was assessed by flow cytometry analysis. The levels of TRB3 is elevated in psoriatic lesions compared with psoriatic non-lesions. The HaCat cells expressed the TRB3 gene. We found TRB3 silencing to significantly inhibit HaCat cell proliferation. Furthermore, the specific knockdown of TRB3 slowed down the cell cycle at the gap 0/first gap phase. In conclusion, our data suggest that TRB3 is overexpressed in lesions of patients with psoriasis and may be involved in the abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes. Therefore, TRB3 may be a potential therapeutic target for psoriasis. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Annealing dependent evolution of columnar nanostructures in RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films for hydrophobic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan; Maidul Haque, S.; Divakar Rao, K.; Misal, J. S.; Prathap, C.; Das, S. C.; Patidar, Manju M.; Ganesan, V.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2018-01-01

    Present communication focuses on a relatively less explored direction of producing rough polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surfaces for possible hydrophobic applications. The experiments were carried out to make rough PTFE films without losing much of the transmission, which is an important factor while designing futuristic solar cell protection covers. After annealing temperature optimization, as grown RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films (prepared at 160 W RF power) were subjected to vacuum annealing at 200 °C for different time durations ranging from 1 to 4 h. The films show morphological evolution exhibiting formation and growth of columnar nanostructures that are responsible for roughening of the films due to annealing induced molecular migration and rearrangement. In agreement with this, qualitative analysis of corresponding x-ray reflectivity data shows modification in film thickness, which may again be attributed to the growth of columns at the expense of the atoms of remaining film molecules. However, the observations reveal that the film annealed at 200 °C for 2 h gives a combination of patterned columnar structures and reasonable transmission of >85% (in 500-1000 nm wavelength range), both of which are deteriorated when the films are annealed either at high temperature beyond 200 °C or for long durations >3 h. In addition, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results reveal that the molecular bonds remain intact upon annealing at any temperature within the studied range indicating the stable nature of the films.

  19. Panax Notoginseng Saponins Promote Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization and Attenuate Atherosclerotic Lesions in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs derived from the bone marrow (BM play a key role in the homeostasis of vascular repair by enhanced reendothelialization. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS, a highly valued traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease. The present research was designed to explore the contribution of progenitor cells to the progression of atherosclerotic plaques and the possible modulatory role of PNS in this process. Methods: PNS (60 or 120 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection was administered over 8 weeks in apolipoprotein E knockout mice on an atherogenic diet. The sizes and histochemical alteration of atherosclerotic lesions and numbers of EPCs in BM and peripheral blood were analyzed. The expression of chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α and its receptor, CXCR4, was monitored as well. Results: PNS significantly reduced the lesion area and intima-to-media ratio compared to vehicle treatment. PNS also augmented endothelialization and reduced the smooth muscle cell (SMCs content of the lesions. The number of c-kit and sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells and flk-1 and sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells were significantly increased in the BM and the peripheral blood of the PNS-treated groups. PNS treatment increased the plasma levels of SDF-1α and SCF as well as the BM levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. Moreover, the mRNA levels of SDF-1α and protein levels of CXCR4 were both increased in the BM of mice treated with PNS, while SDF-1α expression decreased. Conclusion: PNS reduce the size of atherosclerotic plaques, and this effect appears to involve progenitor cell mobilization. SDF-1α-CXCR4 interactions and the possible modulatory role of PNS in this process may contribute to the increased progenitor cell mobilization.

  20. Gastrointestinal tract spindle cell lesions--just like real estate, it's all about location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal lesions is simplified merely by knowing in which anatomic layer they are usually found. For example, Kaposi sarcoma is detected on mucosal biopsies, whereas inflammatory fibroid polyp is nearly always in the submucosa. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are generally centered in the muscularis propria. Schwannomas are essentially always in the muscularis propria. Mesenteric lesions are usually found in the small bowel mesentery. Knowledge of the favored layer is even most important in interpreting colon biopsies, as many mesenschymal polyps are encountered in the colon. Although GISTs are among the most common mesenchymal lesions, we will concentrate our discussion on other mesenchymal lesions, some of which are in the differential diagnosis of GIST, and point out some diagnostic pitfalls, particularly in immunolabeling.

  1. Bone marrow-derived cells and biophysical stimulation for talar osteochondral lesions: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadossi, Matteo; Buda, Roberto Emanuele; Ramponi, Laura; Sambri, Andrea; Natali, Simone; Giannini, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT) frequently occur after ankle sprains in young patients participating in sports activities. These injuries may lead to chronic pain, joint swelling, and finally osteoarthritis, therefore, surgical repair is frequently needed. A collagen scaffold seeded with bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) harvested from patient's iliac crest and implanted into the OLT through a single arthroscopic procedure has been recently proposed as an effective treatment option. Nevertheless, BMDCs, embedded in an inflammatory environment, tend to differentiate toward a fibroblast phenotype with a consequential loss of mechanical characteristics. Biophysical stimulation with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has been shown to promote anabolic chondrocyte activity, stimulate proteoglycan synthesis, and reduce the release of the most relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of PEMFs on clinical outcome in patients who underwent BMDCs transplantation for OLT. Thirty patients affected by grade III and IV Outerbridge OLT underwent BMDCs transplantation. After surgery, patients were randomly assigned to either experimental group (PEMFs 4 hours per day for 60 days starting within 3 days after operation) or control group. Clinical outcome was evaluated with (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society) AOFAS score, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Significantly higher AOFAS score was recorded in the experimental group both at 6 or 12 months follow-up. At 60 days and 6 and 12 months follow-up, significant lower pain was observed in the experimental group. No significant difference was found in SF-36 between groups. A superior clinical outcome was found in the experimental group with more than 10 points higher AOFAS score at final follow-up. Biophysical stimulation started soon after surgery aided patient recovery leading to pain control and a better clinical outcome

  2. Defining the cellular environment in the organ of Corti following extensive hair cell loss: a basis for future sensory cell replacement in the Cochlea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth R Taylor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the loss of hair cells from the mammalian cochlea, the sensory epithelium repairs to close the lesions but no new hair cells arise and hearing impairment ensues. For any cell replacement strategy to be successful, the cellular environment of the injured tissue has to be able to nurture new hair cells. This study defines characteristics of the auditory sensory epithelium after hair cell loss. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Studies were conducted in C57BL/6 and CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with an aminoglycoside-diuretic combination produced loss of all outer hair cells within 48 hours in both strains. The subsequent progressive tissue re-organisation was examined using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. There was no evidence of significant de-differentiation of the specialised columnar supporting cells. Kir4.1 was down regulated but KCC4, GLAST, microtubule bundles, connexin expression patterns and pathways of intercellular communication were retained. The columnar supporting cells became covered with non-specialised cells migrating from the outermost region of the organ of Corti. Eventually non-specialised, flat cells replaced the columnar epithelium. Flat epithelium developed in distributed patches interrupting regions of columnar epithelium formed of differentiated supporting cells. Formation of the flat epithelium was initiated within a few weeks post-treatment in C57BL/6 mice but not for several months in CBA/Ca's, suggesting genetic background influences the rate of re-organisation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of dedifferentiation amongst supporting cells and their replacement by cells from the outer side of the organ of Corti are factors that may need to be considered in any attempt to promote endogenous hair cell regeneration. The variability of the cellular environment along an individual cochlea arising from patch-like generation of flat epithelium, and the possible variability between individuals

  3. Suppression of medulloblastoma lesions by forced migration of preneoplastic precursor cells with intracerebellar administration of the chemokine Cxcl3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ceccarelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB, tumor of the cerebellum, remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in childhood.We previously showed, in a mouse model of spontaneous MB (Ptch1+/-/Tis21-/-, that a defect of the migration of cerebellar granule neuron precursor cells (GCPs correlates with an increased frequency of MB. This occurs because GCPs, rather than migrating internally and differentiating, remain longer in the proliferative area at the cerebellar surface, becoming targets of transforming insults. Furthermore, we identified the chemokine Cxcl3 as responsible for the inward migration of GCPs. As it is known that preneoplastic GCPs (pGCPs can still migrate and differentiate like normal GCPs, thus exiting the neoplastic program, in this study we tested the hypothesis that pGCPs within a MB lesion could be induced by Cxcl3 to migrate and differentiate. We observed that the administration of Cxcl3 for 28 days within the cerebellum of one-month-old Ptch1+/-/Tis21-/- mice, i.e., when MB lesions are already formed, leads to complete disappearance of the lesions. However, a shorter treatment with Cxcl3 (two weeks was ineffective, suggesting that the suppression of MB lesions is dependent on the duration of Cxcl3 application. We verified that the treatment with Cxcl3 causes a massive migration of pGCPs from the lesion to the internal granular layer (IGL, where they differentiate.Thus, the induction of migration of pGCPs in medulloblastoma lesions may open new ways to treat MB that exploit the plasticity of the pGCPs, forcing their differentiation. It remains to be tested whether this plasticity continues at advanced stages of medulloblastoma. If so, these findings would set a potential use of the chemokine Cxcl3 as therapeutic agent against MB development in human preclinical studies.

  4. Suppression of Medulloblastoma Lesions by Forced Migration of Preneoplastic Precursor Cells with Intracerebellar Administration of the Chemokine Cxcl3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Manuela; Micheli, Laura; Tirone, Felice

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB), tumor of the cerebellum, remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in childhood. We previously showed, in a mouse model of spontaneous MB ( Ptch1 +/- / Tis21 -/- ), that a defect of the migration of cerebellar granule neuron precursor cells (GCPs) correlates with an increased frequency of MB. This occurs because GCPs, rather than migrating internally and differentiating, remain longer in the proliferative area at the cerebellar surface, becoming targets of transforming insults. Furthermore, we identified the chemokine Cxcl3 as responsible for the inward migration of GCPs. As it is known that preneoplastic GCPs (pGCPs) can still migrate and differentiate like normal GCPs, thus exiting the neoplastic program, in this study we tested the hypothesis that pGCPs within a MB lesion could be induced by Cxcl3 to migrate and differentiate. We observed that the administration of Cxcl3 for 28 days within the cerebellum of 1-month-old Ptch1 +/- / Tis21 -/- mice, i.e., when MB lesions are already formed, leads to complete disappearance of the lesions. However, a shorter treatment with Cxcl3 (2 weeks) was ineffective, suggesting that the suppression of MB lesions is dependent on the duration of Cxcl3 application. We verified that the treatment with Cxcl3 causes a massive migration of pGCPs from the lesion to the internal granular layer, where they differentiate. Thus, the induction of migration of pGCPs in MB lesions may open new ways to treat MB that exploit the plasticity of the pGCPs, forcing their differentiation. It remains to be tested whether this plasticity continues at advanced stages of MB. If so, these findings would set a potential use of the chemokine Cxcl3 as therapeutic agent against MB development in human preclinical studies.

  5. Mycolactone-Dependent Depletion of Endothelial Cell Thrombomodulin Is Strongly Associated with Fibrin Deposition in Buruli Ulcer Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Ogbechi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A well-known histopathological feature of diseased skin in Buruli ulcer (BU is coagulative necrosis caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans macrolide exotoxin mycolactone. Since the underlying mechanism is not known, we have investigated the effect of mycolactone on endothelial cells, focussing on the expression of surface anticoagulant molecules involved in the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Congenital deficiencies in this natural anticoagulant pathway are known to induce thrombotic complications such as purpura fulimans and spontaneous necrosis. Mycolactone profoundly decreased thrombomodulin (TM expression on the surface of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC at doses as low as 2 ng/ml and as early as 8 hrs after exposure. TM activates protein C by altering thrombin's substrate specificity, and exposure of HDMVEC to mycolactone for 24 hours resulted in an almost complete loss of the cells' ability to produce activated protein C. Loss of TM was shown to be due to a previously described mechanism involving mycolactone-dependent blockade of Sec61 translocation that results in proteasome-dependent degradation of newly synthesised ER-transiting proteins. Indeed, depletion from cells determined by live-cell imaging of cells stably expressing a recombinant TM-GFP fusion protein occurred at the known turnover rate. In order to determine the relevance of these findings to BU disease, immunohistochemistry of punch biopsies from 40 BU lesions (31 ulcers, nine plaques was performed. TM abundance was profoundly reduced in the subcutis of 78% of biopsies. Furthermore, it was confirmed that fibrin deposition is a common feature of BU lesions, particularly in the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that there is decreased ability to control thrombin generation in BU skin. Mycolactone's effects on normal endothelial cell function, including its ability to activate the protein C anticoagulant pathway are strongly associated with this

  6. Complete resection of the primary lesion improves survival of certain patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaishi, Yasuhiro; Shinohara, Shinji; Kuwata, Taiji; Takenaka, Masaru; Oka, Soichi; Hirai, Ayako; Yoneda, Kazue; Kuroda, Kouji; Imanishi, Naoko; Ichiki, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Fumihiro

    2017-12-01

    The standard treatment for patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is systemic chemotherapy. However, certain patients, such as those with oligometastasis or M1a disease undergo resection of the primary lesion. We conducted a retrospective review of the records of 1,471 consecutive patients with NSCLC who underwent resection of the primary lesion for between June 2005 and May 2016. The present study included 38 patients with stage IV NSCLC who underwent complete resection of the primary lesion as first-line treatment. The median follow-up duration for the 38 patients (27 men) was 17.7 months (range, 1-82.3 months). The T factors were T1/T2/T3/T4 in 4/16/12/6 patients, respectively. The N factors were N0/N1/N2/N3 in 16/8/12/2 patients, respectively. The M factors were M1a/M1b/M1c in 19/13/6 patients, respectively. Of the 19 M1a patients, 11 were classified as cM0. We introduced the novel classification M-better/M-worse. M-better includes cM0 patients and M1b and M1c patients in whom all lesions have been locally controlled. M-worse includes cM1a patients and M1b and M1c patients in whom lesions cannot be locally controlled. The new M-better/M-worse statuses were 24/14 patients, respectively. The histology of NSCLC was adenocarcinoma/squamous cell carcinoma/others in 30/5/3 patients, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rate was 29%, and the median survival time was 725 days. Squamous cell carcinoma and M-worse were significant factors predicting poor outcomes (P=0.0017, P=0.0007, respectively). Even for stage IV NSCLC patients, resection of the primary lesion may be beneficial, especially for those with M-better status and those not diagnosed with squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC).

  7. World wide web-based cytological analysis of atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washiya, Kiyotada; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kumagai, Yukie; Himeji, Yukari; Kobayashi, Takako; Iwai, Muneo; Watanabe, Jun

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that the low level of consistency of diagnosis of atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASC-H) in uterine cervical cancer screening using the Bethesda System, indicating the necessity of a large-scale survey. We presented cases cytologically judged as ASC-H on our website and invited our members to give their opinions regarding the diagnosis by voting online. The Web voting results were analyzed and ASC-H was cytologically investigated. Virtual slides of atypical cells in cytology preparations of 53 cases were prepared and presented on a website. ASC-H cases were divided into 42 cases sampled by brush scraping and 11 cases sampled by cotton swab scraping. Fifty-three cases cytologically judged as ASC-H were classified into benign and CIN2/3, and their patterns of arrangement of atypical cells and 8 cytological parameters were morphologically investigated. The frequency of ASC-H diagnosis in the Web votes was low: 29.2% for brush-scraped and 26.2% for cotton swab-scraped cases. Three-dimensionality, coarse chromatin and irregular nuclei were significantly different between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign cases. Web-based surveys showed the difference of cytological findings between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign cases. To increase interobserver consistency, it may be useful to share information online, which avoids geographical and temporal limitations. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. SOS1 and PTPN11 mutations in five cases of Noonan syndrome with multiple giant cell lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneteau, Claire; Cavé, Hélène; Moncla, Anne; Dorison, Nathalie; Munnich, Arnold; Verloes, Alain; Leheup, Bruno

    2009-10-01

    We report five cases of multiple giant cell lesions in patients with typical Noonan syndrome. Such association has frequently been referred to as Noonan-like/multiple giant cell (NL/MGCL) syndrome before the molecular definition of Noonan syndrome. Two patients show mutations in PTPN11 (p.Tyr62Asp and p.Asn308Asp) and three in SOS1 (p.Arg552Ser and p.Arg552Thr). The latter are the first SOS1 mutations reported outside PTPN11 in NL/MGCL syndrome. MGCL lesions were observed in jaws ('cherubism') and joints ('pigmented villonodular synovitis'). We show through those patients that both types of MGCL are not PTPN11-specific, but rather represent a low penetrant (or perhaps overlooked) complication of the dysregulated RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. We recommend discarding NL/MGCL syndrome from the nosology, as this presentation is neither gene-nor allele-specific of Noonan syndrome; these patients should be described as Noonan syndrome with MGCL (of the mandible, the long bone...). The term cherubism should be used only when multiple giant cell lesions occur without any other clinical and molecular evidence of Noonan syndrome, with or without mutations of the SH3BP2 gene.

  9. Laryngeal giant cell tumour presenting as a tongue base lesion causing severe dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razi M. Saud, MBBS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available الملخص: أورام الخلايا العملاقة هي آفات حميدة وغير مألوفة تظهر في الحنجرة. قد يصاب المريض بصعوبة في البلع، وبحة في الصوت وتورم في الجهة الأمامية من الرقبة. أورام الخلايا العملاقة هي نادرة للغاية، وهناك حالات قليلة في الأدبيات المنشورة. نعرض لحالة إمرأة مسنة قدمت بصعوبة شديدة في البلع، وورم في قاعدة اللسان. أظهرت نتيجة الورم بأنه ورم الخلايا العملاقة في الحنجرة وتم علاجه بنجاح باستخدام المعالجة الكيميائية. Abstract: Giant cell tumours are benign lesions that are uncommonly found in the larynx. Patients with these tumours may present with dysphagia, hoarseness and anterior neck swelling. Giant cell tumours are extremely rare and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of an elderly woman who presented with severe dysphagia and a mass at the base of her tongue. The mass was found to be a laryngeal giant cell tumour and was successfully treated with chemotherapy. الكلمات المفتاحية: أورام الخلايا العملاقة, الحنجرة, صعوبة البلع, دينوسوماب, المعالجة الكيميائية, Keywords: Chemotherapy, Denosumab, Dysphagia, Giant cell tumour, Larynx

  10. In Situ complement activation and T-cell immunity in leprosy spectrum: An immunohistological study on leprosy lesional skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Bahia El Idrissi

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae infection causes nerve damage and the condition worsens often during and long after treatment. Clearance of bacterial antigens including lipoarabinomannan (LAM during and after treatment in leprosy patients is slow. We previously demonstrated that M. leprae LAM damages peripheral nerves by in situ generation of the membrane attack complex (MAC. Investigating the role of complement activation in skin lesions of leprosy patients might provide insight into the dynamics of in situ immune reactivity and the destructive pathology of M. leprae. In this study, we analyzed in skin lesions of leprosy patients, whether M. leprae antigen LAM deposition correlates with the deposition of complement activation products MAC and C3d on nerves and cells in the surrounding tissue. Skin biopsies of paucibacillary (n = 7, multibacillary leprosy patients (n = 7, and patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL (n = 6 or reversal reaction (RR (n = 4 and controls (n = 5 were analyzed. The percentage of C3d, MAC and LAM deposition was significantly higher in the skin biopsies of multibacillary compared to paucibacillary patients (p = <0.05, p = <0.001 and p = <0.001 respectively, with a significant association between LAM and C3d or MAC in the skin biopsies of leprosy patients (r = 0.9578, p< 0.0001 and r = 0.8585, p<0.0001 respectively. In skin lesions of multibacillary patients, MAC deposition was found on axons and co-localizing with LAM. In skin lesions of paucibacillary patients, we found C3d positive T-cells in and surrounding granulomas, but hardly any MAC deposition. In addition, MAC immunoreactivity was increased in both ENL and RR skin lesions compared to non-reactional leprosy patients (p = <0.01 and p = <0.01 respectively. The present findings demonstrate that complement is deposited in skin lesions of leprosy patients, suggesting that inflammation driven by complement activation might contribute to nerve damage in the lesions

  11. Overexpression of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Increases Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions of Transgenic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoucui Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C are inversely associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases; thus, pharmacological inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is considered to be a therapeutic method of raising HDL-C levels. However, many CETP inhibitors have failed to achieve a clinical benefit despite raising HDL-C. In the study, we generated transgenic (Tg rabbits that overexpressed the human CETP gene to examine the influence of CETP on the development of atherosclerosis. Both Tg rabbits and their non-Tg littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet for 16 weeks. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Gross lesion areas of the aortic atherosclerosis along with lesional cellular components were quantitatively analyzed. Overexpression of human CETP did not significantly alter the gross atherosclerotic lesion area, but the number of macrophages in lesions was significantly increased. Overexpression of human CETP did not change the plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but lowered plasma HDL-C and increased triglycerides. These data revealed that human CETP may play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis mainly by decreasing HDL-C levels and increasing the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells.

  12. Comparison of Narrowband Imaging with Autofluorescence Imaging for Endoscopic Visualization of Superficial Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lesions of the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhisa Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare narrowband imaging (NBI and autofluorescence imaging (AFI endoscopic visualization for identifying superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Methods. Twenty-four patients with superficial esophageal carcinomas diagnosed at previous hospitals were enrolled in this study. Lesions were initially detected using white-light endoscopy and then observed with both NBI and AFI. Endoscopic images documented each method, and three endoscopists experienced in esophageal imaging retrospectively reviewed respective images of histologically confirmed esophageal SCCs. Images were assessed for quality in identifying superficial SCCs and rated as excellent, fair, or poor by the three reviewers with interobserver agreement calculated using kappa (κ statistics. Results. Thirty-one lesions histologically confirmed as superficial esophageal SCCs were detected in 24 patients. NBI images of 27 lesions (87% were rated as excellent, three as fair, and one as poor compared to AFI images of 19 lesions (61% rated as excellent, 10 as fair and two as poor (P<0.05. Moderate interobserver agreement (κ=0.42, 95% CI 0.24–0.60 resulted in NBI while fair agreement (κ=0.35, 95% CI 0.18–0.51 was achieved using AFI. Conclusion. NBI may be more effective than AFI for visualization of esophageal SCC.

  13. Expression of C4.4A in precursor lesions of pulmonary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Benedikte; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Illemann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    in precursor lesions of lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was investigated by stainings with a specific anti-C4.4A antibody. In the transformation from normal bronchial epithelium to squamous cell carcinoma, C4.4A was weakly expressed in basal cell hyperplasia but dramatically increased...... in squamous metaplasia. This was confined to the cell membrane and sustained in dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and the invasive carcinoma. The induction of C4.4A already at the stage of hyperplasia could indicate that it is a marker of very early squamous differentiation, which aligns well with our earlier...... finding that C4.4A expression levels do not provide prognostic information on the survival of squamous cell carcinoma patients. In the progression from normal alveolar epithelium to peripheral adenocarcinoma, we observed an unexpected, distinct cytoplasmic staining for C4.4A in a fraction of atypical...

  14. Quantitative determination of the contribution of indirect and direct radiation action to the production of lethal lesions in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlit, W.; Drenkard, S.

    1985-01-01

    For quantitative models of radiation action in living cells it is necessary to know what fraction of the absorbed dose affects the target molecule by direct radiation action and what fraction by indirect radiation action. Mammalian cells were irradiated in suspension, saturated with N 2 O or CO 2 . With these gases the production of OH-radicals is changed by a factor of two in aqueous solutions and a corresponding change in cell survival would be expected, if only indirect radiation action is involved in the production of lethal lesions in the living cell. No difference could be detected, however, and it is concluded that indirect radiation action does not contribute to radiation lethality in mammalian cells. (author)

  15. [Femoral osteolytic lesions with soft tissue tumors and hypercalcemia as presentation form of a B-cell lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Hernández, J L; Olmos Martínez, J M; Figols Ladrón de Guevara, J; Riancho Moral, J A; González Macías, J

    2000-05-01

    Hypercalcemia associated with haematological neoplasms account for 15 to 20% of hipercalcemia in malignancy, and occurs usually in patients with multiple myeloma. However, its incidence in patients with linfoma is low, and it is observed usually in T-cell linfomas. Bone affectation is also uncommon in patients with non-Hodgkin linfoma. It usually is seen as a late manifestation of the disease, and its occurrence as the form of presentation is exceptional. We hereby report a patient with a B-cell non-Hodgkin linfoma presenting with hypercalcemia and femoral osteolytic lesions.

  16. Agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment inhibits T cell responses in LDLr deficient mice without affecting atherosclerotic lesion development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C Foks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules are mainly expressed on T cells and antigen presenting cells and strongly orchestrate adaptive immune responses. Whereas co-stimulatory molecules enhance immune responses, signaling via co-inhibitory molecules dampens the immune system, thereby showing great therapeutic potential to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Signaling via co-inhibitory T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT directly inhibits T cell activation and proliferation, and therefore represents a novel therapeutic candidate to specifically dampen pro-atherogenic T cell reactivity. In the present study, we used an agonistic anti-TIGIT antibody to determine the effect of excessive TIGIT-signaling on atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: TIGIT was upregulated on CD4(+ T cells isolated from mice fed a Western-type diet in comparison with mice fed a chow diet. Agonistic anti-TIGIT suppressed T cell activation and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. However, agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment of LDLr(-/- mice fed a Western-type diet for 4 or 8 weeks did not affect atherosclerotic lesion development in comparison with PBS and Armenian Hamster IgG treatment. Furthermore, elevated percentages of dendritic cells were observed in the blood and spleen of agonistic anti-TIGIT-treated mice. Additionally, these cells showed an increased activation status but decreased IL-10 production. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the inhibition of splenic T cell responses, agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment does not affect initial atherosclerosis development, possibly due to increased activity of dendritic cells.

  17. Architecture of Columnar Nacre, and Implications for Its Formation Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Olabisi, Ronke M.; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Abrecht, Mike; Frazer, Bradley H.; Ariosa, Daniel; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the structure of Haliotis rufescens nacre, or mother-of-pearl, using synchrotron spectromicroscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. We observe imaging contrast between adjacent individual nacre tablets, arising because different tablets have different crystal orientations with respect to the radiation's polarization vector. Comparing previous data and our new data with models for columnar nacre growth, we find the data are most consistent with a model in which nacre tablets are nucleated by randomly distributed sites in the organic matrix layers

  18. Ultraviolet spectrophotometer for measuring columnar atmospheric ozone from aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, F. A.; Sellers, B.; Briehl, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UVS) to measure downward solar fluxes from an aircraft or other high altitude platform is described. The UVS uses an ultraviolet diffuser to obtain large angular response with no aiming requirement, a twelve-position filter wheel with narrow (2-nm) and broad (20-nm) bandpass filters, and an ultraviolet photodiode. The columnar atmospheric ozone above the UVS (aircraft) is calculated from the ratios of the measured ultraviolet fluxes. Comparison with some Dobson station measurements gives agreement to 2%. Some UVS measured ozone profiles over the Pacific Ocean for November 1976 are shown to illustrate the instrument's performance.

  19. Morphological and physiological characteristics of columnar apple trees

    OpenAIRE

    Gelvonauskis, Bronislovas; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Sasnauskas, Audrius; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Gelvonauskienė, Dalia

    2006-01-01

    There were investigated two columnar apple cultivars ‘Arbat’ and No. 24217 and apple cultivar ‘Aldas’ in an orchard at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. The two latter cultivars were released at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, ‘Arbat’ – in Russia. Cultivars and selections were budded on rootstocks P 60, M.26 and MM.106. In orchard apple trees were spaced at 1.0 x 3.5 m. Tree height, stem diameter, total length of one-year-old shoot, leaf area on a tree was measured and numbe...

  20. Acquired IFNγ resistance impairs anti-tumor immunity and gives rise to T-cell-resistant melanoma lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucker, Antje; Zhao, Fang; Pieper, Natalia; Heeke, Christina; Maltaner, Raffaela; Stadtler, Nadine; Real, Birgit; Bielefeld, Nicola; Howe, Sebastian; Weide, Benjamin; Gutzmer, Ralf; Utikal, Jochen; Loquai, Carmen; Gogas, Helen; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Zeschnigk, Michael; Westendorf, Astrid M.; Trilling, Mirko; Horn, Susanne; Schilling, Bastian; Schadendorf, Dirk; Griewank, Klaus G.; Paschen, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma treatment has been revolutionized by antibody-based immunotherapies. IFNγ secretion by CD8+ T cells is critical for therapy efficacy having anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on tumour cells. Our study demonstrates a genetic evolution of IFNγ resistance in different melanoma patient models. Chromosomal alterations and subsequent inactivating mutations in genes of the IFNγ signalling cascade, most often JAK1 or JAK2, protect melanoma cells from anti-tumour IFNγ activity. JAK1/2 mutants further evolve into T-cell-resistant HLA class I-negative lesions with genes involved in antigen presentation silenced and no longer inducible by IFNγ. Allelic JAK1/2 losses predisposing to IFNγ resistance development are frequent in melanoma. Subclones harbouring inactivating mutations emerge under various immunotherapies but are also detectable in pre-treatment biopsies. Our data demonstrate that JAK1/2 deficiency protects melanoma from anti-tumour IFNγ activity and results in T-cell-resistant HLA class I-negative lesions. Screening for mechanisms of IFNγ resistance should be considered in therapeutic decision-making. PMID:28561041

  1. 18-F-FDG PET/CT in Localizing Additional CNS Lesion in a Case of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Determining Accurate Extent of the Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Shamim Ahmed; Tripathy, Sarthak; Mukherjee, Anirban; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system involvement is a rare manifestation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), with bone and skin lesions being more frequent. MR remains the investigation of choice for localizing brain lesions. However, due to poor sensitivity of MRI in detecting osseous and pulmonary lesions, it is not used routinely in staging purposes until and unless indicated. We hereby discuss a case of 6-year-old boy of LCH who was referred for 18-F-FDG PET/CT for staging and knowing the extent of the disease, but a lesion in hypothalamus was picked up incidentally on FDG PET-CT study that was confirmed by MRI.

  2. Methylated Host Cell Gene Promoters and Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and 18 Predicting Cervical Lesions and Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Milutin Gašperov

    Full Text Available Change in the host and/or human papillomavirus (HPV DNA methylation profile is probably one of the main factors responsible for the malignant progression of cervical lesions to cancer. To investigate those changes we studied 173 cervical samples with different grades of cervical lesion, from normal to cervical cancer. The methylation status of nine cellular gene promoters, CCNA1, CDH1, C13ORF18, DAPK1, HIC1, RARβ2, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1, was investigated by Methylation Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP. The methylation of HPV18 L1-gene was also investigated by MSP, while the methylated cytosines within four regions, L1, 5'LCR, enhancer, and promoter of the HPV16 genome covering 19 CpG sites were evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. Statistically significant methylation biomarkers distinguishing between cervical precursor lesions from normal cervix were primarily C13ORF18 and secondly CCNA1, and those distinguishing cervical cancer from normal or cervical precursor lesions were CCNA1, C13ORF18, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1. In addition, the methylation analysis of individual CpG sites of the HPV16 genome in different sample groups, notably the 7455 and 7694 sites, proved to be more important than the overall methylation frequency. The majority of HPV18 positive samples contained both methylated and unmethylated L1 gene, and samples with L1-gene methylated forms alone had better prognosis when correlated with the host cell gene promoters' methylation profiles. In conclusion, both cellular and viral methylation biomarkers should be used for monitoring cervical lesion progression to prevent invasive cervical cancer.

  3. Analysis of T cell receptor alpha beta variability in lymphocytes infiltrating melanoma primary tumours and metastatic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøller, J; thor Straten, P; Jakobsen, Annette Birck

    1994-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta variable (V) gene family usage of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in four different primary human malignant melanomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions was characterized using a recently developed method based on the reverse-transcription-couple......The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta variable (V) gene family usage of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in four different primary human malignant melanomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions was characterized using a recently developed method based on the reverse...... usage of the TCR V gene families V alpha 4, V alpha 5, V alpha 22 and V beta 8, whereas the V beta 3 gene family appeared to be expressed together with HLA-A1. Other highly expressed V gene families, apparently not restricted to either HLA-A1 or -A2, were V alpha 1 (expressed in three of four primary...... tumours) and V alpha 21 (expressed in two of four tumours). We found no evidence suggesting any correlations between the haplotypes HLA-A1 and -A2 and preferential V gene family expression in the metastatic lesions, and the only common feature was V alpha 8, which was found to be highly expressed in two...

  4. Association of Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2 expression of the primary non-small-cell lung cancer lesion with brain metastatic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, Robbin S.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Hachiya, Tsutomu; Milas, Ivan; Ro, Jae Y.; Langford, Lauren; Sawaya, Raymond; Putnam, Joe B.; Allen, Pamela; Cox, James D.; McDonnell, Timothy J.; Brock, William; Hong, Waun K.; Roth, Jack A.; Milas, Luka

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The study was conducted to determine whether immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2 in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with a higher rate of brain metastases and whether the intrapatient expression of these biomarkers (in the primary tumors vs. brain lesions) is similar. Methods and Materials: At the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, tumors from 29 case patients with primary lung tumor and brain metastasis and 29 control patients with primary lung tumor but no brain metastasis were resected and examined for immunohistochemical expression. Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2 were analyzed in resected primary lung, lymph node, and metastatic brain tumors. Each control patient was matched by age, gender, and histology to a patient with brain metastasis. Results: No significant differences in patient survival characteristics were detected between the case group and control group. Also, difference in patient outcome between the two groups was not generally predicted by biomarker analysis. However, when the groups were combined, the biomarker analysis was predictive for certain patient outcome end points. Using median values as cutoff points between low and high expression of biomarkers, it was observed that high expression of Ki-67 (>40%) in lung primaries was associated with poorer disease-free survival (p=0.04), whereas low expression of p53 in lung primaries was associated with poorer overall survival (p=0.04), and these patients had a higher rate of nonbrain distant metastases (p=0.02). The patients with brain metastases were particularly prone to developing nonbrain distant metastases if the percentage of p53-positive cells in brain metastases was low (p=0.01). There was a positive correlation in the expression of Ki-67 (p=0.02) (r 2 =0.1608), as well as p53 (p 2 =0.7380), between lung primaries and brain metastases. Compared to Ki-67 and p53, bcl-2 was the least predictive. Conclusion: Differences in biomarker expression between the

  5. Suppression of surface barriers in superconductors by columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelev, A. E.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the influence of columnar defects in layered superconductors on the thermally activated penetration of pancake vortices through the surface barrier. Columnar defects, located near the surface, facilitate penetration of vortices through the surface barrier, by creating ''weak spots,'' through which pancakes can penetrate into the superconductor. Penetration of a pancake mediated by an isolated column, located near the surface, is a two-stage process involving hopping from the surface to the column and the detachment from the column into the bulk; each stage is controlled by its own activation barrier. The resulting effective energy is equal to the maximum of those two barriers. For a given external field there exists an optimum location of the column for which the barriers for the both processes are equal and the reduction of the effective penetration barrier is maximal. At high fields the effective penetration field is approximately 2 times smaller than in unirradiated samples. We also estimate the suppression of the effective penetration field by column clusters. This mechanism provides further reduction of the penetration field at low temperatures

  6. Use of Human Cadaveric Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of a Chronic Radiation-Induced Skin Lesion: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portas, M.; Coppola, A.; Mansilla, E.; Drago, H.; Dubner, D.; Radl, A.; Di Giorgio, M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute and late radiation-induced injury on skin and subcutaneous tissues are associated with substantial morbidity in radiation therapy, interventional procedures and also are of concern in the context of nuclear or radiological accidents. Pathogenesis is initiated by depletion of acutely responding epithelial tissues and damage to vascular endothelial micro-vessels. Efforts for medical management of severe radiation-induced lesions have been made. Nevertheless, the development of strategies to promote wound healing, including stem cell therapy, is required. From 1997 to 2014, over 248 patients were referred to the Radio-pathology Committee of Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burns Hospital) for the diagnosis and therapy of radiation-induced localized lesions. As part of the strategies for the management of severe cases, there is an ongoing research and development protocol on 'Translational Clinical Trial phases I/II to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adult mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow for the treatment of large burns and radiological lesions'. The object of this work was to describe the actions carried out by the Radio-pathology Committee of the Burns Hospital in a chronic case with more than 30 years of evolution without positive response to conventional treatments. The approach involved the evaluation of the tissular compromise of the lesion, the prognosis and the personalized treatment, including regenerative therapy. (authors)

  7. Use of Human Cadaveric Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of a Chronic Radiation-Induced Skin Lesion: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, M; Mansilla, E; Drago, H; Dubner, D; Radl, A; Coppola, A; Di Giorgio, M

    2016-09-01

    Acute and late radiation-induced injury on skin and subcutaneous tissues are associated with substantial morbidity in radiation therapy, interventional procedures and also are of concern in the context of nuclear or radiological accidents. Pathogenesis is initiated by depletion of acutely responding epithelial tissues and damage to vascular endothelial microvessels. Efforts for medical management of severe radiation-induced lesions have been made. Nevertheless, the development of strategies to promote wound healing, including stem cell therapy, is required. From 1997 to 2014, over 248 patients were referred to the Radiopathology Committee of Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burns Hospital) for the diagnosis and therapy of radiation-induced localized lesions. As part of the strategies for the management of severe cases, there is an ongoing research and development protocol on 'Translational Clinical Trial phases I/II to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adult mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow for the treatment of large burns and radiological lesions'. The object of this work was to describe the actions carried out by the Radiopathology Committee of the Burns Hospital in a chronic case with more than 30 years of evolution without positive response to conventional treatments. The approach involved the evaluation of the tissular compromise of the lesion, the prognosis and the personalized treatment, including regenerative therapy. © World Health Organisation 2016. All rights reserved. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  8. Correlation of needle core biopsy with excision histology in screen-detected B3 lesions: the Merrion Breast Screening Unit experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, B D

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: Needle core biopsy (NCB) is a widely-used technique for non-operative evaluation of screen-detected breast lesions. Although most NCBs are B2 (benign) or B5 (malignant), some fall into the B3 category of "uncertain malignant potential". This study aims to categorise the lesions prompting a B3 NCB in the Merrion Breast Screening Unit, and establish the incidence of malignancy on subsequent excision biopsy. METHODS: Patients attending the Merrion Breast Screening Unit in Dublin between 2000 and 2008 who had a B3 NCB were identified. The NCB pathology reports were reviewed and the diagnosis correlated with excision histology; the latter was classified as benign, atypical or malignant. Lesion-specific positive predictive values (PPVs) for malignancy were derived. RESULTS: 141 patients with a B3 NCB were identified. The most frequent lesions on NCB were radial scar (RS; n = 57), atypical intraductal epithelial proliferation (AIDEP; n = 25) and papillary lesion (n = 24). The final diagnosis was malignant in 22 patients (16%), atypical in 40 (28%) and benign in 79 (56%). Two of the patients with a malignant diagnosis had invasive carcinoma. The lesion-specific PPVs were: lobular neoplasia 50%, AIDEP 32%, columnar cell lesion with atypia 12.5%, RS 12.3%, papillary lesion 8.3%, suspected phyllodes tumour 7.7%, and spindle cell lesion 0%. Atypia on RS NCB predicted an atypical or malignant excision diagnosis, but atypia on papillary lesion NCB did not. CONCLUSIONS: One-sixth of B3 NCBs in this series proved to be malignant on excision. The PPV for malignancy varied according to lesion type.

  9. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT-deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  10. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijia; Fu, Chunxiang; Gou, Jiqing; Sun, Liang; Huhman, David; Zhang, Yunwei; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ) has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O -methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT -deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  11. In Situ complement activation and T-cell immunity in leprosy spectrum: An immunohistological study on leprosy lesional skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia El Idrissi, Nawal; Iyer, Anand M; Ramaglia, Valeria; Rosa, Patricia S; Soares, Cleverson T; Baas, Frank; Das, Pranab K

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infection causes nerve damage and the condition worsens often during and long after treatment. Clearance of bacterial antigens including lipoarabinomannan (LAM) during and after treatment in leprosy patients is slow. We previously demonstrated that M. leprae LAM damages peripheral nerves by in situ generation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). Investigating the role of complement activation in skin lesions of leprosy patients might provide insight into the dynamics of in situ immune reactivity and the destructive pathology of M. leprae. In this study, we analyzed in skin lesions of leprosy patients, whether M. leprae antigen LAM deposition correlates with the deposition of complement activation products MAC and C3d on nerves and cells in the surrounding tissue. Skin biopsies of paucibacillary (n = 7), multibacillary leprosy patients (n = 7), and patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) (n = 6) or reversal reaction (RR) (n = 4) and controls (n = 5) were analyzed. The percentage of C3d, MAC and LAM deposition was significantly higher in the skin biopsies of multibacillary compared to paucibacillary patients (p = leprosy patients (r = 0.9578, pleprosy patients (p = leprosy patients, suggesting that inflammation driven by complement activation might contribute to nerve damage in the lesions of these patients. This should be regarded as an important factor in M. leprae nerve damage pathology.

  12. Identification of four distinct phylogenetic groups in Flavobacterium columnare with fish host associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is one of the most prevalent fish diseases worldwide. An exceptionally high level of genetic diversity among isolates of F. columnare has long been recognized, whereby six established genomovars have been described t...

  13. Reproducible challenge model to investigate the virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes columnaris disease and has significant economic impacts on aquaculture production worldwide. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that there is genetic diversity among F. columnare isolates. A review of the published literature that u...

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma from oral lichen planus: a case report of a lesion with 28 years of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Wanessa da Silva; Bottezini, Ezequiel Gregolin; Linden, Maria Salete; Rinaldi, Isadora; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; de Carli, João Paulo; Trentin, Micheline; Dos Santos, Pâmela Letícia

    2017-12-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common mucocutaneous disease with autoimmune etiology. Considering its malignancy potential, it is important to define the correct diagnosis, treatment, and clinical follow-up for patients with LP so that the disease is not diagnosed late, thus hindering the chances of curing the disease. This study aims to describe a clinical case of oral squamous cell carcinoma, potentially originated from LP. The patient is undergoing clinical and histopathological follow-up. A 64-year-old Caucasian male patient presented with a proliferative verrucous lesion on the tongue and sought treatment at the School of Dentistry, University of Passo Fundo (UPF), Passo Fundo, Brazil. He claimed the lesion had been present since 1988, and had been initially diagnoses as "oral lichen planus." The physical exam presented three diagnostic hypotheses: plaque-like oral LP, verrucous carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. After incisional biopsy and histopathological analysis, squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed, probably originating from oral LP. The case study shows that malignancy from oral LP is possible, which justifies periodic clinical and histopathological follow-up, as well as the elimination of risk factors for carcinoma in patients with oral LP.

  15. Esophageal Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma with Inconsistent Response to Treatment in the Primary and Metastatic Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tomiyama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC is a rare malignant tumor that is characterized by high-grade malignancy and a poor prognosis. However, the rarity of esophageal NEC has prevented the development of an established treatment, and no reports have described a discrepancy in the effectiveness of cisplatin plus irinotecan between primary and metastatic lesions. A 43-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital with refractory epigastralgia. A previous gastrointestinal endoscopy had revealed a 50-mm type 2 tumor in the abdominal esophagus. The pathological findings indicated poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a metastatic liver tumor. One cycle of fluorouracil and cisplatin was not effective, and endoscopy was repeatedly performed. The pathological findings indicated a large-cell malignant tumor with tumor cells that were positive for CD56, synaptophysin, and Ki-67 (> 80%. Based on a diagnosis of esophageal large-cell NEC with a metastatic liver tumor, the patient received cisplatin plus irinotecan biweekly. After 4 months, computed tomography revealed marked shrinkage of the metastatic tumor, but the patient complained of dysphagia. Endoscopy revealed enlargement of the primary tumor, which was then treated using radiotherapy plus fluorouracil and cisplatin. The primary tumor subsequently shrank, and the patient’s symptoms were relieved, but the metastatic tumor grew. Thus, chemoradiotherapy could be an option for managing a primary esophageal large-cell NEC that does not respond to chemotherapy alone. However, the possibility of an inconsistent response to therapy in primary and metastatic lesions should be considered.

  16. A CD1d-dependent lipid antagonist to NKT cells ameliorates atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice by reducing lesion necrosis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Kanellakis, Peter; Hosseini, Hamid; Cao, Anh; Deswaerte, Virginie; Tipping, Peter; Toh, Ban-Hock; Bobik, Alex; Kyaw, Tin

    2016-02-01

    Atherosclerosis-related deaths from heart attacks and strokes remain leading causes of global mortality, despite the use of lipid-lowering statins. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop additional therapies. Reports that NKT cells promote atherosclerosis and an NKT cell CD1d-dependent lipid antagonist (DPPE-PEG350, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N[methoxy(polyethyleneglycol)-350]) reduces allergen-induced inflammation led us to investigate its therapeutic potential in preventing the development and progression of experimental atherosclerosis. DPPE-PEG350 was administered to hyperlipidaemic ApoE(-/-) mice with/without established atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis and immune cells were assessed in the aortic sinus lesions. Lesion expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1) responsible for inflammatory immune cell recruitment as well as mRNA expression of IFNγ and its plasma levels were investigated. Necrotic cores and lesion smooth muscle and collagen contents important in plaque stability were determined as were plasma lipid levels. DPPE-PEG350 reduced atherosclerosis development and delayed progression of established atherosclerosis without affecting plasma lipids. CD4 and CD8 T cells and B cells in atherosclerotic lesions were decreased in DPPE-PEG350-treated mice. Lesion MCP-1 and VCAM-1 protein expression and necrotic core size were reduced without affecting lesion smooth muscle and collagen content. IFNγ and lymphocytes were unaffected by the treatment. The attenuation of progression of established atherosclerosis together with reduced development of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidaemic mice by the NKT antagonist, without affecting NKT cell or other lymphocyte numbers, suggests that targeting lesion inflammation via CD1d-dependent activation of NKT cells using DPPE-PEG350 has a therapeutic potential in treating atherosclerosis. Published on behalf of the European Society of

  17. Crystallographic contribution to the formation of the columnar grain structure in cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, K.; Itoh, K.; Okamoto, K.; Hashimoto, T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to clarify the crystallographic contribution to the formation of the columnar grain structure, the geometric and crystallographic alignments of columnar grains in cobalt films were investigated on the basis of magnetic and optical measurements. The films were deposited by sputtering at an incidence angle of 45 on glass substrates heated at 332 K. The film thickness ranged from 20 to 850 nm. Above 50 nm the columnar grains align in the direction parallel to the incidence plane and form a two-degree crystallographic orientation. The packing density of columnar grains decreases with increasing thickness when the thickness exceeds 50 nm. From these results we conclude that the crystal habit appearing on column tops induces the two-degree orientation through geometric selection and aligns the selected columnar grains in the parallel direction. (orig.)

  18. Columnar interactions determine horizontal propagation of recurrent network activity in neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Jason C.; Contreras, Diego

    2012-01-01

    The cortex is organized in vertical and horizontal circuits that determine the spatiotemporal properties of distributed cortical activity. Despite detailed knowledge of synaptic interactions among individual cells in the neocortex, little is known about the rules governing interactions among local populations. Here we used self-sustained recurrent activity generated in cortex, also known as up-states, in rat thalamocortical slices in vitro to understand interactions among laminar and horizontal circuits. By means of intracellular recordings and fast optical imaging with voltage sensitive dyes, we show that single thalamic inputs activate the cortical column in a preferential L4→L2/3→L5 sequence, followed by horizontal propagation with a leading front in supra and infragranular layers. To understand the laminar and columnar interactions, we used focal injections of TTX to block activity in small local populations, while preserving functional connectivity in the rest of the network. We show that L2/3 alone, without underlying L5, does not generate self-sustained activity and is inefficient propagating activity horizontally. In contrast, L5 sustains activity in the absence of L2/3 and is necessary and sufficient to propagate activity horizontally. However, loss of L2/3 delays horizontal propagation via L5. Finally, L5 amplifies activity in L2/3. Our results show for the first time that columnar interactions between supra and infragranular layers are required for the normal propagation of activity in the neocortex. Our data suggest that supra and infragranular circuits with their specific and complex set of inputs and outputs, work in tandem to determine the patterns of cortical activation observed in vivo. PMID:22514308

  19. A novel serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Cheng; Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Song, Hongwei; Chen, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally, wedges are required to generate transverse waves in a solid specimen and mechanical rotation device is needed for interrogation of a specimen with a hollow bore, such as high speed railway locomotive axles, turbine rotors, etc. In order to eliminate the mechanical rotation process, a novel array pattern of phased array ultrasonic transducers named as serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer (SCPAUT) is designed. The elementary transducers are planar rectangular, located on the outside surface of a cylinder. This layout is aimed to generate electrically rotating transverse waveforms so as to inspect the longitudinal cracks on the outside surface of a specimen which has a hollow bore at the center, such as the high speed railway locomotive axles. The general geometry of the SCPAUT and the inspection system are illustrated. A FEM model and mockup experiment has been carried out. The experiment results are in good agreement with the FEM simulation results.

  20. Vitamin D Repletion Reduces the Progression of Premalignant Squamous Lesions in the NTCU Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Hershberger, Pamela A.; Reid, Mary E.; Bogner, Paul N.; Atwood, Kristopher; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    The chemopreventive actions of vitamin D were examined in the N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) mouse model, a progressive model of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SWR/J mice were fed a deficient diet (D) containing no vitamin D3, a sufficient diet (S) containing 2000 IU/kg vitamin D3, or the same diets in combination with the active metabolite of vitamin D, calcitriol (C) (80 μg/kg, weekly). The percentage (%) of the mucosal surface of large airways occupied by dysplastic lesions was determined in mice after treatment with a total dose of 15 or 25 μmol NTCU (N). After treatment with 15 μmol NTCU, the % of the surface of large airways containing high-grade dysplastic (HGD) lesions were vitamin D-deficient +NTCU (DN), 22.7 % (p<0.05 compared to vitamin D-sufficient +NTCU (SN)); DN + C, 12.3%; SN, 8.7%; and SN + C, 6.6%. The extent of HGD increased with NTCU dose in the DN group. Proliferation, assessed by Ki-67 labeling, increased upon NTCU treatment. The highest Ki-67 labeling index was seen in the DN group. As compared to SN mice, DN mice exhibited a 3-fold increase (p <0.005) in circulating white blood cells (WBC), a 20% (p <0.05) increase in IL-6 levels, and a 4 -fold (p <0.005) increase in WBC in bronchial lavages. Thus, vitamin D repletion reduces the progression of premalignant lesions, proliferation, and inflammation, and may thereby suppress development of lung SCC. Further investigations of the chemopreventive effects of vitamin D in lung SCC are warranted. PMID:26276745

  1. Equi-axed and columnar grain growth in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The grain size of UO 2 is an important parameter in the actual performance and the modelling of the performance of reactor fuel elements. Many processes depend critically on the grain size, for example, the degree of initial densification, the evolution rate of stable fission gases, the release rates of radiologically hazardous fission products, the fission gas bubble swelling rates and the fuel creep. Many of these processes are thermally activated and further impact on the fuel thermal behavior thus creating complex feedback processes. In order to model the fuel performance accurately it is necessary to model the evolution of the fuel grain radius. When UO 2 is irradiated, the fission gases xenon and krypton are created from the fissioning uranium nucleus. At high temperatures these gases diffuse rapidly to the grain boundaries where they nucleate immobile lenticular shaped fission gas bubbles. In this paper the Hillert grain growth model is adapted to account for the inhibiting ''Zener'' effects of grain boundary fission gas porosity on grain boundary mobility and hence grain growth. It is shown that normal grain growth ceases at relatively low levels of irradiation. At high burnups, high temperatures and in regions of high temperature gradients, columnar grain growth is often observed, in some cases extending over more than fifty percent of the fuel radius. The model is further extended to account for the de-pinning of grains in the radial direction by the thermal gradient induced force on a fission gas grain boundary bubble. The observed columnar/equi-axed boundary is in fair agreement with the predictions of an evaporation/condensation model. The grain growth model described in this paper requires information concerning the scale of grain boundary porosity, the local fuel temperature and the local temperature gradient. The model is currently used in the Nuclear Electric version of the ENIGMA fuel modelling code. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  2. The presence of advanced lesions and associating risk factors for advanced cervical carcinoma in patients with atypical sguamous cells of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L L; Chen, W; Fan, Y Y; Wang, M L; Wang, L N

    2015-01-01

    To characterize histopathological status, high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection status, and associated risk factors in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). Cervical biopsies obtained from 130 ASCUS patients were subjected to histopathological examination and hr-HPV testing. Associations between advanced lesions and hr-HPV load or age were analyzed, and the confounding factors for high-grade cervical lesions were identified. Cervical biopsies from ASCUS patients had a wide range of pathological states, ranging from normal to invasive cervical carcinoma. High-risk HPV infection was significantly associated with advanced cervical lesions in ASCUS patients; hr-HPV infection and the number of gestations were risk factors for developing advanced cervical disease. A significant portion of ASCUS patients harbor advanced cervical lesions. The number of gestations and hr-HPV infection can increase the risk of developing advanced cervical lesions in ASCUS patients.

  3. Renal progenitor cells contribute to hyperplastic lesions of podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Angelotti, M.L.; Rizzo, P.; Dijkman, H.; Lazzeri, E.; Mooren, F.; Ballerini, L.; Parente, E.; Sagrinati, C.; Mazzinghi, B.; Ronconi, E.; Becherucci, F.; Benigni, A.; Steenbergen, E.; Lasagni, L.; Remuzzi, G.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Romagnani, P.

    2009-01-01

    Glomerular injury can involve excessive proliferation of glomerular epithelial cells, resulting in crescent formation and obliteration of Bowman's space. The origin of these hyperplastic epithelial cells in different glomerular disorders is controversial. Renal progenitors localized to the inner

  4. β1 Integrins Mediate Attachment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Cartilage Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zwolanek (Daniela); M. Flicker (Magdalena); E. Kirstätter (Elisabeth); F. Zaucke (Frank); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); R.G. Erben (Reinhold)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may have great potential for cell-based therapies of osteoarthritis. However, after injection in the joint, only few cells adhere to defective articular cartilage and contribute to cartilage regeneration. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of MSC

  5. Partial Aminoglycoside Lesions in Vestibular Epithelia Reveal Broad Sensory Dysfunction Associated with Modest Hair Cell Loss and Afferent Calyx Retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultemeier, David R; Hoffman, Larry F

    2017-01-01

    Although the effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics on hair cells have been investigated for decades, their influences on the dendrites of primary afferent neurons have not been widely studied. This is undoubtedly due to the difficulty in disassociating pathology to dendritic processes from that resulting from loss of the presynaptic hair cell. This was overcome in the present investigation through development of a preparation using Chinchilla laniger that enabled direct perilymphatic infusion. Through this strategy we unmasked gentamicin's potential effects on afferent calyces. The pathophysiology of the vestibular neuroepithelia after post-administration durations of 0.5 through 6 months was assessed using single-neuron electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy. Hair cell densities within cristae central zones (0.5-, 1-, 2-, and 6-months) and utricle peri- and extrastriola (6-months) regions were determined, and damage to calretinin-immunoreactive calyces was quantified. Gentamicin-induced hair cell loss exhibited a profile that reflected elimination of a most-sensitive group by 0.5-months post-administration (18.2%), followed by loss of a second group (20.6%) over the subsequent 5.5 months. The total hair cell loss with this gentamicin dose (approximately 38.8%) was less than the estimated fraction of type I hair cells in the chinchilla's crista central zone (approximately 60%), indicating that viable type I hair cells remained. Extensive lesions to afferent calyces were observed at 0.5-months, though stimulus-evoked modulation was intact at this post-administration time. Widespread compromise to calyx morphology and severe attenuation of stimulus-evoked afferent discharge modulation was found at 1 month post-administration, a condition that persisted in preparations examined through the 6-month post-administration interval. Spontaneous discharge was robust at all post-administration intervals. All calretinin-positive calyces had retracted

  6. Environmental enrichment brings a beneficial effect on beam walking and enhances the migration of doublecortin-positive cells following striatal lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, S; Hida, H; Masuda, T; Misumi, S; Kim, T-S; Nishino, H

    2007-02-09

    Rats raised in an enriched environment (enriched rats) have been reported to show less motor dysfunction following brain lesions, but the neuronal correlates of this improvement have not been well clarified. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of chemical brain lesions and environmental enrichment on motor function and lesion-induced neurogenesis. Three week-old, recently weaned rats were divided into two groups: one group was raised in an enriched environment and the other group was raised in a standard cage for 5 weeks. Striatal damage was induced at an age of 8 weeks by injection of the neuro-toxins 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or quinolinic acid (QA) into the striatum, or by injection of 6-OHDA into the substantia nigra (SN), which depleted nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation. Enriched rats showed better performance on beam walking compared with those raised in standard conditions, but both groups showed similar forelimb use asymmetry in a cylinder test. The number of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled proliferating cells in the subventricular zone was increased by a severe striatal lesion induced by QA injection 1 week after the lesion, but decreased by injection of 6-OHDA into the SN. Following induction of lesions by striatal injection of 6-OHDA or QA, the number of cells positive for doublecortin (DCX) was strongly increased in the striatum; however, there was no change in the number of DCX-positive cells following 6-OHDA injection into the SN. Environmental enrichment enhanced the increase of DCX-positive cells with migrating morphology in the dorsal striatum. In enriched rats, DCX-positive cells traversed the striatal parenchyma far from the corpus callosum and lateral ventricle. DCX-positive cells co-expressed an immature neuronal marker, polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule, but were negative for a glial marker. These data suggest that environmental enrichment improves motor performance on beam walking and enhances neuronal migration toward

  7. Central canal ependymal cells proliferate extensively in response to traumatic spinal cord injury but not demyelinating lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Lacroix

    Full Text Available The adult mammalian spinal cord has limited regenerative capacity in settings such as spinal cord injury (SCI and multiple sclerosis (MS. Recent studies have revealed that ependymal cells lining the central canal possess latent neural stem cell potential, undergoing proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation following experimental SCI. To determine whether reactive ependymal cells are a realistic endogenous cell population to target in order to promote spinal cord repair, we assessed the spatiotemporal dynamics of ependymal cell proliferation for up to 35 days in three models of spinal pathologies: contusion SCI using the Infinite Horizon impactor, focal demyelination by intraspinal injection of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, and autoimmune-mediated multi-focal demyelination using the active experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model of MS. Contusion SCI at the T9-10 thoracic level stimulated a robust, long-lasting and long-distance wave of ependymal proliferation that peaked at 3 days in the lesion segment, 14 days in the rostral segment, and was still detectable at the cervical level, where it peaked at 21 days. This proliferative wave was suppressed distal to the contusion. Unlike SCI, neither chemical- nor autoimmune-mediated demyelination triggered ependymal cell proliferation at any time point, despite the occurrence of demyelination (LPC and EAE, remyelination (LPC and significant locomotor defects (EAE. Thus, traumatic SCI induces widespread and enduring activation of reactive ependymal cells, identifying them as a robust cell population to target for therapeutic manipulation after contusion; conversely, neither demyelination, remyelination nor autoimmunity appears sufficient to trigger proliferation of quiescent ependymal cells in models of MS-like demyelinating diseases.

  8. Distinct pattern of lesion distribution in multiple sclerosis is associated with different circulating T-helper and helper-like innate lymphoid cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Catharina C; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Andreas; Hanning, Uta; Posevitz-Fejfár, Anita; Korsukewitz, Catharina; Schwab, Nicholas; Meuth, Sven G; Wiendl, Heinz; Klotz, Luisa

    2017-06-01

    Distinct lesion topography in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) might be due to different antigen presentation and/or trafficking routes of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate whether distinct lesion patterns in multiple sclerosis (MS) might be associated with a predominance of distinct circulating T-helper cell subset as well as their innate counterparts. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes derived from the peripheral blood of patients with exclusively cerebral (n = 20) or predominantly spinal (n = 12) disease manifestation. Patients with exclusively cerebral or preferential spinal lesion manifestation were associated with increased proportions of circulating granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) producing T H 1 cells or interleukin (IL)-17-producing T H 17 cells, respectively. In contrast, proportions of peripheral IL-17/IL-22-producing lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi), the innate counterpart of T H 17 cells, were enhanced in RRMS patients with exclusively cerebral lesion topography. Distinct T-helper and T-helper-like innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subsets are associated with different lesion topography in RRMS.

  9. Pathogen inactivation by riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination accelerates the red blood cell storage lesion and promotes eryptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Syed M; Chen, Deborah; Schubert, Peter; Perruzza, Darian L; Bhakta, Varsha; Devine, Dana V; Sheffield, William P

    2017-03-01

    Pathogen reduction treatment using riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination (Mirasol) effectively reduces the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. This treatment is currently licensed for only platelets and plasma products, while its application to whole blood (WB) to generate pathogen-inactivated red blood cells (RBCs) is under development. RBC storage lesion, constituting numerous morphologic and biochemical changes, influences RBC quality and limits shelf life. Stored RBCs further show enhanced susceptibility to RBC programmed cell death (eryptosis) characterized by increased cytosolic Ca 2+ -provoked membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Using a "pool-and-split" approach, we examined multiple variables of RBC storage lesion and eryptosis in RBC units, derived from Mirasol-treated or untreated WB, after 4 to 42 days of storage, under blood bank conditions. In comparison to untreated RBC units, Mirasol treatment significantly altered membrane microvesiculation, supernatant hemoglobin, osmotic fragility, and intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels but did not influence membrane CD47 expression and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels. Mirasol-treated RBCs showed significantly higher PS exposure after 42, but not after not more than 21, days of storage, which was accompanied by enhanced cytosolic Ca 2+ activity, ceramide abundance, and oxidative stress, but not p38 kinase activation. Mirasol treatment significantly augmented PS exposure, Ca 2+ entry, and protein kinase C activation after energy depletion, a pathophysiologic cell stressor. Mirasol-treated RBCs were, however, more resistant to cell shrinkage. Prolonged storage of Mirasol-treated RBCs significantly increases the proportion of eryptotic RBCs, while even short-term storage enhances the susceptibility of RBCs to stress-induced eryptosis, which could reduce posttransfusion RBC recovery in patients. © 2016 AABB.

  10. Deletion of Batf3-dependent antigen-presenting cells does not affect atherosclerotic lesion formation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Gil-Pulido

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the main underlying cause for cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke and its development might be influenced by immune cells. Dendritic cells (DCs bridge innate and adaptive immune responses by presenting antigens to T cells and releasing a variety of cytokines. Several subsets of DCs can be discriminated that engage specific transcriptional pathways for their development. Basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like 3 (Batf3 is required for the development of classical CD8α+ and CD103+ DCs. By crossing mice deficient in Batf3 with atherosclerosis-prone low density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr-/--deficient mice we here aimed to further address the contribution of Batf3-dependent CD8α+ and CD103+ antigen-presenting cells to atherosclerosis. We demonstrate that deficiency in Batf3 entailed mild effects on the immune response in the spleen but did not alter atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aorta or aortic root, nor affected plaque phenotype in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice fed a high fat diet. We thus provide evidence that Batf3-dependent antigen-presenting cells do not have a prominent role in atherosclerosis.

  11. Growing large columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3 using the solid-state reaction method enhanced by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huifeng; Wang, Weiqi; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Compact, pinhole-free and PbI2-free perovskite films, are desirable for high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs), especially if large columnar grains are obtained in which the adverse effects of grain boundaries will be minimized. However, the conventional solid-state reaction methods, originated from the two-step method, failed to grow columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3 in a facile way. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for growing large columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3, by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI2 (ln-PbI2) film enhanced solid-state reaction method. We demonstrated columnar grains were obtainable only when ln-PbI2 films were applied. Therefore, the replacement of compact PbI2 by ln-PbI2 in the solid-sate reaction, leads to higher power conversion efficiency, better reproducibility, better stability and less hysteresis. Furthermore, by systematically investigating the effects of annealing temperature and duration, we found that an annealing temperature ≥120 °C was also critical for growing columnar grains. With the optimal process, a champion efficiency of 16.4% was obtained and the average efficiency reached 14.2%. Finally, the mechanism of growing columnar grains was investigated, in which a VPb″ -assisted hooping model was proposed. This work reveals the origins of grain growth in the solid-state reaction method, which will contribute to preparing high quality perovskite films with much larger columnar grains.

  12. Cell cycle regulatory proteins and miRNAs in premalignant lesions and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Björner, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis and reliable prognosis and treatment prediction of breast cancer will ultimately lead to a decreased mortality rate. This can be achieved by identification of prognostic and treatment predictive biomarkers, and by understanding the mechanisms behind early changes in the breast. The cell cycle is a closely controlled process, involving multiple components with regulation on several levels. Loss of adequate cell proliferation control and cell cycle regulation is one of the ma...

  13. Microseismic monitoring of columnar jointed basalt fracture activity: a trial at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Rui; Li, Qing-Peng; Feng, Xia-Ting; Xiao, Ya-Xun; Feng, Guang-Liang; Hu, Lian-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Severe stress release has occurred to the surrounding rocks of the typically columnar jointed basalt after excavation at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, Jinsha River, China, where cracking, collapse, and other types of failure may take place occasionally due to relaxation fracture. In order to understand the relaxation fracture characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt in the entire excavation process at the diversion tunnel of the Baihetan Hydropower Station, real-time microseismic monitoring tests were performed. First, the applicability of a geophone and accelerometer was analyzed in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel, and the results show that the accelerometer was more applicable to the cracking monitoring of the columnar jointed basalt. Next, the waveform characteristics of the microseismic signals were analyzed, and the microseismic signals were identified as follows: rock fracture signal, drilling signal, electrical signal, heavy vehicle passing signal, and blast signal. Then, the attenuation characteristics of the microseismic signals in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel were studied, as well as the types and characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt fracture. Finally, location analysis was conducted on the strong rock fracture events, in which four or more sensors were triggered, to obtain the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and laws of the columnar jointed basalt relaxation fracture after excavation. The test results are not only of important reference value to the excavation and support of diversion tunnel at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, but also of great referential significance and value to the conduction of similar tests.

  14. Effect of single intralesional treatment of surgically induced equine superficial digital flexor tendon core lesions with adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells : a controlled experimental trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geburek, Florian; Roggel, Florian; van Schie, Hans T M; Beineke, Andreas; Estrada, Roberto; Weber, Kathrin; Hellige, Maren; Rohn, Karl; Jagodzinski, Michael; Welke, Bastian; Hurschler, Christof; Conrad, Sabine; Skutella, Thomas; van de Lest, Chris; van Weeren, René; Stadler, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue is a promising source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the treatment of tendon disease. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a single intralesional implantation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) on artificial lesions in

  15. Differential diagnosis of skin lesions after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canninga-van Dijk, MR; Sanders, CJ; Verdonck, LF; Fijnheer, R; van den Tweel, JG

    Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (i.e. bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation) is a common procedure in the treatment of various haematological disorders such as aplastic anaemia, (pre)leukaemias, some malignant lymphomas, multiple myeloma and immunodeficiency

  16. Excision repair of bulky lesions in the DNA of mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.B.; Grist, E.

    1980-01-01

    The report examines the process of excision repair of pyrimidine dimers from uv-irradiated and chemically challenged human cells. It is shown by means of a sensitive endonuclease assay that the amount of excision observed depends upon the isotope used to label cells, and that XP heterozygotes are between normals and XPs

  17. CD3+CD4negCD8neg (double negative) T lymphocytes and NKT cells as the main cytotoxic-related-CD107a+ cells in lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Raquel; Cunha, Clarissa F; Pimentel, Maria Inês F; Lyra, Marcelo R; Pereira-Da-Silva, Tatiana; Schubach, Armando O; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Bertho, Alvaro Luiz

    2017-05-03

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, which infects dermal macrophages and dendritic cells, causing an intense immune-mediated-tissue inflammation and a skin ulcer with elevated borders that can heal spontaneously or after antimonial therapy. The resolution of lesions depends on an adaptive immune response, and cytotoxic cells seem to have a fundamental role in this process. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of cytotoxicity mediated mechanisms that occur during the immune response in the CL lesion milieu, considering distinct cytotoxic-related CD107a + cells, such as CD8 + , CD4 + , CD4 neg CD8 neg (double-negative, DN) and CD4 + CD8 + (double-positive, DP) T lymphocytes, as well as NK and NKT cells. Lesion derived cells were assessed for T cell subpopulations and NK cells, as well as CD107a expression by flow cytometry. In addition, cytometric bead array (CBA) was used to quantify cytokines and granzyme B concentrations in supernatants from macerated lesions. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that NKT cells are the major CD107a-expressing cell population committed to cytotoxicity in CL lesion, although we also observed high frequencies of CD4 + and DN T cells expressing CD107a. Analysing the pool of CD107a + -cell populations, we found a higher distribution of DN T cells (44%), followed by approximately 25% of NKT cells. Interestingly, NK and CD8 + T cells represented only 3 and 4% of the total-CD107a + -cell pool, respectively. The cytotoxicity activity that occurs in the lesion milieu of CL patients seems to be dominated by DN T and NKT cells. These findings suggest the need for a reevaluation of the role of classical-cytotoxic NK and CD8 + T cells in the pathogenesis of CL, implicating an important role for other T cell subpopulations.

  18. Characterization of testicular germ cell tumors: Whole-lesion histogram analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xiangde; Feng, Zhaoyan; Wang, Liang; Cai, Jie; Yan, Xu; Li, Basen; Ke, Zan; Zhang, Peipei; You, Huijuan

    2018-01-01

    To assess the values of parameters derived from whole-lesion histograms of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) at 3T for the characterization of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). A total of 24 men with TGCTs underwent 3T diffusion-weighted imaging. Fourteen tumors were pathologically confirmed as seminomas, and ten tumors were pathologically confirmed as nonseminomas. Whole-lesion histogram analysis of the ADC values was performed. A Mann-Whitney U test was employed to compare the differences in ADC histogram parameters between seminomas and nonseminomas. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to identify the cutoff values for each parameter for differentiating seminomas from nonseminomas; furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. The median of 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles and mean, minimum and maximum ADC values were all significantly reduced for seminomas compared with nonseminomas (phistogram analysis of ADCs might be used for preoperative characterization of TGCTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human papilloma virus 18 detection in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions using saliva samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goot-Heah, Khor; Kwai-Lin, Thong; Froemming, Gabriele Ruth Anisah; Abraham, Mannil Thomas; Nik Mohd Rosdy, Nik Mohd Mazuan; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer has become one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide and human Papillomavirus is one of the risk factors for developing oral cancer. For this study HPV18 was chosen as it is one of the high risk HPV types and may lead to carcinogenesis. However, prevalence of HPV18 infection in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Malaysia remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the viral load of HPV18 DNA in OSCC and potentially malignant lesions using saliva samples. Genomic DNAs of thirty saliva samples of normal subjects and thirty saliva samples compromised of 16 samples from potentially malignant lesions and 14 of OSCC patients were amplified for HPV18 DNA using a nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. All PCR products were then analyzed using the Bioanalyzer to confirm presence of HPV18 DNA. From thirty patients examined, only one of 30 (3.3%) cases was found to be positive for HPV18 in this study. The finding of this study revealed that there is a low viral detection of HPV18 in Malaysian OSCC by using saliva samples, suggesting that prevalence of HPV18 may not be important in this group of Malaysian OSCC.

  20. Paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia and osteolytic lesions secondary to large B-cell lymphoma: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Luisa Covarrubias-Flores

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypercalcaemia is a relatively common clinical finding, and its aetiology should be analysed in order to guide treatment. Case report: 56-year-old male presenting with hypercalcaemia, lumbar pain and osteolytic lesions in lumbar vertebrae, with large B-cell lymphoma subsequently confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Discussion: Common causes are primary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcaemia associated with chronic kidney disease and paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia (secondary to malignancy. Less common causes are granulomatous diseases, lymphoma and vitamin D toxicity, all associated with vitamin D metabolism, and thyrotoxicosis associated with lithium or thiazide diuretic consumption. Conclusion: Our patient presents with malignant hypercalcaemia, probably secondary to extra-renal conversion of 25(OHD to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, which represents <1% of cases. Resumen: Introducción: Hipercalcemia es un hallazgo clínico relativamente común, deberá analizarse la etiología de la misma para normar conducta terapéutica. Caso clínico: Se presenta a masculino de 56 años de edad que debuta con hipercalcemia, lumbalgia y lesiones osteolíticas en columna vertebral lumbar, al que posteriormente se le confirma linfoma b de células grandes mediante histología e inmunohistoquímica. Discusión: Las principales causas son Hiperparatiroidismo primario, hipercalcemia asociada a enfermedad renal crónica e hipercalcemia paraneoplásica (secundaria a malignidad. Causas menos comunes son enfermedades granulomatosas, linfoma e intoxicación por Vitamina D, todas estas asociadas con el metabolismo de la Vitamina D; tirotoxicosis, asociada al consumo de litio o diuréticos tiazídicos. Conclusión: Nuestro paciente debuta con hipercalcemia maligna, probablemente secundaria a la conversión extrarrenal de 25(OHD a 1,25-dihidroxivitamina D, que representa <1% de los casos. Keywords: Paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia, Lymphoma, Osteolytic

  1. Proliferation of protease-enriched mast cells in sarcoptic skin lesions of raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviana, D; W Harjanti, D; Otsuka, Y; Horii, Y

    2004-07-01

    Skin sites, tongue, lung, liver, jejunum and rectum from two raccoon dogs with Sarcoptes scabiei infestation and five normal (control) raccoon dogs were examined in terms of the distribution, proteoglycan properties and protease activity of mast cells. Infestation with S. scabiei caused a significant increase in the number of dermal mast cells. While the number of mast cells (average +/- standard deviation) in specimens of skin from the dorsum, dorsal neck, dorsal hind foot and dorsal fore foot was 40.0 +/- 19.8/mm2 in control animals, it was 236.1 +/- 58.9/mm2 in the skin of mange-infested animals. Histochemical analysis revealed the glycosaminoglycan, heparin, within the mast cells of all organs examined in both control and affected animals. Enzyme-histochemical detection of serine proteases demonstrated an increase in mast-cell-specific protease activity (i.e., chymase and tryptase) in the skin of infested animals. The percentage of mast cells demonstrating chymase activity was 53.0 +/- 27.4% in control animals and 73.8 +/- 19.4% in mite-infested animals. The corresponding results for tryptase activity were 53.5 +/- 25.2% and 89.4 +/- 9.8%. Increases in mast cell chymase or tryptase activity, or both, were also observed within other organs of the infected animals, but the total number of mast cells found at such sites (with the exception of liver and ventrolateral pinna) did not differ from those of control animals. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Derivation of Aerosol Columnar Mass from MODIS Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to verify performance, aerosol transport models (ATM) compare aerosol columnar mass (ACM) with those derived from satellite measurements. The comparison is inherently indirect since satellites derive optical depths and they use a proportionality constant to derive the ACM. Analogously, ATMs output a four dimensional ACM distribution and the optical depth is linearly derived. In both cases, the proportionality constant requires a direct intervention of the user by prescribing the aerosol composition and size distribution. This study introduces a method that minimizes the direct user intervention by making use of the new aerosol products of MODIS. A parameterization is introduced for the derivation of columnar aerosol mass (AMC) and CCN concentration (CCNC) and comparisons between sunphotometer, MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) and in-measurements are shown. The method still relies on the scaling between AMC and optical depth but the proportionality constant is dependent on the MODIS derived r$_{eff}$,\\eta (contribution of the accumulation mode radiance to the total radiance), ambient RH and an assumed constant aerosol composition. The CCNC is derived fkom a recent parameterization of CCNC as a function of the retrieved aerosol volume. By comparing with in-situ data (ACE-2 and TARFOX campaigns), it is shown that retrievals in dry ambient conditions (dust) are improved when using a proportionality constant dependent on r$ {eff}$ and \\eta derived in the same pixel. In high humidity environments, the improvement inthe new method is inconclusive because of the difficulty in accounting for the uneven vertical distribution of relative humidity. Additionally, two detailed comparisons of AMC and CCNC retrieved by the MAS algorithm and the new method are shown. The new method and MAS retrievals of AMC are within the same order of magnitude with respect to the in-situ measurements of aerosol mass. However, the proposed method is closer to the in-situ measurements than

  3. Selective immunotoxic lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic cells: effects on learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mark G; Bucci, David J; Gorman, Linda K; Wiley, Ronald G; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-10-01

    Male Long-Evans rats were given injections of either 192 IgG-saporin, an apparently selective toxin for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (LES), or vehicle (CON) into either the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB) or bilaterally into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis and substantia innominata (nBM/SI). Place discrimination in the Morris water maze assessed spatial learning, and a trial-unique matching-to-place task in the water maze assessed memory for place information over varying delays. MS/VDB-LES and nBM/SI-LES rats were not impaired relative to CON rats in acquisition of the place discrimination, but were mildly impaired relative to CON rats in performance of the memory task even at the shortest delay, suggesting a nonmnemonic deficit. These results contrast with effects of less selective lesions, which have been taken to support a role for basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in learning and memory. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. DETECTION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS, APOPTOSIS AND MOLECULAR LESIONS IN HUMAN OVARIAN CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Falfushynska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of gynaecological cancers. This is partly due to the lack of effective screening markers. Indices of oxidative stress are well-recognized prognostic criteria for tumorous transformation of tissue, but their value depends on the type of tumor and the stage of its development. Objective. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between antioxidant/pro-oxidant ratio and the signs of molecular lesions and apoptosis rate in blood of ovarian cancer patients and non-cancer ones. Results. The ovarian cancer group is marked by antioxidant/prooxidant balance shifting to oxidative damage in blood as the consequence of overexpression of oxyradicals (by 300%. Higher level of glutathione (by 366%, lower level of metallothioneins (by 65% as well as higher level of lipid peroxidation (by 174% and protein carbonyls (by 186% in blood of ovarian cancer patients compared to the normal ovarian group have been observed. The signs of cytotoxicity are determined in blood of ovarian cancer patients: an increased (compared to control level of DNA fragmentation (by 160%, choline esterase (up to twice, higher rate of both caspase dependent and caspase independent lysosomal mediated apoptosis. Conclusions. Cathepsin D activity both total and free, choline esterase activity, TBA-reactive substance and protein carbonyls level in blood could be used as the predictive markers of worse prognosis and the signs of human ovarian cancer.

  5. Particular features of angiogenesis in lesions in patients suffering from basal cell epithelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Khlebnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell epithelioma is one of the most frequent malignant skin neoplasms. Angiogenesis plays an important part in the development of basal cell epithelioma. The article presents a review of the angiogenesis of this tumor with the help the immunohistochemistry analysis using CD31 and CD34 markers. The authors established a reliable relationship between the number of vessels expressing CD31 and those expressing CD34 in the superficial and nodular forms of the tumor as well as superficial, multi-center, nodular and infiltrative basal cell epitheliomas. A comparison of the number of vessels expressing CD31 and CD34 markers in different histological types made revealed a trend to their growth in the infiltrative type vs. superficial, multi-center and nodular ones.

  6. Lesional accumulation of CD163-expressing cells in the gut of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Franzè

    Full Text Available Monocytes/macrophages displaying different markers of activation/differentiation infiltrate the inflamed gut of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, but the role that each monocyte/macrophage subpopulation plays in the pathogenesis of IBD is not fully understood. The hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163, a specific marker of monocytes/macrophages, has been associated with either anti-inflammatory or inflammatory functions of macrophages in several pathologies. In this study we examined the tissue distribution and function of CD163-expressing monocytes/macrophages in IBD. CD163 RNA and protein expression was more pronounced in IBD in comparison to normal controls, with no significant difference between Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis. In IBD, over-expression of CD163 was restricted to areas with active inflammation and not influenced by current therapy. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the accumulation of CD163-expressing cells in IBD, mostly around and inside blood vessels, thus suggesting that these cells are partly recruited from the systemic circulation. Indeed, FACS analysis of circulating mononuclear cells showed that the fractions of CD163-positive monocytes were increased in IBD patients as compared to controls. Functionally, interleukin-6 up-regulated CD163 expression in lamina propria mononuclear cells and mucosal explants of normal subjects. In IBD blood and mucosal cell cultures, cross-linking of CD163 with a specific monoclonal anti-CD163 antibody enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α synthesis. These findings indicate that IBD mucosa is abundantly infiltrated with CD163-positive cells, which could contribute to amplify the inflammatory cytokine response.

  7. Gold nanoparticles in plastic columnar discotic liquid crystalline material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshphysics927@gmail.com [Center of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Kumar, Sandeep [Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Dhar, Ravindra, E-mail: dr.ravindra.dhar@gmail.com [Center of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)

    2016-05-10

    Highlights: • Dispersion of Gold nanoparticles in a discotic liquid crystal has been studied. • σ{sub i} increases by seven orders of magnitude in the case of 1.2 wt% GNPs composites. • X-ray scattering results revel that a decrement in the core–core separation. • Study suggests that dispersion at low concentrations is uniform. • Band gap has decreased due to dispersion of GNPs in HAT4. - Abstract: We have studied the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the thermodynamical, optical and dielectrical parameters of a discotic liquid crystal (DLC) namely hexabutyloxytriphenylene (HAT4). It has been observed that with the increase of GNPs concentration in DLC, composites shows two different regions. In the first regions i.e. low concentrations (<1 wt%), columnar hexagonal-isotropic (Col{sub hp}-I{sub L}) transition temperature and enthalpy (ΔH) decrease rapidly while in the second region i.e. higher concentrations (>1 wt%) Col{sub hp}-I{sub L} transition temperature and ΔH are approximately constant. It has been observed that, in the case of composites having 0.2 and 0.6 wt% of GNPs, conductivity has enhanced but it is poor as compared to the composite having 1.2 wt% of GNPs. For 1.2 wt% of GNPs, conductivity has increased by seven orders of magnitude as compared to the DLC. Optical study suggests that band gap of nanocomposites has decreased due to dispersion of GNPs.

  8. The carbohydrate L-rhamnose promotes biofilm formation which enhances Flavobacterium columnare virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease causes substantial mortality worldwide in numerous freshwater finfish species. Due to its global significance and impact on the aquaculture industry, continual efforts to better understand basic mechanisms that contribute to disease...

  9. Sickeningly sweet: L-rhamnose stimulates Flavobacterium columnare biofilm formation and virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease causes substantial mortality worldwide in numerous freshwater finfish species. Due to its global significance and impact on the aquaculture industry continual efforts to better understand basic mechanisms that contribute to disease ...

  10. Formation of columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots on GaAs(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, J.; Noetzel, R.; Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Gong, Q.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots (QDs) with homogeneous composition and shape in the growth direction are realized by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs(100) substrates. The columnar (In,Ga)As QDs are formed on InAs seed QDs by alternating deposition of thin GaAs intermediate layers and monolayers of InAs with extended growth interruptions after each layer. The height of the columnar (In,Ga)As QDs is controlled by varying the number of stacked GaAs/InAs layers. The structural and optical properties are studied by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. With increase of the aspect ratio of the columnar QDs, the emission wavelength is redshifted and the linewidth is reduced

  11. Innovative Columnar Type of Grid Array SJ BIST HALT Method, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop will develop a superior method for testing and qualifying columnar type of grid arrays such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) packaged in column...

  12. Multiple effects of fluorescent light on repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA lesions in cultured goldfish cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Nobuhiro; Mitani, Hiroshi; Shima, Akihiro

    1995-01-01

    It is known that fluorescent light illumination prior to UV irradiation (FL preillumination) of cultured fish cells increases photorepair (PR) ability. In the present study, it was found that FL preillumination also enhanced UV resistance of logarithmically growing cells in the dark. This enhancement of UV resistance differs from induction of PR because it was not suppressed by cyclohexamide (CH) and it occurred immediately after FL preillumination. The effects of FL preillumination on repair of UV-induced DNA lesions in the dark were examined by an endonuclease-sensitive site assay to measure the repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate the repair of (6-4) photoproducts. It was found that excision repair ability for (6-4) photoproducts in the genome overall was increased by FL preillumination. Moreover, a decrease in (6-4) photoproducts by FL illumination immediately after UV irradiation of the cells was found, the decrement being enhanced by FL preillumination with or without CH. (author)

  13. Multiple effects of fluorescent light on repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA lesions in cultured goldfish cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Nobuhiro; Mitani, Hiroshi; Shima, Akihiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Radiation Biology

    1995-01-01

    It is known that fluorescent light illumination prior to UV irradiation (FL preillumination) of cultured fish cells increases photorepair (PR) ability. In the present study, it was found that FL preillumination also enhanced UV resistance of logarithmically growing cells in the dark. This enhancement of UV resistance differs from induction of PR because it was not suppressed by cyclohexamide (CH) and it occurred immediately after FL preillumination. The effects of FL preillumination on repair of UV-induced DNA lesions in the dark were examined by an endonuclease-sensitive site assay to measure the repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate the repair of (6-4) photoproducts. It was found that excision repair ability for (6-4) photoproducts in the genome overall was increased by FL preillumination. Moreover, a decrease in (6-4) photoproducts by FL illumination immediately after UV irradiation of the cells was found, the decrement being enhanced by FL preillumination with or without CH. (author).

  14. Cerebral lesions on 7 tesla MRI in patients with sickle cell anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Land, Veronica; Zwanenburg, Jaco J. M.; Fijnvandraat, Karin; Biemond, Bart J.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Mutsaerts, Henri J. M. M.; Visser, Fredy; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are at a high risk to develop cerebral damage. Most common are silent cerebral infarctions (SCIs), visible as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on MRI in a patient without neurological deficits. The etiology of SCIs remains largely unclear. In addition,

  15. Vitiligo-like lesions occurring in patients receiving anti-programmed cell death-1 therapies are clinically and biologically distinct from vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsabal, Maiana; Marti, Aurélie; Jacquemin, Clément; Rambert, Jérôme; Thiolat, Denis; Dousset, Léa; Taieb, Alain; Dutriaux, Caroline; Prey, Sorilla; Boniface, Katia; Seneschal, Julien

    2017-05-01

    The use of anti-programmed cell death (PD)-1 therapies in metastatic tumors is associated with cutaneous side effects including vitiligo-like lesions. We sought to characterize clinically and biologically vitiligo-like lesions occurring in patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapies by studying a case series of 8 patients with metastatic tumors and 30 control subjects with vitiligo. Eight patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapies with features of vitiligo-like lesions seen in our department were recruited. Clinical features and photographs were analyzed. For some patients, skin and blood samples were obtained. Results were compared with the vitiligo group. All patients developed lesions localized on photoexposed areas with a specific depigmentation pattern consisting of multiple flecked lesions without Koebner phenomenon. In contrast to vitiligo, patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapies who developed vitiligo-like lesions did not report any personal or family histories of vitiligo, thyroiditis, or other autoimmune disorders. Analysis of blood and skin samples revealed increased C-X-C motif ligand 10 levels in serum of patients developing vitiligo-like lesions, associated with skin infiltration of CD8 T-cells expressing C-X-C motif receptor 3 and producing elevated levels of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-alfa. This cross-sectional study concerned a single center. Clinical and biological patterns of vitiligo-like lesions occurring in patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapies differ from vitiligo, suggesting a different mechanism. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differentiated Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia-like and Lichen Sclerosus-like Lesions in HPV-associated Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakislova, Natalia; Alemany, Laia; Clavero, Omar; Del Pino, Marta; Saco, Adela; Quirós, Beatriz; Lloveras, Belen; Alejo, Maria; Halec, Gordana; Quint, Wim; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ordi, Jaume

    2018-06-01

    Most human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated vulvar squamous cell carcinomas (VSCCs) originate from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, also named usual type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. However, growing evidence suggests that morphologic studies have limitations in predicting HPV status in vulvar lesions. We aimed to evaluate adjacent intraepithelial lesions in a series of DNA HPV-positive VSCCs, focusing on unusual histologic patterns mimicking differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (dVIN) or lichen sclerosus (LS). We identified 326 DNA HPV-positive VSCC with at least 1 cm of skin adjacent to the invasive tumor and analyzed HPV typing, HPV E6*I mRNA, and p16 immunohistochemistry in all cases. A careful histologic evaluation was conducted. A conclusive association with HPV was based on a positive p16 or HPV E6*I mRNA result or both in addition to the HPV DNA, whereas cases negative for both markers were classified as nonconclusively associated with HPV. One hundred twenty-one tumors (37.1%) had normal adjacent skin, 191 (58.6%) had only high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, also named usual type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, and unusual intraepithelial lesions were identified in 14 (4.3%) tumors. Seven cases showed dVIN-like features, 5 showed adjacent LS-like lesion, and in 2 cases dVIN-like and LS-like lesions were identified simultaneously. Six of them were conclusively associated with HPV (3 dVIN-like, 2 LS-like, 1 with combined dVIN/LS-like features). All 6 tumors were associated with HPV16 and were positive for both p16 and HPV mRNA, and p16 was also positive in the dVIN-like and LS-like lesions. In summary, a small subset of VSCCs conclusively associated with HPV may arise on intraepithelial lesions, mimicking precursors of HPV-independent VSCC.

  17. Sintering and microstructure evolution of columnar nickel-based superalloy sheets prepared by EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Qu, S.J.; Liang, J.; Han, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → EB-PVD technology is commonly used to deposit thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and columnar structure is commonly seen in EB-PVD condensates. The unique columnar structure can provide outstanding resistance against thermal shock and mechanical strains for TBCs. However, a number of researchers have found that the columnar structure can affect the mechanical properties of EB-PVD alloy thin sheet significantly. As yet, works on how to reduce this kind of effects are seldom done. In the present article, we tried to reveal the sintering effects on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of columnar Ni-based superalloy sheet. The results suggests that after sintering, the columnar structure degrades. Degradation depends on sintering temperature and time. Both the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation percentage are effectively improved after sintering. - Abstract: A ∼0.15 mm-thick columnar nickel-based superalloy sheet was obtained by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The as-deposited alloy sheet was sintered at different conditions. The microstructure of the specimens before and after sintering was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy. An X'Pert texture facility was used to determine the crystallographic orientation of the as-deposited alloy sheet. The phase transformation was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Tensile tests were conducted at room temperature on as-deposited and sintered specimens. The results show that the as-deposited sheet is composed of typical columnar structures. After sintering, however, the columnar structure degrades. The degradation depends on sintering temperature and time. Both the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation percentage are effectively improved after sintering.

  18. Physiological and phenotypic variations between columnar and standard apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela

    Columnar apple trees have very determined growth habit, short internodes, nearly absent branching and can be planted densely in the orchards to obtain higher yields. Such tree architecture provides a possibility for automation and mechanization in agriculture and hence lowering the labour cost wh...... the variations between columnar and standard apple trees. This knowledge provides a better insight on the production abilities of the columnar apple trees which may be useful for future crop improvement strategies.......Columnar apple trees have very determined growth habit, short internodes, nearly absent branching and can be planted densely in the orchards to obtain higher yields. Such tree architecture provides a possibility for automation and mechanization in agriculture and hence lowering the labour cost...... on the physiological and phenotypic characteristics of the columnar apple trees were made by comparing them with the standard traditionally grown non-columnar apple trees. Data from the leaves morphological and anatomical studies and from various physiological investigations have been assembled to compare...

  19. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma presenting as submucosal lesion with repeatedly negative endoscopic biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra S Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old male presented with dysphagia for 2 months. Computed tomography revealed irregular wall thickening of the esophagus at T3 to T5 level. He underwent gastroscopy which revealed a submucosal bulge with normal mucosa at 25 cm from incisors. Repeated biopsies were taken, all were negative for malignancy. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound, and fine-needle aspiration was taken which was suggestive for squamous cell carcinoma.

  20. Small cell carcinoma of the gynecologic tract: a multifaceted spectrum of lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienza-Amores, Maria; Guerini-Rocco, Elena; Soslow, Robert A; Park, Kay J; Weigelt, Britta

    2014-08-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SmCC) of the female genital tract constitutes a diagnostic and clinical challenge given its rarity and the lack of standardized therapeutic approaches. Here we review the morphological, clinical and molecular features of gynecologic SmCCs and discuss potential areas for future research. Data for this review article were identified by searches of PubMed, EMBASE and the Internet using the search terms "small cell carcinoma" or "neuroendocrine carcinoma" and "gynecologic", "uterine cervix", "cervix", "uterus", "endometrium", "ovary", "vagina", "fallopian tube" or "vulva", and research articles published in English between 1972 and February 2014 were included. SmCCs arising from different organs within the gynecologic tract share the same histopathologic characteristics, which closely resemble those of small cell lung carcinoma. The expression of at least one immunohistochemical neuroendocrine marker is a common finding. The uterine cervix is the most frequent site of SmCC in the female genital tract. HPV infection seems to play a role in the development of cervical SmCC but not in cancers of other gynecologic sites. FIGO stage is an established prognostic factor, in particular in SCCs of the cervix. Irrespective of the site, SmCCs of the gynecologic tract display an aggressive clinical behavior with few reported long-term survivors. The therapeutic management includes surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Despite the potential differences in etiology and risk factors, SmCCs from different sites of the gynecologic tract have similar morphologic appearances and clinical behavior. Recent genomic analyses of small cell carcinoma of the lung have revealed potential driver genomic alterations. We posit that the comprehensive genomic characterization of gynecologic SmCCs may lead to the identification of markers that result in an improvement of diagnostic reproducibility of SmCCs of the gynecologic tract, and of molecular aberrations that may be

  1. Repositioning chloroquine and metformin to eliminate cancer stem cell traits in pre-malignant lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; López-Bonetc, Eugeni; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Del Barco, Sonia; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Menendez, Javier A.

    2011-01-01

    Ideal oncology drugs would be curative after a short treatment course if they could eliminate epithelium-originated carcinomas at their non-invasive, pre-malignant stages. Such ideal molecules, which are expected to molecularly abrogate all the instrumental mechanisms acquired by migrating cancer stem cells (CSCs) to by-pass tumour suppressor barriers, might already exist. We here illustrate how system biology strategies for repositioning existing FDA-approved drugs may accelerate our therape...

  2. Prevalence and predictors of columnar lined esophagus in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients undergoing upper endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Gokulakrishnan; Singh, Mandeep; Gupta, Neil; Gaddam, Srinivas; Giacchino, Maria; Wani, Sachin B; Moloney, Brian; Higbee, April D; Rastogi, Amit; Bansal, Ajay; Sharma, Prateek

    2012-11-01

    Chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a risk factor for Barrett's esophagus (BE), the most important surrogate marker for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The need to document the presence of intestinal metaplasia in esophageal biopsies from a columnar lined esophagus (CLE) to diagnose BE is debated. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of CLE in a large cohort of GERD patients undergoing upper endoscopy. Consecutive patients presenting to the endoscopy unit at a tertiary referral center for their index upper endoscopy for evaluation of GERD symptoms were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Patients were asked to complete a validated GERD questionnaire that documents the onset of GERD symptoms (heartburn and acid regurgitation) and grades the frequency and severity of symptoms experienced over the past year. Demographic information, body mass index, and use of aspirin/nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were recorded. Endoscopic details including length of CLE, presence and size of hiatal hernia were noted. Patients with CLE (cases) were compared with those without CLE (controls) using Fischer's exact test and t-test. All factors that were statistically significant (PGERD symptoms were prospectively enrolled. On index endoscopy, the prevalence of CLE was 23.3%, whereas of CLE with documented intestinal metaplasia was 14.1%. On univariate analysis, male gender, Caucasian race, heartburn duration of >5 years, presence and size of hiatal hernia were significantly associated with the presence of CLE compared with controls (P5 years (odds ratio (OR): 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-2.09, P=0.01), Caucasian race (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.42-4.03, P=0.001), and hiatal hernia (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.50-2.87, PGERD patients are diagnosed with this lesion. Enrolling all these patients in surveillance programs would have significant ramifications on health-care resources.

  3. Spared pre-irradiated area in pustular lesions induced by icotinib showing decreased expressions of CD1a+ langerhans cells and FGFR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiong; Wang Yi Na; Wang Bo

    2013-01-01

    Icotinib hydrochloride, a novel inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Up to date, cutaneous response to icotinib is largely unknown. Here we report an uncommon lesional phenomenon in a 56-year-old Chinese male with non-small-cell lung cancer, who received icotinib as a second-line treatment. Characteristic papulopustular rash on the chest and back was observed 4 days later. Interestingly, the rash completely spares a pre-irradiated area. The immunohistochemical study in the lesional skin area and spared skin area revealed a significant decrease in CD1a + Langerhans cells, Ki-67 as well as FGFR2 in the spared area than in the lesional area. Thus, the present case indicated that loss of the basal layer of proliferative cells and antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cell), as well as the down-regulation of FGFR2 signaling in the pre-irradiated skin area, may join forces in inhibiting icotinib-associated cutaneous reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both lesional area and lesion-spared area in a Chinese male receiving treatment with a new epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (icotinib). The immunohistochemical reactions described here also provide new insight into the pathogenesis of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related skin toxicities, and the role that other tyrosine kinase receptors (including FGFR) played in non-small-cell lung cancer. (author)

  4. Spared pre-irradiated area in pustular lesions induced by icotinib showing decreased expressions of CD1a+ langerhans cells and FGFR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiong; Wang, Yi Na; Wang, Bo

    2013-02-01

    Icotinib hydrochloride, a novel inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Up to date, cutaneous response to icotinib is largely unknown. Here we report an uncommon lesional phenomenon in a 56-year-old Chinese male with non-small-cell lung cancer, who received icotinib as a second-line treatment. Characteristic papulopustular rash on the chest and back was observed 4 days later. Interestingly, the rash completely spares a pre-irradiated area. The immunohistochemical study in the lesional skin area and spared skin area revealed a significant decrease in CD1a(+) Langerhans cells, Ki-67 as well as FGFR2 in the spared area than in the lesional area. Thus, the present case indicated that loss of the basal layer of proliferative cells and antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cell), as well as the down-regulation of FGFR2 signaling in the pre-irradiated skin area, may join forces in inhibiting icotinib-associated cutaneous reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both lesional area and lesion-spared area in a Chinese male receiving treatment with a new epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (icotinib). The immunohistochemical reactions described here also provide new insight into the pathogenesis of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related skin toxicities, and the role that other tyrosine kinase receptors (including FGFR) played in non-small-cell lung cancer.

  5. Modeling of columnar and equiaxed solidification of binary mixtures; Modelisation de la solidification colonnaire et equiaxe de melanges binaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, P

    2005-12-15

    This work deals with the modelling of dendritic solidification in binary mixtures. Large scale phenomena are represented by volume averaging of the local conservation equations. This method allows to rigorously derive the partial differential equations of averaged fields and the closure problems associated to the deviations. Such problems can be resolved numerically on periodic cells, representative of dendritic structures, in order to give a precise evaluation of macroscopic transfer coefficients (Drag coefficients, exchange coefficients, diffusion-dispersion tensors...). The method had already been applied for a model of columnar dendritic mushy zone and it is extended to the case of equiaxed dendritic solidification, where solid grains can move. The two-phase flow is modelled with an Eulerian-Eulerian approach and the novelty is to account for the dispersion of solid velocity through the kinetic agitation of the particles. A coupling of the two models is proposed thanks to an original adaptation of the columnar model, allowing for undercooling calculation: a solid-liquid interfacial area density is introduced and calculated. At last, direct numerical simulations of crystal growth are proposed with a diffuse interface method for a representation of local phenomena. (author)

  6. Intraarterial route increases the risk of cerebral lesions after mesenchymal cell administration in animal model of ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay, Bárbara; Trekker, Jesse; Himmelreich, Uwe; Beiras, Andrés; Topete, Antonio; Taboada, Pablo; Pérez-Mato, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Iglesias-Rey, Ramón; Rivas, José; Planas, Anna M.; Sobrino, Tomás; Castillo, José; Campos, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising clinical therapy for ischemic stroke. However, critical parameters, such as the most effective administration route, remain unclear. Intravenous (i.v.) and intraarterial (i.a.) delivery routes have yielded varied outcomes across studies, potentially due to the unknown MSCs distribution. We investigated whether MSCs reached the brain following i.a. or i.v. administration after transient cerebral ischemia in rats, and evaluated the therapeutic effects of both routes. MSCs were labeled with dextran-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cell tracking, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistological analysis. MSCs were found in the brain following i.a. but not i.v. administration. However, the i.a. route increased the risk of cerebral lesions and did not improve functional recovery. The i.v. delivery is safe but MCS do not reach the brain tissue, implying that treatment benefits observed for this route are not attributable to brain MCS engrafting after stroke.

  7. Interaction of DNA-lesions induced by sodium fluoride and radiation and its influence in apoptotic induction in cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Podder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is an essential trace element but also an environmental contaminant with major sources of exposure being drinking water, food and pesticides. Previous studies showed that sodium fluoride (NaF at 5 mM or more is required to induce apoptosis and chromosome aberrations and proposed that DNA damage and apoptosis play an important role in toxicity of excessive fluoride. The aim of this study is directed to understand the nature of DNA-lesions induced by NaF by allowing its interaction with radiation induced DNA-lesions. NaF 5 mM was used after observing inability to induce DNA damages and apoptosis by single exposure with 50 μM or 1 mM NaF. Co-exposure to NaF and radiation significantly increased the frequency of aberrant metaphases and exchange aberrations in human lymphocytes and arrested the cells in G1 stage instead of apoptotic death. Flow cytometric analysis, DNA fragmentation and PARP-cleavage analysis clearly indicated that 5 mM NaF together with radiation (1 Gy induced apoptosis in both U87 and K562 cells due to down regulation of expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, like Bcl2 in U87 and inhibitors of apoptotic proteins like survivin and cIAP in K562 cells. This study herein suggested that single exposure with extremely low concentration of NaF unable to induce DNA lesions whereas higher concentration induced DNA lesions interact with the radiation-induced DNA lesions. Both are probably repaired rapidly thus showed increased interactive effect. Coexposure to NaF and radiation induces more apoptosis in cancer cell lines which could be due to increased exchange aberrations through lesions interaction and downregulating anti-apoptotic genes.

  8. Feral livestock threatens landscapes dominated by columnar cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, J. E.; Acebes, P.; Giannoni, S. M.; Traba, J.

    2011-05-01

    The introduction and naturalization of alien species represents a serious threat to many natural protected areas. One such case of worldwide concern is the impact of feral livestock on arid ecosystems. Damage suffered by Echinopsis (= Trichocereus) terscheckii dominating the landscape of rocky slopes was surveyed in seven locations within the Ischigualasto-Talampaya World Heritage Site (Argentina) by measuring the frequency, position on the plant and extent of damage. At the same time we employed transects to estimate the abundance of autochtonous and feral large herbivores ( Lama guanicoe, Bos taurus, Equus asinus) from their dung. Our results show relatively high damage levels (40-77% of individuals damaged, more than 5 dm 3 removed by plant in some sites), particularly within 0.50-1.75 m above the ground, showing herbivores to be the main responsible for them. We also found significant differences between sites in variables measuring damage level and in the intensity of use by the two feral livestock species but not by guanacos. The frequency of damaged cacti below 1.75 m (but not above) was significantly positively correlated among locations with the frequencies of cattle and donkey dung, and the damage suffered by individual cacti was also correlated with donkey and cattle dung in their surroundings after correcting for spatial effects. However, all correlations were non-significant in the case of guanacos. We conclude that the continued presence of feral livestock, particularly donkeys, leads to damages to columnar cacti with potential effects on their populations and the physiognomy of this protected landscape.

  9. Low NKp30, NKp46 and NKG2D expression and reduced cytotoxic activity on NK cells in cervical cancer and precursor lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Iglesias, Trinidad; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Toro-Arreola, Alicia del; Albarran-Somoza, Benibelks; Toro-Arreola, Susana del; Sanchez-Hernandez, Pedro E; Ramirez-Dueñas, Maria Guadalupe; Balderas-Peña, Luz Ma. Adriana; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo C

    2009-01-01

    Persistent high risk HPV infection can lead to cervical cancer, the second most common malignant tumor in women worldwide. NK cells play a crucial role against tumors and virus-infected cells through a fine balance between activating and inhibitory receptors. Expression of triggering receptors NKp30, NKp44, NKp46 and NKG2D on NK cells correlates with cytolytic activity against tumor cells, but these receptors have not been studied in cervical cancer and precursor lesions. The aim of the present work was to study NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D, NKp80 and 2B4 expression in NK cells from patients with cervical cancer and precursor lesions, in the context of HPV infection. NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D, NKp80 and 2B4 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry on NK cells from 59 patients with cervical cancer and squamous intraepithelial lesions. NK cell cytotoxicity was evaluated in a 4 hour CFSE/7-AAD flow cytometry assay. HPV types were identified by PCR assays. We report here for the first time that NK cell-activating receptors NKp30 and NKp46 are significantly down-regulated in cervical cancer and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) patients. NCRs down-regulation correlated with low cytolytic activity, HPV-16 infection and clinical stage. NKG2D was also down-regulated in cervical cancer patients. Our results suggest that NKp30, NKp46 and NKG2D down-regulation represent an evasion mechanism associated to low NK cell activity, HPV-16 infection and cervical cancer progression

  10. Evolving radiological features of hypothalamo-pituitary lesions in adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makras, P.; Samara, C.; Antoniou, M.; Nikolakopoulou, Z.; Zetos, A.; Papadogias, D.; Piaditis, G.; Kaltsas, G.A.; Toloumis, G.; Andreakos, E.; Kontogeorgos, G.

    2006-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare, systemic disease caused by monoclonal expansion of dendritic cells that shows a particular predilection for the hypothalamic-pituitary system (HPS). We studied the function (anterior and posterior pituitary hormonal secretion) and morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the HPS in 17 adult patients (seven males, median age 35 years, range 18-59 years) with multisystem LCH. We also evaluated the evolution of structural HPS abnormalities in relation to pituitary function and response to treatment in 12 of these patients during a median follow-up period of 3.75 years (range 1.5-10 years). Of the 17 patients, 14 (82%) had abnormal HPS imaging, and 12 (70%) had more than one area involved. Lack of the bright spot of the posterior pituitary lobe was typically found in all patients with the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus (DI). Eight patients (47%) had infundibular enlargement, six (35%) pituitary infiltration, four (24%) partially or completely empty sella, three (18%) hypothalamic involvement, and two (12%) infundibular atrophy. DI was found in 16 patients (94%) and anterior pituitary hormonal deficiency (APHD) in 10 patients (59%); two patients had single (12%) and 8 (47%) multiple APHD. During the follow-up period there was improvement of the initially demonstrated HPS pathology in seven (47%) patients, and five (33%) of them had received at least one form of treatment. APHD and DI persisted in all patients except in one in whom established gonadotrophin deficiency recovered. In summary, DI and APHD are very common in patients with multisystem LCH and are almost always associated with abnormal HPS imaging. (orig.)

  11. Highly differentiated keratinizing squamous cell cancer of the cervix: a rare, locally aggressive tumor not associated with human papillomavirus or squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, C; Catania, F; Wakely, P; Nuovo, G J

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to report an unusual variant of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, not associated with either human papillomavirus infection or antecedent squamous intraepithelial lesions. Five women had a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer discovered at hysterectomy performed for prolapse (two cases), leiomyoma (one case), or a vaginal fistula (two cases). The women ranged in age from 47 to 78 years (mean 59 years). Four of the five had a history of normal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears; the other had a Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). All had large cervical tumors (two with parametrial involvement and one with vaginal involvement) that showed extensive keratin formation, an inverted pattern of growth, and, except for one case, minimal cytologic atypia. There was extensive hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis adjacent to each tumor; none had evidence of squamous intraepithelial lesion. Human papillomavirus testing by polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridization and reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction in situ was negative in each case, compared with a detection rate of 107 of 108 (99%) for squamous intraepithelial lesion-associated cervical squamous cell and adenocarcinomas. Two of the women died of extensive local recurrence; two other women were recently diagnosed. We conclude that highly differentiated keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare entity not associated with human papillomavirus infection or squamous intraepithelial lesion and thus difficult to detect on routine cervical cancer screening.

  12. Detection of the Epstein-Barr Virus and DNA-Topoisomerase II-α in Recurrent and Nonrecurrent Giant Cell Lesion of the Jawbones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal M. Zyada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine whether the expression of Topo II- correlates with presence of EBV in giant cell lesion of the jawbones and whether it is predictive of clinical biologic behavior of these lesions. Paraffin-embedded tissues from 8 recurrent and 7 nonrecurrent cases of bony GCLs and 9 peripheral giant cell lesions (PGCLs as a control group were assessed for the expression of EBV and Topo II- using immunohistochemistry. The results showed positive staining for Topo II- in mononuclear stromal cells (MSCs and multinucleated giant cells (MGCs. Student t-test showed that mean Topo II- labelling index (LI in recurrent cases was significantly higher than that in non-recurrent cases (. Moreover, Spearman's correlation coefficients method showed a significant correlation between DNA Topo II- LI and both of gender and site in these lesions. Moderate EBV expression in relation to the highest Topo II- LI was observed in two cases of GCT. It was concluded that high Topo II- LIs could be identified as reliable predicators for the clinical behavior of GCLs. Moreover, EBV has no etiological role in the benign CGCLs in contrast to its role in the pathogenesis of GCTs.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells favour healing of the cutaneous radiation syndrome; Les cellules souches mesenchymateuses favorisent la cicatrisation des lesions cutanees radio induites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, S.; Mouiseddine, M.; Mathieu, N.; Semont, A.; Monti, P.; Dudoignon, N.; Sache, A.; Boutarfa, A.; Thierry, D.; Voisin, P.; Gourmelon, P.; Chapel, A. [IRSN, Dir. de radioprotection de l' Homme, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-10-15

    It has been suggested that human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC) could be used to repair numerous injured tissues. We have studied the potential use of hMSC in order to limit radiation-induced skin lesions. Immuno-deficient NOD/SCID mice were locally irradiated to the leg (30 Gy, dose rate 2.7 Gy/mn) using a {sup 60} Co source in order to induce a severe skin lesion. Cultured bone marrow hMSC were delivered intravenously to the mice. The irradiated skin samples were studied for the presence of the human cells, the severity of the lesions and the healing process. Macroscopic analysis and histology results showed that the lesions were evolving to a less severe degree of radiation dermatitis following hMSC transplant when compared to irradiated non-transplanted controls. Clinical scores for the studied skin parameters of treated mice were significantly improved. A faster healing was observed when compared to untreated mouse. Immuno-histology and Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) analysis provided evidence that the human cells were found in the irradiated area. These results suggest a possible use of hMSC for the treatment of the early phase of the cutaneous radiation syndrome. A successful transplant of stem cells and subsequent reduction in radiation-induced complication may open the road to completely new strategies in cutaneous radiation syndrome therapy. (authors)

  14. Management and Outcome of Patients With Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis and Single-Bone CNS-Risk Lesions: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chellapandian, Deepak; Shaikh, Furqan; van den Bos, Cor; Somers, Gino R.; Astigarraga, Itziar; Jubran, Rima; Degar, Barbara; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Mandel, Karen; Belletrutti, Mark; Dix, David; Visser, Johannes; Abuhadra, Nour; Chang, Tiffany; Rollins, Barret; Whitlock, James; Weitzman, Sheila; Abla, Oussama

    2015-01-01

    Children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and single-bone CNS-risk lesions have been reported to be at increased risk of diabetes insipidus (DI), central nervous system neurodegeneration (CNS-ND), and recurrence of disease. However, it is unknown whether the addition of chemotherapy or

  15. Colposcopy in pre-malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma: Linking threads of clinical, histopathological and colposcopic inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naphade Ujwala

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although the degree of abnormality in colposcopic findings can be predicted by the vascular patterns of the lesion, the major advantage of colposcopy is to outline the most suspicious lesion for histologic diagnosis by directed biopsy, which is the mainstay in establishing the correct diagnosis. Colposcopy is valuable in the detection of early cancerous lesions. However the final diagnosis must rely on a meticulous histopathological examination by an expert pathologist.

  16. Reduction of regulatory T cells in skin lesions but not in peripheral blood of patients with systemic scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S; Kretz, C C; Ruland, V; Stumpf, C; Haust, M; Hartschuh, W; Hartmann, M; Enk, A; Suri-Payer, E; Oberle, N; Krammer, P H; Kuhn, A

    2011-08-01

    To determine the frequency and suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) and their association with clinical parameters in patients with systemic scleroderma (SSc). Peripheral blood from 25 patients with SSc, 15 patients with localised scleroderma (LS) and 29 healthy controls (HC) was studied. Analysis of CD4(+) forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) and CD4(+)CD25(++)Foxp3(+) T(reg) subpopulations was carried out by flow cytometry and cell proliferation was quantified by (3)H-thymidine incorporation. Quantitative analysis of T(reg) was further performed in skin biopsies from 17 patients with SSc and 21 patients with LS using anti-CD4 and anti-Foxp3 monoclonal antibodies for immunohistochemistry. The frequency of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) and CD4(+)CD25(++)Foxp3(+) T(reg) in peripheral blood from patients with SSc was not significantly different from that of patients with LS or HC. The suppressive capacity of CD4(+)CD25(++) T(reg) in SSc was also found to be similar to that of HC. Phenotypic and functional data revealed no significant difference between the limited or diffuse form of SSc. Moreover, therapy with bosentan showed no significant effect on the frequency of T(reg) during the course of the disease. However, the frequency of T(reg) in skin lesions from patients with SSc or LS, determined as the percentage of CD4(+) cells expressing Foxp3 in the inflammatory infiltrate, was significantly reduced compared with other inflammatory skin diseases. These results indicate that although the authors found no defect in the frequency or function of peripheral T(reg) subpopulations, the reduction of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T(reg) in the skin of patients with SSc may be important in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  17. Central Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Mandible Simulating as Benign Odontogenic Lesion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Bajpai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Centrally occurring salivary gland tumors are rare. Because of a considerable overlap between the clinical and histopathological features, this group of tumors often produces a diagnostic difficulty to the clinicians and oral pathologists. Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC is an unusual, low-grade, malignant salivary gland tumor that represents approximately 2% of the salivary gland tumors with almost 90% arising in the parotid gland. The rest involve the submandibular and the minor salivary gland. ACC of the jaw is extremely rare and, to our knowledge, only 8 cases have been reported in the English literature. Herein, a case of primary intraosseous ACC of the mandible in a 31-year-old woman is presented. The present case is unique, as the central ACC has never been reported in a patient in the third decade of life. The complete surgical removal of the tumor was carried out under general anesthesia along with the extraction of teeth #31, #32, #41, and #42. The follow-up period of 1-year was uneventful.

  18. Caveolin-1 expression in oral lichen planus, dysplastic lesions and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Aslani, Ehsan

    2017-07-01

    Caveolin-1(Cav-1), the main part of caveolae structure, is supposed to play a role in pathogenesis of many human tumors. Since oral lichen planus (OLP) is considered as a potential premalignant disease, this study evaluated Cav-1 expression in OLP in comparison with benign hyperkeratosis, dysplastic epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), to investigate its possible role in pathogenesis and malignant transformation of OLP. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of Cav-1 in the epithelial component and stroma was evaluated in 81 samples, including 12 cases of hyperkeratosis, 24 OLP, 22 epithelial dysplasia, and 23 OSCC samples. Correlations between Cav-1 expression and clinicopathological variables were evaluated statistically. Positive Cav-1 staining was found in 58% of OLP, 91% of hyperkeratosis, 100% of epithelial dysplasia, and 95% of OSCC samples. OSCC showed the highest Cav-1 expression and OLP had the lowest (P=0.001). The intensity of staining was significantly increased in stepwise manner from OLP to OSCC (P=0.001). Expression of Cav-1 was related to the grade of samples in OSCC and dysplastic samples (P=0.04). Based on the findings, it was concluded that Cav-1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of OLP and carcinogenesis of SCC, but its role in malignant transformation of OLP is not confirmed. Further studies are needed to evaluate its potential therapeutic function in OLP and SCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Four Distinct Phylogenetic Groups in Flavobacterium columnare With Fish Host Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R. LaFrentz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Columnaris disease, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is one of the most prevalent fish diseases worldwide. An exceptionally high level of genetic diversity among isolates of F. columnare has long been recognized, whereby six established genomovars have been described to date. However, little has been done to quantify or characterize this diversity further in a systematic fashion. The objective of this research was to perform phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and housekeeping gene sequences to decipher the genetic diversity of F. columnare. Fifty isolates and/or genomes of F. columnare, originating from diverse years, geographic locations, fish hosts, and representative of the six genomovars were analyzed in this study. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA of the 16S rRNA and six housekeeping genes supported four distinct F. columnare genetic groups. There were associations between genomovar and genetic group, but these relationships were imperfect indicating that genomovar assignment does not accurately reflect F. columnare genetic diversity. To expand the dataset, an additional 90 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from GenBank and a phylogenetic analysis of this larger dataset also supported the establishment of four genetic groups. Examination of isolate historical data indicated biological relevance to the identified genetic diversity, with some genetic groups isolated preferentially from specific fish species or families. It is proposed that F. columnare isolates be assigned to the four genetic groups defined in this study rather than genomovar in order to facilitate a standard nomenclature across the scientific community. An increased understanding of which genetic groups are most prevalent in different regions and/or aquaculture industries may allow for the development of improved targeted control and treatment measures for columnaris disease.

  20. Enzyme-labeled Antigen Method: Development and Application of the Novel Approach for Identifying Plasma Cells Locally Producing Disease-specific Antibodies in Inflammatory Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Shiogama, Kazuya; Onouchi, Takanori; Sakurai, Kouhei; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    In chronic inflammatory lesions of autoimmune and infectious diseases, plasma cells are frequently observed. Antigens recognized by antibodies produced by the plasma cells mostly remain unclear. A new technique identifying these corresponding antigens may give us a breakthrough for understanding the disease from a pathophysiological viewpoint, simply because the immunocytes are seen within the lesion. We have developed an enzyme-labeled antigen method for microscopic identification of the antigen recognized by specific antibodies locally produced in plasma cells in inflammatory lesions. Firstly, target biotinylated antigens were constructed by the wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system or through chemical biotinylation. Next, proteins reactive to antibodies in tissue extracts were screened and antibody titers were evaluated by the AlphaScreen method. Finally, with the enzyme-labeled antigen method using the biotinylated antigens as probes, plasma cells producing specific antibodies were microscopically localized in fixed frozen sections. Our novel approach visualized tissue plasma cells that produced 1) autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, 2) antibodies against major antigens of Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis or radicular cyst, and 3) antibodies against a carbohydrate antigen, Strep A, of Streptococcus pyogenes in recurrent tonsillitis. Evaluation of local specific antibody responses expectedly contributes to clarifying previously unknown processes in inflammatory disorders

  1. Allogeneic stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED for the management of periapical lesions in permanent teeth: Two case reports of a novel biologic alternative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madu Ghana Shyam Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are the pluripotent cells that have the capacity to differentiate into other specialized cells. Recently, many experiments have been conducted to study the potentiality of stem cells in the tissue regeneration. We report two cases treated utilizing stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED in the management of periapical lesions in permanent teeth. Two normal human deciduous teeth from children, 7‒8 years of age, were collected to isolate stem cells. Two patients, one with periapical pathology alone and the other with periapical lesion along with an open apex in young permanent teeth, were selected for the study. After initial debridement of the root canals, homing of SHED was carried out and the access cavity was sealed using glass-ionomer cement. Clinical examination after 7 days, 30 days, 90 days, 180 days and 365 days revealed no symptoms. Closure of open apex and periapical tissue healing were observed radiographically at one-month review and maintained until 365-day review. Positive response to electric pulp testing was recorded for the treated teeth from the 3- to 12-month follow-ups. The treated cases demonstrated complete resolution of periapical radiolucency in a span of 30 days, which was faster than the conventional methods. SHED could be considred effective in treating the periapical lesions and open apex in permanent teeth.

  2. The effect of temperature and wavelength on production and photolysis of a UV-induced photosensitive DNA lesion which is not repaired in xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.A.; Carrier, W.L.; Regan, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet light causes a type of damage to the DNA of human cells that results in a DNA strand break upon subsequent irradiation with wavelengths around 300 nm. This DNA damage disappears from normal human fibroblasts within 5 h, but not from pyrimidine dimer excision repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells or from excision proficient xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells. The apparent lack of repair of the ultraviolet light DNA damage described here may contribute to the cancer prone nature of xeroderma pigmentosum variant individuals. These experiments show that the same amount of damage was produced at 0 0 C and 37 0 C indicating a photodynamic effect and not an enzymatic reaction. The disappearance of the photosensitive lesions from the DNA is probably enzymatic since none of the damage was removed at 0 0 C. Both the formation of the lesion and its photolysis by near ultraviolet light were wavelength dependent. An action spectrum for the formation of photosensitive lesions was similar to that for the formation of pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts and included wavelengths found in sunlight. The DNA containing the lesions was sensitive to wavelengths from 304 to 340 nm with a maximum at 313 to 317 nm. This wavelength dependence of photolysis is similar to the absorption and photolysis spectra of the pyrimidine (6-4) photoproducts. (author)

  3. Cutaneous infiltration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and T regulatory cells in skin lesions of polymorphic light eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M T; Arisi, M; Lonardi, S; Lorenzi, L; Ungari, M; Serana, F; Fusano, M; Moggio, E; Calzavara-Pinton, P G; Venturini, M

    2018-02-11

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is the most common autoimmune photodermatosis. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) are important mediators of innate antimicrobial immunity involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory skin diseases. In addition to PDCs, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in controlling inflammation and adaptive immunity in skin by their immunosuppressive capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of PDCs and Tregs in photoexposed skin from PLE compared to healthy skin. Patients with PLE diagnosis and healthy controls were recruited and underwent a photoprovocative test. A 4-mm punch biopsy was taken from the site of positive photoprovocation test reaction, and immunohistochemistry for BDCA2 as marker for PDCs, CD4 and FOXP3 as markers for Tregs was performed. Double immunostain for FOXP3 and CD4 was performed as well. Absolute counts for CD4, BDCA2 and FOXP3 were performed in at least 5 High Power Fields (HPF). Percentage of CD4-, BDCA2- and CD4FOXP3-positive cells over the total inflammatory infiltrate was assessed for each case. We enrolled 23 patients and controls. BDCA2+ cells were present in 91.3% of PLE skin samples and 100% of healthy volunteer. Both in PLE patients and healthy controls, PDCs distribution was mainly dermic (P PLE patients (P PLE patients and healthy controls, Tregs distribution was mainly dermic (P PLE patients compared to controls (P PLE, and dermal distribution of PDCs in PLE skin biopsies seems to confirm a possible overlap with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE). © 2018 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. KIT D816V mutation-positive cell fractions in lesional skin biopsies from adults with systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Vestergaard, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Most adults with systemic mastocytosis (SM) carry the somatic KIT D816V mutation, but the occurrence of the mutation in lesional skin remains to be characterized.......Most adults with systemic mastocytosis (SM) carry the somatic KIT D816V mutation, but the occurrence of the mutation in lesional skin remains to be characterized....

  5. Comparison of Thin-Prep and cell block preparation for the evaluation of Thyroid epithelial lesions on fine needle aspiration biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammoud Jamal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to compare the utility of Thin-Prep (TP cytologic preparation with that of Cell Block (CB preparation in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions, mainly follicular epithelial lesions, by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. Feasibility of using the TP slides for immunocytochemical stains is also discussed. Methods A total of 126 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB with TP slides and 128 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB with CB slides were reviewed blindly by two cytopathologists. The presence of colloid, follicular cells, macrophages and lymphocytes/plasma cells were recorded and scored 0–4 on each case based on TP or CB slide review. The cytologic diagnoses were grouped as follows: cyst, colloid nodule, colloid nodule with cystic change, chronic thyroiditis, atypical/neoplastic and non-diagnostic. Results The TP slides had higher diagnostic rate than CB slides. The diagnostic yield was 68% of the TP slides whereas only 24% of the CB slides were diagnostic. Also, only 4 atypical/neoplastic lesions were diagnosed on the TP slides and the corresponding direct smears, while 5 cases of atypical/neoplastic lesions were diagnosed on the smears but could not be diagnosed on the corresponding CB slides. Additionally, the TP slides revealed cytologic features that were not observed on the direct traditional smears of the same case. Conclusion In thyroid FNAB cases, TP slide preparation is superior to CB slide preparation and is more likely to have greater cellularity for diagnosis and detect atypical/neoplastic thyroid lesions, particularly those of follicular cell origin. Furthermore, TP slides appear to detect helpful diagnostic cytologic features and should be considered complementary to, rather than replacing, direct smears.

  6. A theoretical study of CsI:Tl columnar scintillator image quality parameters by analytical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyvas, N., E-mail: nkalyvas@teiath.gr; Valais, I.; Michail, C.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.

    2015-04-11

    Medical X-ray digital imaging systems such as mammography, radiography and computed tomography (CT), are composed from efficient radiation detectors, which can transform the X-rays to electron signal. Scintillators are materials that emit light when excited by X-rays and incorporated in X-ray medical imaging detectors. Columnar scintillator, like CsI:T1 is very often used for X-ray detection due to its higher performance. The columnar form limits the lateral spread of the optical photons to the scintillator output, thus it demonstrates superior spatial resolution compared to granular scintillators. The aim of this work is to provide an analytical model for calculating the MTF, the DQE and the emission efficiency of a columnar scintillator. The model parameters were validated against published Monte Carlo data. The model was able to predict the overall performance of CsI:Tl scintillators and suggested an optimum thickness of 300 μm for radiography applications. - Highlights: • An analytical model for calculating MTF, DQE and Detector Optical Gain (DOG) of columnar phosphors was developed. • The model was fitted to published efficiency and MTF Monte Carlo data. • A good fit was observed for 300 µm columnar CsI:Tl thickness. • The performance of the 300 µm column thickness CsI:Tl was better in terms of MTF and DOG for radiographic applications.

  7. Effects of age and parity on mammary gland lesions and progenitor cells in the FVB/N-RC mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Raafat

    Full Text Available The FVB/N mouse strain is extensively used in the development of animal models for breast cancer research. Recently it has been reported that the aging FVB/N mice develop spontaneous mammary lesions and tumors accompanied with abnormalities in the pituitary glands. These observations have a great impact on the mouse models of human breast cancer. We have developed a population of inbred FVB/N mice (designated FVB/N-RC that have been genetically isolated for 20 years. To study the effects of age and parity on abnormalities of the mammary glands of FVB/N-RC mice, twenty-five nulliparous and multiparous (3-4 pregnancies females were euthanized at 16-22 months of age. Examination of the mammary glands did not reveal macroscopic evidence of mammary gland tumors in either aged-nulliparous or multiparous FVB/N-RC mice (0/25. However, histological analysis of the mammary glands showed rare focal nodules of squamous changes in 2 of the aged multiparous mice. Mammary gland hyperplasia was detected in 8% and 71% of the aged-nulliparous and aged-multiparous mice, respectively. Epithelial contents and serum levels of triiodothyronine were significantly higher in the experimental groups than the 14-wk-old control mice. Immuno-histochemical staining of the pituitary gland pars distalis showed no difference in prolactin staining between the control and the aged mice. Tissue transplant and dilution studies showed no effect of age and/or parity on the ability of putative progenitor cells present among the injected mammary cells to repopulate a cleared fat pad and develop a full mammary gland outgrowth. This FVB/N-RC mouse substrain is suitable to develop mouse models for breast cancer.

  8. 111In-Octreotide and 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy in the detection of bone lesions in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, I.; Bello, P.; Gonzalez-Cabezas, P.; Flores, D.; Perez-Velasco, R.; Torres, I.; Castel, V.; Mateo, A.; Canete, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a granulomatous disease which can involve multiples sites of the body. Diagnostic imaging is of utmost importance in the management of these patients. Since now radiographic skeletal survey and bone scintigraphy (BS) have been used to assess bone involvement (both with low specificity). Magnetic resonance and CT have been used to assess visceral involvement but with the limitation that can not give information about the functional status. Recently two groups of investigators (Lastoria et al. and Calming et al.) have proposed somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SSRS) to detect active lesions and for monitoring the response to treatment, due to the somatostatin analogue octreotide binds to the cell membrane of activated lymphocytes expressing somatostatine receptors. The aim of this study is to assess bone and somatostatine receptor scintigraphy in the detection of bone involvement in LCH in children. Visceral involvement has not been assessed due to none of the patients presented it at the moment of the SRS. Methods: 17 scintigraphies (11 SSRS and 6 BS) were performed in seven patients (3 girls and 4 boys) aged at diagnosis: 18 month- 12 years (mean age 6,2 years). The findings obtained in the scintigraphies were compared with clinical evolution and other imaging techniques. Results: All the BS detected the diagnosed lesions, that decreased the uptake after the treatment. In three cases BS detected one unknown bone lesion. Two SSRS could not detect a lesion on right rib in two patients, both at the moment of diagnosis. SSRS was true negative in one patient (clinical and other imaging remission) and true positive in the other four cases. SSRS detected three new unknown bone lesions. SRSS showed decreased uptake after treatment and increased uptake in the relapses. Conclusions: Somatostatin receptor and Bone scintigraphy can be used to detect active LCH bone lesions in children and can help in monitoring the response to

  9. Carboxymethyl chitin-glucan (CM-CG) protects human HepG2 and HeLa cells against oxidative DNA lesions and stimulates DNA repair of lesions induced by alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamenová, Darina; Kováciková, Ines; Horváthová, Eva; Wsólová, Ladislava; Navarová, Jana

    2010-10-01

    A large number of functional foods, including those that contain β-d-glucans, have been shown to prevent human DNA against genotoxic effects and associated development of cancer and other chronic diseases. In this paper, carboxymethyl chitin-glucan (CM-CG) isolated from Aspergillus niger was investigated from two standpoints: (1) DNA-protective effects against oxidative DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) and alkylating DNA damage induced by MMS and MNNG, and (2) a potential effect on rejoining of MMS- and MNNG-induced single strand DNA breaks. The results obtained by the comet assay in human cells cultured in vitro showed that CM-CG reduced significantly the level of oxidative DNA lesions induced by H(2)O(2) but did not change the level of alkylating DNA lesions induced by MMS or MNNG. On the other side, the efficiency of DNA-rejoining of single strand DNA breaks induced by MMS and MNNG was significantly higher in HepG2 cells pre-treated with CM-CG. The antioxidative activity of carboxymethyl chitin-glucan was confirmed by the DPPH assay. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cutting Edge: A Critical Role of Lesional T Follicular Helper Cells in the Pathogenesis of IgG4-Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamekura, Ryuta; Takano, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Kawata, Koji; Shigehara, Katsunori; Jitsukawa, Sumito; Nagaya, Tomonori; Ito, Fumie; Sato, Akinori; Ogasawara, Noriko; Tsubomatsu, Chieko; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakase, Hiroshi; Himi, Tetsuo; Ichimiya, Shingo

    2017-10-15

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic chronic fibroinflammatory disease. However, the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD remains unknown. To determine the pathophysiologic features of IgG4-RD, we examined T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in lesions and blood from patients with IgG4-RD. Patients with IgG4-related dacryoadenitis and sialadenitis (IgG4-DS) showed increased infiltration of Tfh cells highly expressing programmed death 1 and ICOS in submandibular glands. Tfh cells from IgG4-DS submandibular glands had higher expression of B cell lymphoma 6 and a greater capacity to help B cells produce IgG4 than did tonsillar Tfh cells. We also found that the percentage of programmed death 1 hi circulating Tfh cells in IgG4-DS patients was higher than that in healthy volunteers and was well correlated with clinical parameters. Our findings indicate that anomalous Tfh cells in tissue lesions of IgG4-RD have features distinct from those in lymphoid counterparts or blood and potentially regulate local IgG4 production in IgG4-RD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Columnar transmitter based wireless power delivery system for implantable device in freely moving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sung Eun; Jun, Sang Bum; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    A wireless power delivery system is developed to deliver electrical power to the neuroprosthetic devices that are implanted into animals freely moving inside the cage. The wireless powering cage is designed for long-term animal experiments without cumbersome wires for power supply or the replacement of batteries. In the present study, we propose a novel wireless power transmission system using resonator-based inductive links to increase power efficiency and to minimize the efficiency variations. A columnar transmitter coil is proposed to provide lateral uniformity of power efficiency. Using this columnar transmitter coil, only 7.2% efficiency fluctuation occurs from the maximum transmission efficiency of 25.9%. A flexible polymer-based planar type receiver coil is fabricated and assembled with a neural stimulator and an electrode. Using the designed columnar transmitter coil, the implantable device successfully operates while it moves freely inside the cage.

  12. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF MICROSTRUCTURE AND TEXTURE EVOLUTION DURING DEFORMATION OF COLUMNAR GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, G.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, microstructure evolution in metals during deformation processing has been modeled at the mesoscale by combining the finite element method to discretize the individual grains with crystal plasticity to provide the constitutive relations. This approach allows the simulations to capture the heterogeneous nature of grain deformations due to interactions with neighboring grains. The application of this approach to study the deformations of columnar grains present in solidification microstructures is described. The microstructures are deformed in simple compression, assuming the easy growth direction of the columnar grains to be parallel to the compression axis in one case, and perpendicular in the other. These deformations are similar to those experienced by the columnar zones of a large cast billet when processed by upsetting and drawing, respectively. The simulations show that there is a significant influence of the initial microstructure orientation relative to the loading axis on the resulting changes in grain shape and orientation

  13. Ion current prediction model considering columnar recombination in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Susumu; Hirata, Yosuke; Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Akira; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Aoyama, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We present a reinforced ion current prediction model in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation. Although our previous model explained the qualitative trend of the measured ion current values, the absolute values of the theoretical curves were about two times as large as the measured values. In order to accurately predict the measured values, we reinforced our model by considering columnar recombination and turbulent diffusion, which affects columnar recombination. Our new model explained the considerable ion loss in the early stage of ion diffusion and narrowed the gap between the theoretical and measured values. The model also predicted suppression of ion loss due to columnar recombination by spraying a high-speed air flow near a contaminated surface. This suppression was experimentally investigated and confirmed. In conclusion, we quantitatively clarified the theoretical relation between alpha radioactivity and ion current in laminar flow and turbulent pipe flow. (author)

  14. DNA alkylation lesions and their repair in human cells: modification of the comet assay with 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase (AlkD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hašplová, Katarína; Hudecová, Alexandra; Magdolénová, Zuzana; Bjøras, Magnar; Gálová, Eliška; Miadoková, Eva; Dušinská, Mária

    2012-01-05

    3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase (AlkD) belongs to a new family of DNA glycosylases; it initiates repair of cytotoxic and promutagenic alkylated bases (its main substrates being 3-methyladenine and 7-methylguanine). The modification of the comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) using AlkD enzyme thus allows assessment of specific DNA alkylation lesions. The resulting baseless sugars are alkali-labile, and under the conditions of the alkaline comet assay they appear as DNA strand breaks. The alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) was used to induce alkylation lesions and to optimize conditions for the modified comet assay method with AlkD on human lymphoblastoid (TK6) cells. We also studied cellular and in vitro DNA repair of alkylated bases in DNA in TK6 cells after treatment with MMS. Results from cellular repair indicate that 50% of DNA alkylation is repaired in the first 60 min. The in vitro repair assay shows that while AlkD recognises most alkylation lesions after 60 min, a cell extract from TK6 cells recognises most of the MMS-induced DNA adducts already in the first 15 min of incubation, with maximum detection of lesions after 60 min' incubation. Additionally, we tested the in vitro repair capacity of human lymphocyte extracts from 5 individuals and found them to be able to incise DNA alkylations in the same range as AlkD. The modification of the comet assay with AlkD can be useful for in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies to detect alkylation damage and repair and also for human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alignment control of columnar liquid crystals with wavelength tunable CO2 laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monobe, Hirosato; Awazu, Kunio; Shimizu, Yo

    2008-01-01

    Infrared-induced alignment change with wavelength tunable CO 2 laser irradiation for columnar liquid crystal domains was investigated for a liquid crystalline triphenylene derivative. A uniformly aligned alignment change of domains was observed when a chopped linearly polarized infrared laser light corresponding to the wavelength of the aromatic C-O-C stretching vibration band (9.65 μm) was irradiated. The results strongly imply that the infrared irradiation is a possible technique for device fabrication by use of columnar mesophase as a liquid crystalline semiconductor

  16. Columnar discharge mode between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Using a fast-gated intensified charge-coupled device, end- and side-view photographs were taken of columnar discharge between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium. Based on three-dimensional images generated from end-view photographs, the number of discharge columns increased, whereas the diameter of each column decreased as the applied voltage was increased. Side-view photographs indicate that columnar discharges exhibited a mode transition ranging from Townsend to glow discharges generated by the same discharge physics as atmospheric pressure glow discharge.

  17. Intrinsic Resistance Switching in Amorphous Silicon Suboxides: The Role of Columnar Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, M S; Mehonic, A; Ng, W H; Buckwell, M; Montesi, L; Bosman, M; Shluger, A L; Kenyon, A J

    2017-08-24

    We studied intrinsic resistance switching behaviour in sputter-deposited amorphous silicon suboxide (a-SiO x ) films with varying degrees of roughness at the oxide-electrode interface. By combining electrical probing measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we observe that devices with rougher oxide-electrode interfaces exhibit lower electroforming voltages and more reliable switching behaviour. We show that rougher interfaces are consistent with enhanced columnar microstructure in the oxide layer. Our results suggest that columnar microstructure in the oxide will be a key factor to consider for the optimization of future SiOx-based resistance random access memory.

  18. Prognostic significance of total lesion glycolysis in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaizen, Yoshiaki [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Azuma, Koichi, E-mail: azuma@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kurata, Seiji [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Sadashima, Eiji; Hattori, Satoshi [Biostatistics Center, Kurume University, Kurume (Japan); Sasada, Tetsuro [Department of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Imamura, Yohei [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kaida, Hayato [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kawahara, Akihiko [Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kinoshita, Takashi [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Ishibashi, Masatoshi [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Hoshino, Tomoaki [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Background: [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging has been employed as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant tumors. Total lesion glycolysis (TLG) on FDG-PET is calculated by multiplying the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) by the tumor volume. Unlike the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), which represents the point of greatest metabolic activity within tumors, TLG has been suggested to reflect global metabolic activity in whole tumors. Methods: We retrospectively examined whether or not FDG-PET measurements, including SUVmean, SUVmax, and TLG, could predict progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving chemotherapy. Results: This study involved 81 consecutive patients with NSCLC who received chemotherapy. All of the patients underwent FDG-PET examination before treatment. SUVmean, SUVmax, and TLG on FDG-PET were significantly associated with gender, smoking status, and tumor histology. With adjustment for several other variables, Cox regression analysis showed that TLG was significantly prognostic for both PFS [hazard ratio = 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–4.64; P = 0.015] and OS (hazard ratio = 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.12–6.96; P = 0.003), whereas SUVmean and SUVmax had no significant association with PFS (P = 0.693 and P = 0.322, respectively) or OS (P = 0.587 and P = 0.214, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that TLG may be more useful than SUVmean and SUVmax for predicting PFS and OS in NSCLC patients receiving chemotherapy. The TLG measurement on FDG-PET imaging could be routinely recommended to advanced NSCLC patients.

  19. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs.

  20. Comparison of Regenerative Tissue Quality following Matrix-Associated Cell Implantation Using Amplified Chondrocytes Compared to Synovium-Derived Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model for Cartilage Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Kowal, Justyna M; Kassem, Moustapha

    2018-01-01

    Known problems of the autologous chondrocyte implantation motivate the search for cellular alternatives. The aim of the study was to test the potential of synovium-derived stem cells (SMSC) to regenerate cartilage using a matrix-associated implantation. In an osteochondral defect model of the med......Known problems of the autologous chondrocyte implantation motivate the search for cellular alternatives. The aim of the study was to test the potential of synovium-derived stem cells (SMSC) to regenerate cartilage using a matrix-associated implantation. In an osteochondral defect model...... of the medial femoral condyle in a rabbit, a collagen membrane was seeded with either culture-expanded allogenic chondrocytes or SMSC and then transplanted into the lesion. A tailored piece synovium served as a control. Rabbit SMSC formed typical cartilage in vitro. Macroscopic evaluation of defect healing...... and the thickness of the regenerated tissue did not reveal a significant difference between the intervention groups. However, instantaneous and shear modulus, reflecting the biomechanical strength of the repair tissue, was superior in the implantation group using allogenic chondrocytes (p

  1. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjunctival lesions are frequently seen in the eye clinic, because the conjunctiva is readily ... anti-histamine drops and mast cell stabilisers can be used. e more severe cases have to be .... Ehlers J, Shah C . The Wills Eye Manual. Office and.

  2. Prevalence of ciliated epithelium in apical periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F; Abdelsayed, Rafik A

    2014-04-01

    This article reports on the morphologic features and the frequency of ciliated epithelium in apical cysts and discusses its origin. The study material consisted of 167 human apical periodontitis lesions obtained consecutively from patients presenting for treatment during a period of 12 years in a dental practice operated by one of the authors. All of the lesions were obtained still attached to the root apices of teeth with untreated (93 lesions) or treated canals (74 lesions). The former were obtained by extraction and the latter by extraction or apical surgery. Specimens were processed for histopathologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Lesions were classified, and the type of epithelium, if present, was recorded. Of the lesions analyzed, 49 (29%) were diagnosed as cysts. Of these, 26 (53%) were found in untreated teeth, and 23 (47%) related to root canal-treated teeth. Ciliated columnar epithelium was observed partially or completely lining the cyst wall in 4 cysts, and all of them occurred in untreated maxillary molars. Three of these lesions were categorized as pocket cysts, and the other was a true cyst. Ciliated columnar epithelium-lined cysts corresponded to approximately 2% of the apical periodontitis lesions and 8% of the cysts of endodontic origin in the population studied. This epithelium is highly likely to have a sinus origin in the majority of cases. However, the possibility of prosoplasia or upgraded differentiation into ciliated epithelium from the typical cystic lining squamous epithelium may also be considered. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prognostic Value of Fluoro-D-glucose Uptake of Primary Tumor and Metastatic Lesions in Advanced Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Xuan Canh; Nguyen, Van Khoi; Tran, Minh Thong; Maurea, Simone; Salvatore, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prognostic value of maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) of the primary tumor (maxSUV pt ), maxSUV of whole-body tumors (maxSUV wb ) and sum of maximum standardized uptake value (sumaxSUV) measured by the sum of maxSUVs of the primary tumor, metastatic lymph nodes, and metastatic lesions per each organ on fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eighty-three patients (49 male, 34 female) with advanced NSCLC were enrolled. Seventeen patients had Stage IIIA, 21 Stage IIIB, and 45 Stage IV. maxSUV pt , maxSUV wb , sumaxSUV, age, gender, tumor-cell type, T stage, N stage, overall stage, primary tumor size, and specific treatment were analyzed for correlation with overall survival. Median follow-up duration was 13 months. Fifty patients were dead during a median follow-up time of 11 months and 33 patients were alive with a median time of 15 months. Univariate analysis revealed that overall survival was significantly correlated with sumaxSUV (≥35 vs. <35, P = 0.004), T stage (T4 vs. T1-T3, P = 0.025), overall stage (IV vs. III, P = 0.002), gender (male vs. female, P = 0.029) and specific treatment (no vs. yes, P = 0.011). maxSUV pt and maxSUV wb were not correlated with overall survival with P value of 0.139 and 0.168, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified sumaxSUV, T stage, gender, and specific treatment as independent prognostic indicators. Patients with a sumaxSUV of ≥35 were 1.921 times more likely to die than those with a sumaxSUV of < 35 (P = 0.047). Median survival time was 14 months for patients with sumaxSUV ≥ 35 compared with 20 months for those with sumaxSUV < 35. In patients with metastatic NSCLC, sumaxSUV with cut-off of 35 was much more significant for survival prognosis (P = 0.021). sumaxSUV is a new prognostic measure, independent of tumor stage, gender, and specific treatment in advanced NSCLC. sumaxSUV may be better than maxSUV pt and maxSUV wb in

  4. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  5. Development of a reproducible challenge model to investigate the virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes columnaris disease and has significant economic impacts on aquaculture production worldwide. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that there is genetic diversity among F. columnare isolates. A review of the published literature that...

  6. The correlation between the ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer and the malignant biological characteristics of cancer cells in the lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ma; Rong Zhou; Yun-Zhu Li

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between the ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer and the malignant biological characteristics of cancer cells in the lesions. Methods: A total of 90 patients with thyroid cancer who accepted surgical treatment in our hospital between March 2015 and September 2016 were selected as the observation group, and 50 patients who received surgery in our hospital during the same period and were with clear pathological diagnosis of thyroid...

  7. A Review and Update on Papillary Immature Metaplasia of the Uterine Cervix: A Distinct Subset of Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion, Proposing a Possible Cell of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon Auck; Yoo, Su Hyun; Choi, Jene; Robboy, Stanley J; Kim, Kyu-Rae

    2018-04-13

    - Papillary immature metaplasia (PIM) is a known papillary cervical lesion associated with low-risk human papilloma virus (LR-HPV). - To evaluate additional clinicopathologic features and the HPV genotypes of PIM and discuss the presumptive cell of origin. - A total of 26 PIM cases were evaluated by p16 INK4a , cytokeratin (CK) 7, and CK17 immunohistochemical stainings. Human papilloma virus genotyping was performed, by using HPV DNA Chip, HPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR. - Histologically, PIM forms either a papillary mass (n = 21 of 26, 81%) or a slightly elevated/flat plaque (n = 5, 19%). All cases contain variable amounts of mucinous epithelia within the lesions. Koilocytosis was identified in 15 of the 26 cases (58%). Sixteen cases (61%) were associated with LR-HPV (types 6, 11, or 42), but 3 cases (12%) with high-risk (HR) HPV (16, 16/18, and 33), 2 cases (8%) with mixed LR- and HR-HPV (6/16 and 11/58), while 2 cases (8%) were negative, but p16 INK4a immunostaining showed nonblock positivity in all cases. Eight (31%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in the adjacent mucosa, 4 (50%) of which showed direct continuity. Identical HPV subtypes were confirmed in separately microdissected cases from PIM and adjacent HSIL. Most lesions (n = 24, 92%) expressed CK17 (reserve cell marker) in a bottom-heavy pattern and CK7 (squamocolumnar junction [SCJ] marker) in a top-heavy pattern, while most cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) were negative for both markers. - Our results suggest that PIM is a distinct subset of LSIL showing a productive HPV infection, but PIM involves the transformation zone and is proximal to SCJ, while LSIL is mostly from ectocervix or distal to the SCJ.

  8. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  9. Leaf micro-environment influence the altered foliar phenotype of columnar apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2015-01-01

    in the phenotype of the leaves in the leaf clusters that subtend the fruits of CATs, compared to their standard counterparts. This initial investigation considers standard and columnar trees at different levels of genetic relatedness and records significant increases in leaf area, leaf mass per unit area......Columnar apple trees (CATs) have radically-altered architecture (significantly shorter internodes and lateral branches) when compared to standard apple trees, attributed to a mutation of the Co gene involved in apical dominance. These changes in architecture have been associated with changes......, chlorophyll content and competitive shading in the fruiting leaf clusters of columnar cultivars. Additionally, significant increases in intercepted light have been shown to be associated with the columnar structure, and carbon fixation is also increased. We propose that leaf micro-environment of columnar...

  10. A possible mechanism in the recruitment of eosinophils and Th2 cells through CD163(+) M2 macrophages in the lesional skin of eosinophilic cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Taku; Kambayashi, Yumi; Furudate, Sadanori; Kakizaki, Aya; Aiba, Setsuya

    2014-01-01

    M2 macrophages play a critical role in the recruitment of T helper 2 (Th2) regulatory T cells (Treg). To study the role of M2 macrophages and Treg cells in eosinophilic celulitis. We employed immunohistochemical staining for CD163( )and CD206 (macrophages) as well as FoxP3 (Treg), in lesional skin of four cases of eosinophilic cellulitis. CD163(+) CD206(+) M2 macrophages, which were previously reported to produce CCL17 to induce Th2 cells and Treg cells, were predominantly infiltrating the subcutaneous tissues and interstitial area of the dermis. M2 macrophages derived from PBMC showed significantly increased expression of CCL11, CCL17, CCL24 and CCL26 mRNA and production of CCL17 and CCL24, when stimulated by IL-4 or IL- 13. In addition, CCL17-producing cells and CCL24-producing cells were prominent in the lesional skin of EC. Our study sheds light on one of the possible immunological mechanisms of eosinophilic cellulitis.

  11. Semaphorin4D Drives CD8+ T-Cell Lesional Trafficking in Oral Lichen Planus via CXCL9/CXCL10 Upregulations in Oral Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yao; Dang, Erle; Shen, Shengxian; Zhang, Tongmei; Qiao, Hongjiang; Chang, Yuqian; Liu, Qing; Wang, Gang

    2017-11-01

    Chemokine-mediated CD8 + T-cell recruitment is an essential but not well-established event for the persistence of oral lichen planus (OLP). Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D)/CD100 is implicated in immune dysfunction, chemokine modulation, and cell migration, which are critical aspects for OLP progression, but its implication in OLP pathogenesis has not been determined. In this study, we sought to explicate the effect of Sema4D on human oral keratinocytes and its capacity to drive CD8 + T-cell lesional trafficking via chemokine modulation. We found that upregulations of sSema4D in OLP tissues and blood were positively correlated with disease severity and activity. In vitro observation revealed that Sema4D induced C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9/C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 production by binding to plexin-B1 via protein kinase B-NF-κB cascade in human oral keratinocytes, which elicited OLP CD8 + T-cell migration. We also confirmed using clinical samples that elevated C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9/C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 levels were positively correlated with sSema4D levels in OLP lesions and serum. Notably, we determined matrix metalloproteinase-9 as a new proteolytic enzyme for the cleavage of sSema4D from the T-cell surface, which may contribute to the high levels of sSema4D in OLP lesions and serum. Our findings conclusively revealed an amplification feedback loop involving T cells, chemokines, and Sema4D-dependent signal that promotes OLP progression. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Loss of Aβ-nerve endings associated with the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Daniela Calderón; Korkmaz, Yüksel; Cho, Britta; Kopp, Marion; Bloch, Wilhelm; Addicks, Klaus; Niedermeier, Wilhelm

    2016-03-30

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex initiates the perception of touch and mediates Aβ slowly adapting type I responses. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with T-cell-mediated inflammation, whereas hyperkeratosis is characterized with or without epithelial dysplasia in the oral mucosa. To determine the effects of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis on the Merkel cell-neurite complex, healthy oral mucosal epithelium and lesional oral mucosal epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients were stained by immunohistochemistry (the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and double immunofluorescence methods) using pan cytokeratin, cytokeratin 20 (K20, a Merkel cell marker), and neurofilament 200 (NF200, a myelinated Aβ- and Aδ-nerve fibre marker) antibodies. NF200-immunoreactive (ir) nerve fibres in healthy tissues and in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were counted and statistically analysed. In the healthy oral mucosa, K20-positive Merkel cells with and without close association to the intraepithelial NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected. In the lesional oral mucosa of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients, extremely rare NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected only in the lamina propria. Compared with healthy tissues, lichen planus and hyperkeratosis tissues had significantly decreased numbers of NF200-ir nerve fibres in the oral mucosal epithelium. Lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were associated with the absence of Aβ-nerve endings in the oral mucosal epithelium. Thus, we conclude that mechanosensation mediated by the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the oral mucosal epithelium is impaired in lichen planus and hyperkeratosis.

  13. Precancerous Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Malvehy, J; Guillén, C; Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; Fernández-Figueras, M

    Certain clinically and histologically recognizable skin lesions with a degree of risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally grouped as precancerous skin conditions but now tend to be classified as in situ carcinomas. This consensus statement discusses various aspects of these lesions: their evaluation by means of clinical and histopathologic features, the initial evaluation of the patient, the identification of risk factors for progression, and the diagnostic and treatment strategies available today. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of pulmonary coin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, O; Kim, K. H.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    For A long time the solitary pulmonary nodule has remained a difficult problem to solve and has attracted a great deal of attension in recent years. Circumscribed coin lesions of the lung were generally peripheral in location with respect to the pulmonary hilus. Because of this, important clinical problem in management and diagnosis arise. Such a lesion is discovered through roentgenologic examination. So the roentgenologists is the first be in a position to offer advise. This presentation is an attempt to correlate a useful diagnosis with roentgenologic findings of pulmonary coin lesion which enables us to get differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesion. Histologically proven 120 cases of the pulmonary coin lesion during the period of 8 years were reviewed through plain film, tomogram, bronchoscopy, variable laboratory findings, and clinical history. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female sex ratio was 3 : 1. In age distribution, most of the malignant pulmonary coin lesion appeared in 6th decade (39%) and 5th decade (27%). In benign lesion, the most cases were in 3 rd decade. 2. Pathological cell type are as follows: Primary bronchogenic cancer 43.3%, tuberculoma 25.8%, inflammatory lesion 17.5%, benign tumor 10%, and bronchial adenoma, harmartoma, A.V. malformation, mesothelioma, are 1 case respectively. As a result benign and malignant lesion showed equal distribution (49.1% : 50.3%). 3. In symptom analysis ; cough is the most common (43.5%) symptom in malignant lesion, next follows hemoptysis (20.9%) and chest pain (14.5%). In benign lesion, most of the patient (32.7%) did not complain any symptom. 4. In malignant lesion, the most common nodular size was 4 cm (32.3%), and in benign lesion 2 cm sized coin was most common (39.3%). 5. In general, margin of nodule was very sharp and well demarcated in benign lesion (83.3%), and in malignant lesion that was less demarcated and poorly defined. 6. Most case of calcification (82.7%) was seen in benign

  15. Effect of Thin Prep® imaging system on laboratory rate and relative sensitivity of atypical squamous cells, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion not excluded and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke R Koltz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Automated screening of Thin Prep ® Papanicolaou Tests has become increasingly common in clinical practice. Increased productivity has initiated laboratory use of the Thin Prep ® Imaging System (TIS. Increased sensitivity is a potential additional benefit of TIS. Published studies have shown an increase in discovery of dysplastic cells. This study evaluates the effect of TIS on the incidence of atypical squamous cells high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion not excluded (ASC-H and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL results on Thin Prep ® Pap Tests by comparing TIS-assisted and manual screening findings and the diagnoses on subsequent follow-up in a screening population over a 1-year time period. Materials and Methods: A compilation of all ASC-H and HGSIL cases was prepared by conducting a computerized search over a 1-year period (7/06-6/07. The accumulated cases include Thin Prep Pap tests that were both TIS and manually screened. Follow-up results of cytologic and histologic cervical specimens were obtained for a time period extending to 2010. Interpretation utilizing TIS was in place 10 months prior to the study′s initiation. Results: During the study period 70,522 Pap tests were performed in our laboratory. One third (33% of Pap tests were screened with assistance of TIS. Manual screening was performed on 47,380 Pap tests of which 153 (0.32% were interpreted as ASC-H and 164 (0.35% were interpreted as HGSIL. During the same time period automated screening (TIS was performed on 23,111 Pap tests. Interpretation of 62 (0.27% cases provided an ASC-H result, while 71 (0.31% were HGSIL. Follow-up cervical dysplasia by colposcopic biopsy and cone biopsy was distributed proportionally between TIS and manual screening for both ASC-H and HGSIL categories. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II/III was identified on follow-up biopsy of 41% TIS cases and 45% manually screened cases for ASC-H. In the HGSIL subset 71

  16. The lethal interaction of x ray and penicillin induced lesions following x-irradiation of Escherichia coli B/r in the presence of hypoxic cell sensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, N.E.; Obioha, F.I.

    1982-01-01

    When Escherichia coli B/r were x-irradiated under anoxia in the presence of different electron-affinic sensitizers and then incubated in broth containing penicillin (at a concentration that did not kill unirradiated cells) additional killing of the bacteria occurred provided the sensitizers were of relatively high lipophilicity. The overall effect was to increase the efficiency of these sensitizers. It is concluded that sensitizer-dependent latent radiation lesions(s) are produced in membrane components of the cell envelope that interact with damage caused by penicillin in the peptidoglycan layer and this causes the additional lethality

  17. Orientations of recrystallization nuclei developed in columnar-grained Ni at triple junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, C.L.; Huang, S.; Zhang, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    A high purity columnar grained nickel sample with a strong <001> fiber texture was cold rolled to 50% reduction in thickness, followed by annealing at different temperatures. Optical microscopy was used to depict the grain boundaries prior to annealing and to detect nuclei formed on grain boundar...

  18. Evaluation of the antibody response to the LV-359-01 strain of flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease produces substantial mortality worldwide among numerous freshwater farmed finfish species. As aquaculture production continues to increase the frequency of columnaris disease will only continue to rise. Add to this an increase in re...

  19. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  20. Draft genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare strain CSF-298-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    We announce the genome assembly of Flavobacterium columnare strain CSF-298-10, a strain isolated from an outbreak of Columnaris disease at a commercial trout farm in Snake River Valley Idaho, USA. The complete genome consists of 13 contigs totaling 3,284,579 bp, average G+C content of 31.5% and 2933...

  1. Influence of native catfish mucus on Flavobacterium columnare growth and proteolytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease of farmed and wild freshwater fish. Skin mucus is an important factor in early stages of columnaris pathogenesis, albeit little studied. Our objectives were to 1) characterize the terminal glycosylation pattern (TGP) of catfish mucus, 2) determine t...

  2. Experimental test of the postulate that continuous columnar pinning centers produce the highest Jc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Gandini, Alberto; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Mayes, Bill; Parks, Drew

    2004-01-01

    Continuous columnar pinning centers, created by energetic ions, have been usefully studied theoretically and experimentally to investigate vortex physics in high T c superconductors. However, along the way, in error, their discontinuities have been downplayed, and they have been anointed as the way to produce high J c

  3. Tunnel current through virus particles between columnar structures in mesoporous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Jung, Jae-Il; Dal Kwack, Kae [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Division of Hanyang Institute of Technology, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, 133-791 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Earlier we reported on a tunnel charge transport mechanism in mesoporous silicon with columnar structures under adsorption of plant nematode-transmitted polyhedral (NEPO) viruses at room temperature. Additional experiments are performed in this paper to establish that this observed tunnel current is connected to a conduction path through virus particles. The plant NEPO viruses have an orbicular shape with a diameter of around 25-30 nm. This size is matched well to the porous size distribution in manufactured samples. The tunnel charge transport in semiconductor structures was not observed on loading protein macromolecules of smaller sizes. A physical mechanism of the observed phenomena can be interpreted to be the result of a shunting effect through virus particles between the two closely located columnar silicon structures. This effect is likely to result from double points at virus adsorption under the condition of matching of pore and virus sizes. The magnitudes of the tunnel barrier heights depend on the type of loaded plant viruses. The investigated columnar structures of mesoporous silicon can be used for research on the electrical properties of different viruses with corresponding sizes in the range of 20-30 nm. The existence of a tunnel current between columnar structures in mesoporous silicon under virus adsorption can be used as a simple method for their detection in the environment. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. The stress hormone cortisol: a (co)regulator of biofilm formation in Flavobacterum columnare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we demonstrated a direct effect of cortisol on Flavobacterium columnare, a notorious fish pathogenic bacterium, engendering a new perspective to bacteria-host communication in aquaculture. As stressed fish harbour increased cortisol levels in the skin and gill mucus, highly virulent F. c...

  5. Simulation and observation of line-slip structures in columnar structures of soft spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, J.; Haffner, B.; Weaire, D.; Mughal, A.; Hutzler, S.

    2017-07-01

    We present the computed phase diagram of columnar structures of soft spheres under pressure, of which the main feature is the appearance and disappearance of line slips, the shearing of adjacent spirals, as pressure is increased. A comparable experimental observation is made on a column of bubbles under forced drainage, clearly exhibiting the expected line slip.

  6. Behaviors of Deformation, Recrystallization and Textures Evolution of Columnar Grains in 3%Si Electrical Steel Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yuan-yuan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The behaviors of deformation and recrystallization and textures evolution of 3% (mass fraction Si columnar-grained electrical steel slabs were investigated by electron backscatter diffractometer technique and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the three columnar-grained samples have different initial textures with the long axes arranged along rolling, transverse and normal directions. Three shear orientations can be obtained in surface layer after hot rolling, of which Goss orientation is formed easily. The α and γ fibre rolling orientations are obtained in RD sample, while strong γ fibre orientations in TD sample and sharp {100} orientations in ND sample are developed respectively. In addition, cube orientation can be found in all the three samples. The characteristics of hot rolled orientations in center region reveal distinct dependence on initial columnar-grained orientations. Strong {111}〈112〉 orientation in RD and TD samples separately comes from Goss orientation of hot rolled sheets, and sharp rotated cube orientation in ND sample originates from the initial {100} orientation of hot rolled sheets after cold rolling. Influenced by initial deviated orientations and coarse grain size, large orientation gradient of rotated cube oriented grain can be observed in ND sample. The coarse {100} orientated grains of center region in the annealed sheets show the heredity of the initial columnar-grained orientations.

  7. Clinical significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in detecting preinvasive cervical lesions in post- menopausal Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmak, Aytekin; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Ozgu, Emre; Oz, Murat; Akbay, Serap; Erkaya, Salim; Gungor, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in PAP test in post-menopausal women and compare with reproductive age women. A total of 367 patients who referred to our gynecologic oncology clinic were included to the study between September 2012 and August 2013. Data for 164 post-menopausal (group 1) and 203 pre-menopausal (group 2) women with ASCUS cytology were evaluated retrospectively. Immediate colposcopy and endocervical curettage was performed for both groups and conization for all women with a result suggestive of CIN2-3. Histopathological results and demographic features of patients were compared between the two groups. Mean age of the patients was 54.6±6.5 years in group 1 and 38±6.6 years in group 2. Some 14 (8.5%) of post- menopausal women and 36 (17.7%) of pre-menopausal women were current smokers (p=011). Totals of 38 (23.2%) post-menopausal and 64 (31.5%) pre-menopausal women were assessed for HPV-DNA. High risk HPV was detected in 7 (4.3%) and 21 (10.3%), respectively (p=0.029). Final histopathological results recorded were normal cervix, low grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN 1), and high grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN2-3). In group 1 results were 84.8%, 12.2% and 1.8%, respectively, and in group 2 were 71.9%, 23.2% and 4.9%. There were no cases of micro invasive or invasive cervical carcinoma in either group. Two cases were detected as endometrial carcinoma in the menopausal group (1.2%). In current study we found that preinvasive lesions were statistically significantly higher in pre-menopausal women than post- menopausal women with ASCUS. Cervicitis was more common in menopausal women. Therefore, we think that in case of ASCUS in a post-menopausal woman there is no need for radical management.

  8. Analysis of EDZ Development of Columnar Jointed Rock Mass in the Baihetan Diversion Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xian-Jie; Feng, Xia-Ting; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Jiang, Quan; Li, Shao-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Due to the time dependency of the crack propagation, columnar jointed rock masses exhibit marked time-dependent behaviour. In this study, in situ measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), back-analysis method and numerical simulations are presented to study the time-dependent development of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around underground diversion tunnels in a columnar jointed rock mass. Through in situ measurements of crack propagation and EDZ development, their extent is seen to have increased over time, despite the fact that the advancing face has passed. Similar to creep behaviour, the time-dependent EDZ development curve also consists of three stages: a deceleration stage, a stabilization stage, and an acceleration stage. A corresponding constitutive model of columnar jointed rock mass considering time-dependent behaviour is proposed. The time-dependent degradation coefficient of the roughness coefficient and residual friction angle in the Barton-Bandis strength criterion are taken into account. An intelligent back-analysis method is adopted to obtain the unknown time-dependent degradation coefficients for the proposed constitutive model. The numerical modelling results are in good agreement with the measured EDZ. Not only that, the failure pattern simulated by this time-dependent constitutive model is consistent with that observed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in situ observation, indicating that this model could accurately simulate the failure pattern and time-dependent EDZ development of columnar joints. Moreover, the effects of the support system provided and the in situ stress on the time-dependent coefficients are studied. Finally, the long-term stability analysis of diversion tunnels excavated in columnar jointed rock masses is performed.

  9. Columnar Self-Assembly of Electron-Deficient Dendronized Bay-Annulated Perylene Bisimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Shankar Rao, Doddamane S; Prasad, S Krishna; Achalkumar, Ammathnadu S

    2018-03-07

    Three new heteroatom bay-annulated perylene bisimides (PBIs) have been synthesized by microwave-assisted synthesis in excellent yield. N-annulated and S-annulated perylene bisimides exhibited columnar hexagonal phase, whereas Se-annulated perylene bisimide exhibited low temperature columnar oblique phase in addition to the high temperature columnar hexagonal phase. The cup shaped bay-annulated PBIs pack into columns with enhanced intermolecular interactions. In comparison to PBI, these molecules exhibited lower melting and clearing temperature, with good solubility. A small red shift in the absorption was seen in the case of N-annulated PBI, whereas S- and Se-annulated PBIs exhibited blue-shifted absorption spectra. Bay-annulation increased the HOMO and LUMO levels of the N-annulated perylene bisimide, whereas a slight increase in the LUMO level and a decrease in the HOMO levels were observed in the case of S- and Se-annulated perylene bisimides, in comparison to the simple perylene bisimide. The band gaps of PBI and PBI-N were almost same, whereas an increase in the band gaps were observed in the case of S- and Se-annulated PBIs. The tendency to freeze in the ordered glassy columnar phase for PBI-N and PBI-S will help to overcome the charge traps due to crystallization, which are detrimental to one-dimensional charge carrier mobility. These solution processable electron deficient columnar semiconductors possessing good thermal stability may form an easily accessible promising class of n-type materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ozone Sensitivity in Hybrid Poplar Correlates with Insensitivity to Both Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid. The Role of Programmed Cell Death in Lesion Formation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jennifer Riehl; Creelman, Robert A.; Eshita, Steven M.; Seskar, Mirjana; Mullet, John E.; Davis, Keith R.

    2000-01-01

    Our earlier studies demonstrated that the ozone-sensitive hybrid poplar clone NE-388 displays an attenuated level of ozone-, wound-, and phytopathogen-induced defense gene expression. To determine if this reduced gene activation involves signal transduction pathways dependent on salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA), we compared the responses of NE-388 and an ozone-tolerant clone, NE-245, to these signal molecules. JA levels increased in both clones in response to ozone, but only minimal increases in SA levels were measured for either clone. Treatment with SA and methyl jasmonate induced defense gene expression only in NE-245, indicating that NE-388 is insensitive to these signal molecules. DNA fragmentation, an indicator of programmed cell death (PCD), was detected in NE-245 treated with either ozone or an avirulent phytopathogen, but was not detected in NE-388. We conclude that these clones undergo two distinct mechanisms of ozone-induced lesion formation. In NE-388, lesions appear to be due to toxic cell death resulting from a limited ability to perceive and subsequently activate SA- and/or JA-mediated antioxidant defense responses. In NE-245, SA-dependent PCD precedes lesion formation via a process related to the PCD pathway activated by phytopathogenic bacteria. These results support the hypothesis that ozone triggers a hypersensitive response. PMID:10859179

  11. Ozone sensitivity in hybrid poplar correlates with insensitivity to both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The role of programmed cell death in lesion formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J R; Creelman, R A; Eshita, S M; Seskar, M; Mullet, J E; Davis, K R

    2000-06-01

    Our earlier studies demonstrated that the ozone-sensitive hybrid poplar clone NE-388 displays an attenuated level of ozone-, wound-, and phytopathogen-induced defense gene expression. To determine if this reduced gene activation involves signal transduction pathways dependent on salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA), we compared the responses of NE-388 and an ozone-tolerant clone, NE-245, to these signal molecules. JA levels increased in both clones in response to ozone, but only minimal increases in SA levels were measured for either clone. Treatment with SA and methyl jasmonate induced defense gene expression only in NE-245, indicating that NE-388 is insensitive to these signal molecules. DNA fragmentation, an indicator of programmed cell death (PCD), was detected in NE-245 treated with either ozone or an avirulent phytopathogen, but was not detected in NE-388. We conclude that these clones undergo two distinct mechanisms of ozone-induced lesion formation. In NE-388, lesions appear to be due to toxic cell death resulting from a limited ability to perceive and subsequently activate SA- and/or JA-mediated antioxidant defense responses. In NE-245, SA-dependent PCD precedes lesion formation via a process related to the PCD pathway activated by phytopathogenic bacteria. These results support the hypothesis that ozone triggers a hypersensitive response.

  12. Appearance of Tissue Transglutaminase in Astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions: A Role in Cell Adhesion and Migration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, M.; Drukarch, B.; Bol, J.G.J.M.; van der Valk, P.; van Horssen, J.; Gerritsen, W.H.; Breve, J.J.P.; van Dam, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease mainly affecting young adults. A major pathological hallmark of MS is the presence of demyelinated lesions in the central nervous system. In the active phase of the disease, astrocytes become activated, migrate and contribute to local tissue

  13. Biochemistry of storage lesions of red cell and platelet concentrates: A continuous fight implying oxidative/nitrosative/phosphorylative stress and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinalducci, Sara; Zolla, Lello

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the reduced lifespan of transfused red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets (PLTs) are still under investigation, however one explanation refers to the detrimental biochemical changes occurring during ex vivo storage of these blood products. A myriad of historical and more recent studies has contributed to advance our understanding of storage lesion. Without any doubts, proteomics had great impact on transfusion medicine by profiling the storage-dependent changes in the total detectable protein pool of both RBCs and PLTs. This review article focuses on the role of oxidative/nitrosative stress in developing RBC and PLT storage lesions, with a special glance at its biochemistry and cross-talk with phosphorylative signal transduction. In this sense, we enlighten the potential contribution of new branches of proteomics in identifying novel points of intervention for the improvement of blood product quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative computer-aided diagnostic algorithm for automated detection of peak lesion attenuation in differentiating clear cell from papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma, and fat-poor angiomyolipoma on multiphasic multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Heidi; Young, Jonathan R; Douek, Michael L; Brown, Matthew S; Sayre, James; Raman, Steven S

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the performance of a novel, quantitative computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) algorithm on four-phase multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to detect peak lesion attenuation to enable differentiation of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from chromophobe RCC (chRCC), papillary RCC (pRCC), oncocytoma, and fat-poor angiomyolipoma (fp-AML). We queried our clinical databases to obtain a cohort of histologically proven renal masses with preoperative MDCT with four phases [unenhanced (U), corticomedullary (CM), nephrographic (NP), and excretory (E)]. A whole lesion 3D contour was obtained in all four phases. The CAD algorithm determined a region of interest (ROI) of peak lesion attenuation within the 3D lesion contour. For comparison, a manual ROI was separately placed in the most enhancing portion of the lesion by visual inspection for a reference standard, and in uninvolved renal cortex. Relative lesion attenuation for both CAD and manual methods was obtained by normalizing the CAD peak lesion attenuation ROI (and the reference standard manually placed ROI) to uninvolved renal cortex with the formula [(peak lesion attenuation ROI - cortex ROI)/cortex ROI] × 100%. ROC analysis and area under the curve (AUC) were used to assess diagnostic performance. Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare peak ROI between CAD and manual method. The study cohort comprised 200 patients with 200 unique renal masses: 106 (53%) ccRCC, 32 (16%) oncocytomas, 18 (9%) chRCCs, 34 (17%) pRCCs, and 10 (5%) fp-AMLs. In the CM phase, CAD-derived ROI enabled characterization of ccRCC from chRCC, pRCC, oncocytoma, and fp-AML with AUCs of 0.850 (95% CI 0.732-0.968), 0.959 (95% CI 0.930-0.989), 0.792 (95% CI 0.716-0.869), and 0.825 (95% CI 0.703-0.948), respectively. On Bland-Altman analysis, there was excellent agreement of CAD and manual methods with mean differences between 14 and 26 HU in each phase. A novel, quantitative CAD algorithm enabled robust peak HU lesion detection

  15. Evaluation of the hormonal state of columnar apple trees (Malus x domestica) based on high throughput gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krost, Clemens; Petersen, Romina; Lokan, Stefanie; Brauksiepe, Bastienne; Braun, Peter; Schmidt, Erwin R

    2013-02-01

    The columnar phenotype of apple trees (Malus x domestica) is characterized by a compact growth habit with fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. These properties provide significant economic advantages by enabling high density plantings. The columnar growth results from the presence of a dominant allele of the gene Columnar (Co) located on chromosome 10 which can appear in a heterozygous (Co/co) or homozygous (Co/Co) state. Although two deep sequencing approaches could shed some light on the transcriptome of columnar shoot apical meristems (SAMs), the molecular mechanisms of columnar growth are not yet elaborated. Since the influence of phytohormones is believed to have a pivotal role in the establishment of the phenotype, we performed RNA-Seq experiments to study genes associated with hormone homeostasis and clearly affected by the presence of Co. Our results provide a molecular explanation for earlier findings on the hormonal state of columnar apple trees. Additionally, they allow hypotheses on how the columnar phenotype might develop. Furthermore, we show a statistically approved enrichment of differentially regulated genes on chromosome 10 in the course of validating RNA-Seq results using additional gene expression studies.

  16. Crash worthy capacity of a hybridized epoxy-glass fiber aluminum columnar tube using repeated axial resistive force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paruka, Perowansa [Jalan Politeknik, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia); Siswanto, Waluyo Adi [Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja (Malaysia); Maleque, Md Abdul [Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Shah, Mohd Kamal Mohd [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    A combination of aluminum columnar member with composite laminate to form a hybrid structure can be used as collapsible energy absorbers especially in automotive vehicular structures to protect occupants and cargo. A key advantage of aluminum member in composite is that it provides ductile and stable plastic collapse mechanisms with progressive deformation in a stable manner by increasing energy absorption during collision. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the influence of the number of hybrid epoxy glass layers in overwrap composite columnar tubes. Three columnar tube specimens were used and fabricated by hand lay-up method. Aluminum square hollow shape was combined with externally wrapped by using an isophthalic epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber skin with an orientation angle of 0 .deg. /90 .deg. The aluminum columnar tube was used as reference material. Crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes were prepared using one, two, and three layers to determine the crash worthy capacity. Quasi-static crush test was conducted using INSTRON machine with an axial loading. Results showed that crush force and the number of layers were related to the enhancement of energy absorption before the collapse of columnar tubes. The energy absorption properties of the crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes improved significantly with the addition of layers in the overwrap. Microscopic analysis on the modes of epoxy-glass fiber laminate failure was conducted by using scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Crash worthy capacity of a hybridized epoxy-glass fiber aluminum columnar tube using repeated axial resistive force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paruka, Perowansa; Siswanto, Waluyo Adi; Maleque, Md Abdul; Shah, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2015-01-01

    A combination of aluminum columnar member with composite laminate to form a hybrid structure can be used as collapsible energy absorbers especially in automotive vehicular structures to protect occupants and cargo. A key advantage of aluminum member in composite is that it provides ductile and stable plastic collapse mechanisms with progressive deformation in a stable manner by increasing energy absorption during collision. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the influence of the number of hybrid epoxy glass layers in overwrap composite columnar tubes. Three columnar tube specimens were used and fabricated by hand lay-up method. Aluminum square hollow shape was combined with externally wrapped by using an isophthalic epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber skin with an orientation angle of 0 .deg. /90 .deg. The aluminum columnar tube was used as reference material. Crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes were prepared using one, two, and three layers to determine the crash worthy capacity. Quasi-static crush test was conducted using INSTRON machine with an axial loading. Results showed that crush force and the number of layers were related to the enhancement of energy absorption before the collapse of columnar tubes. The energy absorption properties of the crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes improved significantly with the addition of layers in the overwrap. Microscopic analysis on the modes of epoxy-glass fiber laminate failure was conducted by using scanning electron microscopy.

  18. EBI2 Is Highly Expressed in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions and Promotes Early CNS Migration of Encephalitogenic CD4 T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wanke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrival of encephalitogenic T cells at inflammatory foci represents a critical step in development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model for multiple sclerosis. EBI2 and its ligand, 7α,25-OHC, direct immune cell localization in secondary lymphoid organs. CH25H and CYP7B1 hydroxylate cholesterol to 7α,25-OHC. During EAE, we found increased expression of CH25H by microglia and CYP7B1 by CNS-infiltrating immune cells elevating the ligand concentration in the CNS. Two critical pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-23 (IL-23 and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, maintained expression of EBI2 in differentiating Th17 cells. In line with this, EBI2 enhanced early migration of encephalitogenic T cells into the CNS in a transfer EAE model. Nonetheless, EBI2 was dispensable in active EAE. Human Th17 cells do also express EBI2, and EBI2 expressing cells are abundant within multiple sclerosis (MS white matter lesions. These findings implicate EBI2 as a mediator of CNS autoimmunity and describe mechanistically its contribution to the migration of autoreactive T cells into inflamed organs.

  19. Effects of myelin or cell body brainstem lesions on 3-channel Lissajous' trajectories of feline auditory brainstem evoked potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, H; Zaaroor, M; Bleich, N; Starr, A

    1991-01-01

    Auditory brainstem evoked potentials (ABEP) were recorded from 16 awake cats to obtain 3-Channel Lissajous' Trajectories (3CLTs) using three orthogonal differential electrode configurations (nasion - midline nuchal ridge, left - right mastoids, vertex - midline under the mandible). Potentials, evoked by monaural 80 dBnHL (re. human threshold) clicks, were studied before, and up to 7 weeks after inducing neuronal lesions localized to the cochlear nucleus (CN) or the superior olivary complex (S...

  20. Ex vivo assessment of protective effects of carvacrol against DNA lesions induced in primary rat cells by visible light excited methylene blue (VL+MB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamenova, D; Horvathova, E; Chalupa, I; Wsolova, L; Navarova, J

    2011-01-01

    Carvacrol belongs to frequently occurring phenolic components of essential oils (EOs) and it is present in many kinds of plants. Biological effect of this phenol derivative on human beings is however not sufficiently known. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the level of VL+MB-induced oxidative DNA lesions in hepatocytes and testicular cells (freshly isolated from control or carvacrol-watered rats) by the modified single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The results showed that carvacrol significantly reduced the level of VL+MB-induced oxidized bases (EndoIII- and Fpg-sensitive sites) only in hepatocytes but not in testicular cells. Chromosomal aberration assay of primary hepatocytes, isolated from control or carvacrol-watered rats did not testify any genotoxic activity of carvacrol. We suggest that in vivo applied synthetic carvacrol, whose antioxidative activity was confirmed by DPPH assay, exhibits primarily a strong hepatoprotective activity against oxidative damage to DNA.

  1. The recombination protein RAD52 cooperates with the excision repair protein OGG1 for the repair of oxidative lesions in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Maynard, Scott; Hashiguchi, Kazunari

    2009-01-01

    number of protein interactions have been identified for OGG1, while very few appear to have functional consequences. We report here that OGG1 interacts with the recombination protein RAD52 in vitro and in vivo. This interaction has reciprocal functional consequences as OGG1 inhibits RAD52 catalytic...... knockdown, and mouse cells lacking the protein via gene knockout showed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Moreover, cells depleted of RAD52 show higher accumulation of oxidized bases in their genome than cells with normal levels of RAD52. Our results indicate that RAD52 cooperates with OGG1...... to repair oxidative DNA damage and enhances the cellular resistance to oxidative stress. Our observations suggest a coordinated action between these proteins that may be relevant when oxidative lesions positioned close to strand breaks impose a hindrance to RAD52 catalytic activities....

  2. Spindle Cell Hemangioendothelioma of the Temporal Muscle Resected with Zygomatic Osteotomy: A Case Report of an Unusual Intramuscular Lesion Mimicking Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Minagawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spindle cell hemangioendothelioma (SCH was originally described by Weiss and Enzinger (1986 as a low-grade angiosarcoma resembling both cavernous hemangioma and Kaposi's sarcoma. Recent studies suggest that SCH is a benign neoplasm or reactive lesion accompanying a congenital or acquired vascular malformation. Most SCHs present as one or more nodules affecting the dermis or subcutis of the distal extremities. Few reports describe SCH of the head and neck region; even fewer note intramuscular SCH. Here, we describe a case of SCH involving the temporal muscle mimicking soft tissue sarcoma, who had a successful surgical treatment with a coronal approach and zygomatic osteotomy.

  3. The correlation between the ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer and the malignant biological characteristics of cancer cells in the lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation between the ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer and the malignant biological characteristics of cancer cells in the lesions. Methods: A total of 90 patients with thyroid cancer who accepted surgical treatment in our hospital between March 2015 and September 2016 were selected as the observation group, and 50 patients who received surgery in our hospital during the same period and were with clear pathological diagnosis of thyroid adenoma were selected as the control group. According to the median of ultrasonic elastic strain ratio, the observing group were further divided into high elastic strain ratio group and low elastic strain ratio group (n=45. RT-PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression of proliferation genes, invasion genes and autophagy genes in lesions of all groups of patients. Results: The mean elastic strain ratio of observation group was significantly lower than that of control group. Proliferation gene FOXA1 mRNA expression in lesions of low elastic strain ratio group and high elastic strain ratio group were higher than those of control group while PP4R1 and Smac mRNA expression were lower than those of control group, and as the elastic strain ratio decreased, the FOXA1 mRNA expression increased while PP4R1 and Smac mRNA expression decreased; invasion genes BCORL1, SATB1, Twist1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression in lesions of low elastic strain ratio group and high elastic strain ratio group were higher than those of control group, and as the elastic strain ratio decreased, the BCORL1, SATB1, Twist1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression increased; autophagy genes ARHI, Beclin1, LC3 and PTEN mRNA expression in lesions of low elastic strain ratio group and high elastic strain ratio group were lower than those of control group, and as the elastic strain ratio decreased, the ARHI, Beclin1, LC3 and PTEN mRNA expression decreased. Conclusion: The ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer is

  4. Validity of T2 mapping in characterization of the regeneration tissue by bone marrow derived cell transplantation in osteochondral lesions of the ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, M., E-mail: milva.battaglia@ior.it [Service of Ecography and Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via Pupilli n. 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, E. [Service of Ecography and Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, via Pupilli n. 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Monti, C. [Service of CT and MRI, Casa di Cura Madre Fortunata Toniolo, Bologna (Italy); Guaraldi, F. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Sant' Andrea, A. [Service of CT and MRI, Casa di Cura Madre Fortunata Toniolo, Bologna (Italy); Buda, R.; Cavallo, M.; Giannini, S.; Vannini, F. [Clinical Orthopaedic and Traumatology Unit II, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: Bone marrow derived cell transplantation (BMDCT) has been recently suggested as a possible surgical technique to repair osteochondral lesions. To date, no qualitative MRI studies have evaluated its efficacy. The aim of our study is to investigate the validity of MRI T2-mapping sequence in characterizing the reparative tissue obtained and its ability to correlate with clinical results. Methods and materials: 20 patients with an osteochondral lesion of the talus underwent BMDCT and were evaluated at 2 years follow up using MRI T2-mapping sequence. 20 healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. MRI images were acquired using a protocol suggested by the International Cartilage Repair Society, MOCART scoring system and T2 mapping. Results were then correlated with AOFAS clinical score. Results: AOFAS score increased from 66.8 {+-} 14.5 pre-operatively to 91.2 {+-} 8.3 (p < 0.0005) at 2 years follow-up. T2-relaxation time value of 35-45 ms was derived from healthy ankles evaluation and assumed as normal hyaline cartilage value and used as a control. Regenerated tissue with a T2-relaxation time value comparable to hyaline cartilage was found in all the cases treated, covering a mean of 78% of the repaired lesion area. A high clinical score was related directly to isointense signal in DPFSE fat sat (p = 0.05), and percentage of regenerated hyaline cartilage (p = 0.05), inversely to the percentage of regenerated fibrocartilage. Lesion's depth negatively related to the integrity of the repaired tissue's surface (tau = -0.523, p = 0.007), and to the percentage of regenerated hyaline cartilage (rho = -0.546, p = 0.013). Conclusions: Because of its ability to detect cartilage's quality and to correlate to the clinical score, MRI T2-mapping sequence integrated with Mocart score represent a valid, non-invasive technique for qualitative cartilage assessment after regenerative surgical procedures.

  5. Induction and repair of lethal and oncogenic lesions and their relationship to cytogenetic changes in UV-irradiated mouse 10T1/2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, G.L.; Nagasawa, H.; Little, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    While bacterial system is valuable for the pragmatic purpose of screening potential environmental carcinogens, the fundamental difference between prokaryotes and mammalian cells warrant caution against the use of bacterial mutagenic mechanisms to explain the oncogenic process in mammalian cells. The 10 T1/2 cells exposed to UV light in the plateau phase and subcultured immediately to low density to assay for clonogenic survival were extremely resistant to the cytotoxic effect of UV light. Purely physical considerations such as the increased thickness of plateau phase cells and the increased cytoplasmic shielding of UV light from the nuclei were insufficient to account for this unusual resistance. The effect of caffeine on the repair processes in UV-irradiated mammalian cells appears to be exerted during the first DNA synthetic phase after the UV exposure. The daughter DNA synthesized on a UV-irradiated template is of reduced molecular weight. 10 T1/2 cells were exposed in the log phase of growth to UV light, and then they were cultured for the next 48 hours in the complete growth medium containing the specific concentration of caffeine. Parallel experiments were performed, in which cells were exposed for 48 hours to caffeine only with no prior exposure to UV light. It was found that caffeine did not potentiate the transformation by UV light. Caffeine alone induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE), whereas the caffeine given after UV light had no effect. The class of UV-induced lesions which induce SCE also leads to malignant transformation. (Yamashita, S.)

  6. Vortex Matter dynamics in a thin film of Nb with columnar indentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, J.S. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetism, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: julianakapp@gmail.com; Zadorosny, R.; Oliveira, A.A.M. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetism, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lepienski, C.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Patino, E.J.; Blamire, M.G. [Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Ortiz, W.A. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetism, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    A superconducting film with columnar defects constitutes a rich scenario for studying Vortex Matter dynamics. This paper reports on the magnetic response of a 200 nm thick Nb film, pierced with a set of 900 columnar indentations of nearly triangular cross section, forming a square lattice. The column diameter is 1 {mu}m and the distance between columns is 10 {mu}m. To probe the interaction of Vortex Matter with the array of antidots, we have excited the sample with a significantly large AC-field, so that flux originally trapped by the columns could be unpinned and admitted into the superconducting sea surrounding the defects. The melting line of this system has a kink separating two different regimes, suggesting a crossover from the efficient pinning regime, at lower temperatures, to a temperature-induced depinning.

  7. Vortex Matter dynamics in a thin film of Nb with columnar indentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, J.S.; Zadorosny, R.; Oliveira, A.A.M.; Lepienski, C.M.; Patino, E.J.; Blamire, M.G.; Ortiz, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    A superconducting film with columnar defects constitutes a rich scenario for studying Vortex Matter dynamics. This paper reports on the magnetic response of a 200 nm thick Nb film, pierced with a set of 900 columnar indentations of nearly triangular cross section, forming a square lattice. The column diameter is 1 μm and the distance between columns is 10 μm. To probe the interaction of Vortex Matter with the array of antidots, we have excited the sample with a significantly large AC-field, so that flux originally trapped by the columns could be unpinned and admitted into the superconducting sea surrounding the defects. The melting line of this system has a kink separating two different regimes, suggesting a crossover from the efficient pinning regime, at lower temperatures, to a temperature-induced depinning

  8. Modelling the viscoplastic behavior and the heterogeneous intracrystalline deformation of columnar ice polycrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montagnat, Maurine [LGGE (FRANCE); Mansuy, Philippe [MICHELIN (FRANCE); Duval, Paul [LGGE (FRANCE); Philip, A [LGGE (FRANCE)

    2008-01-01

    A full-field formulation based on Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) has been adapted and used to predict the micromechanical fields that develop in columnar Ih ice polycrystals deforming in compression by dislocation creep. The predicted intragranular mechanical fields are in qualitative good agreement with experimental observations, in particular those involving the formation of shear and kink bands. These localization bands are associated with the large internal stresses that develop during creep in such anisotropic material, and their location, intensity, morphology and extension are found to depend strongly on the crystallographic orientation of the grains and on their interaction with neighbor crystals. The predictions of the model are also discussed in relation with the deformation of columnar sea and lake ice, and with the mechanical behavior of granular ice of glaciers and polar ice sheets, as well.

  9. Primary study on the lesions and specific proteins in BEAS-2B cells induced with the 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shisong; Zhang, Kaining; Wang, Ting; Wang, Xin; Lu, Xing; Peng, Bo; Wu, Weihua; Zhang, Ran; Chen, Shiju; Zhang, Renli; Xue, Hong; Yu, Muhua; Cheng, Jinquan

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the lesions and proteins with differential expression in cells infected with the 2009 A (H1N1) virus and to determine the specific proteins involved in cell damage, the present study has been performed. BEAS-2B cells were infected with the 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus or the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h, and cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed with flow cytometry. Total cellular proteins were extracted and underwent two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The differentially expressed proteins underwent mass spectrometry for identification. The results showed that after 12 h, cells infected with the virus strain sourced from severe cases had the highest apoptosis rate (P cells infected with the virus strain sourced from fatal cases and severe cases had the highest apoptosis rate (P cells infected with virus strains from fatal cases and ordinary cases had the highest apoptosis rate (P cell cycle arrest mainly at the G0/G1 phase. Eighteen differentially expressed proteins were identified, including galectin-1, cofilin-1, protein DJ-1, proteasome subunit α type-5, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, translationally controlled tumor protein, profilin 1, and interferon α-2. Galectin-1 was specifically observed in BEAS-2B infected with 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viruses, and cofilin-1 was specifically observed in BEAS-2B cells in the late stage of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus infection. In conclusion, differential effects of the 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus and seasonal H1N1 influenza virus were identified on the cell cycle and apoptosis, and galectin-1 may play a role in cell apoptosis induced by 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus.

  10. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  11. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilium to nine antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-laboratory broth microdilution method trial was performed to standardize the specialized test conditions required for fish pathogens Flavobacterium columnare and F. pyschrophilum. Nine laboratories tested the quality control (QC) strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicid...

  12. In vitro comparisons of the inhibitory activity of florfenicol copper sulfate and potassium permanganate towards Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agents of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) and columnaris disease, respectively, have been recently causing crippling moralities to the sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male (Percichthyidae), industry in the ...

  13. Formation of {1 0 0} textured columnar grain structure in a non-oriented electrical steel by phase transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Li; Yang, Ping, E-mail: yangp@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Zhang, Ning; Zong, Cui; Xia, Dongsheng; Mao, Weimin

    2014-04-01

    This study confirms the effect of anisotropic strain energy on the formation of {1 0 0} textured columnar grain structure induced by temperature gradient during γ to α phase transformation in pure hydrogen atmosphere. Results indicate that high temperature gradient in pure hydrogen atmosphere induces a significant strain energy difference across grain boundaries during γ to α phase transformation, leading to the formation of {1 0 0} texture with columnar grains. Given its simplicity in processing and its ability to obtain good texture-related magnetic properties, the proposed approach is helpful to the development of new types of non-oriented electrical steel. - Highlights: • A strong {1 0 0} texture with columnar grains was obtained. • Good texture and magnetic properties are attributed to the anisotropic strain energy. • The anisotropy in elastic strain energy was induced by the temperature gradient. • The phase transformation rate affects columnar grain morphology.

  14. Internal Flow Structures in Columnar Jointed Basalt from HREPPHÓLAR, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, H. B.; Bosshard, S. A.; Hetenyi, G.; Almqvist, B.; Hirt, A. M.; Caricchi, L.; Caddick, M.

    2010-12-01

    Columnar jointed basalt from Hrepphólar in southern Iceland display spectacular internal structures when cut. These structures follow the overall orientation of the columns and display semi-circular to circular features when cross-cut. It was previously believed that these internal structures formed as a result of alteration due to circulation of meteoric water within the column-bounding fractures after emplacement. However, new field observations of viscous fingering within the columns and the fact that approximately 80% of the semi-circular features are found within the column whereas the remaining 20% are cut by the column-bounding fractures clearly shows that these internal structures must have formed prior to crack-propagation (and are thus primary features). Here we present the results of textural and petrological analyses through a cross-section of a column, in combination with magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy measurements of the same samples. The variation in textures and geochemistry can be attributed to the presence of diffuse banding caused by variations in the modal proportions of the main phenocryst phases (i.e., plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine and titanomagnetite/ilmenite). Orientation of plagioclase laths and titanomagnetite crystals (based on measurements in thin sections and AMS-measurements) are consistent with vertical flow alignment. Nowhere in the column can evidence for downwards flow be found (excluding the possibility of small-scale convection cells generating these features). It is proposed here, that the volume decrease associated with solidification (typically 10-15 vol.% for basaltic systems) and the increasing weight of the overlying crust results in upwelling of partially crystallized material into the centre of the columns. Preliminary numerical modeling indicates that the isotherms within individual columns become steeper with increasing depth in a lava flow (allowing for larger displacement distances). We propose that

  15. Peripheral facial nerve lesions induce changes in the firing properties of primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múnera, A; Cuestas, D M; Troncoso, J

    2012-10-25

    Facial nerve lesions elicit long-lasting changes in vibrissal primary motor cortex (M1) muscular representation in rodents. Reorganization of cortical representation has been attributed to potentiation of preexisting horizontal connections coming from neighboring muscle representation. However, changes in layer 5 pyramidal neuron activity induced by facial nerve lesion have not yet been explored. To do so, the effect of irreversible facial nerve injury on electrophysiological properties of layer 5 pyramidal neurons was characterized. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were randomly subjected to two experimental treatments: either surgical transection of mandibular and buccal branches of the facial nerve (n=18) or sham surgery (n=6). Unitary and population activity of vibrissal M1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons recorded in vivo under general anesthesia was compared between sham-operated and facial nerve-injured animals. Injured animals were allowed either one (n=6), three (n=6), or five (n=6) weeks recovery before recording in order to characterize the evolution of changes in electrophysiological activity. As compared to control, facial nerve-injured animals displayed the following sustained and significant changes in spontaneous activity: increased basal firing frequency, decreased spike-associated local field oscillation amplitude, and decreased spontaneous theta burst firing frequency. Significant changes in evoked-activity with whisker pad stimulation included: increased short latency population spike amplitude, decreased long latency population oscillations amplitude and frequency, and decreased peak frequency during evoked single-unit burst firing. Taken together, such changes demonstrate that peripheral facial nerve lesions induce robust and sustained changes of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vibrissal motor cortex. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The pinning property of Bi-2212 single crystals with columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Kazunori; Kiuchi, Masaru; Otabe, Edmund Soji; Yasuda, Takashi; Matsushita, Teruo; Okayasu, Satoru

    2004-01-01

    It is qualitatively understood that the condensation energy density in oxide superconductors, which is one of the essential parameters for determining their pinning strength, becomes large with increasing dimensionality of the superconductor. However, the condensation energy density has not yet been evaluated quantitatively. Its value can be estimated from the elementary pinning force of a known defect. Columnar defects created by heavy ion irradiation are candidates for being such defects. That is, the size and number density of columnar defects can be given. In addition, it is known that two-dimensional vortices like those in Bi-2212 are forced into three-dimensional states by these defects in a magnetic field parallel to the defects. Thus, the condensation energy density can be estimated from the pinning property of the columnar defects even for two-dimensional superconductors. A similar analysis was performed also for three-dimensional Y-123. A discussion is given of the relationship between the condensation energy density and the anisotropy parameter estimated from measurements of anisotropic resistivity and peak field

  17. Dependence of columnar aerosol size distribution, optical properties, and chemical components on regional transport in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Weixiong; Xu, Xuezhe; Fang, Bo; Zhang, Qilei; Qian, Xiaodong; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Pu, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2017-11-01

    Seasonal dependence of the columnar aerosol optical and chemical properties on regional transport in Beijing over 10 years (from January 2005 to December 2014) were analyzed by using the ground-based remote sensing combined with backward trajectory analysis. Daily air mass backward trajectories terminated in Beijing were computed with HYSPLIT-4 model and were categorized into five clusters. The columnar mass concentrations of black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), dust (DU), aerosol water content (AW), and ammonium sulfate like aerosol (AS) of each cluster were retrieved from the optical data obtained from the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) with five-component model. It was found that the columnar aerosol properties in different seasons were changed, and they were related to the air mass origins. In spring, aerosol was dominated by coarse particles. Summer was characterized by higher single scattering albedo (SSA), lower real part of complex refractive index (n), and obvious hygroscopic growth due to humid air from the south. During autumn and winter, there was an observable increase in absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT) and the imaginary part of complex refraction (k), with high levels of retrieved BC and BrC. However, concentrations of BC showed less dependence on the clusters during the two seasons owing to the widely spread coal heating in north China.

  18. Histo-blood group ABO antigen in oral potentially malignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma--genotypic and phenotypic characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Bennett, Erik Paul; Reibel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Loss of histo-blood group A/B antigens is frequent in oral cancer. It is unclear whether this alteration is due to loss of the chromosomal region encoding the genes. The aim was to investigate genotypic alterations in the ABO locus in oral potentially malignant lesions and carcinomas. Seventy...... to establish the ABO genotype. Total and patchy loss of A/B antigen expression was found in 24/32 carcinomas, 6/7 leukoplakias with severe dysplasia, 12/17 leukoplakias with mild and moderate dysplasia, and 6/17 leukoplakias without dysplasia. Specific A/B allele loss was found in 8/24 cases with carcinoma...

  19. Investigation of Functional Activity of Cells in Granulomatous Inflammatory Lesions from Mice with Latent Tuberculous Infection in the New Ex Vivo Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ufimtseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new ex vivo model system measuring functional input of individual granuloma cells to formation of granulomatous inflammatory lesions in mice with latent tuberculous infection has been developed and described in the current study. Monolayer cultures of cells that migrated from individual granulomas were established in the proposed culture settings for mouse spleen and lung granulomas induced by in vivo exposure to BCG vaccine. The cellular composition of individual granulomas was analyzed. The expression of the leukocyte surface markers such as phagocytic receptors CD11b, CD11c, CD14, and CD16/CD32 and the expression of the costimulatory molecules CD80, CD83, and CD86 were tested as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IFNγ and IL-1α and growth factors (GM-CSF and FGFb for cells of individual granulomas. The colocalization of the phagocytic receptors and costimulatory molecules in the surface microdomains of granuloma cells (with and without acid-fast BCG-mycobacteria has also been detected. It was found that some part of cytokine macrophage producers have carried acid-fast mycobacteria. Detected modulation in dynamics of production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and leukocyte surface markers by granuloma cells has indicated continued processes of activation and deactivation of granuloma inflammation cells during the latent tuberculous infection progress in mice.

  20. Investigation of Functional Activity of Cells in Granulomatous Inflammatory Lesions from Mice with Latent Tuberculous Infection in the New Ex Vivo Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The new ex vivo model system measuring functional input of individual granuloma cells to formation of granulomatous inflammatory lesions in mice with latent tuberculous infection has been developed and described in the current study. Monolayer cultures of cells that migrated from individual granulomas were established in the proposed culture settings for mouse spleen and lung granulomas induced by in vivo exposure to BCG vaccine. The cellular composition of individual granulomas was analyzed. The expression of the leukocyte surface markers such as phagocytic receptors CD11b, CD11c, CD14, and CD16/CD32 and the expression of the costimulatory molecules CD80, CD83, and CD86 were tested as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IFNγ and IL-1α) and growth factors (GM-CSF and FGFb) for cells of individual granulomas. The colocalization of the phagocytic receptors and costimulatory molecules in the surface microdomains of granuloma cells (with and without acid-fast BCG-mycobacteria) has also been detected. It was found that some part of cytokine macrophage producers have carried acid-fast mycobacteria. Detected modulation in dynamics of production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and leukocyte surface markers by granuloma cells has indicated continued processes of activation and deactivation of granuloma inflammation cells during the latent tuberculous infection progress in mice. PMID:24198843

  1. Modification of leaf morphology and anatomy as a consequence of columnar architecture in domestic apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative study has been made of the modifications to leaf morphology and anatomy evident in columnar apples trees when compared to standard ones, using the original cultivar and the first columnar mutant derived from it, as well as other closely and more distantly related cultivars. Signifi......A quantitative study has been made of the modifications to leaf morphology and anatomy evident in columnar apples trees when compared to standard ones, using the original cultivar and the first columnar mutant derived from it, as well as other closely and more distantly related cultivars....... Significant increases in leaf number, area, weight per unit area, thickness and midrib angle, together with altered shape, have been recorded consistently for the leaves subtending the developing fruits of the columnar cultivars. Additionally, significant increases in leaf rolling, epicuticular wax, stomatal...... of leaf characteristics is considered in terms of the very open architectural phenotype of columnar trees and the impact this may have on the canopy microclimate that influences leaf development....

  2. Micron-sized columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3 grown by solvent-vapor assisted low-temperature (75 °C) solid-state reaction: The role of non-coordinating solvent-vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huifeng; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The preparation of hybrid perovskite films with large columnar grains via low-temperature solid-state reaction remains a big challenge. Conventional solvent annealing using DMF, DMSO and ethanol, etc. fails to work effectively at low temperature (solar cells based on benzyl-alcohol-vapor annealing (75 °C), delivered much higher photovoltaic performance, better stability and smaller hysteresis than those based on conventional thermal annealing. Additionally, a champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.1% was obtained and the average PCE reached 12.2% with a tiny deviation. Finally, the mechanism of solvent annealing with non-coordinating solvent was discussed. Moreover, we revealed that high polarity and high boiling point of the solvent used for generating vapor, was critical to grow micron-sized columnar grains at such a low temperature (75 °C). This work will contribute to understanding the mechanism of grain growth in solvent annealing and improving its facility and effectiveness.

  3. Overexpression of Mitofusin 2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yanhong; Chen Kuanghueih; Gao Wei; Li Qian; Chen Li; Wang Guisong; Tang Jian

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies have implies that Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which was progressively reduced in arteries from ApoE -/- mice during the development of atherosclerosis, may take part in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein or serum induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Then we investigated the in vivo role of Mfn2 on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits using adenovirus expressing Mitofusin 2 gene (AdMfn2). By morphometric analysis we found overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and intima/media ratio by 66.7% and 74.6%, respectively, compared with control group. These results suggest that local Mfn2 treatment suppresses the development of atherosclerosis in vivo in part by attenuating the smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by lipid deposition and vascular injury

  4. The yield of DNA double strand breaks determined after exclusion of those forming from heat-labile lesions predicts tumor cell radiosensitivity to killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanlei; Li, Fanghua; Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George

    2015-09-01

    The radiosensitivity to killing of tumor cells and in-field normal tissue are key determinants of radiotherapy response. In vitro radiosensitivity of tumor- and normal-tissue-derived cells often predicts radiation response, but high determination cost in time and resources compromise utility as routine response-predictor. Efforts to use induction or repair of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSBs) as surrogate-predictors of cell radiosensitivity to killing have met with limited success. Here, we re-visit this issue encouraged by our recent observations that ionizing radiation (IR) induces not only promptly-forming DSBs (prDSBs), but also DSBs developing after irradiation from the conversion to breaks of thermally-labile sugar-lesions (tlDSBs). We employ pulsed-field gel-electrophoresis and flow-cytometry protocols to measure total DSBs (tDSB=prDSB+tlDSBs) and prDSBs, as well as γH2AX and parameters of chromatin structure. We report a fully unexpected and in many ways unprecedented correlation between yield of prDSBs and radiosensitivity to killing in a battery of ten tumor cell lines that is not matched by yields of tDSBs or γH2AX, and cannot be explained by simple parameters of chromatin structure. We propose the introduction of prDSBs-yield as a novel and powerful surrogate-predictor of cell radiosensitivity to killing with potential for clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spontaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and multiple bronchioloalveolar carcinomas in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D Y; Mitchell, M A; De las Heras, M; Taylor, H W; Cho, D-Y

    2002-01-01

    Two primary tumours, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and multiple bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, were diagnosed in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Two oral masses were located in the right ventrolateral surface of the tongue, near the frenulum, and the lungs contained multiple, widely distributed, nodular masses. Microscopically, the oral masses were composed of invasive cords of pleomorphic, polyhedral cells, typical of squamous cells. The multiple pulmonary masses consisted of non-ciliated, cuboidal, columnar, or occasionally polyhedral cells arranged in an alveolar pattern with multifocal areas of necrosis. This is the first report of spontaneous oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in the Virginia opossum. However, multiple pulmonary adenomas have been reported previously in this species, the lesions being similar to those in sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (jaagsiekte). In the present study, immunohistochemical examination of the pulmonary tumours with a rabbit polyclonal antiserum to jaagsiekte retroviral capsid protein proved negative. Copyright Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  6. Selective amplification of T-cell receptor variable region species is demonstrable but not essential in early lesions of psoriasis vulgaris: analysis by anchored polymerase chain reaction and hypervariable region size spectratyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekony, M A; Holder, J E; Lee, A J; Horrocks, C; Eperon, I C; Camp, R D

    1997-07-01

    Several groups have investigated the role of T cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis by determination of T-cell receptor (TCR) B-chain variable (V) region usage, both in chronic plaque (psoriasis vulgaris) and guttate forms, with various results. Because there are no data on TCR expression in early psoriasis vulgaris, when specific cellular immune events may be expected to be most pronounced, we have analyzed early lesions (less than 3 wk old) of ten patients, with highly reproducible results. We have developed a highly controlled anchored polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method in which TCR beta chain species are all amplified with the same primer pair and products are quantified by dot blot hybridization with BV family-specific oligonucleotide probes. Overexpression of certain TCR BV genes was observed in the majority of lesional biopsies, but in samples in which the expanded BV family formed more than 10% of total lesional BV (half of the samples analyzed), BV2 and BV6 predominated. The consistency of overexpression of these BV species between patients was much less than in previous studies of TCRBV usage in established chronic plaque psoriasis lesions. Complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) size spectratyping demonstrated evidence for selective clonal T cell accumulation in less than half of the lesional samples showing BV expansion. These results indicate that selective amplification of TCRBV species occurs in early psoriasis vulgaris but is not essential to the pathogenic process and may be more important in the maintenance or expansion of chronic lesions.

  7. FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in normal prostate tissue, postatrophic hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and tumor histological lesions in men with and without prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Sabina; Andren, Ove; Ohlson, Anna-Lena; Carlsson, Jessica; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Giunchi, Francesca; Rider, Jennifer R; Fiorentino, Michelangelo

    2018-01-01

    The tumor promoting or counteracting effects of the immune response to cancer development are thought to be mediated to some extent by the infiltration of regulatory T cells (T regs ). In the present study we evaluated the prevalence of T reg populations in stromal and epithelial compartments of normal, post atrophic hyperplasia (PAH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and tumor lesions in men with and without prostate cancer. Study subjects were 102 men consecutively diagnosed with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy and 38 men diagnosed with bladder cancer undergoing cystoprostatectomy without prostate cancer at the pathological examination. Whole mount sections from all patients were evaluated for the epithelial and stromal expression of CD4 + T regs and CD8 + T regs in normal, PAH, PIN, and tumor lesions. A Friedmańs test was used to investigate differences in the mean number of T regs across histological lesions. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer for each histological area. In men with prostate cancer, similarly high numbers of stromal CD4 + T regs were identified in PAH and tumor, but CD4 + T regs were less common in PIN. Greater numbers of epithelial CD4+ T regs in normal prostatic tissue were positively associated with both Gleason score and pT-stage. We observed a fourfold increased risk of prostate cancer in men with epithelial CD4 + T regs in the normal prostatic tissue counterpart. Our results may suggest a possible pathway through which PAH develops directly into prostate cancer in the presence of CD4 + T regs and indicate that transformation of the anti-tumor immune response may be initiated even before the primary tumor is established. © 2017 The Authors. The Prostate Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  8. Proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis of smooth muscle cells cultured from human coronary atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. MacLeod (Donald); B.H. Strauss (Bradley); J. Escaned (Javier); V.A.W.M. Umans (Victor); R-J. van Suylen (Robert-Jan); A. Verkerk (Anton); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M. de Jong (Marcel)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to examine the proliferative capacity and extracellular matrix synthesis of human coronary plaque cells in vitro. BACKGROUND. Common to both primary atherosclerosis and restenosis are vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and production of

  9. Human papillomavirus testing for triage of women with cytologic evidence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: baseline data from a randomized trial. The Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Triage Study (ALTS) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections appear to be central to the development of cervical cancer. This study addresses the question of whether testing women who have low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) of the uterine cervix for HPV DNA is useful as a triage strategy. Four clinical centers in different areas of the United States participated in a randomized clinical trial of the use of HPV DNA testing in women with cytologic evidence of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or LSIL. The study sample in this article consists only of women who had LSIL at enrollment. Within 6 months of an LSIL diagnosis (based on a Pap smear read by a community-based cytopathologist), women who were 18 years of age or older completed a standardized questionnaire and underwent a pelvic examination that included collection of cervical specimens for HPV DNA testing by Hybrid Capture II (HCII)(R) assay. Among the 642 women referred with LSIL who had analyzable test results, the mean chronologic age and age at first coitus were similar among the four clinical centers, despite the centers' ethnic and geographic diversity. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in cervical samples from 532 (82.9%) of the 642 women (95% confidence interval = 79.7%-85.7%). This high frequency of HPV positivity was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays in a subset of 210 paired specimens tested by HCII and PCR (81.4% were positive by both methods). Because a very high percentage of women with an LSIL diagnosis from Pap smears are positive for HPV DNA by HCII testing, there is limited potential for this assay to direct decisions about the clinical management of women with LSIL. The role of HPV testing in the management of women with ASCUS is still under study.

  10. Susceptibility of porcine ileal enterocytes to the cytotoxin of Serpulina hyodysenteriae and the resolution of the epithelial lesions: an electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, A P; Frost, A J; Lysons, R J

    1995-01-01

    The cytotoxin from Serpulina hyodysenteriae was injected into ileal loops of eight germ-free pigs, and the effects on the villi were observed after 1, 3, and 18 hours of exposure. The mature vacuolated villus enterocytes of the proximal part of the absorptive villi were most susceptible to the lethal effects of the cytotoxin and were extensively exfoliated. The enterocytes at the base of the villi, the goblet cells, and the follicle-associated epithelium of the dome villi, particularly the M cells, were less affected. As the enterocytes were shed, the villi progressively shortened and the basement membrane became extensively folded. The absorptive villi were markedly stunted at 3 hours, and flattened globlet cells predominated at the site of restitution of the lesion. The myofibroblasts were also damaged, apparently subsequent to the exfoliation of the enterocytes. There was no further damage at 18 hours. The absorptive villi were stunted and were devoid of the large interstitial spaces of the normal lamina propria; the enterocytes were generally columnar, and at the apex of each villus there was an accumulation of goblet cells. There was a preponderance of M cells at the apices of the dome villi. Restitution of the lesions was not as rapid as observed in in vitro systems. The changes observed indicated that as the proximal enterocytes of the absorptive villi were shed, the loss of hydrostatic forces in the lamina propria allowed the myofibroblasts to collapse the villi by progressively retracting the basement membrane. This reduced the surface area to be covered during restitution. Resolution of the lesions was still incomplete after 18 hours.

  11. The occurrence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma among metastatic melanoma patients: an observational cohort study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haojie; Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Ulrichsen, Sinna P; Thygesen, Sandra K; Nelson, Jeanenne J

    2016-05-03

    Inhibitors of mutant BRAF are emerging as standard of care in patients with metastatic melanoma who carry relevant oncogenic mutations. However, BRAF inhibitors are found to induce cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC). Population-based background rates of cuSCC and non-cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (non-cuSCC) in the metastatic melanoma population may contextualize safety signals from randomized clinical trials or the clinics. However, these background rates are lacking. We conducted a historical cohort study to evaluate the background rates of new-onset non-melanoma skin lesions and non-cuSCC among 2,814 metastatic malignant melanoma patients diagnosed in 1997-2010, identified through the Danish Cancer Registry and the National Pathology Registry. Patients were excluded if they had a history of cancer before the metastatic melanoma diagnosis, other than skin cancers. We determined the incidence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cuSCC that occurred post metastatic melanoma diagnosis, censoring patients at death, emigration, or December 31, 2011 (end of study period), whichever came first. The median age at metastatic melanoma diagnosis was 64 years. Over 40% of patients died within one year of metastatic diagnosis and ~70% died within 5 years. The percentages of patients with prior history or prevalent disease at metastatic melanoma diagnosis included: 8.6% with cuSCC or basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 3.9% with actinic keratosis (AK), and 0.7% with Bowen's disease. No patients had past or current non-cuSCC per study exclusion criterion. The incidence of non-melanoma skin lesions during the 6 months post-metastatic melanoma diagnosis was as follows: BCC, 1.8% (42.5 per 1000 person-years [PY]); AK, 0.8% (18.6 per 1000 PY); cuSCC, 0.1% (1.7 per 1000 PY); Bowen's disease, 0.04% (0.8 per 1000 PY); and keratoacanthoma (KA), 0%. Non-cuSCC was observed in 3 patients (0.1%; 2.5 per 1000 PY) at 3 sites: bronchi, heart and lung. CuSCC and non-cuSCC were

  12. The occurrence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma among metastatic melanoma patients: an observational cohort study in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haojie; Pedersen, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Ulrichsen, Sinna P.; Thygesen, Sandra K.; Nelson, Jeanenne J.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of mutant BRAF are emerging as standard of care in patients with metastatic melanoma who carry relevant oncogenic mutations. However, BRAF inhibitors are found to induce cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC). Population-based background rates of cuSCC and non-cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (non-cuSCC) in the metastatic melanoma population may contextualize safety signals from randomized clinical trials or the clinics. However, these background rates are lacking. We conducted a historical cohort study to evaluate the background rates of new-onset non-melanoma skin lesions and non-cuSCC among 2,814 metastatic malignant melanoma patients diagnosed in 1997–2010, identified through the Danish Cancer Registry and the National Pathology Registry. Patients were excluded if they had a history of cancer before the metastatic melanoma diagnosis, other than skin cancers. We determined the incidence of non-melanoma malignant skin lesions and non-cuSCC that occurred post metastatic melanoma diagnosis, censoring patients at death, emigration, or December 31, 2011 (end of study period), whichever came first. The median age at metastatic melanoma diagnosis was 64 years. Over 40 % of patients died within one year of metastatic diagnosis and ~70 % died within 5 years. The percentages of patients with prior history or prevalent disease at metastatic melanoma diagnosis included: 8.6 % with cuSCC or basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 3.9 % with actinic keratosis (AK), and 0.7 % with Bowen’s disease. No patients had past or current non-cuSCC per study exclusion criterion. The incidence of non-melanoma skin lesions during the 6 months post-metastatic melanoma diagnosis was as follows: BCC, 1.8 % (42.5 per 1000 person-years [PY]); AK, 0.8 % (18.6 per 1000 PY); cuSCC, 0.1 % (1.7 per 1000 PY); Bowen’s disease, 0.04 % (0.8 per 1000 PY); and keratoacanthoma (KA), 0 %. Non-cuSCC was observed in 3 patients (0.1 %; 2.5 per 1000 PY) at 3 sites: bronchi, heart and lung. CuSCC and

  13. A role for b-cell-depleting agents in treating psoriatic skin lesions induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Codrina Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in understanding the pathological pathways, clinical pattern and management opportunities for new-onset psoriasis as a paradoxical adverse event in patients receiving TNF inhibitors for their immune-mediated disorder, there is a subset of patients who are either partial responders or non-responders, whatever the therapeutic scenario. We present the case of new-onset psoriasis and severe alopecia development in a case study of long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA treated with adalimumab (ADA and leflunomide. Since skin lesions and alopecia are resistant to the classic protocol (topical treatment, ADA discontinuation and RA becomes highly active, rituximab (RTX was started. Dramatic improvement in joint disease, total remission of alopecia and partial remission of pustular psoriasis were described after the first RTX cycle. Although B-cell-depleting agents result in controversial effects on psoriatic skin lesions, this is the first case of ADA-induced psoriasis and alopecia that improved under RTX, suggesting a possible role in treating such a patient population.

  14. Experimental study on combustion characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigang; Peng Kangwei; Guo Ming; Huo Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the operation of the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the accident caused by the leakage and combustion of liquid sodium is common and frequent in sodium-related facilities. This paper is based on an experimental study of sodium fire in a columnar flow, which was carried out to focus on the burning characteristics by analyzing the temperature fields in the burner. The injection of 200°C liquid sodium with the flux of 0.5 m 3 /h was poured into a 7.9 m 3 volume stainless steel cylindrical burner to shape a sodium fire, and the data of temperature fields in the burner have been collected by dozens of thermocouples which are laid in the combustion space and sodium collection plate. These results show that the sodium fire in a columnar flow is composed of the foregoing centered columnar fire, the subsequent spray fire caused by atomization and the pool fire on the collection plate. The temperature close to the burning sodium flow maximally reaches up to 950°C. The radial temperatures apart from the sodium flow are relatively low and generally about 200°C, and maximally just 300°C even when close to the sodium collection plate. The maximum temperature of the burning sodium dropping on the collection plate rises in the center of plate, about 528°C. This study is helpful to evaluate the combustion characteristics, formation process and composing forms of the sodium fire in the sodium-related facilities. (author)

  15. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  16. Effects of Intravenous Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells in 3-Acetylpyridine-Lesioned Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatrava-Ferreras, Lucía; Gonzalo-Gobernado, Rafael; Herranz, Antonio S.; Reimers, Diana; Montero Vega, Teresa; Jiménez-Escrig, Adriano; Richart López, Luis Alberto; Bazán, Eulalia

    2012-01-01

    Cerebellar ataxias include a heterogeneous group of infrequent diseases characterized by lack of motor coordination caused by disturbances in the cerebellum and its associated circuits. Current therapies are based on the use of drugs that correct some of the molecular processes involved in their pathogenesis. Although these treatments yielded promising results, there is not yet an effective therapy for these diseases. Cell replacement strategies using human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HuUCBMCs) have emerged as a promising approach for restoration of function in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential therapeutic activity of HuUCBMCs in the 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP) rat model of cerebellar ataxia. Intravenous administered HuUCBMCs reached the cerebellum and brain stem of 3-AP ataxic rats. Grafted cells reduced 3-AP-induced neuronal loss promoted the activation of microglia in the brain stem, and prevented the overexpression of GFAP elicited by 3-AP in the cerebellum. In addition, HuUCBMCs upregulated the expression of proteins that are critical for cell survival, such as phospho-Akt and Bcl-2, in the cerebellum and brain stem of 3-AP ataxic rats. As all these effects were accompanied by a temporal but significant improvement in motor coordination, HuUCBMCs grafts can be considered as an effective cell replacement therapy for cerebellar disorders. PMID:23150735

  17. The value of ultrasound contrast for assessing cancer cell proliferation and invasion function as well as angiogenesis in lesions of in patients with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the value of ultrasound contrast for assessing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as angiogenesis in lesions of in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 39 patients with gastric cancer and 48 patients with gastric ulcer who were treated in our hospital between August 2012 and May 2016 were included in gastric cancer group and gastric ulcer group respectively, and 50 healthy subjects who accepted gastroscopy in our hospital during the same period were included in normal control group. The day after admission, color Doppler diasonograph was used to test the gastric ultrasound contrast parameters; fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect the proliferation and invasion gene mRNA expression in stomach tissue; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the serum angiogenesis index levels. Results: Ultrasound contrast parameters ET and TTP levels of gastric cancer group and gastric ulcer group were significantly lower than those of normal control group, and ultrasound contrast parameters ET and TTP levels of gastric cancer group were significantly lower than those of gastric ulcer group; Stat3, Survivin, Bcl-2, 毬-catenin, eIF4E, CD44, UHRF1 and c-met mRNA expression in tissue as well as VEGF, EGFR, HIF-毩 and Ang-2 levels in serum of gastric cancer group were higher than those of gastric ulcer group and normal control group while E-cadherin mRNA expression in tissue was lower than those of gastric ulcer group and normal control group; Spearman correlation analysis showed that ultrasound contrast parameters ET and TTP levels were correlated with the cancer cell proliferation and invasion function as well as angiogenesis indexes in lesions. Conclusion: Ultrasound contrast parameters can accurately assess the malignant degree of gastric cancer, and is expected to become the reliable means for early diagnosis and treatment guidance of gastric cancer in the future.

  18. Scales of columnar jointing in igneous rocks: field measurements and controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, György; Taisne, Benoît; Garel, Fanny; Médard, Étienne; Bosshard, Sonja; Mattsson, Hannes B.

    2012-03-01

    Columnar jointing is a common feature of solidified lavas, sills and dikes, but the factors controlling the characteristic stoutness of columns remain debated, and quantitative field observations are few in number. In this paper, we provide quantitative measurements on sizing of columnar joint sets and our assessment of the principal factors controlling it. We focus on (1) chemistry, as it is the major determinant of the physical (mechanical and thermal) properties of the lava, and (2) geology, as it influences the style of emplacement and lava geometry, setting boundary conditions for the cooling process and the rate of heat loss. In our analysis, we cover lavas with a broad range of chemical compositions (from basanite to phonolite, for six of which we provide new geochemical analyses) and of geological settings. Our field measurements cover 50 columnar jointing sites in three countries. We provide reliable, manually digitized data on the size of individual columns and focus the mathematical analysis on their geometry (23,889 data on side length, of which 17,312 are from full column sections and 3,033 data on cross-sectional area and order of polygonality). The geometrical observations show that the variation in characteristic size of columns between different sites exceeds one order of magnitude (side length ranging from 8 to 338 cm) and that the column-bounding polygons' average order is less than 6. The network of fractures is found to be longer than required by a minimum-energy hexagonal configuration, indicating a non-equilibrium, geologically quick process. In terms of the development and characteristic sizing of columnar joint sets, our observations suggest that columns are the result of an interplay between the geological setting of emplacement and magma chemistry. When the geological setting constrains the geometry of the emplaced body, it exerts a stronger control on characteristic column stoutness. At unconstrained geometries (e.g. unconfined lava

  19. Impact of rootstocks on columnar apple tree growth in a nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Gelvonauskienė, Dalia; Gelvonauskis, Bronislovas; Sasnauskas, Audrius

    2006-01-01

    There were investigated 24 columnar apple selections and 2 cultivars ‘Arbat’ and ‘Ostankino’ in a nursery at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. The two latter cultivars and selections M38-35, M38-33, M38-2, M38-15, No. 376-100 and No. 385-380 were released in Russia and 16 hybrids (No. 23733, No. 23753, No. 24217, No. 24218, No. 24219, No. 24220, No. 24271, No. 24583, No. 24599, No. 24637, No. 24690, No. 25134, No. 26075, No. 26094 No. 26148, No. 26325) – at the Lithuanian Institute of...

  20. Symmetry of trapped-field profiles in square columnar Josephson-junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, J.J.; Chen, D.; Hernando, A.

    1995-01-01

    The remanence of NxN square-columnar Josephson-junction arrays with normalized maximum junction current i max is calculated from the dc and ac Josephson equations, the Ampere theorem, and the gauge invariance. A transition line on the i max- N plane is obtained, on the high-i max side of which the remanence is nonzero. It is found that in the nonzero remanence state the symmetry degree of field profile can be lower than expected by intuition. The meaning and importance of this finding are discussed

  1. Evolution of orientations and deformation structures within individual grains in cold rolled columnar grained nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Winther, Grethe

    2011-01-01

    Columnar grained Ni is used as a model material allowing simultaneous non-surface investigations of the evolution of crystallographic orientations and deformation microstructures within individual grains as a function of rolling strain up to ε=0.7. Electron channelling contrast and electron...... backscattered diffraction are used to visualise microstructures and crystallographic orientations. It is found that both the microstructural and the textural development depend strongly on the initial grain orientation. A grain size effect is observed on the deformation-induced orientation scatter within...

  2. Measurement of oxygen disorder and nano-twin microstructure associated with columnar defects in YBCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Studies of defects generated by high energy (>1 GeV) heavy ion irradiation in high-Tc superconductors have been performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study shows that high dose irradiation leads to the formation of nano-twins, by which the columnar defects are connected. An analysis of the local Fourier components of the image intensity in [001] lattice images indicates that these new ''twin'' boundaries are much more diffuse than pre-existing twin boundaries in YBCO. The mechanism of the formation of nano-twin boundaries on {110} planes and their possible relation to superconducting properties are discussed

  3. The contribution of thermally labile sugar lesions to DNA double-strand break formation in cells grown in the presence of BrdU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fanghua; Cheng, Yanlei; Iliakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Radiosensitization by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) is commonly attributed to an increase in the yield of double-strand breaks (DSB) in the DNA and an associated decrease in the reparability of these lesions. Radiation chemistry provides a mechanism for the increased yield of DSB through the generation, after bromine loss, of a highly reactive uracilyl radical that attacks the sugar moiety of the nucleotide to produce a single-strand break (SSB). The effects underpinning DSB repair inhibition remain, in contrast, incompletely characterized. A possible source of reduced reparability is a change in the nature or complexity of the DSB in BrdU-substituted DNA. Recent studies show that DSB-complexity or DSB-nature may also be affected by the presence within the cluster of thermally labile sugar lesions (TLSL) that break the DNA backbone only if they chemically evolve to SSB, a process thought to occur within the first hour post-irradiation. Since BrdU radiosensitization might be associated with increased yields and reduced reparability of DSB, we investigated whether BrdU underpins these effects by shifting the balance in the generation of TLSL. We employed asymmetric-field-inversion gel electrophoresis (AFIGE), a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method to quantitate DSB in a battery of five cells lines grown in the presence of different concentrations of BrdU. We measured specifically the yields of promptly forming DSB (prDSB) using low temperature lysis protocols, and the yields of total DSB (tDSB = prDSB + tlDSB; tlDSB form after evolution to SSB of TLSL) using high temperature lysis protocols. We report that incorporation of BrdU generates similar increases in the formation of tlDSB and prDSB, but variations are noted among the different cell lines tested. The similar increase in the yields of tlDSB and prDSB in BrdU substituted DNA showed that shifts in the yields of these forms of lesions could not be invoked to explain BrdU radiosensitization.

  4. Comparison of mesencephalic free-floating tissue culture grafts and cell suspension grafts in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Morten; Widmer, H R; Wagner, B

    1998-01-01

    of grafted dopaminergic neurons and to correlate that with the behavioral effects. Additional cultures and acutely prepared explants were also fixed and stored for histological investigation in order to estimate the loss of dopaminergic neurons in culture and after transplantation. Similar behavioral...... numbers of TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in grafts of cultured tissue (775 +/- 98, mean +/- SEM) and grafts of fresh, dissociated cell suspension (806 +/- 105, mean +/- SEM). Cell counts in fresh explants, 7-day-old cultures, and grafted cultures revealed a 68.2% loss of TH-ir cells 7 days after......Ventral mesencephalon (VM) of fetal rat and human origin grown as free-floating roller-tube (FFRT) cultures can survive subsequent grafting to the adult rat striatum. To further explore the functional efficacy of such grafts, embryonic day 13 ventral mesencephalic tissue was grafted either after 7...

  5. Fractalkine Signaling Regulates Macrophage Recruitment into the Cochlea and Promotes the Survival of Spiral Ganglion Neurons after Selective Hair Cell Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Zamani, Darius; Tong, Ling; Rubel, Edwin W; Ohlemiller, Kevin K; Hirose, Keiko; Warchol, Mark E

    2015-11-11

    selective hair cell lesion. Because these afferent neurons carry sound information from the cochlea to the auditory brainstem, their survival is a key determinant of the success of cochlear prosthetics. Our data suggest that fractalkine signaling in the cochlea is neuroprotective, and reveal a previously uncharacterized interaction between cells of the cochlea and the innate immune system. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515050-12$15.00/0.

  6. Complete genome sequence analysis of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare provides insights into antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulei; Zhao, Lijuan; Chen, Wenjie; Huang, Yunmao; Yang, Ling; Sarathbabu, V; Wu, Zaohe; Li, Jun; Nie, Pin; Lin, Li

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed here the complete genome sequences of a highly virulent Flavobacterium columnare Pf1 strain isolated in our laboratory. The complete genome consists of a 3,171,081 bp circular DNA with 2784 predicted protein-coding genes. Among these, 286 genes were predicted as antibiotic resistance genes, including 32 RND-type efflux pump related genes which were associated with the export of aminoglycosides, indicating inducible aminoglycosides resistances in F. columnare. On the other hand, 328 genes were predicted as pathogenicity related genes which could be classified as virulence factors, gliding motility proteins, adhesins, and many putative secreted proteases. These genes were probably involved in the colonization, invasion and destruction of fish tissues during the infection of F. columnare. Apparently, our obtained complete genome sequences provide the basis for the explanation of the interactions between the F. columnare and the infected fish. The predicted antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity related genes will shed a new light on the development of more efficient preventional strategies against the infection of F. columnare, which is a major worldwide fish pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hye Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanguisorbae Radix (SR is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease. We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker. ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  8. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez; Rafael A. Gutiérrez; Alicia Keszler; Maria Del Carmen Colacino; Lidia V. Alonio; Angélica R. Teyssie; Maria Alejandra Picconi

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell ...

  9. Sub-chronic exposure to EOMABRS leachate induces germinal epithelial cell lesions, sperm abnormalities and oxidative damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Akintunde

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The study concluded that possible mechanisms by which EOMABRSL at the investigated doses elicits spermatotoxicity could be linked to the testicular oxidative stress and damage to germinal epithelial cells by mixed-metal exposure. However, this may suggest possible reproductive health hazards in subjects with environmental or industrial exposure.

  10. A case of basal cell epithelioma developed on the lesion of hemangioma simplex treated with P-32 isotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Miho; Iida, Kenji; Bando, Mayumi; Saga, Kenji; Takahashi, Makoto (Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)); Matsuda, Michio

    1992-10-01

    A 32-year-old woman in whom basal cell epithelioma (BCE) arose on the P-32 irradiated area is reported. At the age of 2, the patient had received superficial irradiation with P-32 for hemangioma simplex on the right precordial site. A black, ill-defined mass has occurred and gradually increased 3 years earlier. Chronic radiodermatitis characterized by teleangiectasis and skin atrophy was seen in the area surrounding the mass, which corresonded to that exposed to P-32. Histopathological examination leads to the diagnosis of BCE developing in part of chronic radiodermatitis. Review of the literature shows 3 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin resulting from P-32 therapy. This is the first report on a patient with BCE resulting from irradiation with P-32. (N.K.).

  11. A case of basal cell epithelioma developed on the lesion of hemangioma simplex treated with P-32 isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Miho; Iida, Kenji; Bando, Mayumi; Saga, Kenji; Takahashi, Makoto; Matsuda, Michio.

    1992-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman in whom basal cell epithelioma (BCE) arose on the P-32 irradiated area is reported. At the age of 2, the patient had received superficial irradiation with P-32 for hemangioma simplex on the right precordial site. A black, ill-defined mass has occurred and gradually increased 3 years earlier. Chronic radiodermatitis characterized by teleangiectasis and skin atrophy was seen in the area surrounding the mass, which corresonded to that exposed to P-32. Histopathological examination leads to the diagnosis of BCE developing in part of chronic radiodermatitis. Review of the literature shows 3 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin resulting from P-32 therapy. This is the first report on a patient with BCE resulting from irradiation with P-32. (N.K.)

  12. Enhanced columnar structure in CsI layer by substrate patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, T.; Cho, G.; Drewery, J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Mireshghi, A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Wildermuth, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fujieda, I. [Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Columnar structure in evaporated CsI layers can be controlled by patterning substrates as well as varying evaporation conditions. Mesh-patterned substrates with various dimensions were created by spin-coating polyimide on glass or amorphous silicon substrates and defining patterns with standard photolithography technique. CsI(Tl) layers 200--1000 {mu}m were evaporated. Scintillation properties of these evaporated layers, such as light yield and speed, were equivalent to those of the source materials. Spatial resolution of X-ray detectors consisting of these layers and a linear array of X-ray detectors consisting of these layers and a linear array of Si photodiodes was evaluated by exposing them to a 25{mu}m narrow beam of X-ray. The results obtained with 200{mu}m thick CsI layers coupled to a linear photodiode array with 20 dots/mm resolution showed that the spatial resolution of CsI(Tl) evaporated on patterned substrates was about 75 {mu}m FWHM, whereas that on CsI(Tl) on flat substrates was about 230 {mu}m FWHM. Micrographs taken by SEM revealed that these layers retained the well-defined columnar structure originating from substrate patterns. Adhesion and light transmission of CsI(Tl) were also improved by patterning the substrate.

  13. Unloading performances and stabilizing practices for columnar jointed basalt: A case study of Baihetan hydropower station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The columnar jointed rock mass (CJR, composed of polygonal cross-sectional columns cut by several groups of joints in various directions, was exposed during the excavations of the Baihetan hydropower station, China. In order to investigate the unloading performances and the stability conditions during excavation of the columns, an experimental field study was performed. Firstly, on-site investigations indicated that the geotechnical problems, including rock relaxation, cracking and collapse, were the most prominent for the CJR Class I that contains intensive joint network and the smallest column sizes. Comprehensive field tests, including deformation measurement by multi-point extensometers, ultrasonic wave testing, borehole television observation and stress monitoring of rock anchors, revealed that the time-dependent relaxation of the CJRs was marked. The practical excavation experiences for the Baihetan columnar jointed rock masses, such as blasting scheme, supporting time of shotcrete and rock bolts, were presented in the excavations of the diversion tunnels. These detailed investigations and practical construction experiences can provide helpful information for similar geotechnical works in jointed rock mass.

  14. Systematic magnetization measurements on single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ with columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kazuhiro; Koshida, Ryo; Kwok, W.K.; Crabtree, G.W.; Okayasu, Satoru; Sataka, Masao; Kazumata, Yukio; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    1999-01-01

    The authors have performed systematic magnetization measurements on single crystalline Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ with columnar defects of B Φ = 0.005 to 1 T by using a SQUID magnetometer. Magnetization hysteresis curves of the pristine sample show a weak irreversible behavior in the vortex liquid state, suggesting the existence of the new vortex state in the vortex liquid state. This weak irreversible region persists systematically in the samples with columnar defects even up to B Φ = 1 T. It is shown that the weak hysteresis of magnetization is sensitive to the disorder level of the sample and shifts systematically to higher temperature and field region with increasing the number of columnar defects. This behavior clearly indicates that effective pinning mechanism exists even in the vortex liquid state and generates a finite critical current

  15. Myeloma cell-induced disruption of bone remodelling compartments leads to osteolytic lesions and generation of osteoclast-myeloma hybrid cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas L; Søe, Kent; Søndergaard, Teis Esben

    2010-01-01

    on the physical organisation of the myeloma cell microenvironment. The proximity between myeloma cells and osteoclasts or osteoblasts was shown to be conditioned by the recently discovered layer of flat cells that separates the osteoclasts and osteoblasts from the bone marrow, by forming a canopy over bone...

  16. Epithelial expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer/CD147 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in neoplasms and precursor lesions derived from cutaneous squamous cells: An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayva, Sebnem Kupana; Karabulut, Ayse Anil; Akatli, Ayşe Nur; Atasoy, Pinar; Bozdogan, Onder

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) is a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The study investigated CD147 and MMP-2 expression in epidermis of cutaneous squamous lesions. CD147 and MMP-2 expressions were evaluated immunohistochemically in 44 specimens: 18 actinic keratoses (AK), 6 squamous cell carcinomas in situ (SCCIS), 13 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC; peritumoral and invasive portions assessed), and 7 normal skins. Patterns of expression were assessed, with MMP-2 in nuclei (MMP-2n) and cytoplasm (MMP-2c) evaluated separately. The expression of each marker was quantified using a calculated immunohistochemical/histologic score (H-score). Correlations were analyzed for the marker H-scores in each study group. Associations between H-scores and histopathologic parameters were also evaluated. CD147 H-score was the highest in SCC (invasive islands), followed by AK, SCCIS, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2n and MMP-2c H-scores were the highest in AK, followed by SCCIS, SCC, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2c and MMP-2n H-scores were significantly higher in peritumoral epidermis than in invasive islands of SCC. MMP-2c and CD147 H-scores were positively correlated in the peritumoral SCCs. CD147 H-score was positively correlated with tumor differentiation in SCC. The findings suggest that overexpression of CD147 plays a role in the development of SCC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of DNA lesion induced by heavy ion irradiation using DNA repair related proteins in cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Tsujita, Sena

    2006-01-01

    We studied the localization of phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) in cultured human fibroblasts after irradiation with heavy ion beams. Asynchronous human normal fibroblasts (NB1RGB) were irradiated with X-rays, C (LET≅85 keV/μm), Si (240 keV/μm), Ar (85 keV/μm), and Fe (440 keV/μm) ion beams. Gamma-H2AX was measured in irradiated cells from 0 to 24 h after irradiation using flow cytometry. The fluorescent signal of γ-H2AX increased just after irradiation of each radiation and reached maximum around 30 nun and then, decreased. At 30 min after irradiation, γ-H2AX signal increased with increasing the radiation dose for both X-rays and Fe ion. The slope of fitting line for the Fe ion was bigger than that of X-rays. Foci of γ-H2AX on cell nuclei were counted under the laser scanning confocal microscopy at 30 min after. Number of foci per nucleus was increased with increasing dose of each radiation. (author)

  18. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone, a radiolytic product of palmitic acid, is genotoxic in primary human colon cells and in cells from preneoplastic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, Nadine; Weise, Anja; Claussen, Uwe; Sendt, Wolfgang; Marian, Brigitte; Glei, Michael; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L.

    2006-01-01

    The irradiation of fat results in the formation of 2-alkylcyclobutanones, a new class of food contaminants. Results of previous in vitro studies with primary human colon cells and in vivo experiments with rats fed with 2-alkylcyclobutanones indicated that these radiolytic derivatives may be genotoxic and enhance the progression of colon tumors. The underlying mechanisms of these effects, however, are not clearly understood. Therefore we performed additional investigations to elucidate the genotoxic potential of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2dDCB) that is generated from palmitic acid. In particular, we explored the relative sensitivities of human colon cells, representing different stages of tumor development and healthy colon tissues, respectively. HT29clone19A cells, LT97 adenoma cells and primary human epithelial cells were exposed to 2dDCB (150-2097 μM). We determined cytotoxic effects using trypan blue exclusion. Genotoxicity, reflected as strand breaks, was assessed using the alkaline version of the comet assay and chromosomal abnormalities were investigated by 24-color fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization. 2dDCB was cytotoxic in a time- and dose-dependent manner in LT97 adenoma cells and in freshly isolated primary cells but not in the human colon tumor cell line. Associated with this was a marked induction of DNA damage by 2dDCB in LT97 adenoma cells and in freshly isolated colonocytes, whereas in the HT29clone19A cells no strand breaks were detectable. A long-term incubation of LT97 adenoma cells with lower concentrations of 2dDCB revealed cytogenetic effects. In summary, 2dDCB was clearly genotoxic in healthy human colon epithelial cells and in cells representing preneoplastic colon adenoma. These findings provide additional evidence that this compound may be regarded as a possible risk factor for processes in colon carcinogenesis related to initiation and progression

  19. Low fetal hemoglobin percentage is associated with silent brain lesions in adults with homozygous sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, David; Tuilier, Titien; Mélé, Nicolas; Turc, Guillaume; Habibi, Anoosha; Abdallah, Nassim Ait; Majhadi, Loubna; Hemery, François; Edjlali, Myriam; Galacteros, Frédéric; Bartolucci, Pablo

    2017-12-12

    Silent white matter changes (WMCs) on brain imaging are common in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) and are associated with cognitive deficits in children. We investigated the factors predictive of WMCs in adults with homozygous SCD and no history of neurological conditions. Patients were recruited from a cohort of adults with homozygous SCD followed up at an adult sickle cell referral center for which steady-state measurements of biological parameters and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain were available. WMCs were rated by consensus, on a validated age-related WMC scale. The prevalence of WMCs was 49% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39%-60%) in the 83 patients without vasculopathy included. In univariable analysis, the patients who had WMCs were more likely to be older ( P = .003) and to have hypertension ( P = .02), a lower mean corpuscular volume ( P = .005), a lower corpuscular hemoglobin concentration ( P = .008), and a lower fetal hemoglobin percentage (%HbF) ( P = .003). In multivariable analysis, only a lower %HbF remained associated with the presence of WMCs (odds ratio [OR] per 1% increase in %HbF, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.97; P = .021). %HbF was also associated with WMC burden ( P for trend = .007). Multivariable ordinal logistic regression showed an inverse relationship between WMC burden (age-related WMC score divided into 4 strata) and HbF level (OR for 1% increase in %HbF, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-0.99; P = .039). Our study suggests that HbF may protect against silent WMCs, decreasing the likelihood of WMCs being present and their severity. It may therefore be beneficial to increase HbF levels in patients with WMCs.

  20. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin modulates estradiol-induced aldehydic DNA lesions in human breast cancer cells through alteration of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Fang, Ju-Pin; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2015-05-01

    Many genes responsible for the bioactivation of endogenous estrogen to reactive quinonoid metabolites, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, are well-known target genes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The purpose of this research was to investigate the roles of TCDD-mediated altered gene expression in the induction of aldehydic DNA lesions (ADLs) by 17β-estradiol (E2) in human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that increases in the number of oxidant-mediated ADLs, including abasic sites and aldehydic base/sugar lesions, were detected in MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to E2. The DNA-damaging effects of E2 in MDA-MB-231 cells were prevented by pretreatment of cells with TCDD. In contrast, we did not observe statistically significant increases in the number of ADLs in MCF-7 cells exposed to E2. However, with TCDD pretreatment, an approximately twofold increase in the number of ADLs was detected in MCF-7 cells exposed to E2. TCDD pretreatment induces disparity in the disposition of E2 to reactive quinonoid metabolites and the subsequent formation of oxidative DNA lesions through alteration of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in human breast cancer cells.

  1. Type 1- and type 2-like lesional skin-derived Mycobacterium leprae-responsive T cell clones are characterized by coexpression of IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha and IL-4/IL-5/IL-13, respectively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, C. E.; van der Pouw Kraan, T. C.; Buffing, A. A.; Chand, M. A.; Faber, W. R.; Aarden, L. A.; Das, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    In an earlier study, we generated a large number of Mycobacterium leprae-responsive and M. leprae-nonresponsive T cell clones (TCC) from the lesional skin of immunologic unstable borderline leprosy patients. In that study, we divided TCC into type 1- and type 2-like on the basis of their IFN-gamma

  2. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of potassium permanganate at early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) against early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was evaluated. Fish were experimentally challenged, by waterborne exposure for 2 h to F. columnare after cutaneous abrasion, an...

  3. Storing red blood cells with vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine prevents oxidative stress-related lesions: a metabolomics overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Valeria; Gevi, Federica; D'alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2014-07-01

    Recent advances in red blood cell metabolomics have paved the way for further improvements of storage solutions. In the present study, we exploited a validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical workflow to determine the effects of vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine supplementation (anti-oxidants) on the metabolome of erythrocytes stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol medium under blood bank conditions. We observed decreased energy metabolism fluxes (glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway). A tentative explanation of this phenomenon could be related to the observed depression of the uptake of glucose, since glucose and ascorbate are known to compete for the same transporter. Anti-oxidant supplementation was effective in modulating the redox poise, through the promotion of glutathione homeostasis, which resulted in decreased haemolysis and less accumulation of malondialdehyde and oxidation by-products (including oxidized glutathione and prostaglandins). Anti-oxidants improved storage quality by coping with oxidative stress at the expense of glycolytic metabolism, although reservoirs of high energy phosphate compounds were preserved by reduced cyclic AMP-mediated release of ATP.

  4. Treatment of radio-induced colorectal lesions with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC): part of the inflammatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessout, R.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the last decades, radiotherapy established as a major tool in the treatment of abdomino-pelvic cancers. Despite great technological evolutions, radiotherapy remains associated with side effects that can sometimes be really harmful, this being mainly due to the toxicity of ionizing radiations for healthy tissues surrounding the tumor. As part of abdomino-pelvic radio-therapies, these side effects mainly affect the gastrointestinal tract, which is very sensitive to radiations. The development of curative treatments thus became a priority. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) showed their immunomodulatory ability as well as their ability to regenerate tissue in many models. During my thesis, we aimed at giving rise to the therapeutic advantage brought by MSC in the treatment of radioinduced damage as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results allowed us to demonstrate the efficiency of our treatment with an effect both on the colic epithelial structure and on its contractile functions. We demonstrated that this therapeutical efficiency depends on two processes. Stimulation of the epithelial proliferation through the Wnt pathway allows the epithelial regeneration process to be enhanced. The increased local corticosterone secretion allows the number and the activation state of T lymphocytes to diminish. Our results moreover suggest the existence of a link between the two observed phenomenons thus providing with a new proof of the combinatory effects of MSC therapy. (author)

  5. Columnar characteristics of aerosols by spectroradiometer measurements in the maritime area of the Cadiz Gulf (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaz, Ricardo; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Ángel M.; Vilaplana, José M.; de La Morena, Benito A.

    2005-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol characteristics represented by the spectral aerosol optical depth AOD) and the Ångström turbidity parameter were determined in the coastal area of the Gulf of Cádiz, (southwest of Spain). The columnar aerosol properties presented here correspond to the 1996-1999 period, and were obtained by solar direct irradiance measurements carried out by a Licor1800 spectroradiometer. The performance of this type of medium-spectral resolution radiometric system is analysed over the measured period. The detailed spectral information of these irradiance measurements enabled the use of selected non-absorption gases spectral windows to determine the columnar spectral AOD that was modelled by Ångström formula to obtain the coefficient. Temporal evolutions of instantaneous values together with a general statistical analysis represented by seasonal values, frequency distributions and some representative correlations for the AOD and the derived Ångström coefficient gave us the first insight of aerosol characteristics in this coastal area. Special attention was paid to the analysis of these aerosol properties at the nominal wavelengths of 440 nm, 670 nm, 870 nm and 1020 nm for the near-future comparisons with the Cimel sun-photometer data. However, taking the most representative aerosol wavelength of 500 nm, the variability of the AOD ranges from 0.005 to 0.53, with a mean of 0.12 (s.d = 0.07) and that of the parameter is given by a mean value of 0.93 (s.d. = 0.58) falling inside the range of marine aerosols. A quantitative discrimination of aerosol types was conducted on the basis of the spectral aerosol properties and air mass back trajectory analysis, which resulted in a mixed type because of the specificity of this area, given by very frequent desert dust episodes, continental and polluted local influences. This study represents the first extended data characterization about columnar properties of aerosols in Spain which has been continued by Cimel

  6. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  7. Cellular composition of long-standing gingivitis and periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorbert-Mros, S; Larsson, L; Berglundh, T

    2015-08-01

    Insufficient information on the cellular composition of long-standing gingivitis lesions without signs of attachment loss makes an understanding of differences in cellular composition between "destructive" and "nondestructive" periodontal lesions difficult. The aim of the current study was to analyze differences in cell characteristics between lesions representing long-standing gingivitis and severe periodontitis. Two groups of patients were recruited. One group consisted of 36 patients, 33-67 years of age, with severe generalized periodontitis (periodontitis group). The second group consisted of 28 patients, 41-70 years of age, with overt signs of gingival inflammation but no attachment loss (gingivitis group). From each patient a gingival biopsy was obtained from one selected diseased site and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. Periodontitis lesions were twice as large and contained significantly larger proportions, numbers and densities of cells positive for CD138 (plasma cells) and CD68 (macrophages) than did gingivitis lesions. The proportion of B cells that expressed the additional CD5 marker (B-1a cells) was significantly larger in periodontitis lesions than in gingivitis lesions. The densities of T cells and B cells did not differ between periodontitis lesions and gingivitis lesions. T cells were not the dominating cell type in gingivitis lesions, as B cells together with their subset plasma cells comprised a larger number and proportion than T cells. Periodontitis lesions at teeth with advanced attachment and bone loss exhibit quantitative and qualitative differences in relation to gingivitis lesions at teeth with no attachment and bone loss. It is suggested that the large number and high density of plasma cells are the hallmarks of advanced periodontitis lesions and the most conspicuous difference in relation to long-standing gingivitis lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Vapour growth of Cd(Zn)Te columnar nanopixels into porous alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochinskii, N.V.; Abellan, M.; Martin Gonzalez, M.; Saucedo, E.; Dieguez, E.; Briones, F.

    2006-01-01

    The vapour phase growth (VPG) of CdTe and Cd 1- x Zn x Te was performed in order to investigate the formation of Cd(Zn)Te columnar nanostructures, which could serve as a basis for micropixels usable for further development of X- and gamma-ray high-resolution imaging devices. The possibility to form the 'Cd(Zn)Te-in-porous alumina' nanostructures by VPG has been demonstrated. The Cd(Zn)Te crystals integrated into nanoporous alumina have shown to have photoluminescence properties compatible with those of the bulk crystals and planar epitaxial layers. Further investigations are going on to improve the structural quality of Cd(Zn)Te nanocrystals

  9. Stochastic modeling of columnar dendritic grain growth in weld pool of Al-Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Z.B.; Tian, N. [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Wei, Y.H. [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Zhan, X.H.

    2009-04-15

    A multi-scale model is used to simulate columnar dendritic growth in TIG (tungsten inert-gas) weld molten pool of Al-Cu alloy. The grain morphologies at the edge of the weld pool are studied. The simulated results indicate that the average primary dendrite spacing changes during the solidification process in the weld pool because of the complicated thermal field, solute diffusion field and competitive growth. And it is shown that the secondary dendrite arms grow insufficiently in the space between dendrite trunks if the primary dendrite spacing is small. And the phenomenon has been explained by analyzing the influence of the solute accumulation on the constitutional undercooling and undercooling gradient when there are two different opposite solute diffusion fields. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. One- and two-dimensional fluids properties of smectic, lamellar and columnar liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Jakli, Antal

    2006-01-01

    Smectic and lamellar liquid crystals are three-dimensional layered structures in which each layer behaves as a two-dimensional fluid. Because of their reduced dimensionality they have unique physical properties and challenging theoretical descriptions, and are the subject of much current research. One- and Two-Dimensional Fluids: Properties of Smectic, Lamellar and Columnar Liquid Crystals offers a comprehensive review of these phases and their applications. The book details the basic structures and properties of one- and two-dimensional fluids and the nature of phase transitions. The later chapters consider the optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of special structures, including uniformly and non-uniformly aligned anisotropic films, lyotropic lamellar systems, helical and chiral structures, and organic anisotropic materials. Topics also include typical and defective features, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductivity. The book concludes with a review of current and potential applications ...

  11. Multiple oxide content media for columnar grain growth in L10 FePt thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Hoan; Yang, En; Laughlin, David E.; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2013-01-01

    An approach to enhance the height-to-diameter ratio of FePt grains in heat-assisted magnetic recording media is proposed. The FePt-SiO x thin films are deposited with a decrease of the SiO x percentage along the film growth direction. When bi-layer and tri-layer media are sputtered at 410 °C, we observe discontinuities in the FePt grains at interfaces between layers, which lead to poor epitaxial growth. Due to increased atomic diffusion, the bi-layer media sputtered at 450 °C is shown to (1) grow into continuous columnar grains with similar size as single-layer media but much higher aspect ratio, (2) have better L1 0 ordering and larger coercivity.

  12. Columnar grain growth of FePt(L10) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang En; Ho Hoan; Laughlin, David E.; Zhu Jiangang

    2012-01-01

    An experimental approach for obtaining perpendicular FePt-SiOx thin films with a large height to diameter ratio FePt(L1 0 ) columnar grains is presented in this work. The microstructure for FePt-SiOx composite thin films as a function of oxide volume fraction, substrate temperature, and film thickness is studied by plan view and cross section TEM. The relations between processing, microstructure, epitaxial texture, and magnetic properties are discussed. By tuning the thickness of the magnetic layer and the volume fraction of oxide in the film at a sputtering temperature of 410 deg. C, a 16 nm thick perpendicular FePt film with ∼8 nm diameter of FePt grains was obtained. The height to diameter ratio of the FePt grains was as large as 2. Ordering at lower temperature can be achieved by introducing a Ag sacrificial layer.

  13. Effect of Processing Parameters on Thickness of Columnar Structured Silicon Wafers Directly Grown from Silicon Melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Seok Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain optimum growth conditions for desired thickness and more effective silicon feedstock usage, effects of processing parameters such as preheated substrate temperatures, time intervals, moving velocity of substrates, and Ar gas blowing rates on silicon ribbon thickness were investigated in the horizontal growth process. Most of the parameters strongly affected in the control of ribbon thickness with columnar grain structure depended on the solidification rate. The thickness of the silicon ribbon decreased with an increasing substrate temperature, decreasing time interval, and increasing moving velocity of the substrate. However, the blowing of Ar gas onto a liquid layer existing on the surface of solidified ribbon contributed to achieving smooth surface roughness but did not closely affect the change of ribbon thickness in the case of a blowing rate of ≥0.65 Nm3/h because the thickness of the solidified layer was already determined by the exit height of the reservoir.

  14. Identification of genes encoding the type IX secretion system and secreted proteins in Flavobacterium columnare IA-S-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes, causes columnaris disease in wild and aquaculture-reared freshwater fish. The mechanisms responsible for columnaris disease are not known. Many members of the phylum Bacteroidetes use type IX secretion systems (T9SSs) to secrete enzymes...

  15. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  16. Experimental test of the postulate that continuous columnar pinning centers produce the highest J{sub c}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)]. E-mail: weinstein@uh.edu; Gandini, Alberto [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Mayes, Bill [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Parks, Drew [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2004-10-18

    Continuous columnar pinning centers, created by energetic ions, have been usefully studied theoretically and experimentally to investigate vortex physics in high T{sub c} superconductors. However, along the way, in error, their discontinuities have been downplayed, and they have been anointed as the way to produce high J{sub c}.

  17. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as papilloma) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as Herpes simplex) Risks Risks of the procedure may ... Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy ...

  18. Equi-axed and columnar grain growth in UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R J [Berkely Technology Centre, Nuclear Electric plc, Berkeley (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    The grain size of UO{sub 2} is an important parameter in the actual performance and the modelling of the performance of reactor fuel elements. Many processes depend critically on the grain size, for example, the degree of initial densification, the evolution rate of stable fission gases, the release rates of radiologically hazardous fission products, the fission gas bubble swelling rates and the fuel creep. Many of these processes are thermally activated and further impact on the fuel thermal behavior thus creating complex feedback processes. In order to model the fuel performance accurately it is necessary to model the evolution of the fuel grain radius. When UO{sub 2} is irradiated, the fission gases xenon and krypton are created from the fissioning uranium nucleus. At high temperatures these gases diffuse rapidly to the grain boundaries where they nucleate immobile lenticular shaped fission gas bubbles. In this paper the Hillert grain growth model is adapted to account for the inhibiting ``Zener`` effects of grain boundary fission gas porosity on grain boundary mobility and hence grain growth. It is shown that normal grain growth ceases at relatively low levels of irradiation. At high burnups, high temperatures and in regions of high temperature gradients, columnar grain growth is often observed, in some cases extending over more than fifty percent of the fuel radius. The model is further extended to account for the de-pinning of grains in the radial direction by the thermal gradient induced force on a fission gas grain boundary bubble. The observed columnar/equi-axed boundary is in fair agreement with the predictions of an evaporation/condensation model. The grain growth model described in this paper requires information concerning the scale of grain boundary porosity, the local fuel temperature and the local temperature gradient. The model is currently used in the Nuclear Electric version of the ENIGMA fuel modelling code. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  19. Strongly Enhanced Piezoelectric Response in Lead Zirconate Titanate Films with Vertically Aligned Columnar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films with (001) orientation were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Variation of the laser pulse rate during the deposition of the PZT films was found to play a key role in the control of the microstructure and to change strongly the piezoelectric response of the thin film. The film deposited at low pulse rate has a denser columnar microstructure, which improves the transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d31f) and ferroelectric remanent polarization (Pr), whereas the less densely packed columnar grains in the film deposited at high pulse rates give rise to a significantly higher longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33f) value. The effect of film thickness on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the PZT films was also investigated. With increasing film thickness, the grain column diameter gradually increases, and also the average Pr and d33f values become larger. The largest piezoelectric coefficient of d33f = 408 pm V–1 was found for a 4-μm film thickness. From a series of films in the thickness range 0.5–5 μm, the z-position dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient could be deduced. A local maximum value of 600 pm V–1 was deduced in the 3.5–4.5 μm section of the thickest films. The dependence of the film properties on film thickness is attributed to the decreasing effect of the clamping constraint imposed by the substrate and the increasing spatial separation between the grains with increasing film thickness. PMID:28247756

  20. Immunohistochemical study of DNA topoisomerase I, DNA topoisomerase II alpha, p53, and Ki-67 in oral preneoplastic lesions and oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafian, Hilal; Venteo, Lydie; Sukhanova, Alyona; Nabiev, Igor; Lefevre, Benoît; Pluot, Michel

    2004-06-01

    Human DNA topoisomerase I (topo I) is the molecular target of the camptothecin group of anticancer drugs. Laboratory studies have shown that the cellular response to topo I-targeted drugs depends on the topo I expression and DNA replication rate and the apoptotic pathway activity. In this study, we tested potential indicators of the sensitivity of topo I-targeted drugs in 36 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies against Ki-67, p53, and topo I, and with polyclonal antibodies against DNA topoisomerase II-alpha (topo II-alpha). These markers were also tested in 18 epithelial hyperplastic lesions and 18 mild dysplasias. Immunostaining was quantified by the percentage of stained nuclei in each sample (the labeling index); 200 immunoreactive epithelial nuclei were counted per case for each antibody. The results support the possibility of using topo II-alpha staining for assessing the proliferative activity. High expression of topo II-alpha and topo I in OSCCs suggests that they may serve as potential indicators of sensitivity to topo I inhibitors. However, the apoptotic pathway assessed by p53 immunostaining was found to be uninformative. Analysis of the relationship between immunohistochemical results and clinical and pathologic parameters (the T and N stages and differentiation) showed that only the differentiation parameter correlated with the topo I expression rate. Thus, significant increase in the topo I expression in the poorly differentiated OSCCs suggests their higher sensitivity to drug treatment.

  1. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary......The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...

  2. Visible and occult microscopic lesions of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleque Newaz Khan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Even after 300 years, most of the literature claims that pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of endometriosis is still elusive. Recurrence of pain and lesion continues to occur after effective medical or surgical therapies. Once generated within the pelvis due to retrograde entry of menstrual debris, peritoneal endometriotic lesions time-dependently change their color appearance resulting from certain biochemical change within lesions. A variable pattern of endometriotic lesions within the pelvis can be detected by laparoscopy as visible peritoneal endometriosis. It is generally believed that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system in the pelvic microenvironment by their interaction with endometrial cells and immune cells. Even with the careful eyes of an expert surgeon, we may sometimes miss detecting peritoneal lesion within the peritoneal cavity or deep into the peritoneum. In such a case, random collection of normal peritoneum may carry the possibility to identify some hidden endometriotic lesions by microscopy and these lesions can be named as occult (invisible microscopic endometriosis (OME. Here, we discuss the color appearance of peritoneal lesions and activity of these lesions by analysis of a panel of activity markers. Finally we discuss our recent findings on OME, their biological and clinical significance, and try to make a possible link in the origin between visible endometriosis and OME.

  3. Genomic profiling of plasmablastic lymphoma using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH: revealing significant overlapping genomic lesions with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xin-Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Studies have suggested that tumors with PL morphology represent a group of neoplasms with clinopathologic characteristics corresponding to different entities including extramedullary plasmablastic tumors associated with plasma cell myeloma (PCM. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the genetic similarities and differences among PL, DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related and PCM using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Results Examination of genomic data in PL revealed that the most frequent segmental gain (> 40% include: 1p36.11-1p36.33, 1p34.1-1p36.13, 1q21.1-1q23.1, 7q11.2-7q11.23, 11q12-11q13.2 and 22q12.2-22q13.3. This correlated with segmental gains occurring in high frequency in DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related cases. There were some segmental gains and some segmental loss that occurred in PL but not in the other types of lymphoma suggesting that these foci may contain genes responsible for the differentiation of this lymphoma. Additionally, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and AIDS associated DLBCL suggesting that these foci may be associated with HIV infection. Furthermore, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and PCM suggesting that these lesions may be related to plasmacytic differentiation. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the current study represents the first genomic exploration of PL. The genomic aberration pattern of PL appears to be more similar to that of DLBCL (AIDS-related or non AIDS-related than to PCM. Our findings suggest that PL may remain best classified as a subtype of DLBCL at least at the genome level.

  4. Effect of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Columnar Microstructure and Bond Coat Surface Preparation on Thermal Barrier Coating Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Benjamin; Quet, Aurélie; Bianchi, Luc; Schick, Vincent; Joulia, Aurélien; Malié, André; Rémy, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is identified as promising for the enhancement of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems used in gas turbines. Particularly, the emerging columnar microstructure enabled by the SPS process is likely to bring about an interesting TBC lifetime. At the same time, the SPS process opens the way to a decrease in thermal conductivity, one of the main issues for the next generation of gas turbines, compared to the state-of-the-art deposition technique, so-called electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In this paper, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings presenting columnar structures, performed using both SPS and EB-PVD processes, were studied. Depending on the columnar microstructure readily adaptable in the SPS process, low thermal conductivities can be obtained. At 1100 °C, a decrease from 1.3 W m-1 K-1 for EB-PVD YSZ coatings to about 0.7 W m-1 K-1 for SPS coatings was shown. The higher content of porosity in the case of SPS coatings increases the thermal resistance through the thickness and decreases thermal conductivity. The lifetime of SPS YSZ coatings was studied by isothermal cyclic tests, showing equivalent or even higher performances compared to EB-PVD ones. Tests were performed using classical bond coats used for EB-PVD TBC coatings. Thermal cyclic fatigue performance of the best SPS coating reached 1000 cycles to failure on AM1 substrates with a β-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. Tests were also performed on AM1 substrates with a Pt-diffused γ-Ni/γ'-Ni3Al bond coat for which more than 2000 cycles to failure were observed for columnar SPS YSZ coatings. The high thermal compliance offered by both the columnar structure and the porosity allowed the reaching of a high lifetime, promising for a TBC application.

  5. Columnar and Equiaxed Solidification of Al-7 wt.% Si Alloys in Reduced Gravity in the Framework of the CETSOL Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, G.; Sturz, L.; Nguyen-Thi, H.; Mangelinck-Noel, N.; Li, Y. Z.; Gandin, C.-A.; Fleurisson, R.; Guillemot, G.; McFadden, S.; Mooney, R. P.; Voorhees, P.; Roosz, A.; Ronaföldi, A.; Beckermann, C.; Karma, A.; Chen, C.-H.; Warnken, N.; Saad, A.; Grün, G.-U.; Grohn, M.; Poitrault, I.; Pehl, T.; Nagy, I.; Todt, D.; Minster, O.; Sillekens, W.

    2017-08-01

    During casting, often a dendritic microstructure is formed, resulting in a columnar or an equiaxed grain structure, or leading to a transition from columnar to equiaxed growth (CET). The detailed knowledge of the critical parameters for the CET is important because the microstructure affects materials properties. To provide unique data for testing of fundamental theories of grain and microstructure formation, solidification experiments in microgravity environment were performed within the European Space Agency Microgravity Application Promotion (ESA MAP) project Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in SOLidification Processing (CETSOL). Reduced gravity allows for purely diffusive solidification conditions, i.e., suppressing melt flow and sedimentation and floatation effects. On-board the International Space Station, Al-7 wt.% Si alloys with and without grain refiners were solidified in different temperature gradients and with different cooling conditions. Detailed analysis of the microstructure and the grain structure showed purely columnar growth for nonrefined alloys. The CET was detected only for refined alloys, either as a sharp CET in the case of a sudden increase in the solidification velocity or as a progressive CET in the case of a continuous decrease of the temperature gradient. The present experimental data were used for numerical modeling of the CET with three different approaches: (1) a front tracking model using an equiaxed growth model, (2) a three-dimensional (3D) cellular automaton-finite element model, and (3) a 3D dendrite needle network method. Each model allows for predicting the columnar dendrite tip undercooling and the growth rate with respect to time. Furthermore, the positions of CET and the spatial extent of the CET, being sharp or progressive, are in reasonably good quantitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  6. Multiple intracerebral lesions in a young male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of his brain showed multiple ill-defined and nodular enhancing lesions in bilateral supratentorial and ... Toxoplasmosis occurs in patients with CD4 T cell ... or from undercooked meat. ... Yoganathan K. A “brain tumor” in an intravenous.

  7. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  8. Augmented serum level of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) protein and reduced NKG2D expression on NK and T cells in patients with cervical cancer and precursor lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arreygue-Garcia, Naela A; Delgado-Rizo, Vidal; Garcia-Iglesias, Trinidad; Hernandez-Flores, Georgina; Toro-Arreola, Susana del; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Toro-Arreola, Alicia del; Cid-Arregui, Angel; Gonzalez-Ramella, Oscar; Jave-Suarez, Luis F; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. NK and cytotoxic T cells play an important role in the elimination of virus-infected and tumor cells through NKG2D activating receptors, which can promote the lysis of target cells by binding to the major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) proteins. Increased serum levels of MICA have been found in patients with epithelial tumors. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of soluble MICA (sMICA) and NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in blood samples from patients with cervical cancer or precursor lesions with those from healthy donors. Peripheral blood with or without heparin was collected to obtain mononuclear cells or sera, respectively. Serum sMICA levels were measured by ELISA and NKG2D-expressing immune cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Also, a correlation analysis was performed to associate sMICA levels with either NKG2D expression or with the stage of the lesion. Significant amounts of sMICA were detected in sera from nearly all patients. We found a decrease in the number of NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in both cervical cancer and lesion groups when compared to healthy donors. Pearson analysis showed a negative correlation between sMICA and NKG2D-expressing T cells; however, we did not find a significant correlation when the analysis was applied to sMICA and NKG2D expression on NK cells. Our results show for the first time that high sMICA levels are found in sera from patients with both cervical cancer and precursor lesions when compared with healthy donors. We also observed a diminution in the number of NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in the patient samples; however, a significant negative correlation between sMICA and NKG2D expression was only seen in T cells

  9. Stellate Cell Activation and Imbalanced Expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 in Acute Autoimmune Liver Lesions Induced by ConA in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the pathogenic feature of liver injury, activation of hepatic stellate cells, and dynamic expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 to reveal their role in liver injury induced by ConA. Methods. Mice were randomly divided into control group and ConA treatment group. ConA (20 mg/kg was injected through vena caudalis in ConA treatment group; the controls received the same volume of saline injection. After injection for 2 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h, animals were terminated. Blood, liver, and spleen were harvested. Liver function and histopathology were studied. α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 were detected. Results. After ConA injection, liver damage started to increase. Expression of α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 was significantly enhanced; all above indicators reached peak at 8 h; but from 24 h after ConA injection, TGF-β3 expression began to decline, while the TGF-β1/TGF-β3 ratio at 48 h was significantly lower than control. Conclusion. (1 Autoimmune liver injury induced by ConA showed time-based features, in which the most serious liver lesions happened at 8 h after ConA injection. (2 Early activation of HSC and imbalance expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 existed in ConA-induced acute autoimmune liver injury, which may be associated with liver dysfunction and the mechanisms of progression to fibrosis.

  10. Non-small cell lung cancer: Whole-lesion histogram analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient for assessment of tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion and pleural invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Naoko; Doai, Mariko; Usuda, Katsuo; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Tonami, Hisao

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the diagnostic accuracy of histogram analyses of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for determining non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor grades, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. We studied 60 surgically diagnosed NSCLC patients. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in the axial plane using a navigator-triggered single-shot, echo-planar imaging sequence with prospective acquisition correction. The ADC maps were generated, and we placed a volume-of-interest on the tumor to construct the whole-lesion histogram. Using the histogram, we calculated the mean, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of ADC, skewness, and kurtosis. Histogram parameters were correlated with tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. We performed a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to assess the diagnostic performance of histogram parameters for distinguishing different pathologic features. The ADC mean, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles showed significant differences among the tumor grades. The ADC mean, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were significant histogram parameters between high- and low-grade tumors. The ROC analysis between high- and low-grade tumors showed that the 95th percentile ADC achieved the highest area under curve (AUC) at 0.74. Lymphovascular invasion was associated with the ADC mean, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles, skewness, and kurtosis. Kurtosis achieved the highest AUC at 0.809. Pleural invasion was only associated with skewness, with the AUC of 0.648. ADC histogram analyses on the basis of the entire tumor volume are able to stratify NSCLCs' tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion and pleural invasion.

  11. Additional Survival Benefit of Involved-Lesion Radiation Therapy After R-CHOP Chemotherapy in Limited Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jeanny [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Han, E-mail: ihkim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung Hyuck [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of involved-lesion radiation therapy (ILRT) after rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy in limited stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by comparing outcomes of R-CHOP therapy alone with R-CHOP followed by ILRT. Methods and Materials: We identified 198 patients treated with R-CHOP (median, 6 cycles) for pathologically confirmed DLBCL of limited stage from July 2004 to December 2012. Clinical characteristics of these patients were 33% with stage I and 66.7% with stage II; 79.8% were in the low or low-intermediate risk group; 13.6% had B symptoms; 29.8% had bulky tumors (≥7 cm); and 75.3% underwent ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP therapy. RT was given to 43 patients (21.7%) using ILRT technique, which included the prechemotherapy tumor volume with a median margin of 2 cm (median RT dose: 36 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 40 months, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 85.8% and 88.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP (PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.004) and ILRT (PFS, P=.021; OS, P=.014) were favorable prognosticators of PFS and OS. A bulky tumor (P=.027) and response to R-CHOP (P=.012) were also found to be independent factors of OS. In subgroup analysis, the effect of ILRT was prominent in patients with a bulky tumor (PFS, P=.014; OS, P=.030) or an elevated level of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.012). Conclusions: Our results suggest that ILRT after R-CHOP therapy improves PFS and OS in patients with limited stage DLBCL, especially in those with bulky disease or an elevated serum LDH level.

  12. Additional survival benefit of involved-lesion radiation therapy after R-CHOP chemotherapy in limited stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeanny; Kim, Il Han; Kim, Byoung Hyuck; Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of involved-lesion radiation therapy (ILRT) after rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy in limited stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by comparing outcomes of R-CHOP therapy alone with R-CHOP followed by ILRT. We identified 198 patients treated with R-CHOP (median, 6 cycles) for pathologically confirmed DLBCL of limited stage from July 2004 to December 2012. Clinical characteristics of these patients were 33% with stage I and 66.7% with stage II; 79.8% were in the low or low-intermediate risk group; 13.6% had B symptoms; 29.8% had bulky tumors (≥ 7 cm); and 75.3% underwent ≥ 6 cycles of R-CHOP therapy. RT was given to 43 patients (21.7%) using ILRT technique, which included the prechemotherapy tumor volume with a median margin of 2 cm (median RT dose: 36 Gy). After a median follow-up of 40 months, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 85.8% and 88.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed ≥ 6 cycles of R-CHOP (PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.004) and ILRT (PFS, P=.021; OS, P=.014) were favorable prognosticators of PFS and OS. A bulky tumor (P=.027) and response to R-CHOP (P=.012) were also found to be independent factors of OS. In subgroup analysis, the effect of ILRT was prominent in patients with a bulky tumor (PFS, P=.014; OS, P=.030) or an elevated level of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.012). Our results suggest that ILRT after R-CHOP therapy improves PFS and OS in patients with limited stage DLBCL, especially in those with bulky disease or an elevated serum LDH level. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Ultraviolet-B irradiation decreases IFN-gamma and increases IL-4 expression in psoriatic lesional skin in situ and in cultured dermal T cells derived from these lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piskin, Gamze; Koomen, Cornelis W.; Picavet, Daisy; Bos, Jan D.; Teunissen, Marcel B. M.

    2003-01-01

    Type 1 cytokine producing T cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation is effective in the treatment of this disease. In normal skin, UVB causes a change in dermal microenvironment, leading to a decrease of IFN-gamma expressing type 1 T cells and a

  14. Induction of the early response protein EGR-1 in human tumour cells after ionizing radiation is correlated with a reduction of repair of lethal lesions and an increase of repair of sublethal lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Nicolaas A. P.; ten Cate, Rosemarie; van Bree, Chris; Haveman, Jaap

    2004-01-01

    The role of EGR-1 in potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) was studied. Induction of the early response protein EGR-1 and survival after ionizing radiation of two human tumour cell lines after culturing for 48 h in serum-deprived medium was investigated. The glioblastoma cell line (Gli-6) and a

  15. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of breast lesions: Initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hebatallah Hassan Mamdouh Hassan

    2013-03-31

    Mar 31, 2013 ... breast cancer.2 Additional lesions seen by MRI that are not visible on ... characterization of lesions as benign or malignant on the basis ... lular density associated with numerous intact cell ..... ence for ADC values between the two MRI devices, the lesions .... Magnetic resonance imaging of brain and spine.

  16. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Gompertz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases.

  17. Measurements and estimation of the columnar optical depth of tropospheric aerosols in the UV spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Cachorro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company covering the range from 300–1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Spain of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Ångström turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behaviour of these estimations in each area of study.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; transmission and scattering of radiation; troposphere – composition and chemistry

  18. Novel Prospects for Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Baopeng; Guo, Hongbo

    2017-12-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is an emerging coating technique that can produce columnar thermal barrier coatings from vapor phase. Feedstock treatment at the start of its trajectory in the plasma torch nozzle is important for such vapor-phase deposition. This study describes the effects of the plasma composition (Ar/He) on the plasma characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and particle dynamics at different points spatially distributed inside the plasma torch nozzle. The results of calculations show that increasing the fraction of argon in the plasma gas mixture enhances the momentum and heat flow between the plasma and injected feedstock. For the plasma gas combination of 45Ar/45He, the total enthalpy transferred to a representative powder particle inside the plasma torch nozzle is highest ( 9828 kJ/kg). Moreover, due to the properties of the plasma, the contribution of the cylindrical throat, i.e., from the feed injection point (FIP) to the start of divergence (SOD), to the total transferred energy is 69%. The carrier gas flow for different plasma gas mixtures was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of zirconium emissions. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating microstructures were produced when using selected plasma gas compositions and corresponding carrier gas flows; structural morphologies were found to be in good agreement with OES and theoretical predictions. Quasicolumnar microstructure was obtained with porosity of 15% when applying the plasma composition of 45Ar/45He.

  19. Thermal stability in a newly designed columnar-conical fluidized bed for combustion of rice husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozainee, M.; Salema, A.A.; Ngo, S.P.; Chye, G.B. [Malaysian Technological Univ., Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The effects of fluidizing and liquid propane gas (LPG) flow rates on thermal stability of a fluidized bed were examined. The aim of the study was to hybridize a columnar and conical fluidized bed (CCFB) in order to encourage the combustion of low-calorific fuels such as rice husks. Experiments were conducted to examine the thermal stability of the CCFB. Premixed primary air and liquid propane gas (LPG) was fed into the bed in order to verify its thermal stability. Temperature profiles of the combustor and bed were measured. The impact of the fluidizing velocity and LPG flow rate on the temperature profile was examined in order to analyze the influence of the fluidizing velocity and LPG rate on combustion rates. Results of the study showed that the combustion of the CCFB was sustained at a fluidizing velocity of 1.5 U{sub mf} and at an LPG flow rate of 8 liters per minute. Results of the study showed that fluidizing velocity played an important role on the thermal stability of the bed. It was concluded that the thermal stability of the combustor is sufficient for the CCFB. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  20. Measurements and estimation of the columnar optical depth of tropospheric aerosols in the UV spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Cachorro

    Full Text Available We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company covering the range from 300–1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Spain of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Ångström turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behaviour of these estimations in each area of study.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; transmission and scattering of radiation; troposphere – composition and chemistry

  1. Enabling electrolyte compositions for columnar silicon anodes in high energy secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwko, Markus; Thieme, Sören; Weller, Christine; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Columnar silicon structures are proven as high performance anodes for high energy batteries paired with low (sulfur) or high (nickel-cobalt-aluminum oxide, NCA) voltage cathodes. The introduction of a fluorinated ether/sulfolane solvent mixture drastically improves the capacity retention for both battery types due to an improved solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the surface of the silicon electrode which reduces irreversible reactions normally causing lithium loss and rapid capacity fading. For the lithium silicide/sulfur battery cycling stability is significantly improved as compared to a frequently used reference electrolyte (DME/DOL) reaching a constant coulombic efficiency (CE) as high as 98%. For the silicon/NCA battery with higher voltage, the addition of only small amounts of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the novel electrolyte leads to a stable capacity over at least 50 cycles and a CE as high as 99.9%. A high volumetric energy density close to 1000 Wh l-1 was achieved with the new electrolyte taking all inactive components of the stack into account for the estimation.

  2. Branching-induced grain boundary evolution during directional solidification of columnar dendritic grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Chunwen; Li, Junjie; Yu, Honglei; Wang, Zhijun; Lin, Xin; Wang, Jincheng

    2017-01-01

    We present an investigation of secondary and tertiary branching behavior in diverging grain boundaries (GBs) between two columnar dendritic grains with different crystallographic orientations, both by two-dimensional phase-field simulations and thin-sample experiments. The stochasticity of the GB trajectories and the statistically averaged GB orientations were analyzed in detail. The side-branching dynamics and subsequent branch competition behaviors found in the simulations agreed well with the experimental results. When the orientations of two grains are given, the experimental results indicated that the average GB orientation was independent of the pulling velocity in the dendritic growth regime. The simulation and experimental results, as well as the results reported in the literature exhibit a uniform relation between the percentage of the whole gap region occupied by the favorably oriented grain and the difference in the absolute values of the secondary arm growth directions of the two competitive grains. By describing such a uniform relation with a simple fitting equation, we proposed a simple analytical model for the GB orientation at diverging GBs, which gives a more accurate description of GB orientation selection than the existing models.

  3. Atmospheric Pre-Corrected Differential Absorption Techniques to Retrieve Columnar Water Vapor: Theory and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Christoph C.; Schlaepfer, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Two different approaches exist to retrieve columnar water vapor from imaging spectrometer data: (1) Differential absorption techniques based on: (a) Narrow-Wide (N/W) ratio between overlapping spectrally wide and narrow channels; (b) Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) between a measurement channel and the weighted sum of two reference channels. (2) Non-linear fitting techniques which are based on spectral radiative transfer calculations. The advantage of the first approach is computational speed and of the second, improved retrieval accuracy. Our goal was to improve the accuracy of the first technique using physics based on radiative transfer. Using a modified version of the Duntley equation, we derived an "Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption" (APDA) technique and described an iterative scheme to retrieve water vapor on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Next we compared both, the CIBR and the APDA using the Duntley equation for MODTRAN3 computed irradiances, transmissions and path radiance (using the DISORT option). This simulation showed that the CIBR is very sensitive to reflectance effects and that the APDA performs much better. An extensive data set was created with the radiative transfer code 6S over 379 different ground reflectance spectra. The calculated relative water vapor error was reduced significantly for the APDA. The APDA technique had about 8% (vs. over 35% for the CIBR) of the 379 spectra with a relative water vapor error of greater than +5%. The APDA has been applied to 1991 and 1995 AVIRIS scenes which visually demonstrate the improvement over the CIBR technique.

  4. Triphenylene columnar liquid crystals: spectroscopic study of triplets states and charge carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondkowski, Jens

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of three oxygenated derivatives of triphenylene (two monomers, a symmetric one and an asymmetric one, and a tetramer) by using different experimental techniques: absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy in stationary regime, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (also said single photon counting). Moreover, the author adapted an existing experiment of transient absorption spectroscopy time-resolved at the microsecond level to obtain spectra of thin layers under electric field. A cyclic voltammetry experiment and a spectro-electrochemistry experiment have also been performed. The report first presents the studied materials, the characterisation of singlet states, and the study of the effect molecular symmetry decreasing have on molecular transitions. Then, the author reports the study of cationic species of the triphenylene derivatives. The next chapters address the characterisation of derivative triplet states, and the study of energy transfer within the meso phase of one of these derivatives. The last chapters address charge carriers of columnar liquid crystals, and the molecular nature of these charge carriers

  5. Anisotropic propagation imaging of elastic waves in oriented columnar thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffy, E.; Dodane, G.; Euphrasie, S.; Mosset, A.; Vairac, P.; Martin, N.; Baida, H.; Rampnoux, J. M.; Dilhaire, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the observation of strongly anisotropic surface acoustic wave propagation on nanostructured thin films. Two kinds of tungsten samples were prepared by sputtering on a silicon substrate: a conventional thin film with columns normal to the substrate surface, and an oriented columnar architecture using the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) process. Pseudo-Rayleigh waves (PRWs) were imaged as a function of time in x and y directions for both films thanks to a femtosecond heterodyne pump-probe setup. A strong anisotropic propagation as well as a high velocity reduction of the PRWs were exhibited for the GLAD sample. For the wavevector k/2π  =  3  ×  105 m-1 the measured group velocities v x and v y equal 2220 m s-1 for the sample prepared with conventional sputtering, whereas a strong anisotropy appears (v x   =  1600 m s-1 and v y   =  870 m s-1) for the sample prepared with the GLAD process. Using the finite element method, the anisotropy is related to the structural anisotropy of the thin film’s architecture. The drop of PRWs group velocities is mainly assigned to the porous microstructure, especially favored by atomic shadowing effects which appear during the growth of the inclined columns. Such GLAD thin films constitute a new tool for the control of the propagation of surface elastic waves and for the design of new devices with useful properties.

  6. Generation of DNA profiles from fingerprints developed with columnar thin film technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazibat, Stephanie L; Roy, Reena; Swiontek, Stephen E; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-12-01

    Partial-bloody fingerprints and partial fingerprints with saliva are often encountered at crime scenes, potentially enabling the combination of fingerprint and DNA analyses for absolute identification, provided that the development technique for fingerprint analysis does not inhibit DNA analysis. 36 partial-bloody fingerprints and 30 fingerprints wetted with saliva, all deposited on brass, were first developed using the columnar-thin-film (CTF) technique and then subjected to short tandem repeat (STR) DNA analysis. Equal numbers of samples were subjected to the same DNA analysis without development. Tris (8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum, or Alq3, was evaporated to deposit CTFs for development of the prints. DNA was extracted from all 132 samples, quantified, and amplified with AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler Plus Amplification Kit. Additionally, DNA analyses were conducted on four blood smears on un-fingerprinted brass that had been subjected to CTF deposition and four blood smears on un-fingerprinted brass that had not been subjected to CTF deposition. Complete and concordant autosomal STR profiles of the same quality were obtained from both undeveloped and CTF-developed fingerprints, indicating that CTF development of fingerprints preserves DNA and does not inhibit subsequent DNA analysis. Even when there were no fingerprints, CTF deposition did not lead to inhibition of DNA analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dicyanamide Salts that Adopt Smectic, Columnar, or Bicontinuous Cubic Liquid-Crystalline Mesophases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geonhui; Goossens, Karel; Shin, Tae Joo; Bielawski, Christopher W

    2018-04-25

    Although dicyanamide (i.e., [N(CN) 2 ] - ) has been commonly used to obtain low-viscosity, halogen-free, room-temperature ionic liquids, liquid-crystalline salts containing such anions have remained virtually unexplored. Here we report a series of amphiphilic dicyanamide salts that, depending on their structures and compositions, adopt smectic, columnar, or bicontinuous cubic thermotropic liquid-crystalline mesophases, even at room temperature in some cases. Their thermal properties were explored by polarized light optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (including evolved gas analysis), and variable-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Comparison of the thermal phase characteristics of these new liquid-crystalline salts featuring "V-shaped" [N(CN) 2 ] - anions with those of structural analogues containing [SCN] - , [BF 4 ] - , [PF 6 ] - , or [CF 3 SO 3 ] - anions indicated that not only the size of the counterion but also its shape should be considered in the development of mesomorphic salts. Collectively, these discoveries may be expected to facilitate the design of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals that form inverted-type bicontinuous cubic and other sophisticated liquid-crystalline phases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The role of the dendritic growth model dimensionality in predicting the Columnar to Equiaxed Transition (CET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyński, M.; Rebow, M.; Banaszek, J.

    2017-06-01

    The dendrite tip kinetics model accuracy relies on the reliability of the stability constant used, which is usually experimentally determined for 3D situations and applied to 2D models. The paper reports authors` attempts to cure the situation by deriving 2D dendritic tip scaling parameter for aluminium-based alloy: Al-4wt%Cu. The obtained parameter is then incorporated into the KGT dendritic growth model in order to compare it with the original 3D KGT counterpart and to derive two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the modified Hunt's analytical model for the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The conclusions drawn from the above analysis are further confirmed through numerical calculations of the two cases of Al-4wt%Cu metallic alloy solidification using the front tracking technique. Results, including the porous zone-under-cooled liquid front position, the calculated solutal under-cooling, the average temperature gradient at a front of the dendrite tip envelope and a new predictor of the relative tendency to form an equiaxed zone, are shown, compared and discussed for two numerical cases. The necessity to calculate sufficiently precise values of the tip scaling parameter in 2D and 3D is stressed.

  9. Sub-0.1 mu m line fabrication by Focused ion beam and columnar structural Se-Ge resist

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H Y; Chung, H B

    1998-01-01

    As a method to enhance the sensitivity (S) of an inorganic resist for focused-ion-beam (FIB), lithography, sub-0.1 mu m patterning properties of a columnar structural alpha-Se sub 7 sub 5 Ge sub 2 sub 5 resist have been investigated using 30 keV low-energy Ga sup + -FIB exposure and CF sub 4 reactive-ion etching (RIE). development. The Se sub 7 sub 5 Ge sub 2 sub 5 thin films were 60 .deg. and 80 .deg. -obliquely deposited on Si substrate and parts of the films were annealed for several minutes at the glass transition temperature (T sub g =approx 220 .deg. C). Columnar structures with the angles of approximately 40 .deg. and 65 .deg. are observed in 60 .deg. and 80 .deg. -obliquely deposited films, respectively, and they disappear after annealing. Despite the disappearance of the columnar structures, a critical decrease in thickness is not observed. For the FIB exposures with a beam diameter of approx 0.1 mu m and around the threshold dose, the negative-type fine patterns with linewidth of about 0.06 approx 0...

  10. Lesion-Related Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting with Closed-Cell Design without Embolic Protection Devices in High-Risk Elderly Patients-Can This Concept Work Out? A Single Center Experience Focusing on Stent Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf-Jensen, Silke; Marques, Leonardo; Preiß, Michael; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    To compare the performance differences of three carotid artery stents in high-risk elderly patients without embolic protection devices (EPDs) on the basis of stent design, procedure-related complications, conveniences in handling, in-stent restenosis, 30-day outcome, and long-term follow-up. A total of 101 symptomatic internal carotid stenoses of 94 patients were prospectively treated with stent-protected angioplasty to 94 patients. Three closed-cell stents, one of those being hybrid cell design, were chosen depending on vascular anatomy: curved vessel, lesion length > 1 cm: 64 Carotid Wallstent (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA); curved vessel, lesion length  1 cm: 16 Xact (Vascular Abbott, Santa Clara, CA). Comparisons of demographics, procedures, and outcomes were performed. The mean age of patients was 73.1 years (standard deviation [SD], ± 7.9; range, 58-87 years), 71% of the patients were older than 70 years and 20% were octogenarians. Male/female ratio was 3.1:1. About 13.9% (14/101) had contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion. Overall peri-interventional complication rate was 2.9% and 30-day mortality rate was 1%. During the long-term follow-up (34 months, range 1-59) no ipsilateral stroke was documented. Ten deaths (three after MI) were recognized. Two in-stent restenosis were detected (> 70% North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial) during follow-up, one patient was detected with previous carotid endarterectomy. Especially, if individual anatomical variance is considered, lesion-related stent-protected carotid angioplasty with lesion-adapted closed-cell design is an effective, reliable, safe, and comprehensible treatment option in symptomatic patients. Even without EPDs, the rate of complications is low, when compared with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis described in the literature. In-stent restenosis seems to play no significant role in follow-up.

  11. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  12. Colorimetric Method of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification with the Pre-Addition of Calcein for Detecting Flavobacterium columnare and its Assessment in Tilapia Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebsing, Rungkarn; Kampeera, Jantana; Sirithammajak, Sarawut; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Turner, Warren; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2015-03-01

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease in fish, affects many economically important freshwater fish species. A colorimetric method of loop-mediated isothermal amplification with the pre-addition of calcein (LAMP-calcein) was developed and used to detect the presence of F. columnare in farmed tilapia (Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia [Nile Tilapia × Mozambique Tilapia O. mossambicus]) and rearing water. The detection method, based on a change in color from orange to green, could be performed within 45 min at 63°C. The method was highly specific, as it had no cross-detections with 14 other bacterial species, including other fish pathogens and two Flavobacterium species. The method has a minimum detection limit of 2.2 × 10(2) F. columnare CFU; thus, it is about 10 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. With this method, F. columnare was detected in gonad, gill, and blood samples from apparently healthy tilapia broodstock as well as in samples of fertilized eggs, newly hatched fry, and rearing water. The bacteria isolated from the blood were further characterized biochemically and found to be phenotypically identical to F. columnare. The amplified products from the LAMP-calcein method had 97% homology with the DNA sequence of F. columnare.

  13. The Lgr5 intestinal stem cell signature: robust expression of proposed quiescent '+4' cell markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, Javier; Stange, Daniel E.; Schepers, Arnout G.; van de Wetering, Marc; Koo, Bon-Kyoung; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Volckmann, Richard; Kung, Kevin S.; Koster, Jan; Radulescu, Sorina; Myant, Kevin; Versteeg, Rogier; Sansom, Owen J.; van Es, Johan H.; Barker, Nick; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J. R.; Clevers, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Two types of stem cells are currently defined in small intestinal crypts: cycling crypt base columnar (CBC) cells and quiescent '+4' cells. Here, we combine transcriptomics with proteomics to define a definitive molecular signature for Lgr5(+) CBC cells. Transcriptional profiling of FACS-sorted

  14. Prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades II/III and cervical cancer in patients with cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells when high-grade intraepithelial lesions (ASC-H cannot be ruled out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cytryn

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The latest update of the Bethesda System divided the category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS into ASC-US (undetermined significance and ASC-H (high-grade intraepithelial lesion cannot be ruled out. The aims here were to measure the prevalence of pre-invasive lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN II/III and cervical cancer among patients referred to Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF with ASC-H cytology, and compare them with ASC-US cases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection, at the IFF Cervical Pathology outpatient clinic. METHODS: ASCUS cases referred to IFF from November 1997 to September 2007 were reviewed according to the 2001 Bethesda System to reach cytological consensus. The resulting ASC-H and ASC-US cases, along with new cases, were analyzed relative to the outcome of interest. The histological diagnosis (or cytocolposcopic follow-up in cases without such diagnosis was taken as the gold standard. RESULTS: The prevalence of CIN II/III in cases with ASC-H cytology was 19.29% (95% confidence interval, CI, 9.05-29.55% and the risk of these lesions was greater among patients with ASC-H than with ASC-US cytology (prevalence ratio, PR, 10.42; 95% CI, 2.39-45.47; P = 0.0000764. Pre-invasive lesions were more frequently found in patients under 50 years of age with ASC-H cytology (PR, 2.67; 95% CI, 0.38-18.83; P = 0.2786998. There were no uterine cervical cancer cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of CIN II/III in patients with ASC-H cytology was significantly higher than with ASC-US, and division into ASC diagnostic subcategories had good capacity for discriminating the presence of pre-invasive lesions.

  15. Prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades II/III and cervical cancer in patients with cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells when high-grade intraepithelial lesions (ASC-H) cannot be ruled out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytryn, Andréa; Russomano, Fábio Bastos; Camargo, Maria José de; Zardo, Lucília Maria Gama; Horta, Nilza Maria Sobral Rebelo; Fonseca, Rachel de Carvalho Silveira de Paula; Tristão, Maria Aparecida; Monteiro, Aparecida Cristina Sampaio

    2009-09-01

    The latest update of the Bethesda System divided the category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) into ASC-US (undetermined significance) and ASC-H (high-grade intraepithelial lesion cannot be ruled out). The aims here were to measure the prevalence of pre-invasive lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN II/III) and cervical cancer among patients referred to Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF) with ASC-H cytology, and compare them with ASC-US cases. Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection, at the IFF Cervical Pathology outpatient clinic. ASCUS cases referred to IFF from November 1997 to September 2007 were reviewed according to the 2001 Bethesda System to reach cytological consensus. The resulting ASC-H and ASC-US cases, along with new cases, were analyzed relative to the outcome of interest. The histological diagnosis (or cytocolposcopic follow-up in cases without such diagnosis) was taken as the gold standard. The prevalence of CIN II/III in cases with ASC-H cytology was 19.29% (95% confidence interval, CI, 9.05-29.55%) and the risk of these lesions was greater among patients with ASC-H than with ASC-US cytology (prevalence ratio, PR, 10.42; 95% CI, 2.39-45.47; P = 0.0000764). Pre-invasive lesions were more frequently found in patients under 50 years of age with ASC-H cytology (PR, 2.67; 95% CI, 0.38-18.83); P = 0.2786998). There were no uterine cervical cancer cases. The prevalence of CIN II/III in patients with ASC-H cytology was significantly higher than with ASC-US, and division into ASC diagnostic subcategories had good capacity for discriminating the presence of pre-invasive lesions.

  16. Success or failure of vaccination for HPV16-positive vulvar lesions correlates with kinetics and phenotype of induced T-cell responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welters, Marij J. P.; Kenter, Gemma G.; de Vos van Steenwijk, Peggy J.; Löwik, Margriet J. G.; Berends-van der Meer, Dorien M. A.; Essahsah, Farah; Stynenbosch, Linda F. M.; Vloon, Annelies P. G.; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H.; Piersma, Sytse J.; van der Hulst, Jeanette M.; Valentijn, A. Rob P. M.; Fathers, Lorraine M.; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Oostendorp, Jaap; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2010-01-01

    One half of a group of 20 patients with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-induced vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 displayed a complete regression (CR) after therapeutic vaccination with HPV16 E6/E7 synthetic long peptides. Patients with relatively larger lesions generally did not display

  17. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  18. Atmospheric pre-corrected differential absorption techniques to retrieve columnar water vapor: Theory and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Schlaepfer, D.

    1996-03-01

    Two different approaches exist to retrieve columnar water vapor from imaging spectrometer data: (1) Differential absorption techniques based on: (a) Narrow-Wide (N/W) ratio between overlapping spectrally wide and narrow channels (b) Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) between a measurement channel and the weighted sum of two reference channels; and (2) Non-linear fitting techniques which are based on spectral radiative transfer calculations. The advantage of the first approach is computational speed and of the second, improved retrieval accuracy. Our goal was to improve the accuracy of the first technique using physics based on radiative transfer. Using a modified version of the Duntley equation, we derived an {open_quote}Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption{close_quote} (APDA) technique and described an iterative scheme to retrieve water vapor on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Next we compared both, the CIBR and the APDA using the Duntley equation for MODTRAN3 computed irradiances, transmissions and path radiance (using the DISORT option). This simulation showed that the CIBR is very sensitive to reflectance effects and that the APDA performs much better. An extensive data set was created with the radiative transfer code 6S over 379 different ground reflectance spectra. The calculated relative water vapor error was reduced significantly for the APDA. The APDA technique had about 8% (vs. over 35% for the CIBR) of the 379 spectra with a relative water vapor error of greater than {+-}5%. The APDA has been applied to 1991 and 1995 AVIRIS scenes which visually demonstrate the improvement over the CIBR technique.

  19. Growth and characterization of InAs columnar quantum dots on GaAs substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L. H.; Patriarche, G.; Rossetti, M.; Fiore, A.

    2007-01-01

    The growth of InAs columnar quantum dots (CQDs) on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated. The CQDs were formed by depositing a 1.8 monolayer (ML) InAs seed dot layer and a short period GaAs/InAs superlattice (SL). It was found that the growth of the CQDs is very sensitive to growth interruption (GI) and growth temperature. Both longer GI and higher growth temperature impact the size dispersion of the CQDs, which causes the broadening of photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and the presence of the additional PL peak tails. By properly choosing the GI and the growth temperature, CQDs including GaAs (3 ML)/InAs (0.62 ML) SL with period number up to 35 without plastic relaxation were grown. The corresponding equivalent thickness of the SL is 41 nm which is two times higher than the theoretical critical thickness of the strained InGaAs layer with the same average In composition of 16%. The increase of the critical thickness is partially associated with the formation of the CQDs. Based on a five-stack CQD active region, laser diodes emitting around 1120 nm at room temperature were demonstrated, indicating a high material quality. CQDs with nearly isotropic cross section (20 nmx20 nm dimensions) were formed by depositing a 16-period GaAs (3 ML)/InAs (0.62 ML) SL on an InAs seed dot layer, indicating the feasibility of artificial shape engineering of QDs. Such a structure is expected to be very promising for polarization insensitive device applications, such as semiconductor optical amplifiers

  20. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  1. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  2. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  3. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  4. Benign fibroosseous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Köseoğlu Seçgin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibroosseous lesions represent a group of lesions that share the same basic evolutive mechanism and are characterized by replacement of normal bone with a fibrous connective tissue that gradually undergoes mineralization. These lesions are presented by a variety of diseases including developmental, reactive-dysplastic processes and neoplasms. Depending on the nature and amount of calcified tissue, they can be observed as radiolucent, mixed or radiopaque. Their radiographic features could be well-defined or indistinguishable from the surrounding bone tissue. They can be asymptomatic as in osseous dysplasias and can be detected incidentally on radiographs, or they can lead to expansion in the affected bone as in ossifying fibroma. All fibroosseous lesions seen in the jaws and face are variations of the same histological pattern. Therefore, detailed clinical and radiographic evaluation in differential diagnosis is important. In this review, fibroosseous benign lesions are classified as osseous dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia and fibroosseous tumors; and radiographic features and differential diagnosis of these lesions are reviewed taking into account this classification.

  5. Imaging of painful solitary lesions of the sacrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peh, W. C. G.; Koh, W. L.; Kwek, J. W.; Htoo, M. M.; Tan, P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In patients with sacral pain, the painful symptoms may be caused by a variety of bony and soft tissue lesions. Benign lesions include giant cell tumour, neurogenic tumour, insufficiency fracture, infection and giant bone island. Malignant lesions include primary bone tumours, Ewing sarcoma, plasmacytoma, lymphoma and chordoma. Soft tissue tumours adjacent to or involving the sacrum may cause painful symptoms. A multimodality approach to imaging is required for full assessment of these lesions. This pictorial essay describes a range of common solitary sacral lesions that may cause pain, with emphasis on imaging features

  6. Characteristic patterns of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT for adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma: a comparative study of recurrent lesions after transplantation and chemotherapy by the Nagasaki Transplant Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itonaga, H; Sawayama, Y; Taguchi, J; Honda, S; Taniguchi, H; Makiyama, J; Matsuo, E; Sato, S; Ando, K; Imanishi, D; Imaizumi, Y; Yoshida, S; Hata, T; Moriuchi, Y; Fukushima, T; Miyazaki, Y

    2015-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-SCT) is a promising therapy that may provide long-term durable remission for adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) patients; however, the incidence of relapse associated with ATL remains high. To determine the clinical features of these patients at relapse, we retrospectively analyzed tumor lesions in 30 or 49 patients who relapsed following allo-SCT or chemotherapy (CHT), respectively, at three institutions in Nagasaki prefecture between 1997 and 2011. A multivariate analysis revealed that the development of abnormal lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients at relapse was less frequent after allo-SCT than after CHT (PSCT (P=0.014). Lesions were more frequently observed in the central nervous systems of patients who relapsed with new lesions only (P=0.005). Thus, the clinical manifestation of relapsed ATL was slightly complex, especially in post-transplant patients. Our results emphasized the need to develop adoptive modalities for early and accurate diagnoses of relapsed ATL.

  7. Repair of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet irradiation and aromatic amines in normal and repair-deficient human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevnsner, Tinna; Frandsen, Henrik; Autrup, Herman

    1995-01-01

    (AAF) respectively. The cell line belonging to xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) removed all three types of damage less efficiently than the normal cell line, but more efficiently than the cell line belonging to xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D (XP-D). The cell line...

  8. CD28-, CD45RA(null/dim) and natural killer-like CD8+ T cells are increased in peripheral blood of women with low-grade cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Lopez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo Cesar; Navarro-Meza, Monica; Santoyo-Telles, Felipe; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    In response to antigen naive CD8+, T cells differentiate into effector cells, which express Natural killer (NK) receptors, lose CD28 expression, and die by apoptosis. However, in smaller quantities, the cells are retained for subsequent exposure to the same antigen. Knowledge is limited regarding whether the percentages of CD28-, Effector memory (EMRA(null/dim)), and the CD16+/CD56 + CD8+ T cells of women with low-grade cervical lesions are altered at a systemic level. We enrolled in this study women controls and women with Human papilloma virus infection (HPV-I) without associated cellular neoplastic changes and with Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplastic-I (CIN-I). Flow cytometry (FC) was performed for measurement of CD28-, memory subset, and NK-like CD8 + T cells, and IL-17, IFN-gamma, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, Interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-2. Finally, we genotyped the HPV. The CIN-I group increased the CD8 + CD28- and CD16+/56+ T cell percentage compared with that of HPV-I and controls (p levels among all groups. Increased levels of CD28-, EMRA(null/dim), and CD16+/CD56 + CD8+ T cells of peripheral blood in women with CIN-I may be associated with persistent HPV infection and could exert an influence on progression to cervical cancer.

  9. Computed tomographic features of orbital lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Hoch, H.; Azevedo, M. de L.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this m anuscript is to present the use of CT in the evaluation of 42 cases of orbital lesions studied at the National Institute of Cancer in an one year and half period. Correlation with clinical and pathological data was performed and the results compared with those of the literature. Four cases of rare lesions are shown: alveolar soft tissue sarcoma, giant cell tumor and hematogenic metastatic deposits of a clear cell sarcoma and epidermoid carcinoma. The value of CT in the evaluation of all orbital masses is emphasized. (author) [pt

  10. Anisotropy and vortex behaviour in BiSrCaCuO thin films and multilayers probed by columnar pinning centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffy, H.; Murrills, C.D.; Pomar, A.; Stiufiuc, G.; Stiufiuc, R.; Li, Z.Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we review typical mixed state transport results obtained on a variety of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O y thin films and artificial multilayers, which allowed us to cover the range from low to high anisotropy. The vortex behaviour, 2D or 3D, probed by the pinning properties of columnar defects, is shown to be highly dependant on the anisotropy, and therefore on the microstructure of the system. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Influence of chirality on the thermal and electric properties of the columnar mesophase exhibited by homomeric dipeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, Srividhya; Shankar Rao, D. S.; Prabhu, Rashmi; Yelamaggad, C. V.; Krishna Prasad, S.

    2017-10-01

    We present the first investigation of the influence of chirality on the thermal and electric properties in a biologically important homomeric dipeptide that exhibits a hexagonal columnar liquid crystal mesophase. The peptide employed has two chiral centres, and thus the two possible enantiopures are the (R,R) and (S,S) forms having opposite chirality. The measurements reported the span of the binary phase space between these two enantiopures. Any point in the binary diagram is identified by the enantiomeric excess Xee (the excess content of the R,R enantiopure over its S,S counterpart). We observe that the magnitude of Xee plays a pivotal role in governing the properties as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electric polarization (Ps), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) measurements, and the isotropic-columnar transition temperature. For example, XRD shows that while other features pointing to a hexagonal columnar phase remain the same, additional short-range ordering, indicating correlated discs within the column, is present for the enantiopures (Xee = ±1) but not for the racemate (Xee = 0). Similarly, an electric-field driven switching whose profile suggests the phase structure to be antiferroelectric is seen over the entire binary space, but the magnitude is dependent on Xee; interestingly the polarization direction is axial, i.e., along the column axis. DRS studies display two dielectric modes over a limited temperature range and one mode (mode 2) connected with the antiferroelectric nature of the columnar structure covering the entire mesophase. The relaxation frequency and the thermal behaviour of mode 2 are strongly influenced by Xee. The most attractive effect of chirality is its influence on the polar order, a measure of which is the magnitude of the axial polarization. This result can be taken to be a direct evidence of the manifestation of molecular recognition and the delicate interplay between chiral perturbations and the magnitude of the

  12. Columnar to equiaxed transition in a refined Al-Cu alloy under diffusive and convective transport conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupouy, M.D.; Camel, D.; Mazille, J.E. [CEA Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches sur les Materiaux, 38 - Grenoble (France); Hugon, I. [Lab. de Metallographie, DCC/DTE/SIM, CEA Valrho (France)

    2000-07-01

    The columnar-equiaxed transition under diffusive transport conditions was studied in microgravity (EUROMIR95 and spacelab-LMS96) by solidifying four Al-4wt%Cu alloys refined at different levels, with a constant cooling rate (1 K/min), both under nearly isothermal conditions and under a decreasing temperature gradient. Isothermal samples showed a homogeneous equiaxed structure with no fading of the refiner efficiency. Gradient samples revealed a continuous transition consisting of an orientation of the microsegregation parallel to the solidification direction, without any grain selection effect. For comparison, ground samples evidence the influence of the motion of both refiner particles and growing equiaxed grains. (orig.)

  13. CAFE simulation of columnar-to-equiaxed transition in Al-7wt%Si alloys directionally solidified under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. R.; Mangelinck-Noël, N.; Gandin, Ch-A.; Zimmermann, G.; Sturz, L.; Nguyen Thi, H.; Billia, B.

    2016-03-01

    A two-dimensional multi-scale cellular automaton - finite element (CAFE) model is used to simulate grain structure evolution and microsegregation formation during solidification of refined Al-7wt%Si alloys under microgravity. The CAFE simulations are first qualitatively compared with the benchmark experimental data under microgravity. Qualitative agreement is obtained for the position of columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) and the CET transition mode (sharp or progressive). Further comparisons of the distributions of grain elongation factor and equivalent diameter are conducted and reveal a fair quantitative agreement.

  14. CAFE simulation of columnar-to-equiaxed transition in Al-7wt%Si alloys directionally solidified under microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D R; Mangelinck-Noël, N; Thi, H Nguyen; Billia, B; Gandin, Ch-A; Zimmermann, G; Sturz, L

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional multi-scale cellular automaton - finite element (CAFE) model is used to simulate grain structure evolution and microsegregation formation during solidification of refined Al-7wt%Si alloys under microgravity. The CAFE simulations are first qualitatively compared with the benchmark experimental data under microgravity. Qualitative agreement is obtained for the position of columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) and the CET transition mode (sharp or progressive). Further comparisons of the distributions of grain elongation factor and equivalent diameter are conducted and reveal a fair quantitative agreement. (paper)

  15. Simulation of the as-cast structure of Al-4.0wt.%Cu ingots with a 5-phase mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M; Ahmadein, M; Kharicha, A; Ludwig, A; Li, J H; Schumacher, P

    2012-01-01

    Empirical knowledge about the formation of the as-cast structure, mostly obtained before 1980s, has revealed two critical issues: one is the origin of the equiaxed crystals; one is the competing growth of the columnar and equiaxed structures, and the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). Unfortun