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Sample records for lesion mimic mutants

  1. Primary study on lesion mimic mutants of rice (oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Zhongna; Zhang Hongzhi; Tao Rongixang

    2007-01-01

    Nineteen lesion mimic mutants (xsl1-19) of japonica rice Xiushui11 were obtained by γ-rays irradiation treatment. All mutants belonged to whole life lesion mimic. Lesion mimic of mutants didn't largen after tillering stage, leaves didn't wither, and no effect on the plants exsert spikes and seed. When the highest temperature in day exceeded 32 degree C in seedling stage, lesion mimic of all mutant expect xsl19 disappeared. Under 32 degree C, lesion mimic would appear gradually, and symptoms weren't inhibited by high temperature after 5 leaf stage. The plant heights of all lesion mimic mutants were 47.56-63.54 cm in the tillering stage, and that of CK was 83.75 cm; but the dwarf phenomenon of mutants only appeared before tillering stage, and didn't affect plant heights finally; the heading dates of mutants were the same to the CK, the ear length of all mutants were 9.43-15.19 cm, and that of CK was 16.41 cm; the total grain quantity per spike of all mutants were 88.17-165.33, and those of xsl19 and CK were 49.50 and 76.17. The results showed all lesion mimic mutants except xsl19 had short spikes and total grain quantity per spike increasing. All lesion mimic mutants were susceptible to Magnaporthe grisea, and they had no relationship with resistance. (authors)

  2. Characterization and fine mapping of a light-dependent leaf lesion mimic mutant 1 in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ye, Bangquan; Yin, Junjie; Yuan, Can; Zhou, Xiaogang; Li, Weitao; He, Min; Wang, Jichun; Chen, Weilan; Qin, Peng; Ma, Bintian; Wang, Yuping; Li, Shigui; Chen, Xuewei

    2015-12-01

    Plants that spontaneously produce lesion mimics or spots, without any signs of obvious adversity, such as pesticide and mechanical damage, or pathogen infection, are so-called lesion mimic mutants (lmms). In rice, many lmms exhibit enhanced resistance to pathogens, which provides a unique opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying lmms. We isolated a rice light-dependent leaf lesion mimic mutant 1 (llm1). Lesion spots appeared in the leaves of the llm1 mutant at the tillering stage. Furthermore, the mutant llm1 had similar agronomic traits to wild type rice. Trypan blue and diamiobenzidine staining analyses revealed that the lesion spot formation on the llm1 mutant was due to programmed cell death and reactive oxygen species. The chloroplasts were severely damaged in the llm1 mutant, suggesting that chloroplast damage was associated with the formation of lesion spots in llm1. More importantly, llm1 exhibited enhanced resistance to bacterial blight pathogens within increased expression of pathogenesis related genes (PRs). Using a map-based cloning approach, we delimited the LLM1 locus to a 121-kb interval between two simple sequence repeat markers, RM17470 and RM17473, on chromosome 4. We sequenced the candidate genes on the interval and found that a base mutation had substituted adenine phosphate for thymine in the last exon of LOC_Os04g52130, which led to an amino acid change (Asp(388) to Val) in the llm1 mutant. Our investigation showed that the putative coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPOX) encoded by LOC_Os04g52130 was produced by LLM1 and that amino acid Asp(388) was essential for CPOX function. Our study provides the basis for further investigations into the mechanism underlying lesion mimic initiation associated with LLM1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential effects of lesion mimic mutants in barley on disease development by facultative pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrann, Graham R. D.; Steed, , Andrew; Burt, Christopher; Nicholson, Paul; Brown, James K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous necrotic spots and chlorotic leaves as a result of mis-regulated cell death programmes. Typically these mutants have increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens but their response to facultative fungi that cause necrotrophic diseases is less well studied. The effect of altered cell death regulation on the development of disease caused by Ramularia collo-cygni, Fusarium culmorum and Oculimacula yallundae was explored using a collection of barley necrotic (nec) lesion mimic mutants. nec8 mutants displayed lower levels of all three diseases compared to nec9 mutants, which had increased R. collo-cygni but decreased F. culmorum disease symptoms. nec1 mutants reduced disease development caused by both R. collo-cygni and F. culmorum. The severity of the nec1-induced lesion mimic phenotype and F. culmorum symptom development was reduced by mutation of the negative cell death regulator MLO. The significant reduction in R. collo-cygni symptoms caused by nec1 was completely abolished in the presence of the mlo-5 allele and both symptoms and fungal biomass were greater than in the wild-type. These results indicate that physiological pathways involved in regulation of cell death interact with one another in their effects on different fungal pathogens. PMID:25873675

  4. To die or not to die? Lessons from lesion mimic mutants

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin

    2015-01-30

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a ubiquitous genetically regulated process consisting in an activation of finely controlled signaling pathways that lead to cellular suicide. Although some aspects of PCD control appear evolutionary conserved between plants, animals and fungi, the extent of conservation remains controversial. Over the last decades, identification and characterization of several lesion mimic mutants (LMM) has been a powerful tool in the quest to unravel PCD pathways in plants. Thanks to progress in molecular genetics, mutations causing the phenotype of a large number of LMM and their related suppressors were mapped, and the identification of the mutated genes shed light on major pathways in the onset of plant PCD such as (i) the involvements of chloroplasts and light energy, (ii) the roles of sphingolipids and fatty acids, (iii) a signal perception at the plasma membrane that requires efficient membrane trafficking, (iv) secondary messengers such as ion fluxes and ROS and (v) the control of gene expression as the last integrator of the signaling pathways.

  5. To die or not to die? Lessons from lesion mimic mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eBruggeman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD is a ubiquitous genetically regulated process consisting in an activation of finely controlled signaling pathways that lead to cellular suicide. Although some aspects of PCD control appear evolutionary conserved between plants, animals and fungi, the extent of conservation remains controversial. Over the last decades, identification and characterization of several lesion mimic mutants (LMM has been a powerful tool in the quest to unravel PCD pathways in plants. Thanks to progress in molecular genetics, mutations causing the phenotype of a large number of LMM and their related suppressors were mapped, and the identification of the mutated genes shed light on major pathways in the onset of plant PCD such as (i the involvements of chloroplasts and light energy, (ii the roles of sphingolipids and fatty acids, (iii a signal perception at the plasma membrane that requires efficient membrane trafficking, (iv secondary messengers such as ion fluxes and ROS and (v the control of gene expression as the last integrator of the signaling pathways.

  6. Characteristics and genetic mapping of a lesion mimic mutant pl(t) in japonica rice variety zhejing 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pingping; Zhang Xiaoming; Ye Shenghai; Zhao Ningchun; Lu Yanting; Liu Heqin; Jin Qingsheng; Yang Ling

    2010-01-01

    A lesion mimic mutant,obtained by radiation mutagenesis on the seeds of a japonica rice variety Zhejing 22, exhibited a lesion mimic phenotype during the whole growth stage under different environments. Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant trait was controlled by a single recessive gene named spl (t). Relying on simple sequence repeat (SSR) and recessive class analysis method to map the spl (t) gene with a F 2 population was constructed by crossing the mutant spl (t) with Zhenshan 97B.spl (t) was mapped in the interval of 0.8cM between RM7195 and RM27929 near centromere region on the short arm of chromosome 12.Blue trypan dye analyses indicated that the lesion mimic trait of the mutant was caused by the programmer cell death. Further study showed that the programmer cell death was caused by H 2 O 2 oxidative burst. By inoculation of bacterial leaf blight and blast strains, the resistances of the mutant were similar to the wild variety Zhejing 22. (authors)

  7. Identification and Map-Based Cloning of the Light-Induced Lesion Mimic Mutant 1 (LIL1) Gene in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Zhifei; Liu, Tiantian; Gao, Bida; Xiong, Xingyao

    2017-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is a mechanism by which plants prevent the spread of pathogen. Despite extensive study, the molecular mechanisms underlying HR remain poorly understood. Lesion mimic mutants (LMMs), such as LIL1 that was identified in an ethylmethane sulfonate mutagenized population of Indica rice ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. Indica ) 93-11, can be used to study the HR. Under natural field conditions, the leaves of LIL1 mutant plants exhibited light-induced, small, rust-red lesions that first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. Histochemical staining indicated that LIL1 lesions displayed an abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and resulted from programmed cell death (PCD). The LIL1 mutants also displayed increased expression of defense-related genes and enhanced resistance to rice blast fungus ( Magnaporthe grisea ). Genetic analysis showed that mutation of LIL1 created a semi-dominant allele. Using 1,758 individuals in the F 2 population, LIL1 was mapped in a 222.3 kb region on the long arm of chromosome 7. That contains 12 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Sequence analysis of these 12 candidate genes revealed a G to A base substitution in the fourth exon of LOC_Os07g30510, a putative cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase (CRK), which led to an amino acid change (Val 429 to Ile) in the LIL1 protein. Comparison of the transcript accumulation of the 12 candidate genes between LIL1 and 93-11 revealed that LOC_Os07g30510 was up-regulated significantly in LIL1 . Overexpression of the LOC_Os07g30510 gene from LIL1 induced a LIL1 -like lesion phenotype in Nipponbare. Thus, LIL1 is a novel LMM in rice that will facilitate the further study of the molecular mechanisms of HR and the rice blast resistance.

  8. Characterization and mapping of a novel light-dependent lesion mimic mutant Imm6 in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Gui-qing[1,2; ZHANG Hal-wen[3; LU Xiang-yang[1,2; HUANG Rong-feng[3

    2015-01-01

    A novel rice lesion mimic mutant (LMM) was isolated from an ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS)-induced 02428 mutant bank. The mutant, tentatively designated as Imm6, develops necrotic lesions in the whole growth period along with changes in several important agronomic traits. We found that the initiation of the lesions was induced by light and cell death occurred in Imm6 accompanied with accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The lower chlorophyll content, soluble protein content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, the higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content were detected in Imm6 than in the wild type (WT). Moreover, the observation by transmission electronic microscope (TEM) demonstrated that some organelles were damaged and the stroma lamella of chloroplast was irregular and loose in mesophyll cell of Imm6. In addition, Imm6 was more resistant than WT to rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea infection, which was consistent with increased expression of four genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that mutant trait of Imm6 is inherited as a monogenic recessive nuclear gene located on the long arm of chromosome 6. Using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, the target gene was finally delimited to an interval of 80.8 kb between markers MM2359 and MM2370, containing 7 annotated genes. Taken together, our results provide the information to identify a new gene involved in rice lesion mimic, which will be helpful in clarifying the mechanism of cell death and disease resistance in rice.

  9. Stress Marker Signatures in Lesion Mimic Single and Double Mutants Identify a Crucial Leaf Age-Dependent Salicylic Acid Related Defense Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurilind, Eve; Brosché, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Plants are exposed to abiotic and biotic stress conditions throughout their lifespans that activates various defense programs. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an extreme defense strategy the plant uses to manage unfavorable environments as well as during developmentally induced senescence. Here we investigated the role of leaf age on the regulation of defense gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two lesion mimic mutants with misregulated cell death, catalase2 (cat2) and defense no death1 (dnd1) were used together with several double mutants to dissect signaling pathways regulating defense gene expression associated with cell death and leaf age. PCD marker genes showed leaf age dependent expression, with the highest expression in old leaves. The salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis mutant salicylic acid induction deficient2 (sid2) had reduced expression of PCD marker genes in the cat2 sid2 double mutant demonstrating the importance of SA biosynthesis in regulation of defense gene expression. While the auxin- and jasmonic acid (JA)- insensitive auxin resistant1 (axr1) double mutant cat2 axr1 also led to decreased expression of PCD markers; the expression of several marker genes for SA signaling (ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1, PR1 and PR2) were additionally decreased in cat2 axr1 compared to cat2. The reduced expression of these SA markers genes in cat2 axr1 implicates AXR1 as a regulator of SA signaling in addition to its known role in auxin and JA signaling. Overall, the current study reinforces the important role of SA signaling in regulation of leaf age-related transcript signatures.

  10. Benign clavicular lesions that may mimic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerscovich, E.G.; Greenspan, A.; Szabo, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Nontraumatic lesions of the clavicle are infrequent. Of these, malignant tumors are more common than benign lesions. From January 1988 to January 1990, we examined 17 patients with benign lesions of the clavicle; in 8, the morphologic appearance of the lesion raised the possibility of malignancy in the differential diagnosis. The radiologic findings in these patients are presented. We propose that the unique shape and embryologic development of the clavicle may contribute to the atypical, aggressive presentation of some benign lesions in that bone. (orig.)

  11. A lesion mimic phenotype in tomato obtained by isolating and silencing an Lls1 homologue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassieva, S; Hille, J

    Lesion mimic phenotypes serve as a tool to study the regulation of cell death in plants. In order to obtain a tomato lesion mimic phenotype, we used the conservation of the lethal leaf spot 1 (Lls1) genes between plant species. The tomato Lls1 homologue was cloned, sequenced and analyzed. It showed

  12. A novel nitrogen-dependent gene associates with the lesion mimic trait in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesion mimic (LM) refers to hypersensitive reaction-like (HRL) symptoms that appears on leaf tissue in the absence of plant pathogens. In a wheat line P7001, LM showed up on the leaves under the 0 g nitrogen (N) treatment, but disappeared when sufficient N was supplied, suggesting that LM is N-respo...

  13. Characterization and mapping of complementary lesion-mimic genes lm1 and lm2 in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qin; Zhou, Ronghua; Fu, Tihua; Wu, Weiren; Zhu, Zhendong; Li, Aili; Jia, Jizeng

    2009-10-01

    A lesion-mimic phenotype appeared in a segregating population of common wheat cross Yanzhan 1/Zaosui 30. The parents had non-lesion normal phenotypes. Shading treatment and histochemical analyses showed that the lesions were caused by light-dependent cell death and were not associated with pathogens. Studies over two cropping seasons showed that some lines with more highly expressed lesion-mimic phenotypes exhibited significantly lower grain yields than those with the normal phenotype, but there were no significant effects in the lines with weakly expressed lesion-mimic phenotypes. Among yield traits, one-thousand grain weight was the most affected by lesion-mimic phenotypes. Genetic analysis indicated that this was a novel type of lesion mimic, which was caused by interaction of recessive genes derived from each parent. The lm1 (lesion mimic 1) locus from Zaosui 30 was flanked by microsatellite markers Xwmc674 and Xbarc133/Xbarc147 on chromosome 3BS, at genetic distances of 1.2 and 3.8 cM, respectively, whereas lm2 from Yanzhan 1 was mapped between microsatellite markers Xgwm513 and Xksum154 on chromosome 4BL, at genetic distances of 1.5 and 3 cM, respectively. The linked microsatellite makers identified in this study might be useful for evaluating whether potential parents with normal phenotype are carriers of lesion-mimic alleles.

  14. Seminal epithelium in prostate biopsy can mimic malignant and premalignant prostatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista-Nasr, J; Trolle-Silva, A; Aguilar-Ayala, E; Martínez-Benítez, B

    2016-01-01

    In most prostate biopsies, the seminal epithelium is easily recognised because it meets characteristic histological criteria. However, some biopsies can mimic malignant or premalignant prostatic lesions. The aims of this study were to analyse the histological appearance of the biopsies that mimic adenocarcinomas or preneoplastic prostatic lesions, discuss the differential diagnosis and determine the frequency of seminal epithelia in prostate biopsies. We consecutively reviewed 500 prostate puncture biopsies obtained using the sextant method and selected those cases in which we observed seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct epithelium. In the biopsies in which the seminal epithelium resembled malignant or premalignant lesions, immunohistochemical studies were conducted that included prostate-specific antigen and MUC6. The most important clinical data were recorded. Thirty-six (7.2%) biopsies showed seminal epithelium, and 7 of them (1.4%) resembled various prostate lesions, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations, adenocarcinomas with papillary patterns and poorly differentiated carcinoma. The seminal epithelium resembled prostate lesions when the lipofuscin deposit, the perinuclear vacuoles or the nuclear pseudoinclusions were inconspicuous or missing. Five of the 7 biopsies showed mild to moderate cellular atypia with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, and only 2 showed cellular pleomorphism. The patients were alive and asymptomatic after an average of 6 years of progression. The seminal epithelium resembles prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations and various types of prostatic adenocarcinomas in approximately 1.4% of prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel triple repeat mutant tau transgenic model that mimics aspects of pick's disease and fronto-temporal tauopathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Rockenstein

    Full Text Available Tauopathies are a group of disorders leading to cognitive and behavioral impairment in the aging population. While four-repeat (4R Tau is more abundant in corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Alzheimer's disease, three-repeat (3R Tau is the most abundant splice, in Pick's disease. A number of transgenic models expressing wild-type and mutant forms of the 4R Tau have been developed. However, few models of three-repeat Tau are available. A transgenic mouse model expressing three-repeat Tau was developed bearing the mutations associated with familial forms of Pick's disease (L266V and G272V mutations. Two lines expressing high (Line 13 and low (Line 2 levels of the three-repeat mutant Tau were analyzed. By Western blot, using antibodies specific to three-repeat Tau, Line 13 expressed 5-times more Tau than Line 2. The Tau expressed by these mice was most abundant in the frontal-temporal cortex and limbic system and was phosphorylated at residues detected by the PHF-1, AT8, CP9 and CP13 antibodies. The higher-expressing mice displayed hyperactivity, memory deficits in the water maze and alterations in the round beam. The behavioral deficits started at 6-8 months of age and were associated with a progressive increase in the accumulation of 3R Tau. By immunocytochemistry, mice from Line 13 displayed extensive accumulation of 3R Tau in neuronal cells bodies in the pyramidal neurons of the neocortex, CA1-3 regions, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Aggregates in the granular cells had a globus appearance and mimic Pick's-like inclusions. There were abundant dystrophic neurites, astrogliosis and synapto-dendritic damage in the neocortex and hippocampus of the higher expresser line. The hippocampal lesions were moderately argyrophilic and Thioflavin-S negative. By electron microscopy, discrete straight filament aggregates were detected in some neurons in the hippocampus. This model holds promise for better understanding the

  16. Knockin mouse with mutant Gα11 mimics human inherited hypocalcemia and is rescued by pharmacologic inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roszko, Kelly L; Bi, Ruiye; Gorvin, Caroline M

    2017-01-01

    in patients with autosomal-dominant hypocalcemia type 2 (ADH2), an inherited disorder of hypocalcemia, low parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hyperphosphatemia. We have generated knockin mice harboring the point mutation GNA11 c.C178T (p.Arg60Cys) identified in ADH2 patients. The mutant mice faithfully replicated...... human ADH2. They also exhibited low bone mineral density and increased skin pigmentation. Treatment with NPS 2143, a negative allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), increased PTH and calcium concentrations in WT and mutant mice, suggesting that the gain-of-function effect of GNA11...

  17. Preferential hydroxylation over epoxidation catalysis by a horseradish peroxidase mutant: a cytochrome P450 mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Sam P

    2007-10-25

    Density functional theory calculations are presented on the catalytic properties of a horseradish peroxidase mutant whereby the axial nitrogen atom is replaced by phosphorus. This mutant has never been studied experimentally and only one theoretical report on this system is known (de Visser, S. P. J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 20759-20761). Thus, a one-atom substitution in horseradish peroxidase changes the properties of the catalytic center of the enzyme to more cytochrome P450-type qualities. In particular, the phosphorus-substituted horseradish peroxidase mutant reacts with substrates via a unique reactivity pattern, whereby alkanes are regioselectively hydroxylated even in the presence of a double bond. Reaction barriers of propene epoxidation and hydroxylation are almost identical to ones observed for a cytochrome P450 catalyst and significantly higher than those obtained for a horseradish peroxidase catalyst. It is shown that the regioselectivity difference is entropy and thermally driven and that the electron-transfer processes that occur during the reaction mechanism follow cytochrome P450-type patterns in the hydroxylation reaction.

  18. The Origin of Mutants Under Selection: How Natural Selection Mimics Mutagenesis (Adaptive Mutation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisnier-Patin, Sophie; Roth, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Selection detects mutants but does not cause mutations. Contrary to this dictum, Cairns and Foster plated a leaky lac mutant of Escherichia coli on lactose medium and saw revertant (Lac+) colonies accumulate with time above a nongrowing lawn. This result suggested that bacteria might mutagenize their own genome when growth is blocked. However, this conclusion is suspect in the light of recent evidence that revertant colonies are initiated by preexisting cells with multiple copies the conjugative F′lac plasmid, which carries the lac mutation. Some plated cells have multiple copies of the simple F′lac plasmid. This provides sufficient LacZ activity to support plasmid replication but not cell division. In nongrowing cells, repeated plasmid replication increases the likelihood of a reversion event. Reversion to lac+ triggers exponential cell growth leading to a stable Lac+ revertant colony. In 10% of these plated cells, the high-copy plasmid includes an internal tandem lac duplication, which provides even more LacZ activity—sufficient to support slow growth and formation of an unstable Lac+ colony. Cells with multiple copies of the F′lac plasmid have an increased mutation rate, because the plasmid encodes the error-prone (mutagenic) DNA polymerase, DinB. Without DinB, unstable and stable Lac+ revertant types form in equal numbers and both types arise with no mutagenesis. Amplification and selection are central to behavior of the Cairns–Foster system, whereas mutagenesis is a system-specific side effect or artifact caused by coamplification of dinB with lac. Study of this system has revealed several broadly applicable principles. In all populations, gene duplications are frequent stable genetic polymorphisms, common near-neutral mutant alleles can gain a positive phenotype when amplified under selection, and natural selection can operate without cell division when variability is generated by overreplication of local genome subregions. PMID:26134316

  19. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT-deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  20. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijia; Fu, Chunxiang; Gou, Jiqing; Sun, Liang; Huhman, David; Zhang, Yunwei; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ) has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O -methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT -deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  1. Skin lesions over the pocket area that may mimic cardiac implantable electronic device infection: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Plakoutsi, Sofia; Florou, Elizabeth; Bechlioulis, Aris

    2018-05-21

    The early and correct diagnosis of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections is critical given that early aggressive treatment with complete removal of the system along with antimicrobial therapy dramatically improves outcomes. Pocket infection manifested by local signs of inflammation is the most common form of CIED infections. Conditions mimicking pocket infection have been described in the literature. These include various types of malignancy and rarely allergic reactions/contact dermatitis to pacemaker compounds. We aimed to describe skin lesions and disorders over the pocket area that mimic CIED infection. We present a series of 5 cases with skin lesions that mimic pocket infection. We document these cases with corresponding photographs. Most of them have not been described in this setting. We report the following cases of conditions that proved not to be CIED infection: One case of superficial cellulitis, one case of herpes zoster over the pocket area, one case of spontaneous bruising over the pocket a long time after implantation in a patient taking oral anticoagulation, and 2 cases of contact dermatitis due to prolonged postoperative application of povidone iodine. All cases had favorable outcome after conservative treatment and no CIED infection was developed during follow-up. Clinicians should be aware of rare conditions that mimic CIED infection. Incorrect diagnosis of these disorders may falsely lead to CIED extraction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. To die or not to die? Lessons from lesion mimic mutants

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin; Raynaud, Cé cile; Benhamed, Moussa; Delarue, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    ) the involvements of chloroplasts and light energy, (ii) the roles of sphingolipids and fatty acids, (iii) a signal perception at the plasma membrane that requires efficient membrane trafficking, (iv) secondary messengers such as ion fluxes and ROS and (v

  3. Hepatic lesions that mimic metastasis on radiological imaging during chemotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancy: Recent updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sung Hye; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Yeul Hong [Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    During chemotherapy in patients with gastrointestinal malignancy, the hepatic lesions may occur as chemotherapy-induced lesions or tumor-associated lesions, with exceptions for infectious conditions and other incidentalomas. Focal hepatic lesions arising from chemotherapy-induced hepatopathies (such as chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal injury and steatosis) and tumor-associated eosinophilic abscess should be considered a mimicker of metastasis in patients with gastrointestinal malignancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that chemotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancy in the liver has roles in both the therapeutic effects for hepatic metastasis and injury to the non-tumor bearing hepatic parenchyma. In this article, we reviewed the updated concept of chemotherapy-induced hepatopathies and tumor-associated eosinophilic abscess in the liver, focusing on the pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the causative chemo-agent, pathophysiology, and characteristic imaging findings of these mimickers is critical for accurate diagnosis and avoidance of unnecessary exposure of the patient to invasive tissue-based diagnosis and operation.

  4. Corpus luteum mimics a pelvic lesion on FDG PET in women of childbearing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.W.; Sim, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the nature of incidental single pelvic lesion on F-18 FDG PET scan in the women of childbearing age, further investigation were done. Methods: Three women who had a single round hypermetabolic lesion in the pelvic cavity on FDG PET were further investigated through follow up PET scan or MRI scan. The purposes of PET scan were routine follow up of breast cancer after surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for a patient and cancer screening for two women. The ages were 39, 45, and 48 years old respectively. The last menstrual periods (LMP) were 21, 22 and 24 days before PET examinations. The size and peak SUVs (standard uptake values) of lesions are presented. Results: The lesion in pelvic cavity disappeared in a patients with breast cancer on a follow up PET scan 2 months and 1 week later. The lesions in two women were proved to be corpus luteum cysts on MRI examination on the same day of PET examination. Conclusion: Single pelvic lesion in women of childbearing age should be ruled out a normal corpus luteum cyst. Also, schedule of PET imaging should be adjusted according to her menstrual period

  5. Vasculitis mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Eamonn S; Langford, Carol A

    2008-01-01

    There are many disorders that may closely resemble the clinical, radiologic and/or pathologic features of the primary vasculitides. In this review, we focus on recently described and under-recognized syndromes that may mimic vasculitis. Hereditary causes of large-artery aneurysms such as Marfan's syndrome have long been recognized; recent years have seen a greater understanding of the genetics of Marfan's and other such disorders, including Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Ehler-Danlos syndrome type IV. Under-recognized mimics of medium-vessel vasculitis include segmental arterial mediolysis and Grange syndrome. A large number of entities can mimic small-vessel vasculitis. Recent descriptions of antibodies to human neutrophil elastase have provided insight into the occurrence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in cocaine-induced midline destructive lesions. The differential diagnosis of cerebral vasculitis can be particularly difficult. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes represent an important class of entities that can readily mimic cerebral vasculitis but have a very different management approach and outcome. The diagnosis of vasculitis requires careful assessment of all available clinical, laboratory, radiologic and pathologic information, and consideration of many competing differential diagnoses. Awareness of noninflammatory mimics of vasculitis is essential to avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful treatment with immunosuppressive agents.

  6. Characterisation of prostate cancer lesions in heterozygous Men1 mutant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigne, Christelle; Fontanière, Sandra; Carreira, Christine; Lu, Jieli; Tong, Wei-Ming; Fontanière, Bernard; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Zhang, Chang Xian; Frappart, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of the MEN1 gene predispose to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. Our group and others have shown that Men1 disruption in mice recapitulates MEN1 pathology. Intriguingly, rare lesions in hormone-dependent tissues, such as prostate and mammary glands, were also observed in the Men1 mutant mice. To study the occurrence of prostate lesions, we followed a male mouse cohort of 47 Men1 +/- mice and 23 age-matched control littermates, starting at 18 months of age, and analysed the prostate glands from the cohort. Six Men1 +/- mice (12.8%) developed prostate cancer, including two adenocarcinomas and four in situ carcinomas, while none of the control mice developed cancerous lesions. The expression of menin encoded by the Men1 gene was found to be drastically reduced in all carcinomas, and partial LOH of the wild-type Men1 allele was detected in three of the five analysed lesions. Using immunostaining for the androgen receptor and p63, a basal epithelial cell marker, we demonstrated that the menin-negative prostate cancer cells did not display p63 expression and that the androgen receptor was expressed but more heterogeneous in these lesions. Furthermore, our data showed that the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1B (p27), a Men1 target gene known to be inactivated during prostate cell tumorigenesis, was notably decreased in the prostate cancers that developed in the mutant mice. Our work suggests the possible involvement of Men1 inactivation in the tumorigenesis of the prostate gland

  7. Non-neoplastic cystic and cystic-like lesions of the pancreas: may mimic pancreatic cystic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Brian K P; Tan, Yu-Meng; Chung, Yaw-Fui A; Chow, Pierce K H; Ong, Hock-Soo; Lim, Dennis T H; Wong, Wai-Keong; Ooi, London L P J

    2006-05-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas consist of a broad range of pathological entities. With the exception of the pancreatic pseudocyst, these are usually caused by pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic and cystic-like lesions are extremely rare. In the present article, the surgical experience with these unusual entities over a 14-year period is reported. Between 1991 and 2004, all patients who underwent surgical exploration for a cystic lesion of the pancreas were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with a pancreatic pseudocyst were excluded. There were 106 patients of whom 8 (7.5%) had a final pathological diagnosis consistent with a non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic or cystic-like lesion, including 3 patients with a benign epithelial cyst, 2 with a pancreatic abscess (one tuberculous and one foreign body), 2 with mucous retention cysts and 1 with a mucinous non-neoplastic cyst. These eight patients are the focus of this study. There were six female and two male patients with a median age of 61.5 years (range, 41-71 years). All the patients were of Asian origin including seven Chinese and one Indian. Four of the patients were asymptomatic and their pancreatic cysts were discovered incidentally on radiological imaging for other indications. All the patients underwent preoperative radiological investigations, including ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a cystic lesion of the pancreas. Three patients, all of whom were symptomatic, were diagnosed preoperatively with a malignant cystic neoplasm on the basis of radiological imaging. Two patients were eventually found to have a pancreatic abscess, one tuberculous and the other, secondary to foreign body perforation. The third patient was found on final histology to have chronic pancreatitis with retention cysts. The remaining five patients had a preoperative diagnosis of an indeterminate cyst; on pathological examination, they were found to have a benign

  8. The Rare Benign Lesion That Mimics a Malignant Tumor in Breast Parenchyma: Nodular Fasciitis of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Erinanc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report the clinical and pathological findings of a rare case of nodular fasciitis in the breast parenchyma of a 48-year-old female. Because of potentially malignant findings on ultrasonography and during clinical examination, the patient underwent an excisional biopsy. Histologically, the lesion was composed of spindle to round shaped cells arranged in short bundles in a storiform pattern. Immunohistochemically, the cells were positive for vimentin and SMA and negative for desmin, S100, and CD34. Based on these morphological and immunohistochemical features, a diagnosis of nodular fasciitis was made. We emphasize that nodular fasciitis of the breast may show clinical features and imaging findings similar to those of breast cancer. The histopathologic diagnosis of nodular fasciitis can also be challenging. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the characteristics and the differential diagnosis of this rare neoplasm.

  9. Visual search among items of different salience: removal of visual attention mimics a lesion in extrastriate area V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J

    1994-02-01

    In more than one respect, visual search for the most salient or the least salient item in a display are different kinds of visual tasks. The present work investigated whether this difference is primarily one of perceptual difficulty, or whether it is more fundamental and relates to visual attention. Display items of different salience were produced by varying either size, contrast, color saturation, or pattern. Perceptual masking was employed and, on average, mask onset was delayed longer in search for the least salient item than in search for the most salient item. As a result, the two types of visual search presented comparable perceptual difficulty, as judged by psychophysical measures of performance, effective stimulus contrast, and stability of decision criterion. To investigate the role of attention in the two types of search, observers attempted to carry out a letter discrimination and a search task concurrently. To discriminate the letters, observers had to direct visual attention at the center of the display and, thus, leave unattended the periphery, which contained target and distractors of the search task. In this situation, visual search for the least salient item was severely impaired while visual search for the most salient item was only moderately affected, demonstrating a fundamental difference with respect to visual attention. A qualitatively identical pattern of results was encountered by Schiller and Lee (1991), who used similar visual search tasks to assess the effect of a lesion in extrastriate area V4 of the macaque.

  10. Myositis Mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle, E Harlan; Mammen, Andrew L

    2015-10-01

    Patients with autoimmune myositis typically present with muscle weakness, elevated serum levels of muscle enzymes, and abnormal muscle biopsies. However, patients with other acquired myopathies or genetic muscle diseases may have remarkably similar presentations. Making the correct diagnosis of another muscle disease can prevent these patients from being exposed to the risks of immunosuppressive medications, which benefit those with myositis, but not those with other types of muscle disease. Here, we review some of the most common acquired and inherited muscle diseases that can mimic autoimmune myositis, including inclusion body myositis, limb girdle muscular dystrophies, metabolic myopathies, mitochondrial myopathies, and endocrine myopathies. We emphasize aspects of the medical history, physical exam, laboratory evaluation, and muscle biopsy analysis that can help clinicians distinguish myositis mimics from true autoimmune myositis.

  11. Hydroimidazolone modification of the conserved Arg12 in small heat shock proteins: studies on the structure and chaperone function using mutant mimics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram H Nagaraj

    Full Text Available Methylglyoxal (MGO is an α-dicarbonyl compound present ubiquitously in the human body. MGO reacts with arginine residues in proteins and forms adducts such as hydroimidazolone and argpyrimidine in vivo. Previously, we showed that MGO-mediated modification of αA-crystallin increased its chaperone function. We identified MGO-modified arginine residues in αA-crystallin and found that replacing such arginine residues with alanine residues mimicked the effects of MGO on the chaperone function. Arginine 12 (R12 is a conserved amino acid residue in Hsp27 as well as αA- and αB-crystallin. When treated with MGO at or near physiological concentrations (2-10 µM, R12 was modified to hydroimidazolone in all three small heat shock proteins. In this study, we determined the effect of arginine substitution with alanine at position 12 (R12A to mimic MGO modification on the structure and chaperone function of these proteins. Among the three proteins, the R12A mutation improved the chaperone function of only αA-crystallin. This enhancement in the chaperone function was accompanied by subtle changes in the tertiary structure, which increased the thermodynamic stability of αA-crystallin. This mutation induced the exposure of additional client protein binding sites on αA-crystallin. Altogether, our data suggest that MGO-modification of the conserved R12 in αA-crystallin to hydroimidazolone may play an important role in reducing protein aggregation in the lens during aging and cataract formation.

  12. Matching NLR Immune Receptors to Autoimmunity in camta3 Mutants Using Antimorphic NLR Alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolle, Signe; Greeff, Christiaan; Petersen, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    result from inappropriate NLR activation because mutations in plant guardees could trigger corresponding NLR guards. To explore these hypotheses, we expressed 108 dominant-negative (DN) Arabidopsis NLRs in various lesion mimic mutants, including camta3, which exhibits autoimmunity. CAMTA3 was previously...

  13. Diffuse glomerular nodular lesions in diabetic pigs carrying a dominant-negative mutant hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha, an inheritant diabetic gene in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hara

    Full Text Available Glomerular nodular lesions, known as Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules, are a pathological hallmark of progressive human diabetic nephropathy. We have induced severe diabetes in pigs carrying a dominant-negative mutant hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha (HNF1α P291fsinsC, a maturity-onset diabetes of the young type-3 (MODY3 gene in humans. In this model, glomerular pathology revealed that formation of diffuse glomerular nodules commenced as young as 1 month of age and increased in size and incidence until the age of 10 months, the end of the study period. Immunohistochemistry showed that the nodules consisted of various collagen types (I, III, IV, V and VI with advanced glycation end-product (AGE and Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML deposition, similar to those in human diabetic nodules, except for collagen type I. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β was also expressed exclusively in the nodules. The ultrastructure of the nodules comprised predominant interstitial-type collagen deposition arising from the mesangial matrices. Curiously, these nodules were found predominantly in the deep cortex. However, diabetic pigs failed to show any of the features characteristic of human diabetic nephropathy; e.g., proteinuria, glomerular basement membrane thickening, exudative lesions, mesangiolysis, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and vascular hyalinosis. The pigs showed only Armanni-Ebstein lesions, a characteristic tubular manifestation in human diabetes. RT-PCR analysis showed that glomeruli in wild-type pigs did not express endogenous HNF1α and HNF1β, indicating that mutant HNF1α did not directly contribute to glomerular nodular formation in diabetic pigs. In conclusion, pigs harboring the dominant-negative mutant human MODY3 gene showed reproducible and distinct glomerular nodules, possibly due to AGE- and CML-based collagen accumulation. Although the pathology differed in several respects from that of human glomerular nodular lesions, the

  14. Mimics of scleroderma

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    Kaveri K Nalianda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is a rare autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterised typically by tightening and tethering of skin. However, several other disorders are also characterised by hardening and thickening of skin. These mimics can be potentially confused with systemic sclerosis, leading to a misdiagnosis. This review describes the aetiopathogenesis, clinical features and treatment of Morphea (localised scleroderma, Scleredema, Scleromyxoedema, Eosinophilic fasciitis, Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis, Diabetic Cheiroarthropathy, chronic GVHD, POEMS syndrome and drug induced scleroderma like illness. A careful and thorough clinical assessment is essential in order to differentiate these mimics from each other and from systemic sclerosis, establish the diagnosis, and initiate appropriate treatment.

  15. AIDS-Related Endemic Mycoses in Western Cape, South Africa, and Clinical Mimics: A Cross-Sectional Study of Adults With Advanced HIV and Recent-Onset, Widespread Skin Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris; Lehloenya, Rannakoe; Claasens, Saskya; Spengane, Zandile; Prozesky, Hans; Burton, Rosie; Parker, Arifa; Wasserman, Sean; Meintjes, Graeme; Mendelson, Marc; Taljaard, Jantjie; Schneider, Johann W; Beylis, Natalie; Maloba, Bonnie; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Dlamini, Sipho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Skin lesions are common in advanced HIV infection and are sometimes caused by serious diseases like systemic mycoses (SM). AIDS-related SM endemic to Western Cape, South Africa, include emergomycosis (formerly disseminated emmonsiosis), histoplasmosis, and sporotrichosis. We previously reported that 95% of patients with AIDS-related emergomycosis had skin lesions, although these were frequently overlooked or misdiagnosed clinically. Prospective studies are needed to characterize skin lesions of SM in South Africa and to help distinguish these from common HIV-related dermatoses. Methods We prospectively enrolled HIV-infected adult patients living in Western Cape, South Africa, with CD4 counts ≤100 cells/μL and widespread skin lesions present ≤6 months that were deemed clinically compatible with SM. We obtained skin biopsies for histopathology and fungal culture and collected epidemiological and clinical data. Results Of 34 patients enrolled and in whom a diagnosis could be made, 25 had proven SM: 14 had emergomycosis, and 3 each had histoplasmosis and sporotrichosis; for 5 additional patients, the fungal species could not be identified. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) had been initiated in the preceding 4 weeks for 11/25 (44%) patients with SM (vs no patients without SM). Plaques and scale crust occurred more frequently in patients with SM (96% vs 25%, P = .0002; and 67% vs 13%, P = .01, respectively). Conclusions Recent ART initiation and presence of plaques or scale crust should make clinicians consider SM in patients with advanced HIV infection in this geographic area. Clinical overlap between SM and other dermatoses makes early skin biopsy critical for timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:29164168

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-04-03

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS.

  17. Enzyme Mimics: Advances and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuah, Evelyn; Toh, Seraphina; Yee, Jessica; Ma, Qian; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-13

    Enzyme mimics or artificial enzymes are a class of catalysts that have been actively pursued for decades and have heralded much interest as potentially viable alternatives to natural enzymes. Aside from having catalytic activities similar to their natural counterparts, enzyme mimics have the desired advantages of tunable structures and catalytic efficiencies, excellent tolerance to experimental conditions, lower cost, and purely synthetic routes to their preparation. Although still in the midst of development, impressive advances have already been made. Enzyme mimics have shown immense potential in the catalysis of a wide range of chemical and biological reactions, the development of chemical and biological sensing and anti-biofouling systems, and the production of pharmaceuticals and clean fuels. This Review concerns the development of various types of enzyme mimics, namely polymeric and dendrimeric, supramolecular, nanoparticulate and proteinic enzyme mimics, with an emphasis on their synthesis, catalytic properties and technical applications. It provides an introduction to enzyme mimics and a comprehensive summary of the advances and current standings of their applications, and seeks to inspire researchers to perfect the design and synthesis of enzyme mimics and to tailor their functionality for a much wider range of applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Reexpression of Prior Stroke Symptoms in Adults: When is a Mimic a Mimic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, James E; George, Alexander J; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2017-09-01

    A "stroke mimic" refers to any clinical condition that causes neurological symptoms clinically indistinguishable from a cerebral lesion that affects a vascular distribution, but is not caused by ischemia. One subtype of stroke mimic, termed stroke reexpression, is a form of mimicry in which previously recovered or improved stroke symptoms recur in the setting of a neurological disturbance (seizure, hypoperfusion state) or a systemic disturbance (toxic, metabolic, infectious). Many reports of stroke reexpression exist in the literature and are well known to clinicians, but there has been no consensus regarding terminology that has been published to date. The purpose of this review is to summarize several examples of stroke reexpression and propose simple, useful criteria for this clinical condition.

  19. Branchial cleft anomalies and their mimics: computed tomographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnsberger, H.R.; Mancuso, A.A.; Muraki, A.S.; Byrd, S.E.; Dillon, W.P.; Johnson, L.P.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    A review was made of the clinical records and radiographic examinations of 38 patients with neck lesions clinically suspected of being branchial cleft anomalies. The impact of computed tomography in this sometimes confusing clinical picture was assessed and CT criteria for diagnosing branchial cleft anomalies (BCAs) and differentiating them from their mimics were identified. Seventeen branchial cleft anomalies and 21 BCA mimics were evaluated. A definitive CT diagnosis of second branchial cleft cysts based on characteristic morphology, location, and displacement of surrounding structures was possible in 80% of cases. CT was found to be the best radiographic examination in making a definitive diagnosis of BCA if a neck mass was present

  20. Mimic of OSU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hong; Miller, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Ohio State University research reactor (OSURR) is undergoing improvements in its research and educational capabilities. A computer-based digital data acquisition system, including a reactor system mimic, will be installed as part of these improvements. The system will monitor the reactor system parameters available to the reactor operator either in digital parameters available to the reactor operator either in digital or analog form. The system includes two computers. All the signals are sent to computer 1, which processes the data and sends the data through a serial port to computer 2 with a video graphics array VGA monitor, which is utilized to display the mimic system of the reactor

  1. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  2. Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma as a Potentially Important Stroke Mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsu Akimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemiparesis develops in response to a wide range of neurological disorders, such as stroke, neoplasms and several inflammatory processes. Occasionally, it may also occur due to a lesion located in the high cervical spinal cord. In this concise review, we describe the features of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma, which should be included in the large list of stroke mimics. Various concerns regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic conundrums relating to the condition are also discussed.

  3. Live Cell Imaging Reveals Differential Modifications to Cytoplasmic Dynein Properties by Phospho- and Dephospho-mimic Mutations of the Intermediate Chain 2C S84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasier, Kiev R.; Humsi, Michael K.; Ha, Junghoon; Ross, Mitchell W.; Smiley, W. Russell; Inamdar, Nirja A.; Mitchell, David J.; Lo, Kevin W.-H.; Pfister, K. Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a multi-subunit motor protein responsible for intracellular cargo transport toward microtubule minus ends. There are multiple isoforms of the dynein intermediate chain (DYNC1I, IC) which is encoded by two genes. One way to regulate cytoplasmic dynein is by IC phosphorylation. The IC-2C isoform is expressed in all cells and the functional significance of phosphorylation on IC-2C serine 84 was investigated using live cell imaging of fluorescent protein-tagged wild type IC-2C (WT) and phospho- and dephospho-mimic mutant isoforms in axonal transport model systems. Both mutations modulated dynein functional properties. The dephospho-mimic mutant IC-2C S84A had greater co-localization with mitochondria than IC-2C wild-type (WT) or the phospho-mimic mutant IC-2C S84D. The dephospho-mimic mutant IC-2C S84A was also more likely to be motile than the phospho-mimic mutant IC-2C S84D or IC-2C WT. In contrast, the phospho-mimic mutant IC-2C S84D mutant was more likely to move in the retrograde direction than was the IC-2C S84A mutant. The phospho-mimic IC-2C S84D was also as likely as IC-2C WT to co-localize with mitochondria. Both the S84D phospho- and S84A, dephospho-mimic mutants were found to be capable of microtubule minus end directed (retrograde) movement in axons. They were also observed to be passively transported in the anterograde direction. These data suggest that the IC-2C S84 has a role in modulating dynein properties. PMID:24798412

  4. Synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Abhigyan; Vemparala, Satyavani; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Tew, Gregory N

    2008-01-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance are now considered the most imperative global healthcare problem. In the search for new treatments, host defense, or antimicrobial, peptides have attracted considerable attention due to their various unique properties; however, attempts to develop in vivo therapies have been severely limited. Efforts to develop synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs) have increased significantly in the last decade, and this review will focus primarily on the structural evolution of SMAMPs and their membrane activity. This review will attempt to make a bridge between the design of SMAMPs and the fundamentals of SMAMP-membrane interactions. In discussions regarding the membrane interaction of SMAMPs, close attention will be paid to the lipid composition of the bilayer. Despite many years of study, the exact conformational aspects responsible for the high selectivity of these AMPs and SMAMPs toward bacterial cells over mammalian cells are still not fully understood. The ability to design SMAMPs that are potently antimicrobial, yet nontoxic to mammalian cells has been demonstrated with a variety of molecular scaffolds. Initial animal studies show very good tissue distribution along with more than a 4-log reduction in bacterial counts. The results on SMAMPs are not only extremely promising for novel antibiotics, but also provide an optimistic picture for the greater challenge of general proteomimetics.

  5. Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careers Inclusion & Diversity Work-Life Balance Career Resources Apply for a Job Postdocs Students Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Releases - 2016 » April » Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function Tiny plastic lung mimics

  6. Exaggerated Arthropod Bite: A Case Report and Review of the Mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagah Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Exaggerated arthropod bite reactions causing hemorrhagic or necrotic bullous lesions can mimic other serious conditions such as cutaneous anthrax, brown recluse spider bite, and tularemia. A 55- year-old, healthy woman presented to the emergency department with a 3.5-centimeter painless, collapsed hemorrhagic bulla at the left costal margin. She was afebrile and had no systemic symptoms. Laboratory evaluation was unremarkable. She was prescribed silver sulfadiazine cream and mupirocin ointment. The area denuded two days later and the lesion completely healed. This case illustrates the broad differential to be considered when evaluating patients with hemorrhagic bullous lesions.

  7. Localized lesions in secondary syphillis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasid, N.; Syphilis, S.

    2008-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis are variable and can mimic many skin diseases, mostly being generalized and symmetrical in distribution. Localized lesions of secondary syphilis are rarely seen in dermatology clinics. We report an unusual presentation wherein a patient had localized lesions over face and soles only. There is a need for increased awareness on the part of physicians to recognize new patterns of syphilitic infection, together with a willingness to consider the diagnosis of syphilis in patients with unusual clinical features. (author)

  8. Carbocyclic Carbohydrate Mimics as Potential Glycosidase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge

    It has been proven that aminocyclopentanols having the aminogroup adjacent to a carbon sidechain could be potential anomer-selective glycosidase inhibitors [1]. A successful pathway for synthesising mimics to L-carbohydrates 2, by introducing nitrogen to the C6 position in compound 1, has been...... developed in our group. A similar strategy has been used for synthesising mimics of D-carbohydrates. The α,β-unsaturated lactone 3 was cyclised to compound 4 which was further transformed into 5. The nitrogen functionality in compound 7 is introduced by an Overman rearrangement of 6 and the hydroxyl...... functionalities was introduced by either epoxidation or dihydroxylation of 7. Finally, reduction of the lactone ring led to the sugar mimics 8. The synthesis of several isomers of 8 will be presented. [1] a) Kleban, M. ; Hilgers, P. ; Greul, J.N. ; Kugler, R.D. ; Li, J. ; Picasso, S. ; Vogel, P. ; Jäger, V. Chem...

  9. Colonoscopic tattoo dye spillage mimics endometriosis on laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmer, Shlomo M; Shurshalina, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Rare adverse effects of India ink injection spillage during colonoscopy have been reported. We present a case report in which prior colonoscopic India ink tattooing was found to mimic intraperitoneal endometriosis in a 48 year-old woman undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Multiple black lesions suspicious for endometriosis involving the anterior and posterior cul-de-sac, left ovary, and omentum were found. A pathological assessment showed peritoneal tissue with focal dark pigment associated with mild chronic inflammation and deposition of tattoo pigment; there was no evidence of endometriosis in the specimens. Surgical recognition of tattoo ink spillage in the peritoneum is very important to prevent misinterpretation of peritoneal findings. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enzyme-Triggered Defined Protein Nanoarrays: Efficient Light-Harvesting Systems to Mimic Chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linlu; Zou, Haoyang; Zhang, Hao; Sun, Hongcheng; Wang, Tingting; Pan, Tiezheng; Li, Xiumei; Bai, Yushi; Qiao, Shanpeng; Luo, Quan; Xu, Jiayun; Hou, Chunxi; Liu, Junqiu

    2017-01-24

    The elegance and efficiency by which chloroplasts harvest solar energy and conduct energy transfer have been a source of inspiration for chemists to mimic such process. However, precise manipulation to obtain orderly arranged antenna chromophores in constructing artificial chloroplast mimics was a great challenge, especially from the structural similarity and bioaffinity standpoints. Here we reported a design strategy that combined covalent and noncovalent interactions to prepare a protein-based light-harvesting system to mimic chloroplasts. Cricoid stable protein one (SP1) was utilized as a building block model. Under enzyme-triggered covalent protein assembly, mutant SP1 with tyrosine (Tyr) residues at the designated sites can couple together to form nanostructures. Through controlling the Tyr sites on the protein surface, we can manipulate the assembly orientation to respectively generate 1D nanotubes and 2D nanosheets. The excellent stability endowed the self-assembled protein architectures with promising applications. We further integrated quantum dots (QDs) possessing optical and electronic properties with the 2D nanosheets to fabricate chloroplast mimics. By attaching different sized QDs as donor and acceptor chromophores to the negatively charged surface of SP1-based protein nanosheets via electrostatic interactions, we successfully developed an artificial light-harvesting system. The assembled protein nanosheets structurally resembled the natural thylakoids, and the QDs can achieve pronounced FRET phenomenon just like the chlorophylls. Therefore, the coassembled system was meaningful to explore the photosynthetic process in vitro, as it was designed to mimic the natural chloroplast.

  11. Mutants of Cercospora kikuchii altered in cercosporin synthesis and pathogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upchurch, R.G.; Walker, D.C.; Rollins, J.A.; Ehrenshaft, M.; Daub, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have obtained spontaneous and UV-induced stable mutants, altered in the synthesis of cercosporin, of the fungal soybean pathogen Cercospora kikuchii. The mutants were isolated on the basis of colony color on minimal medium. The UV-induced mutants accumulated, at most, 2% of wild-type cercosporin levels on all media tested. In contrast, cercosporin accumulation by the spontaneous mutants was strongly medium regulated, occurring only on potato dextrose medium but at concentrations comparable to those produced by the wild-type strain. UV-induced mutants unable to synthesize cercosporin on any medium were unable to incite lesions when inoculated onto the soybean host. Cercosporin was reproducibly isolated from all inoculated leaves showing lesions. Although cercosporin involvement in disease has been indirectly suggested by many previous studies, this is the first report in which mutants blocked in cercosporin synthesis have been used to demonstrate that cercosporin is a crucial pathogenicity factor for this fungal genus

  12. MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…

  13. Explosives mimic for testing, training, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John G.; Durban, Matthew M.; Gash, Alexander E.; Grapes, Michael D.; Kelley, Ryan S.; Sullivan, Kyle T.

    2018-02-13

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is used to make mimics for explosives. The process uses mixtures of explosives and matrices commonly used in AM. The explosives are formulated into a mixture with the matrix and printed using AM techniques and equipment. The explosive concentrations are kept less than 10% by wt. of the mixture to conform to requirements of shipping and handling.

  14. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  15. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  16. MiMIC: a highly versatile transposon insertion resource for engineering Drosophila melanogaster genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venken, Koen J. T.; Schulze, Karen L.; Haelterman, Nele A.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Evans-Holm, Martha; Carlson, Joseph W.; Levis, Robert W.; Spradling, Allan C.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the versatility of a collection of insertions of the transposon Minos mediated integration cassette (MiMIC), in Drosophila melanogaster. MiMIC contains a gene-trap cassette and the yellow+ marker flanked by two inverted bacteriophage ΦC31 attP sites. MiMIC integrates almost at random in the genome to create sites for DNA manipulation. The attP sites allow the replacement of the intervening sequence of the transposon with any other sequence through recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). We can revert insertions that function as gene traps and cause mutant phenotypes to wild type by RMCE and modify insertions to control GAL4 or QF overexpression systems or perform lineage analysis using the Flp system. Insertions within coding introns can be exchanged with protein-tag cassettes to create fusion proteins to follow protein expression and perform biochemical experiments. The applications of MiMIC vastly extend the Drosophila melanogaster toolkit. PMID:21985007

  17. In vivo preclinical evaluation of the accuracy of toroidal-shaped HIFU treatments using a tumor-mimic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Djin, W A; Melodelima, D; Parmentier, H; Chapelon, J Y; Rivoire, M

    2010-01-01

    The pig is an ideal animal model for preclinical evaluation of HIFU treatments, especially in the liver. However, there is no liver tumor model available for pigs. In this work, we propose to study an in vivo tumor-mimic model as a tool for evaluating if a sonographycally guided HIFU treatment, delivered by a toroidal-shaped device dedicated for the treatment of liver metastases, is correctly located in the liver. One centimeter tumor-mimics were created in liver tissues. These tumor-mimics were detectable on ultrasound imaging and on gross pathology. Two studies were carried out. First, an in vivo study of tolerance at mid-term (30 days, 10 pigs) revealed that tumor-mimics are suitable for studying HIFU treatments at a preclinical stage, since local and biological tolerances were excellent. The dimensions of the tumor-mimics were reproducible (diameter at day 0: 9.7 ± 2.0 mm) and were the same as a function of time (p = 0.64). A second in vivo study was carried out in ten pigs. Tumor mimics were used as targets in liver tissues in order to determine if the HIFU treatment is correctly located in the liver. A procedure of extensive HIFU ablation using multiple HIFU lesions juxtaposed manually was then tested on eight tumor-mimics. In 88% of the cases (seven out of eight), tumor-mimics were treated with negative margins (≥1 mm) in all directions. On average, negative margins measured 10.0 ± 6.7 mm. These tumor-mimics constitute an excellent reference for studying in vivo the accuracy of HIFU therapy in the liver.

  18. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Methyl Silanediol Peptide Mimics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone; Lindsay, Karl; Faber, Jesper

    2007-01-01

     The treatment of chiral sulfinimines with (methyldiphenylsilyl)lithium gives R-(methyldiphenylsilyl)-sulfinamides with excellent diastereoselectivity, and in good yield. The presence of α-protons on the imines is also well tolerated. The sulfinamide auxiliary is easily removed via treatment with...... corresponding bis-TMS siloxane via protection with TMSCl, and converted back to the desired silanediol via hydrolysis with aqueous KOH. Efforts to apply this approach to biologically relevant silanediol peptide mimics, with a view to protease inhibition, are described....

  19. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  20. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  1. DNA mimic proteins: functions, structures, and bioinformatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Ching; Ho, Chun-Han; Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Yang, Jinn-Moon; Wang, Andrew H-J

    2014-05-13

    DNA mimic proteins have DNA-like negative surface charge distributions, and they function by occupying the DNA binding sites of DNA binding proteins to prevent these sites from being accessed by DNA. DNA mimic proteins control the activities of a variety of DNA binding proteins and are involved in a wide range of cellular mechanisms such as chromatin assembly, DNA repair, transcription regulation, and gene recombination. However, the sequences and structures of DNA mimic proteins are diverse, making them difficult to predict by bioinformatic search. To date, only a few DNA mimic proteins have been reported. These DNA mimics were not found by searching for functional motifs in their sequences but were revealed only by structural analysis of their charge distribution. This review highlights the biological roles and structures of 16 reported DNA mimic proteins. We also discuss approaches that might be used to discover new DNA mimic proteins.

  2. Cartilage Calcification Mimics Polychondritis in Bone Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Atilgan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 58 year-old male patient with sternal pain was referred to our Nuclear Medicine Clinic for bone scintigraphy for 2.5 months. Markedly increased activity accumulation in the first bilateral sternocostal junction and increased activity accumulations in 3rd, 4th, 5th sternocostal junctions and lateral portion of inferior part of corpus sterni were seen in late static images without increased perfusion and hyperemia. Soft tissue density and lytic lesions were seen bilaterally in bilateral first costa, sternocostal joints and in right side of xiphoid in his 3D computed tomography (CT. Sternocostal lesions that were seen in bone scintigraphy and CT, was reported as normal in biopsy.

  3. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Gompertz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases.

  4. Mycosis Fungoides mimic chronic eczema? Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Andruszkiewicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycosis fungoides (MF is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma [1]. Because of its great variety of clinical features and nonspecific histological findings (especially in early stages has been named the "great imitator "and can induce many wrong diagnosis [2,3]. Mycosis fungoides (MF, is an epidermotropic lymphoma included as an indolent form in the recent WHO/EORTC classification. From a clinical point of view, the classic disease progression usually is slow and takes over years or even decades, and characterized by the evolution from patches to more infiltrated plaques and eventually to tumours or erythroderma. However, the analysis of the MF disease course has been greatly impaired by the rarity of the disease, thus data about the time course of disease progression and pattern of relapse during time are not well known [4,5]. Therefore very often Mycosis fungoides is misdiagnosed as chronic eczema [6]. MF can also mimic: vitiligo [6], alopecia-Areata [7], ecchymosis [8].

  5. Radiographic diagnosis of an expansile bone lesion in a dog [osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, C.R.; Berg, J.; Schelling, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    An old dog had an expansile lesion affecting the ulnar diaphysis. The lesion had clinical and radiographic features typical of a bone cyst; however, computed X-ray tomography indicated that the lesion had a tissue content incompatible with a true cyst. The histological diagnosis was osteosarcoma. This report emphasises the highly variable radiological appearance of canine osteosarcoma; biopsy is required to establish the diagnosis because the radiological signs may mimic a lesion of different aetiology

  6. Productive mutants of niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of six niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) varieties ('GA-10', 'ONS-8', 'IGP-72', 'N-71', 'NB-9' and 'UN-4') were treated with 0.5, 0.75 and 1% ethyl methanesulphonate. After four generations of selection, 29 mutant lines were developed and those were evaluated from 1990-92 during Kharif (July to October) and Rabi (December to March) seasons. Average plant characteristics and yield data of four high yielding mutants along with 'IGP-76' (National Check), GA-10 (Zonal Check) and 'Semiliguda Local' (Local Check) are presented

  7. Mimic sensor to monitor condition of human health; Mimic sensor wo riyoshita taicho monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Y. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    In the aging society where the birth rate decreases and the number of nuclear families increases, it is very important to inquire after the aged or physically handicapped people, to monitor their physical conditions, and to take steps to keep them healthy. As for the in-home physical measurement for the aged or physically handicapped people and the work of health management for them based on such measurement, it is feared that under the present conditions the invalid themselves or their family members or nurses will inevitably have to bear the burden and that nobody can deny the difficulty of continuing such nursing care. If daily physical condition measurement and related data collection are automatically carried out, however, interested people' burden will lessen and in-home heath management will become actually feasible. In this paper, a mimic sensor for realizing such a situation is described, which will measure physical conditions without interfering with the daily life of interested people. Serving as the mimic sensor is a blood flow sensor embedded in a telephone receiver, and changes in the blood flow during telephone conversation and changes in the gaps between peeks will be monitored. The feasibility is shown of continual collection of information necessary for the measurement of physical conditions of the aged or physically handicapped persons. (NEDO)

  8. Surgically Confirmed Intra- and Extratesticular Hematoma Clinically Mimicing Epididymo-Orchitis and Radiologically Mimicing Traumatic Torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akay, Sinan; Kaygisiz, Mustafa; Oztas, Muharrem; Turgut, Mustafa Suphi

    2015-01-01

    Scrotal blunt trauma may result in injuries, such as testicular rupture, dislocation, torsion, hematoma, spermatic cord injury or contusion, and epididymal, scrotal, and urethral injuries. Ultrasonography (US) has a crucial role in the evaluation of those kinds of pathologies. Early diagnosis of testicular rupture may lead to the salvaging of the testicle by prompt surgical exploration within 72 h. A 21-year-old male with right scrotal swelling and pain complaints was admitted to another hospital one month ago. Epididymo-orchitis was diagnosed and the patient was given medical treatment. The patient was admitted to our emergency service with ongoing complaints. The patient stated that the pain and swelling suddenly developed after prolonged marching. On US, a large hematoma was detected between the leaves of the tunica vaginalis, and rupture from the lower pole was diagnosed. On color Doppler US, no vascularity was observed in the heterogeneous testicular parenchyma. Traumatic torsion was primarily suggested. Intraoperatively, an extratesticular hematoma, hematocele, and rupture were confirmed but torsion was not found. Because the hematoma entirely replaced the normal parenchyma, orchiectomy was performed. Testicular rupture may occur even after moderate sportive action such as prolonged marching. If any delay occurs in diagnosis and/or operation, the coagulum may replace the entire parenchyma. We think that US and clinical findings may sometimes mislead the physicians and cause misdiagnoses, such as inflammation or torsion. In this paper, we present a complex delayed diagnosed example case of testicular rupture clinically mimicing epididymo-orchitis and radiologically mimicing traumatic testicular torsion

  9. Modern moulage: evaluating the use of 3-dimensional prosthetic mimics in a dermatology teaching program for second-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Haley, Heather-Lyn; Hatem, David

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a teaching method that uses 3-dimensional (3D) silicone-based prosthetic mimics of common serious lesions and eruptions and to compare learning outcomes with those achieved through the conventional method of lectures with 2-dimensional (2D) images. Prospective and comparative. University of Massachusetts Medical School. Ninety second-year medical students. A 1-hour teaching intervention using a lecture with 2D images (2D group) or using 3D prosthetic mimics of lesions and eruptions (3D group). Mean scores in the domains of morphology, lesion and rash recognition, lesion and rash management, and overall performance assessed at baseline, immediately after, and 3 months after each group's respective teaching intervention. Immediately after the teaching intervention, the 3D group had significantly higher mean percentage scores than did the 2D group for overall performance (71 vs 65, P = .03), lesion recognition (65 vs 56, P = .02), and rash management (80 vs 67, P = .01). Three months later, the 3D group still had significantly higher mean percentage scores than did the 2D group for lesion recognition (47 vs 40, P = .03). The 3D group better recognized lesions at 3 months compared with at baseline, whereas the 2D group was no better at recognizing lesions at 3 months compared with at baseline. Despite limited curricular time, the novel teaching method using 3D prosthetic mimics of lesions and eruptions improves immediate and long-term learning outcomes, in particular, lesion recognition. It is also a preferred teaching format among second-year medical students.

  10. Stroke mimic diagnoses presenting to a hyperacute stroke unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ang; Cloud, Geoffrey C; Pereira, Anthony C; Moynihan, Barry J

    2016-10-01

    Stroke services have been centralised in several countries in recent years. Diagnosing acute stroke is challenging and a high proportion of patients admitted to stroke units are diagnosed as a non-stroke condition (stroke mimics). This study aims to describe the stroke mimic patient group, including their impact on stroke services. We analysed routine clinical data from 2,305 consecutive admissions to a stroke unit at St George's Hospital, London. Mimic groupings were derived from 335 individual codes into 17 groupings. From 2,305 admissions, 555 stroke mimic diagnoses were identified (24.2%) and 72% of stroke mimics had at least one stroke risk factor. Common mimic diagnoses were headache, seizure and syncope. Medically unexplained symptoms and decompensation of underlying conditions were also common. Median length of stay was 1 day; a diagnosis of dementia (p=0.028) or needing MRI (p=0.006) was associated with a longer stay. Despite emergency department assessment by specialist clinicians and computed tomography brain, one in four suspected stroke patients admitted to hospital had a non-stroke diagnosis. Stroke mimics represent a heterogeneous patient group with significant impacts on stroke services. Co-location of stroke and acute neurology services may offer advantages where service reorganisation is being considered. © Royal College of Physicians 2016. All rights reserved.

  11. Connexin mutants and cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Beyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lens is a multicellular, but avascular tissue that must stay transparent to allow normal transmission of light and focusing of it on the retina. Damage to lens cells and/or proteins can cause cataracts, opacities that disrupt these processes. The normal survival of the lens is facilitated by an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly of connexin46 and connexin50. Mutations of the genes that encode these connexins (GJA3 and GJA8 have been identified and linked to inheritance of cataracts in human families and mouse lines. In vitro expression studies of several of these mutants have shown that they exhibit abnormalities that may lead to disease. Many of the mutants reduce or modify intercellular communication due to channel alterations (including loss of function or altered gating or due to impaired cellular trafficking which reduces the number of gap junction channels within the plasma membrane. However, the abnormalities detected in studies of other mutants suggest that they cause cataracts through other mechanisms including gain of hemichannel function (leading to cell injury and death and formation of cytoplasmic accumulations (that may act as light scattering particles. These observations and the anticipated results of ongoing studies should elucidate the mechanisms of cataract development due to mutations of lens connexins and abnormalities of other lens proteins. They may also contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease due to connexin mutations in other tissues.

  12. Membrane-Mimic Nanoparticles for Drug and Gene Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod

    2017-01-01

    -mimic nanoparticles are considered highly attractive materials for in vivo and in vitro applications. Synthetic membrane vesicles (liposomes) and nanoconstructs built with native cancer cellular membrane are excellent scaffolds to improve cellular delivery. Liposomes

  13. Glutathione transferase mimics : Micellar catalysis of an enzymic reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindkvist, Björn; Weinander, Rolf; Engman, Lars; Koetse, Marc; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Morgenstern, Ralf

    1997-01-01

    Substances that mimic the enzyme action of glutathione transferases (which serve in detoxification) are described. These micellar catalysts enhance the reaction rate between thiols and activated halogenated nitroarenes as well as alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls. The nucleophilic aromatic

  14. Decontamination Of Bacterial Spores by a Peptide-Mimic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagarajan, R; Muller, Wayne S; Ashley, Rebekah; Mello, Charlene M

    2006-01-01

    .... In this work, we demonstrate that a peptide-mimic (cationic, amphiphilic) chemical agent, dodecylamine is capable of performing the dual functions of germinating the dormant spore as well as deactivating...

  15. Process mining in oncology using the MIMIC-III dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima Kurniati, Angelina; Hall, Geoff; Hogg, David; Johnson, Owen

    2018-03-01

    Process mining is a data analytics approach to discover and analyse process models based on the real activities captured in information systems. There is a growing body of literature on process mining in healthcare, including oncology, the study of cancer. In earlier work we found 37 peer-reviewed papers describing process mining research in oncology with a regular complaint being the limited availability and accessibility of datasets with suitable information for process mining. Publicly available datasets are one option and this paper describes the potential to use MIMIC-III, for process mining in oncology. MIMIC-III is a large open access dataset of de-identified patient records. There are 134 publications listed as using the MIMIC dataset, but none of them have used process mining. The MIMIC-III dataset has 16 event tables which are potentially useful for process mining and this paper demonstrates the opportunities to use MIMIC-III for process mining in oncology. Our research applied the L* lifecycle method to provide a worked example showing how process mining can be used to analyse cancer pathways. The results and data quality limitations are discussed along with opportunities for further work and reflection on the value of MIMIC-III for reproducible process mining research.

  16. Validating the TeleStroke Mimic Score: A Prediction Rule for Identifying Stroke Mimics Evaluated Over Telestroke Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed F; Hubert, Gordian J; Switzer, Jeffrey A; Majersik, Jennifer J; Backhaus, Roland; Shepard, L Wylie; Vedala, Kishore; Schwamm, Lee H

    2018-03-01

    Up to 30% of acute stroke evaluations are deemed stroke mimics, and these are common in telestroke as well. We recently published a risk prediction score for use during telestroke encounters to differentiate stroke mimics from ischemic cerebrovascular disease derived and validated in the Partners TeleStroke Network. Using data from 3 distinct US and European telestroke networks, we sought to externally validate the TeleStroke Mimic (TM) score in a broader population. We evaluated the TM score in 1930 telestroke consults from the University of Utah, Georgia Regents University, and the German TeleMedical Project for Integrative Stroke Care Network. We report the area under the curve in receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis with 95% confidence interval for our previously derived TM score in which lower TM scores correspond with a higher likelihood of being a stroke mimic. Based on final diagnosis at the end of the telestroke consultation, there were 630 of 1930 (32.6%) stroke mimics in the external validation cohort. All 6 variables included in the score were significantly different between patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease versus stroke mimics. The TM score performed well (area under curve, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.73; P mimic during telestroke consultation in these diverse cohorts was similar to its performance in our original cohort. Predictive decision-support tools like the TM score may help highlight key clinical differences between mimics and patients with stroke during complex, time-critical telestroke evaluations. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Identification of stroke mimics among clinically diagnosed acute strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiyatorn, Lojana; Saksornchai, Pichaya; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch

    2013-09-01

    Stroke is a clinically syndrome of a sudden onset of neurological deficit in a vascular cause. Stroke mimics is the non-vascular disorders with stroke-like clinical symptoms. It is important to distinguish true stroke from mimics since treatment plan may differ To determine the incidence of the stroke mimics and identify their etiologies. All non-contrast head CT of the patients with clinically diagnosed stroke who immediately received imaging upon arrival at the emergency department of the university hospital were retrospectively reviewed in 12-month period between January 1 and December 31, 2008. Medical records, laboratory results, MRI, and 6-month clinical follow-up records were reviewed for final diagnosis. Seven hundred four patients were included in this study, including 363 (51.5%) men and 341 (48.5%) women with range in age from 24 to 108 years. Amongst those, 417 (59.2%) were ischemic stroke, 80 (11.40%) were hemorrhagic stroke, 186 (26.4%) were stroke-mimics, and 21 (3%) were inconclusive. The etiologies among stroke-mimics were metabolic/intoxication (35, 18.8%), sepsis (28, 15.0%), seizure (21, 11.3%), syncope (20, 10.8%), subdural hemorrhage (14, 7.5%), vertigo (11, 6.0%), brain tumor (10, 5.30%), central nervous system infection (5, 2.7%), others (26, 14.0%), and unspecified (16, 8.6%). Incidence rates and etiologies of the stroke mimics were similar to the western reports. However the frequency of each mimic was not.

  18. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C.Z.; Yee, J.; Mitchell, D.L.; Britt, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  19. Construindo Marcas Mutantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete De Azevedo Kreutz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é o resultado de estudos realizados desde 2000 e busca instrumentalizar os proñssionals para a construção de Marcas Mutantes, que é   uma tendência contemporânea nas estratégias comunicacionais e de branding. Embora esta estratégia ainda não esteja consolidada, observamos que a mesma tem obtido um crescimento constante e tem sido adotadas pelas mais diferentes categorias de marcas e não apenas por aquelas direcionadas aos jovens, ao esporte, ao entretenimento, como era no principia. Com base na Hermenêutica de Profundidade de Thompson (1995, alicerçada nas pesquisas bibliográficas, de intemet, entrevistas e análise semiótica, desenhamos um método de construção de Marcas Mutantes dividido em sete fases. Como resultado, esperamos que este estudo possa auxiliar na compreensão dos processos envolvidos, ao mesmo tempo que provoque a discussão sobreo mesmo e, por consequência, o seu aprimoramento.

  20. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Parathyroid Carcinoma Mimic Hürthle Cell Thyroid Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutintorn Sriphrapradang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA can cause misdiagnosis of cytomorphological findings between parathyroid and thyroid lesions. Case Presentation. A 31-year-old man presented with a palpable neck mass on the right thyroid lobe. FNA cytology was reported as intrathyroidal lymphoid hyperplasia. After 5 years, repeated FNA was done on the enlarged nodule with result of Hürthle cell lesion. Prior to right lobectomy, laboratories revealed elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH. Careful history taking revealed chronic knee pain and ossifying fibroma at the maxilla. Ultrasonography showed a 2.8 cm mass inferior to right thyroid lobe. Pathology from en bloc resection was parathyroid carcinoma and immunohistochemical study revealed positivity for PTH. Genetic analysis found somatic mutation of CDC73 gene in exon1 (c.70delG which caused premature stop codon in amino acid 26 (p.Glu24Lysfs2*. The final diagnosis was hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Conclusions. FNA cytology of parathyroid can mimic thyroid lesion. It is important to consider and correlate the entire information from clinical history, laboratory, imaging, and FNA.

  1. Intratemporal facial nerve neuromas and their mimics: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Kyung Hwan; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chong Sun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Joon [Chungang Gil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    CT and MR findings of nine cases with intra temporal facial nerve neuromas were described and compared with CT findings of 3 cases with facial nerve palsy and facial nerve canal erosion which may mimic facial nerve neuroma. The tympanic segment of the facial nerve was involved in 8 cases, mastoid segment in 7 cases and labyrinthine segment in 5 cases. The lesions were easily diagnosed with high resolution CT with bone algorithms by showing the expansion of bony structures along the course of the facial nerves. In 4 cases with large vertical segment tumors, extensive destruction of mastoid air cells and external auditory canals posed difficulty in making a diagnosis. Two out of 5 cases with labyrinthine segment involvement were presented as middle cranial fossa masses. MRI with enhancement was performed in 4 cases and was useful in characterizing the lesion as a tumor with its superior sensitivity to enhancement. Three cases of facial neuroma-mimicking lesion including post-inflammatory peri neural thickening, peri neural extension from parotid adenoid cystic carcinoma, and congenita; cholesteatoma showed irregular erosion or mild expansion of the facial nerve canal which may be helpful for differential diagnosis from neuromas.

  2. A yeast mutant specifically sensitive to bifunctional alkylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhland, A.; Kircher, M.; Wilborn, F.; Brendel, M.

    1981-01-01

    A mutation that specifically confers sensitivity to bi- and tri-functional alkylating agents is presented. No or little cross-sensitivity to radiation or monofunctional agents could be detected. Sensitivity does not seem to be due to preferential alkylation of mutant DNA as parent and mutant strain exhibit the same amount of DNA alkylation and the same pattern of DNA lesions including interstrand crosslinks. The mutation is due to a defect in a nuclear gene which has been designated SNM1 (sensitive to nitrogen mustard); it may control an important step in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (orig.(AJ)

  3. Molecular mimics of the tumour antigen MUC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharappel C James

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the development of cancer immunotherapy is the identification of tumour-associated antigens that are differentially or exclusively expressed on the tumour and recognized by the host immune system. However, immune responses to such antigens are often muted or lacking due to the antigens being recognized as "self", and further complicated by the tumour environment and regulation of immune cells within. In an effort to circumvent the lack of immune responses to tumour antigens, we have devised a strategy to develop potential synthetic immunogens. The strategy, termed mirror image phage display, is based on the concept of molecular mimicry as demonstrated by the idiotype/anti-idiotype paradigm in the immune system. Here as 'proof of principle' we have selected molecular mimics of the well-characterised tumour associated antigen, the human mucin1 protein (MUC1 from two different peptide phage display libraries. The putative mimics were compared in structure and function to that of the native antigen. Our results demonstrate that several of the mimic peptides display T-cell stimulation activity in vitro when presented by matured dendritic cells. The mimic peptides and the native MUC1 antigenic epitopes can cross-stimulate T-cells. The data also indicate that sequence homology and/or chemical properties to the original epitope are not the sole determining factors for the observed immunostimulatory activity of the mimic peptides.

  4. UV and gamma-ray sensitivity of meiosis-deficient mutants in Podospora anserina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Two mutants, mei1 and mei2, were isolated by screening for deficiencies occurring in the meiotic process. The sensitivity of mei1 and mei2 mutant strains to UV irradiation showed a significant increase as compared with that of the wild-type stock, hwhereas the sensitivity to γ-rays remained unchanged. The double-mutant strains were no more sensitive than each single mutant. The data indicate that both mei1 and mei2 loci are probably involved in the same pathway of excision-repair of UV-induced lesions

  5. Lacrimal sac lymphoproliferative lesion: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma-González, I; Ruíz-García, L; Ceriotto, A; Corredor-Casas, S; Salcedo-Casillas, G

    2015-03-01

    The case is presented of a 51 year-old woman with a firm mass at the medial canthus of the right eye of five years onset. A low-grade lymphoproliferative lesion (reactive lymphoid hyperplasia) was diagnosed from an excisional biopsy Lacrimal sac tumors are rare, with a peak incidence in the fifth decade of life. The initial clinical features are epiphora and medial canthus swelling. As it mimics nasolacrimal duct obstruction, up to 40% of these tumors are misdiagnosed until undergoing surgery. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Venocentric lesions: an MRI marker of MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Quinn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest descriptions of MS, the venocentric characteristic of plaques was noted. Recently, numerous MRI studies have proposed this finding as a prospective biomarker for MS, which might aid in differentiating MS from other diseases with similar MRI findings. High field MRI studies have shown that penetrating veins can be detected in most MS lesions using T2* weighted or susceptibility weighted imaging. Future studies must address the feasibility of imaging such veins in a clinically practical context. The specificity of this biomarker has been studied only in a limited capacity. Results in microangiopathic lesions are conflicting, whereas asymptomatic white matter hyperintensities as well as lesions of NMO are less frequently venocentric compared to MS plaques. Prospective studies have shown that the presence of venocentric lesions at an early clinical presentation is highly predictive of future MS diagnosis. This is very promising, but work remains to be done to confirm or exclude lesions of common MS mimics, such as ADEM, as venocentric. A number of technical challenges must be addressed before the introduction of this technique as a complementary tool in current diagnostic procedures.

  7. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AI-Jibouri, A A.M.; Dham, K M [Department of Botany, Nuclear Research Centre, Baghdad (Iraq)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M{sub 11}) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  8. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  9. Neglected ruptured flexor carpi ulnaris tendon mimics a soft tissue tumor in the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Chi-Lun; Yen, Tze-Hsun; Wu, Lien-Chen; Huang, Yi-You; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2014-04-01

    A wrist mass is rarely caused by a ruptured tendon in the forearm. The common pathologies are ganglia, tendon tenosynovitis, and giant cell tumors of tendon sheaths. Less common causes are nerve sheath tumors, vascular lesions, or an accessory muscle belly. The authors investigated a case of neglected ruptured flexor carpi ulnaris tendon that mimics a mass in the wrist. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report in relevant literature. During investigation, the high-resolution musculoskeletal ultrasound suggested a soft tissue tumor or a ruptured flexor carpi ulnaris tendon. The magnetic resonance imaging scan indicated an accessory flexor carpi ulnaris muscle belly. The diagnosis of ruptured flexor carpi ulnaris tendon was confirmed by surgical exploration. This case indicates that ultrasound may be better suited than magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating a wrist mass for its accuracy, availability, and portability.

  10. A chilling sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis with altered steryl-ester metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugly, S.; McCourt, P.; Somerville, C.; Browse, J.; Patterson, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    A chilling-sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated and subjected to genetic, physiological, and biochemical analysis. The chilling-sensitive nature of the mutant line is due to a single recessive nuclear mutation at a locus designated chs1. In contrast to wild-type plants, which are not adversely affected by low temperatures, the chs1 mutant is killed by several days of exposure to temperatures below 18 degree C. Following exposure to chilling temperatures, the mutant displays two common symptoms of chilling injury - leaf chlorosis and electrolyte leakage. In these respects, the physiological response of the mutant to low temperatures mimics the response observed in some naturally occurring chilling sensitive species. The biochemical basis of chilling sensitivity was explored by examining the pattern of incorporation of 14 CO 2 into soluble metabolites and lipids in wild-type and mutant plants. The only difference observed between the mutant and wild type was that following low temperature treatment, the mutant accumulated 10-fold more radioactivity in a specific class of neutral lipids which were identified by a variety of criteria to be steryl-esters. The accumulation of radioactivity in the steryl-ester fraction occurs 24 hours before there is any visible evidence of chilling injury

  11. Synthesis of aminocyclopentanols: a-D-galacto configured sugar mimics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjstrup, Marie; Lundt, Inge

    2005-01-01

    Four aminocyclopentanols, as mimics of putative intermediates in hydrolysis of a-D-galactosides, have been synthesized through a number of stereoselective transformations, using the cis-fused cyclopentane-1,4-lactone (1R, 5S, 7R, 8R)-7,8-dihydroxy-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-3-one 1 as a chiral buildi...

  12. Gene-specific cell labeling using MiMIC transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnerer, Joshua P; Venken, Koen J T; Dierick, Herman A

    2015-04-30

    Binary expression systems such as GAL4/UAS, LexA/LexAop and QF/QUAS have greatly enhanced the power of Drosophila as a model organism by allowing spatio-temporal manipulation of gene function as well as cell and neural circuit function. Tissue-specific expression of these heterologous transcription factors relies on random transposon integration near enhancers or promoters that drive the binary transcription factor embedded in the transposon. Alternatively, gene-specific promoter elements are directly fused to the binary factor within the transposon followed by random or site-specific integration. However, such insertions do not consistently recapitulate endogenous expression. We used Minos-Mediated Integration Cassette (MiMIC) transposons to convert host loci into reliable gene-specific binary effectors. MiMIC transposons allow recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to modify the transposon content. We developed novel exchange cassettes to convert coding intronic MiMIC insertions into gene-specific binary factor protein-traps. In addition, we expanded the set of binary factor exchange cassettes available for non-coding intronic MiMIC insertions. We show that binary factor conversions of different insertions in the same locus have indistinguishable expression patterns, suggesting that they reliably reflect endogenous gene expression. We show the efficacy and broad applicability of these new tools by dissecting the cellular expression patterns of the Drosophila serotonin receptor gene family. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Non-linked inhibitory gene controls a disease mimicking mutant in rice [Oryza sativa L.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambhulkar, S.J.; Joshua, D.C.; Goswamy, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    A gamma ray induced disease mimicking mutant called luchai lesion was isolated in the rice variety White Luchai 112. The appearance of small light red lesions and their development continued from seedling to flowering. The lesions appeared gradually on older leaves and their uncontrolled spread eventually lead to leaf senescence. They resembled the disease spots caused by Magnaporthe grisea. However, pathological studies ruled out the possibility of pathogen mediated disease symptoms. Genetic studies revealed that lesions were governed by a dominant gene; however, their expression was suppressed in presence of a non-linked inhibitory gene. It is hypothesised that the plant cells of the mutant are able to sense inbuilt spontaneous signals leading to lesion development, but in presence of an inhibitory gene the signals are suppressed by perturbation in the signal transduction pathway [it

  14. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  15. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy mimics: role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is commonly used in patients with suspected arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) based on ECG, echocardiogram and Holter. However, various diseases may present with clinical characteristics resembling ARVC causing diagnostic dilemmas. The aim of this study was to explore the role of CMR in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected ARVC. Methods 657 CMR referrals suspicious for ARVC in a single tertiary referral centre were analysed. Standardized CMR imaging protocols for ARVC were performed. Potential ARVC mimics were grouped into: 1) displacement of the heart, 2) right ventricular overload, and 3) non ARVC-like cardiac scarring. For each, a judgment of clinical impact was made. Results Twenty patients (3.0%) fulfilled imaging ARVC criteria. Thirty (4.6%) had a potential ARVC mimic, of which 25 (3.8%) were considered clinically important: cardiac displacement (n=17), RV overload (n=7) and non-ARVC like myocardial scarring (n=4). One patient had two mimics; one patient had dual pathology with important mimic and ARVC. RV overload and scarring conditions were always thought clinically important whilst the importance of cardiac displacement depended on the degree of displacement from severe (partial absence of pericardium) to epiphenomenon (minor kyphoscoliosis). Conclusions Some patients referred for CMR with suspected ARVC fulfil ARVC imaging criteria (3%) but more have otherwise unrecognised diseases (4.6%) mimicking potentially ARVC. Clinical assessment should reflect this, emphasising the assessment and/or exclusion of potential mimics in parallel with the detection of ARVC major and minor criteria. PMID:23398958

  16. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as papilloma) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as Herpes simplex) Risks Risks of the procedure may ... Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy ...

  17. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary......The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...

  18. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  19. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  20. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  1. Constraining cyclic peptides to mimic protein structure motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Timothy A.; Shepherd, Nicholas E.; Diness, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    peptides can have protein-like biological activities and potencies, enabling their uses as biological probes and leads to therapeutics, diagnostics and vaccines. This Review highlights examples of cyclic peptides that mimic three-dimensional structures of strand, turn or helical segments of peptides...... and proteins, and identifies some additional restraints incorporated into natural product cyclic peptides and synthetic macrocyclic pepti-domimetics that refine peptide structure and confer biological properties....

  2. The ability of lizards to identify an artificial Batesian mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneš, Josef; Veselý, Petr

    2017-08-01

    Birds are usually considered the main predators shaping the evolution of aposematic signals and mimicry. Nevertheless, some lizards also represent predominately visually oriented predators, so they may also play an important role in the evolution of aposematism. Despite this fact, experimental evidence regarding the responses of lizards to aposematic prey is very poor compared to such evidence in birds. Lizards possess very similar sensory and cognitive abilities to those of birds and their response to aposematic prey may thus be affected by very similar processes. We investigated the reactions of a lizard, the Gran Canaria skink (Chalcides sexlineatus), to an aposematic prey and its artificial Batesian mimic. Further, we attempted to ascertain whether the lizard's food experience has any effect on its ability to recognise an artificial Batesian mimic, by using two groups of predators differing in their prior experience with the prey from which the mimic was fabricated. The red firebug (Pyrrhocoris apterus) was used as an aposematic model, and the Guyana spotted roach (Blaptica dubia) as the palatable prey from which the mimic was fabricated. The appearance of the roach was modified by a paper sticker placed on its back. The skinks showed a strong aversion towards the model firebug. They also avoided attacking the cockroaches with the firebug pattern sticker. This suggests that a visual rather than a chemical signal is responsible for this aversion. The protection provided by the firebug sticker was even effective when the skinks were familiar with unmodified cockroaches (previous food experience). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Astrocyte-neuron co-culture on microchips based on the model of SOD mutation to mimic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Anja; Lengacher, Sylvain; Dirren, Elisabeth; Aebischer, Patrick; Magistretti, Pierre J; Renaud, Philippe

    2013-07-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. ALS is believed to be a non-cell autonomous condition, as other cell types, including astrocytes, have been implicated in disease pathogenesis. Hence, to facilitate the development of therapeutics against ALS, it is crucial to better understand the interactions between astrocytes and neural cells. Furthermore, cell culture assays are needed that mimic the complexity of cell to cell communication at the same time as they provide control over the different microenvironmental parameters. Here, we aim to validate a previously developed microfluidic system for an astrocyte-neuron cell culture platform, in which astrocytes have been genetically modified to overexpress either a human wild-type (WT) or a mutated form of the super oxide dismutase enzyme 1 (SOD1). Cortical neural cells were co-cultured with infected astrocytes and studied for up to two weeks. Using our microfluidic device that prevents direct cell to cell contact, we could evaluate neural cell response in the vicinity of astrocytes. We showed that neuronal cell density was reduced by about 45% when neurons were co-cultured with SOD-mutant astrocytes. Moreover, we demonstrated that SOD-WT overexpressing astrocytes reduced oxidative stress on cortical neurons that were in close metabolic contact. In contrast, cortical neurons in metabolic contact with SOD-mutant astrocytes lost their synapsin protein expression after severe glutamate treatment, an indication of the toxicity potentiating effect of the SOD-mutant enzyme.

  4. A Salmonella nanoparticle mimic overcomes multidrug resistance in tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Lubo, Regino; Zhang, Yuanwei; Zhao, Liang; Rossi, Kyle; Wu, Xiang; Zou, Yekui; Castillo, Antonio; Leonard, Jack; Bortell, Rita; Greiner, Dale L; Shultz, Leonard D; Han, Gang; McCormick, Beth A

    2016-07-25

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen that also selectively grows in tumours and functionally decreases P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a multidrug resistance transporter. Here we report that the Salmonella type III secretion effector, SipA, is responsible for P-gp modulation through a pathway involving caspase-3. Mimicking the ability of Salmonella to reverse multidrug resistance, we constructed a gold nanoparticle system packaged with a SipA corona, and found this bacterial mimic not only accumulates in tumours but also reduces P-gp at a SipA dose significantly lower than free SipA. Moreover, the Salmonella nanoparticle mimic suppresses tumour growth with a concomitant reduction in P-gp when used with an existing chemotherapeutic drug (that is, doxorubicin). On the basis of our finding that the SipA Salmonella effector is fundamental for functionally decreasing P-gp, we engineered a nanoparticle mimic that both overcomes multidrug resistance in cancer cells and increases tumour sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutics.

  5. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosien, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  6. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  7. Mutants induced in winter rye (Secale cereale L.): Short straw-mutant No. 2714 and late-senescence mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszynski, S; Darlewska, M [Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, Warsaw Agricultural University, Warsaw (Poland)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutants were induced by treating dormant seeds with ionizing radiation (fast neutrons) or chemicals (N-nitroso-N-ethyl urea or sodium azide). Among several mutants obtained, of special value is the short-straw mutant No. 2714 and a late senescent mutant. (author)

  8. The frequency, characteristics and aetiology of stroke mimic presentations: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Graham; Rodgers, Helen; Flynn, Darren; Price, Christopher I

    2018-05-01

    A significant proportion of patients with acute stroke symptoms have an alternative 'mimic' diagnosis. A narrative review was carried out to explore the frequency, characteristics and aetiology of stroke mimics. Prehospital and thrombolysis-treated patients were described separately. Overall, 9972 studies were identified from the initial search and 79 studies were included with a median stroke mimic rate of 19% (range: 1-64%). The prehospital median was 27% (range: 4-43%) and the thrombolysis median 10% (range: 1-25%). Seizures, migraines and psychiatric disorders are the most frequently reported causes of stroke mimics. Several characteristics are consistently associated with stroke mimics; however, they do not fully exclude the possibility of stroke. Nineteen per cent of suspected stroke patients had a mimic condition. Stroke mimics were more common with younger age and female sex. The range of mimic diagnoses, a lack of clear differentiating characteristics and the short treatment window for ischaemic stroke create challenges for early identification.

  9. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  10. The MIMIC Method with Scale Purification for Detecting Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin; Yang, Chih-Chien

    2009-01-01

    This study implements a scale purification procedure onto the standard MIMIC method for differential item functioning (DIF) detection and assesses its performance through a series of simulations. It is found that the MIMIC method with scale purification (denoted as M-SP) outperforms the standard MIMIC method (denoted as M-ST) in controlling…

  11. The Mediated MIMIC Model for Understanding the Underlying Mechanism of DIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Shao, Can; Lathrop, Quinn N.

    2016-01-01

    Due to its flexibility, the multiple-indicator, multiple-causes (MIMIC) model has become an increasingly popular method for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF). In this article, we propose the mediated MIMIC model method to uncover the underlying mechanism of DIF. This method extends the usual MIMIC model by including one variable…

  12. The MIMIC Code Repository: enabling reproducibility in critical care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alistair Ew; Stone, David J; Celi, Leo A; Pollard, Tom J

    2018-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility in medical studies is a barrier to the generation of a robust knowledge base to support clinical decision-making. In this paper we outline the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) Code Repository, a centralized code base for generating reproducible studies on an openly available critical care dataset. Code is provided to load the data into a relational structure, create extractions of the data, and reproduce entire analysis plans including research studies. Concepts extracted include severity of illness scores, comorbid status, administrative definitions of sepsis, physiologic criteria for sepsis, organ failure scores, treatment administration, and more. Executable documents are used for tutorials and reproduce published studies end-to-end, providing a template for future researchers to replicate. The repository's issue tracker enables community discussion about the data and concepts, allowing users to collaboratively improve the resource. The centralized repository provides a platform for users of the data to interact directly with the data generators, facilitating greater understanding of the data. It also provides a location for the community to collaborate on necessary concepts for research progress and share them with a larger audience. Consistent application of the same code for underlying concepts is a key step in ensuring that research studies on the MIMIC database are comparable and reproducible. By providing open source code alongside the freely accessible MIMIC-III database, we enable end-to-end reproducible analysis of electronic health records. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  13. An unusual lesion of the finger presenting to the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ameh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Chronic, non-healing lesions of the digits should be viewed with suspicion. Digital squamous cell carcinoma commonly mimics a variety of benign conditions and efforts should be made to rule out other possible diagnoses and to institute early treatment.

  14. A Less Known Stroke Mimic: Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keneilwe Malomo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a clinico-neuro-radiological diagnosis, which can complicate a wide range of conditions. Clinical features include generalised and/or focal neurological deficits. These features are also present in neurovascular disorders, such as stroke. Currently, emphasis in the management of hyperacute stroke is thrombolysis, and it is important to bear in mind stroke mimics as a possible cause of clinical features. The Authors present the case of a 66-year-old man, who presented with acute focal neurological deficit. His brain imaging and history were consistent with PRES.

  15. Approaches to mimic the metallic sheen in beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Aggerbeck, Martin; Nielsen, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    layers have high and low refractive index. The other is the Bouligand structure where birefringent chiral nanofibres are organised in spiral structures. The paper describes work done to explore different approaches to mimic these structures using polymer based materials and production methods...... that are suitable for more complex double curved geometry. One approach is to use alternating layers of 2 different polymers applied by dipping and another is applying cholesteric liquid crystals in paint. However, none of them can yet make the desired metal-looking free-form surfaces....

  16. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Presenting as Stroke Mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Frick

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 33-year-old male with end stage renal disease presenting to the emergency department (ED with headache, dizziness, and unilateral weakness. Initial concern was for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES. The patient was treated appropriately and made a full neurologic recovery. PRES is an under-recognized diagnosis in the ED. As a stroke mimic, PRES can lead the clinician on an incorrect diagnostic pathway with potential for iatrogenic harm.

  17. Mutant TDP-43 within motor neurons drives disease onset but not progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditsworth, Dara; Maldonado, Marcus; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Sun, Shuying; Seelman, Amanda; Drenner, Kevin; Arnold, Eveline; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Pizzo, Donald; Ravits, John; Cleveland, Don W; Da Cruz, Sandrine

    2017-06-01

    Mutations in TDP-43 cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal paralytic disease characterized by degeneration and premature death of motor neurons. The contribution of mutant TDP-43-mediated damage within motor neurons was evaluated using mice expressing a conditional allele of an ALS-causing TDP-43 mutant (Q331K) whose broad expression throughout the central nervous system mimics endogenous TDP-43. TDP-43 Q331K mice develop age- and mutant-dependent motor deficits from degeneration and death of motor neurons. Cre-recombinase-mediated excision of the TDP-43 Q331K gene from motor neurons is shown to delay onset of motor symptoms and appearance of TDP-43-mediated aberrant nuclear morphology, and abrogate subsequent death of motor neurons. However, reduction of mutant TDP-43 selectively in motor neurons did not prevent age-dependent degeneration of axons and neuromuscular junction loss, nor did it attenuate astrogliosis or microgliosis. Thus, disease mechanism is non-cell autonomous with mutant TDP-43 expressed in motor neurons determining disease onset but progression defined by mutant acting within other cell types.

  18. IDH1 mutant negative ganglioglioma progression to gliosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Qiu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gangliogliomas comprise of less than 1% of all primary brain tumours. Malignant transformation is rare. Correspondingly, secondary gliosarcomas, especially in the absence of previous irradiation exposure is too, exceedingly rare. Recent evidence supports the use of mutant IDH1 testing in suspected adult gangliogliomas as a distinguishing feature between ganglioglioma and early diffuse astrocytoma. The authors report a case of a ganglioglioma (WHO I in the cingulate gyrus that underwent malignant transformation and propagated into a multi-lesional gliosarcoma (WHO IV glioblastoma variant. A previously well 59-year-old lady presented with first-onset focal seizures secondary to a left cingulate gyrus lesion. Stereotactic biopsy of the lesion demonstrated an IDH1 (R132H ganglioglioma. The patient remained well until a routine follow-up MRI performed 36 months later showed significant progression of the initial lesion and a new, separate lesion in the left temporoparietal lobe. Surgical excision was performed. The final histology reported a gliosarcoma. In view of the unusual findings, the case is reviewed corroboratively with current disease understanding.

  19. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  20. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Mimics a Conduction Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marrakchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is important to recognise Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome in electrocardiograms (ECG, as it may mimic ischaemic heart disease, ventricular hypertrophy, and bundle branch block. Recognising WPW syndrome allows for risk stratification, the identification of associated conditions, and the institution of appropriate management. Objective. The present case showed that electrophysiological study is indicated in patients with abnormal ECG and syncope. Case Report. A 40-year-old man with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was presented to emergency with syncope. A baseline ECG was a complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock. He was admitted to the cardiac care unit for pacemaker implantation. The atypical figure of complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock was thought to be a “false positive” of conduction abnormality. But the long anterograde refractory period of the both accessory pathway and atrioventricular conduction may cause difficulty in diagnosing Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, Conclusion. A Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome may mimic a conduction disease. No reliable algorithm exists for making an ECG diagnosis of a preexcitation syndrome with conduction disorders. This can lead to diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in the context of syncope.

  1. Wolff-Parkinson-white syndrome mimics a conduction disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrakchi, S; Kammoun, I; Kachboura, S

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is important to recognise Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in electrocardiograms (ECG), as it may mimic ischaemic heart disease, ventricular hypertrophy, and bundle branch block. Recognising WPW syndrome allows for risk stratification, the identification of associated conditions, and the institution of appropriate management. Objective. The present case showed that electrophysiological study is indicated in patients with abnormal ECG and syncope. Case Report. A 40-year-old man with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was presented to emergency with syncope. A baseline ECG was a complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock. He was admitted to the cardiac care unit for pacemaker implantation. The atypical figure of complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock was thought to be a "false positive" of conduction abnormality. But the long anterograde refractory period of the both accessory pathway and atrioventricular conduction may cause difficulty in diagnosing Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, Conclusion. A Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome may mimic a conduction disease. No reliable algorithm exists for making an ECG diagnosis of a preexcitation syndrome with conduction disorders. This can lead to diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in the context of syncope.

  2. Novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors possessing a turn mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshio; Miyamoto, Naoko; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2015-04-01

    Amyloid β peptide, the main component of senile plaques found in the brain of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, is a molecular target for AD therapeutic intervention. A number of potential AD therapeutics have been reported, including inhibitors of β-secretase, γ-secretase, and Aβ aggregation, and anti-amyloid agents, such as neprilysin, insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), and Aβ antibodies. Recently, we reported potent small-sized β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors, which could serve as anti-AD drugs. However AD is a progressive disorder, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over several decades, and therefore may require many years to get cured. One possible way to achieve a greater therapeutic effect is through simultaneous administration of multiple drugs, similar to those used in Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) used to treat AIDS. In order to overcome AD, we took a drug discovery approach to evaluate, novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors. Previously, we reported that a tong-type compound possessing a turn mimic as the inhibitor of HIV-1 protease dimerization. Oligomerized amyloid β peptides contain a turn structure within the molecule. Here, we designed and synthesized novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors with a turn-mimic template, based on the turn conformer of the oligomerized amyloid β peptides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Squamous intraepithelial lesions of the anal squamocolumnar junction: Histopathological classification and HPV genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Clavero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV-related anal cancer lesions are often found adjacent to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ. We have assessed the histopathology and associated HPV genotypes in anal SCJ lesions in surgically excised anal warts in HIV-negative and –positive patients. Methods: Histopathology identified 47 squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs adjacent to the SCJ amongst a total of 145 cases of clinically diagnosed anal condylomata. The anal SCJ lesions were further analyzed with p16, CK7 and p63 immunohistochemistry and HPV genotyping. Results: Sixteen (16/47 of the excised anal wart lesions contained HSIL; Three were HSIL and exclusively associated with oncogenic HPVs. A further thirteen (13/47 were mixed lesions. Of these eight were HSILs with LSIL and six were HSILs with papillary immature metaplasia (PIM; Ten of the mixed lesions were associated with one or more oncogenic HPVs, while three cases were exclusively associated with HPV6. Conclusions: Clinically diagnosed anal warts cannot be assumed to be limited to low-grade lesions as anal warts of the SCJ often show heterogeneous lesions, with coexistence of LSIL, PIM, and HSIL. Lesions showing PIM, however, may mimic HSIL, because they are hypercellular, but lack the nuclear atypia and conspicuous mitotic activity of HSIL; and are p16 negative. Keywords: Anal squamocolumnar junction, Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, Papillary immature metaplasia (PIM, HPV, HIV

  4. Pathological criteria and practical issues in papillary lesions of the breast - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yun-Bi; Tse, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    Papillary lesions of the breast include a broad spectrum of lesions, ranging from benign papilloma, papilloma with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to papillary carcinoma. The accurate diagnosis of mammary papillary lesions is a challenge for pathologists, owing to the overlapping features among these lesions. In this review, some of the diagnostic criteria of papillary lesions are discussed, with special emphasis on some key morphological features, namely fibrovascular cores, epithelial proliferation in a solid pattern, intraductal papilloma complicated by ADH or DCIS, and invasion and its mimics. The roles of immunohistochemistry, and the interpretation of myoepithelial cell markers, hormone receptors, and high molecular weight cytokeratin, are addressed. Finally, novel biomarkers and genetic aberrations in papillary lesions are summarized. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  6. A case report of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis, a rare mimic for malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel L; Ravindran, Praveen; Chua, Dorothy; Smith, Jason D; Wong, King S; Ghusn, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Lymphocytic phlebitis is a benign condition characterised by inflammation of the veins and rarely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Reported cases present as acute abdomen and involve the colon or small intestine. We report the fourth case of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis in the literature. A 74-year-old female presented with eight weeks of abdominal pain. Findings at endoscopy were suggestive of a malignant ulcer on the greater curvature of antrum, while biopsies showed chronic gastritis without malignancy. Appearance at diagnostic laparoscopy was consistent with a malignant gastric ulcer with serosal changes. Due to persistent pain and the macroscopic appearance, she proceeded to have an open subtotal gastrectomy and D2 lymph node clearance. Despite macroscopic appearance, the microscopic examination demonstrated no malignancy, and was consistent with lymphocytic phlebitis with overlying ulceration. This case was a mimic for gastric malignancy, with the benign diagnosis only being made after surgical resection. Gastric lymphocytic phlebitis is a rare differential diagnosis for gastric ulcers when biopsies are negative, although preoperative diagnosis is difficult given the lesions do not involve the mucosa. If clinical history and endoscopic findings are suspicious for malignancy, despite normal biopsies, an aggressive surgical resection remains reasonable given the rarity gastric lymphocytic phlebitis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A case report of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis, a rare mimic for malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Chan

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lymphocytic phlebitis is a benign condition characterised by inflammation of the veins and rarely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Reported cases present as acute abdomen and involve the colon or small intestine. We report the fourth case of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis in the literature. Presentation of case: A 74-year-old female presented with eight weeks of abdominal pain. Findings at endoscopy were suggestive of a malignant ulcer on the greater curvature of antrum, while biopsies showed chronic gastritis without malignancy. Appearance at diagnostic laparoscopy was consistent with a malignant gastric ulcer with serosal changes. Due to persistent pain and the macroscopic appearance, she proceeded to have an open subtotal gastrectomy and D2 lymph node clearance. Despite macroscopic appearance, the microscopic examination demonstrated no malignancy, and was consistent with lymphocytic phlebitis with overlying ulceration. Discussion: This case was a mimic for gastric malignancy, with the benign diagnosis only being made after surgical resection. Gastric lymphocytic phlebitis is a rare differential diagnosis for gastric ulcers when biopsies are negative, although preoperative diagnosis is difficult given the lesions do not involve the mucosa. Conclusion: If clinical history and endoscopic findings are suspicious for malignancy, despite normal biopsies, an aggressive surgical resection remains reasonable given the rarity gastric lymphocytic phlebitis. Keywords: Lymphocytic phlebitis, Gastrectomy, Gastric vasculitis, Gastric ulcer, Case report

  8. Identification of Potential Calorie Restriction-Mimicking Yeast Mutants with Increased Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain and Nitric Oxide Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR induces a metabolic shift towards mitochondrial respiration; however, molecular mechanisms underlying CR remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that CR-induced mitochondrial activity is associated with nitric oxide (NO production. To understand the role of mitochondria in CR, we identify and study Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with increased NO levels as potential CR mimics. Analysis of the top 17 mutants demonstrates a correlation between increased NO, mitochondrial respiration, and longevity. Interestingly, treating yeast with NO donors such as GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione is sufficient to partially mimic CR to extend lifespan. CR-increased NO is largely dependent on mitochondrial electron transport and cytochrome c oxidase (COX. Although COX normally produces NO under hypoxic conditions, CR-treated yeast cells are able to produce NO under normoxic conditions. Our results suggest that CR may derepress some hypoxic genes for mitochondrial proteins that function to promote the production of NO and the extension of lifespan.

  9. Amyloid protein unfolding and insertion kinetics on neuronal membrane mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

    2010-03-01

    Atomistic details of beta-amyloid (Aβ ) protein unfolding and lipid interaction kinetics mediated by the neuronal membrane surface are important for developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent and cure Alzheimer's disease. Using all-atom MD simulations, we explored the early unfolding and insertion kinetics of 40 and 42 residue long Aβ in binary lipid mixtures with and without cholesterol that mimic the cholesterol-depleted and cholesterol-enriched lipid nanodomains of neurons. The protein conformational transition kinetics was evaluated from the secondary structure profile versus simulation time plot. The extent of membrane disruption was examined by the calculated order parameters of lipid acyl chains and cholesterol fused rings as well as the density profiles of water and lipid headgroups at defined regions across the lipid bilayer from our simulations. Our results revealed that both the cholesterol content and the length of the protein affect the protein-insertion and membrane stability in our model lipid bilayer systems.

  10. Piezoelectric materials mimic the function of the cochlear sensory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Takatoshi; Shintaku, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kawano, Satoyuki; Ogita, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Hamanishi, Shinji; Wada, Hiroshi; Ito, Juichi

    2011-11-08

    Cochlear hair cells convert sound vibration into electrical potential, and loss of these cells diminishes auditory function. In response to mechanical stimuli, piezoelectric materials generate electricity, suggesting that they could be used in place of hair cells to create an artificial cochlear epithelium. Here, we report that a piezoelectric membrane generated electrical potentials in response to sound stimuli that were able to induce auditory brainstem responses in deafened guinea pigs, indicating its capacity to mimic basilar membrane function. In addition, sound stimuli were transmitted through the external auditory canal to a piezoelectric membrane implanted in the cochlea, inducing it to vibrate. The application of sound to the middle ear ossicle induced voltage output from the implanted piezoelectric membrane. These findings establish the fundamental principles for the development of hearing devices using piezoelectric materials, although there are many problems to be overcome before practical application.

  11. [Granulomatous lobular mastitis: a benign abnormality that mimics malignancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoedt, N M; Janssen, S; Mravunac, M; Wauters, C A P; Strobbe, L J A

    2008-05-03

    A palpable abnormality of the breast was found in three women, one aged 57 and two aged 41. The first two patients predominantly showed the characteristics of a purulent inflammation, and on mammogram the third patient appeared to have mastitis carcinomatosa. Histopathological investigation revealed a lobular, non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. They were treated with prednisone and the first and third patients also received azathioprine. After some time, the condition recurred in the contralateral breast in the second and third patients. Once again, medicinal treatment was given. When a palpable tumour of the breast is found the primary goal is to exclude malignancy. Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare and benign tumour of the breast that clinically mimics carcinoma. Often, conventional imaging does not lead to the diagnosis. A histological needle biopsy is the best way to reach a diagnosis. Immunosuppressive therapy is effective and is preferred over surgery.

  12. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  13. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  14. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  15. Mutant power: using mutant allele collections for yeast functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kaitlyn L; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-03-01

    The budding yeast has long served as a model eukaryote for the functional genomic analysis of highly conserved signaling pathways, cellular processes and mechanisms underlying human disease. The collection of reagents available for genomics in yeast is extensive, encompassing a growing diversity of mutant collections beyond gene deletion sets in the standard wild-type S288C genetic background. We review here three main types of mutant allele collections: transposon mutagen collections, essential gene collections and overexpression libraries. Each collection provides unique and identifiable alleles that can be utilized in genome-wide, high-throughput studies. These genomic reagents are particularly informative in identifying synthetic phenotypes and functions associated with essential genes, including those modeled most effectively in complex genetic backgrounds. Several examples of genomic studies in filamentous/pseudohyphal backgrounds are provided here to illustrate this point. Additionally, the limitations of each approach are examined. Collectively, these mutant allele collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans promise insights toward an advanced understanding of eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Antiproliferative efficacy of curcumin mimics through microtubule destabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Sadiya; Fatima, Kaneez; Hasanain, Mohammad; Behera, Chittaranjan; Kour, Avneet; Singh, Arjun; Luqman, Suaib; Sarkar, Jayanta; Chanda, Debabrata; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, A K; Mondhe, D M; Negi, Arvind S

    2018-05-10

    Curcumin possesses an attractive chemical structure with highly conjugated diferuloylmethane core. Curcumin mimics have been designed and prepared with an additional bridged phenyl ring in conjugation. Fourteen diverse analogues were evaluated against a panel of human cancer cell lines. The best analogue of the series i.e. compound 6a exhibited potent cytotoxicity against A431, epidermoid carcinoma cell line (IC 50  = 1.5 μM) and DLD1, colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (IC 50  = 6.9 μM). In tubulin kinetics experiment, compound 6a destabilized polymerisation process (IC 50  = 4.68 μM). In cell cycle analysis, compound 6a exerted G2/M phase arrest in A431 cells and induced apoptosis. In Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss-albino mice, compound 6a showed 78.6% tumour reduction at 80 mg/kg dose and 57% solid tumour reduction at 150 mg/kg dose. Further, in acute-oral toxicity experiment in rodent model, compound 6a was given in three different oral doses to Swiss albino mice. There were non-significant changes in various biochemical parameters and major body organs studied, including their absolute and relative weights. It was tolerable up to 300 mg/kg dose in Swiss-albino mice. The present study shows that the novel curcumin mimic 6a is a safe and efficacious anticancer compound. However, it needs to be optimized for better efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  18. Benign fibroosseous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Köseoğlu Seçgin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibroosseous lesions represent a group of lesions that share the same basic evolutive mechanism and are characterized by replacement of normal bone with a fibrous connective tissue that gradually undergoes mineralization. These lesions are presented by a variety of diseases including developmental, reactive-dysplastic processes and neoplasms. Depending on the nature and amount of calcified tissue, they can be observed as radiolucent, mixed or radiopaque. Their radiographic features could be well-defined or indistinguishable from the surrounding bone tissue. They can be asymptomatic as in osseous dysplasias and can be detected incidentally on radiographs, or they can lead to expansion in the affected bone as in ossifying fibroma. All fibroosseous lesions seen in the jaws and face are variations of the same histological pattern. Therefore, detailed clinical and radiographic evaluation in differential diagnosis is important. In this review, fibroosseous benign lesions are classified as osseous dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia and fibroosseous tumors; and radiographic features and differential diagnosis of these lesions are reviewed taking into account this classification.

  19. Visual search among items of different salience: removal of visual attention mimics a lesion in extrastriate area V4

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Jochen

    1994-01-01

    In more than one respect, visual search for the most salient or the least salient item in a display are different kinds of visual tasks. The present work investigated whether this difference is primarily one of perceptual difficulty, or whether it is more fundamental and relates to visual attention. Display items of different salience were produced by varying either size, contrast, color saturation, or pattern. Perceptual masking was employed and, on average, mask onset was delayed longer in ...

  20. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  1. An extra early mutant of pigeonpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikesavan, R.; Kalaimagal, T.; Rathnaswamy, R.

    2001-01-01

    The redgram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth) variety 'Prabhat DT' was gamma irradiated with 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses. Several mutants have been identified viz., extra early mutants, monostem mutants, obcordifoliate mutants and bi-stigmatic mutants. The extra early mutant was obtained when treated with 100 Gy dose. The mutant was selfed and forwarded from M 2 to M 4 generation. In the M 4 generation the mutant line was raised along with the parental variety. Normal cultural practices were followed and the biometrical observations were recorded. It was observed that for the characters viz., total number of branches per plant, number of pods per plants, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield per plant there was no difference between the mutant and parent variety. Whereas, regarding the days to flowering and maturity the mutants were earlier than the parents. The observation was recorded from two hundred plants each. The mutant gives the same yield in 90 days as that of the parent variety in 107 days, which make it an economic mutant

  2. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  3. Mutant of Japanese pear resistant to Black Spot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, T.; Nishida, T.; Ikeda, F.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Nijisseike is one of the leading cultivars of Japanese pear (Pyrus serotinea Rehd.), but susceptible to black spot disease. Farmers try to prevent this disease by wrapping the fruit with a paper bag and by repeated spraying of fungicides. The disease is caused by a Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Susceptibility is controlled by a single dominant gene. In 1962, grafted trees of this cultivar were planted at a distance between 53 and 93 m from the 60 Co source in the gamma-field (daily dose 15-4 rad). One branch on a tree planted at 53 m was detected as resistant in 1981. Under field conditions, black spots were observed on many fruits and leaves of the original trees by natural infection in early July, however, they were not observed on the mutant. To examine the resistance of the mutant, artificial inoculations were made using spores of the pathogen and the host specific toxin produced by germinating spores. When some drops of the spore suspension are placed on leaves, the formation of black spots depends upon the leaf age. In a resistant cv. as Chojuro, black spot symptoms are formed only when inoculated on young leaves. An intermediate reaction was observed in the mutant, whereas the original Nijisseiki showed severe symptoms. When inoculation was made on matured fruit skins, no black spot was formed on the mutant just like on the resistant cv. Chojuro, while many small black spots were formed and grew into large spots overlapping each other on the susceptible cv. Nijisseiki. In case of the crude toxin inoculation (4-0.04 ppm) of cv. Nijisseiki black spots were formed on the surface of the susceptible fruit skin, and necrotic lesions at the cut end of detached small pieces of leaves, although reaction on fruit skins was weaker compared with inoculation by spores. However, no symptoms were observed from the toxin application on the mutant and the resistant cv. Chojuro. That the resistance of the mutant is classified as

  4. Isolation and characterization of prophage mutants of the defective Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage PBSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurm, P.; Garro, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis mutants with lesions in PBSX prophage genes have been isolated. One of these appears to be a regulatory mutant and is defective for mitomycin C-induced derepression of PBSX; the others are defective for phage capsid formation. All of the PBSX structural proteins are synthesized during induction of the capsid defective mutants; however, several of these proteins exhibit abnormal serological reactivity with anti-PBSX antiserum. The two head proteins X4 and X7 are not immunoprecipitable in a mutant which fails to assemble phage head structures. In the tail mutant, proteins X5 and X6 are not immunoprecipitable, tails are not assembled, and a possible tail protein precursor remains uncleaved. The noninducible mutant does not synthesize any PBSX structural proteins after exposure to mitomycin C. The mutation is specific for PBSX since phi 105 and SPO2 lysogens of the mutant are inducible. All of the known PBSX-specific mutations were shown to be clustered between argC and metC on the host chromosome. In addition, the metC marker was shown to be present in multiple copies in cells induced for PBSX replication. This suggests that the derepressed prophage replicates while still integrated and that replication extends into the adjacent regions of the host chromosome

  5. Structure and expression of cytochrome f in an Oenothera plastome mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E M; Sears, B B

    1990-06-01

    The chloroplast mutant pm7 is one of a number of mutants derived from the plastome mutator (pm) line of Oenothera hookeri, strain Johansen. Immunoblotting showed that this mutant accumulates a protein that is cross-antigenic with cytochrome f, but five kilodaltons larger than the mature wild-type protein. Since cytochrome f is known to be translated on plastid ribosomes as a precursor with an amino-terminal extension, it is proposed that the unprocessed cytochrome f precursor accumulates in pm7. In addition to this precursor-sized cytochrome f protein, some mature-sized cytochrome f was also found in the mutant plastids. The pm7 mutation is inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion; but no alterations in chloroplast DNA restriction patterns, or differences in DNA sequence in the region encoding cytochrome f, were found in a comparison of the wild-type and pm7 chloroplast DNAs. Although the mutant was capable of synthesizing heme, no covalently-bound heme, normally found associated with mature, functional, cytochrome f was detected in the mutant at sizes expected for the presumed precursor, or for mature cytochrome f. These results indicate that the aberrant accumulation of a precursor-sized cytochrome f in pm7 is not due to a lesion directly in the plastid gene encoding cytochrome f, petA, or to a deficiency in the ability of the mutant plastids to synthesize or accumulate heme.

  6. Apoc2 loss-of-function zebrafish mutant as a genetic model of hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2 is an obligatory activator of lipoprotein lipase. Human patients with APOC2 deficiency display severe hypertriglyceridemia while consuming a normal diet, often manifesting xanthomas, lipemia retinalis and pancreatitis. Hypertriglyceridemia is also an important risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Animal models to study hypertriglyceridemia are limited, with no Apoc2-knockout mouse reported. To develop a genetic model of hypertriglyceridemia, we generated an apoc2 mutant zebrafish characterized by the loss of Apoc2 function. apoc2 mutants show decreased plasma lipase activity and display chylomicronemia and severe hypertriglyceridemia, which closely resemble the phenotype observed in human patients with APOC2 deficiency. The hypertriglyceridemia in apoc2 mutants is rescued by injection of plasma from wild-type zebrafish or by injection of a human APOC2 mimetic peptide. Consistent with a previous report of a transient apoc2 knockdown, apoc2 mutant larvae have a minor delay in yolk consumption and angiogenesis. Furthermore, apoc2 mutants fed a normal diet accumulate lipid and lipid-laden macrophages in the vasculature, which resemble early events in the development of human atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, apoc2 mutant embryos show ectopic overgrowth of pancreas. Taken together, our data suggest that the apoc2 mutant zebrafish is a robust and versatile animal model to study hypertriglyceridemia and the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of associated human diseases.

  7. Large screen mimic display design research for advanced main control room in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Mingguang; Yang Yanhua; Xu Jijun; Zhang Qinshun; Ning Zhonghe

    2002-01-01

    Firstly the evolution of mimic diagrams or displays used in the main control room of nuclear power plant was introduced. The active functions of mimic diagrams were analyzed on the release of operator psychological burden and pressure, the assistance of operator for the information searching, status understanding, manual actuation, correct decision making as well as the safe and reliable operation of the nuclear power plant. The importance and necessity to use the (large screen) mimic diagrams in advanced main control room of nuclear power plant, the design principle, design details and verification measures of large screen mimic display are also described

  8. Accessing the public MIMIC-II intensive care relational database for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel J; Lee, Joon; Silva, Ikaro; Park, Shinhyuk; Moody, George B; Celi, Leo A; Mark, Roger G

    2013-01-10

    The Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database is a free, public resource for intensive care research. The database was officially released in 2006, and has attracted a growing number of researchers in academia and industry. We present the two major software tools that facilitate accessing the relational database: the web-based QueryBuilder and a downloadable virtual machine (VM) image. QueryBuilder and the MIMIC-II VM have been developed successfully and are freely available to MIMIC-II users. Simple example SQL queries and the resulting data are presented. Clinical studies pertaining to acute kidney injury and prediction of fluid requirements in the intensive care unit are shown as typical examples of research performed with MIMIC-II. In addition, MIMIC-II has also provided data for annual PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenges, including the 2012 Challenge "Predicting mortality of ICU Patients". QueryBuilder is a web-based tool that provides easy access to MIMIC-II. For more computationally intensive queries, one can locally install a complete copy of MIMIC-II in a VM. Both publicly available tools provide the MIMIC-II research community with convenient querying interfaces and complement the value of the MIMIC-II relational database.

  9. Parasitic lesion of the insula suggesting cerebral sparganosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, T.J.; Madden, J.F.; McLendon, R.E.; Gray, L.; Friedman, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral sparganosis, a parasitic disease, rarely produces a chronic active inflammatory response in the brain. Clinically and radiographically the process may mimic a neoplasm. We report a 30-year-old man who underwent surgical exploration for a mass in the insular cortex. Histology revealed a densely fibrotic mass heavily infiltrated with plasma cells and lymphocytes, in which were embedded parasitic forms consistent with sparganosis. We describe the MRI appearances and pathologic features. Intracranial mass lesions secondary to sparganosis must be considered in patients with a history of travel to endemic areas, especially Asia. (orig.)

  10. Dwarf mutant of rice variety Seratus Malam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono, P. S.; Soemanggono, A.M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of 'Seratus Malam', a local tall upland variety with long panicles and high yield potential were irradiated with 10-50 krad gamma rays in 1983. From 50,000 M 2 plants, 130 semidwarf mutants and 1 dwarf mutant were selected. The dwarf mutant M-362 was obtained from the 10 krad treatment. The mutant shows about 50% reduction in plant height, but also in number of productive tillers. Thus the yield per plant is also significantly less. However, the mutant gene is not allelic to DGWG and therefore may be useful in cross breeding. (author)

  11. Precancerous Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Malvehy, J; Guillén, C; Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; Fernández-Figueras, M

    Certain clinically and histologically recognizable skin lesions with a degree of risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally grouped as precancerous skin conditions but now tend to be classified as in situ carcinomas. This consensus statement discusses various aspects of these lesions: their evaluation by means of clinical and histopathologic features, the initial evaluation of the patient, the identification of risk factors for progression, and the diagnostic and treatment strategies available today. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. IgG4-Associated Cholangitis Can Mimic Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaydfudim, Victor M; Wang, Andrew Y; de Lange, Eduard E; Zhao, Zimin; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Bauer, Todd W; Adams, Reid B

    2015-07-01

    IgG4-associated cholangitis can mimic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Previously reported patients with IgG4-associated cholangitis mimicking cholangiocarcinoma had elevated serum IgG4 levels and long-segment biliary strictures. However, in the absence of other diagnostic criteria for malignancy, IgG4-associated cholangitis should remain a consideration among patients with normal serum IgG4 and a hilar mass suspicious for cholangiocarcinoma. The presence of a hilar mass and a malignant-appearing biliary stricture in two patients with normal serum IgG4 prompted further evaluation and subsequent concomitant liver and bile duct resection and reconstruction. The diagnosis of IgG4-associated cholangitis was established during the pathologic evaluation of the resected specimens. IgG4-associated cholangitis is a known imitator of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and should be considered in the differential diagnosis even among serologically IgG4-negative patients with a hilar mass prior to operative resection.

  13. Fe65-PTB2 Dimerization Mimics Fe65-APP Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas P. Feilen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiological function and pathology of the Alzheimer’s disease causing amyloid precursor protein (APP are correlated with its cytosolic adaptor Fe65 encompassing a WW and two phosphotyrosine-binding domains (PTBs. The C-terminal Fe65-PTB2 binds a large portion of the APP intracellular domain (AICD including the GYENPTY internalization sequence fingerprint. AICD binding to Fe65-PTB2 opens an intra-molecular interaction causing a structural change and altering Fe65 activity. Here we show that in the absence of the AICD, Fe65-PTB2 forms a homodimer in solution and determine its crystal structure at 2.6 Å resolution. Dimerization involves the unwinding of a C-terminal α-helix that mimics binding of the AICD internalization sequence, thus shielding the hydrophobic binding pocket. Specific dimer formation is validated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR techniques and cell-based analyses reveal that Fe65-PTB2 together with the WW domain are necessary and sufficient for dimerization. Together, our data demonstrate that Fe65 dimerizes via its APP interaction site, suggesting that besides intra- also intermolecular interactions between Fe65 molecules contribute to homeostatic regulation of APP mediated signaling.

  14. Fe65-PTB2 Dimerization Mimics Fe65-APP Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilen, Lukas P; Haubrich, Kevin; Strecker, Paul; Probst, Sabine; Eggert, Simone; Stier, Gunter; Sinning, Irmgard; Konietzko, Uwe; Kins, Stefan; Simon, Bernd; Wild, Klemens

    2017-01-01

    Physiological function and pathology of the Alzheimer's disease causing amyloid precursor protein (APP) are correlated with its cytosolic adaptor Fe65 encompassing a WW and two phosphotyrosine-binding domains (PTBs). The C-terminal Fe65-PTB2 binds a large portion of the APP intracellular domain (AICD) including the GYENPTY internalization sequence fingerprint. AICD binding to Fe65-PTB2 opens an intra-molecular interaction causing a structural change and altering Fe65 activity. Here we show that in the absence of the AICD, Fe65-PTB2 forms a homodimer in solution and determine its crystal structure at 2.6 Å resolution. Dimerization involves the unwinding of a C-terminal α-helix that mimics binding of the AICD internalization sequence, thus shielding the hydrophobic binding pocket. Specific dimer formation is validated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and cell-based analyses reveal that Fe65-PTB2 together with the WW domain are necessary and sufficient for dimerization. Together, our data demonstrate that Fe65 dimerizes via its APP interaction site, suggesting that besides intra- also intermolecular interactions between Fe65 molecules contribute to homeostatic regulation of APP mediated signaling.

  15. Recent developments in skin mimic systems to predict transdermal permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Laura J

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a drive to create experimental techniques that can facilitate the accurate and precise prediction of transdermal permeation without the use of in vivo studies. This review considers why permeation data is essential, provides a brief summary as to how skin acts as a natural barrier to permeation and discusses why in vivo studies are undesirable. This is followed by an in-depth discussion on the extensive range of alternative methods that have been developed in recent years. All of the major 'skin mimic systems' are considered including: in vitro models using synthetic membranes, mathematical models including quantitative structure-permeability relationships (QSPRs), human skin equivalents and chromatographic based methods. All of these model based systems are ideally trying to achieve the same end-point, namely a reliable in vitro-in vivo correlation, i.e. matching non-in vivo obtained data with that from human clinical trials. It is only by achieving this aim, that any new method of obtaining permeation data can be acknowledged as a potential replacement for animal studies, for the determination of transdermal permeation. In this review, the relevance and potential applicability of the various models systems will also be discussed.

  16. Nanorod mediated collagen scaffolds as extra cellular matrix mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedhanayagam, Mohan; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Sreeram, Kalarical Janardhanan; Mohan, Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Creating collagen scaffolds that mimic extracellular matrices without using toxic exogenous materials remains a big challenge. A new strategy to create scaffolds through end-to-end crosslinking through functionalized nanorods leading to well-designed architecture is presented here. Self-assembled scaffolds with a denaturation temperature of 110 °C, porosity of 70%, pore size of 0.32 μm and Young’s modulus of 231 MPa were developed largely driven by imine bonding between 3-mercapto-1-propanal (MPA) functionalized ZnO nanorods and collagen. The mechanical properties obtained were much higher than that of native collagen, collagen—MPA, collagen—3-mercapto-1-propanol (3MPOH) or collagen- 3-MPOH-ZnO, clearly bringing out the relevance of nanorod mediated assembly of fibrous networks. This new strategy has led to scaffolds with mechanical properties much higher than earlier reports and can provide support for cell growth and facilitation of cell attachment. (paper)

  17. Chimpanzees and humans mimic pupil-size of conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska E Kret

    Full Text Available Group-living typically provides benefits to individual group members but also confers costs. To avoid incredulity and betrayal and allow trust and cooperation, individuals must understand the intentions and emotions of their group members. Humans attend to other's eyes and from gaze and pupil-size cues, infer information about the state of mind of the observed. In humans, pupil-size tends to mimic that of the observed. Here we tested whether pupil-mimicry exists in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes. We conjectured that if pupil-mimicry has adaptive value, e.g. to promote swift communication of inner states and facilitate shared understanding and coordination, pupil-mimicry should emerge within but not across species. Pupillometry data was collected from human and chimpanzee subjects while they observed images of the eyes of both species with dilating/constricting pupils. Both species showed enhanced pupil-mimicry with members of their own species, with effects being strongest in humans and chimpanzee mothers. Pupil-mimicry may be deeply-rooted, but probably gained importance from the point in human evolution where the morphology of our eyes became more prominent. Humans' white sclera surrounding the iris, and the fine muscles around their eyes facilitate non-verbal communication via eye signals.

  18. Thrombolytic treatment to stroke mimic patients via telestroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, Ganesh; Castle, Amy L; Sperl, Michael A; Ravichandran, Jayashree; Gupta, Aditi; Ho, Bridget M; Hanson, Sandra K

    2017-02-01

    The safety and outcomes of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) to stroke patients via telestroke (TS) is similar to those presenting to stroke centers. Little is known on the accuracy of TS diagnosis among those receiving IVT. We sought to compare the rate of patients receiving IVT with diagnosis of ischemic stroke as opposed to stroke mimic (SM) in our TS network to those who presented to our comprehensive stroke center (CSC). Consecutive patients receiving IVT between August 2014 and June 2015 were identified at our CSC and TS network. We compared rates of SM, post-IVT symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), in-hospital mortality, and discharge destination. We evaluated 131 receiving IVT were included in the analysis. Rates of SM receiving IVT were similar (CSC 12% versus 7% TS, p=0.33). Four stroke patients experienced sICH or in-hospital mortality; neither were found among SM patients. Discharge destination was similar between stroke and SM patients (p=0.9). SM patients had higher diagnoses of migraine (p=0.05) and psychiatric illness (p<0.01). The accuracy of diagnosing stroke in IVT-eligible patients evaluated via TS is similar to evaluations at our CSC. Continued efforts should be made to minimize exposure of SM patients to IVT in both settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A MIMIC approach to modeling the underground economy in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David Han-Min; Lin, Jer-Yan; Yu, Tiffany Hui-Kuang

    2006-11-01

    The size of underground economy (UE) expansion usually increases the tax gap, impose a burden on the economy, and results in tax distortions. This study uses the MIMIC approach to model the causal variables and indicating variables to estimate the UE in Taiwan. We also focus on testing the data for non-stationarity and perform diagnostic tests. By using annual time-series data for Taiwan from 1961 to 2003, it is found that the estimated size of the UE varies from 11.0% to 13.1% before 1988, and from 10.6% to 11.8% from 1989 onwards. That the size of the UE experienced a substantial downward shift in 1989 indicates that there was a structural break. The UE is significantly and positively affected by such casual variables as the logarithm of real government consumption and currency inflation, but is negatively affected by the tax burden at 5% significant level. Unemployment rate and crime rate are not significantly correlated with the UE in this study.

  20. Penerapan Model MIMIC untuk Menguji Konsistensi Hasil Pengukuran melalui Skala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Widhiarso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to demonstrate the use of multiple indicators and multiple (MIMIC model in testing the consistency of the measurement results when it's applied to individuals with different characteristics. Self-Esteem and Student Motivation Scale were employed to measure participant attributes. Impact of three student characteristics (gender, intelligence and school location on both measurement model were examined. Total of 2981 students from 30 cities of 15 provinces were participated in this study. Data analysis was utilized using confirmatory factor analysis under structural equation modeling (SEM approach. Results showed that measuring self-esteem was prone to be contaminated by individual heterogeneity. However, contrary results was found on motivation measure. Excluding three student characteristics as covariance in the model have increased model fit indices in the self-esteem measurement model, but not in the self-esteem. The presence of susceptibility scale to different characteristics indicated that this scale needs to be further modified. Therefore, when it is applied to heterogeneous population, the measurement results will produce consistently results.

  1. Lesion characterization in spectral photon-counting tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederström, Björn; Fredenberg, Erik; Berggren, Karl; Erhard, Klaus; Danielsson, Mats; Wallis, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    It has previously been shown that 2D spectral mammography can be used to discriminate between (likely benign) cystic and (potentially malignant) solid lesions in order to reduce unnecessary recalls in mammography. One limitation of the technique is, however, that the composition of overlapping tissue needs to be interpolated from a region surrounding the lesion. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate that lesion characterization can be done with spectral tomosynthesis, and to investigate whether the 3D information available in tomosynthesis can reduce the uncertainty from the interpolation of surrounding tissue. A phantom experiment was designed to simulate a cyst and a tumor, where the tumor was overlaid with a structure that made it mimic a cyst. In 2D, the two targets appeared similar in composition, whereas spectral tomosynthesis revealed the exact compositional difference. However, the loss of discrimination signal due to spread from the plane of interest was of the same strength as the reduction of anatomical noise. Results from a preliminary investigation on clinical tomosynthesis images of solid lesions yielded results that were consistent with the phantom experiments, but were still to some extent inconclusive. We conclude that lesion characterization is feasible in spectral tomosynthesis, but more data, as well as refinement of the calibration and discrimination algorithms, are needed to draw final conclusions about the benefit compared to 2D.

  2. A web-based data visualization tool for the MIMIC-II database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon; Ribey, Evan; Wallace, James R

    2016-02-04

    Although MIMIC-II, a public intensive care database, has been recognized as an invaluable resource for many medical researchers worldwide, becoming a proficient MIMIC-II researcher requires knowledge of SQL programming and an understanding of the MIMIC-II database schema. These are challenging requirements especially for health researchers and clinicians who may have limited computer proficiency. In order to overcome this challenge, our objective was to create an interactive, web-based MIMIC-II data visualization tool that first-time MIMIC-II users can easily use to explore the database. The tool offers two main features: Explore and Compare. The Explore feature enables the user to select a patient cohort within MIMIC-II and visualize the distributions of various administrative, demographic, and clinical variables within the selected cohort. The Compare feature enables the user to select two patient cohorts and visually compare them with respect to a variety of variables. The tool is also helpful to experienced MIMIC-II researchers who can use it to substantially accelerate the cumbersome and time-consuming steps of writing SQL queries and manually visualizing extracted data. Any interested researcher can use the MIMIC-II data visualization tool for free to quickly and conveniently conduct a preliminary investigation on MIMIC-II with a few mouse clicks. Researchers can also use the tool to learn the characteristics of the MIMIC-II patients. Since it is still impossible to conduct multivariable regression inside the tool, future work includes adding analytics capabilities. Also, the next version of the tool will aim to utilize MIMIC-III which contains more data.

  3. A large duplication involving the IHH locus mimics acrocallosal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel-Apak, Memnune; Bögershausen, Nina; Pawlik, Barbara; Li, Yun; Apak, Selcuk; Uyguner, Oya; Milz, Esther; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Karaman, Birsen; Gülgören, Ayan; Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz; Nürnberg, Peter; Kayserili, Hülya; Wollnik, Bernd

    2012-06-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling is a major determinant of various processes during embryonic development and has a pivotal role in embryonic skeletal development. A specific spatial and temporal expression of Ihh within the developing limb buds is essential for accurate digit outgrowth and correct digit number. Although missense mutations in IHH cause brachydactyly type A1, small tandem duplications involving the IHH locus have recently been described in patients with mild syndactyly and craniosynostosis. In contrast, a ∼600-kb deletion 5' of IHH in the doublefoot mouse mutant (Dbf) leads to severe polydactyly without craniosynostosis, but with craniofacial dysmorphism. We now present a patient resembling acrocallosal syndrome (ACS) with extensive polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, craniofacial abnormalities including macrocephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, dysplastic and low-set ears, severe hypertelorism and profound psychomotor delay. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array copy number analysis identified a ∼900-kb duplication of the IHH locus, which was confirmed by an independent quantitative method. A fetus from a second pregnancy of the mother by a different spouse showed similar craniofacial and limb malformations and the same duplication of the IHH-locus. We defined the exact breakpoints and showed that the duplications are identical tandem duplications in both sibs. No copy number changes were observed in the healthy mother. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a human phenotype similar to the Dbf mutant and strikingly overlapping with ACS that is caused by a copy number variation involving the IHH locus on chromosome 2q35.

  4. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjunctival lesions are frequently seen in the eye clinic, because the conjunctiva is readily ... anti-histamine drops and mast cell stabilisers can be used. e more severe cases have to be .... Ehlers J, Shah C . The Wills Eye Manual. Office and.

  5. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  6. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  7. PNRI mutant variety: Cordyline 'Afable'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2012-01-01

    Cordyline 'Afable', registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2009 Or-83, is an induced mutant developed from Cordyline 'Kiwi' by treating stem cuttings with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical to Cordyline 'Kiwi' in growth habit but differs in foliage color, and exhibits field resistance to Phytophthora sp., a fungus that causes leaf blight and rot in Ti plants. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color was altered by gamma irradiation and resistance to fungal diseases was improved. It also demonstrated how mutations that occur in nature may be generated artificially. Propagation of cordyline 'Afable' is true-to-type by vegetative propagation methods, such as separation of suckers and offshoots, shoot tip cutting, and top cutting. Aside from landscaping material, terrarium or dish-garden plant, it is ideal as containerized plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves or shoots may be harvested as cut foliage for flower arrangements. (author)

  8. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  9. Maxillomandibular giant osteosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino LEDESMA-MONTES

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs are a group of rarely reported intraosseous lesions. Their precise diagnosis is important since they can be confused with malignant neoplasms. Objective This retrospective study aimed to record and analyze the clinical and radiographic Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs detected in the maxillomandibular area of patients attending to our institution. Materials and Methods: Informed consent from the patients was obtained and those cases of 2.5 cm or larger lesions with radiopaque or mixed (radiolucid-radiopaque appearance located in the maxillofacial bones were selected. Assessed parameters were: age, gender, radiographic aspect, shape, borders, size, location and relations to roots. Lesions were classified as radicular, apical, interradicular, interradicular-apical, radicular-apical or located in a previous teeth extraction area. Additionally, several osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs were assessed. Results Seventeen radiopacities in 14 patients were found and were located almost exclusively in mandible and were two types: idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis. GOLs were more frequent in females, and in the anterior and premolar zones. 94.2% of GOLs were qualified as idiopathic osteosclerosis and one case was condensing osteitis. All studied cases showed different osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs. The most common were: Microdontia, hypodontia, pulp stones, macrodontia and variations in the mental foramina. Conclusions GOLs must be differentiated from other radiopaque benign and malignant tumors. Condensing osteitis, was considered an anomalous osseous response induced by a chronic low-grade inflammatory stimulus. For development of idiopathic osteosclerosis, two possible mechanisms could be related. The first is modification of the normal turnover with excessive osseous deposition. The second mechanism will prevent the normal bone resorption, arresting the

  10. Biological Mimics: A New Paradigm in the Detection of Toxic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monty, Chelsea Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to introduce a new idea: using biological mimics in the detection of toxic compounds. Biological mimics imitate the active site of a given enzyme or have catalytic chemistry similar to enzymes and can be used in place of biological molecules to provide longer stability and simpler operation. In the following text the…

  11. Touch the Page and Mimic Me: Evaluation of a Talking-Pen Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odakura, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the talking-pen device called the Mimic Me, an educational technology product of a large English conversation school in Japan, as an educational learning tool. The product will be reviewed in terms of its developmental appropriateness for the target audience based on current research. Although the Mimic Me…

  12. Inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus replication by mimic peptides in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongyu; Liu, Changhong; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Haihong; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jihong; Zhou, Linfu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of specific mimic peptides targeting duck hepatitis B virus polymerase (DHBVP) on duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in primary duck hepatocytes. Phage display technology (PDT) was used to screen for mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP and the associated coding sequences were determined using DNA sequencing. The selected mimic peptides were then used to treat primary duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV in vitro. Infected hepatocytes expressing the mimic peptides intracellularly were also prepared. The cells were divided into mimic peptide groups (EXP groups), an entecavir-treated group (positive control) and a negative control group. The medium was changed every 48 h. Following a 10-day incubation, the cell supernatants were collected. DHBV-DNA in the cellular nucleus, cytoplasm and culture supernatant was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eight mimic peptides were selected following three PDT screening rounds for investigation in the DHBV-infected primary duck hepatocytes. The qPCR results showed that following direct treatment with mimic peptide 2 or 7, intracellular expression of mimic peptide 2 or 7, or treatment with entecavir, the DHBV-DNA levels in the culture supernatant and cytoplasm of duck hepatocytes were significantly lower than those in the negative control (Pmimic peptide 7 was lower than that in the other groups (Pmimic peptide 7 was significantly lower than that in the other groups (PMimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP, administered directly or expressed intracellularly, can significantly inhibit DHBV replication in vitro .

  13. Testing Measurement Invariance Using MIMIC: Likelihood Ratio Test with a Critical Value Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sook; Yoon, Myeongsun; Lee, Taehun

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) modeling is often used to test a latent group mean difference while assuming the equivalence of factor loadings and intercepts over groups. However, this study demonstrated that MIMIC was insensitive to the presence of factor loading noninvariance, which implies that factor loading invariance should be…

  14. Nuclear power station: validation of a method for designing operation mimic diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colard, M.I.; De Vlaminck, M.; Javaux, D.

    1995-01-01

    This is the first time in a Belgium nuclear power station that the design of mimic diagrams has involved biotechnologists. The methodology is based upon task analysis, the formalism of which has been evaluated. It is now integrated in the Dimos assisted supervision system to produce the final design of mimic diagram images. (authors). 3 figs., 3 refs

  15. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, K.; Jos, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M 1 V 1 generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m 2 area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing

  16. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, K; Jos, J S [Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    1988-07-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m{sup 2} area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing.

  17. Hyperechoic caudate nuclei: a potential mimic of germinal matrix hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Shackelford, G.D.; Adcock, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Background. We have encountered bilateral hyperechoic foci in the region of the germinal matrix on cranial sonograms in neonates that have an appearance similar to germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), but are unusual either due to the age of the patient at presentation or to the evolution of the foci on follow-up. We believe that these findings represent hyperechoic caudate nuclei (HCN) rather than GMH. Objective. To demonstrate that bilateral HCN can be seen on cranial sonography in neonates and can mimic bilateral GMH. Materials and methods. The cranial sonograms were reviewed in nine neonates (three term and six premature) who had HCN identified on at least one sonographic examination. CT (two patients) and MR (one patient) studies were also reviewed, as well as the neuropathological examination in one patient who died and had an autopsy. The patients' medical records were reviewed to identify any clinical markers for significant risk of perinatal ischemia. Results. There was clinical evidence for risk of ischemia in five of the nine neonates. All nine patients had bilateral HCN on the initial or follow-up studies. Small cysts were seen sonographically in two patients. CT was normal in one patient and revealed a small unilateral focus of increased attenuation in one infant (very small compared to the bilateral HCN). MR was normal in one patient. Histopathological examination of the brain was normal in the one patient who died and had an autopsy. Conclusion. Hyperechoic caudate nuclei can occur in neonates either as a normal finding, or possibly related to ischemia, and should not always be attributed to GMH. (orig.)

  18. Incidental benign parotid lesions on FDG-PET: prevalence and clinico-pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Il Han; Lee, Won Woo; Chung, Jin Haeng; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Incidental parotid lesions on F-18 FDG-PET can mimic distant metastasis of underlying malignancy. The prevalence and the clinico-pathologic findings of PET positive parotid lesions have not been known. We investigated how often incidental parotid lesions are found on clinical FDG-PET studies and what the clinico-pathologic characteristics of those parotid lesions are in the present study. We retrospectively reviewed 3,344 cases of FDG-PET which had been obtained in our hospital from May 2003 to Dec 2006. The indications of FDG-PET were: evaluation of known/suspected cancer (n = 3,212) or screening of cancer in healthy subjects (n = 132). Incidental parotid lesion on FDG-PET was defined as an un-expected FDG uptake in one of parotid glands which was not primary target lesion of current FDG/PET. FDG uptake was represented by maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV). Final diagnosis was made by pathologic analysis or clinical follow-up assessment. Fifteen (0.45% = 15/3,344) incidental parotid lesions were found and they were all benign lesions. The maxSUV ranged from 1.7 to 8.6 (mean ± s.d. = 3.7 ± 1.9). Final diagnoses of the incidental parotid lesions were; Warthin's tumor (n = 2), pleomorphic adenoma (n = 1), other un-specified benign lesion (n 1), and benign lesions under bases of imaging studies (n = 3) and of clinical follow-up (n = 8). All of incidentally found parotid lesions in clinical FDG-PET studies were confirmed as benign lesions with prevalence of 0.45%. Close follow up using PET or CT might be a reasonable approach for determining the nature of incidentally found parotid lesions

  19. Sharing mutants and experimental information prepublication using FgMutantDb (https://scabusa.org/FgMutantDb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Thomas T; Basenko, Evelina; Harb, Omar; Brown, Neil A; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Bregitzer, Phil P

    2018-06-01

    There is no comprehensive storage for generated mutants of Fusarium graminearum or data associated with these mutants. Instead, researchers relied on several independent and non-integrated databases. FgMutantDb was designed as a simple spreadsheet that is accessible globally on the web that will function as a centralized source of information on F. graminearum mutants. FgMutantDb aids in the maintenance and sharing of mutants within a research community. It will serve also as a platform for disseminating prepublication results as well as negative results that often go unreported. Additionally, the highly curated information on mutants in FgMutantDb will be shared with other databases (FungiDB, Ensembl, PhytoPath, and PHI-base) through updating reports. Here we describe the creation and potential usefulness of FgMutantDb to the F. graminearum research community, and provide a tutorial on its use. This type of database could be easily emulated for other fungal species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Lesion progression in post-treatment persistent endodontic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victoria Soo Hoon; Messer, Harold Henry; Shen, Liang; Yee, Robert; Hsu, Chin-ying Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Radiographic lesions related to root-filled teeth may persist for long periods after treatment and are considered to indicate failure of initial treatment. Persistent lesions are found in a proportion of cases, but information on lesion progression is lacking. This study examined the incidence of lesion improvement, remaining unchanged, and deterioration among persistent lesions in a group of patients recruited from a university-based clinic and identified potential predictors for lesion progression. Patients of a university clinic with persistent endodontic lesions at least 4 years since treatment and with original treatment radiographs available were recruited with informed consent. Data were obtained by interview and from dental records and clinical and radiographic examinations. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS (version 19). One hundred fifty-one persistent lesions were identified in 114 patients. A majority of the lesions (107, 70.9%) received treatment between 4 and 5 years prior. Eighty-six lesions (57.0%) improved, 18 (11.9%) remained unchanged, and 47 (31.1%) deteriorated since treatment. Potential predictors for lesions that did not improve included recall lesion size, pain on biting at recall examination, history of a postobturation flare-up, and a non-ideal root-filling length (P < .05). Lesions that had persisted for a longer period appeared less likely to be improving (relative risk, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.077). A specific time interval alone should not be used to conclude that a lesion will not resolve without intervention. This study identified several clinical factors that are associated with deteriorating persistent lesions, which should aid in identifying lesions that require further intervention. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lesser-known myelin-related disorders: focal tumour-like demyelinating lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Arango, J A; Uribe Uribe, C S; Toro González, G

    2015-03-01

    Focal tumour-like demyelinating lesions are defined as solitary demyelinating lesions with a diameter greater than 2 cm. In imaging studies, these lesions may mimic a neoplasm or brain abscess; as a result, invasive diagnostic and therapeutic measures may be performed that will in some cases increase morbidity. Our aim was to analyse and characterise these lesions according to their clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics, and this data in addition to our literature review will contribute to a better understanding of these lesions. This descriptive study includes 5 cases with pathological diagnoses. We provide subject characteristics gathered through reviewing their clinical, radiology, and pathology reports. Patients' ages ranged from 12 to 60 years; 3 patients were female. The time delay between symptom onset and hospital admission was 3 to 120 days. Clinical manifestations were diverse and dependent on the location of the lesion, pyramidal signs were found in 80% of patients, there were no clinical or radiological signs of spinal cord involvement, and follow-up times ranged from 1 to 15 years. Brain biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of demyelinating tumour-like lesions; however, their clinical features, along with several magnetic resonance imaging features such as open ring enhancement, venular enhancement, the presence of glutamate in spectroscopy, and others, may be sufficient to differentiate neoplastic lesions from focal tumour-like demyelinating lesions. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on reduced height mutants in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narahari, P.; Bhagwat, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two cross-bred derivatives of the mutant TR5xTR17 and TR21 continued to show promise and were advanced to wider scale testing. TR5 was found to carry a semi-dwarfing gene different from that in IR8. New semi-dwarf mutants were screened from M 2 through M 4 from two separate radiation experiments. The gibberellin response of seedlings of mutant and tester strains was evaluated and crosses of tester stocks and mutant semi-dwarfs were made for genetic analyses. (author)

  3. Stroke mimics under the drip-and-ship paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sonal; Vora, Nirav; Edgell, Randall C; Allam, Hesham; Alawi, Aws; Koehne, Jennifer; Kumar, Abhay; Feen, Eliahu; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Alshekhlee, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggested better outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis. We hypothesized that a higher rate of stroke mimics (SM) among AIS treated in nonspecialized stroke centers that are transferred to comprehensive centers is responsible for such outcomes. Consecutive patients treated with thrombolysis according to the admission criteria were reviewed in a single comprehensive stroke center over 1 academic year (July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). Information on the basic demographic, hospital complications, psychiatric diagnoses, and discharge disposition was collected. We identified those patients who were treated at a facility and then transferred to the tertiary center (ie, drip-and-ship paradigm). In addition to comparative and adjusted analysis to identify predictors for SM, a stratified analysis by the drip-and-ship status was performed. One hundred twenty patients were treated with thrombolysis for AIS included in this analysis; 20 (16.7%) were discharged with the final diagnosis of SM; 14 of those had conversion syndrome and 6 patients had other syndromes (seizures, migraine, and hypoglycemia). Patients with SM were younger (55.6 ± 15.0 versus 69.4 ± 14.9, P = .0003) and more likely to harbor psychiatric diagnoses (45% versus 9%; P ≤ .0001). Eighteen of 20 SM patients (90%) had the drip-and-ship treatment paradigm compared with 65% of those with AIS (P = .02). None of the SM had hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged to home. Predictors of SM on adjusted analysis included the drip-and-ship paradigm (odds ratio [OR] 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78, 92.1) and history of any psychiatric illness (OR 12.08; 95% CI 3.14, 46.4). Eighteen of 83 drip-and-ship patients (21.7%) were diagnosed with SM compared with 2 of 37 patients (5.4%) presented directly to the hub hospital (P = .02). The drip-and-ship paradigm and any psychiatric history predict the diagnosis of

  4. Accumulation of murine amyloid-β mimics early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Markus; Bracke, Alexander; Avchalumov, Yosef; Schumacher, Toni; Hofrichter, Jacqueline; Paarmann, Kristin; Fröhlich, Christina; Lange, Cathleen; Brüning, Thomas; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver; Pahnke, Jens

    2015-08-01

    Amyloidosis mouse models of Alzheimer's disease are generally established by transgenic approaches leading to an overexpression of mutated human genes that are known to be involved in the generation of amyloid-β in Alzheimer's families. Although these models made substantial contributions to the current knowledge about the 'amyloid hypothesis' of Alzheimer's disease, the overproduction of amyloid-β peptides mimics only inherited (familiar) Alzheimer's disease, which accounts for patients with Alzheimer's disease. The inherited form is even regarded a 'rare' disease according to the regulations for funding of the European Union (www.erare.eu). Here, we show that mice that are double-deficient for neprilysin (encoded by Mme), one major amyloid-β-degrading enzyme, and the ABC transporter ABCC1, a major contributor to amyloid-β clearance from the brain, develop various aspects of sporadic Alzheimer's disease mimicking the clinical stage of mild cognitive impairment. Using behavioural tests, electrophysiology and morphological analyses, we compared different ABC transporter-deficient animals and found that alterations are most prominent in neprilysin × ABCC1 double-deficient mice. We show that these mice have a reduced probability to survive, show increased anxiety in new environments, and have a reduced working memory performance. Furthermore, we detected morphological changes in the hippocampus and amygdala, e.g. astrogliosis and reduced numbers of synapses, leading to defective long-term potentiation in functional measurements. Compared to human, murine amyloid-β is poorly aggregating, due to changes in three amino acids at N-terminal positions 5, 10, and 13. Interestingly, our findings account for the action of early occurring amyloid-β species/aggregates, i.e. monomers and small amyloid-β oligomers. Thus, neprilysin × ABCC1 double-deficient mice present a new model for early effects of amyloid-β-related mild cognitive impairment that allows investigations

  5. Membrane-Mimic Nanoparticles for Drug and Gene Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod

    2017-12-01

    Nanoscale organic particles have gained a prominent role in drug and gene delivery field. As the nature of the nanoparticle’s (NPs) surface plays a major role in their targeting efficiency, bioavailability, and cytotoxicity, membrane-mimic nanoparticles are considered highly attractive materials for in vivo and in vitro applications. Synthetic membrane vesicles (liposomes) and nanoconstructs built with native cancer cellular membrane are excellent scaffolds to improve cellular delivery. Liposomes have been extensively used due to their high loading capacity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, modifications with stimuli responsive materials are highly needed to improve their stability and turn them active participants in controlled delivery. Towards a nature inspired approach, reconstructed bilayers from cell membrane are a good candidate to enhance NP’s targeting ability and biocompatibility. The primary focus of this research is to develop smart responsive (lipid) membrane coated NPs with surface modifications for controlled and targeted drug and/or gene delivery for application in cancer therapy. Three approaches have been developed, namely i) liposomes as thermoresponsive nanocarriers for the delivery of genetic material; ii) magnetically photosensitive liposome hybrids and iii) biomimetic periodic mesoporous organo silica engineered for better a biocompatibility and targeting capabilities. In the first project synthetic liposomes were loaded with ammonium bicarbonate salt (ABC) and siRNA. The combination of lipids chosen and the relative ratios allowed the rapid release of the genetic material to the multi drug resistant cancer cells studied, upon external heat trigger. This design has improved the gene silencing efficiency via successful endosomal escape. In the second project, SPIO@Au nanoparticles were imbedded in the lipid bilayer to produce a photo/thermal responsive carrier that could be also used in cell imaging besides gene transfection

  6. Loss of a neural AMP-activated kinase mimics the effects of elevated serotonin on fat, movement, and hormonal secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Cunningham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator of metabolism and a therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. As an energy sensor, AMPK activity is responsive to both metabolic inputs, for instance the ratio of AMP to ATP, and numerous hormonal cues. As in mammals, each of two genes, aak-1 and aak-2, encode for the catalytic subunit of AMPK in C. elegans. Here we show that in C. elegans loss of aak-2 mimics the effects of elevated serotonin signaling on fat reduction, slowed movement, and promoting exit from dauer arrest. Reconstitution of aak-2 in only the nervous system restored wild type fat levels and movement rate to aak-2 mutants and reconstitution in only the ASI neurons was sufficient to significantly restore dauer maintenance to the mutant animals. As in elevated serotonin signaling, inactivation of AAK-2 in the ASI neurons caused enhanced secretion of dense core vesicles from these neurons. The ASI neurons are the site of production of the DAF-7 TGF-β ligand and the DAF-28 insulin, both of which are secreted by dense core vesicles and play critical roles in whether animals stay in dauer or undergo reproductive development. These findings show that elevated levels of serotonin promote enhanced secretions of systemic regulators of pro-growth and differentiation pathways through inactivation of AAK-2. As such, AMPK is not only a recipient of hormonal signals but can also be an upstream regulator. Our data suggest that some of the physiological phenotypes previously attributed to peripheral AAK-2 activity on metabolic targets may instead be due to the role of this kinase in neural serotonin signaling.

  7. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  8. Localization of lesions in aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Kei; Watanabe, Shunzo; Tasaki, Hiroichi; Sato, Tokijiro; Metoki, Hirobumi.

    1984-01-01

    Using a microcomputer, the locus and extent of the lesions, as demonstrated by computed tomography for 127 cases with various types of aphasia were superimposed onto standardized marices. The relationship between the foci of the lesions and the types of aphasia was investigated. Broca aphasics (n=39) : Since the accumulated site of the lesions highly involved the deep structures of the lower part of the precentral gyrus as well as the insula and lenticular nucleus, only 60% of the Broca aphasics had lesions on these areas. This finding has proved to have little localizing value. Wernicke aphasics (n=23) : The size of the lesion was significantly smaller than Broca's aphasia. At least 70% of the patients had the superior temporal lesions involving Wernicke's area and subcortical lesions of the superior and middle temporal gyri. Amnestic aphasics (n=18) : The size of the lesion was smaller than any other types. While there was some concentration of the lesions (maximum 40%) in the area of the subcortical region of the anterior temporal gyrus adjacent to Wernicke's area and the lenticular nucleus, the lesions were distributed throughout the left hemisphere. Amnestic aphasia was thought to be the least localizable. Conduction aphasics (n=11) : The lesions were relatively small in size. Many patients had posterior speech area lesions involving at least partially Wernicke's area. In particular, more than 80% of the conduction aphasics had lesions of the supramarginal gyrus and it's adjacent deep structures. Global aphasics (n=36) : In general, the size of the lesion was very large and 70% of the global aphasics had extensive lesions involving both Broca's and Wernicke's areas. However, there were observations showing that the lesions can be small and confined. (J.P.N.)

  9. Open-access MIMIC-II database for intensive care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon; Scott, Daniel J; Villarroel, Mauricio; Clifford, Gari D; Saeed, Mohammed; Mark, Roger G

    2011-01-01

    The critical state of intensive care unit (ICU) patients demands close monitoring, and as a result a large volume of multi-parameter data is collected continuously. This represents a unique opportunity for researchers interested in clinical data mining. We sought to foster a more transparent and efficient intensive care research community by building a publicly available ICU database, namely Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II). The data harnessed in MIMIC-II were collected from the ICUs of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from 2001 to 2008 and represent 26,870 adult hospital admissions (version 2.6). MIMIC-II consists of two major components: clinical data and physiological waveforms. The clinical data, which include patient demographics, intravenous medication drip rates, and laboratory test results, were organized into a relational database. The physiological waveforms, including 125 Hz signals recorded at bedside and corresponding vital signs, were stored in an open-source format. MIMIC-II data were also deidentified in order to remove protected health information. Any interested researcher can gain access to MIMIC-II free of charge after signing a data use agreement and completing human subjects training. MIMIC-II can support a wide variety of research studies, ranging from the development of clinical decision support algorithms to retrospective clinical studies. We anticipate that MIMIC-II will be an invaluable resource for intensive care research by stimulating fair comparisons among different studies.

  10. Hyperkeratotic porokeratosis ptychotropica with satellite lesions: a rare presentation of an unusual variant of porokeratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Debeeka; Pawar, Manoj

    2017-12-01

    Since its description in 1995, porokeratosis ptychotropica (PP) has remained a less-recognized variant of porokeratosis (PK). The term porokeratosis ptychotropica was coined in reference to its characteristic of affecting body folds. It mimics many other dermatological diseases and is therefore often misdiagnosed. We report a patient with multiple hyperkeratotic, warty lesions across the buttocks that mimicked cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB), but histological examination confirmed the correct diagnosis of PP.

  11. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  12. Genetic fingerprinting of mutant rose cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Prasad, K V; Singh, K P; Singh, A.P. [Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: kvprasad66@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Six rose mutants evolved at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi from four parent cultivars were characterized based on RAPD markers. Contrary to the earlier findings our effort has conclusively proven that the RAPD markers are indeed robust tools to discern the mutants from their parents. Among 40 primers screened, 7 primers produced inconsistent banding pattern. The number of polymorphic bands varied between 4 (OPA 14) and 10 (OPA1) with an average of 6.5 bands per primer. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 62.5 (OPM 9) to 100 percent (OPA 1). Most of the primers produced monomorphic bands between parent and mutant rose cultivars. When primer OPA 2 was used a specific band of 2.5 kb was noticed in mutant cv. Pusa Urmil and cv. Pusa Abhishek but was absent in parent cv. Jantar Mantar. A polymorphic band of 750 bp was noticed in the parent Kiss of Fire and helped in differentiating the parent from its mutant when amplified with OPK 3. Primer OPS 16 produced discriminatory band of 800 bp in mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma while it was absent in its parent cv. Montezuma. Another specific band of 650 bp was present in parent cv. Montezuma and absent in its mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma signifying the uniqueness of the mutant. Primer OPM 5 brought out distinct polymorphism among the parent Jantar Mantar and its three mutants with absence of a specific band of 1.5 kb in the parent. The four parents and 6 mutants were divided into four distinct groups in the Dendogram constructed by UPGMA method. The most genetically similar cultivar among the 10 cultivars analyzed are Montezuma and its pink sport of Montezuma whereas Abhisarika a mutant of cv. Kiss of Fire was distinctly different and formed a separate cluster. (author)

  13. Vibrio cholerae Infection of Drosophilamelanogaster Mimics the Human Disease Cholera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholera, the pandemic diarrheal disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, continues to be a major public health challenge in the developing world. Cholera toxin, which is responsible for the voluminous stools of cholera, causes constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase, resulting in the export of ions into the intestinal lumen. Environmental studies have demonstrated a close association between V. cholerae and many species of arthropods including insects. Here we report the susceptibility of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to oral V. cholerae infection through a process that exhibits many of the hallmarks of human disease: (i death of the fly is dependent on the presence of cholera toxin and is preceded by rapid weight loss; (ii flies harboring mutant alleles of either adenylyl cyclase, Gsalpha, or the Gardos K channel homolog SK are resistant to V. cholerae infection; and (iii ingestion of a K channel blocker along with V. cholerae protects wild-type flies against death. In mammals, ingestion of as little as 25 mug of cholera toxin results in massive diarrhea. In contrast, we found that ingestion of cholera toxin was not lethal to the fly. However, when cholera toxin was co-administered with a pathogenic strain of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomal deletion of the genes encoding cholera toxin, death of the fly ensued. These findings suggest that additional virulence factors are required for intoxication of the fly that may not be essential for intoxication of mammals. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time the mechanism of action of cholera toxin in a whole organism and the utility of D. melanogaster as an accurate, inexpensive model for elucidation of host susceptibility to cholera.

  14. Nasopalatine duct cyst mimicking an endodontic periapical lesion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Rhythm; Verma, Promila; Chandra, Anil; Tikku, A P; Singh, Nimisha

    2016-01-01

    Lesions of nonendodontic origin, such as nasopalatine or globulomaxillary cysts, may mimic periapical radiolucencies associated with pulpal pathosis, and incorrect diagnosis may lead to unnecessary endodontic treatment. Horizontal root fractures most commonly affect the maxillary central and lateral incisors. Prognosis depends largely on the level of fracture; fractures in the apical third have the best prognosis, and those in the cervical third have the worst. This case report discusses surgical and restorative management of a patient who had a nasopalatine cyst that had been misdiagnosed and treated as an endodontic lesion of the maxillary right central incisor as well as a midroot horizontal fracture of the adjacent lateral incisor.

  15. Novel mutations in β-tubulin gene in Trichoderma harzianum mutants resistant to methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Zhang, H Y; Liang, B

    2013-01-01

    Twelve-low resistant (LR) mutants of Trichoderma harzianum with the capability of grow fast at 0.8 μg/mL methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC) were obtained using UV mutagenesis. MR and HR mutants which could grow fast at 10 and 100 μg/mL MBC, respectively, were isolated by step-up selection protocols in which UV-treated mutants were induced and mycelial sector screening was made in plates with growth medium. Subsequently, β-tubulin genes of 14 mutants were cloned to describe-the molecular lesion likely to be responsible-for MBC resistance. Comparison of the β-tubulin sequences of the mutant and sensitive strains of T. harzianum revealed 2 new MBC-binding sites differed from those in other plant pathogens. A single mutation at-amino acid 168, having Phe (TTC) instead of Ser (TCC)', was demonstrated for the HR mutant; a double mutation in amino acid 13 resulting in the substitution of Gly (GGC) by Val (GTG) was observed in β-tubulin gene of MR mutant. On the other hand, no substitutions were identified in the β-tubulin gene and its 5'-flanking regions in 12 LR mutants of T. harzianum.

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of cardiac glycoside mimics as potential anticancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie; Schmidt, Steffen; Fedosova, Natalya

    2011-01-01

    recent years cardiac glycosides have furthermore been suggested to possess valuable anticancer activity. To mimic the labile trisaccharide of digitoxin with a stabile carbohydrate surrogate, we have used sulfur linked ethylene glycol moieties of varying length (mono-, di-, tri- or tetra-ethylene glycol...... the shortest mimics were found to have highest efficacy, with the best ligand having a monoethylene glycol unit (IC(50) 0.24 μM), which was slightly better than digitoxigenin (IC(50) 0.64 μM), while none of the novel cardiac glycoside mimics display an in vitro effect as high as digitoxin (IC(50) 0.02 μM)....

  17. Defective DNA cross-link removal in Chinese hamster cell mutants hypersensitive to bifunctional alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, C.A.; Thompson, L.H.; Mooney, C.L.; Salazar, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    DNA repair-deficient mutants from five genetic complementation groups isolated previously from Chinese hamster cells were assayed for survival after exposure to the bifunctional alkylating agents mitomycin C or diepoxybutane. Groups 1, 3, and 5 exhibited 1.6- to 3-fold hypersensitivity compared to the wild-type cells, whereas Groups 2 and 4 exhibited extraordinary hypersensitivity. Mutants from Groups 1 and 2 were exposed to 22 other bifunctional alkylating agents in a rapid assay that compared cytotoxicity of the mutants to the wild-type parental strain, AA8. With all but two of the compounds, the Group 2 mutant (UV4) was 15- to 60-fold more sensitive than AA8 or the Group 1 mutant (UV5). UV4 showed only 6-fold hypersensitivity to quinacrine mustard. Alkaline elution measurements showed that this compound produced few DNA interstrand cross-links but numerous strand breaks. Therefore, the extreme hypersensitivity of mutants from Groups 2 and 4 appeared specific for compounds the main cytotoxic lesions of which were DNA cross-links. Mutant UV5 was only 1- to 4-fold hypersensitive to all the compounds. Although the initial number of cross-links was similar for the three cell lines, the efficiency of removal of cross-links was lowest in UV4 and intermediate in UV5. These results suggest that the different levels of sensitivity are specifically related to different efficiencies of DNA cross-link removal. The phenotype of hypersensitivity to both UV radiation and cross-link damage exhibited by the mutants in Groups 2 and 4 appears to differ from those of the known human DNA repair syndromes

  18. Groove Pancreatitis – A Mimic of Pancreatic and Periampullary Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakami R Pradheepkumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Groove Pancreatitis (GP is a rare form of focal chronic pancreatitis involving the pancreatico-duodenal groove (PDG. GP was first described by Becker in 1973. Though, GP has been described so many years ago, it is still unfamiliar among most physicians because of lack of sufficient case studies and clinical similarity of GP to conventional pancreatitis. Imaging based differentiation of GP from other lesions, like pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma is also not possible in all the cases, unless there are typical findings favoring GP. Since, the line of treatment and outcome is totally different in these two conditions, appreciation of the fine differences between these two entities is very significant. Groove pancreatitis is symptomatically treated with medicines and only for patients with continuous and severe symptoms which are not amenable to medical treatment surgical management is considered. Radiological differentiation of GP from pancreatic and periampullary malignancies will help to avoid unnecessary surgery in the initial stages. We report two cases of GP, one of pure and other of segmental form where we found typical imaging features which pointed to the diagnosis of GP with a small discussion about the Computed tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI appearance of this entity as well as its differential diagnosis.

  19. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  20. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to the wild CC-124, these mutants are characterized by a decrease in chlorophyll a & b content and an increase in carotenoids. The lowest decrease in chlorophyll a was 3 to 4 folds, while the highest increase in carotenoids was 2 to 4 folds. The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii ...

  1. A library of MiMICs allows tagging of genes and reversible, spatial and temporal knockdown of proteins in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Sonal; Lee, Pei-Tseng; Campbell, Megan E; Chen, Kuchuan; Anguiano-Zarate, Stephanie; Cantu Gutierrez, Manuel; Busby, Theodore; Lin, Wen-Wen; He, Yuchun; Schulze, Karen L; Booth, Benjamin W; Evans-Holm, Martha; Venken, Koen JT; Levis, Robert W; Spradling, Allan C; Hoskins, Roger A; Bellen, Hugo J

    2015-01-01

    Here, we document a collection of ∼7434 MiMIC (Minos Mediated Integration Cassette) insertions of which 2854 are inserted in coding introns. They allowed us to create a library of 400 GFP-tagged genes. We show that 72% of internally tagged proteins are functional, and that more than 90% can be imaged in unfixed tissues. Moreover, the tagged mRNAs can be knocked down by RNAi against GFP (iGFPi), and the tagged proteins can be efficiently knocked down by deGradFP technology. The phenotypes associated with RNA and protein knockdown typically correspond to severe loss of function or null mutant phenotypes. Finally, we demonstrate reversible, spatial, and temporal knockdown of tagged proteins in larvae and adult flies. This new strategy and collection of strains allows unprecedented in vivo manipulations in flies for many genes. These strategies will likely extend to vertebrates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05338.001 PMID:25824290

  2. Analysis of pulmonary coin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, O; Kim, K. H.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    For A long time the solitary pulmonary nodule has remained a difficult problem to solve and has attracted a great deal of attension in recent years. Circumscribed coin lesions of the lung were generally peripheral in location with respect to the pulmonary hilus. Because of this, important clinical problem in management and diagnosis arise. Such a lesion is discovered through roentgenologic examination. So the roentgenologists is the first be in a position to offer advise. This presentation is an attempt to correlate a useful diagnosis with roentgenologic findings of pulmonary coin lesion which enables us to get differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesion. Histologically proven 120 cases of the pulmonary coin lesion during the period of 8 years were reviewed through plain film, tomogram, bronchoscopy, variable laboratory findings, and clinical history. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female sex ratio was 3 : 1. In age distribution, most of the malignant pulmonary coin lesion appeared in 6th decade (39%) and 5th decade (27%). In benign lesion, the most cases were in 3 rd decade. 2. Pathological cell type are as follows: Primary bronchogenic cancer 43.3%, tuberculoma 25.8%, inflammatory lesion 17.5%, benign tumor 10%, and bronchial adenoma, harmartoma, A.V. malformation, mesothelioma, are 1 case respectively. As a result benign and malignant lesion showed equal distribution (49.1% : 50.3%). 3. In symptom analysis ; cough is the most common (43.5%) symptom in malignant lesion, next follows hemoptysis (20.9%) and chest pain (14.5%). In benign lesion, most of the patient (32.7%) did not complain any symptom. 4. In malignant lesion, the most common nodular size was 4 cm (32.3%), and in benign lesion 2 cm sized coin was most common (39.3%). 5. In general, margin of nodule was very sharp and well demarcated in benign lesion (83.3%), and in malignant lesion that was less demarcated and poorly defined. 6. Most case of calcification (82.7%) was seen in benign

  3. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  4. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  5. A mutant of a mutant of a mutant of a ...: Irradiation of progressive radiation-induced mutants in a mutation-breeding programme with Chrysanthenum morifolium RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.; Koene, P.; Veen, J.W.H. van.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation-induced sports in Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM. have been reported for several years. It has become an everyday practice to produce flower-colour mutants from outstanding cross-breeding products, even before they are distributed for the commercial production of cut flowers. One of the most successful and recent examples is that of cv. Horim, of which hundreds of mutants were produced by successive use of radiation-induced mutants in the mutation-breeding programme. Over about 4 years a variety of flower-colour mutants was obtained, not only largely including the outstanding characteristics of the original cultivar but sometimes even with an appreciable improvement in quality and yield. It is expected that the latter types, the Miros group, will soon completely supersede the spontaneous or raditation-induced Horim sports and mutants and take over the leading position of the Horim group in the production of all-year-round (AYR) cut-flowers. (orig.)

  6. Los mutantes de la escuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Armando Jaramillo-Ocampo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados parciales del estudio “Juegos en el recreo escolar: un escenario para la formación ciudadana”, cuya pretensión fue comprender los imaginarios sociales de juego en el recreo escolar y su relación con la convivencia social desde la proximidad del enfoque de complementariedad y el diseño de investigación emergente, planteado por Murcia y Jaramillo (2008. Se presentan los desarrollos logrados en dos categorías centrales del estudio: el patio y el cuerpo; dos categorías que mutan constantemente como entidades vivas en la escuela, hacia la configuración de sujetos que reconocen en el otro y lo otro su posibilidad. La escuela viva, donde es posible “ser en relación con”… se reduce a un espacio temporal y físico, limitado por la campana, “el recreo”. El texto muestra, desde la voz de los actores, esa vida que se da y se quita en la escuela y que se posiciona como una más de las imposiciones normalizadas para controlar. Reconoce, finalmente, una propuesta desde la posibilidad que estos dos mutantes propician para una escuela libre y dinámica.

  7. Diagnostic challenges of tubercular lesions of breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim; Jetley, Sujata; Rana, Safia; Khetrapal, Shaan; Khan, Sabina; Hassan, Mohammad Jaseem

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) in the developing countries presents with both pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations. Breast TB, however, remains a rare presentation. Its importance lies in the fact that it may mimic malignancy or present as inflammatory lump/abscess. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to highlight the importance of breast TB and its diagnostic challenges. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital, over 2 years between 2013 and 2015 during which eight cases of breast lesions were diagnosed as of tubercular origin. RESULTS: Granulomas were seen in five cases while three cases revealed only few epithelioid cells, and necrosis was seen in all cases on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Histopathological evaluation was available in six out of the eight cases, while acid–fast bacilli were positive in three cases, the characteristic granulomas were seen in all the six cases evaluated. CONCLUSION: Significance of TB breast lies in the fact that it may masquerade as breast malignancy or pyogenic abscess. India is a developing country where TB is endemic, a high index of suspicion should be expressed in evaluating breast masses, and TB should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:29692584

  8. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  9. Potential Therapeutic Uses of p19ARF Mimics in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hann, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Since many breast tumors have deregulated c-Myc we hypothesize that an ARF mimic would be a valuable therapeutic agent for breast cancer to inhibit c-Myc-induced transformation/tumorigenesis without...

  10. [Discussion of the implementation of MIMIC database in emergency medical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiyuan; Feng, Cong; Jia, Lijing; Chen, Li; Pan, Fei; Li, Tanshi

    2018-05-01

    To introduce Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) database and elaborate the approach of critically emergent research with big data based on the feature of MIMIC and updated studies both domestic and overseas, we put forward the feasibility and necessity of introducing medical big data to research in emergency. Then we discuss the role of MIMIC database in emergency clinical study, as well as the principles and key notes of experimental design and implementation under the medical big data circumstance. The implementation of MIMIC database in emergency medical research provides a brand new field for the early diagnosis, risk warning and prognosis of critical illness, however there are also limitations. To meet the era of big data, emergency medical database which is in accordance with our national condition is needed, which will provide new energy to the development of emergency medicine.

  11. Pattern Differences of Small Hand Muscle Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Mimic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Guan, Yu-Zhou; Du, Hua; Li, Ben-Hong; Cui, Bo; Ding, Qing-Yun; Cui, Li-Ying

    2016-04-05

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and some mimic disorders, such as distal-type cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA), Hirayama disease (HD), and spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) may present with intrinsic hand muscle atrophy. This study aimed to investigate different patterns of small hand muscle involvement in ALS and some mimic disorders. We compared the abductor digiti minimi/abductor pollicis brevis (ADM/APB) compound muscle action potential (CMAP) ratios between 200 ALS patients, 95 patients with distal-type CSA, 88 HD patients, 43 SBMA patients, and 150 normal controls. The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly higher in the ALS patients (P mimic disorders presumably reflect distinct pathophysiological mechanisms underlying different disorders, and may aid in distinguishing between ALS and mimic disorders.

  12. MOCVD process technology for affordable, high-yield, high-performance MESFET structures. Phase 3: MIMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Under the MIMIC Program, Spire has pursued improvements in the manufacturing of low cost, high quality gallium arsenide MOCVD wafers for advanced MIMIC FET applications. As a demonstration of such improvements, Spire was tasked to supply MOCVD wafers for comparison to MBE wafers in the fabrication of millimeter and microwave integrated circuits. In this, the final technical report for Spire's two-year MIMIC contract, we report the results of our work. The main objectives of Spire's MIMIC Phase 3 Program, as outlined in the Statement of Work, were as follows: Optimize the MOCVD growth conditions for the best possible electrical and morphological gallium arsenide. Optimization should include substrate and source qualification as well as determination of the optimum reactor growth conditions; Perform all work on 75 millimeter diameter wafers, using a reactor capable of at least three wafers per run; and Evaluate epitaxial layers using electrical, optical, and morphological tests to obtain thickness, carrier concentration, and mobility data across wafers.

  13. Selective chromo-fluorogenic detection of DFP (a Sarin and Soman mimic) and DCNP (a Tabun mimic) with a unique probe based on a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Bon, Andrea; Costero, Ana M; Gil, Salvador; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Sancenón, Félix

    2014-11-21

    A novel colorimetric probe (P4) for the selective differential detection of DFP (a Sarin and Soman mimic) and DCNP (a Tabun mimic) was prepared. Probe P4 contains three reactive sites; i.e. (i) a nucleophilic phenol group able to undergo phosphorylation with nerve gases, (ii) a carbonyl group as a reactive site for cyanide; and (iii) a triisopropylsilyl (TIPS) protecting group that is known to react with fluoride. The reaction of P4 with DCNP in acetonitrile resulted in both the phosphorylation of the phenoxy group and the release of cyanide, which was able to react with the carbonyl group of P4 to produce a colour modulation from pink to orange. In contrast, phosphorylation of P4 with DFP in acetonitrile released fluoride that hydrolysed the TIPS group in P4 to yield a colour change from pink to blue. Probe P4 was able to discriminate between DFP and DCNP with remarkable sensitivity; limits of detection of 0.36 and 0.40 ppm for DCNP and DFP, respectively, were calculated. Besides, no interference from other organophosphorous derivatives or with presence of acid was observed. The sensing behaviour of P4 was also retained when incorporated into silica gel plates or onto polyethylene oxide membranes, which allowed the development of simple test strips for the colorimetric detection of DCNP and DFP in the vapour phase. P4 is the first probe capable of colorimetrically differentiating between a Tabun mimic (DCNP) and a Sarin and Soman mimic (DFP).

  14. Induction of Mutants in Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Ubaidi, M.; Ibrahim, I.; AL-Hadithi, A.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation presents a breeding program for induction and development of a new genotype of durum wheat, resistant to lodging with high yield, by irradiation durum wheat hybrids (F2) with gamma rays 100 Gy, during 1990-1997 cultivation seasons. This program involves: induction of variability, selection evaluation of the mutants at three locations: Twaitha (Baghdad) Latifya ( Babylon) and Swari (Kutt). All mutants showed resistance to lodging and there was a significant reduction in plant height. Mutant SIXIZ-22 surpassed other mutants and its origin in lodging resistance and plant height (83.5,82.8 and 89.4 cm) in the three locations at generation M5 and M6, respectively. Also, there were significant differences between mutant and their origin in the number of spikes/M 2 and grain yild during the two successive generation. On the other hand, mutant IZxCO-105 surpassed other mutants in the number of spikes/M 2 (231.8,242.3 and 292) and grain yield (4336,3376 and 5232 kg/ha) in all testing location, respectively . (authors) 14 refs., 4 tabs

  15. In vitro enzyme-mimic activity and in vivo therapeutic potential of HSJ-0017, a novel Mn porphyrin-based antioxidant enzyme mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-qiu; Dong, Xin; Li, Na; Gao, Ji-you; Yuan, Qiang; Fang, Shi-hong; Gong, Xian-chang; Wang, Shu-juan; Wang, Feng-shan

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (III) 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis [3-(2-(2-methoxy)-ethoxy) ethoxy] phenyl porphyrin chloride, designated HSJ-0017, is a novel antioxidant enzyme mimic. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enzyme-mimic activity and the therapeutic potential of HSJ-0017 in free radical-related diseases. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic activity was measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium chloride monohydrate reduction assay. Catalase (CAT) mimic activity was measured based on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The antitumor, radioprotective and chemoprotective effects of HSJ-0017 were evaluated in H22 or S180 tumor-bearing Kunming mice. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects were, respectively, evaluated in histamine-induced edema model and CCl4-induced hepatic damage model in Wistar rats. HSJ-0017 over a concentration range of 0.001-10 µmol/L significantly inhibited the generation of superoxide anion. Significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity was observed when the concentration of HSJ-0017 was higher than 0.01 µmol/L. HSJ-0017 at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg exhibited significant antitumor effect on S180 tumor xenografts, whereas no significant antitumor effect was observed in H22 tumor xenografts. HSJ-0017 at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg enhanced the antitumor effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and reduced their toxicity. However, HSJ-0017 counteracted the antitumor effects of radiotherapy when administered simultaneously with radiotherapy. HSJ-0017 showed significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. Our results demonstrate that HSJ-0017 exhibits antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, radioprotective, chemoprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. It is a potent dual SOD/CAT mimic. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  16. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  17. Management of Preinvasive Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, Maria G; Corzo, Camila; Iniesta, Maria; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2017-12-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma is considered the precursor lesion of high-grade serous carcinoma, and found in both low-risk and high-risk populations. Isolated serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations are detected in ∼2% of patients undergoing risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and even with removal of the tubes and ovaries the rate of developing primary peritoneal carcinoma following remains up to 7.5%. Postoperative recommendations after finding incidental STICs remain unclear and surgical staging, adjuvant chemotherapy, or observation have been proposed. Discovery of STIC should prompt consideration of hereditary cancer program referral for BRCA1/2 mutation screening.

  18. Spectrum of induced floral mutants in Petunia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, V.; Sudhakar, P.

    1987-01-01

    A total of six floral mutants of garden Petunia isolated from the populations raised from the seed treatment with γ-rays, 2, 4-D and sodium azide are described. Five of the mutants viz. stellata, Campyloflora, Rubriflora mixed, Grandiflora and Albiflora mixed originated as segregants in M 2 generation while the chimeral floral phenotype was expressed in M 1 generation itself. Breeding behaviour of these horticulturally interesting altered floral phenotypes were studied in subsequent generations and appropriate conclusions were drawn regarding mode of inheritance of the mutant traits. 15 refs., 4 figures, 1 table. (author)

  19. Testicular hemorrhage, necrosis, and vasculopathy: likely manifestations of intermittent torsion that clinically mimic a neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Sui; Zhang, Chen; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    We report 30 cases of testicular hemorrhage and/or necrosis with associated vascular damage that caused clinical concern for a neoplasm and that raised the question of a vasculitis syndrome on pathologic examination. The patients were 12 to 66 years old (median, 33 y) and presented with pain (n=15), mass (n=12), or both (n=2); 1 case had no available clinical information. Ultrasonographic interpretations included a neoplasm in the differential diagnoses in 14 of 18 cases in which this information was available, and most (n=24) had orchiectomy because of this possibility. Only 4 were clinically suspected to represent testicular infarction. Circumscribed, hemorrhagic lesions occurred in 10 cases, less demarcated hemorrhagic foci in 5, and discrete nodules or ill-defined foci of varying color and consistency in the remainder. No clear testicular lesion was described in 2, with 1 of these having a "dusky" appearance. On microscopic examination all but 1 case showed damaged blood vessels (vasculopathy), with either associated hemorrhage/hematoma (n=24) and/or areas of parenchymal necrosis (n=21). One case showed only segmental tubular atrophy with interstitial inflammation and vasculopathy; no infarct or hemorrhage was identified. A variety of vascular changes was identified, including prominent intimal thickening in arteries (n=22) and fibrinoid change in both arteries (n=5) and vessels of indeterminate type (n=8). Medial fibrosis was present in veins (n=12) and vessels of indeterminate type (n=4), whereas thrombi (remote, recanalized, and/or recent) occurred in arteries (n =7), veins (n=9), and vessels of indeterminate type (n=11). Dilated, blood-filled vessels were present in the testis and/or paratestis in 15 cases. In addition, 7 cases showed arteriolar hyalinization, and 19 had inflammation of blood vessels. The latter was lymphohistiocytic and mostly light but occasionally prominent (n=5). Interstitial inflammation was seen adjacent to damaged testicular

  20. Characterization of an MMS sensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    We have characterized a methyl methanesulfonate sensitive mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to learn more about DNA repair and mutagenesis in this organism. The mutation, designated mms3-1, also confers sensitivity to ultraviolet light and to ethyl methanesulfonate in both haploids and homozygous diploids. Its effect on γ-ray sensitivity, however, is a function of the ploidy of the cell and its effect on induced mutation is a function of both the ploidy of the cell and the nature of the inducing agent. Our major findings are discussed. Our data indicate that: (1) Saccharomyces cerevisiae has an error prone pathway for the repair of uv damage controlled by the MMS3 gene product operating in and only in, and possibly induced by conditions present only in, a/α diploids; (2) in diploids, at least, there exists at least one step in the error prone repair of uv induced damage which is different from a step in the error prone repair of EMS induced damage; (3) a/α mms3-1/mms3-1 diploids may be defective in a step common to the repair of mutagenic lesions following uv irradiation and lethal lesions following γ irradiation; and (4) there are steps in the repair of MMS induced lethal damage that are different from steps in the repair of EMS induced lethal damage

  1. Isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant with altered regulation of phosphatidylserine biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, K.; Kuge, O.; Nishijima, M.; Akamatsu, Y.

    1989-01-01

    We have screened approximately 10,000 colonies of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells immobilized on polyester cloth for mutants defective in [14C]ethanolamine incorporation into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable phospholipids. In mutant 29, discovered in this way, the activities of enzymes involved in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway were normal; however, the intracellular pool of phosphorylethanolamine was elevated, being more than 10-fold that in the parental CHO-K1 cells. These results suggested that the reduced incorporation of [14C]ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine in mutant 29 was due to dilution of phosphoryl-[14C]ethanolamine with the increased amount of cellular phosphorylethanolamine. Interestingly, the rate of incorporation of serine into phosphatidylserine and the content of phosphatidylserine in mutant 29 cells were increased 3-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively, compared with the parent cells. The overproduction of phosphorylethanolamine in mutant 29 cells was ascribed to the elevated level of phosphatidylserine biosynthesis, because ethanolamine is produced as a reaction product on the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylserine, which is catalyzed by phospholipid-serine base-exchange enzymes. Using both intact cells and the particulate fraction of a cell extract, phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in CHO-K1 cells was shown to be inhibited by phosphatidylserine itself, whereas that in mutant 29 cells was greatly resistant to the inhibition, compared with the parental cells. As a conclusion, it may be assumed that mutant 29 cells have a lesion in the regulation of phosphatidylserine biosynthesis by serine-exchange enzyme activity, which results in the overproduction of phosphatidylserine and phosphorylethanolamine as well

  2. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  3. Pilot study of large-scale production of mutant pigs by ENU mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Tang; Cao, Chunwei; Shang, Haitao; Guo, Weiwei; Mu, Yanshuang; Yang, Shulin; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Qiantao; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Xianlong; Liu, Yu; Kong, Qingran; Li, Kui; Wang, Dayu; Qi, Meng; Hong, Qianlong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiupeng; Jia, Qitao; Wang, Xiao; Qin, Guosong; Li, Yongshun; Luo, Ailing; Jin, Weiwu; Yao, Jing; Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Hongyong; Li, Menghua; Xie, Xiangmo; Zheng, Xuejuan; Guo, Kenan; Wang, Qinghua; Zhang, Shibin; Li, Liang; Xie, Fei; Zhang, Yu; Weng, Xiaogang; Yin, Zhi; Hu, Kui; Cong, Yimei; Zheng, Peng; Zou, Hailong; Xin, Leilei; Xia, Jihan; Ruan, Jinxue; Li, Hegang; Zhao, Weiming; Yuan, Jing; Liu, Zizhan; Gu, Weiwang; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Wang, Hongmei; Yang, Shiming; Liu, Zhonghua; Wei, Hong; Zhao, Jianguo; Zhou, Qi; Meng, Anming

    2017-06-22

    N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis is a powerful tool to generate mutants on a large scale efficiently, and to discover genes with novel functions at the whole-genome level in Caenorhabditis elegans, flies, zebrafish and mice, but it has never been tried in large model animals. We describe a successful systematic three-generation ENU mutagenesis screening in pigs with the establishment of the Chinese Swine Mutagenesis Consortium. A total of 6,770 G1 and 6,800 G3 pigs were screened, 36 dominant and 91 recessive novel pig families with various phenotypes were established. The causative mutations in 10 mutant families were further mapped. As examples, the mutation of SOX10 (R109W) in pig causes inner ear malfunctions and mimics human Mondini dysplasia, and upregulated expression of FBXO32 is associated with congenital splay legs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of artificial random mutagenesis in pigs and opens an avenue for generating a reservoir of mutants for agricultural production and biomedical research.

  4. SUMO-2 and PIAS1 Modulate Insoluble Mutant Huntingtin Protein Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Gire O’Rourke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A key feature in Huntington disease (HD is the accumulation of mutant Huntingtin (HTT protein, which may be regulated by posttranslational modifications. Here, we define the primary sites of SUMO modification in the amino-terminal domain of HTT, show modification downstream of this domain, and demonstrate that HTT is modified by the stress-inducible SUMO-2. A systematic study of E3 SUMO ligases demonstrates that PIAS1 is an E3 SUMO ligase for both HTT SUMO-1 and SUMO-2 modification and that reduction of dPIAS in a mutant HTT Drosophila model is protective. SUMO-2 modification regulates accumulation of insoluble HTT in HeLa cells in a manner that mimics proteasome inhibition and can be modulated by overexpression and acute knockdown of PIAS1. Finally, the accumulation of SUMO-2-modified proteins in the insoluble fraction of HD postmortem striata implicates SUMO-2 modification in the age-related pathogenic accumulation of mutant HTT and other cellular proteins that occurs during HD progression.

  5. Semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ramli; Osman, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Rusli

    1990-01-01

    Full text: MARDI and the National University of Malaysia embarked on a programme to induce resistance against blast in rice in 1978. MARDI also obtained semi dwarf mutants of cvs 'Mahsuri', 'Muda', 'Pongsu seribu' and 'Jarum Mas', which are under evaluation. The popular local rice variety 'Manik' was subjected to gamma irradiation (15-40 krad) and 101 promising semidwarf mutants have been obtained following selection in M 2 -M 6 . 29 of them show grain yields of 6.0-7.3 t/ha, compared with 5.7t for 'Manik'. Other valuable mutants were found showing long grain, less shattering, earlier maturity, and glutinous endosperm. One mutant, resistant to brown plant hopper yields 6.3t/ha. (author)

  6. X-rays sensitive mammalian cell mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    A phenomenon that in x-ray-sensitive mammalian-cell mutants, cellular death due to x-ray radiation was not increased by caffeine, but on the contrary, the dead cells were resuscitated by it was discussed. The survival rate of mutant cells increased by caffein in a low concentration. This suggested that caffeine may have induced some mechanism to produce x-ray resistant mutant cells. Postirradiation treatment with caffeine increased considerably the survival rate of the mutant cells, and this suggested the existence of latent caffeine-sensitive potentially lethal damage repair system. This system, after a few hours, is thought to be substituted by caffeine-resistant repair system which is induced by caffeine, and this may be further substituted by x-ray-resistant repair system. The repair system was also induced by adenine. (Ueda, J.)

  7. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... aquatic ecosystems were studied. In the present ... logy and photosynthesis research (Stolbov, 1995;. Pedersen ... Microalgal strain and cultivation conditions ..... evaluated for their ecotoxicological effects using 124y-1 mutant.

  8. Molecular analysis of waxy mutants in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatou, O.; Amano, E.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The 'waxy' gene is a structural gene coding a glycosyl transferase which synthesises amylose in the endosperm tissue. 'Non-waxy' rice cultivars have an active gene and their amylose content is 18-25% depending upon gene performance and modifier genes. In 'waxy' rice, no amylose is found because the enzyme is absent. In mutants induced by gamma rays, neutrons, EI or EMS, amylose content ranged from 0 to 20%, i.e. there are intermediate phenotypes as well. Some of them had the same amount of the enzyme as a 'non-waxy' cultivar, even fully 'waxy' mutants showed a certain amount of the enzyme. This suggests that in mutants there may be no structural change in the enzyme gene but the enzyme produced might be less active. By molecular analysis of the mutants' genes it was found that only two mutants induced by thermal neutrons show structural alterations, the changes in other mutants are either too small to be detected by Southern analysis or are outside the structural gene in question. (author)

  9. Commercialization Of Orchid Mutants For Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Zaiton Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Orchids are the main contributors to cut flower industry in Malaysia with an existing good market and a huge business potential. Orchid industry has been established in Malaysia since 1960s but only started to develop and expand since 1980s. Continuous development of new orchid varieties is essential to meet customers' demands. Orchid mutagenesis research using gamma irradiation at Malaysian Nuclear Agency has successfully generated a number of new orchid varieties with commercial potentials. Therefore, Nuclear Malaysia has collaborated with an industrial partner, Hexagon Green Sdn Bhd (HGSB), to carry out commercialization research on these mutants under a Technofund project entitled 'Pre-Commercialization of Mutant Orchids for Cut Flowers Industry' from July 2011 to July 2014. Through this collaboration, Dendrobium orchid mutant plants developed by Nuclear Malaysia were transferred to HGSB's commercial orchid nursery at Bukit Changgang Agrotechnology Park, Banting, Selangor, for mass-propagation. The activities include evaluations on plant growth performance, flower quality, post harvest and market potential of these mutants. Mutants with good field performance have been identified and filed for Plant Variety Protection (PVP) with Department of Agriculture Malaysia. This paper describes outputs from this collaboration and activities undertaken in commercializing these mutants. (author)

  10. Systematic Assessment of Strategies for Lung-targeted Delivery of MicroRNA Mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Kenny; Taha, Mohamad; Stewart, Duncan J.

    2018-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the use of synthetic miRNA mimics (or inhibitors) as potential therapeutic agents in pulmonary vascular disease; however, the optimal delivery method to achieve high efficiency, selective lung targeting has not been determined. Here, we sought to investigate the relative merits of different lung-targeted strategies for delivering miRNA mimics in rats. Methods: Tissue levels of a synthetic miRNA mimic, cel-miR-39-3p (0.5 nmol in 50 µL invivofectamine/PBS vehicle) were compared in male rats (n=3 rats/method) after delivery by commonly used lung-targeting strategies including intratracheal liquid instillation (IT-L), intratracheal aerosolization with (IT-AV) or without ventilator assistance (IT-A), intranasal liquid instillation (IN-L) and intranasal aerosolization (IN-A). Intravenous (IV; via jugular vein), intraperitoneal (IP) and subcutaneous (SC) delivery served as controls. Relative levels of cel-miR-39 were quantified by RT-qPCR. Results: At 2 h post delivery, IT-L showed the highest lung mimic level, which was significantly higher than levels achieved by all other methods (from ~10- to 10,000-fold, pMimic levels remained detectable in the lung 24 h after delivery, but were 10- to 100-fold lower. The intrapulmonary distribution of cel-miR-39 was comparable when delivered as either a liquid or aerosol, with evidence of mimic distribution to both the left and right lung lobes and penetration to distal regions. All lung-targeted strategies showed lung-selective mimic uptake, with mimic levels 10- to 100-fold lower in heart and 100- to 10,000-fold lower in liver, kidney and spleen. In contrast, IV, SC and IP routes showed comparable or higher mimic levels in non-pulmonary tissues. Conclusions: miRNA uptake in the lungs differed markedly by up to 4 orders of magnitude, demonstrating that the choice of delivery strategy could have a significant impact on potential therapeutic outcomes in preclinical investigations of miRNA-based drug

  11. A Host-Produced Autoinducer-2 Mimic Activates Bacterial Quorum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Anisa S; Valastyan, Julie S; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2016-04-13

    Host-microbial symbioses are vital to health; nonetheless, little is known about the role crosskingdom signaling plays in these relationships. In a process called quorum sensing, bacteria communicate with one another using extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. One autoinducer, AI-2, is proposed to promote interspecies bacterial communication, including in the mammalian gut. We show that mammalian epithelia produce an AI-2 mimic activity in response to bacteria or tight-junction disruption. This AI-2 mimic is detected by the bacterial AI-2 receptor, LuxP/LsrB, and can activate quorum-sensing-controlled gene expression, including in the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. AI-2 mimic activity is induced when epithelia are directly or indirectly exposed to bacteria, suggesting that a secreted bacterial component(s) stimulates its production. Mutagenesis revealed genes required for bacteria to both detect and stimulate production of the AI-2 mimic. These findings uncover a potential role for the mammalian AI-2 mimic in fostering crosskingdom signaling and host-bacterial symbioses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MIMIC II: a massive temporal ICU patient database to support research in intelligent patient monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, M.; Lieu, C.; Raber, G.; Mark, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Development and evaluation of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) decision-support systems would be greatly facilitated by the availability of a large-scale ICU patient database. Following our previous efforts with the MIMIC (Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care) Database, we have leveraged advances in networking and storage technologies to develop a far more massive temporal database, MIMIC II. MIMIC II is an ongoing effort: data is continuously and prospectively archived from all ICU patients in our hospital. MIMIC II now consists of over 800 ICU patient records including over 120 gigabytes of data and is growing. A customized archiving system was used to store continuously up to four waveforms and 30 different parameters from ICU patient monitors. An integrated user-friendly relational database was developed for browsing of patients' clinical information (lab results, fluid balance, medications, nurses' progress notes). Based upon its unprecedented size and scope, MIMIC II will prove to be an important resource for intelligent patient monitoring research, and will support efforts in medical data mining and knowledge-discovery.

  13. From one body mutant to one cell mutant. A progress of radiation breeding in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki

    1996-01-01

    An effective method was established to obtain non-chimeral mutants with wide spectrum of flower colors, regenerated from floral organs on which mutated sectors were come out on chronic irradiated plants. By this way, six mutant varieties of flower colors have been selected from one pink flower of chrysanthemum, and cultivated for cut-flower production. By the same method, 3 mutant varieties with small and spray type flowers were selected in Eustoma. Mutant varieties such as a rust disease resistant in sugarcane, 6 dwarfs in Cytisus and pure-white mushroom in velvet shank have been selected successively for short period. (J.P.N.)

  14. Gamma-radiation Mutagenesis in Genetically Unstable Barley Mutants. Pt. 2. Comparison of Various Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balchiuniene, L.

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous and gamma-induced mutability was compared in two groups of genetically unstable barley ear structure mutants - tweaky spike (tw) and branched ear (be). Instability in different loci causes different levels of spontaneous and gamma-induced mutability. A high spontaneous level of chlorophyll mutations is peculiar to be-ust mutants. It is suggested that the high level of induced chlorophyll mutations in allelic tw mutants is a result of better surviving of chlorophyll mutation carriers in the genotypical-physiological environment created by mutant tw alleles. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Inducible DNA-repair systems in yeast: competition for lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel, R E; Morrison, D P

    1987-03-01

    DNA lesions may be recognized and repaired by more than one DNA-repair process. If two repair systems with different error frequencies have overlapping lesion specificity and one or both is inducible, the resulting variable competition for the lesions can change the biological consequences of these lesions. This concept was demonstrated by observing mutation in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) exposed to combinations of mutagens under conditions which influenced the induction of error-free recombinational repair or error-prone repair. Total mutation frequency was reduced in a manner proportional to the dose of 60Co-gamma- or 254 nm UV radiation delivered prior to or subsequent to an MNNG exposure. Suppression was greater per unit radiation dose in cells gamma-irradiated in O2 as compared to N2. A rad3 (excision-repair) mutant gave results similar to wild-type but mutation in a rad52 (rec-) mutant exposed to MNNG was not suppressed by radiation. Protein-synthesis inhibition with heat shock or cycloheximide indicated that it was the mutation due to MNNG and not that due to radiation which had changed. These results indicate that MNNG lesions are recognized by both the recombinational repair system and the inducible error-prone system, but that gamma-radiation induction of error-free recombinational repair resulted in increased competition for the lesions, thereby reducing mutation. Similarly, gamma-radiation exposure resulted in a radiation dose-dependent reduction in mutation due to MNU, EMS, ENU and 8-MOP + UVA, but no reduction in mutation due to MMS. These results suggest that the number of mutational MMS lesions recognizable by the recombinational repair system must be very small relative to those produced by the other agents. MNNG induction of the inducible error-prone systems however, did not alter mutation frequencies due to ENU or MMS exposure but, in contrast to radiation, increased the mutagenic effectiveness of EMS. These experiments demonstrate

  16. Preoperative nonpalpable breast lesions localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardellin, G; Natale, F; Perin, B

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of real time sonography and mammography are examined in localizing with a hookwire (introduced via a straight needle) the nonpalpable breast lesions. The method, used for surgery or biopsy, was successful in a series of 13 patients with nonpalpable breast lesions, 4 affectd by carcinoma. 18 refs.

  17. Mimic Phosphorylation of a βC1 Protein Encoded by TYLCCNB Impairs Its Functions as a Viral Suppressor of RNA Silencing and a Symptom Determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xueting; Wang, Zhan Qi; Xiao, Ruyuan; Cao, Linge; Wang, Yaqin; Xie, Yan; Zhou, Xueping

    2017-08-15

    Phosphorylation of the βC1 protein encoded by the betasatellite of tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNB-βC1) by SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) plays a critical role in defense of host plants against geminivirus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana However, how phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 impacts its pathogenic functions during viral infection remains elusive. In this study, we identified two additional tyrosine residues in TYLCCNB-βC1 that are phosphorylated by SnRK1. The effects of TYLCCNB-βC1 phosphorylation on its functions as a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) and a symptom determinant were investigated via phosphorylation mimic mutants in N. benthamiana plants. Mutations that mimic phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 at tyrosine 5 and tyrosine 110 attenuated disease symptoms during viral infection. The phosphorylation mimics weakened the ability of TYLCCNB-βC1 to reverse transcriptional gene silencing and to suppress posttranscriptional gene silencing and abolished its interaction with N. benthamiana ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 1 in N. benthamiana leaves. The mimic phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 had no impact on its protein stability, subcellular localization, or self-association. Our data establish an inhibitory effect of phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 on its pathogenic functions as a VSR and a symptom determinant and provide a mechanistic explanation of how SnRK1 functions as a host defense factor. IMPORTANCE Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), which causes a severe yellow leaf curl disease in China, is a monopartite geminivirus associated with the betasatellite (TYLCCNB). TYLCCNB encodes a single pathogenicity protein, βC1 (TYLCCNB-βC1), which functions as both a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) and a symptom determinant. Here, we show that mimicking phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 weakens its ability to reverse transcriptional gene silencing, to suppress posttranscriptional gene silencing, and to interact with N

  18. Officially released mutant varieties in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Van Zanten, L.; Shu, Q.Y.; Maluszynski, M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of mutation techniques for crop improvement in China has a long and well-established tradition of more than 50 years. As the result of intensive research in many institutes dealing with application of nuclear technologies more than 620 cultivars of 44 crop species have been released. Numerous mutant varieties have been grown on a large scale bringing significant economic impact, sustaining crop production and greatly contributing to increase of food production also in stress prone areas of the country. However, there is still missing information not only on the number of mutant varieties released in particular crop species but also on mutagens applied, selection approaches and on the use of mutants in cross breeding. Numerous Chinese scientists collected and systematized this information. Results of their work were often published in local scientific journals in the Chinese language and as such were unavailable to breeders from other countries. Having this in mind, we requested Dr. Liu Luxiang, the Director of the Department of Plant Mutation Breeding and Genetics, Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Beijing to help us in finding as much information as possible on mutant varieties officially released in China. The data has been collected in close collaboration with his colleagues from various institutions all over the country and then evaluated, edited and prepared for publication by our team responsible for the FAO/IAEA Database of Officially Released Mutant Varieties. We would like to thank all Chinese colleagues who contributed to this list of Chinese mutant varieties. We hope that this publication will stimulate plant breeders in China to collect more information on released mutant varieties and especially on the use of mutated genes in cross breeding. (author)

  19. Development of high yielding mutants in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Sarwar, G.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) locally known as Masoor, is the second most important rabi pulse crop, after chickpea, in Pakistan. It is cultivated on an area of over 63,400 ha, which constitutes about 4.83% of the total area under pulses. The annual production of the crop is 28,200 tones with an average yield of 445 kg/ha. Yield at the national level is very low, about one-half of the world's yield, which is mainly due to non-availability of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of mutants in developing a large number of new varieties, an induced mutations programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1987-88, to develop high yielding varieties in lentil. For this, seeds of two lentil varieties, 'Masoor-85' and 'ICARDA-8' had been irradiated with gamma-rays ranging from 100-600 Gy in NIAB, Faisalabad during 1990. Selections were made in M2 on the basis of earliness, plant height, branches/plant and 100 grain weight. After confirming these mutants in M3 they were promoted in station yield trials and studied continuously for three consecutive years (1993- 1995). Overall results revealed that these mutants have consistent improvement of earliness in flowering and maturity. Plant height also increased in all mutant lines except AEL 23/40/91 where reduction in this attribute was observed as compared to parent variety. Mutant lines AEL 49/20/91 and AEL 13/30/91 showed improvement in 100 grain weight. The improvement of some agronomic characters enhanced the yield of mutant lines in comparison to parent varieties (Masoor-85 and ICARDA-8). The diversity in yield over the respective parents was computed from 6.94 to 60.12%. From these encouraging results it is hoped that mutant lines like AEL 12/30/91 and AEL 49/20/91 may serve as potential lentil genotypes in future. (author)

  20. Spectrum of histological lesions in 185 consecutive prostatic specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty five consecutive prostate specimens were studied. The predominant lesion noted was benign prostatic hyperplasia (B.P.H. (92.97%. The incidence of carcinoma was low, (7.02%. Conditions which can mimic and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of carcinoma, like basal cell hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia and atrophy associated hyperplasia were noted in 10, 4 and 3 cases of B.P.H. respectively. None of these cases showed evidence of carcinoma. Corpora amylacea were noted in 38.91% of the cases of B.P.H. and were conspicuously absent in cases of carcinoma. Chronic prostatitis was frequently encountered (58% and metaplastic changes were seen in 11% of the cases.

  1. Malignant vascular lesions of bone: radiologic and pathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, D.E. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); Wold, L.E. [Dept. of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The malignant vascular tumors of bone represent an uncommon diverse group of tumors with widely variable clinical and radiographic presentations. Although the radiographic imaging features of the lytic osseous lesions typically seen with this group of tumors are relatively nonspecific, the propensity to develop multifocal disease in an anatomic region is a feature that can be helpful in suggesting the diagnosis of a vascular tumor. The differential diagnosis varies according to the age of the patient and presence of solitary or multifocal disease. The histologic features are variable and range from tumors with vasoformative features to those that mimic mesenchymal neoplasm or metastatic carcinoma. Familiarity with the radiographic and pathologic spectrum of disease is essential for making an accurate diagnosis in this diverse group of neoplasms. This paper will provide a review of the nomenclature for the malignant vascular tumors of bone and discuss the radiographic and pathologic differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Synthesis and properties of the para-trimethylammonium analogues of green fluorescence protein (GFP) chromophore: The mimic of protonated GFP chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjiang, Ming-Wei; Li, Ming-Ju; Sung, Robert; Sung, Kuangsen

    2018-04-01

    At low pH, protons from the external, bulk solution can protonate the phenoxide group of the p-HBDI chromophore in wild-type green fluorescent protein (wtGFP) and its mutants, and likely continue to tentatively protonate the phenol hydroxyl group of the same chromophores. Because the protonated GFP chromophore is a transient, we prepare the stable p-trimethylammonium analogues (2a and 2b) of the GFP chromophore to mimic it and explore their properties. What we found is that the p-trimethylammonium analogues of the GFP chromophore have the highly electrophilic amidine carbon, blue-shifted electronic absorption, smaller molar absorptivity, smaller fluorescent quantum yield, and faster E-Z thermoisomerization rate. The amidine carbon of the p-trimethylammonium analogue (2b) of the GFP chromophore is the only site that is attacked by very weak nucleophile of water, resulting in ring-opening of the imidazolinone moiety. The half-life of its decay rate in D 2 O is around 33 days. Actually, acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-HBDI also results in ring-opening of the imidazolinone moiety. The ratio of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis rate constants [k obs (p-HBDI)/k obs (1b)] between p-HBDI and 1b (p-dimethylammonium analogue of the GFP chromophore) is dramatically increased from 0.30 at pH = 2 to 0.63 at pH = 0. This is the evidence that more and more phenol hydroxyl groups of p-HBDI are tentatively protonated in a low-pH aqueous solution and that accelerates hydrolysis of p-HBDI in the way similar to the quaternary ammonium derivatives 2a and 2b in water. With this view point, 2a and 2b still can partially mimic the cationic p-HBDI with the protonated phenol hydroxyl group. Implication of the experiment is that the amidine carbon of the chromophore in wtGFP and its mutants at very low pH should be highly electrophilic. Whether ring-opening of the imidazolinone moiety of the GFP chromophore would occur or not depends on if water molecules can reach the amidine carbon of

  3. Estimating the size of non-observed economy in Croatia using the MIMIC approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Klarić

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a quick overview of the approaches that have been used in the research of shadow economy, starting with the definitions of the terms “shadow economy” and “non-observed economy”, with the accent on the ISTAT/Eurostat framework. Several methods for estimating the size of the shadow economy and the non-observed economy are then presented. The emphasis is placed on the MIMIC approach, one of the methods used to estimate the size of the nonobserved economy. After a glance at the theory behind it, the MIMIC model is then applied to the Croatian economy. Considering the described characteristics of different methods, a previous estimate of the size of the non-observed economy in Croatia is chosen to provide benchmark values for the MIMIC model. Using those, the estimates of the size of non-observed economy in Croatia during the period 1998-2009 are obtained.

  4. Reproducing a Prospective Clinical Study as a Computational Retrospective Study in MIMIC-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, Fabrício S P; Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we sought to reproduce, as a computational retrospective study in an EHR database (MIMIC-II), a recent large prospective clinical study: the 2013 publication, by the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM), about disseminated intravascular coagulation, in the journal Critical Care (PMID: 23787004). We designed in SQL and Java a set of electronic phenotypes that reproduced the study's data sampling, and used R to perform the same statistical inference procedures. All produced source code is available online at https://github.com/fabkury/paamia2015. Our program identified 2,257 eligible patients in MIMIC-II, and the results remarkably agreed with the prospective study. A minority of the needed data elements was not found in MIMIC-II, and statistically significant inferences were possible in the majority of the cases.

  5. Bicelles and Other Membrane Mimics: Comparison of Structure, Properties, and Dynamics from MD Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mikkel; Kraft, Johan Frederik; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    present molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structural and dynamic properties of small bicelles and compare them to a large alignable bicelle, a small nanodisc, and a lipid bilayer. Properties such as lipid packing and properties related to embedding both an α-helical peptide and a transmembrane...... protein are investigated. The small bicelles are found to be very dynamic and mainly assume a prolate shape substantiating that small bicelles cannot be regarded as well-defined disclike structures. However, addition of a peptide results in an increased tendency to form disc-shaped bicelles. The small......The increased interest in studying membrane proteins has led to the development of new membrane mimics such as bicelles and nanodiscs. However, only limited knowledge is available of how these membrane mimics are affected by embedded proteins and how well they mimic a lipid bilayer. Herein, we...

  6. MicroRNA-30c Mimic Mitigates Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Sara; Pan, Xiaoyue; Peck, Bailey C. E.; Iqbal, Jahangir; Sethupathy, Praveen; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    High plasma cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol can be reduced by inhibiting lipoprotein production; however, this is associated with steatosis. Previously we showed that lentivirally mediated hepatic expression of microRNA-30c (miR-30c) reduced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in mice without causing hepatosteatosis. Because viral therapy would be formidable, we examined whether a miR-30c mimic can be used to mitigate hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis without inducing steatosis. Delivery of a miR-30c mimic to the liver diminished diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in C57BL/6J mice. Reductions in plasma cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with increases in hepatic miR-30c levels. Long term dose escalation studies showed that miR-30c mimic caused sustained reductions in plasma cholesterol with no obvious side effects. Furthermore, miR-30c mimic significantly reduced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in Apoe−/− mice. Mechanistic studies showed that miR-30c mimic had no effect on LDL clearance but reduced lipoprotein production by down-regulating microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression. MiR-30c had no effect on fatty acid oxidation but reduced lipid synthesis. Additionally, whole transcriptome analysis revealed that miR-30c mimic significantly down-regulated hepatic lipid synthesis pathways. Therefore, miR-30c lowers plasma cholesterol and mitigates atherosclerosis by reducing microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and lipoprotein production and avoids steatosis by diminishing lipid syntheses. It mitigates atherosclerosis most likely by reducing lipoprotein production and plasma cholesterol. These findings establish that increasing hepatic miR-30c levels is a viable treatment option for reducing hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:27365390

  7. Antimicrobial Effects of Novel Triple Antibiotic Paste-Mimic Scaffolds on Actinomyces naeslundii Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Maria T P; Ryan, Stuart J; Münchow, Eliseu A; Kamocka, Maria M; Gregory, Richard L; Valera, Marcia C; Bottino, Marco C

    2015-08-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii has been recovered from traumatized permanent teeth diagnosed with necrotic pulps. In this work, a triple antibiotic paste (TAP)-mimic scaffold is proposed as a drug-delivery strategy to eliminate A. naeslundii dentin biofilm. Metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline were added to a polydioxanone (PDS) polymer solution and spun into fibrous scaffolds. Fiber morphology, mechanical properties, and drug release were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, microtensile testing, and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Human dentin specimens (4 × 4 × 1 mm(3), n = 4/group) were inoculated with A. naeslundii (ATCC 43146) for 7 days for biofilm formation. The infected dentin specimens were exposed to TAP-mimic scaffolds, TAP solution (positive control), and pure PDS (drug-free scaffold). Dentin infected (7-day biofilm) specimens were used for comparison (negative control). Confocal laser scanning microscopy was done to determine bacterial viability. Scaffolds displayed a submicron mean fiber diameter (PDS = 689 ± 312 nm and TAP-mimic = 718 ± 125 nm). Overall, TAP-mimic scaffolds showed significantly (P ≤ .040) lower mechanical properties than PDS. Within the first 24 hours, a burst release for all drugs was seen. A sustained maintenance of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin was observed over 4 weeks, but not for minocycline. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated complete elimination of all viable bacteria exposed to the TAP solution. Meanwhile, TAP-mimic scaffolds led to a significant (P mimic scaffolds hold significant potential in the eradication/elimination of bacterial biofilm, a critical step in regenerative endodontics. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MicroRNA-30c Mimic Mitigates Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Sara; Pan, Xiaoyue; Peck, Bailey C E; Iqbal, Jahangir; Sethupathy, Praveen; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2016-08-26

    High plasma cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol can be reduced by inhibiting lipoprotein production; however, this is associated with steatosis. Previously we showed that lentivirally mediated hepatic expression of microRNA-30c (miR-30c) reduced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in mice without causing hepatosteatosis. Because viral therapy would be formidable, we examined whether a miR-30c mimic can be used to mitigate hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis without inducing steatosis. Delivery of a miR-30c mimic to the liver diminished diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in C57BL/6J mice. Reductions in plasma cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with increases in hepatic miR-30c levels. Long term dose escalation studies showed that miR-30c mimic caused sustained reductions in plasma cholesterol with no obvious side effects. Furthermore, miR-30c mimic significantly reduced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in Apoe(-/-) mice. Mechanistic studies showed that miR-30c mimic had no effect on LDL clearance but reduced lipoprotein production by down-regulating microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression. MiR-30c had no effect on fatty acid oxidation but reduced lipid synthesis. Additionally, whole transcriptome analysis revealed that miR-30c mimic significantly down-regulated hepatic lipid synthesis pathways. Therefore, miR-30c lowers plasma cholesterol and mitigates atherosclerosis by reducing microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and lipoprotein production and avoids steatosis by diminishing lipid syntheses. It mitigates atherosclerosis most likely by reducing lipoprotein production and plasma cholesterol. These findings establish that increasing hepatic miR-30c levels is a viable treatment option for reducing hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Design and synthesis of an antigenic mimic of the Ebola glycoprotein

    OpenAIRE

    Rutledge, Ryan D.; Huffman, Brian J.; Cliffel, David E.; Wright, David W.

    2008-01-01

    An antigenic mimic of the Ebola glycoprotein was synthesized and tested for its ability to be recognized by an anti-Ebola glycoprotein antibody. Epitope-mapping procedures yielded a suitable epitope that, when presented on the surface of a nanoparticle, forms a structure that is recognized by an antibody specific for the native protein. This mimic-antibody interaction has been quantitated through ELISA and QCM-based methods and yielded an affinity (Kd = 12 × 10−6 M) within two orders of magni...

  10. Mesothelioma patient derived tumor xenografts with defined BAP1 mutations that mimic the molecular characteristics of human malignant mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalra, Neetu; Zhang, Jingli; Thomas, Anish; Xi, Liqiang; Cheung, Mitchell; Talarchek, Jacqueline; Burkett, Sandra; Tsokos, Maria G; Chen, Yuanbin; Raffeld, Mark; Miettinen, Markku; Pastan, Ira; Testa, Joseph R; Hassan, Raffit

    2015-01-01

    The development and evaluation of new therapeutic approaches for malignant mesothelioma has been sparse due, in part, to lack of suitable tumor models. We established primary mesothelioma cultures from pleural and ascitic fluids of five patients with advanced mesothelioma. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed their mesothelial origin. Patient derived xenografts were generated by injecting the cells in nude or SCID mice, and malignant potential of the cells was analyzed by soft agar colony assay. Molecular profiles of the primary patient tumors, early passage cell cultures, and patient derived xenografts were assessed using mutational analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and IHC. Primary cultures from all five tumors exhibited morphologic and IHC features consistent to those of mesothelioma cells. Mutations of BAP1 and CDKN2A were each detected in four tumors. BAP1 mutation was associated with the lack of expression of BAP1 protein. Three cell cultures, all of which were derived from BAP1 mutant primary tumors, exhibited anchorage independent growth and also formed tumors in mice, suggesting that BAP1 loss may enhance tumor growth in vivo. Both early passage cell cultures and mouse xenograft tumors harbored BAP1 mutations and CDKN2A deletions identical to those found in the corresponding primary patient tumors. The mesothelioma patient derived tumor xenografts with mutational alterations that mimic those observed in patient tumors which we established can be used for preclinical development of novel drug regimens and for studying the functional aspects of BAP1 biology in mesothelioma. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1362-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  11. The research progress on plant mutant germplasm resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Cexi; Ji Linzhen; Zhao Shirong

    1991-07-01

    Mutants induced by nuclear radiation or other mutagens are new artificial germplasm resources. Some mutants have been applied in plant breeding and great achievements have been reached. The status and progress on the collection, identification and utilization of mutants in China are introduced. A proposal for developing mutant germplasm resources with good agronomic characters is suggested

  12. Changing activity in MS lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermode, A.G.; Tofts, P.S.; Thompson, A.J.; Rudge, P.; MacManus, D.G.; Kendall, B.E.; Moseley, I.F.; Kingsley, D.P.E.; McDonald, W.I.

    1989-01-01

    Gd-DTPA enhanced T1 weighted MRI is a discriminating test for a defective blood-brain barrier, with MS lesions showing considerable variation in the pattern of enhancement. Since little is known of the changes in the blood-brain barrier in the active plaque over time, the natural history of blood-brain barrier disturbance in the MS lesion was examined to confirm earlier reports that Gd-DTPA enhancement is a consistent early event in new lesions of relapsing/remitting MS. This knowledge is essential for the use of MRI in monitoring treatment. (author). 9 refs

  13. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  14. OCT investigation of dental lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiac, Eugen; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Scrieciu, Monica; Mercuţ, Rǎzvan; Mercuţ, Veronica; Vǎtu, Mihaela

    2018-03-01

    There are several important non carious lesions affecting the tooth structure, lesions which may be classified into four clinical forms of dental wear: abfraction, erosion, attrition and abrasion, and different types of root resorption. Search for new, non-invasive and fast methods able to detect and describe such injuries is of utmost importance. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) proved itself as an appropriate investigation method for several medical fields including ophthalmology, dermatology, cardiology etc. Our study reveals OCT preliminary investigations as a promising tool for detecting and evaluating of the mentioned lesions.

  15. Bacterio-opsin mutants of Halobacterium halobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlach, Mary; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Friedman, James; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1983-01-01

    The bacterio-opsin (bop) gene of Halobacterium halobium R1 has been cloned with about 40 kilobases of flanking genomic sequence. The 40-kilobase segment is derived from the (G+C)-rich fraction of the chromosome and is not homologous to the major (pHH1) or minor endogenous covalently closed circular DNA species of H. halobium. A 5.1-kilobase Pst I fragment containing the bop gene was subcloned in pBR322 and a partial restriction map was determined. Defined restriction fragments of this clone were used as probes to analyze the defects associated with the bop gene in 12 bacterio-opsin mutants. Eleven out of 12 of the mutants examined had inserts ranging from 350 to 3,000 base pairs either in the bop gene or up to 1,400 base pairs upstream. The positions of the inserts were localized to four regions in the 5.1-kilobase genomic fragment: within the gene (one mutant), in a region that overlaps the 5′ end of the gene (seven mutants), and in two different upstream regions (three mutants). Two revertants of the mutant with the most distal insert had an additional insert in the same region. The polar effects of these inserts are discussed in terms of inactivation of a regulatory gene or disruption of part of a coordinately expressed operon. Given the defined nature of the bop mRNA—i.e., it has a 5′ leader sequence of three ribonucleotides—these observations indicate that the bop mRNA might be processed from a large mRNA transcript. Images PMID:16593291

  16. Development of novel miR-129 mimics with enhanced efficacy to eliminate chemoresistant colon cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jingfang

    2018-01-01

    Background Resistance to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) based chemotherapy is the major reason for failure of treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Materials and methods In this study, we developed a novel miR-129 mimic with potent efficacy in eliminating resistant colon cancer stem cells both in vitro and in vivo. We integrated 5-FU into miR-129 by replacing Uracil (U) to generate 5-FU-miR-129 mimics (Mimic-1). Results Mimic-1 is a strong therapeutic candidate with a number of unique features. Mimic-1 can be delivered to cancer cells without any transfection reagents (e.g. lipids, viral vector, nanoparticles). Mimic-1 is more potent at inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell cycle arrest at G1 phase than native miR-129 and the other mimics tested, while retaining target specificity. Mimic-1 prevents colon cancer metastasis in vivo without toxicity. Conclusion This represents a significant advancement in the development of a nontoxic and highly potent miRNA based cancer therapeutics and establishes a foundation for further developing Mimic-1 as a novel anti-cancer therapeutic for treating colorectal cancer. PMID:29507661

  17. Chlorophyll mutants in Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) Savi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetleva, D.; Petkova, S.

    1991-01-01

    Three-year investigations were conducted on chlorophyll mutants of three type: viridissima, claroviridis, flavoviridis, viridocostata and xanthomarginata produced post gamma irradiation ( 60 Co, 8 krad, 280 rad/min). Cell division rate in spectrum and in quantity of induced aberrations was found to have no significant differences with the control. Chlorophyll mutations compared to the control are less developed and their productive characters are less manifested. Cell division rate and the quantity of induced aberrations have no relation to the elements of productivity in the mutants investigated. 3 tabs., 12 refs

  18. Proton density fat fraction (PDFF) MRI for differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeel, Frederic Carsten; Luetkens, Julian Alexander; Wagenhäuser, Peter Johannes; Meier-Schroers, Michael; Kuetting, Daniel Lloyd; Feißt, Andreas; Gieseke, Jürgen; Schmeel, Leonard Christopher; Träber, Frank; Schild, Hans Heinz; Kukuk, Guido Matthias

    2018-06-01

    To investigate whether proton density fat fraction (PDFF) measurements using a six-echo modified Dixon sequence can help to differentiate between benign and malignant vertebral bone marrow lesions. Sixty-six patients were prospectively enrolled in our study. In addition to conventional MRI at 3.0-Tesla including at least sagittal T2-weighted/spectral attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted sequences, all patients underwent a sagittal six-echo modified Dixon sequence of the spine. The mean PDFF was calculated using regions of interest and compared between vertebral lesions. A cut-off value of 6.40% in PDFF was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves and used to differentiate between malignant (benign and malignant vertebral lesions with a high diagnostic accuracy. • Establishing a diagnosis of indeterminate vertebral lesions is a common clinical problem • Benign bone marrow processes may mimic the signal alterations observed in malignancy • PDFF differentiates between benign and malignant lesions with a high diagnostic accuracy • PDFF of non-neoplastic vertebral lesions is significantly higher than that of malignancy • PDFF from six-echo modified Dixon may help avoid potentially harmful bone biopsy.

  19. Two rare entities in the same palate lesion: hyalinizing-type clear cell carcinoma and necrotizing sialometaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaci, Rabia Bozdoğan; Kara, Tuba; Porgali, Canan; Serinsoz, Ebru; Polat, Ayse; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2014-05-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma is a low-grade malignant epithelial neoplasm of the salivary glands. The tumor has epithelial cells and lacks myoepithelial cells. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a benign, self-limiting lesion of the salivary glands. The clinical and histologic features mimic those of mucoepidermoid carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. The importance of these entities are the rarity of both of them and their potential to be misdiagnosed as other lesions. Pathologists and clinicians should be aware of these entities to prevent misdiagnosis. This is the first clinical report of 2 rare and consecutive different entities of the same location on the hard palate to our knowledge.

  20. Post-radiotherapeutic heart lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testart, F.M.

    1979-05-01

    Heart structures have traditionally been considered radioresistant. In fact all tissues subjected to radiotherapy can develop lesions. Possible damage includes: - pericardiac fibrosis, the commonest and best individualized, associated with a constriction this leads to a stoppage pattern usually occurring late, around the 18th month. Its frequency depends directly on the total radiation dose; - fibrous myocarditis by direct damage to the heart muscle; - stenosis type lesions of the large coronary trunks; - in exceptional cases lesions of the aorta: hyperplastic degenerescence of the intima and adventitia or of the aortic sigmoid valvules and the mitral valves. Three observations are reported, concerning a coronary, a pericardiac and a coronary, myocardiac and pericardiac lesion. Following this account the irradiation techniques and main experimental data are reviewed and the prophylactic and therapeutic consequences to be derived from our observations and those of the literature are examined [fr

  1. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class......Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can...... be classified according to previously suggested radiologic characteristics and how this classification relates to prognosis. Searching the databases of eight tertiary referral centres we identified 90 adult patients (61 women, 29 men; mean age 34 years) with ≥1 AIIDL. We collected their demographic, clinical...

  2. Induction of pure and sectored mutant clones in excision-proficient and deficient strains of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, F; Haynes, R H

    1977-06-01

    We have found that UV-induced mutation frequency in a forward non-selective assay system (scoring white adex ade2 double auxotroph mutants among the red pigmented ade2 clones) increases linearly with dose up to a maximum frequency of about 3 X 10(-3) mutants per survivor and then declines in both RAD wild-type and rad2 excision deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutation frequencies of the RAD and the rad2 strains plotted against survival are nearly identical over the entire survival range. On this basis we conclude that unexcised pyrimidine dimers are the predominant type of pre-mutational lesions in both strains. In the RAD wild-type strain pure mutant clones outnumber sectors in a 10:1 ratio at all doses used; in rad2 this ratio varies from 1:1 at low doses up to 10:1 at high doses. As others have concluded for wild-type strains we find also in the rad2 strain that pure clone formation cannot be accounted for quantitatively by lethal sectoring events alone. We conclude that heteroduplex repair is a crucial step in pure mutant clone formation and we examine the plausibility of certain macromolecular mechanisms according to which heteroduplex repair may be coupled with replication, repair and sister strand exchange in yeast mutagenesis.

  3. Induction of pure and sectored mutant clones in excision-proficient and deficient strains of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckardt, F.; Haynes, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    It was found that UV-induced mutation frequency in a forward non-selective assay system (scoring white adex ade2 double auxotroph mutants among the red pigmented ade2 clones) increases linearly with dose up to a maximum frequency of about 3 x 10 -3 mutants per survivor and then declines in both RAD wild-type and rad2 excision deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutation frequencies of the RAD and the rad2 strains plotted against survival are nearly identical over the entire survival range. On this basis it is concluded that unexcised pyrimidine dimers are the predominant type of pre-mutational lesions in both strains. In the RAD wild-type strain pure mutant clones outnumber sectors in a 10:1 ratio at all doses used; in rad2 this ratio varies from 1:1 at low doses up to 10:1 at high doses. In agreement with conclusions of others, it was also found that for wild-type strains in the rad2 strain pure clone formation cannot be accounted for quantitatively by lethal sectoring events alone. It is concluded that heteroduplex repair is a crucial step in pure mutant clone formation and the plausibility of certain macromolecular mechanisms according to which heteroduplex repair may be coupled with replication, repair and sister strand exchange in yeast mutagenesis is examined

  4. Primary Cilia in the Murine Cerebellum and in Mutant Models of Medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Chiara; Marazziti, Daniela; La Sala, Gina; Abbaszadeh, Zeinab; Golini, Elisabetta; Matteoni, Rafaele; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P

    2017-01-01

    Cellular primary cilia crucially sense and transduce extracellular physicochemical stimuli. Cilium-mediated developmental signaling is tissue and cell type specific. Primary cilia are required for cerebellar differentiation and sonic hedgehog (Shh)-dependent proliferation of neuronal granule precursors. The mammalian G-protein-coupled receptor 37-like 1 is specifically expressed in cerebellar Bergmann glia astrocytes and participates in regulating postnatal cerebellar granule neuron proliferation/differentiation and Bergmann glia and Purkinje neuron maturation. The mouse receptor protein interacts with the patched 1 component of the cilium-associated Shh receptor complex. Mice heterozygous for patched homolog 1 mutations, like heterozygous patched 1 humans, have a higher incidence of Shh subgroup medulloblastoma (MB) and other tumors. Cerebellar cells bearing primary cilia were identified during postnatal development and in adulthood in two mouse strains with altered Shh signaling: a G-protein-coupled receptor 37-like 1 null mutant and an MB-susceptible, heterozygous patched homolog 1 mutant. In addition to granule and Purkinje neurons, primary cilia were also expressed by Bergmann glia astrocytes in both wild-type and mutant animals, from birth to adulthood. Variations in ciliary number and length were related to the different levels of neuronal and glial cell proliferation and maturation, during postnatal cerebellar development. Primary cilia were also detected in pre-neoplastic MB lesions in heterozygous patched homolog 1 mutant mice and they could represent specific markers for the development and analysis of novel cerebellar oncogenic models.

  5. MRI atlas of MS lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences Sina Hospital (Iran). Dept. of Neurology; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm [Univ. Hospital Basel (Switzerland). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2008-07-01

    MRI has become the main paraclinical test in the diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis. We have demonstrated more than 400 pictures of different typical and atypical MS lesions in this atlas. Each image has a teaching point. New diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis are discussed and the book is supported by a teaching DVD where the reader can see MS lesions in different slices and sequences. (orig.)

  6. Synergistic Effect of MiR-146a Mimic and Cetuximab on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suning Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that the expression of microRNA-146a (miR-146a was downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues compared to the adjacent noncancerous hepatic tissues. In the current study, we have explored the in vitro effect of miR-146a on the malignant phenotypes of HCC cells. MiR-146a mimic could suppress cell growth and increase cellular apoptosis in HCC cell lines HepG2, HepB3, and SNU449, as assessed by spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Furthermore, western blot showed that miR-146a mimic downregulated EGFR, ERK1/2, and stat5 signalings. These effects were less potent compared to that of a siRNA targeting EGFR, a known target gene of miR-146a. Moreover, miR-146a mimic could enhance the cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction impact of various EGFR targeting agents. The most potent combination was miR-146a mimic with cetuximab, presenting a synergistic effect. In conclusion, miR-146a plays a vital role in the cell growth and apoptosis of HCC cells and inducing miR-146a level might be a critical targeted molecular therapy strategy for HCC.

  7. Unmasking Hyperthyroidism in the Elderly: How to distinguish hyperthyroidism from conditions that mimic the symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Michael; Isenberg, Yoel; Bain, Jerald

    1992-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism in the elderly can mimic symptoms suggestive of aging or concomitant illnesses. The disease can cause serious problems and disabilities in older individuals. A strong sense of suspicion, the appropriate use of screening tests, and, when indicated, more definitive investigations usually results in the accurate diagnosis of a condition for which there is effective treatment.

  8. Vesicles to concentrate iron in low-Iron media: An attempt to mimic marine siderophores

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednárová, Lucie; Brandel, J.; d'Hardemare, A. d. M.; Bednár, J.; Serratrice, G.; Pierre, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2008), s. 3680-3686 ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : iron * marine siderophore mimics * micelles * self-assembly * vesicles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.454, year: 2008

  9. Families, schools, and student achievement inequality: a multilevel MIMIC model approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsai, S. L.; Smith, Michael; Hauser, R. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2017), s. 64-88 ISSN 0038-0407 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP404/12/J006; GA ČR GB14-36154G Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : MIMIC model * educational inequality * academic performance Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology Impact factor: 2.697, year: 2016

  10. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds.

  11. Chemical UV Filters Mimic the Effect of Progesterone on Ca(2+) Signaling in Human Sperm Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, A; Dissing, S; Skakkebæk, N E

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone released by cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca(2+) influx into human sperm cells via the cationic channel of sperm (CatSper) Ca(2+) channel and controls multiple Ca(2+)-dependent responses essential for fertilization. We hypothesized that chemical UV filters may mimic...

  12. The immune impact of mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy and appendectomy on rabbits of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suqin; Pei, Fenghua; Wang, Xinhong; Li, Deliang; Zhao, Lixia; Song, Yanyan; Chen, Zhendong; Liu, Bingrong

    2017-09-12

    This study was conducted to evaluate the immune impact of mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy and appendectomy on rabbits of acute suppurative appendicitis and to determine whether TLR4/MYD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in this process. 48 rabbits were assigned into 4 groups: group I, the mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy group; group II, the appendectomy group; group III, the model group; and group IV, the blank group. White blood cells decreased, while levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 increased on the 2 nd day in group I and II. IgA in feces decreased at 2 weeks, while fecal microbiota changed at 2 and 4 weeks after appendectomy. CD8 + cells in appendix of group I increased within 8 weeks. Upregulated expression of TLR4, MYD88, and nuclear NF-κB were detected on the 2 nd day in group I and II. Mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy and appendectomy are effective ways for acute suppurative appendicitis. Mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy was more preferable due to its advantage in maintaining intestinal immune function. TLR4/MYD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in acute phase of appendicitis.

  13. Self-Assembly of Multi-nanozymes to Mimic an Intracellular Antioxidant Defense System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Chaoqun; Ju, Enguo; Zhang, Yan; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, for the first time, we constructed a novel multi-nanozymes cooperative platform to mimic intracellular antioxidant enzyme-based defense system. V2 O5 nanowire served as a glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mimic while MnO2 nanoparticle was used to mimic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Dopamine was used as a linker to achieve the assembling of the nanomaterials. The obtained V2 O5 @pDA@MnO2 nanocomposite could serve as one multi-nanozyme model to mimic intracellular antioxidant enzyme-based defense procedure in which, for example SOD, CAT, and GPx co-participate. In addition, through assembling with dopamine, the hybrid nanocomposites provided synergistic antioxidative effect. Importantly, both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that our biocompatible system exhibited excellent intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) removal ability to protect cell components against oxidative stress, showing its potential application in inflammation therapy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Recent advances in compartmentalized synthetic architectures as drug carriers, cell mimics and artificial organelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    York-Durán, María José; Gallardo, Maria Godoy; Labay, Cédric Pierre

    2017-01-01

    significant research attention and these assemblies are proposed as candidate materials for a range of biomedical applications. In this Review article, the recent successes of multicompartment architectures as carriers for the delivery of therapeutic cargo or the creation of micro- and nanoreactors that mimic...

  15. Antibacterial TAP-mimic electrospun polymer scaffold: effects on P. gingivalis-infected dentin biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Maria Tereza P; Evans, Joshua D; Gregory, Richard L; Valera, Marcia C; Bottino, Marco C

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to investigate, in vitro, the effects of a recently developed triple antibiotic paste (TAP)-mimic polymer nanofibrous scaffold against Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected dentin biofilm. Dentin specimens (4 × 4 × 1 mm(3)) were prepared from human canines. The specimens were sterilized, inoculated with P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277), and incubated for 1 week to allow for biofilm formation. Infected dentin specimens were exposed for 3 days to the following treatments: antibiotic-free polydioxanone scaffold (PDS, control), PDS + 25 wt% TAP [25 mg of each antibiotic (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline) per mL of the PDS polymer solution], or a saturated TAP-based solution (50 mg of each antibiotic per mL of saline solution). In order to serve as the negative control, infected dentin specimens were left untreated (bacteria only). To determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the TAP-mimic scaffold, a colony-forming unit (CFU) per milliliter (n = 10/group) measurement was performed. Furthermore, additional specimens (n = 2/group) were prepared to qualitatively study biofilm inhibition via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistics were performed, and significance was set at the 5% level. Both the TAP-mimic scaffold and the positive control (TAP solution) led to complete bacterial elimination, differing statistically (p mimic scaffold against an established P. gingivalis-infected dentin biofilm. Collectively, the data suggest that the proposed nanofibrous scaffold might be used as an alternative to the advocated clinical gold standard (i.e., TAP) for intracanal disinfection prior to regenerative endodontics.

  16. Evaluation of MIMIC-Model Methods for DIF Testing with Comparison to Two-Group Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test or questionnaire has different measurement properties for 1 group of people versus another, irrespective of mean differences on the construct. This study focuses on the use of multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) structural equation models for DIF testing, parameterized as item…

  17. Synergistic effect of MiR-146a mimic and cetuximab on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Suning; He, Rongquan; Rong, Minhua; Dang, Yiwu; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we found that the expression of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) was downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues compared to the adjacent noncancerous hepatic tissues. In the current study, we have explored the in vitro effect of miR-146a on the malignant phenotypes of HCC cells. MiR-146a mimic could suppress cell growth and increase cellular apoptosis in HCC cell lines HepG2, HepB3, and SNU449, as assessed by spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Furthermore, western blot showed that miR-146a mimic downregulated EGFR, ERK1/2, and stat5 signalings. These effects were less potent compared to that of a siRNA targeting EGFR, a known target gene of miR-146a. Moreover, miR-146a mimic could enhance the cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction impact of various EGFR targeting agents. The most potent combination was miR-146a mimic with cetuximab, presenting a synergistic effect. In conclusion, miR-146a plays a vital role in the cell growth and apoptosis of HCC cells and inducing miR-146a level might be a critical targeted molecular therapy strategy for HCC.

  18. Validation of Triphasic Mixture Theory for a Mimic of Intervertebral Disk Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, C.W.J.; Heus, de H.J.; Huyghe, J.M.R.J.; Nelissen, J.G.L.; Janssen, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies an synthetic madel materials that mimic the mechanical behavior af intervertebral disk tissue. The results are used ta validate the triphasic mixture theory to describe soft charged hydrated materiais. Permeability and swelling pressure experiments were used

  19. Bourgeois Males of the Peacock Blenny, Salaria pavo, Discriminate Female Mimics from Females?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, David; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara; Fagundes, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    In a Portuguese population of Salaria pavo, two types of reproductively active males occur: large bourgeois males that defend nests and have fully developed secondary sex characters (SSC) and small sneaker males that mimic the females' morphology and behaviour to approach nests and parasitize...

  20. Histomorphological spetrum of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, S; Koirala, U; Khatri, R; Acharya, L; Suwal, A

    2011-04-01

    Cancer of the breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. Mass in the breast, whether benign or malignant is a cause of anxiety to the patients and the family members. All breast lumps are considered to be carcinomas until proved otherwise and are the causes of concern both for the patient and surgeon. This is a retrospective study conducted in Kathmandu Model Hospital for a total duration of three years from August 2007 to August 2010. 114 sample of breast tissue sent for histopathology were studied. Peak incidence of benign lesion was in between 21-30 years and malignant lesions in between 31-50 years. No breast lesions were seen in the first decade of life. Cancer of the breast was seen in 12.28% of cases. Fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease were the commonest benign lesion and infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest malignant lesion. Specimens from 10 male breasts were received. Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion encountered in males. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was seen in a 70 year old male. Breast cancer is one of the commonest causes of breast lump particularly in women and is growing public health problem in Nepal.

  1. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  2. Extensive preclinical investigation of polymersomal formulation of doxorubicin versus Doxil-mimic formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibolandi, Mona; Abnous, Khalil; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Sahar; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2017-10-28

    Due to the severe cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin, its usage is limited. This shortcoming could be overcome by modifying pharmacokinetics of the drugs via preparation of various nanoplatforms. Doxil, a well-known FDA-approved nanoplatform of doxorubicin as antineoplastic agent, is frequently used in clinics in order to reduce cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. Since Doxil shows some shortcomings in clinics including hand and food syndrome and very slow release pattern thus, there is a demand for the development and preparation of new doxorubicin nanoformulation with fewer side effects. The new formulation of the doxorubicin, synthesized previously by our group was extensively examined in the current study. This new formulation is doxorubicin encapsulated in PEG-PLGA polymersomes (PolyDOX). The main aim of the study was to compare the distribution and treatment efficacy of a new doxorubicin-polymersomal formulation (PolyDOX) with regular liposomal formulation (Doxil-mimic) in murine colon adenocarcinoma model. Additionally, the pathological, hematological changes, pharmacodynamics, biodistribution, tolerated dose and survival rate in vivo were evaluated and compared. Murine colon cancer model was induced by subcutaneous inoculation of BALB/c mice with C26 cells. Afterwards, either Doxil-mimic or PolyDOX was administered intravenously. The obtained results from biodistribution study showed a remarkable difference in the distribution of drugs in murine organs. In this regard, Doxil-mimic exhibited prolonged (48h) presence within liver tissues while PolyDOX preferentially accumulate in tumor and the presence in liver 48h post-treatment was significantly lower than that of Doxil-mimic. Obtained results demonstrated comparable final length of life for mice receiving either Doxil-mimic or PolyDOX formulations whereas tolerated dose of mice receiving Doxil-mimic was remarkably higher than those receiving PolyDOX. Therapeutic efficacy of formulation in term of tumor growth rate

  3. FFA STUDY OF MACULAR LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vinayagamurthy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Macula is an important portion of retina that occupies the posterior pole of retina. Any disease that affects macula results in significant loss of central vision, form vision and colour vision to an extent. Macular lesions can be hereditary as well as acquired. Macular lesions occur in both younger and older individuals. Anatomically, a macular lesions can vary from a simple lesion like an RPF defect to a vision-threatening lesions like choroidal neovascular membrane. Many screening tests that are sensitive and specific are available to assess the functioning of macula called as ‘macular function test’. But, the greater understanding of the retinal vascular led to the usage of fluorescein angiogram in the detection and screening of macular, retinovascular and optic disc lesions. Through fundus fluorescein angiogram is a thirty-year-old procedure; it is still in vogue in almost all parts of the world. It has its own merits. The aim of the study is to study the role of fluorescein angiography in the evaluation of macular lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based prospective randomised study was done, which included 50 patients. Detailed patient history was taken and thorough ocular and systemic examination was done. All patients were examined by ophthalmoscopy (direct and indirect and slit-lamp examination with 90D followed by fluorescein angiography. Ophthalmoscopic and fluorescein angiography findings were analysed and categorised. Patients were advised proper ocular and systemic treatment and follow up. RESULTS 50 cases with macular lesions were analysed and categorised into conditions like ARMD, CSR, macular oedema, CME, degenerations and dystrophies and miscellaneous conditions. FFA altered the diagnosis in 8% cases and categorised the cases in all cases. 16% patients developed adverse reactions like allergy, vomiting and nausea. On statistical analysis, FFA proved to be cheap and superior diagnostic tool in confirming

  4. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  5. Molecular Genetic Identification Of Some Flax Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMER, I.M.; MOUSTAFA, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Five flax genotypes (Linum usitatissimum L.) i.e., commercial cultivar Sakha 2, the mother variety Giza 4 and three mutant types induced by gamma rays, were screened for their salinity tolerance in field experiments (salinity concentration was 8600 and 8300 ppm for soil and irrigation water, respectively). Mutation 6 was the most salt tolerant as compared to the other four genotypes.RAPD technique was used to detect some molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in flax (Mut 6), RAPD-PCR results using 12 random primers exhibited 149 amplified fragments; 91.9% of them were polymorphic and twelve molecular markers (8.1%) for salt tolerant (mutant 6) were identified with molecular size ranged from 191 to 4159 bp and only eight primers successes to amplify these specific markers. Concerning the other mutants, Mut 15 and Mut 25 exhibited 4.3% and 16.2% specific markers, respectively. The induced mutants exhibited genetic similarity to the parent variety were about 51%, 58.3% and 61.1% for Mut 25, Mut 6 and Mut 15, respectively. These specific markers (SM) are used for identification of the induced mutations and it is important for new variety registration.

  6. Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

  7. Male sterile mutant in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kalpana; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Single and combined treatment of γ-rays and 0.25 per cent EMS were tried on Vigna radiata variety K851. A male sterile mutant was isolated in M 2 generation. Experiments indicated male sterility to be recessive and monogenic in nature. 6 figures. (author)

  8. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo pollutants in soils and aqueous media. Most of the organic compounds are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, bio pulping, bio bleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated, or are hyper producers or super secretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through UV-light and γ-ray mutagenesis, we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants, 76UV, produced 272 U of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity/L after 9 d under high nitrogen (although the parent strain does not produce this enzyme under these conditions). The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments, the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 d

  9. Phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase-independent NAD de novo synthesis in Escherichia coli: a new phenotype of phosphate regulon mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    Phosphoribosyl diphosphate-lacking (Δprs) mutant strains of Escherichia coli require NAD, guanosine, uridine, histidine, and tryptophan for growth. NAD is required by phosphoribosyl diphosphate-lacking mutants because of lack of one of the substrates for the quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase...... reaction, an enzyme of the NAD de novo pathway. Several NAD-independent mutants of a host from which prs had been deleted were isolated; all of them were shown to have lesions in the pstSCAB-phoU operon, in which mutations lead to derepression of the Pho regulon. In addition NAD-independent growth...... was dependent on a functional quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase. The prs suppressor mutations led to the synthesis of a new phosphoryl compound that may act as a precursor for a new NAD biosynthetic pathway. This compound may be synthesized by the product of an unknown phosphate starvation-inducible gene...

  10. Triazacyclophane (TAC)-scaffolded histidine and aspartic acid residues as mimics of non-heme metalloenzyme active sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, H.B.; Soulimani, F.; Jacobs, H.J.F.; Versluis, C.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Liskamp, R.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and coordination behaviour to copper(II) of two close structural triazacyclophane-based mimics of two often encountered aspartic acid and histidine containing metalloenzyme active sites. Coordination of these mimics to copper(I) and their reaction with molecular oxygen

  11. Heat-sensitive lysis mutants of Bacillus subtilis 168 blocked at three different stages of peptidoglycan synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, R S; Ward, J B

    1980-10-01

    Three heat-sensitive mutants of Bacillus subtilis 168, which lysed at the non-permissive temperature, have been shown under these conditions to be defective in the synthesis of peptidoglycan. This was caused by lesions in three different stages of peptidoglycan synthesis.In one mutant (ddl), D-alanine: D-alanine ligase was defective, leading to the accumulation of UDP-MurAc-L-Ala-D-Glu-meso-A,pm ; the ddl mutation was closely linked(87 yo cotransducible) with dal, specifying alanine racemase. In a second mutant (dapE),the lesion was in N-acetyl-L-diaminopimelate deacylase, resulting in UDP-MurAc-L-Ala-D-Glu being accumulated, whilst in a third mutant (ptg-1435), UDP-MurAc-L-Ala-D-Glumeso-A,pm-D-Ala-D-Ala was the peptidoglycan precursor accumulated although the enzyme defect has not been ascertained. Both dapE and ptg-1435 were located between metC and pyr(AD), dapE being 25% cotransducible and ptg-1435 were located between metC and pyr(AD), dapE being 25% cotransducible with pyr(AD).

  12. MRI of the stener lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haramati, N.; Hiller, N.; Dowdle, J.; Jacobson, M.; Barax, C.N.; Lieberfarb, R.I.; Lester, B.; Kulick, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Six cadaver thumbs had ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears created surgically. MR examinations (2D STIR and 3D GRASS) were performed identically on all specimens both before displacement (non-Stener) and after displacement (Stener lesion) of the UCL. The MR images were then randomly numbered. Each image was evaluated separately in blinded fashion by four musculoskeletal radiologists for the presence or absence of a Stener lesion. Each radiologist reinterpreted the images after an interval of several days. The interpretation was based on previously published criteria for Stener lesion diagnosis by MR. The sensitivity of GRASS ranged from 0.17 to 0.67 with the most experienced reader scoring the lowest. The specificity of GRASS ranged from 0.33 to 1.0 (most experienced reader 0.67, 0.83). STIR had a sensitivity of 0.00-0.17 and a specificity of 0.53-0.83. The K values for inter- and intraobserver agreement were measured. The intraobserver K for GRASS was 0.27-0.75 (most experienced reader 0.75). 2D imaging is probably inadequate for the evaluation of Stener lesions. The most likely reason is that the STIR slice thickness of 3 mm limits resolution of small UCLs. The poor sensitivity and specificity of GRASS as well as poor interobserver agreement suggest that MR may not be sufficiently accurate for Stener lesion evaluation. (orig./MG)

  13. 2-[18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) findings of chronic expanding intrapericardial hematoma: a potential interpretive pitfall that mimics a malignant tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A 77-year-old man who had undergone mitral valve replacement 5 years previously presented with an intrapericardial mass. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed that the mass lesion contained hematoma components. Positron-emission tomography (PET) with 2-[18 F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) revealed uptake in the peripheral rim of the mass. These findings suggested the presence of hematoma associated with a malignant lesion. Surgical resection was performed, and the histological diagnosis was chronic expanding intrapericardial hematoma without neoplastic changes. Chronic expanding intrapericardial hematoma is a rare disease but should be considered when an expanding mass is found in a patient after cardiac surgery. The FDG-PET findings of chronic expanding hematomas, including FDG uptake in the peripheral rim of the mass as a result of inflammation, should be recognized as a potential interpretive pitfall that mimics a malignant tumor. PMID:23324446

  14. Recombinational DNA repair is regulated by compartmentalization of DNA lesions at the nuclear pore complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Géli, Vincent; Lisby, Michael

    2015-01-01

    and colleagues shows that also physiological threats to genome integrity such as DNA secondary structure-forming triplet repeat sequences relocalize to the NPC during DNA replication. Mutants that fail to reposition the triplet repeat locus to the NPC cause repeat instability. Here, we review the types of DNA...... lesions that relocalize to the NPC, the putative mechanisms of relocalization, and the types of recombinational repair that are stimulated by the NPC, and present a model for NPC-facilitated repair....

  15. Abfraction lesions reviewed: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Vasconcelos Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-carious cervical lesions are characterized by structural loss near the cementoenamel junction, without the presence of caries. Anumber of theories have arisen to explain the etiology of such lesions, although the real causes remain obscure, as is reflected by the contradictory terminology used in the literature. In addition to describing acidic and abrasive processes documented as etiological factors, attention is given to the role of mechanical stress from occlusal load, which is the most accepted theory for the development of abfraction lesions. Considering that tensile stress leads to the failure of restorations in the cervical region and that this is a fruitful area for future research, the present study has highlighted diagnosis, prognosis and the criteria for treatment.

  16. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  17. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  18. Lesion-induced pseudo-dominance at functional magnetic resonance imaging: implications for preoperative assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, John L; Hacein-Bey, Lotfi; Mathews, Vincent P; Mueller, Wade M; DeYoe, Edgar A; Prost, Robert W; Meyer, Glenn A; Krouwer, Hendrikus G; Schmainda, Kathleen M

    2004-09-01

    To illustrate how lesion-induced neurovascular uncoupling at functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can mimic hemispheric dominance opposite the side of a lesion preoperatively. We retrospectively reviewed preoperative fMRI mapping data from 50 patients with focal brain abnormalities to establish patterns of hemispheric dominance of language, speech, visual, or motor system functions. Abnormalities included gliomas (31 patients), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) (11 patients), other congenital lesions (4 patients), encephalomalacia (3 patients), and tumefactive encephalitis (1 patient). A laterality ratio of fMRI hemispheric dominance was compared with actual hemispheric dominance as verified by electrocortical stimulation, Wada testing, postoperative and posttreatment deficits, and/or lesion-induced deficits. fMRI activation maps were generated with cross-correlation (P frontal gyrus gliomas and in one patient with focal tumefactive meningoencephalitis, fMRI incorrectly suggested strong right hemispheric speech dominance. In two patients with lateral precentral gyrus region gliomas and one patient with a left central sulcus AVM, the fMRI pattern incorrectly suggested primary corticobulbar motor dominance contralateral to the side of the lesion. In a patient with a right superior frontal gyrus AVM, fMRI revealed pronounced left dominant supplementary motor area activity in response to a bilateral complex motor task, but right superior frontal gyrus perilesional hemorrhage and edema subsequently caused left upper-extremity plegia. Pathophysiological factors that might have caused neurovascular uncoupling and facilitated pseudo-dominance at fMRI in these patients included direct tumor infiltration, neovascularity, cerebrovascular inflammation, and AVM-induced hemodynamic effects. Sixteen patients had proven (1 patient), probable (2 patients), or possible (13 patients) but unproven lesion-induced homotopic cortical reorganization. Lesion-induced neurovascular

  19. The radiology in the solitary bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, G.A.; Cardoso, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three methods of radiologic analysis of the solitary bone lesions are reviewed. 1. Radiological analysis of the lesions with the objective to suppose the histologic type; 2. To appreciate the velocity of growth and aggressiveness of the lesions. 3. To appreciate the biological behaviour of the bone lesions, making the diagnosis necessary for the treatment. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. [The treatment of decubitus lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, G; Moroni, S; Bona, F

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a plan for pharmacological treatment of pressure sores in patients affected by neurological pathologies: cerebrovascular accidents, head injuries, spinal cord injuries. This plan is easily applicable to all pressure sores included between first and third degree of the Reuler and Cooney classification. Authors identified some drugs specifically usefull in different cutaneous lesion degrees. Skin lesions and employed medicines are described as follows: Erythema: semi occlusive bandage with porous adsorbing membrane. This dressing must be left in for five days at least. Excoriation: bactericidal or bacteriostatic medicines if it's situated in a non pressed area while the same dressing utilized for erythema if it's localized in a pressed area. Pressure sores: if there is local infection cleanse the wound from bacterial defilement using topic antibiotics apply compresses with vitamin C if the cutaneous lesion is larger than deeper, Cadexomero lodico if it's deeper than larger. Fistulas: wadding with tablets of collagen. Necrobiosis: complete or partial surgical removal of eschar preceded by the use of enzymatic drugs when eschar is firmly adherent to subcutaneous tissues. The first group collects 9 patients with stroke and head injury: 8 with sacral and 1 with heel pressure sores. First degree pressure sores heal within 45 days and third degree lesions within 160 days. The second group collects 10 spinal cord injury patients mostly with complete lesion among which: 7 sacral, 1 heel, 1 ischiatic and 1 malleolar lesions. First degree pressure sores heal within 30 days, third degree pressure sores heal within 200 days. Healing time are considered acceptable. Pressure sores recovery swiftness can be related to different factors such as pressure sores sterness, neurological pathology and arising of clinical complication (hyperthermia, infections, low serum albumin values, etc).

  1. Lesions of juxtacortical origin (surface lesions of bone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenan, S.; Abdelwahab, I.F.; Klein, M.J.; Hermann, G.; Lewis, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    A large variety of tumor and tumor-like conditions have been shown to originate from the surface of bone. Most surface lesions are associated with periosteal reaction. The periosteum is a multipotential membrane. Its cellular composition may give rise to a variety of both neoplasms and tumor-like conditions. To avoid misinterpretation, the orthopedist, radiologist, and pathologist should be familiar with the entire spectrum of surface lesions. A better understanding of the natural history and biological behavior at different lesional maturity stages and correlation of the history with the radiographic and pathological findings is essential to establish the correct diagnosis. A history of injury of blunt trauma is very important. A stress fracture may produce a periosteal reaction acd callus that can be difficult to distinguish from osteosarcoma. In this review article, the authors wish to describe and define each term by its anatomy and radiographic features while discussing the entire spectrum of surface lesions. All the illustrative cases in this review article have been proven histologically. (orig.)

  2. Periapical lesions: diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rubio, A.; Bujaldón-Daza, A.L.; Rodríguez-Archilla, A.

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones periapicales resultado de la necrosis de la pulpa dental son las patologías que más frecuentemente ocurren encontradas en el hueso alveolar. El tratamiento consiste en la eliminación de los agentes infecciosos mediante el tratamiento del canal radicular, permitiendo la cicatrización de la lesión. Periapical lesions, which are a result of the necrosis of the dental pulp, are the most frequently occurring diseases found in the alveolar bone. The treatment involves the removal of...

  3. How well does cholesteryl hemisuccinate mimic cholesterol in saturated phospholipid bilayers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, W.; Tynkkynen, J.; Javanainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesteryl hemisuccinate is a detergent that is often used to replace cholesterol in crystallization of membrane proteins. Here we employ atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to characterize how well the properties of cholesteryl hemisuccinate actually match those of cholesterol in saturated...... protein-free lipid membranes. We show that the protonated form of cholesteryl hemisuccinate mimics many of the membrane properties of cholesterol quite well, while the deprotonated form of cholesteryl hemisuccinate is less convincing in this respect. Based on the results, we suggest that cholesteryl...... hemisuccinate in its protonated form is a quite faithful mimic of cholesterol for membrane protein crystallization, if specific cholesterol-protein interactions (not investigated here) are not playing a crucial role....

  4. Biomaterial delivery of morphogens to mimic the natural healing cascade in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manav; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Duda, Georg N; Mooney, David J

    2012-09-01

    Complications in treatment of large bone defects using bone grafting still remain. Our understanding of the endogenous bone regeneration cascade has inspired the exploration of a wide variety of growth factors (GFs) in an effort to mimic the natural signaling that controls bone healing. Biomaterial-based delivery of single exogenous GFs has shown therapeutic efficacy, and this likely relates to its ability to recruit and promote replication of cells involved in tissue development and the healing process. However, as the natural bone healing cascade involves the action of multiple factors, each acting in a specific spatiotemporal pattern, strategies aiming to mimic the critical aspects of this process will likely benefit from the usage of multiple therapeutic agents. This article reviews the current status of approaches to deliver single GFs, as well as ongoing efforts to develop sophisticated delivery platforms to deliver multiple lineage-directing morphogens (multiple GFs) during bone healing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitive fluorescence on-off probes for the fast detection of a chemical warfare agent mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shar Jhahan; Wang, Ya-Wen; Senge, Mathias O; Peng, Yu

    2018-01-15

    Two highly sensitive probes bearing a nucleophilic imine moiety have been utilized for the selective detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics. Diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) was used as mimic CWAs. Both iminocoumarin-benzothiazole-based probes not only demonstrated a remarkable fluorescence ON-OFF response and good recognition, but also exhibited fast response times (10s) along with color changes upon addition of DCP. Limits of detection for the two sensors 1 and 2 were calculated as 0.065μM and 0.21μM, respectively, which are much lower than most other reported probes. These two probes not only show high sensitivity and selectivity in solution, but can also be applied for the recognition of DCP in the gas state, with significant color changes easily observed by the naked eye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Knockdown of Rice microRNA166 by Short Tandem Target Mimic (STTM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Sachin; Zhang, Dabing; Tang, Guiliang

    2017-01-01

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), are abundant in plants and play key roles in controlling plant development and physiology. miRNAs regulate the expression of the target genes involved in key plant processes. Due to functional redundancy among miRNA family members in plants, an ideal approach to silence the expression of all members simultaneously, for their functional characterization, is desirable. Target mimic (TM) was the first approach to achieve this goal. Short tandem target mimic (STTM) is a potent approach complementing TM for silencing miRNAs in plants. STTMs have been successfully used in dicots to block miRNA functions. Here, we describe in detail the protocol for designing STTM construct to block miRNA functions in rice. Such approach can be applied to silence miRNAs in other monocots as well.

  7. PNRI mutant variety: sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2011-01-01

    Sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe,' registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2008 Or-66, is a chlorophyll mutant of Sansevieria trifasciata 'Moonshine' developed by treating its suckers or shoots arising from a rhizome with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical in growth habit and vigor to Sansevieria 'Moonshine,' also known as Moonglow. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color and flowering were altered by gamma irradiation without changing the other characteristics of the plant. Propagation is true-to-type by separation of sucker and top cutting. The plant is recommended for use as landscaping material and as pot plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves may be harvested as cut foliage for Japanese flower arrangements. (author)

  8. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-01-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO 2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [ 14 C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO 2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  9. Intact interval timing in circadian CLOCK mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C R

    2008-08-28

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval-timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/- and -/- mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing.

  10. 20-year Follow-up of Recurrent Glandular Odontogenic Cyst Mimicking a Periapical Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; Yamamoto-Silva, Fernanda Paula; Sena-Filho, Marcondes; Silva Sant'Ana, Simone Sousa; Mariano-Júnior, Wilson José; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Estrela, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Periapical lesions usually are caused by root canal infection; nevertheless, other pathologies may eventually involve the tooth apex, making the correct diagnosis more difficult. Glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) are uncommon and, despite their cystic nature, may present an aggressive behavior and a high recurrence rate. This report describes a recurrent GOC mimicking a periapical lesion that was followed up for 20 years. A 45-year-old woman described tooth discomfort for several years in the anterior region of the mandible that was not exacerbated during eating or occlusion. Clinical examination revealed no signs of swelling, redness, or inflammation in the gingival or surrounding soft tissue. Nevertheless, periapical radiography showed a well-defined large radiolucent lesion in the periapical region of teeth #22, #23, #24, and #25. The pulp test confirmed that all these teeth were vital. An incisional biopsy was performed, and with the histopathological diagnosis of an odontogenic cyst, the lesion was enucleated surgically. After recurrence, the extensive periapical multilocular lesions were again surgically removed. Based on the microscopic findings, the final diagnosis was GOC. One year later, there were no signs of recurrence. GOCs associated with the root apex may mimic periapical inflammatory diseases. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are essential for the diagnosis of inconclusive radiolucent findings in the periapical region. Biopsy specimens should be sent to a specialized oral pathology laboratory. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural Mimics of the [Fe]-Hydrogenase: A Complete Set for Group VIII Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Chandan Kr; Ganguly, Rakesh; Li, Yongxin; Leong, Weng Kee

    2018-06-18

    A set of structural mimics of the [Fe]-hydrogenase active site comprising all the group VIII metals, viz., [M(2-NHC(O)C 5 H 4 N)(CO) 2 (2-S-C 5 H 4 N)], has been synthesized. They exist as a mixture of isomers in solution, and the relative stability of the isomers depends on the nature of the metal and the substituent at the 6-position of the pyridine ligand.

  12. Artificial cell mimics as simplified models for the study of cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Reyhani, Ali; Ces, Oscar; Elani, Yuval

    2017-07-01

    Living cells are hugely complex chemical systems composed of a milieu of distinct chemical species (including DNA, proteins, lipids, and metabolites) interconnected with one another through a vast web of interactions: this complexity renders the study of cell biology in a quantitative and systematic manner a difficult task. There has been an increasing drive towards the utilization of artificial cells as cell mimics to alleviate this, a development that has been aided by recent advances in artificial cell construction. Cell mimics are simplified cell-like structures, composed from the bottom-up with precisely defined and tunable compositions. They allow specific facets of cell biology to be studied in isolation, in a simplified environment where control of variables can be achieved without interference from a living and responsive cell. This mini-review outlines the core principles of this approach and surveys recent key investigations that use cell mimics to address a wide range of biological questions. It will also place the field in the context of emerging trends, discuss the associated limitations, and outline future directions of the field. Impact statement Recent years have seen an increasing drive to construct cell mimics and use them as simplified experimental models to replicate and understand biological phenomena in a well-defined and controlled system. By summarizing the advances in this burgeoning field, and using case studies as a basis for discussion on the limitations and future directions of this approach, it is hoped that this minireview will spur others in the experimental biology community to use artificial cells as simplified models with which to probe biological systems.

  13. A concise flow synthesis of indole-3-carboxylic ester and its derivatisation to an auxin mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Baumann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An assembled suite of flow-based transformations have been used to rapidly scale-up the production of a novel auxin mimic-based herbicide which was required for preliminary field trials. The overall synthetic approach and optimisation studies are described along with a full description of the final reactor configurations employed for the synthesis as well as the downstream processing of the reaction streams.

  14. Acute aortic dissection mimics acute inferoposterior wall myocardial infarction in a Marfan syndrome patient

    OpenAIRE

    Phowthongkum, Prasit

    2010-01-01

    A 30-year old man with acute chest pain was diagnosed with acute inferoposterior wall myocardial infarction following electrocardiography. After a failed coronary angiography, an echocardiogram revealed an aortic intimal flap after which acute aortic dissection was diagnosed. The patient received a successful Bentall operation without immediate complication. Retrospective examination then confirmed the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. This case demonstrates acute aortic dissection may mimic acut...

  15. Acute aortic dissection mimics acute inferoposterior wall myocardial infarction in a Marfan syndrome patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phowthongkum, Prasit

    2010-01-01

    A 30-year old man with acute chest pain was diagnosed with acute inferoposterior wall myocardial infarction following electrocardiography. After a failed coronary angiography, an echocardiogram revealed an aortic intimal flap after which acute aortic dissection was diagnosed. The patient received a successful Bentall operation without immediate complication. Retrospective examination then confirmed the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. This case demonstrates acute aortic dissection may mimic acute myocardial infarction.

  16. Noise analysis and mimic experiments for loose part accident in the primary coolant loop of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiuzhou; Cheng Tingxiang; Zhang Bin

    1994-01-01

    The basic principle of loose part monitoring is to detect and measure the structure transfer sound generated by impacting of metal loose part with accelerators and to identify and diagnose by the micro-processor. This paper introduces the theoretical base of loose part monitoring, the location and mass estimation of loose part, and three mimic experiment applying noise analysis techniques. It provides some useful preparations for the development of loose part monitoring system

  17. A sensitive colorimetric aptasensor based on trivalent peroxidase-mimic DNAzyme and magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuwen; Xu, Naihan; Tan, Chunyan; Fang, Wei; Tan, Ying; Jiang, Yuyang

    2018-08-14

    In this study, a novel colorimetric aptasensor was prepared by coupling trivalent peroxidase-mimic DNAzyme and magnetic nanoparticles for highly sensitive and selective detection of target proteins. A three G-quadruplex (G4) DNA-hemin complex was employed as the trivalent peroxidase-mimic DNAzyme, in which hemin assisted the G4-DNA to fold into a catalytic conformation and act as an enzyme. The design of the aptasensor includes magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), complementary DNA (cDNA) modified with biotin, and a label-free single strand DNA (ssDNA) including the aptamer and trivalent peroxidase-mimic DNAzyme. The trivalent DNAzyme, which has the highest catalytic activity among multivalent DNAzymes, catalyzed the H 2 O 2 -mediated oxidation of ABTS. The colorless ABTS was oxidized to produce a blue-green product that can be clearly distinguished by the naked eye. The aptamer and trivalent peroxidase-mimic DNAzyme promote the specificity and sensitivity of this detection method, which can be generalized for other targets by simply replacing the corresponding aptamers. To demonstrate the feasible use of the aptasensor for target detection, a well-known tumor biomarker MUC1 was evaluated as the model target. The limits of detection were determined to be 5.08 and 5.60 nM in a linear range of 50-1000 nM in a buffer solution and 10% serum system, respectively. This colorimetric and label-free aptasensor with excellent sensitivity and strong anti-interference ability has potential application in disease diagnoses, prognosis tracking, and therapeutic evaluation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Independent monitor unit calculation for intensity modulated radiotherapy using the MIMiC multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Xing Lei; Nath, Ravinder

    2002-01-01

    A self-consistent monitor unit (MU) and isocenter point-dose calculation method has been developed that provides an independent verification of the MU for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using the MIMiC (Nomos Corporation) multileaf collimator. The method takes into account two unique features of IMRT using the MIMiC: namely the gantry-dynamic arc delivery of intensity modulated photon beams and the slice-by-slice dose delivery for large tumor volumes. The method converts the nonuniform beam intensity planned at discrete gantry angles of 5 deg. or 10 deg. into conventional nonmodulated beam intensity apertures of elemental arc segments of 1 deg. This approach more closely simulates the actual gantry-dynamic arc delivery by MIMiC. Because each elemental arc segment is of uniform intensity, the MU calculation for an IMRT arc is made equivalent to a conventional arc with gantry-angle dependent beam apertures. The dose to the isocenter from each 1 deg. elemental arc segment is calculated by using the Clarkson scatter summation technique based on measured tissue-maximum-ratio and output factors, independent of the dose calculation model used in the IMRT planning system. For treatments requiring multiple treatment slices, the MU for the arc at each treatment slice takes into account the MU, leakage and scatter doses from other slices. This is achieved by solving a set of coupled linear equations for the MUs of all involved treatment slices. All input dosimetry data for the independent MU/isocenter point-dose calculation are measured directly. Comparison of the MU and isocenter point dose calculated by the independent program to those calculated by the Corvus planning system and to direct measurements has shown good agreement with relative difference less than ±3%. The program can be used as an independent initial MU verification for IMRT plans using the MIMiC multileaf collimators

  19. Glutathione peroxidase mimic ebselen improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in murine islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Yun, Jun-Won; Lei, Xin Gen

    2014-01-10

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) mimic ebselen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic copper diisopropylsalicylate (CuDIPs) were used to rescue impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in islets of GPX1 and(or) SOD1-knockout mice. Ebselen improved GSIS in islets of all four tested genotypes. The rescue in the GPX1 knockout resulted from a coordinated transcriptional regulation of four key GSIS regulators and was mediated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α)-mediated signaling pathways. In contrast, CuDIPs improved GSIS only in the SOD1 knockout and suppressed gene expression of the PGC-1α pathway. Islets from the GPX1 and(or) SOD1 knockout mice provided metabolically controlled intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide conditions for the present study to avoid confounding effects. Bioinformatics analyses of gene promoters and expression profiles guided the search for upstream signaling pathways to link the ebselen-initiated H2O2 scavenging to downstream key events of GSIS. The RNA interference was applied to prove PGC-1α as the main mediator for that link. Our study revealed a novel metabolic use and clinical potential of ebselen in rescuing GSIS in the GPX1-deficient islets and mice, along with distinct differences between the GPX and SOD mimics in this regard. These findings highlight the necessities and opportunities of discretional applications of various antioxidant enzyme mimics in treating insulin secretion disorders. REBOUND TRACK: This work was rejected during standard peer review and rescued by Rebound Peer Review (Antioxid Redox Signal 16: 293-296, 2012) with the following serving as open reviewers: Regina Brigelius-Flohe, Vadim Gladyshev, Dexing Hou, and Holger Steinbrenner.

  20. The application of shortened upper leaf mutant in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua

    2004-01-01

    The shortened upper leaf mutant was induced from Fuji Nigo by γ-ray irradiation. Fuji Nigo, the mutant, cross-cut F 1 , F 2 and back-cross F 1 , F 2 were used to analyze mutant heredity by comparative study. The yield, chlorophyll content, light intensity, dry matter of mutant were investigated. The results showed that (1) the mutant character was controlled by a couple of nuclear genes which were partial dominance; (2) the transmittance of the mutant colony was better than that of Fuji Nigo and bottom dry matter was much more than that of Fuji Nigo; (3) under the condition of high fertilizer and high plant population , the yield of mutant was higher than that of Fuji Nigo; (4) the content of chlorophyll a in the mutant was higher than that in Fuji Nigo

  1. ''Fushi'' - excellent mutant germplasm for peanut improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Zhou, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The mutant line ''Fushi'' was selected following seed treatment of the variety ''Shi Xuan 64'' in 1960 with 32 P. Many good peanut varieties were developed using ''Fushi'' in cross-breeding (ref. Mutation Breeding Newsletter No. 30 (July 1987) p. 2-3). In the past 10 years, planting areas of these varieties added up to 3,3 million ha in South China, peanut production was increased by more than 500 000 t valued 500 million Yuan. (author)

  2. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  3. Gibberellic and kaurenoic hybrid strigolactone mimics for seed germination of parasitic weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rondinelle G; Cala, Antonio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Molinillo, José Mg; Boaventura, Maria Ad; Macías, Francisco A

    2017-12-01

    Parasitic weeds are widespread and cause significant losses in important crops. Their germination requires the detection of crop-derived molecules such as strigolactones. Strigolactone mimics are germination-inducing molecules with the potential to apply a suicidal germination strategy for seed bank control of parasitic weeds. The D-ring, which is instrumental in the germination process of seeds of parasitic weeds, was attached to gibberellin (GA 3 ) and kaurenoic acid as the scaffold. It was shown that indeed strigolactone mimics prepared from GA 3 and kaurenoic acid are active as stimulants when a D-ring is present; some of the mimics are as active as GR24. The starting molecules were plant hormones that had previous growth-regulating activity in other organisms and the products showed enhanced activity towards parasitic weeds. The information generated may contribute to a better understanding of the germination biochemistry of the weed species used. Further research is required in this area but it is clear that the results are promising. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. MIMIC: An Innovative Methodology for Determining Mobile Laser Scanning System Point Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Cahalane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how various Mobile Mapping System (MMS laser hardware configurations and operating parameters exercise different influence on point density is important for assessing system performance, which in turn facilitates system design and MMS benchmarking. Point density also influences data processing, as objects that can be recognised using automated algorithms generally require a minimum point density. Although obtaining the necessary point density impacts on hardware costs, survey time and data storage requirements, a method for accurately and rapidly assessing MMS performance is lacking for generic MMSs. We have developed a method for quantifying point clouds collected by an MMS with respect to known objects at specified distances using 3D surface normals, 2D geometric formulae and line drawing algorithms. These algorithms were combined in a system called the Mobile Mapping Point Density Calculator (MIMIC and were validated using point clouds captured by both a single scanner and a dual scanner MMS. Results from MIMIC were promising: when considering the number of scan profiles striking the target, the average error equated to less than 1 point per scan profile. These tests highlight that MIMIC is capable of accurately calculating point density for both single and dual scanner MMSs.

  5. A collection of target mimics for comprehensive analysis of microRNA function in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Todesco

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many targets of plant microRNAs (miRNAs are thought to play important roles in plant physiology and development. However, because plant miRNAs are typically encoded by medium-size gene families, it has often been difficult to assess their precise function. We report the generation of a large-scale collection of knockdowns for Arabidopsis thaliana miRNA families; this has been achieved using artificial miRNA target mimics, a recently developed technique fashioned on an endogenous mechanism of miRNA regulation. Morphological defects in the aerial part were observed for approximately 20% of analyzed families, all of which are deeply conserved in land plants. In addition, we find that non-cleavable mimic sites can confer translational regulation in cis. Phenotypes of plants expressing target mimics directed against miRNAs involved in development were in several cases consistent with previous reports on plants expressing miRNA-resistant forms of individual target genes, indicating that a limited number of targets mediates most effects of these miRNAs. That less conserved miRNAs rarely had obvious effects on plant morphology suggests that most of them do not affect fundamental aspects of development. In addition to insight into modes of miRNA action, this study provides an important resource for the study of miRNA function in plants.

  6. Instructions to mimic improve facial emotion recognition in people with sub-clinical autism traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael B; Dunn, Emily

    2017-11-01

    People tend to mimic the facial expression of others. It has been suggested that this helps provide social glue between affiliated people but it could also aid recognition of emotions through embodied cognition. The degree of facial mimicry, however, varies between individuals and is limited in people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). The present study sought to investigate the effect of promoting facial mimicry during a facial-emotion-recognition test. In two experiments, participants without an ASC diagnosis had their autism quotient (AQ) measured. Following a baseline test, they did an emotion-recognition test again but half of the participants were asked to mimic the target face they saw prior to making their responses. Mimicry improved emotion recognition, and further analysis revealed that the largest improvement was for participants who had higher scores on the autism traits. In fact, recognition performance was best overall for people who had high AQ scores but also received the instruction to mimic. Implications for people with ASC are explored.

  7. Early diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes: pros and cons of current clinical diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Vicente, Elena; Pradas, Jesús; Marín-Lahoz, Juan; De Luna, Noemi; Clarimón, Jordi; Turon-Sans, Janina; Gelpí, Ellen; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Illa, Isabel; Rojas-Garcia, Ricard

    2017-08-01

    To describe the frequency and clinical characteristics of patients referred to a tertiary neuromuscular clinic as having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but who were re-diagnosed as having an ALS mimic syndrome, and to identify the reasons that led to the revision of the diagnosis. We reviewed the final diagnosis of all patients prospectively registered in the Sant Pau-MND register from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2015. A detailed clinical evaluation and a clinically-guided electrophysiological study were performed at first evaluation. Twenty of 314 (6.4%) patients included were re-diagnosed as having a condition other than ALS, in 18 cases already at first evaluation. An alternative specific diagnosis was identified in 17 of those 20, consisting of a wide range of conditions. The main finding leading to an alternative diagnosis was the result of the electrophysiological study. Fifty per cent did not fulfil the El Escorial revised criteria (EECr) for ALS. The most common clinical phenotype at onset in patients with ALS mimic syndromes was progressive muscular atrophy (PMA). Misdiagnosing ALS is still a common problem. Early identification of ALS mimic syndromes is possible based on atypical clinical features and a clinically-guided electrophysiological study. Patients should be attended in specialised centres. The application of EECr helps to identify ALS misdiagnoses.

  8. MicroRNA-122 mimic transfection contributes to apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongyan; Zhu, Yueyong; Li, Shaoyang

    2015-11-01

    There is currently a requirement for effective treatment strategies for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a leading cause of cancer‑associated mortality. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), a repressor of the endogenous apoptosis regulator Bcl‑w, is frequently downregulated in HCC. Thus, it is hypothesized that the activation of miR‑122 may induce selective hepatocellular apoptosis via caspase activation in a model of HCC. In the present study, an miR‑122 mimic transfection was performed in HepG2 cells, and used to investigate the role and therapeutic potential of miR‑122 in the regulation of HCC‑derived cell lines. The apoptotic rates of HepG2 cells were significantly increased following miR‑122 mimic transfection. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Bcl‑w mRNA was significantly reduced, while the mRNA levels of caspase‑9 and caspase‑3 were markedly increased. The immunocytochemistry results supported the mRNA trends. Collectively, the present results suggest that endogenous miR‑122 contributes to HepG2 apoptosis and that transfection of mimic miR‑122 normalizes apoptotic levels in a model of HCC.

  9. Fast and efficient Drosophila melanogaster gene knock-ins using MiMIC transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, Sven; Vanhauwaert, Roeland; Maes, Ine; Schoovaerts, Nils; Zhou, Lujia; Soukup, Sandra; da Cunha, Raquel; Lauwers, Elsa; Fiers, Mark; Verstreken, Patrik

    2014-10-08

    Modern molecular genetics studies necessitate the manipulation of genes in their endogenous locus, but most of the current methodologies require an inefficient donor-dependent homologous recombination step to locally modify the genome. Here we describe a methodology to efficiently generate Drosophila knock-in alleles by capitalizing on the availability of numerous genomic MiMIC transposon insertions carrying recombinogenic attP sites. Our methodology entails the efficient PhiC31-mediated integration of a recombination cassette flanked by unique I-SceI and/or I-CreI restriction enzyme sites into an attP-site. These restriction enzyme sites allow for double-strand break-mediated removal of unwanted flanking transposon sequences, while leaving the desired genomic modifications or recombination cassettes. As a proof-of-principle, we mutated LRRK, tau, and sky by using different MiMIC elements. We replaced 6 kb of genomic DNA encompassing the tau locus and 35 kb encompassing the sky locus with a recombination cassette that permits easy integration of DNA at these loci and we also generated a functional LRRK(HA) knock in allele. Given that ~92% of the Drosophila genes are located within the vicinity (MiMIC element, our methodology enables the efficient manipulation of nearly every locus in the fruit fly genome without the need for inefficient donor-dependent homologous recombination events. Copyright © 2014 Vilain et al.

  10. Mimic Carbonic Anhydrase Using Metal-Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chaonan; Zhang, Sainan; Zhang, Zhenjie; Chen, Yao

    2018-02-19

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc-containing metalloprotein, in which the Zn active center plays the key role to transform CO 2 into carbonate. Inspired by nature, herein we used metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to mimic CA for CO 2 conversion, on the basis of the structural similarity between the Zn coordination in MOFs and CA active center. The biomimetic activity of MOFs was investigated by detecting the hydrolysis of para-nitrophenyl acetate, which is a model reaction used to evaluate CA activity. The biomimetic materials (e.g., CFA-1) showed good catalytic activity, and excellent reusability, and solvent and thermal stability, which is very important for practical applications. In addition, ZIF-100 and CFA-1 were used to mimic CA to convert CO 2 gas, and exhibited good efficiency on CO 2 conversion compared with those of other porous materials (e.g., MCM-41, active carbon). This biomimetic study revealed a novel CO 2 treatment method. Instead of simply using MOFs to absorb CO 2 , ZIF-100 and CFA-1 were used to mimic CA for in situ CO 2 conversion, which provides a new prospect in the biological and industrial applications of MOFs.

  11. Sensitive electrochemical assaying of DNA methyltransferase activity based on mimic-hybridization chain reaction amplified strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linqun; Liu, Yuanjian; Li, Ying; Zhao, Yuewu; Wei, Wei; Liu, Songqin

    2016-08-24

    A mimic-hybridization chain reaction (mimic-HCR) amplified strategy was proposed for sensitive electrochemically detection of DNA methylation and methyltransferase (MTase) activity In the presence of methylated DNA, DNA-gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs) were captured on the electrode by sandwich-type assembly. It then triggered mimic-HCR of two hairpin probes to produce many long double-helix chains for numerous hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride ([Ru(NH3)6](3+), RuHex) inserting. As a result, the signal for electrochemically detection of DNA MTase activity could be amplified. If DNA was non-methylated, however, the sandwich-type assembly would not form because the short double-stranded DNAs (dsDNA) on the Au electrode could be cleaved and digested by restriction endonuclease HpaII (HapII) and exonuclease III (Exo III), resulting in the signal decrement. Based on this, an electrochemical approach for detection of M.SssI MTase activity with high sensitivity was developed. The linear range for M.SssI MTase activity was from 0.05 U mL(-1) to 10 U mL(-1), with a detection limit down to 0.03 U mL(-1). Moreover, this detecting strategy held great promise as an easy-to-use and highly sensitive method for other MTase activity and inhibition detection by exchanging the corresponding DNA sequence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Settlement pattern of Posidonia oceanica epibionts along a gradient of ocean acidification: an approach with mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. DONNARUMMA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ocean acidification (OA on the colonization/settlement pattern of the epibiont community of the leaves and rhizomesof the Mediterranean seagrass,Posidoniaoceanica, have been studied at volcanic CO2vents off Ischia (Italy, using “mimics”as artificial substrates. The experiments were conducted in shallowPosidoniastands (2-3 m depth, in three stations on the northand three on the south sides of the study area, distributed along a pH gradient. At each station, 4 rhizome mimics and 6 artificialleaves were collected every three months (Sept 2009-Sept 2010. The epibionts on both leaf and rhizome mimics showed clearchanges along the pH gradient; coralline algae and calcareous invertebrates (bryozoans, serpulid polychaetes and barnacles weredominant at control stations but progressively disappeared at the most acidified stations. In these extremely low pH sites theassemblage was dominated by filamentous algae and non calcareous taxa such as hydroids and tunicates. Settlement pattern onthe artificial leaves and rhizome mimics over time showed a consistent distribution pattern along the pH gradient and highlightedthe peak of recruitment of the various organisms in different periods according to their life history.Posidoniamimics at theacidified station showed a poor and very simplified assemblage where calcifying epibionts seemed less competitive for space. Thisprofound difference in epiphyte communities in low pH conditions suggests cascading effects on the food web of the meadow and,consequently, on the functioning of the system

  13. Grain product of 34 soya mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmeron E, J.; Mastache L, A. A.; Valencia E, F.; Diaz V, G. E.; Cervantes S, T.; De la Cruz T, E.; Garcia A, J. M.; Falcon B, T.; Gatica T, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This work was development with the objective of obtaining information of the agronomic behavior of 34 soya mutant lines (R 4 M 18 ) for human consumption and this way to select the 2 better lines. The genetic materials were obtained starting from the variety ISAAEG-B M2 by means of the application of recurrent radiation with Co 60 gammas, to a dose of 350 Gray for the first two generations and both later to 200 Gray and selection during 17 cycles, being obtained the 34 better lines mutants with agronomic characteristic wanted and good flavor. The obtained results were that the mutant lines L 25 and L 32 produced the major quantity in branches/plant number with 7.5 and 7.25, pods/plant number with 171.25 and 167, grains/plant number with 350.89 and 333.07 and grain product (ton/ha) to 15% of humidity 5.15 and 4.68 ton/ha, respectively. (Author)

  14. Multivariate analysis for selecting apple mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedi, W.; Bagnara, G.L.; Rosati, P.; Cecchini, M.

    1992-01-01

    The mutlivariate analysis of four year records on several vegetative and productive traits of twenty-one apple mutants (3 of 'Jonathan', 3 of 'Ozark Gold', 14 of 'Mollie's Delicious', 1 of 'Neipling's Early Stayman)' induced by gamma radiations showed that observation of some traits of one-year-old shoots is the most efficient way to reveal compact growing apple mutants. In particular, basal cross-section area, total length and leaf area resulted the most appropriate parameters, while internode length together with conopy height and width are less appropriate. The most interesting mutants we found are: one of 'Mollie's Delicious for the best balance among tree and fruit traits and for high skin color; one of 'Neipling's Early Stayman' with an earlier and more extensively red colored apple than the original clone. (author)

  15. Probiotic features of Lactobacillus plantarum mutant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Pasquale; Gallone, Anna; Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio; Albenzio, Marzia; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum wild-type and derivative mutant strains was investigated. Bacterial survival was evaluated in an in vitro system, simulating the transit along the human oro-gastro-intestinal tract. Interaction with human gut epithelial cells was studied by assessing bacterial adhesive ability to Caco-2 cells and induction of genes involved in innate immunity. L. plantarum strains were resistant to the combined stress at the various steps of the simulated gastrointestinal tract. Major decreases in the viability of L. plantarum cells were observed mainly under drastic acidic conditions (pH ≤ 2.0) of the gastric compartment. Abiotic stresses associated to small intestine poorly affected bacterial viability. All the bacterial strains significantly adhered to Caco-2 cells, with the ΔctsR mutant strain exhibiting the highest adhesion. Induction of immune-related genes resulted higher upon incubation with heat-inactivated bacteria rather than with live ones. For specific genes, a differential transcriptional pattern was observed upon stimulation with different L. plantarum strains, evidencing a possible role of the knocked out bacterial genes in the modulation of host cell response. In particular, cells from Δhsp18.55 and ΔftsH mutants strongly triggered immune defence genes. Our study highlights the relevance of microbial genetic background in host-probiotic interaction and might contribute to identify candidate bacterial genes and molecules involved in probiosis.

  16. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  17. Radiation studies in Cajanus cajan: meiotic behaviour in some M/sub 2/ mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S.S.N.; Akhaury, S.B. (Ranchi Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative study of the mutants produced in M/sub 2/ generation has been made. The mutants were classified as: (1) chlorophyll mutant, (2) morphological mutant, (3) pollen mutant, (4) semi-sterile and (5) sterile mutant. Cytological investigations of pollen mutants, sterile and semi-sterile mutants have revealed that these mutants generally arise at higher dose levels (20 Kr and 25 Kr).

  18. Stereotactic lesioning for mental illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.-C.; Lee, T.-K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radiofrequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental illness. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were done for aggressive behavior. Limbic leucotomy or anterior cingulotomy was done for CCD and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was done for depression. In twenty-three patients, the lesions were made by a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator. In fifteen cases, the lesions were made with Cyberknife Radiosurgery (CKRS). The Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement during follow up period. With long-term follow up (meaning 57 months) in 25 OCDs, the mean Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (YBOCS) declined from 34 to 13 (n = 25). The Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) for ten patients with depression declined from 38.5 to 10.5 (n = 10). There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except one case with transient urinary incontinence. Authors suggest that stereotactic psychosurgery by RF and CKRS could be a safe and effective means of treating some medically intractable mental illnesses. (author)

  19. Secondary syphilis lesions resembling pityriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, N.R.; Ali, L.; Nawaz, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes a male patient who presented with generalized, centrally-ulcerated papules with crusts and hypopigmented macules. Initially, differential diagnostic considerations included pityriasis lichenoides but the serology for syphilis was positive and there was a rapid response to penicillin with clearing of the lesions at the end of three weeks treatment. (author)

  20. Molecular analysis of mutants of the Neurospora adenylosuccinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-07

    Aug 7, 2012 ... and mutants induced with X-ray, UV or chemical mutagens. ... We have sequenced the ad-8 locus from 13 of these mutants and identified the molecular nature ..... mutants in yeast by selection for constitutive behavior in pig-.

  1. Biological changes in Barley mutants resistant to powdery mildew disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I. M.; Fahim, M. M.; Moustafa, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    physiological studies showed that all kinds of chlorophyll (a), (b) and (a + b) content in infected plant were decreased while, the carotenes pigment were increased. Infection generally reduced total sugars content of all resistant mutants. Infected resistant mutant showed more phenols content and peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase activities than healthy ones of the mutants. (Author)

  2. Selective Disruption of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5-Homer Interactions Mimics Phenotypes of Fragile X Syndrome in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weirui; Molinaro, Gemma; Collins, Katie A; Hays, Seth A; Paylor, Richard; Worley, Paul F; Szumlinski, Karen K; Huber, Kimberly M

    2016-02-17

    Altered function of the Gq-coupled, Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors, specifically mGlu5, is implicated in multiple mouse models of autism and intellectual disability. mGlu5 dysfunction has been most well characterized in the fragile X syndrome mouse model, the Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mouse, where pharmacological and genetic reduction of mGlu5 reverses many phenotypes. mGlu5 is less associated with its scaffolding protein Homer in Fmr1 KO mice, and restoration of mGlu5-Homer interactions by genetic deletion of a short, dominant negative of Homer, H1a, rescues many phenotypes of Fmr1 KO mice. These results suggested that disruption of mGlu5-Homer leads to phenotypes of FXS. To test this idea, we examined mice with a knockin mutation of mGlu5 (F1128R; mGlu5(R/R)) that abrogates binding to Homer. Although FMRP levels were normal, mGlu5(R/R) mice mimicked multiple phenotypes of Fmr1 KO mice, including reduced mGlu5 association with the postsynaptic density, enhanced constitutive mGlu5 signaling to protein synthesis, deficits in agonist-induced translational control, protein synthesis-independent LTD, neocortical hyperexcitability, audiogenic seizures, and altered behaviors, including anxiety and sensorimotor gating. These results reveal new roles for the Homer scaffolds in regulation of mGlu5 function and implicate a specific molecular mechanism in a complex brain disease. Abnormal function of the metabotropic, or Gq-coupled, glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including a genetic cause of intellectual disability and autism called fragile X syndrome. In brains of a mouse model of fragile X, mGlu5 is less associated with its binding partner Homer, a scaffolding protein that regulates mGlu5 localization to synapses and its ability to activate biochemical signaling pathways. Here we show that a mouse expressing a mutant mGlu5 that cannot bind to Homer is sufficient to mimic many of the biochemical, neurophysiological, and

  3. miR-370 mimic inhibits replication of Japanese encephalitis virus in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjuan; Cheng, Peng; Nie, Shangdan; Cui, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most severe viral infections of the central nervous system. No effective treatment for JE currently exists, because its pathogenesis remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to screen the potential microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in JE. Glioblastoma cells were collected, after being infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Total miRNAs were extracted and analyzed using an miRNA chip. One of the most severely affected miRNAs was selected, and the role of miR-370 in JEV infection was investigated. Cell viability and apoptosis of the host cells were evaluated. JEV replication was detected via analysis of gene E expression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the levels of endogenous miR-370 and expression of innate immunity-related genes. Following JEV infection, 114 miRNAs were affected, as evidenced by the miRNA chip. Among them, 30 miRNAs were upregulated and 84 were downregulated. The changes observed in five miRNAs were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. One of the significantly downregulated miRNAs was miR-370. Therefore, miR-370 mimic was transfected into the cells, following which the levels of endogenous miR-370 were significantly elevated. Concurrently, JEV replication was significantly reduced 24 hours after transfection of miR-370 mimic. Functionally, miR-370 mimic mitigated both JEV-induced apoptosis and the inhibition of host cell proliferation. Following JEV infection, interferon-β and nuclear factor-kappa B were upregulated, whereas miR-370 mimic prevented the upregulation of the genes induced by JEV infection. The present study demonstrated that miR-370 expression in host cells is downregulated following JEV infection, which further mediates innate immunity-related gene expression. Taken together, miR-370 mimic might be useful to prevent viral replication and infection-induced host cell injury.

  4. The Effect of Small Sample Size on Measurement Equivalence of Psychometric Questionnaires in MIMIC Model: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Jamali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating measurement equivalence (also known as differential item functioning (DIF is an important part of the process of validating psychometric questionnaires. This study aimed at evaluating the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC model for DIF detection when latent construct distribution is nonnormal and the focal group sample size is small. In this simulation-based study, Type I error rates and power of MIMIC model for detecting uniform-DIF were investigated under different combinations of reference to focal group sample size ratio, magnitude of the uniform-DIF effect, scale length, the number of response categories, and latent trait distribution. Moderate and high skewness in the latent trait distribution led to a decrease of 0.33% and 0.47% power of MIMIC model for detecting uniform-DIF, respectively. The findings indicated that, by increasing the scale length, the number of response categories and magnitude DIF improved the power of MIMIC model, by 3.47%, 4.83%, and 20.35%, respectively; it also decreased Type I error of MIMIC approach by 2.81%, 5.66%, and 0.04%, respectively. This study revealed that power of MIMIC model was at an acceptable level when latent trait distributions were skewed. However, empirical Type I error rate was slightly greater than nominal significance level. Consequently, the MIMIC was recommended for detection of uniform-DIF when latent construct distribution is nonnormal and the focal group sample size is small.

  5. The Effect of Small Sample Size on Measurement Equivalence of Psychometric Questionnaires in MIMIC Model: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Jafari, Peyman

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating measurement equivalence (also known as differential item functioning (DIF)) is an important part of the process of validating psychometric questionnaires. This study aimed at evaluating the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model for DIF detection when latent construct distribution is nonnormal and the focal group sample size is small. In this simulation-based study, Type I error rates and power of MIMIC model for detecting uniform-DIF were investigated under different combinations of reference to focal group sample size ratio, magnitude of the uniform-DIF effect, scale length, the number of response categories, and latent trait distribution. Moderate and high skewness in the latent trait distribution led to a decrease of 0.33% and 0.47% power of MIMIC model for detecting uniform-DIF, respectively. The findings indicated that, by increasing the scale length, the number of response categories and magnitude DIF improved the power of MIMIC model, by 3.47%, 4.83%, and 20.35%, respectively; it also decreased Type I error of MIMIC approach by 2.81%, 5.66%, and 0.04%, respectively. This study revealed that power of MIMIC model was at an acceptable level when latent trait distributions were skewed. However, empirical Type I error rate was slightly greater than nominal significance level. Consequently, the MIMIC was recommended for detection of uniform-DIF when latent construct distribution is nonnormal and the focal group sample size is small.

  6. Fibrocystic change of the breast presenting as a focal lesion mimicking breast cancer in MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Su, Min-Ying

    2008-12-01

    Focal fibrocystic change (FCC) of the breast is a rare form of FCC. Imaging presentations of focal FCC are not well known. This study aimed to analyze its MR imaging features. Eleven patients of pathology-proven focal FCC were retrospectively studied. Of the 11 patients, seven were mass (>or=5 mm), two showed multiple foci, and two were focus (Breast sonography suspected malignancy in seven patients (7/10, 70%). No statistically significant difference was found in the three diagnostic methods. In pathology, all 11 patients showed the typical pathological features of fibrocystic change, with mixed components of stromal fibrosis, cyst formation, apocrine metaplasia, adenosis, and/or focal sclerosing adenosis. In conclusion, MR imaging features of focal FCC usually present as a mass or focus lesion with rapid enhancement and washout kinetics that mimic a malignant breast lesion and lead to unnecessary operation, especially in patients with contralateral malignant breast cancer. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Early neuroimaging findings of glioblastoma mimicking non-neoplastic cerebral lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Young; Jung, Shin

    2007-09-01

    A 54-year-old man and a 63-year-old woman presented with glioblastoma manifesting as seizure and headache, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging of the two patients revealed hypointense area on T(1)-weighted imaging, and hyperintense area on T(2)-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging, with no enhancement after gadolinium administration. Both patients underwent conservative therapy under diagnoses of non-neoplastic cerebral lesion. Six months later, they suffered aggravated symptoms and new neurological deficits. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed hypointense area on diffusion-weighted imaging and ring enhancement on T(1)-weighted imaging with gadolinium at the site of the previously detected lesions. The tumors showed growth pattern of superficial origin. The large enhanced masses were totally removed through craniotomy under neuronavigator guidance. The histological diagnoses were glioblastoma. Glioblastoma may mimic non-neoplastic conditions on neuroimaging in the early stages. Close follow up of such patients is essential.

  8. SKIBO diseases: a concept to avoid bloody diagnostic procedures in ambiguous skeletal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.; Freyschmidt-Paul, P.

    2001-01-01

    In cases with an ''atypical'' radiologic pattern-osteolytic as well as osteosclerotic or mixed - the radiologist should pay attention to the patient's skin. There he will often find specific changes that are the key to a correct interpretation of the radiologic abnormalities. In such cases the synopsis is of more value in differential diagnosis than more or less unspecific histologic findings. Entities with a non-arbitrary conjunction of changes of the skin and bones we call SKIBO diseases. Some of them have a high potential for mimicking malignant bone lesions, often with the consequence of unnecessary biopsies. In this article we present the typical dermatologic and radiologic signs and symptoms of neurofibromatosis, sarcoidosis and pustulotic arteroosteitis (PAO) with special focus on such skeletal lesions that may mimic malignancy. (orig.)

  9. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  10. Imaging review of lipomatous musculoskeletal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt Ashley M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipomatous lesions are common musculoskeletal lesions that can arise within the soft tissues, bone, neurovascular structures, and synovium. The majority of these lesions are benign, and many of the benign lesions can be diagnosed by radiologic evaluation. However, radiologic differences between benign and malignant lipomatous lesions may be subtle and pathologic correlation is often needed. The use of sonography, computed tomography (CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is useful not only in portraying fat within the lesion, but also for evaluating the presence and extent of soft tissue components. Lipomas make up most soft tissue lipomatous lesions, but careful evaluation must be performed to distinguish these lesions from a low-grade liposarcoma. In addition to the imaging appearance, the location of the lesion and the patient demographics can be utilized to help diagnose other soft tissue lipomatous lesions, such as elastofibroma dorsi, angiolipoma, lipoblastoma, and hibernoma. Osseous lipomatous lesions such as a parosteal lipoma and intraosseous lipoma occur less commonly as their soft tissue counterpart, but are also benign. Neurovascular and synovial lipomatous lesions are much rarer lesions but demonstrate more classic radiologic findings, particularly on MRI. A review of the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of these lesions is presented.

  11. Gamma-radiation Mutagenesis in Genetically Unstable Barley Mutants. Pt. 1. Chlorophyll Mutations in Allelic tw Mutants and Their Revertants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaitkuniene, V.

    1995-01-01

    Genotypical environment is an essential factor determining the mutability of mutants of the same type. Decreased chlorophyll mutant frequency was a common characteristic of all tested tw type (tw, tw 1 , tw 2 ) mutants induced in barley c. 'Auksiniai II'. The mutability of all the tested revertants was close to that of the initial c. 'Auksiniai II'. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Hock lesions and free-stall design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Taszkun, I

    2000-04-01

    We compared the prevalence and severity of skin lesions on the hocks of lactating dairy cows in southern British Columbia, comparing 20 farms using three common bedding surfaces: sawdust, sand, and geotextile mattresses. Skin lesions were scored at five positions on the hock. For each position we noted if the lesion showed inflammatory attributes, and then assigned a severity score. Of the 1752 lactating cows scored, 1267 cows (73%) had at least one hock lesion. Of those cows with lesions, 87% had lesions on both legs, 76% had lesions on more than one location on the hock, and 78% had a lesion of at least moderate severity (i.e., evidence of skin breakage or an area of hair loss >10 cm2). Lesions were most prevalent on farms that used geotextile mattresses (91% of cows) and least common on farms that used sand (24% of cows). Moreover, lesions on cows from farms using mattresses were more numerous and more severe than those on cows from sand-bedded farms. The prevalence and severity of lesions on farms using sawdust was intermediate. Lesions also varied in relation to location on the hock. For farms using geotextile mattresses, lesions were more common and more severe on the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. On farms using sawdust, lesions were common on the dorsal surface of the tuber calcis and the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. Lesions were rare on all five positions for cows from sand-bedded farms. Among the 10 farms sampled using sawdust, we found a significant negative relationship between the length of the stall and severity of lesions. For cows with lesions, the number and severity of lesions increased with age.

  13. High yielding mutants of blackgram variety 'PH-25'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.; Mohapatra, B.D.; Panda, B.S.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) variety 'PH-5' were treated with chemical mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), nitrosoguanidine (NG), maleic hydrazide (MH) and sodium azide (NaN 3 ), each at 3 different concentrations. Thirty six mutant lines developed from mutagenic treatments along with parent varieties were tested in M 4 generation. The mutants showed wide variation in most of the traits and multivariante D 2 analysis showed genetic divergence among themselves. Twenty of the thirty mutants showed genetic divergence from parent. Ten selected high yielding mutants were tested in M 5 . Yield and other productive traits of five high yielding mutants in M 4 and M 5 are presented

  14. Arabidopsis mutants lacking phenolic sunscreens exhibit enhanced ultraviolet-B injury and oxidative damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, L.G.; Last, R.L.; Chapple, C.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    We have assessed ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-induced injury in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and two mutants with altered aromatic secondary product biosynthesis. Arabidopsis mutants defective in the ability to synthesize UV-B-absorbing compounds (flavonoids in transparent testa 5 [tt5] and sinapate esters in ferulic acid hydroxylase 1 [fah 1]) are more sensitive to UV-B than is the wild-type Landsberg erecta. Despite its ability to accumulate UV-absorptive flavonoid compounds, the ferulic acid hydroxylase mutant fah1 exhibits more physiological injury (growth inhibition and foliar lesions) than either wild type or tt5. The extreme UV-B sensitivity of fah1 demonstrates the importance of hydroxycinnamate esters as UV-B protectants. Consistent with the whole-plant response, the highest levels of lipid and protein oxidation products were seen in fah1. Ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activity was also increased in the leaves of UV-B-treated plants in a dose- and genotype-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that, in A. thaliana, hydryoxycinnamates are more effective UV-B protectants than flavonoids. The data also indicate that A. thaliana responds to UV-B as an oxidative stress, and sunscreen compounds reduce the oxidative damage caused by UV-B. 36 refs., 6 figs

  15. First TILLING platform in Cucurbita pepo: a new mutant resource for gene function and crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Dólera, Nelly; Troadec, Christelle; Moya, Manuel; del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Pomares-Viciana, Teresa; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Picó, Belén; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Although the availability of genetic and genomic resources for Cucurbita pepo has increased significantly, functional genomic resources are still limited for this crop. In this direction, we have developed a high throughput reverse genetic tool: the first TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) resource for this species. Additionally, we have used this resource to demonstrate that the previous EMS mutant population we developed has the highest mutation density compared with other cucurbits mutant populations. The overall mutation density in this first C. pepo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1/133 Kb by screening five additional genes. In total, 58 mutations confirmed by sequencing were identified in the five targeted genes, thirteen of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was studied in a peroxidase gene, revealing that the phenotype of seedling homozygous for one of the isolated mutant alleles was albino. These results indicate that the TILLING approach in this species was successful at providing new mutations and can address the major challenge of linking sequence information to biological function and also the identification of novel variation for crop breeding.

  16. Arabidopsis thaliana cdd1 mutant uncouples the constitutive activation of salicylic acid signalling from growth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Swadhin; Roy, Shweta; Shah, Jyoti; Van Wees, Saskia; Pieterse, Corné M; Nandi, Ashis K

    2011-12-01

    Arabidopsis genotypes with a hyperactive salicylic acid-mediated signalling pathway exhibit enhanced disease resistance, which is often coupled with growth and developmental defects, such as dwarfing and spontaneous necrotic lesions on the leaves, resulting in reduced biomass yield. In this article, we report a novel recessive mutant of Arabidopsis, cdd1 (constitutive defence without defect in growth and development1), that exhibits enhanced disease resistance associated with constitutive salicylic acid signalling, but without any observable pleiotropic phenotype. Both NPR1 (NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1)-dependent and NPR1-independent salicylic acid-regulated defence pathways are hyperactivated in cdd1 mutant plants, conferring enhanced resistance against bacterial pathogens. However, a functional NPR1 allele is required for the cdd1-conferred heightened resistance against the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Salicylic acid accumulates at elevated levels in cdd1 and cdd1 npr1 mutant plants and is necessary for cdd1-mediated PR1 expression and disease resistance phenotypes. In addition, we provide data which indicate that the cdd1 mutation negatively regulates the npr1 mutation-induced hyperactivation of ethylene/jasmonic acid signalling. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. DNA repair in Haemophilus influenzae: isolation and characterization of an ultraviolet sensitive mutator mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    DNA repair in Haemophilus influenzae appears to be quite different from that seen in Escherichia coli in that H. influenzae shows neither SOS nor adaptation phenomena. Repair of DNA lesions in H. influenzae has been seen to occur via recombinational, excision, and mismatch repair pathways acting independently of one another. The author has isolated an ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive mutator mutant (mutB1) of H. influenzae Rd which shows deficiencies in both recombinational and mismatch repair pathways. This mutant is sensitive to a variety of DNA damaging agents as well as being hypermutable by alkylating agents and base analogues. MutB1 cells do not show post-UV DNA breakdown but do begin excision after UV irradiation. Genetic transformation with UV-irradiated DNA on mut B1 recipients shows that high (HE) and low (LE) efficiency markers are transformed at a ratio of 1.0 as in the mismatch repair deficient hex 1 mutant; however, kinetics of UV-inactivation experiments indicate that HE markers are sensitized and act as LE markers do on wild type recipients. Thus, the mutB gene product appears to play a role in both DNA repair and genetic transformation. A model is outlined which presents a role for a DNA helicase in both DNA repair and genetic transformation of H. influenzae

  18. Impact of a high magnetic field on the orientation of gravitactic unicellular organisms--a critical consideration about the application of magnetic fields to mimic functional weightlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmersbach, Ruth; Simon, Anja; Waßer, Kai; Hauslage, Jens; Christianen, Peter C M; Albers, Peter W; Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Alt, Wolfgang; Anken, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    The gravity-dependent behavior of Paramecium biaurelia and Euglena gracilis have previously been studied on ground and in real microgravity. To validate whether high magnetic field exposure indeed provides a ground-based facility to mimic functional weightlessness, as has been suggested earlier, both cell types were observed during exposure in a strong homogeneous magnetic field (up to 30 T) and a strong magnetic field gradient. While swimming, Paramecium cells were aligned along the magnetic field lines; orientation of Euglena was perpendicular, demonstrating that the magnetic field determines the orientation and thus prevents the organisms from the random swimming known to occur in real microgravity. Exposing Astasia longa, a flagellate that is closely related to Euglena but lacks chloroplasts and the photoreceptor, as well as the chloroplast-free mutant E. gracilis 1F, to a high magnetic field revealed no reorientation to the perpendicular direction as in the case of wild-type E. gracilis, indicating the existence of an anisotropic structure (chloroplasts) that determines the direction of passive orientation. Immobilized Euglena and Paramecium cells could not be levitated even in the highest available magnetic field gradient as sedimentation persisted with little impact of the field on the sedimentation velocities. We conclude that magnetic fields are not suited as a microgravity simulation for gravitactic unicellular organisms due to the strong effect of the magnetic field itself, which masks the effects known from experiments in real microgravity.

  19. Degenerating cystic uterine fibroid mimics an ovarian cyst in a pregnant patient: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Arildo Correa; Pereira, Caroline; Millani, Thais Cristina Cleto Millani; Passos, Ana Paula [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics; Urban, Linei A.B.D.; Zapparoli, Mauricio [Clinica DAPI - Diagnostico Avancado por Imagem, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: lineiurban@hotmail.com

    2008-07-15

    The authors describe the case of a pregnant woman referred to the institution to be evaluated for an adnexal mass. Ultrasonography showed a voluminous solid-cystic lesion suggestive of ovarian neoplasm. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that the lesion was located within the uterine serosa, suggesting the presence of a degenerated leiomyoma. A correct diagnosis of pelvic masses in pregnancy is essential for the definition of a therapeutic approach. Magnetic resonance imaging represents a relevant tool in the diagnosis of these abnormalities. (author)

  20. MR imaging findings of focal myositis: a pseudotumour that may mimic muscle neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Minutoli, Fabio; Genitori, Antonino; Blandino, Alfredo; Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings in eight patients with histologically confirmed focal myositis. In each patient, axial TSE T1-weighted and fast short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) images were obtained using a 1.5-T MR scanner. Three patients also underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR examination using a GE T1-weighted sequence. The following features were evaluated: anatomical distribution, extent of the involvement, signal intensity characteristics, dynamic enhancement pattern and outcome at follow-up examinations. Seven of eight lesions were located in the lower extremities, one of eight in the arm; four of eight involved part of a muscle, two of eight diffusely involved a muscle and two of eight showed multifocal involvement of two or more muscles. All lesions were hyperintense on fast-STIR images: the hyperintensity was homogeneous in six of eight and inhomogeneous in two of eight. On T1-weighted unenhanced images, all lesions but two appeared isointense or slightly hypointense in comparison to normal muscles; two lesions showed a slight hyperintensity. Dynamic enhancement pattern corresponded to the type usually seen in benign soft tissue lesions. All lesions disappeared. Focal myositis is an uncommon pseudotumour which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of muscular masses and myopathies. (orig.)

  1. MR imaging findings of focal myositis: a pseudotumour that may mimic muscle neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Minutoli, Fabio; Genitori, Antonino; Blandino, Alfredo [University of Messina, A.O.U. ' ' Policlinico G. Martino' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Messina (Italy); Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo [University of Messina, A.O.U. ' ' Policlinico G. Martino' ' , Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatry and Anaesthesiology, Messina (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The authors describe magnetic resonance (MR) findings in eight patients with histologically confirmed focal myositis. In each patient, axial TSE T1-weighted and fast short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) images were obtained using a 1.5-T MR scanner. Three patients also underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR examination using a GE T1-weighted sequence. The following features were evaluated: anatomical distribution, extent of the involvement, signal intensity characteristics, dynamic enhancement pattern and outcome at follow-up examinations. Seven of eight lesions were located in the lower extremities, one of eight in the arm; four of eight involved part of a muscle, two of eight diffusely involved a muscle and two of eight showed multifocal involvement of two or more muscles. All lesions were hyperintense on fast-STIR images: the hyperintensity was homogeneous in six of eight and inhomogeneous in two of eight. On T1-weighted unenhanced images, all lesions but two appeared isointense or slightly hypointense in comparison to normal muscles; two lesions showed a slight hyperintensity. Dynamic enhancement pattern corresponded to the type usually seen in benign soft tissue lesions. All lesions disappeared. Focal myositis is an uncommon pseudotumour which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of muscular masses and myopathies. (orig.)

  2. Mutant p53 interactions with supercoiled DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdová, Marie; Němcová, Kateřina; Činčárová, Lenka; Šebest, Peter; Pivoňková, Hana; Brázda, Václav; Fojta, Miroslav; Paleček, Emil

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2007), s. 639-640 ISSN 0739-1102. [Alban 2007: The 15th Conversation . 19.06.2007-23.06.2007, Albany] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1K04119; GA ČR(CZ) GP204/06/P369; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : mutant p53 * supercoiled DNA * cancer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  3. Radiation induced desynaptic mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, H.M.

    1974-01-01

    Spontaneous occurrence of asynapsis and desynapsis has been frequently reported in a number of crop plants (Beadle 1930, 1933; Beasley and Brown 1942; Li et al. 1945; Magoon et al. 1961; Miller 1963) and other angiospermic texa (Calarier 1955; Chennaveraiah and Krisnappa 1968; Ehrenberg 1949; Johnson 1941, 1944; Roy and Jha 1958). However, there are only a few reports of induced asynapsis or desynapsis (Gottschalk and Baquar 1971; Martini and Bozzini 1966). The present paper deals with the morphology and meiotic behavior of gamma-ray induced barley mutants showing high degree of desynapsis resulting in partial to complete sterility. (author)

  4. Redox Switch for the Inhibited State of Yeast Glycogen Synthase Mimics Regulation by Phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalingan, Krishna K.; Baskaran†, Sulochanadevi; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A.; Roach, Peter J.; Hurley, Thomas D. (Indiana-Med)

    2017-01-10

    Glycogen synthase (GS) is the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen. Eukaryotic GS is negatively regulated by covalent phosphorylation and allosterically activated by glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P). To gain structural insights into the inhibited state of the enzyme, we solved the crystal structure of yGsy2-R589A/R592A to a resolution of 3.3 Å. The double mutant has an activity ratio similar to the phosphorylated enzyme and also retains the ability to be activated by G-6-P. When compared to the 2.88 Å structure of the wild-type G-6-P activated enzyme, the crystal structure of the low-activity mutant showed that the N-terminal domain of the inhibited state is tightly held against the dimer-related interface thereby hindering acceptor access to the catalytic cleft. On the basis of these two structural observations, we developed a reversible redox regulatory feature in yeast GS by substituting cysteine residues for two highly conserved arginine residues. When oxidized, the cysteine mutant enzyme exhibits activity levels similar to the phosphorylated enzyme but cannot be activated by G-6-P. Upon reduction, the cysteine mutant enzyme regains normal activity levels and regulatory response to G-6-P activation.

  5. Eye lesions in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1993-03-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent lesion (21/293, 8.7%), mainly found in cockatiels, parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva), budgerigars and finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae). These corneal crystals were negative to PAS and Kossa's stains. Six parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) had calcium salts deposited in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and occasionally in the iris and ciliary body. Neither inflammation nor neo-vascularization was observed when cataracts, corneal crystalline deposition, and retinal and ciliary calcification were present. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical for papovavirus infection were found in the eyelids of six budgerigars (2.5%). Similar inclusions were simultaneously found in the pars ciliaris retinae (4, 1.7%), inner plexiform of retina (1, 0.4%) and anterior epithelium of the cornea (1, 0.4%). Other lesions such as candidial endophthalmitis, conjunctival cryptosporidiosis, corneal dystrophy, keratitis, corneal perforation and iridocyclitis, were occasional findings.

  6. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  7. NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THE APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bryk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to present the clinical observations of neoplastic lesions of the appendix (one carcinoid and two mucous cysts and to discuss various manners of treatment and prognosis. Material and methods: The authors of the following paper present a description of three cases of appendix tumours, two patients with a mucous cyst and a patient with carcinoid, against the background of all the appendectomies performed at the Clinical Department of General, Endocrine and Oncological Surgery of the Provincial Polyclinical Hospital in Kielce in the years 2005–2011. Results : Within the 7-year period, a total of 11 719 surgical operations have been performed, where 834 (7.1% were that of appendectomy. Among all of the removed vermiform appendixes, neoplastic lesions occurred in three cases constituting a mere 0.3% of all of the appendectomies performed within that period. In two of the cases there was a suspicion of mucous cysts before the surgical operation. In none of the above-mentioned cases was is possible to ultimately establish the diagnosis before the operation. The patients were subjected to a simple appendectomy. The patients are in good clinical health, with no signs of relapse. Conclusions : The presented cases of patients with appendix tumours illustrate the difficulty of preoperative detection of a neoplastic lesion. This is mainly due to a scantily symptomatic course or symptoms typical of appendicitis. In light of this, histopathological examination of each appendix should be treated as obligatory.

  8. Identification of Chemical Agents (Mimics) Residues after Destructive Adsorption Using TPD and UV-vis-IR and Raman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klabunde, Kenneth J

    2001-01-01

    Instrumentation was purchased that helps characterize the chemical structures and chemical reactions that occur when nanocrystalline metal oxides carry out destructive adsorption of chemical agents mimics. The residues (adducts...

  9. Effectiveness of a large mimic panel in an existing nuclear power plant central control board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Sasajima, Katsuhiro; Kawano, Ryutaro; Shibuya Shinya

    1999-01-01

    We conducted the analysis of the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators' behaviors under emergency conditions by using training simulators as a joint research project by Japanese BWR groups for twelve years. In the phase-IV of this project we executed two kinds of experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the interfaces. One was for evaluations of the interfaces such as CRTs with touch screen, a large mimic panel, and a hierarchical annunciator system introduced in the newly developed ABWR type central control board. The other was that we analyzed the operators' behaviors in emergency conditions by using the first generation BWR type central control board which was added new interfaces such as a large display screen and demarcation on the board to help operators to understand the plant. The demarcation is one of the visual interface improvements and its technique is that a line enclosing several components causes them to be perceived as a group.The result showed that both the large display panel Introduced in ABWR central control board and the large display screen in the existing BWR type central control board improved the performance of the NPP operators in the experiments. It was expected that introduction of the large mimic panel into the existing BWR type central control boards would improve operators' performance. However, in the case of actual installation of the large display board into the existing central control boards, there are spatial and hardware constraints. Therefore the size of lamps, lines connecting from symbols of the pumps or valves to the others' will have to be modified under these constraints. It is important to evaluate the displayed information on the large display board before actual installation. We made experiments to solve these problems by using TEPCO's research simulator which is added a large mimic panel. (author)

  10. Synthetic miR-145 Mimic Enhances the Cytotoxic Effect of the Antiangiogenic Drug Sunitinib in Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Zhixiong; Jiang, Bing; Huo, Lei; Liu, Jinfang; Lu, Jingchen

    2015-06-01

    Although aggressive therapeutic regimen has been applied in the treatment of Glioblastoma (GBM), the prognosis of patients with GBM remains poor. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of Suntinib in GBM both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we showed that the cytotoxicity was enhanced by transfection with miR-145 mimic. In addition, we suggested that the enhanced cytotoxicity of Sunitinib by miR-145 mimic was mediated by inhibition of both P-gp and Bcrp.

  11. Creation of a Tumor-Mimic Model Using a Muscle Paste for Radiofrequency Ablation of the Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.; Kaminou, T.; Sugiura, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Ohuchi, Y.; Adachi, A.; Fujioka, S.; Ito, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ogawa, T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an easily created tumor-mimic model and evaluate its efficacy for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the lung. The bilateral lungs of eight living adult swine were used. A tumor-mimic model was made by percutaneous injection of 1.0 ml muscle paste through the bone biopsy needle into the lung. An RFA probe was then inserted into the tumor mimics immediately after tumor creation. Ablation time, tissue impedance, and temperature were recorded. The tumor mimics and their coagulated regions were evaluated microscopically and macroscopically. The muscle paste was easily injected into the lung parenchyma through the bone biopsy needle and well visualized under fluoroscopy. In 10 of 12 sites the tumor mimics were oval shaped, localized, and homogeneous on gross specimens. Ten tumor mimics were successfully ablated, and four locations were ablated in the normal lung parenchyma as controls. In the tumor and normal lung parenchyma, ablation times were 8.9 ± 3.5 and 4.4 ± 1.6 min, respectively; tissue impedances at the start of ablation were 100.6 ± 16.6 and 145.8 ± 26.8 Ω, respectively; and temperatures at the end of ablation were 66.0 ± 7.9 and 57.5 ± 7.6 o C, respectively. The mean size of tumor mimics was 13.9 x 8.2 mm, and their coagulated area was 18.8 x 13.1 mm. In the lung parenchyma, the coagulated area was 15.3 x 12.0 mm. In conclusion, our tumor-mimic model using muscle paste can be easily and safely created and can be ablated using the ablation algorithm in the clinical setting.

  12. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the rib mimics a chondrosarcoma on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makis, William (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Brandon Regional Health Centre, Brandon (Canada)), email: makisw79@yahoo.com; Ciarallo, Anthony; Lisbona, Robert (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill Univ. Health Centre, Montreal (Canada))

    2011-06-15

    Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare benign bone tumor of chondroid origin that occurs mostly in the metaphyses of long bones. CMF can occasionally mimic a chondrosarcoma on CT, and the literature on the 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging characteristics of CMF tumors is limited. In the presented case, a large histologically proven CMF chest wall mass was initially misinterpreted as a chondrosarcoma. This case highlights a potential pitfall in the PET/CT evaluation of these rare benign bone tumors

  13. Synthesis of 3-alkyl enol mimics inhibitors of type II dehydroquinase: factors influencing their inhibition potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Beatriz; Sedes, Antía; Peón, Antonio; Lamb, Heather; Hawkins, Alastair R; Castedo, Luis; González-Bello, Concepción

    2012-05-14

    Several 3-alkylaryl mimics of the enol intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by type II dehydroquinase were synthesized to investigate the effect on the inhibition potency of replacing the oxygen atom in the side chain by a carbon atom. The length and the rigidity of the spacer was also studied. The inhibitory properties of the reported compounds against type II dehydroquinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Helicobacter pylori are also reported. The binding modes of these analogs in the active site of both enzymes were studied by molecular docking using GOLD 5.0 and dynamic simulations studies.

  14. Mucous retention cyst of temporal bone: a mimic of cholesteatoma on DW-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Amit; Goh, Julian; Loke, Siu Cheng; Yeo, Seng Beng; Tan, Tiong Yong

    2013-01-01

    Non-EPI DW imaging is increasingly being used as a sensitive sequence in detecting cholesteatomas especially if CT findings are not confirmatory. Cholesteatoma appears as a hyperintense focus on DWI. We present two cases of mucous retention cysts in the mastoid temporal bone/middle ear cavity, which present as hyperintense on non-EPI DWI and potentially may mimic cholesteatomas. Differentiating between the two conditions is important, as surgery can be avoided in mucous retention cysts. We have also discussed ways to differentiate between these two conditions on MRI. To our knowledge, this entity is not reported previously. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating the size of non-observed economy in Croatia using the MIMIC approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vjekoslav Klaric

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a quick overview of the approaches that have been used in the research of shadow economy, starting with the defi nitions of the terms “shadow economy” and “non-observed economy”, with the accent on the ISTAT/Eurostat framework. Several methods for estimating the size of the shadow economy and the non-observed economy are then presented. The emphasis is placed on the MIMIC approach, one of the methods used to estimate the size of the nonobserved economy. After a glance at the ...

  16. Cooperative interplay of let-7 mimic and HuR with MYC RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Gunzburg, Menachem J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Pendini, Nicole R; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Gorospe, Myriam; Wilce, Matthew Cj; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2015-01-01

    Both RNA-binding proteins (RBP) and miRNA play important roles in the regulation of mRNA expression, often acting together to regulate a target mRNA. In some cases the RBP and miRNA have been reported to act competitively, but in other instances they function cooperatively. Here, we investigated HuR function as an enhancer of let-7-mediated translational repression of c-Myc despite the separation of their binding sites. Using an in vitro system, we determined that a let-7 mimic, consisting of...

  17. Effector Mimics and Integrated Decoys, the Never-Ending Arms Race between Rice and Xanthomonas oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Paola; Szurek, Boris; Koebnik, Ralf; Kroj, Thomas; Morel, Jean-Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by a wide range of pathogens and have therefore evolved an array of mechanisms to defend against them. In response to these defense systems, pathogens have evolved strategies to avoid recognition and suppress plant defenses (Brown and Tellier, 2011). Three recent reports dealing with the resistance of rice to Xanthomonas oryzae have added a new twist to our understanding of this fascinating co-evolutionary arms race (Ji et al., 2016; Read et al., 2016; Triplett et al., 2016). They show that pathogens also develop sophisticated effector mimics to trick recognition.

  18. Arterial tortuosity syndrome: An extremely rare disease presenting as a mimic of pulmonary sling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Farkas, MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary sling is the anatomic variant defined by the aberrant origin of the left pulmonary artery from the right pulmonary artery. This patient presented with a mimic of pulmonary sling as a result of an extremely rare condition, arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS. The patient was first diagnosed with pulmonary sling on prenatal echocardiogram performed by cardiology. Computed tomography angiography of the chest obtained at birth to evaluate respiratory depression demonstrated ATS. The early detection of ATS has been demonstrated to improve patient outcome. This case provides an overview of the typical imaging features of ATS to aid radiologists in making this uncommon diagnosis.

  19. TAPIR, a web server for the prediction of plant microRNA targets, including target mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Eric; He, Ying; Billiau, Kenny; Van de Peer, Yves

    2010-06-15

    We present a new web server called TAPIR, designed for the prediction of plant microRNA targets. The server offers the possibility to search for plant miRNA targets using a fast and a precise algorithm. The precise option is much slower but guarantees to find less perfectly paired miRNA-target duplexes. Furthermore, the precise option allows the prediction of target mimics, which are characterized by a miRNA-target duplex having a large loop, making them undetectable by traditional tools. The TAPIR web server can be accessed at: http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/tapir. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Asthma mimic: Case report and literature review of vocal cord nodule associated with wheezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Singh, Tushi; Aslam, Ahsan; Khaja, Misbahuddin

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Various clinical conditions can mimic asthma, such as foreign body aspiration, subglottic stenosis, congestive heart failure, diffuse panbronchiolitis, aortic arch anomalies, reactive airway dysfunction syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, retrosternal goiter, vocal cord tumors, other airway tumors, and vocal cord dysfunction. Upper airway obstruction can be a life-threatening emergency. Here, we present the case of a 58-year-old female with recurrent hospital visits for wheezing and exacerbations of asthma, who was later found to have a vocal cord nodule confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma, which was mimicking like asthma.

  1. Significance of Coronavirus Mutants in Feces and Diseased Tissues of Cats Suffering from Feline Infectious Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C. Pedersen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The internal FECV→FIPV mutation theory and three of its correlates were tested in four sibs/half-sib kittens, a healthy contact cat, and in four unrelated cats that died of FIP at geographically disparate regions. Coronavirus from feces and extraintestinal FIP lesions from the same cat were always >99% related in accessory and structural gene sequences. SNPs and deletions causing a truncation of the 3c gene product were found in almost all isolates from the diseased tissues of the eight cats suffering from FIP, whereas most, but not all fecal isolates from these same cats had intact 3c genes. Other accessory and structural genes appeared normal in both fecal and lesional viruses. Deliterious mutations in the 3c gene were unique to each cat, indicating that they did not originate in one cat and were subsequently passed horizontally to the others. Compartmentalization of the parental and mutant forms was not absolute; virus of lesional type was sometimes found in feces of affected cats and virus identical to fecal type was occasionally identified in diseased tissues. Although 3c gene mutants in this study were not horizontally transmitted, the parental fecal virus was readily transmitted by contact from a cat that died of FIP to its housemate. There was a high rate of mutability in all structural and accessory genes both within and between cats, leading to minor genetic variants. More than one variant could be identified in both diseased tissues and feces of the same cat. Laboratory cats inoculated with a mixture of two closely related variants from the same FIP cat developed disease from one or the other variant, but not both. Significant genetic drift existed between isolates from geographically distinct regions of the Western US.

  2. Significance of coronavirus mutants in feces and diseased tissues of cats suffering from feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Dodd, Kimberly A; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2009-09-01

    The internal FECV→FIPV mutation theory and three of its correlates were tested in four sibs/half-sib kittens, a healthy contact cat, and in four unrelated cats that died of FIP at geographically disparate regions. Coronavirus from feces and extraintestinal FIP lesions from the same cat were always >99% related in accessory and structural gene sequences. SNPs and deletions causing a truncation of the 3c gene product were found in almost all isolates from the diseased tissues of the eight cats suffering from FIP, whereas most, but not all fecal isolates from these same cats had intact 3c genes. Other accessory and structural genes appeared normal in both fecal and lesional viruses. Deliterious mutations in the 3c gene were unique to each cat, indicating that they did not originate in one cat and were subsequently passed horizontally to the others. Compartmentalization of the parental and mutant forms was not absolute; virus of lesional type was sometimes found in feces of affected cats and virus identical to fecal type was occasionally identified in diseased tissues. Although 3c gene mutants in this study were not horizontally transmitted, the parental fecal virus was readily transmitted by contact from a cat that died of FIP to its housemate. There was a high rate of mutability in all structural and accessory genes both within and between cats, leading to minor genetic variants. More than one variant could be identified in both diseased tissues and feces of the same cat. Laboratory cats inoculated with a mixture of two closely related variants from the same FIP cat developed disease from one or the other variant, but not both. Significant genetic drift existed between isolates from geographically distinct regions of the Western US.

  3. Phenotypic Analysis and Virulence of Candida albicans LIG4 Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaluz, Encarnación; Calderone, Richard; Reyes, Guadalupe; Larriba, Germán

    2001-01-01

    In previous studies, we reported the isolation and preliminary characterization of a DNA ligase-encoding gene of Candida albicans. This gene (LIG4) is the structural and functional homologue of both yeast and human ligase IV, which is involved in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks. In the present study, we have shown that there are no other LIG4 homologues in C. albicans. In order to study the function of LIG4 in morphogenesis and virulence, we constructed gene deletions. LIG4 transcript levels were reduced in the heterozygote and were completely absent in null strains. Concomitantly, the heterozygote showed a pronounced defect in myceliation, which was slightly greater in the null strain. This was true with several solid and liquid media, such as Spider medium, medium 199, and 2% glucose–1% yeast extract–2% Bacto Peptone, at several pHs. Reintroduction of the wild-type allele into the null mutant partially restored the ability of cells to form hyphae. In agreement with the positive role of LIG4 in morphogenesis, we detected a significant rise in mRNA levels during the morphological transition. LIG4 is not essential for DNA replication or for the repair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation or UV light, indicating that these lesions are repaired primarily by homologous recombination. However, our data show that the NHEJ apparatus of C. albicans may control morphogenesis in this diploid organism. In addition, deletion of one or both copies of LIG4 resulted in attenuation of virulence in a murine model of candidiasis. PMID:11119499

  4. Induction of drought tolerant mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hissewy, A.A.; Abd Allah, A.

    2001-01-01

    The ultimate goal of crop breeding is to develop varieties with a high yield potential and desirable agronomic characteristics. In Egypt, the most important qualities sought by breeders have been high yield potential, resistance to major diseases and insects, and improved grain and eating quality. However, breeding efforts should concentrate on varieties with the potential to minimize yield losses under unfavorable conditions such as drought, and to maximize yields when conditions are favorable. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Egypt is completely irrigated and a significant portion of the rice cultivated area is subject to water deficit resulting from an inadequate or insufficient irrigation supply. Drought tolerance is a complex trait in that it results from the interaction of histological and physiological characters of plant with environmental factors, both above-ground and under-ground. Accordingly, root characters are closely related to drought tolerance. Little attention has been paid in Egyptian breeding programs to root characters and their relation to shoot characters. Furthermore, induced mutations are considered as one of the most important methods to induce useful mutants, especially with improved root characters, to overcome the drought problem. The present investigation aimed to study the effect of different doses of gamma rays on several characters of three Egyptian rice varieties, i.e. 'Giza 171', 'Giza 175' and 'Giza 176' and to induce one or more mutants possessing drought tolerance

  5. Indy mutants: live long and prosper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart eFrankel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indy encodes the fly homologue of a mammalian transporter of di and tricarboxylatecomponents of the Krebs cycle. Reduced expression of fly Indy or two of the C. elegansIndy homologs leads to an increase in life span. Fly and worm tissues that play key roles inintermediary metabolism are also the places where Indy genes are expressed. One of themouse homologs of Indy (mIndy is mainly expressed in the liver. It has been hypothesizedthat decreased INDY activity creates a state similar to caloric restriction (CR. Thishypothesis is supported by the physiological similarities between Indy mutant flies on highcalorie food and control flies on CR, such as increased physical activity and decreases inweight, egg production, triglyceride levels, starvation resistance, and insulin signaling. Inaddition, Indy mutant flies undergo changes in mitochondrial biogenesis also observed inCR animals. Recent findings with mIndy knockout mice support and extend the findingsfrom flies. mIndy-/- mice display an increase in hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis, lipidoxidation and decreased hepatic lipogenesis. When mIndy-/- mice are fed high calorie foodthey are protected from adiposity and insulin resistance. These findings point to INDY as apotential drug target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  6. Flower morphology of Dendrobium Sonia mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Azhar Mohamad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2010-01-01

    Dendrobium Sonia is a commercial hybrid which is popular as cut flower and potted plant in Malaysia. Variability in flower is important for new variety to generate more demands and choices in selection. Mutation induction is a tool in creating variability for new flower color and shape. In vitro cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were exposed to gamma ray at dose 35 Gy. Phenotypic characteristics of the flower were observed at fully bloomed flower with emphasis on shape and color. Approximately 2000 regenerated irradiated plants were observed and after subsequent flowering, 100 plants were finally selected for further evaluation. Most of the color and shape changes are expressed in different combinations of petal, sepal and lip of the flower. In this work, 11 stable mutants were found different at flower phenotype as compared to control. Amongst these, four mutant varieties with commercial potential has been named as Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaOval', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaRadiant', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaHiengDing' and Dendrobium 'Sonia KeenaAhmadSobri'. In this paper, variations in flower morphology and flower color were discussed, giving emphasis on variations in flower petal shape. (author)

  7. High yielding rice mutants for West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, A.R.; Sen, S.

    1980-01-01

    Four high yielding mutants with specific genetic corrections of the simply inherited characters were developed from IR-8 through X-irradiation. Recurrent selections of the promising isolates were made under diverse agro-climatic conditions in Winter and Summer seasons of West Bengal. The isolates CNM 6 and CNM 25 belonging to early maturity group and CNM 20 and CNM 31, to mid-early maturity group were finally selected at X 5 generation on the basis of their resistance qualities, maturity period and grain yield. They were evaluated upto X 10 qeneration at multi-locations as Pre-release and Minikit Varieties at State level. They were also placed at the National Screening Nursery (NSN) for screening against multiple diseases and pests at the National level. CNM 6 is reported to be promising in IRTP nurseries. It is reported that CNM 25 (IET 5646) ranked 2nd on the basis of average grain yield, CNM 20 (IET 5937) and CNM 31 (IET 5936) were resistant to diseases and with yield comparable to Jaya. These four productive mutants of superior types are widely accepted. CNM 6 is recommended for cultivation in Bankura and Birbhum districts and CNM 25 and CNM 31 in the different agro-climatic zones of West Bengal. (author)

  8. Influence of very short patch mismatch repair on SOS inducing lesions after aminoglycoside treatment in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharoglu, Zeynep; Mazel, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Low concentrations of aminoglycosides induce the SOS response in Vibrio cholerae but not in Escherichia coli. In order to determine whether a specific factor present in E. coli prevents this induction, we developed a genetic screen where only SOS inducing mutants are viable. We identified the vsr gene coding for the Vsr protein of the very short patch mismatch repair (VSPR) pathway. The effect of mismatch repair (MMR) mutants was also studied. We propose that lesions formed upon aminoglycoside treatment are preferentially repaired by VSPR without SOS induction in E. coli and by MMR when VSPR is impaired. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved sugar yields from biomass sorghum feedstocks: comparing low-lignin mutants and pretreatment chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Bruno; Nagle, Nick; Sattler, Scott; Agneessens, Richard; Delcarte, Jérôme; Wolfrum, Edward

    2016-01-01

    For biofuel production processes to be economically efficient, it is essential to maximize the production of monomeric carbohydrates from the structural carbohydrates of feedstocks. One strategy for maximizing carbohydrate production is to identify less recalcitrant feedstock cultivars by performing some type of experimental screening on a large and diverse set of candidate materials, or by identifying genetic modifications (random or directed mutations or transgenic plants) that provide decreased recalcitrance. Economic efficiency can also be increased using additional pretreatment processes such as deacetylation, which uses dilute NaOH to remove the acetyl groups of hemicellulose prior to dilute acid pretreatment. In this work, we used a laboratory-scale screening tool that mimics relevant thermochemical pretreatment conditions to compare the total sugar yield of three near-isogenic brown midrib ( bmr ) mutant lines and the wild-type (WT) sorghum cultivar. We then compared results obtained from the laboratory-scale screening pretreatment assay to a large-scale pretreatment system. After pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the bmr mutants had higher total sugar yields than the WT sorghum cultivar. Increased pretreatment temperatures increased reactivity for all sorghum samples reducing the differences observed at lower reaction temperatures. Deacetylation prior to dilute acid pretreatment increased the total sugar yield for all four sorghum samples, and reduced the differences in total sugar yields among them, but solubilized a sizable fraction of the non-structural carbohydrates. The general trends of increased total sugar yield in the bmr mutant compared to the WT seen at the laboratory scale were observed at the large-scale system. However, in the larger reactor system, the measured total sugar yields were lower and the difference in total sugar yield between the WT and bmr sorghum was larger. Sorghum bmr mutants, which have a reduced lignin content showed

  10. Allosteric Mutant IDH1 Inhibitors Reveal Mechanisms for IDH1 Mutant and Isoform Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xiaoling; Baird, Daniel; Bowen, Kimberly; Capka, Vladimir; Chen, Jinyun; Chenail, Gregg; Cho, YoungShin; Dooley, Julia; Farsidjani, Ali; Fortin, Pascal; Kohls, Darcy; Kulathila, Raviraj; Lin, Fallon; McKay, Daniel; Rodrigues, Lindsey; Sage, David; Touré, B. Barry; van der Plas, Simon; Wright, Kirk; Xu, Ming; Yin, Hong; Levell, Julian; Pagliarini, Raymond A. (Novartis)

    2017-03-01

    Oncogenic IDH1 and IDH2 mutations contribute to cancer via production of R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Here, we characterize two structurally distinct mutant- and isoform-selective IDH1 inhibitors that inhibit 2-HG production. Both bind to an allosteric pocket on IDH1, yet shape it differently, highlighting the plasticity of this site. Oncogenic IDH1R132H mutation destabilizes an IDH1 “regulatory segment,” which otherwise restricts compound access to the allosteric pocket. Regulatory segment destabilization in wild-type IDH1 promotes inhibitor binding, suggesting that destabilization is critical for mutant selectivity. We also report crystal structures of oncogenic IDH2 mutant isoforms, highlighting the fact that the analogous segment of IDH2 is not similarly destabilized. This intrinsic stability of IDH2 may contribute to observed inhibitor IDH1 isoform selectivity. Moreover, discrete residues in the IDH1 allosteric pocket that differ from IDH2 may also guide IDH1 isoform selectivity. These data provide a deeper understanding of how IDH1 inhibitors achieve mutant and isoform selectivity.

  11. Serrated leaf mutant in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, I.A.; Ghulam, Sarwar; Yousaf, Ali; Saleem, M.

    1988-01-01

    Dry dormant seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) were treated with gamma rays (15, 30 and 60 kR). The serrated leaf mutation was noticed in M 2 of cultivar Pak 32 treated with 60 kR. Cf 14 plants, 3 showed the altered leaf structure and the others were normal. The feature of this mutant was the deep serration of leaflet margins. The mutant had large thick leaflets with prominent venation. The mutant bred true in the M 3 and successive generation. Details of the morphological characteristics of the mutant are presented. The mutant exhibited slower growth particularly during the early stages of development, flowered later and attained shorter height. There was an increase in the number of pods, in seed weight and in seed protein content, but number of seed per pod was considerably reduced. The seed coat colour showed a change from green to yellowish green. In the mutant's flowers the stamina were placed much below the stigma level and the stigma sometimes protruded the corolla. Outcrossing of 4% recorded in some of the mutant lines revealed a reduced cleistogamy. The low number of seeds per pod in the mutant could be due to reduced pollen fertility. The mutant behaved as monogenic recessive. The symbols SL/sl are proposed for this allelic pair. The mutant may have use as a green manure crop because of its large foliage and for the breeders as a genetic marker

  12. Characterization of a Weak Allele of Zebrafish cloche Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Huang, Zhibin; Chen, Xiaohui; He, Fei; Wang, Kun; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Linfeng; Xu, Xiangmin; Liao, Wangjun; Ruan, Hua; Luo, Shenqiu; Zhang, Wenqing

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is a complicated and dynamic process about which the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Danio rerio (zebrafish) is an excellent vertebrate system for studying hematopoiesis and developmental mechanisms. In the previous study, we isolated and identified a cloche 172 (clo 172) mutant, a novel allele compared to the original cloche (clo) mutant, through using complementation test and initial mapping. Here, according to whole mount in-situ hybridization, we report that the endothelial cells in clo 172 mutant embryos, although initially developed, failed to form the functional vascular system eventually. In addition, further characterization indicates that the clo 172 mutant exhibited weaker defects instead of completely lost in primitive erythroid cells and definitive hematopoietic cells compared with the clo s5 mutant. In contrast, primitive myeloid cells were totally lost in clo 172 mutant. Furthermore, these reappeared definitive myeloid cells were demonstrated to initiate from the remaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in clo 172 mutant, confirmed by the dramatic decrease of lyc in clo 172 runx1w84x double mutant. Collectively, the clo 172 mutant is a weak allele compared to the clo s5 mutant, therefore providing a model for studying the early development of hematopoietic and vascular system, as well as an opportunity to further understand the function of the cloche gene. PMID:22132109

  13. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background...

  14. Beyond Parasitism: Hepatic Lesions in Stranded Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Without Trematode (Campula oblonga) Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, S; Harkema, L; Wiersma, L C M; Keesler, R I

    2015-11-01

    The liver can be an indicator of the health of an individual or of a group, which can be especially important to identify agents that can cause disease in multiple species. To better characterize hepatic lesions in stranded harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), we analyzed the livers from 39 porpoises that stranded along the Dutch coast between December 2008 and December 2012. The animals were selected because they had either gross or histologic liver lesions with minimal autolysis and no evidence of trematode (Campula oblonga) infection. The most common finding was a chronic hepatitis (22/39, 56.4%) that was often associated with significant disease reported in another organ system (18/22, 81.8%), of which 14 had chronic systemic disease. One case of chronic hepatitis was so severe as to mimic lymphoma, which could only be differentiated with immunohistochemistry. The other common lesions were lipidosis (11/39, 28.2%) and acute hepatitis (6/39, 15.4%), often in combination with mild chronic changes. Overall, although there were no consistent trends in etiology for the hepatic lesions, lipidosis was associated with starvation (8/11, 72.7%) and acute disease, and acute hepatitis was associated with bacterial infections and sepsis (6/6, 100%). © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Dual-energy CT for the evaluation of urinary calculi: Image interpretation, pitfalls and stone mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepperson, M.A.; Cernigliaro, J.G.; Sella, D.; Ibrahim, E.; Thiel, D.D.; Leng, S.; Haley, W.E.

    2013-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with a reported prevalence between 4% and 20% in developed countries. Determination of urinary calculi composition is a key factor in preoperative evaluation, treatment, and stone recurrence prevention. Prior to the introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), available methods for determining urinary stone composition were only available after stone extraction, and thereby unable to aid in optimized stone management prior to intervention. DECT utilizes the attenuation difference produced by two different x-ray energy spectra to quantify urinary calculi composition as uric acid or non-uric acid (with likely further classification in the future) while still providing the information attained with a conventional CT. Knowledge of DECT imaging pitfalls and stone mimics is important, as the added benefit of dual-energy analysis is the determination of stone composition, which in turn affects all aspects of stone management. This review briefly describes DECT principles, scanner types and acquisition protocols for the evaluation of urinary calculi as they relate to imaging pitfalls (inconsistent characterization of small stones, small dual-energy field of view, and mischaracterization from surrounding material) and stone mimics (drainage devices) that may adversely impact clinical decisions. We utilize our clinical experience from scanning over 1200 patients with this new imaging technique to present clinically relevant examples of imaging pitfalls and possible mechanisms for resolution

  16. Intact Rapid Facial Mimicry as well as Generally Reduced Mimic Responses in Stable Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechko, Natalya; Pagel, Alena; Otte, Ellen; Koch, Iring; Habel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous emotional expressions (rapid facial mimicry) perform both emotional and social functions. In the current study, we sought to test whether there were deficits in automatic mimic responses to emotional facial expressions in patients (15 of them) with stable schizophrenia compared to 15 controls. In a perception-action interference paradigm (the Simon task; first experiment), and in the context of a dual-task paradigm (second experiment), the task-relevant stimulus feature was the gender of a face, which, however, displayed a smiling or frowning expression (task-irrelevant stimulus feature). We measured the electromyographical activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions in response to either compatible or incompatible stimuli (i.e., when the required response did or did not correspond to the depicted facial expression). The compatibility effect based on interactions between the implicit processing of a task-irrelevant emotional facial expression and the conscious production of an emotional facial expression did not differ between the groups. In stable patients (in spite of a reduced mimic reaction), we observed an intact capacity to respond spontaneously to facial emotional stimuli. PMID:27303335

  17. A microbially derived tyrosine-sulfated peptide mimics a plant peptide hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Rory N; Joe, Anna; Zhang, Weiguo; Feng, Wei; Stewart, Valley; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Dinneny, José R; Ronald, Pamela C

    2017-07-01

    The biotrophic pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) produces a sulfated peptide named RaxX, which shares similarity to peptides in the PSY (plant peptide containing sulfated tyrosine) family. We hypothesize that RaxX mimics the growth-stimulating activity of PSY peptides. Root length was measured in Arabidopsis and rice treated with synthetic RaxX peptides. We also used comparative genomic analyses and reactive oxygen species burst assays to evaluate the activity of RaxX and PSY peptides. Here we found that a synthetic sulfated RaxX derivative comprising 13 residues (RaxX13-sY), highly conserved between RaxX and PSY, induces root growth in Arabidopsis and rice in a manner similar to that triggered by PSY. We identified residues that are required for activation of immunity mediated by the rice XA21 receptor but that are not essential for root growth induced by PSY. Finally, we showed that a Xanthomonas strain lacking raxX is impaired in virulence. These findings suggest that RaxX serves as a molecular mimic of PSY peptides to facilitate Xoo infection and that XA21 has evolved the ability to recognize and respond specifically to the microbial form of the peptide. © 2017 UT-Battelle LLC. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Synthesis and biological investigation of PIM mimics carrying biotin or a fluorescent label for cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Front, Sophie; Bourigault, Marie-Laure; Rose, Stéphanie; Noria, Ségueni; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Martin, Olivier R

    2013-01-16

    Phosphatidyl inositol mannosides (PIMs) are constituents of the mycobacterial cell wall; these glycolipids are known to exhibit potent inhibitory activity toward the LPS-induced production of cytokines by macrophages, and therefore have potential as anti-inflammatory agents. Recently, heterocyclic analogues of PIMs in which the inositol is replaced by a piperidine (aza-PIM mimics) or a tetrahydropyran moiety (oxa-PIM mimics) have been prepared by short synthetic sequences and shown to retain the biological activity of the parent PIM structures. In this investigation, the aza-PIM analogue was used as a convenient scaffold to link biotin or a fluorescent label (tetramethyl-rhodamine) by way of an aminocaproyl spacer, with the goal of using these conjugates for intracellular localization and for the study of the mechanism of their antiinflammatory action. The synthesis of these compounds is reported, as well as the evaluation of their activities as inhibitors of LPS-induced cytokine production by macrophages (TNFα, IL12p40); preliminary investigations by FACS and confocal microscopy indicated that PIM-biotin conjugate binds to macrophage membranes with rapid kinetics.

  19. Differentiation of meningiomas from histologic mimics via the use of claudin-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, A.M.R.; Naquib, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Meningiomas may be occasionally difficult to distinguish pathologically from other tumors of the central nervous system. Claudin-1 is a tight junction-associated protein recently shown to be expressed in anaplastic meningiomas. This study aimed at assessment whether immunohistochemical staining for claudin-1 could help distinguish meningiomas from histologic mimics, compared with commonly used markers. Tissue sections from 20 meningothelial meningiomas, 40 fibrous meningiomas, 20 atypical meningiomas, 14 solitary fibrous tumors of the meninges, 10 meningeal hemangiopericytomas, and 14 vestibular schwannomas were stained immunohistochemically for claudin-1, epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, CD34, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. In total, 42(53%) of 80 meningiomas were immunoreactive for claudin-1, whereas none of the other tumors were positive. In contrast, there was considerable overlap in the distribution of the other antibodies evaluated. Claudin-1 seems to be a specific marker for meningiomas in this context. Although its sensitivity is relatively low, claudin-1 may be helpful in a panel of immunostains to distinguish meningiomas from histologic mimics. (author)

  20. Intravital Confocal and Two-photon Imaging of Dual-color Cells and Extracellular Matrix Mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ufuk; Andresen, Volker; Baggett, Brenda; Utzinger, Urs

    2013-01-01

    To optimize imaging of cells in three dimensional culture we studied confocal backscattering, Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and autofluorescence as source of contrast in extracellular matrix (ECM) mimics and evaluated the attenuation as well as bleaching of endogenous cellular fluorescence signals. All common ECM mimics exhibit contrast observable with confocal reflectance microscopy. SHG imaging on collagen I based hydrogels provides high contrast and good optical penetration depth. Agarose is a useful embedding medium because it allows for large optical penetration and exhibits minimal autofluorescence while still providing good reflectance to detect voids in the embedding medium. We labeled breast cancer cells’ outline with DsRed2 and nucleus with eGFP. DsRed2 can be excited with confocal imaging at 568nm, and with two photon excitation (TPE) in the red and longer NIR. eGFP was excited at 488nm for confocal and in the NIR for TPE. While there is small difference in the bleaching rate for eGFP between confocal and TPE we observed significant difference for DsRed2 where bleaching is strongest during TPE in the red wavelengths and smallest during confocal imaging. After a few hundred microns depth in a collagen I hydrogel, TPE fluorescence becomes twice as strong compared to confocal imaging. PMID:23380006

  1. Repair of model compounds of photoinduced lesions in DNA. Electrochemical approaches; Reparation de modeles de lesions photoinduites de l'ADN. Approches electrochimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussicault, F

    2006-09-15

    The goal of this work is to better understand the repair mechanism of photoinduced lesions in DNA (cyclobutane dimers and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone adducts) by photolyase redox enzymes, using tools and concepts of molecular electrochemistry. Thanks to the study of model compounds of cyclobutane lesions by cyclic voltametry, we have been able to mimic the key step of the enzymatic repair (dissociative electron transfer) and to monitor the repair of model compounds by Escherichia coli DNA photolyase. From these results, we have discussed the repair mechanism, especially the stepwise or concerted character of the process. Repair mechanism of (6-4) adducts is not known now, but a possible pathway implies an electron transfer coupled to the cleavage of two bonds in the closed form of the lesions (oxetanes). Voltammetric study of reduction and oxidation of model oxetanes and their repair by E. coli DNA photolyase gave some experimental evidence confirming the proposed mechanism and allowing a better understanding of it. (author)

  2. Theory of pairwise lesion interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Dietrich; Virsik-Peuckert, Patricia; Bartels, Ernst

    1992-01-01

    A comparison between repair time constants measured both at the molecular and cellular levels has shown that the DNA double strand break is the molecular change of key importance in the causation of cellular effects such as chromosome aberrations and cell inactivation. Cell fusion experiments provided the evidence that it needs the pairwise interaction between two double strand breaks - or more exactly between the two ''repair sites'' arising from them in the course of enzymatic repair - to provide the faulty chromatin crosslink which leads to cytogenetic and cytolethal effects. These modern experiments have confirmed the classical assumption of pairwise lesion interaction (PLI) on which the models of Lea and Neary were based. It seems worthwhile to continue and complete the mathematical treatment of their proposed mechanism in order to show in quantitative terms that the well-known fractionation, protraction and linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation effects are consequences of or can at least be partly attributed to PLI. Arithmetic treatment of PLI - a second order reaction - has also the advantage of providing a prerequisite for further investigations into the stages of development of misrepair products such as chromatin crosslinks. It has been possible to formulate a completely arithmetic theory of PLI by consequently applying three biophysically permitted approximations - pure first order lesion repair kinetics, dose-independent repair time constants and low yield of the ionization/lesion conversion. The mathematical approach will be summarized here, including several formulae not elaborated at the time of previous publications. We will also study an application which sheds light on the chain of events involved in PLI. (author)

  3. Quantitative angiography methods for bifurcation lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Carlos; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Cavalcante, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Bifurcation lesions represent one of the most challenging lesion subsets in interventional cardiology. The European Bifurcation Club (EBC) is an academic consortium whose goal has been to assess and recommend the appropriate strategies to manage bifurcation lesions. The quantitative coronary...... angiography (QCA) methods for the evaluation of bifurcation lesions have been subject to extensive research. Single-vessel QCA has been shown to be inaccurate for the assessment of bifurcation lesion dimensions. For this reason, dedicated bifurcation software has been developed and validated. These software...

  4. Solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, D.J.; Azouz, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    We evaluated retrospectively the varying radiographic appearances of 15 solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions occurring in children. Imaging modalities used included plain films, conventional tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and computed tomography. 40% of the lesions (6) were due to osteomyelitis. The remaining lesions included tuberculosis (1), foreign body granuloma (1), chondroblastoma (2), chondromyoxid fibroma (1), enchondroma (1), osteoid osteoma (2), and eosinophilic granuloma (1). Although the radiographic appearances of such lesions may be particularly characteristic, pathologic correlation is frequently necessary. The high incidence of osteomyelitis in our cases emphasizes its importance as a cause for a lucent epiphyseal lesion.

  5. Temperature sensitive riboflavin mutants of Penicillium vermiculatum Dangeard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, J.; Chaudhari, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    Two temperature sensitive UV induced riboflavin mutants rib 1 and rib 6 have been physiologically and genetically characterized. The two mutants behave differently with regard to their temperature sensitivity. The rib 1 mutant exhibits a leaky growth in minimal medium between 15 0 C and 30 0 C but grows well when the medium is supplemented with riboflavin. At 35 0 C the growth response of the mutant is at its max. and at 40 0 C and below 15 0 C it ceases to grow. The rib 6 mutant which is red brown in colour shows wild type character at temp. below 25 0 C in minimal medium but requires riboflavin at 30 0 C and above. Heterokaryotic analysis revealed the nonallelic nature of the two temperature mutants. Genetic tests of allelic relationship between riboflavin markers by crossing were also done. (author)

  6. Computerized tomography of orbital lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Mayumi

    1981-01-01

    Two different types of computerized tomography scanners (CT scanner), i.e. a whole-body CT scanner (GE-CT/T8800) and a cerebral CT scanner (EMI-1010), were compared in the assessment and diagnosis of various orbital lesions. The whole-body CT scanner was found to be advantageous over the cerebral CT scanner for the following reasons: (1) CT images were more informative due to thinner slices associated with smaller-sized and larger-numbered matrices; (2) less artifacts derived from motion of the head or eyeball were produced because of the shorter scanning time; (3) with a devised gantry, coronal dissections were available whenever demanded. (author)

  7. Some mutants in maize obtained by irradiation with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, P.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiation was carried out at the Bucharest Institute of Atomic Physics and the National Laboratory Brookhaven, USA. A description is given of 22 genic mutants affecting leaf color, plant size, and branching capacity. Characteristics related to pollen fertility and the vegetative period were affected in all the mutants. Improvement of pollen fertility was attempted over four generations without success. The maize mutants obtained by irradiation may be considered as being without practical significance. (author). 7 figs., 1 tab. 11 ref

  8. Chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, D B; Sheridan, R E; Russell, R L

    1975-06-01

    The technique of countercurrent separation has been used to isolate 17 independent chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The mutants, selected to be relatively insensitive to the normally attractive salt NaCl, show varying degrees of residual sensitivity; some are actually weakly repelled by NaCl. The mutants are due to single gene defects, are autosomal and recessive, and identify at least five complementation groups.

  9. Study on ionizing radiosensitivity of respiratory deficiency yeast mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Shuhong; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Jin Genming; Wei Zengquan; Xie Hongmei

    2006-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of respiratory deficiency yeast mutants has been studied in this work. The mutants which were screened from the yeasts after ionizing irradiation were irradiated with 12 C 6+ at different doses. Because of the great change in its mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA, the respiratory deficiency yeast mutants show radio-sensitivity at dose less than 1 Gy and radioresistance at doses higher than 1 Gy. (authors)

  10. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2010-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic ...

  11. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik.

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with γ-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of γ-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10∼12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs

  12. Google: a narrativa de uma marca mutante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete de Azevedo Kreutz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As marcas mutantes já fazem parte de nossa realidade, embora ainda não totalmente percebidas e/ou aceitas como tal. O presente artigo busca refletir sobre a relevância dessas novas estratégias de comunicação e branding, identificando suas principais características. Para isso, utilizamos o método de estudo de caso, o Google, ancorado nos métodos de pesquisa bibliográfica e de internet. A escolha foi intencional, posto que a organização é referência em sua categoria, mecanismo de busca, e reflete essa estratégia comunicacional contemporânea. Como resultado, as informações obtidas nos possibilitam compreender essa tendência de comportamento de marca que busca a interação com seus públicos.

  13. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with {gamma}-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of {gamma}-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10{approx}12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs.

  14. Recombination-deficient mutants of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaie, Y.; Kada, T.

    1976-01-01

    Two mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis Marburg, NIG43 and NIG45, were isolated. They showed high sensitivities to gamma rays, ultraviolet light (uv), and chemicals. Deficiencies in genetic recombination of these two mutants were shown by the experiments on their capacity in transformation, SPO2 transfection, and PBS1 phage transduction, as well as on their radiation and drug sensitivities and their Hcr + capacity for uv-exposed phage M2. Some of these characteristics were compared with those of the known strains possessing the recA1 or recB2 alleles. Mapping studies revealed that the mutation rec-43 of strain NIG43 lies in the region of chromosome replication origin. The order was purA dna-8132 rec-43. Another mutation, rec-45, of strain NIG45 was found to be tightly linked to recA1. The mutation rec-43 reduced mainly the frequency of PBS1 transduction. On the other hand, the mutation rec-45 reduced the frequency of recombination involved both in transformation and PBS1 tranduction. The mutation rec-43 of strain NIG43 is conditional, but rec-45 of strain NIG45 is not. The uv impairment in cellular survival of strain NIG43 was gradually reverted at higher salt or sucrose concentrations, suggesting cellular possession of a mutated gene product whose function is conditional. In contrast to several other recombination-deficient strains, SPO2 lysogens of strains NIG43 and NIG45 were not inducible, indicating involvement of rec-43 + or rec-45 + gene product in the development of SPO2 prophage to a vegetative form. The uv-induced deoxyribonucleic acid degradation in vegetative cells was higher in rec-43 and rec-45 strains

  15. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  16. Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winarno, Ermin; Suliwarno, Ambyah; Ismachin, M.

    1992-01-01

    Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants. Genetics studies on alcohol dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, peroxidase, acid phosphase, and aminopeptidase isoenzymes were carried out on several groups of rice varieties and their mutant lines. The first groups consisted of Atomita I, Pelita I/1, A227/5, Mudgo, TN-1, and IR-26. The second group was Cisadane variety and its five mutants, namely OBS 18, OBS 208, OBS 297, OBS 306, and OBS 330. The third group was mutants line 627-10-3 and its mutants, namely 1063, 1066, 1067, 1076, and 1090. Isoenzymes extracts of the rice leaves were fractionated using polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. The pattern of acid phosphate isoenzyme shows the specific character of rice mutants susceptible to brown plant hopper biotype 1. The gene(s) controlling malic enzyme in Cisadane's mutants is (are) estimated more resistant toward gamma irradiation than gene(s) responsible for controlling the other enzymes. Generally, the isoenzymes zymograms show that gene(s) controlling the mutants enzyme have undergone mutation. This case is shown by the changes of Rm value, as well as the amount and intensity of mutants bands. (authors). 7 refs., 7 figs

  17. Agronomic performance of old soybean variety 'Altona' derived mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodosne, K.G.; Heszky, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    An induced mutation program has been initiated at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding to develop early maturing cultivars with good yielding capacity. Some new mutants have been produced by irradiation of variety Altona with 60 Co gamma rays. Ten years of breeding resulted in two new mutant varieties named 'Noventa' and 'Gate 511'. The present study deals with agronomic performance of these mutants. Registered soybean varieties Altona and 'McCall' as well as Altona derived mutants (Gate 511 and Noventa) have been compared

  18. Seed protein and nitrogen fixation in chickpea mutant variety Hyprosola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, H E; Gibson, A H; Oram, R N [CSIRO, Division of Plant Industry, Canberra ACT (Australia); Shaikh, M A.Q. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: 'Hyprosola' is a high yielding, high protein mutant cultivar obtained after gamma irradiation from the variety 'Faridpur-1'. The mutant yields 45 % more protein per unit area. The essential amino acid index is unchanged. It is likely that the high nutritional value in 'Hyprosola' seed protein arises from an increase in the albumin:globulin ratio. Nitrogen fixation rates of the mutant during the first 7 weeks of growth were found to be similar to 'Faridpur-1'. Under field conditions, the mutant may be able to nodulate more rapidly and more extensively than the parent variety. (author)

  19. Morphological and physiological investigations on mutants of Fusarium monoliforme IM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gancheva, V.

    1996-01-01

    High-producing mutants of Fusarium moniliforme IM are obtained as a result of gamma irradiation. The cultural characteristics of mutant strains 3284, 3211 and 76 following incubation of the producers for 14 days on potato-glucose agar are described. The colour of the aerial and substrate mycelium and the ability of the mutant strains to form conidiae and pigments are discussed in detail. The differences in the ability of mutants to assimilate different carbon and nitrogen sources are of specific importance for modelling nutrient media for submerged cultivation of F. moniliforme. 2 tabs., 2 figs. 7 refs

  20. Ultrasonographic findings of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, In Sung; Kim, Yang Soo; Suh, Hyoung Sim

    1990-01-01

    Authors retrospectively analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 61 cases of breast lesions which were proven pathologically at Daerim St. Mary's Hospital from May 1987 to February 1990. The results were as follows : 1. Of all 61 cases, there were 27 fibroadenomas, 13 fibrocystic diseases, 11 carcinomas, 8 abscesses, 1 sclerosing adenosis, and 1 intraductal papilloma. 2. Findings suggesting benignancy were smooth contour, round or oval shape, homogeneously echolucent internal echo, echogenic boundary echo, and posterior enhancement. In the cases of abscess, the findings were rather irregular contour, strong posterior enhancement, and dirty, inhomogeneous internal echo. While irregular and lobulated shape, inhomogeneous and mixed internal echo and pectoral muscle invasion were suggested for malignancy. 3. The sensitivity was 98% and the specificity 58% in benign mass excluding abscesses, 63% and 98% in abscesses, and 55% and 98% in carcinomas. In conclusion, ultrasonography is one of the excellent imaging modality for detecting breast lesions larger than 5 mm in size, but unfortunately some of the malignant tumors simulated benignancy, thus we considered fine needle aspiration biopsy and adjunctive imaging modalities such as film mammography must be followed for better detection of breast cancer

  1. Ultrasonographic findings of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Sung; Kim, Yang Soo; Suh, Hyoung Sim [College of Medicine, Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Authors retrospectively analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 61 cases of breast lesions which were proven pathologically at Daerim St. Mary's Hospital from May 1987 to February 1990. The results were as follows : 1. Of all 61 cases, there were 27 fibroadenomas, 13 fibrocystic diseases, 11 carcinomas, 8 abscesses, 1 sclerosing adenosis, and 1 intraductal papilloma. 2. Findings suggesting benignancy were smooth contour, round or oval shape, homogeneously echolucent internal echo, echogenic boundary echo, and posterior enhancement. In the cases of abscess, the findings were rather irregular contour, strong posterior enhancement, and dirty, inhomogeneous internal echo. While irregular and lobulated shape, inhomogeneous and mixed internal echo and pectoral muscle invasion were suggested for malignancy. 3. The sensitivity was 98% and the specificity 58% in benign mass excluding abscesses, 63% and 98% in abscesses, and 55% and 98% in carcinomas. In conclusion, ultrasonography is one of the excellent imaging modality for detecting breast lesions larger than 5 mm in size, but unfortunately some of the malignant tumors simulated benignancy, thus we considered fine needle aspiration biopsy and adjunctive imaging modalities such as film mammography must be followed for better detection of breast cancer.

  2. Imaging in cardiac mass lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, A.; Gruber, H.P.; Dinkel, E.; Geibel, A.; Beck, A.; Wimmer, B.; Schlosser, V.

    1992-01-01

    In 26 patients with cardiac mass lesions confirmed by surgery, diagnostic imaging was performed preoperatively by means of two-dimensional echocardiography (26 patients), angiography (12 patients), correlative computed tomography (CT, 8 patients), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 patients). Two-dimensional echocardiography correctly identified the cardiac masses in all patients. Angiography missed two of 12 cardiac masses; CT missed one of eight. MRI identified three of three cardiac masses. Although the sensitivity of two-dimensional echocardiography was high (100%), all methods lacked specificity. None of the methods allowed differentiation between myxoma (n=13) and thrombus (n=7). Malignancy of the lesions was successfully predicted by noninvasive imaging methods in all six patients. However, CT and MRI provided additional information concerning cardiac mural infiltration, pericardial involvement, and extracardiac tumor extension, and should be integrated within a preoperative imaging strategy. Thus two-dimensional echocardiography is the method of choice for primary assessment of patients with suspected cardiac masses. Further preoperative imaging by CT or MRI can be limited to patients with malignancies suspected on the grounds of pericardial effusion or other clinical results. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects of a double-stranded RNA mimic complexed with polycations in an experimental mouse model of leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pascual, Carmen Maria; Ferrero, Hortensia; Juarez, Irene; Martínez, Jessica; Villanueva, Ana; Pozuelo-Rubio, Mercedes; Soengas, Marisol; Tormo, Damiá; Simón, Carlos; Gómez, Raúl; Pellicer, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    To assess the antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects of the double-stranded RNA mimic polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (pIC) complexed with polyethylenimine [pIC(PEI)] in xenografted human leiomyomas. Heterologous leiomyoma mouse model. University-affiliated infertility center. Ovariectomized and hormone-replaced nude mice (n = 16) who received human leiomyoma fragment transplantation. Leiomyoma fragments placed in the peritoneum of 5-week-old nude female mice and treated with the vehicle (n = 8) or 0.6 mg/kg [pIC(PEI)] (n = 8) for 4 weeks. The size of the leiomyoma implants, and cellular proliferation (Ki67), vascularization (PECAM), and apoptosis (OH-ends) assessed by quantitative immunohistochemical/immunofluorescent analysis of the recovered implants. No significant differences were observed in the size of the leiomyoma implants between groups. Vascularization and proliferation were significantly decreased, and apoptosis was increased in the [pIC(PEI)]-treated group versus control. We hypothesize that the antiangiogenic and apoptotic effects exerted by [pIC(PEI)] might lead to a decrease in lesion size in this animal model if the compound is administered for longer periods of time. This study provides promising data on [pIC(PEI)] as a potential novel therapeutic agent against human leiomyoma. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiographic patterns and survival of patients with early and late brain metastases in EGFR wild type and mutant non small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Ren; Yamada, Andrew; Weber, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastasis (BM) in NSCLC is a negative prognostic indicator. In the era of EGFR mutations we evaluated the difference between early (≤6 months from diagnosis) versus late BM (>6 months), in EGFR wild type (WT) and mutant (MT) NSCLC patients with respect to radiographic patterns and overall...... BM: WT 24.9 months versus MT 25.6 months (p = 0.51). In multivariate analysis chemotherapy, single lesion and late BM were associated with better survival in WT patients whereas age, and systemic treatment but not BM timing or single lesion were predictive of better outcomes in MT patients. In early...

  5. Ascertainment of the effect of differential growth rates of mutants on observed mutant frequencies in X-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, A.G.A.C.; Simons, J.W.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    As it is not known to what extent differential growth rates of induced mutants lead to over- and under-representation of mutants in treated populations and thereby affect the determination of mutant frequencies, the mutation induction in X-irradiated L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells was determined via two methods. The first method involves the standard protocol which may suffer from the effect of differential growth rates, while the second method is based upon the fluctuation test in which the differential growth rates can be actually measured. It appeared that the standard protocol led to a mutant frequency that was similar to the mutant frequency determined in the fluctuation test. Therefore, the standard protocol appears to lead to only a minor under-estimation if any. Substantial heterogeneity in growth rates of induced mutants was observed, but the mutants with a selective advantage appear largely to compensate for the mutants that are lost because of selective disadvantage. It was calculated that the chance for isolating the same mutant twice from a treated population had been increased 2.2-fold because of the observed differential growth rates. (orig./AJ)

  6. IFN-γ Induces Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in Lung Epithelial Cells Through Autophagy-Regulated DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chien, Shun-Yi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) causes cell growth inhibition and cytotoxicity in lung epithelial malignancies. Regarding the induction of autophagy related to IFN-γ signaling, this study investigated the link between autophagy and IFN-γ cytotoxicity. In A549 human lung cancer cells, IFN-γ treatment induced concurrent apoptotic and nonapoptotic events. Unexpectedly, the nonapoptotic cells present mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis), which was regulated by caspase-3 and by autophagy induction through immunity-related GTPase family M protein 1 and activating transcription factor 6. Furthermore, IFN-γ signaling controlled mimic ETosis through a mechanism involving an autophagy- and Fas-associated protein with death domain-controlled caspase-8/-3 activation. Following caspase-mediated lamin degradation, IFN-γ caused DNA damage-associated ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR)/ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-regulated mimic ETosis. Upon ATR/ATM signaling, peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4)-mediated histone 3 citrullination promoted mimic ETosis. Such IFN-γ-induced effects were defective in PC14PE6/AS2 human lung cancer cells, which were unsusceptible to IFN-γ-induced autophagy. Due to autophagy-based caspase cascade activation, IFN-γ triggers unconventional caspase-mediated DNA damage, followed by ATR/ATM-regulated PAD4-mediated histone citrullination during mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy.

  7. Targeted delivery of microRNA 146b mimic to hepatocytes by lactosylated PDMAEMA nanoparticles for the treatment of NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuying; Guo, Weihong; Deng, Feihong; Chen, Kequan; Jiang, Yonghong; Dong, Minyu; Peng, Liang; Chen, Xueqing

    2018-03-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide, and precision therapeutic will be a benefit for the NAFLD regression. In this study, we observed low microRNA 146 b (miR-146 b) expression in NAFLD mice model induced by methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCD) compared with control group. Furthermore, miR-146b -/- mice induced MCD exhibited severe liver steatosis and hepatitis. A bio-distribution study showed that novel Lactosylated PDMAEMA nanoparticles effectively targeted hepatocytes Lac-PDMAEMA. We coupled miR-146b mimic with Lac-PDMAEMA and then were administrated to NAFLD mice model, which could obviously alleviate the hepatic steatosis. Lac-PDMAEMA effectively delivered miR-146b mimic to hepatocytes with a ∼8-fold upregulation of miR-146b mimic targeting MyD88 and IRAK1, and in turn suppressed the expression of PPARγ. Meanwhile, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA levels were decreased after administration of Lac-PDMAEMA/miR-146b mimic. So, we made a conclusion that targeted delivering miR-146b mimic to the hepatocytes by, coupling Lac-PDMAEMA nanoparticles could effectively alleviate the hepatic steatosis in NAFLD mice, which maybe bring a new and effective way to intervene and therapy the NAFLD.

  8. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy.

  9. Applications of Protein Thermodynamic Database for Understanding Protein Mutant Stability and Designing Stable Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiha, M Michael; Anoosha, P; Huang, Liang-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is the free energy difference between unfolded and folded states of a protein, which lies in the range of 5-25 kcal/mol. Experimentally, protein stability is measured with circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy using thermal and denaturant denaturation methods. These experimental data have been accumulated in the form of a database, ProTherm, thermodynamic database for proteins and mutants. It also contains sequence and structure information of a protein, experimental methods and conditions, and literature information. Different features such as search, display, and sorting options and visualization tools have been incorporated in the database. ProTherm is a valuable resource for understanding/predicting the stability of proteins and it can be accessed at http://www.abren.net/protherm/ . ProTherm has been effectively used to examine the relationship among thermodynamics, structure, and function of proteins. We describe the recent progress on the development of methods for understanding/predicting protein stability, such as (1) general trends on mutational effects on stability, (2) relationship between the stability of protein mutants and amino acid properties, (3) applications of protein three-dimensional structures for predicting their stability upon point mutations, (4) prediction of protein stability upon single mutations from amino acid sequence, and (5) prediction methods for addressing double mutants. A list of online resources for predicting has also been provided.

  10. Treatment of metastatic brain lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zaytsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Increasing survival in patients with secondary brain damage, and identifying the factors of favorable and adverse prognosis.Material and method. In P. A. Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Institute from 2007 to 2013 there were treated 268 patients with brain metastases. The mean age was 55.8 years (from 24 to 81 years. Metastases of colorectal cancer identified in 7.8%, cases of lung cancer in 34%, melanoma 9.3 %, breast cancer in 26%, kidney cancer in 11%, with non-identified primary tumor in 4.5%, other tumors accounted for 6.7%. Solitary metastasis was diagnosed in 164 (61,19% patients, oligometastasis (2-3 - 72 (26,87% patients with polymetastasis (more than 3 – 32 (11,94% patients. In 106 (39,55% of patients with brain metastases it was the only manifestation of the generalization process. To control the radical removal of the tumor in 93 (34,7% patients we used the method of fluorescence navigation (FN with the drug Alasens. In 66 (24,6% patients intraoperatively was held a session of photodynamic therapy (PDT. In 212 (79,1% cases, the removal of metastasis performed totally, 55 (20,9% patients stated Subtotal removal.Results. The observation period for the patients ranged from 3 to 79 months. Survival median among the entire group of patients with metastatic brain lesion was 12 months. Overall survival was significantly dependent on RPA class, the volume of postoperative treatment, histological type of primary tumor, number of intracerebral metastases and the timing of the relapse-free period.Conclusions. Factors that affects the overall survival are the features of the histology of the primary lesion, multiplicity of metastatic lesions, RPA class and the synchronous nature of the metastasis. The median of overall survival of patients who did not receive after surgical treatment of a particular type of therapy was only 4 months. If to use the combined treatment (surgical treatment with the irradiation of the whole brain median

  11. Insights from the structure of a smallpox virus topoisomerase-DNA transition state mimic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kay; Hwang, Young; Bushman, Frederic D.; Van Duyne, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Poxviruses encode their own type IB topoisomerases (TopIBs) which release superhelical tension generated by replication and transcription of their genomes. To investigate the reaction catalyzed viral TopIBs, we have determined the structure of a variola virus topoisomerase-DNA complex trapped as a vanadate transition state mimic. The structure reveals how the viral TopIB enzymes are likely to position the DNA duplex for ligation following relaxation of supercoils and identifies the sources of friction observed in single molecule experiments that argue against free rotation. The structure also identifies a conformational change in the leaving group sugar that must occur prior to cleavage and reveals a mechanism for promoting ligation following relaxation of supercoils that involves a novel Asp-minor groove interaction. Overall, the new structural data support a common catalytic mechanism for the TopIB superfamily but indicate distinct methods for controlling duplex rotation in the small vs. large enzyme subfamilies. PMID:20152159

  12. Cooperative interplay of let-7 mimic and HuR with MYC RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburg, Menachem J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Pendini, Nicole R; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Gorospe, Myriam; Wilce, Matthew C J; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2015-01-01

    Both RNA-binding proteins (RBP) and miRNA play important roles in the regulation of mRNA expression, often acting together to regulate a target mRNA. In some cases the RBP and miRNA have been reported to act competitively, but in other instances they function cooperatively. Here, we investigated HuR function as an enhancer of let-7-mediated translational repression of c-Myc despite the separation of their binding sites. Using an in vitro system, we determined that a let-7 mimic, consisting of single-stranded (ss)DNA complementary to the let-7 binding site, enhanced the affinity of HuR for a 122-nt MYC RNA encompassing both binding sites. This finding supports the biophysical principle of cooperative binding by an RBP and miRNA purely through interactions at distal mRNA binding sites.

  13. Preparation of Artificial Skin that Mimics Human Skin Surface and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Rana; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2018-01-01

    We have developed an artificial skin that mimics the morphological and mechanical properties of human skin. The artificial skin comprises a polyurethane block possessing a microscopically rough surface. We evaluated the tactile sensations when skin-care cream was applied to the artificial skin. Many subjects perceived smooth, moist, and soft feels during the application process. Cluster analysis showed that these characteristic tactile feels are similar to those when skin-care cream is applied to real human skin. Contact angle analysis showed that an oil droplet spread smoothly on the artificial skin surface, which occurred because there were many grooves several hundred micrometers in width on the skin surface. In addition, when the skin-care cream was applied, the change in frictional force during the dynamic friction process increased. These wetting and frictional properties are important factors controlling the similarity of artificial skin to real human skin.

  14. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production from an MCM-41-immobilized photosensitizer-[Fe-Fe] hydrogenase mimic dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Yu, Tianjun; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Jinping; Yang, Guoqiang; Li, Yi

    2014-11-01

    A covalently linked photosensitizer-catalytic center dyad Ps-Hy, consisting of two bis(2-phenylpyridine)(2,2'-bipyridine)iridium(iii) chromophores (Ps) and a diiron hydrogenase mimic (Hy) was constructed by using click reaction. Ps-Hy was incorporated into K(+)-exchanged molecular sieve MCM-41 to form a composite (Ps-Hy@MCM-41), which has been successfully applied to the photochemical production of hydrogen. The catalytic activity of Ps-Hy@MCM-41 is ∼3-fold higher as compared with that of Ps-Hy in the absence of MCM-41. The incorporation of Ps-Hy into MCM-41 stabilizes the catalyst, and consequently, advances the photocatalysis. The present study provides a potential strategy for improving catalytic efficiency of artificial photosynthesis systems using mesoporous molecular sieves.

  15. Systemic lupus erythematosis with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: A mimic of Buerger′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasugi Zoya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report is about a past smoker who presented with history of recurrent ulcers and digital gangrene with claudication pain of the left foot for the past fifteen years. Clinical examination and angiogram showed disease involving the peripheral vessels of lowervlimb. This patient had been labeled as Buerger′s disease 15 years ago based on clinical and demographic profile of the illness. We felt that the progression of the disease despite the patient having stopped smoking 15 years ago along with the presence of elevated inflammatory markers in the blood with proteinuria was not in keeping with the nature of the disease. Furthur evaluation revealed that the patient had systemic lupus erythematosus with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. This case highlights the need for a careful search for diseases, which can mimic Buerger′s disease in young smokers who present with peripheral vascular disease and who have an atypical clinical presentation or progression.

  16. Polyproline as a Minimal Antifreeze Protein Mimic That Enhances the Cryopreservation of Cell Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ben; Bailey, Trisha L; Healey, Joseph R J; Marcellini, Moreno; Deville, Sylvain; Gibson, Matthew I

    2017-12-11

    Tissue engineering, gene therapy, drug screening, and emerging regenerative medicine therapies are fundamentally reliant on high-quality adherent cell culture, but current methods to cryopreserve cells in this format can give low cell yields and require large volumes of solvent "antifreezes". Herein, we report polyproline as a minimum (bio)synthetic mimic of antifreeze proteins that is accessible by solution, solid-phase, and recombinant methods. We demonstrate that polyproline has ice recrystallisation inhibition activity linked to its amphipathic helix and that it enhances the DMSO cryopreservation of adherent cell lines. Polyproline may be a versatile additive in the emerging field of macromolecular cryoprotectants. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hepatitis C virus infection can mimic type 1 (antinuclear antibody positive) autoimmune chronic active hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlotsky, J M; Deforges, L; Bretagne, S; André, C; Métreau, J M; Thiers, V; Zafrani, E S; Goossens, M; Duval, J; Mavier, J P

    1993-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown to induce anti-liver-kidney microsomal-1 (LKM1) antibody positive chronic active hepatitis, simulating type 2 autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. The cases of five patients presenting with features of type 1 (antinuclear antibody positive) autoimmune chronic active hepatitis and extrahepatic autoimmune manifestations, in whom immunosuppressive treatment had no effect on liver disease are presented. In these patients, HCV infection could be shown by the presence in serum of anti-HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA detected by polymerase chain reaction. These cases suggest the following: (a) chronic HCV infection can mimic type 1, as well as type 2, autoimmune chronic active hepatitis; (b) HCV infection might be systematically sought in patients presenting with features of type 1 autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, with special care in patients who are unresponsive to immunosuppressive treatment. Images Figure PMID:7686122

  18. Identification of chemicals that mimic transcriptional changes associated with autism, brain aging and neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Brandon L.; Simon, Jeremy M.; McCoy, Eric S.; Salazar, Gabriela; Fragola, Giulia; Zylka, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors, including pesticides, have been linked to autism and neurodegeneration risk using retrospective epidemiological studies. Here we sought to prospectively identify chemicals that share transcriptomic signatures with neurological disorders, by exposing mouse cortical neuron-enriched cultures to hundreds of chemicals commonly found in the environment and on food. We find that rotenone, a pesticide associated with Parkinson's disease risk, and certain fungicides, including pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, famoxadone and fenamidone, produce transcriptional changes in vitro that are similar to those seen in brain samples from humans with autism, advanced age and neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease). These chemicals stimulate free radical production and disrupt microtubules in neurons, effects that can be reduced by pretreating with a microtubule stabilizer, an antioxidant, or with sulforaphane. Our study provides an approach to prospectively identify environmental chemicals that transcriptionally mimic autism and other brain disorders. PMID:27029645

  19. Potent neutralization of hepatitis A virus reveals a receptor mimic mechanism and the receptor recognition site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangxi; Zhu, Ling; Dang, Minghao; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Yuan, Shuai; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo; Ren, Jingshan; Kotecha, Abhay; Walter, Thomas S; Wang, Junzhi; Fry, Elizabeth E; Stuart, David I; Rao, Zihe

    2017-01-24

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infects ∼1.4 million people annually and, although there is a vaccine, there are no licensed therapeutic drugs. HAV is unusually stable (making disinfection problematic) and little is known of how it enters cells and releases its RNA. Here we report a potent HAV-specific monoclonal antibody, R10, which neutralizes HAV infection by blocking attachment to the host cell. High-resolution cryo-EM structures of HAV full and empty particles and of the complex of HAV with R10 Fab reveal the atomic details of antibody binding and point to a receptor recognition site at the pentamer interface. These results, together with our observation that the R10 Fab destabilizes the capsid, suggest the use of a receptor mimic mechanism to neutralize virus infection, providing new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  20. The transport of DDT from chylomicrons to adipocytes does not mimic triacylglycerol transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Alison B.; Vandersall, Abbey E.; Yang, Qing; Xu, Min; Jandacek, Ronald J.; Tso, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Despite being banned in the U.S., organochlorine toxins such as DDT are frequently detected in human adipose tissue. The main route of exposure is through the consumption of contaminated foods and subsequent intestinal packaging of DDT into chylomicrons. These chylomicrons, which also contain dietary triacylglycerol (TG), are delivered directly to peripheral tissues without first being metabolized by the liver. The physiological process by which these compounds are delivered from chylomicrons to adipose is not well understood, but is clinically relevant since it bypasses first-pass metabolism. Based on its highly lipophilic nature, it has been assumed that DDT is transferred to peripheral tissues similar to TG; however, this has not been measured. Here, we use the lymph fistula rat to isolate chylomicrons containing both DDT and TG. These chylomicrons are the in vivo DDT delivery vehicle. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we investigated the rate at which DDT transfers from chylomicrons to adipocytes, and mediators of this process. This novel approach closely approximates the in vivo DDT exposure route. We show that: 1) DDT repartitions from chylomicrons to adipocytes, 2) this transport does not require hydrolysis of TG within the chylomicron, and is stimulated by the inhibition of LPL, 3) albumin does not inhibit DDT uptake, 4) DDT dissolved in DMSO does not appropriately mimic in vivo DDT transport; and most importantly, 5) DDT uptake from chylomicrons does not mimic the uptake of TG from the same particles. Understanding these factors is important for designing interventions for human populations exposed to DDT. PMID:22885168

  1. A Taylor-Made Design of Phenoxyfuranone-Type Strigolactone Mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Fukui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Strigolactones are a class of plant hormones that inhibit axillary bud outgrowth and are released from plant roots to act as a rhizosphere communication signal. The Orobanchaceae parasitic plant Striga hermonthica perceives strigolactone as its germination signal, indicating host presence. After germination, the Striga plant parasitises the host plant and suppresses host growth by draining photosynthetic products, water and other essential nutrients. Because of this way of life, this parasite threatens crop production in sub-Saharan Africa with infestation in crop fields and crop devastation. Crop protection in such areas is among the most concerning problems to be dealt with as immediately as possible. With respect to crop protection from Striga, many strigolactone agonists have been developed and used in research to reveal Striga biology, and have contributed to development of crop protection methods. However, an effective method has yet to be found. In a previous study, we reported debranones as a group of strigolactone mimics that inhibit axillary buds outgrowth with moderate stimulation activity for Striga germination. Debranones would be accessible because they are simply synthesized from commercially available phenols and bromo butenolide. Taking this advantage of debranones for Striga research, we tried to find the debranones stimulating Striga seed germination. To modulate functional selectivity and to enhance germination inducing activity of debranones, we studied structure–activity relationships. We investigated effects of substituent position and functional group on debranone activity and selectivity as a strigolactone mimic. As a result, we improved stimulation activity of debranones for Striga seed germination by chemical modification, and demonstrated the pharmacophore of debranones for selective modulation of distinct strigolactone responses.

  2. Functional Stroke Mimics: Incidence and Characteristics at a Primary Stroke Center in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stacy Schantz; Bourke, Paula; Salam, Abdul; Akhtar, Naveed; D'Souza, Atlantic; Kamran, Saadat; Bhutta, Zain; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Approximately 30% of individuals who initially present with stroke are found to be stroke mimics (SM), with functional/psychological SM (FSM) accounting for up to 6.4% of all stroke presentations. Middle Eastern countries may have higher rates of somatization of emotional distress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of FSM at a large general hospital in the Middle East. Methods All patients presenting with an initial diagnosis of stroke from June 2015 to September 2016 were eligible for this study. Clinical and sociodemographic data were obtained from the hospital's stroke database. All SM and strokes were diagnosed by Joint Commission International–certified stroke program neurologists. SM was defined as any discharge diagnosis (other than acute stroke) for symptoms that prompted initial admission for suspected stroke. FSM were compared with medical stroke mimics (MSM) and strokes (ischemic, hemorrhagic, and transient ischemic attacks). Results A total of 1961 patients were identified; 161 FSM (8.2%), 390 MSM (19.9%), and 1410 strokes (71.9%) (985 ischemic strokes, 196 transient ischemic attacks, 229 intracerebral hemorrhages). Admission with FSM was related to patients' nationality, with the highest frequency in Arabic (15.6%) and African (16.8%) patients. FSM patients were younger, more often female, and had fewer cardiovascular risk factors except for smoking compared with the strokes. FSM patients presented with more left-sided weakness and had more magnetic resonance imagings than the stroke and MSM groups. A total of 9.9% of FSM patients received thrombolysis versus only 0.5% of the MSM and 16.4% of ischemic strokes. Conclusions FSM frequencies varied by nationality, with Arab and African nationals being twice as prevalent. Stress, vulnerable status as expats, sociopolitical instability, and exposure to trauma are proposed as potential factors contributing to FSM. PMID:29394187

  3. Lipid bilayer-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles carrying bovine hemoglobin towards an erythrocyte mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jing; Bussmann, Jeroen; Du, Guangsheng; Gao, Yue; Bouwstra, Joke A; Kros, Alexander

    2018-05-30

    Hemoglobin (Hb)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) coated with a lipid bilayer (LB-MSNs) were investigated as an erythrocyte mimic. MSNs with a large average pore size (10 nm) act as a rigid core and provide a protective environment for Hb encapsulated inside the pores. The colloidal stability of Hb-loaded MSNs was enhanced upon the application of a lipid bilayer, through fusion of PEGylated liposomes onto the exterior surface of Hb-loaded MSNs. The morphology and mesostructure of the MSNs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface area analysis. The Hb loading capacity (mg/g) in MSNs was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy revealed that Hb inside MSNs had an identical, but slightly broadened peak in the Soret region compared to free Hb. Furthermore the encapsulated Hb exhibits similar peroxidase-like activity in catalyzing the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) with hydrogen peroxide. The introduction of a supported lipid bilayer (LB) demonstrated the potential to prevent premature Hb release (the burst release decreased from 25.50 ± 0.33% to 6.73 ± 0.83%) and increased the colloidal stability of the Hb-loaded MSNs (hydrodynamic diameter remained ∼250 nm for at least one week). The in vivo systemic circulation and biodistribution of LB-MSNs were studied in optically transparent zebrafish embryos, revealing that LB-MSNs have the potential to act as an erythrocyte mimic in transfusion therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model of internal barriers to drug treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chang; Kelly, Brian C; Liao, Yanhui; He, Haoyu; Luo, Tao; Deng, Huiqiong; Liu, Tieqiao; Hao, Wei; Wang, Jichuan

    2015-03-01

    Although evidence exists for distinct barriers to drug abuse treatment (BDATs), investigations of their inter-relationships and the effect of individual characteristics on the barrier factors have been sparse, especially in China. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model is applied for this target. A sample of 262 drug users were recruited from three drug rehabilitation centers in Hunan Province, China. We applied a MIMIC approach to investigate the effect of gender, age, marital status, education, primary substance use, duration of primary drug use, and drug treatment experience on the internal barrier factors: absence of problem (AP), negative social support (NSS), fear of treatment (FT), and privacy concerns (PC). Drug users of various characteristics were found to report different internal barrier factors. Younger participants were more likely to report NSS (-0.19, p=0.038) and PC (-0.31, p<0.001). Compared to other drug users, ice users were more likely to report AP (0.44, p<0.001) and NSS (0.25, p=0.010). Drug treatment experiences related to AP (0.20, p=0.012). In addition, differential item functioning (DIF) occurred in three items when participant from groups with different duration of drug use, ice use, or marital status. Individual characteristics had significant effects on internal barriers to drug treatment. On this basis, BDAT perceived by different individuals could be assessed before tactics were utilized to successfully remove perceived barriers to drug treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. TGF-β mimic proteins form an extended gene family in the murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Danielle J; Harcus, Yvonne; White, Madeleine P J; Gregory, William F; Nahler, Janina; Stephens, Ian; Toke-Bjolgerud, Edward; Hewitson, James P; Ivens, Alasdair; McSorley, Henry J; Maizels, Rick M

    2018-04-01

    We recently reported the discovery of a new parasite-derived protein that functionally mimics the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The Heligmosomoides polygyrus TGF-β Mimic (Hp-TGM) shares no homology to any TGF-β family member, however it binds the mammalian TGF-β receptor and induces expression of Foxp3, the canonical transcription factor of both mouse and human regulatory T cells. Hp-TGM consists of five atypical Complement Control Protein (CCP, Pfam 00084) domains, each lacking certain conserved residues and 12-15 amino acids longer than the 60-70 amino acids consensus domain, but with a recognizable 3-cysteine, tryptophan, cysteine motif. We now report on the identification of a family of nine related Hp-TGM homologues represented in the secreted proteome and transcriptome of H. polygyrus. Recombinant proteins from five of the nine new TGM members were tested for TGF-β activity, but only two were functionally active in an MFB-F11 reporter assay, and by the induction of T cell Foxp3 expression. Sequence comparisons reveal that proteins with functional activity are similar or identical to Hp-TGM across the first three CCP domains, but more variable in domains 4 and 5. Inactive proteins diverged in all domains, or lacked some domains entirely. Testing truncated versions of Hp-TGM confirmed that domains 1-3 are essential for full activity in vitro, while domains 4 and 5 are not required. Further studies will elucidate whether these latter domains fulfill other functions in promoting host immune regulation during infection and if the more divergent family members play other roles in immunomodulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Dynamic Changes in Host Gene Expression following In Vitro Viral Mimic Stimulation in Crocodile Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Sarker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The initial control of viral infection in a host is dominated by a very well orchestrated early innate immune system; however, very little is known about the ability of a host to control viral infection outside of mammals. The reptiles offer an evolutionary bridge between the fish and mammals, with the crocodile having evolved from the archosauria clade that included the dinosaurs, and being the largest living reptile species. Using an RNA-seq approach, we have defined the dynamic changes of a passaged primary crocodile cell line to stimulation with both RNA and DNA viral mimics. Cells displayed a marked upregulation of many genes known to be involved in the mammalian response to viral infection, including viperin, Mx1, IRF7, IRF1, and RIG-I with approximately 10% of the genes being uncharacterized transcripts. Both pathway and genome analysis suggested that the crocodile may utilize the main known mammalian TLR and cytosolic antiviral RNA signaling pathways, with the pathways being responsible for sensing DNA viruses less clear. Viral mimic stimulation upregulated the type I interferon, IFN-Omega, with many known antiviral interferon-stimulated genes also being upregulated. This work demonstrates for the first time that reptiles show functional regulation of many known and unknown antiviral pathways and effector genes. An enhanced knowledge of these ancient antiviral pathways will not only add to our understanding of the host antiviral innate response in non-mammalian species, but is critical to fully comprehend the complexity of the mammalian innate immune response to viral infection.

  7. 'Emotional Intelligence': Lessons from Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, J; Salvi, C; Grafman, J

    2016-10-01

    'Emotional intelligence' (EI) is one of the most highly used psychological terms in popular nomenclature, yet its construct, divergent, and predictive validities are contentiously debated. Despite this debate, the EI construct is composed of a set of emotional abilities - recognizing emotional states in the self and others, using emotions to guide thought and behavior, understanding how emotions shape behavior, and emotion regulation - that undoubtedly influence important social and personal outcomes. In this review, evidence from human lesion studies is reviewed in order to provide insight into the necessary brain regions for each of these core emotional abilities. Critically, we consider how this neuropsychological evidence might help to guide efforts to define and measure EI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Imaging of extradural spinal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Schulte-Altedorneburg, G.; Naumann, N.; Reith, W.; Nabhan, A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a wide variety of spinal extradural tumors. In addition to real neoplasms, degenerative diseases, congenital abnormalities and inflammatory disorders can be causes of extradural masses. Due to the bony boundary of the spinal canal, both benign as well as malignant masses can cause progressive neurological deficits including paraplegia. Most of the spinal tumors are benign (hemangioma of the vertebral body, degenerative diseases). In younger patients congenital abnormalities and primary tumors of the spine have to be considered, whereas in adults the list of differential diagnoses should include secondary malignancies such as metastases and lymphomas as well as metabolic disorders such as osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture and Paget's disease. Cross-sectional imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) of the spine often help to make a specific diagnosis of extradural spinal lesions and represent important tools for tumor staging and preoperative evaluation. (orig.) [de

  9. The induction of rho'- mutants by UV or γ-rays is independent of the nuclear recombinational repair pethway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heude, M

    1988-01-01

    In order to discover whether the nuclear recombinational repair pathway also acts on lesions induced in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the possible role of the RAD50, -51, -55 and -56 genes on the induction of rho - mutants by radiations was studied. Such induction appeared to be independent of this pathway. Nevertheless, an efficient induction of respiration-deficient mutants was observed in γ-irradiated rad52 diploids. We demonstrate that these mutants do not result from a lack of mtDNA repair, but from chromosome losses induced by γ-rays. Such an impairment of the respiratory ability of diploids by chromosome lossed was effectively observed in the aneuploid progeny of unirradiated RAD + cdc6 diploids incubated at the restrictive temperature. (author). 60 refs.; 3 figs.; 6 tabs

  10. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  11. Mutants dissecting development and behaviour in drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Adita; Chandrashekaran, Shanti; Sharma, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    We have traced in this paper the progress in Drosophila genetics research from the 1960s, at the IARI, spearheaded by the visionary insight of M. S. Swaminathan. The work started with the study of indirect effect of radiation and the synergistic interaction of physical and chemical mutagens on chromosomal and genetic changes. This paved the way for the study of single gene mutants in dissecting developmental and behavioural processes. New genes discovered by us have been shown to encode conserved cell signalling molecules controlling developmental and behavioural pathways. With the complete sequencing of the Drosophila genome, in the year 2000, mounting evidence for the homology between Drosophila and human genes controlling genetic disorders became available. This has led to the fly becoming an indispensable tool for studying human diseases as well as a model to test for drugs and pharmaceuticals against human diseases and complex behavioural processes. For example wingless in Drosophila belongs to the conserved Wnt gene family and aberrant WNT signalling is linked to a range of human diseases, most notably cancer. Inhibition as well as activation of WNT signalling form the basis of an effective therapy for some cancers as well as several other clinical conditions. Recent experiments have shown that WNTs might also normally participate in self-renewal, proliferation or differentiation of stem cells and altering WNT signalling might be beneficial to the use of stem cells for therapeutic means. Likewise, the stambhA mutant of Drosophila which was discovered for its temperature-dependent paralytic behaviour is the fly homologue of Phospholipase Cβ. Phospholipase C mediated G protein signalling plays a central role in vital processes controlling epilepsy, vision, taste, and olfaction in animals. Proteins of the G-signalling pathway are of intense research interest since many human diseases involve defects in G-protein signalling pathways. In fact, approximately 50

  12. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Long Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT is larger than that of wild type (WT and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  13. Gamma-ray induced mutants in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janila, P.; Ashok Kumar, A.; Rajashekar Reddy, N.; Hemalatha, V.

    2007-01-01

    We report isolation of three recessive mutants in castor using dry seed irradiation with gamma rays. The crinkled leaf mutant (crf) was identified in K-55-112 M2 family and leafy mutant (lea) in H-55-577 M2 family; both are recessive lethal and thus maintained as heterozygotes. The cri mutant has highly wrinkled leaves resembling finger millet head and failed to enter reproductive phase, consequently did not produce seeds. The number of leaf lobes is reduced in lea mutant and though it produced spikes, the male and female flowers are converted to leafy appendages. The third mutant, fused (Ius) stem identified in H-55-617 M2 family is a recessive mutant. The branches of which are fused at the base and though each branch terminates in to monoceous spike like normal plant, the spike is highly condensed. The three mutants under report are valuable genetic stocks for development of linkage maps in castor, which is at infancy. (author)

  14. Development of Database Software with Plant Mutant Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namgoong, Won; Lee, M. J.; Kim, J. D.; Ma, N. K.

    2007-03-01

    In this research, mutants induced by nuclear radiation are developed information computerised system. The status and progress on the collection, identification and utilization of mutants in Korea are introduced. And it was produced home page, manual, test record, construction of system

  15. Clear Plaque Mutants of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kot, Witold; Kilstrup, Mogens; Vogensen, Finn K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining turbid plaques of the lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 and its derivative TP901-BC1034. We have further used the method to isolate clear plaque mutants of this phage. Analysis of 8 such mutants that were unable to lysogenize the host included whole genome...

  16. Isolation and characterization of stable mutants of Streptomyces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Daunorubicin and its derivative doxorubicin are antitumour anthracycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces peucetius. In this study we report isolation of stable mutants of S. peucetius blocked in different steps of the daunorubicin biosynthesis pathway. Mutants were screened on the basis of colony colour since producer ...

  17. Photosynthetic characterization of a rolled leaf mutant of rice ( Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new rolling leaf rice mutant was identified which showed an apparently straighter longitudinal shape normal transverse rolling characters at all developing stages. The chlorophyll contents per fresh weight of this mutant leaves were lower than those of wild-type. The electron transfer rate (ETR) and photochemical ...

  18. Mutant strain of C. acetobutylicum and process for making butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mahendra K.; Beacom, Daniel; Datta, Rathin

    1993-01-01

    A biologically pure asporogenic mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum is produced by growing sporogenic C. acetobutylicum ATCC 4259 and treating the parent strain with ethane methane sulfonate. The mutant which as been designated C. acetobutylicum ATCC 55025 is useful in an improved ABE fermentation process, and produces high concentrations of butanol and total solvents.

  19. Sorghum Brown Midrib Mutants, Tools to Improve Biomass for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve sorghum for cellulosic bioenergy uses, brown midrib mutants are being investigated for their ability to increase the conversion efficiency of biomass. brown midrib 6 and 12 (bmr6 and 12) mutants affect monolignol biosynthesis resulting in reduced lignin content and altered lignin composi...

  20. Isozyme patterns of powdery mildew resistant wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Wengau; Li Zhengkui; Wang Kefeng

    1989-01-01

    Full Text: Wheat mutants induced by gamma irradiation and showing improved resistance to powdery mildew were analysed for isozymes. The peroxidase band 3A could be related to the disease reaction. The band 3A is absent in resistant mutants, the higher the activity of band 3A the greater the susceptibility. (author)

  1. Strain improvement in dye decolourising mutants of Mucor mucedo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... M. mucedo {MMM1-U.V. irradiated mutant and MMM2-EMS (ethyl methyl sulfonate) treated ... tions were induced and two positive mutants (MMM1, .... yeast biofilter for the treatment of a Nigerian fertilizer plant effluent. World J.

  2. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects

  3. Screening of in vitro derived mutants of banana against nematodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rest of the mutants namely Ro Im V4 6-1-2 and Si Im V4 6-2-5 were found to be susceptible to nematodes. The resistant and moderately resistant mutants of banana could be further used in breeding programmes as well as being recognized as potential cultivars of commerce. Key words: Banana, nematode, resistance, ...

  4. Imaging pattern of calvarial lesions in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garfinkle, Jarred; Melancon, Denis; Cortes, Maria; Tampieri, Donatella [Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital-McGill University Health Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Calvarial lesions often present themselves as clinically silent findings on skull radiographs or as palpable masses that may cause localized pain or soreness. This review aims to explore the radiographic, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of calvarial neoplastic, inflammatory, and congenital lesions that are common in adults in order to facilitate a structured approach to their diagnosis and limit the differential diagnosis. In addition to reviewing the literature, we reviewed the records of 141 patients of the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital with radiologically documented calvarial lesions between 2001 and June 2009. CT is ideal for detecting bony lesions and is helpful in precisely localizing a lesion pre-surgically. MRI is best at identifying intradiploic lesions before they affect the cortical tables and is able to establish extraosseous involvement, especially when paramagnetic contrast is employed. (orig.)

  5. Detection of Fundus Lesions Using Classifier Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Hiroto; Hiramatsu, Yoshitaka; Sako, Hiroshi; Himaga, Mitsutoshi; Kato, Satoshi

    A system for detecting fundus lesions caused by diabetic retinopathy from fundus images is being developed. The system can screen the images in advance in order to reduce the inspection workload on doctors. One of the difficulties that must be addressed in completing this system is how to remove false positives (which tend to arise near blood vessels) without decreasing the detection rate of lesions in other areas. To overcome this difficulty, we developed classifier selection according to the position of a candidate lesion, and we introduced new features that can distinguish true lesions from false positives. A system incorporating classifier selection and these new features was tested in experiments using 55 fundus images with some lesions and 223 images without lesions. The results of the experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system, namely, degrees of sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 81%, respectively.

  6. Percutaneous CT-Guided Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosing Pneumonia and Mimics of Pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanos, Loukas; Galani, Panagiota; Mylona, Sophia; Pomoni, Maria; Mpatakis, Nikolaos

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) relative to fine needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. In this prospective study we present our experience with 48 thoracic FNAs and CNBs carried out on 48 patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. Samples were obtained from all patients using both CNB (with an automated 18-G core biopsy needle and a gun) and FNA (with a 22-G needle). A specific diagnosis was made in 10/48 cases (20.83%) by FNA and in 42/48 (87.5%) by CNB. The main complications encountered were pneumothorax (n = 4) and hemoptysis (n = 2), yielding a total complication rate of 12.5%. We concluded that CNB using an automated biopsy gun results in a higher diagnostic accuracy for pneumonia and pneumonia mimic biopsies than FNA. Complications should be considered and proper patient observation should follow the procedure

  7. Hybrid Odontogenic Lesion: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Imani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid tumors are very rare tumors composed of two different tumor entities, each of which conforms to an exactly defined tumor category. A 14-year-old boy was referred for an intraosseous painless lesion with a histopathological feature of multiple odontogenic lesions including calcifying odontogenic cyst, complex odontoma and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. The final diagnosis considered to be a hybrid odontogenic lesion.

  8. Space Occupying Lesions in the Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani

    2009-01-01

    "nRadiology (imaging) plays a pivotal role for the diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of focal liver lesions. The differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a focal liver lesion is broad. "nThe size of the liver mass is an important consideration in guiding the evaluation. Lesions smaller than approximately 1.0 cm are commonly benign incidental findings on imaging studies, and in most cases represent small cysts, hemangiomas, or biliary hamartomas. Further...

  9. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  10. Induction and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants by Ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Y. H.; Choi, J. D.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, J. R.; Sohn, H. S.

    2008-03-01

    This study was conducted to search the proper conditions and times for irradiating proton beam to seeds generally used for induction of mutant. Arabidopsis as model plants has good characters that is a short generation time, producing a lot of seeds, sequenced genome, developed maker. This points were the best materials for plant breeding for this study. The data of inducing mutants of Arabidopsis is used to be applicate to crops have more longer generation that is the final goals of this study. The goals of this project were to inducing and characterizing arabidopsis mutants by the proton ion beam and γ-ray. As well as, the purpose of this study was securing more than 10 lines of arabidopsis mutants in this project and also to know the changed DNA structure of the mutants using the basic data for applying to the more study

  11. Phage Pl mutants with altered transducing abilities for Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, J.D.; Harriman, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    A search was made for mutants of the coliphage P1 with altered transducing frequencies. A method was developed for the rapid assay of transducing frequencies in single plaques using prophage lambda as the transduced bacterial marker. This procedure selects for mutants altered in their ability to package host DNA. Mutants with 5 to 10 times higher or 10 to 20 times lower frequencies than those of wild-type P1 were found. Not only are the markers used for the detection of the mutants affected, but all other markers are similarly affected (not always to the same extent). One of the high transducing frequency mutants is a suppressible amber, indicating that loss of a function increases P1's ability to package host DNA preferentially. (U.S.)

  12. Spectrum of mutant characters utilized in developing improved cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, B.; Kawai, T.; Micke, A.

    1984-01-01

    Although about 500 cultivars are known to have been developed by using induced mutations, the range of mutant traits seems to be rather narrow. Mutant traits have mostly been used that can be detected visually on an individual plant basis. However, in the background of such mutants other valuable mutations have been found in later generations. In cross-breeding with mutants valuable characteristics occurred, which could not be predicted from the phenotypes of the parents. It is concluded that improved attributes in the released mutant varieties do not comprise the entire genetic variation that could derive from mutagenesis. Current selection techniques are inadequate to exploit the full potential of mutagenesis for plant breeding. (author)

  13. Poliovirus Mutants Resistant to Neutralization with Soluble Cell Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gerardo; Peters, David; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    1990-12-01

    Poliovirus mutants resistant to neutralization with soluble cellular receptor were isolated. Replication of soluble receptor-resistant (srr) mutants was blocked by a monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell receptor for poliovirus, indicating that the mutants use this receptor to enter cells. The srr mutants showed reduced binding to HeLa cells and cell membranes. However, the reduced binding phenotype did not have a major impact on viral replication, as judged by plaque size and one-step growth curves. These results suggest that the use of soluble receptors as antiviral agents could lead to the selection of neutralization-resistant mutants that are able to bind cell surface receptors, replicate, and cause disease.

  14. The agronomic characters of a high protein rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harn, C.; Won, J.L.; Choi, K.T.

    1975-01-01

    Mutant lines (M 5 -M 9 ) of macro-phenotypic traits from several varieties were screened for the protein content. Mutant 398 (M 9 ) is one of the high protein mutants selected from Hokwang. Three years' tests revealed that it has a high protein line under any condition of cultivation. Except for early maturity and short culmness, other agronomic and yield characters were similar to the original variety. There was no difference between the mutant 398 and its mother variety in grain shape and weight, and also the size and protein content of the embryo. The high protein content of the mutant is attributable to the increase of protein in the endosperm. About 150 normal-looking or a few days-earlier-maturing selections were made from Jinheung variety in the M 3 and screened for protein. Promising lines in terms of the plant type, yield and protein were obtained. (author)

  15. Mildew resistant and less lodging wheat mutants induced in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghedi-Ahmadi, I.

    1989-01-01

    ''Tabassi'' is a lodging and mildew susceptible cultivar. To induce mutations, seeds were gamma irradiated (50 to 150 Gy) in 1982 and selection for lodging resistance was carried out in M 2 . During field experiments with the mutant lines in 1985/86 there has been a heavy mildew epidemic under which mutant 63-5-I (derived from 50 Gy treatment) exhibited considerable resistance and as a consequence, higher yield. The control was 100% infected, the mutant only 40%. The mutant yielded 31% more grain, 7.5% less straw and 4.5% more protein than the control. Lodging of 63-5-I was only 60% in an experiment under rainfed conditions in the same season, resulting in a relative yield increase of about 11%. In 1986/87 there was no mildew epidemic and the mutant yielded the same as ''Tabassi''

  16. Characteristics of mutant lines of sweet potato flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryanti

    2012-01-01

    Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)

  17. Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandanegara, S.; Hendratno, K.

    1987-01-01

    Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines. A greenhouse experiment has been carried out to study photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability of five mutant lines and two soybean varieties. An amount of 330 uCi of 14 CO 2 was fed to the plants including of the non-fixing reference crop (Chippewa non-nodulating isoline). Nitrogen fixation measurements was carried out using 15 N isotope dilution technique according to A-value concept. Results showed that beside variety/mutant lines, plant growth also has important role in photosynthetic and N fixing capability. Better growth and a higher photosynthetic capability in Orba, mutant lines nos. 63 and 65 resulted in a greater amount of N 2 fixed (mg N/plant) than other mutant lines. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  18. Induction and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants by Ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Y. H.; Choi, J. D.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, J. R.; Sohn, H. S. [Gyeongbuk Institute for Bio Industry, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    This study was conducted to search the proper conditions and times for irradiating proton beam to seeds generally used for induction of mutant. Arabidopsis as model plants has good characters that is a short generation time, producing a lot of seeds, sequenced genome, developed maker. This points were the best materials for plant breeding for this study. The data of inducing mutants of Arabidopsis is used to be applicate to crops have more longer generation that is the final goals of this study. The goals of this project were to inducing and characterizing arabidopsis mutants by the proton ion beam and {gamma}-ray. As well as, the purpose of this study was securing more than 10 lines of arabidopsis mutants in this project and also to know the changed DNA structure of the mutants using the basic data for applying to the more study

  19. Study on growth condition of Trichoderma mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian'ai; Xiao Min; Wang Weiming; Chen Weijing; Sun Yongtang

    2002-01-01

    Some Trichoderma mutants were cultured under different conditions 4 strains, T5, T0803, T1010, T1003 were selected with different mediums and every medium was mixed with fungicide of 40 ppm. The fungicides were procymidone + chlorothalonil, maneb and phosethyl-Al. The pH of medium were 5, 6, 7 and 8, respectively. The growing temperatures were 15, 20, 25 and 30 degree C, respectively. After the hypha growing for some days under natural high temperature, they were put in low temperature for producing spores. The growing times for these hypha were 3,4,5 and 6 days, respectively. All dates were analyzed on statistics with the orthogonal array and ranges (R) were different with different factor and levels (R = 40.4, 42.4, 48.0, 62.8, 107.0). The results showed that the strain was the most influent condition (R = 107.0) and the changed temperature time from high to low was the least influent condition (R = 40.4). Each factor variance was significant and A 3 b 4 C 2 D 1 E 3 was the optimum combined condition, under which T1010 grew more quickly and produced the most spores

  20. Assessment and application of oats mutant forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovsky, V [Vyzkumny a Slechtitelsky Ustav Obilnarsky, Kromeriz (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-04-01

    Five oat varieties were studied for the effect of X-rays on the degree of survival, on the occurrence rate of mutations, and on the possibility of obtaining improved forms for further breeding work. Oats were treated with doses of 20,000 and 40,000 R and the latter dose was found to be highly lethal. For this reason, further studies were performed with doses of 15,000 and 25,000 R. The 'Diadem' variety (CSSR) showed the highest sensitivity to irradiation. The varieties 'Tiger' (West Germany) and 'Diane' (Belgium) showed medium susceptibility and the 'Permit' and 'Pollux' varieties (both W. Germany) were the least sensitive. In selection oriented mainly to stalk shortening and to higher resistance to lodging, the greatest number of useful macromutations was obtained from the 'Permit' variety after exposure of dry seeds to a dose of 20,000 R. The most promising mutant forms obtained in this variety were sent to some breeding stations of the Plant-Breeding and Seed-Production Enterprise Oseva for further breeding use.

  1. Lesion localization in aphasia without hemiparesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Midori; Senoh, Yoko; Okamoto, Koichi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of the lesions responsible for aphasia unassociated with right-sided hemiparesis was evaluated by cranial computed tomography (CT) among stroke patients. In the Broca aphasia group were observed atypical aphasic symptoms, and the lesions were far more localized than in ordinary Broca one. In the Wernicke aphasia group showed relatively large lesions in the left superior temporal gyrus, sometimes extending to supramarginal and angular gyri, which caused such additional symptoms as apraxia without motor paresis in some cases. In the Transcortical motor aphasia group showed the occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, though without obvious abnormality at CT. In another patient a circumscribed low density lesion was disclosed in the area anterior and superior to so-called Broca's area. In the Transcortical sensory aphasia group, the lesion involved the borderzone supplied by the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In the Amnestic aphasia group showed a lesion in the left parietal lobe, while in another no remarkable change was demonstrated. In the Global aphasia group, one had multiple isolated lesions in both anterior and posterior speech areas. Another showed a large lesion involving the whole territory of the left middle cerebral artery. In the remaining one a high density area was observed in the left superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri, not extending to the frontal lobe beyond with sylvian fissure. Therefore, in interpreting CTs of such aphasic patients we must take account of not only the extent of the lesion but also the severity of destruction. (J.P.N.)

  2. Lesion localization in aphasia without hemiparesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Midori; Senoh, Yoko; Okamoto, Koichi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-06-01

    The distribution of the lesions responsible for aphasia unassociated with right-sided hemiparesis was evaluated by cranial computed tomography (CT) among stroke patients. In the Broca aphasia group were observed atypical aphasic symptoms, and the lesions were far more localized than in ordinary Broca one. In the Wernicke aphasia group showed relatively large lesions in the left superior temporal gyrus, sometimes extending to supramarginal and angular gyri, which caused such additional symptoms as apraxia without motor paresis in some cases. In the Transcortical motor aphasia group showed the occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, though without obvious abnormality at CT. In another patient a circumscribed low density lesion was disclosed in the area anterior and superior to so-called Broca's area. In the Transcortical sensory aphasia group, the lesion involved the borderzone supplied by the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In the Amnestic aphasia group showed a lesion in the left parietal lobe, while in another no remarkable change was demonstrated. In the Global aphasia group, one had multiple isolated lesions in both anterior and posterior speech areas. Another showed a large lesion involving the whole territory of the left middle cerebral artery. In the remaining one a high density area was observed in the left superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri, not extending to the frontal lobe beyond with sylvian fissure. Therefore, in interpreting CTs of such aphasic patients we must take account of not only the extent of the lesion but also the severity of destruction.

  3. Thermophysical lesions caused by HZE particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Malachowski, M.; Nelson, A.; Philpott, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with a type of damage caused by heavy particles that may occur in subcellular structures. These lesions are called thermophysical radiation injury and are similar to damage produced in solids by HZE particles. This chapter summarizes some of the experimental evidence for the presence of these lesions in certain mammalian tissues including the retina, brain, cornea, lens of mice and seeds of corn. Of all tissues examined, only the cornea exhibited a type of lesion which would fulfill the criteria of thermophysical lesions

  4. MR imaging of sacral and perisacral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, L.H.; Levine, E.; Murphey, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    This exhibit demonstrates the utility of MR imaging in evaluating sacral and perisacral lesions. Thirty-two lesions were studied using a superconducting 1.0-T MR imager. Eleven primary and 13 metastatic tumors, four congenital lesions, and four arachnoid cysts were evaluated. MR did not usually enable a more specific histologic diagnosis than other imaging techniques. However, extraosseous and proximal spinal extent of tumors was well defined without use of oral or intravenous contrast material. MR imaging is an excellent noninvasive technique for evaluating most sacral and perisacral lesions and is particularly helpful when precise tumor extent must be determined for treatment planning

  5. Visible and occult microscopic lesions of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleque Newaz Khan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Even after 300 years, most of the literature claims that pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of endometriosis is still elusive. Recurrence of pain and lesion continues to occur after effective medical or surgical therapies. Once generated within the pelvis due to retrograde entry of menstrual debris, peritoneal endometriotic lesions time-dependently change their color appearance resulting from certain biochemical change within lesions. A variable pattern of endometriotic lesions within the pelvis can be detected by laparoscopy as visible peritoneal endometriosis. It is generally believed that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system in the pelvic microenvironment by their interaction with endometrial cells and immune cells. Even with the careful eyes of an expert surgeon, we may sometimes miss detecting peritoneal lesion within the peritoneal cavity or deep into the peritoneum. In such a case, random collection of normal peritoneum may carry the possibility to identify some hidden endometriotic lesions by microscopy and these lesions can be named as occult (invisible microscopic endometriosis (OME. Here, we discuss the color appearance of peritoneal lesions and activity of these lesions by analysis of a panel of activity markers. Finally we discuss our recent findings on OME, their biological and clinical significance, and try to make a possible link in the origin between visible endometriosis and OME.

  6. Measuring Cutaneous Lesions: Trends in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shali; Blalock, Travis W

    2018-03-01

    Knowing the size of a cutaneous lesion can be important for tracking its progression over time, selecting the proper treatment modality, surgical planning, determining prognosis, and accurate billing. However, providers vary in their consistency, accuracy, and methods of measuring cutaneous lesions. To investigate the clinical practices of US dermatologists and dermatologic surgeons regarding how they determine the size of cutaneous lesions. A survey was electronically distributed to members of the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery. Four hundred twenty-six dermatologists completed the online survey. When a lesion is suspected to be malignant, 85% of respondents obtained exact measurements most, if not all, of the time; however, only 8% did for benign lesions. Most providers determined lesion sizes themselves rather than delegating to staff. When performing visual estimation, approximately three-quarters believed that they were accurate to within 1 to 2 mm. The top reasons for obtaining exact measurements were for tracking atypical pigmented lesions, determining treatment pathways, and accurate billing. The majority of respondents believed that lesion size affected management decisions; however, the need for exact measurement remains controversial, particularly for benign lesions. Future studies may investigate whether taking exact versus estimated measurements has an effect on outcomes.

  7. Radiation induced mutants in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.; Rajendran, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Stem cuttings and true seeds of three promising cultivars of cassava were exposed respectively to 1 to 5 kR and 10 to 50 kR acute gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Treatments of stem cuttings beyond 5 kR and seeds beyond 50 kR were lethal. One mutant each in the cultivars M4, H-165 and H-2304 was obtained from the stem irradiated populations. Another mutant was found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304. The mutant of M4 is characterised by light green (chlorina) leaves. The mutant of H-165 shows significantly shorter petiole (22,5 against 35.2 cm) and narrow leaf lobes, while the H-2304 mutant shows speckled leaves, branching and early flowering. The mutant found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304 is having yellow tuber flesh indicating the presence of carotene. The mutants may be useful in studies related to basic information as well as in practical breeding. The chlorina mutant in M4 showed slow growth and high HCN content in leaves. Late branching may be a useful trait in the traditionally non-branching clones of cassava to maintain the desirable leaf area index during high leaf fall period. Early flowering could be useful in a recombinant breeding programme. The tuber yield of the short petiole mutant in H-165 increased by 20% - 25% through closer planting. The narrow leaf lobes of this mutant permit better light penetration to lower leaves. (author)

  8. Human liver cell trafficking mutants: characterization and whole exome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yuan

    Full Text Available The HuH7 liver cell mutant Trf1 is defective in membrane trafficking and is complemented by the casein kinase 2α subunit CK2α''. Here we identify characteristic morphologies, trafficking and mutational changes in six additional HuH7 mutants Trf2-Trf7. Trf1 cells were previously shown to be severely defective in gap junction functions. Using a Lucifer yellow transfer assay, remarkable attenuation of gap junction communication was revealed in each of the mutants Trf2-Trf7. Electron microscopy and light microscopy of thiamine pyrophosphatase showed that several mutants exhibited fragmented Golgi apparatus cisternae compared to parental HuH7 cells. Intracellular trafficking was investigated using assays of transferrin endocytosis and recycling and VSV G secretion. Surface binding of transferrin was reduced in all six Trf2-Trf7 mutants, which generally correlated with the degree of reduced expression of the transferrin receptor at the cell surface. The mutants displayed the same transferrin influx rates as HuH7, and for efflux rate, only Trf6 differed, having a slower transferrin efflux rate than HuH7. The kinetics of VSV G transport along the exocytic pathway were altered in Trf2 and Trf5 mutants. Genetic changes unique to particular Trf mutants were identified by exome sequencing, and one was investigated in depth. The novel mutation Ile34Phe in the GTPase RAB22A was identified in Trf4. RNA interference knockdown of RAB22A or overexpression of RAB22AI34F in HuH7 cells caused phenotypic changes characteristic of the Trf4 mutant. In addition, the Ile34Phe mutation reduced both guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis activities of RAB22A. Thus, the RAB22A Ile34Phe mutation appears to contribute to the Trf4 mutant phenotype.

  9. Mouse survival motor neuron alleles that mimic SMN2 splicing and are inducible rescue embryonic lethality early in development but not late.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan M Hammond

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is caused by low survival motor neuron (SMN levels and patients represent a clinical spectrum due primarily to varying copies of the survival motor neuron-2 (SMN2 gene. Patient and animals studies show that disease severity is abrogated as SMN levels increase. Since therapies currently being pursued target the induction of SMN, it will be important to understand the dosage, timing and cellular requirements of SMN for disease etiology and potential therapeutic intervention. This requires new mouse models that can induce SMN temporally and/or spatially. Here we describe the generation of two hypomorphic Smn alleles, Smn(C-T-Neo and Smn(2B-Neo. These alleles mimic SMN2 exon 7 splicing, titre Smn levels and are inducible. They were specifically designed so that up to three independent lines of mice could be generated, herein we describe two. In a homozygous state each allele results in embryonic lethality. Analysis of these mutants indicates that greater than 5% of Smn protein is required for normal development. The severe hypomorphic nature of these alleles is caused by inclusion of a loxP-flanked neomycin gene selection cassette in Smn intron 7, which can be removed with Cre recombinase. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate these as inducible Smn alleles. When combined with an inducible Cre mouse, embryonic lethality caused by low Smn levels can be rescued early in gestation but not late. This provides direct genetic evidence that a therapeutic window for SMN inductive therapies may exist. Importantly, these lines fill a void for inducible Smn alleles. They also provide a base from which to generate a large repertoire of SMA models of varying disease severities when combined with other Smn alleles or SMN2-containing mice.

  10. Homologous series of induced early mutants in indican rice. Pt.1. The production of homologous series of early mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    1999-01-01

    The percentage of homologous series of early mutants induced from the same Indican rice variety were almost the same (1.37%∼1.64%) in 1983∼1993, but the ones from the different eco-typical varieties were different. The early variety was 0.73%, the mid variety was 1.51%, and the late variety was 1.97%. The percentage of homologous series of early mutants from the varieties with the same pedigree and relationship were similar, but the one from the cog nation were lower than those from distant varieties. There are basic laws and characters in the homologous series of early mutants: 1. The inhibited phenotype is the basic of the homologous series of early mutants; 2. The production of the homologous series of early mutants is closely related with the growing period of the parent; 3. The parallel mutation of the stem and leaves are simultaneously happened with the variation of early or late maturing; 4. The occurrence of the homologous series of early mutants is in a state of imbalance. According to the law of parallel variability, the production of homologous series of early mutants can be predicted as long as the parents' classification of plant, pedigree and ecological type are identified. Therefore, the early breeding can be guided by the law of homologous series of early mutants

  11. Repair of model compounds of photoinduced lesions in DNA. Electrochemical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussicault, F.

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the repair mechanism of photoinduced lesions in DNA (cyclobutane dimers and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone adducts) by photolyase redox enzymes, using tools and concepts of molecular electrochemistry. Thanks to the study of model compounds of cyclobutane lesions by cyclic voltametry, we have been able to mimic the key step of the enzymatic repair (dissociative electron transfer) and to monitor the repair of model compounds by Escherichia coli DNA photolyase. From these results, we have discussed the repair mechanism, especially the stepwise or concerted character of the process. Repair mechanism of (6-4) adducts is not known now, but a possible pathway implies an electron transfer coupled to the cleavage of two bonds in the closed form of the lesions (oxetanes). Voltammetric study of reduction and oxidation of model oxetanes and their repair by E. coli DNA photolyase gave some experimental evidence confirming the proposed mechanism and allowing a better understanding of it. (author)

  12. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, Mary P.; Kao, Simon C.

    2002-01-01

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  13. Intraosseous vascular access defect: fracture mimic in the skeletal survey for child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, Mary P.; Kao, Simon C. [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Two infants were transferred to the emergency department for injuries suggestive of child abuse. Skeletal surveys showed cortical bone defects in the proximal tibiae that were initially interpreted as healing fractures. Further investigation, however, revealed that intraosseous (IO) vascular access needles had been placed at these sites in both infants. In the appropriate clinical setting, a cortical lesion in the proximal tibia corresponding to the site of IO needle insertion should not be mistaken for a radiographic sign of child abuse. (orig.)

  14. Disparate peroxisome-related defects in Arabidopsis pex6 and pex26 mutants link peroxisomal retrotranslocation and oil body utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Kim L; Fleming, Wendell A; Kao, Yun-Ting; Wright, Zachary J; Venkova, Savina V; Ventura, Meredith J; Bartel, Bonnie

    2017-10-01

    Catabolism of fatty acids stored in oil bodies is essential for seed germination and seedling development in Arabidopsis. This fatty acid breakdown occurs in peroxisomes, organelles that sequester oxidative reactions. Import of peroxisomal enzymes is facilitated by peroxins including PEX5, a receptor that delivers cargo proteins from the cytosol to the peroxisomal matrix. After cargo delivery, a complex of the PEX1 and PEX6 ATPases and the PEX26 tail-anchored membrane protein removes ubiquitinated PEX5 from the peroxisomal membrane. We identified Arabidopsis pex6 and pex26 mutants by screening for inefficient seedling β-oxidation phenotypes. The mutants displayed distinct defects in growth, response to a peroxisomally metabolized auxin precursor, and peroxisomal protein import. The low PEX5 levels in these mutants were increased by treatment with a proteasome inhibitor or by combining pex26 with peroxisome-associated ubiquitination machinery mutants, suggesting that ubiquitinated PEX5 is degraded by the proteasome when the function of PEX6 or PEX26 is reduced. Combining pex26 with mutations that increase PEX5 levels either worsened or improved pex26 physiological and molecular defects, depending on the introduced lesion. Moreover, elevating PEX5 levels via a 35S:PEX5 transgene exacerbated pex26 defects and ameliorated the defects of only a subset of pex6 alleles, implying that decreased PEX5 is not the sole molecular deficiency in these mutants. We found peroxisomes clustered around persisting oil bodies in pex6 and pex26 seedlings, suggesting a role for peroxisomal retrotranslocation machinery in oil body utilization. The disparate phenotypes of these pex alleles may reflect unanticipated functions of the peroxisomal ATPase complex. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis is an efficient tool to genotype EMS mutants in complex crop genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochlainn, Seosamh Ó; Amoah, Stephen; Graham, Neil S; Alamer, Khalid; Rios, Juan J; Kurup, Smita; Stoute, Andrew; Hammond, John P; Østergaard, Lars; King, Graham J; White, Phillip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2011-12-08

    Targeted Induced Loci Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) is increasingly being used to generate and identify mutations in target genes of crop genomes. TILLING populations of several thousand lines have been generated in a number of crop species including Brassica rapa. Genetic analysis of mutants identified by TILLING requires an efficient, high-throughput and cost effective genotyping method to track the mutations through numerous generations. High resolution melt (HRM) analysis has been used in a number of systems to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletions (IN/DELs) enabling the genotyping of different types of samples. HRM is ideally suited to high-throughput genotyping of multiple TILLING mutants in complex crop genomes. To date it has been used to identify mutants and genotype single mutations. The aim of this study was to determine if HRM can facilitate downstream analysis of multiple mutant lines identified by TILLING in order to characterise allelic series of EMS induced mutations in target genes across a number of generations in complex crop genomes. We demonstrate that HRM can be used to genotype allelic series of mutations in two genes, BraA.CAX1a and BraA.MET1.a in Brassica rapa. We analysed 12 mutations in BraA.CAX1.a and five in BraA.MET1.a over two generations including a back-cross to the wild-type. Using a commercially available HRM kit and the Lightscanner™ system we were able to detect mutations in heterozygous and homozygous states for both genes. Using HRM genotyping on TILLING derived mutants, it is possible to generate an allelic series of mutations within multiple target genes rapidly. Lines suitable for phenotypic analysis can be isolated approximately 8-9 months (3 generations) from receiving M3 seed of Brassica rapa from the RevGenUK TILLING service.

  16. High Resolution Melt (HRM analysis is an efficient tool to genotype EMS mutants in complex crop genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochlainn Seosamh Ó

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted Induced Loci Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING is increasingly being used to generate and identify mutations in target genes of crop genomes. TILLING populations of several thousand lines have been generated in a number of crop species including Brassica rapa. Genetic analysis of mutants identified by TILLING requires an efficient, high-throughput and cost effective genotyping method to track the mutations through numerous generations. High resolution melt (HRM analysis has been used in a number of systems to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and insertion/deletions (IN/DELs enabling the genotyping of different types of samples. HRM is ideally suited to high-throughput genotyping of multiple TILLING mutants in complex crop genomes. To date it has been used to identify mutants and genotype single mutations. The aim of this study was to determine if HRM can facilitate downstream analysis of multiple mutant lines identified by TILLING in order to characterise allelic series of EMS induced mutations in target genes across a number of generations in complex crop genomes. Results We demonstrate that HRM can be used to genotype allelic series of mutations in two genes, BraA.CAX1a and BraA.MET1.a in Brassica rapa. We analysed 12 mutations in BraA.CAX1.a and five in BraA.MET1.a over two generations including a back-cross to the wild-type. Using a commercially available HRM kit and the Lightscanner™ system we were able to detect mutations in heterozygous and homozygous states for both genes. Conclusions Using HRM genotyping on TILLING derived mutants, it is possible to generate an allelic series of mutations within multiple target genes rapidly. Lines suitable for phenotypic analysis can be isolated approximately 8-9 months (3 generations from receiving M3 seed of Brassica rapa from the RevGenUK TILLING service.

  17. Localization of lesions in aphasia, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Kei; Watanabe, Shunzo; Tasaki, Hiroichi; Sato, Tokijiro; Metoki, Hirofumi.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the focus and the extent of the lesions and the various symptoms was investigated. 1. Broca aphasics: More than 80% of the group with obvious anarthric components had lesions of the third frontal gyrus involving Broca's area and the lower part of the precental gyrus as well as opercular and insular regions. The size of the lesions of this group was significantly larger than that of the group without marked anarthric components, and the latter was proved to have little localizing value. 2. Wernicke aphasics: The group with poor reading comprehension had cortical and/or subcortical lesions, involving posterior parts of both superior and middle temporal gyri as well as the supramarginal gyrus. On the other hand, lesions of the group with poor auditory comprehension were more anteriorly located and localized in the deep structures. Lesions of the group with poor Token test scores were large and scattered more anteriorly and/or posteriorly compared with those of the group with good Token test scores. 3. Amnestic aphaiscs: The group with poor naming scores had somewhat larger lesions than the group with good naming scores, and the lesions were scattered about the left hemisphere. The finding has proved that both groups had little localizing value. 4. Conduction aphasics: Lesions of the non-fluent type were significantly larger than those of the fluent type and distributed more anteriorly. However, highly involved lesions were located in the supramarginal gyrus and posterior parts of superior and/or middle temporal gyri. 5. Global aphasics: Lesions of the group with good articulation and prosody were observed to distribute more posteriorly in comparison with those of the other global aphasics. (J.P.N.)

  18. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez; Rafael A. Gutiérrez; Alicia Keszler; Maria Del Carmen Colacino; Lidia V. Alonio; Angélica R. Teyssie; Maria Alejandra Picconi

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell ...

  19. Genetic studies on dwarf triticale mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalepa, S.

    1984-01-01

    The parents, F 1 , F 2 and backcrosses derived from triticale dwarf mutants and tall cultivars were studied during the 1979-80 crop season. Data was taken on individual plants to estimate dwarf inheritance, gene action and interrelationships of grain yield and selected yield related traits. The direct and indirect effects of grain yield per spike on other grain yield components were also studied. Results indicate that dwarfing is controlled by two, partially dominant, genes. Additional crosses involving other hexaploid triticale lines revealed the inheritance of other characters. The results in F 2 show that glossy plant, waxy covering of the neck and hairy neck are dominant, while short straw is recessive. Waxy covering on the spike seems to be controlled by two genes with additive action. Observation of F 2 progenies indicates that a gene for waxy neck covering Wx and hairy neck Hp might be located on the same chromosome at a distance of about 19 units. Plant height showed a positive phenotypic correlation with grain yield and 1,000 kernel weight. Non-significant correlations were found between plant height and number of grains per spike, harvest index and spikelet fertility. Path coefficient analyses at the phenotypic level indicated that the direct effects of grain number on grain yield were large while the direct effects of 1,000 kernel weight were relatively small. The results of this study indicate that selection for high kernel number is the most important factor in a breeding programme for increasing grain yield in some dwarf triticale. It was found that epistasis is not involved in the inheritance of harvest index. Additive, dominance and additive x dominance epistasis were important for grain yield per spike. A duplicate type of epistasis was found for 1,000 kernel weight and number of grains per spikelet. (author)

  20. Induced mutant for male sterility in niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.), an important oilseed crop of the family Compositae is highly cross-pollinated due to the twin mechanisms of protandry and incompatibility. Studies revealed the functional nature of protandry and the breakdown of incompatibility with alteration in temperature. It has very small flowers (disc florets) arranged in a capitulum that open on 3-4 consecutive days which pose problems in emasculation for cross-breeding. To induce mutations, seeds of variety 'IGP-76' were irradiated with γ-rays 200 to 1000 Gy. All seeds of M 1 plants were sown separately in individual plant-to progeny rows. The results of screening of M 2 segregating material indicated that γ-ray treatment was effective in induction of male sterility. Frequency of visible mutations were higher in sibbed progeny as compared to open pollinated population and male sterile plants were observed only in sibbed population (1000 Gy). Male sterile plants could easily be identified at the flowering stage by their altered floral morphology (disc florets transformed into ligulate ray florets) and complete absence or presence of a rudimentary anther column. Seeds were collected following sib-mating with the fertile counterparts. Progeny segregated in a ration of 3 normal : 1 male sterile. Further work on the mechanism of sterility, maintenance and linkage relationships with associated characters is under progress. This is the first report of induction of male sterility in niger through the use of physical mutagens. The availability of this mutant will be of great value for exploitation of heterosis on commercial basis. (author)