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Sample records for lesion inactivation molecular

  1. Unilateral hippocampal inactivation or lesion selectively impairs remote contextual fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Heng; Zhou, Qixin; Xu, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Contextual fear memory depends on the hippocampus, but the role of unilateral hippocampus in this type of memory remains unclear. Herein, pharmacological inactivation or excitotoxic lesions were used to study the role of unilateral hippocampus in the stages of contextual fear memory. The pharmacological experiments revealed that compared with the control groups, unilateral hippocampal blockade did not impair 1-day recent memory following learning, whereas bilateral hippocampal blockade significantly impaired this memory. The lesion experiments showed that compared with the control groups, the formed contextual fear memory was retained for 7 days and that 30-day remote memory was markedly reduced in unilateral hippocampal lesion groups. These results indicate that an intact bilateral hippocampus is required for the formation of remote memory and that unilateral hippocampus is sufficient for recent contextual fear memory.

  2. Heterogeneity of mammary lesions represent molecular differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Ruria; Gregg, Jeffrey P; Maglione, Jeannie E; Davis, Ryan R; Baron, Colin A; Liu, Stephenie; Carmack, Condie E; Young, Lawrence JT; Borowsky, Alexander D; Cardiff, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Human breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, histopathologically, molecularly and phenotypically. The molecular basis of this heterogeneity is not well understood. We have used a mouse model of DCIS that consists of unique lines of mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) outgrowths, the premalignant lesion in the mouse that progress to invasive carcinoma, to understand the molecular changes that are characteristic to certain phenotypes. Each MIN-O line has distinguishable morphologies, metastatic potentials and estrogen dependencies. We utilized oligonucleotide expression arrays and high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to investigate whole genome expression patterns and whole genome aberrations in both the MIN-O and tumor from four different MIN-O lines that each have different phenotypes. From the whole genome analysis at 35 kb resolution, we found that chromosome 1, 2, 10, and 11 were frequently associated with whole chromosome gains in the MIN-Os. In particular, two MIN-O lines had the majority of the chromosome gains. Although we did not find any whole chromosome loss, we identified 3 recurring chromosome losses (2F1-2, 3E4, 17E2) and two chromosome copy number gains on chromosome 11. These interstitial deletions and duplications were verified with a custom made array designed to interrogate the specific regions at approximately 550 bp resolution. We demonstrated that expression and genomic changes are present in the early premalignant lesions and that these molecular profiles can be correlated to phenotype (metastasis and estrogen responsiveness). We also identified expression changes associated with genomic instability. Progression to invasive carcinoma was associated with few additional changes in gene expression and genomic organization. Therefore, in the MIN-O mice, early premalignant lesions have the major molecular and genetic changes required and these changes have important phenotypic significance. In contrast, the changes

  3. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, and the Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. Malignant chondroid neoplasms will be considered in the second part of this review. (orig.)

  4. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, W.C.; Klein, M.J.; Pitt, M.J.; Siegal, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. Malignant chondroid neoplasms will be considered in the second part of this review. (orig.)

  5. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, W.C.; Klein, M.J.; Pitt, M.J.; Siegal, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

  6. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2006-12-15

    This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

  7. ABA and ABC renewal of conditioned magazine approach are not impaired by dorsal hippocampus inactivation or lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campese, Vincent; Delamater, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) in renewal of conditioned and then extinguished magazine approach responding in rats. Experiments 1 and 2 found no effect of muscimol inactivation of the DH during testing on ABA and ABC renewal, respectively. However, subjects from these studies were subsequently found to be impaired on a delayed non-matching-to-place task following muscimol but not saline infusions. Experiment 3 found no effects of post-training excitotoxic lesions of the DH on ABA and ABC renewal. Lesioned subjects were, however, impaired on the delayed non-matching-to-place task compared to control subjects. These findings suggest that the DH may not play a similar role in Pavlovian extinction in appetitive learning tasks as has previously been reported in aversive learning. PMID:23583520

  8. A molecular switch driving inactivation in the cardiac K+ channel HERG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Köpfer

    Full Text Available K(+ channels control transmembrane action potentials by gating open or closed in response to external stimuli. Inactivation gating, involving a conformational change at the K(+ selectivity filter, has recently been recognized as a major K(+ channel regulatory mechanism. In the K(+ channel hERG, inactivation controls the length of the human cardiac action potential. Mutations impairing hERG inactivation cause life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia, which also occur as undesired side effects of drugs. In this paper, we report atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, complemented by mutational and electrophysiological studies, which suggest that the selectivity filter adopts a collapsed conformation in the inactivated state of hERG. The selectivity filter is gated by an intricate hydrogen bond network around residues S620 and N629. Mutations of this hydrogen bond network are shown to cause inactivation deficiency in electrophysiological measurements. In addition, drug-related conformational changes around the central cavity and pore helix provide a functional mechanism for newly discovered hERG activators.

  9. Molecular analysis of precursor lesions in familial pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Crnogorac-Jurcevic

    Full Text Available With less than a 5% survival rate pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC is almost uniformly lethal. In order to make a significant impact on survival of patients with this malignancy, it is necessary to diagnose the disease early, when curative surgery is still possible. Detailed knowledge of the natural history of the disease and molecular events leading to its progression is therefore critical.We have analysed the precursor lesions, PanINs, from prophylactic pancreatectomy specimens of patients from four different kindreds with high risk of familial pancreatic cancer who were treated for histologically proven PanIN-2/3. Thus, the material was procured before pancreatic cancer has developed, rather than from PanINs in a tissue field that already contains cancer. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling using such unique specimens was performed. Bulk frozen sections displaying the most extensive but not microdissected PanIN-2/3 lesions were used in order to obtain the holistic view of both the precursor lesions and their microenvironment. A panel of 76 commonly dysregulated genes that underlie neoplastic progression from normal pancreas to PanINs and PDAC were identified. In addition to shared genes some differences between the PanINs of individual families as well as between the PanINs and PDACs were also seen. This was particularly pronounced in the stromal and immune responses.Our comprehensive analysis of precursor lesions without the invasive component provides the definitive molecular proof that PanIN lesions beget cancer from a molecular standpoint. We demonstrate the need for accumulation of transcriptomic changes during the progression of PanIN to PDAC, both in the epithelium and in the surrounding stroma. An identified 76-gene signature of PDAC progression presents a rich candidate pool for the development of early diagnostic and/or surveillance markers as well as potential novel preventive/therapeutic targets for both familial and sporadic

  10. Molecular pathogenesis of precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biankin, Andrew V; Kench, James G; Dijkman, Floriaan P; Biankin, Sandra A; Henshall, Susan M

    2003-02-01

    Precursor lesions are assuming greater importance in the study of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. As pancreatic cancer is almost universally fatal due to late clinical presentation and biological aggressiveness, characterisation of its precursor lesions may create scope for early diagnosis and improved outcome with conventional therapies as well as the development of novel therapeutic and preventative strategies. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and intraductal papillary mucinous tumours (IPMTs) are thought to be precursor lesions of ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Recent work has focused on the molecular aberrations associated with these lesions leading to the formulation of a progression model for pancreatic cancer. Progressive histopathological changes along the progression model are associated with aberrations of cell cycle regulatory and growth factor signalling molecules that occur in pancreatic cancer at high frequency and are common to many cancers. Characterisation of these molecular aberrations provides scope for the development of novel diagnostic and treatment strategies that will ultimately impact on the outcome for people who develop pancreatic cancer.

  11. Molecular sizes of lichen ice nucleation sites determined by gamma radiation inactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieft, T.L.; Ruscetti, T.

    1992-01-01

    It has previously been shown that some species of lichen fungi contain proteinaceous ice nuclei which are active at temperatures as warm as −2 °C. This experiment was undertaken to determine the molecular sizes of ice nuclei in the lichen fungus Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca and to compare them to bacterial ice nuclei from Pseudomonas syringae. Gamma radiation inactivation analysis was used to determine molecular weights. Radiation inactivation analysis is based on target theory, which states that the likelihood of a molecule being inactivated by gamma rays increases as its size increases. Three different sources of ice nuclei from the lichen R. chrysoleuca were tested: field-collected lichens, extract of lichen fungus, and a pure culture of the fungus R. chrysoleuca. P. syringae strain Cit7 was used as a source of bacterial ice nuclei. Samples were lyophilized, irradiated with gamma doses ranging from 0 to 10.4 Mrads, and then tested for ice nucleation activity using a droplet-freezing assay. Data for all four types of samples were in rough agreement; sizes of nucleation sites increased logarithmically with increasing temperatures of ice nucleation activity. Molecular weights of nucleation sites active between −3 and −4 °C from the bacteria and from the field-collected lichens were approximately 1.0 × 10 6 Da. Nuclei from the lichen fungus and in the lichen extract appeared to be slightly smaller but followed the same log-normal pattern with temperature of ice nucleation activity. The data for both the bacterial and lichen ice nuclei are in agreement with ice nucleation theory which states that the size of ice nucleation sites increases logarithmically as the temperature of nucleation increases linearly. This suggests that although some differences exist between bacterial and lichen ice nucleation sites, their molecular sizes are quite similar

  12. Pathogen inactivation by riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination accelerates the red blood cell storage lesion and promotes eryptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Syed M; Chen, Deborah; Schubert, Peter; Perruzza, Darian L; Bhakta, Varsha; Devine, Dana V; Sheffield, William P

    2017-03-01

    Pathogen reduction treatment using riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination (Mirasol) effectively reduces the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. This treatment is currently licensed for only platelets and plasma products, while its application to whole blood (WB) to generate pathogen-inactivated red blood cells (RBCs) is under development. RBC storage lesion, constituting numerous morphologic and biochemical changes, influences RBC quality and limits shelf life. Stored RBCs further show enhanced susceptibility to RBC programmed cell death (eryptosis) characterized by increased cytosolic Ca 2+ -provoked membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Using a "pool-and-split" approach, we examined multiple variables of RBC storage lesion and eryptosis in RBC units, derived from Mirasol-treated or untreated WB, after 4 to 42 days of storage, under blood bank conditions. In comparison to untreated RBC units, Mirasol treatment significantly altered membrane microvesiculation, supernatant hemoglobin, osmotic fragility, and intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels but did not influence membrane CD47 expression and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels. Mirasol-treated RBCs showed significantly higher PS exposure after 42, but not after not more than 21, days of storage, which was accompanied by enhanced cytosolic Ca 2+ activity, ceramide abundance, and oxidative stress, but not p38 kinase activation. Mirasol treatment significantly augmented PS exposure, Ca 2+ entry, and protein kinase C activation after energy depletion, a pathophysiologic cell stressor. Mirasol-treated RBCs were, however, more resistant to cell shrinkage. Prolonged storage of Mirasol-treated RBCs significantly increases the proportion of eryptotic RBCs, while even short-term storage enhances the susceptibility of RBCs to stress-induced eryptosis, which could reduce posttransfusion RBC recovery in patients. © 2016 AABB.

  13. Molecular cytogenetics of cutaneous melanocytic lesions - diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokx, W.A.M.; Dijk, M.C.R.F. van; Ruiter, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    This review intends to update current knowledge regarding molecular cytogenetics in melanocytic tumours with a focus on cutaneous melanocytic lesions. Advantages and limitations of diverse, already established methods, such as (fluorescence) in situ hybridization and mutation analysis, to detect

  14. Molecular cytogenetics of cutaneous melanocytic lesions - diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokx, Willeke Am M.; van Dijk, Marcory C. R. F.; Ruiter, Dirk J.

    This review intends to update current knowledge regarding molecular cytogenetics in melanocytic tumours with a focus on cutaneous melanocytic lesions. Advantages and limitations of diverse, already established methods, such as (fluorescence) in situ hybridization and mutation analysis, to detect

  15. [Molecular mechanisms of cytoprotective action of the plant proanthocyanidins in gastric lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiachkivs'ka, O S

    2006-01-01

    The molecular defence mechanisms against ethanol- and stress-induced (WRS) gastric lesions under the action of plant proanthocyanidins from grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) were investigated. Pre-treatment with GSE (8-64 mg/kg/day) in dose-dependent manner attenuated gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol and WRS; the doses of GCE reducing these lesions by 50% (ID50) were 28 and 36 mg/kg/day, respectively and this protective effect was similar to that obtained with PGE2 analogue. Lesions reduction was also accompanied by improvement of gastric blood flow, antiradical action, increased mucosal generation of PGE2, antioxidant activity.

  16. Pathogen Inactivating Properties and Increased Sensitivity in Molecular Diagnostics by PAXgene, a Novel Non-Crosslinking Tissue Fixative.

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    Martina Loibner

    Full Text Available Requirements on tissue fixatives are getting more demanding as molecular analysis becomes increasingly relevant for routine diagnostics. Buffered formaldehyde in pathology laboratories for tissue fixation is known to cause chemical modifications of biomolecules which affect molecular testing. A novel non-crosslinking tissue preservation technology, PAXgene Tissue (PAXgene, was developed to preserve the integrity of nucleic acids in a comparable way to cryopreservation and also to preserve morphological features comparable to those of formalin fixed samples.Because of the excellent preservation of biomolecules by PAXgene we investigated its pathogen inactivation ability and biosafety in comparison to formalin by in-vitro testing of bacteria, human relevant fungi and human cytomegalovirus (CMV. Guidelines for testing disinfectants served as reference for inactivation assays. Furthermore, we tested the properties of PAXgene for detection of pathogens by PCR based assays.All microorganisms tested were similarly inactivated by PAXgene and formalin except Clostridium sporogenes, which remained viable in seven out of ten assays after PAXgene treatment and in three out of ten assays after formalin fixation. The findings suggest that similar biosafety measures can be applied for PAXgene and formalin fixed samples. Detection of pathogens in PCR-based diagnostics using two CMV assays resulted in a reduction of four to ten quantification cycles of PAXgene treated samples which is a remarkable increase of sensitivity.PAXgene fixation might be superior to formalin fixation when molecular diagnostics and highly sensitive detection of pathogens is required in parallel to morphology assessment.

  17. Pathogen Inactivating Properties and Increased Sensitivity in Molecular Diagnostics by PAXgene, a Novel Non-Crosslinking Tissue Fixative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibner, Martina; Buzina, Walter; Viertler, Christian; Groelz, Daniel; Hausleitner, Anja; Siaulyte, Gintare; Kufferath, Iris; Kölli, Bettina; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Requirements on tissue fixatives are getting more demanding as molecular analysis becomes increasingly relevant for routine diagnostics. Buffered formaldehyde in pathology laboratories for tissue fixation is known to cause chemical modifications of biomolecules which affect molecular testing. A novel non-crosslinking tissue preservation technology, PAXgene Tissue (PAXgene), was developed to preserve the integrity of nucleic acids in a comparable way to cryopreservation and also to preserve morphological features comparable to those of formalin fixed samples. Because of the excellent preservation of biomolecules by PAXgene we investigated its pathogen inactivation ability and biosafety in comparison to formalin by in-vitro testing of bacteria, human relevant fungi and human cytomegalovirus (CMV). Guidelines for testing disinfectants served as reference for inactivation assays. Furthermore, we tested the properties of PAXgene for detection of pathogens by PCR based assays. All microorganisms tested were similarly inactivated by PAXgene and formalin except Clostridium sporogenes, which remained viable in seven out of ten assays after PAXgene treatment and in three out of ten assays after formalin fixation. The findings suggest that similar biosafety measures can be applied for PAXgene and formalin fixed samples. Detection of pathogens in PCR-based diagnostics using two CMV assays resulted in a reduction of four to ten quantification cycles of PAXgene treated samples which is a remarkable increase of sensitivity. PAXgene fixation might be superior to formalin fixation when molecular diagnostics and highly sensitive detection of pathogens is required in parallel to morphology assessment.

  18. Thermodynamic coupling between activation and inactivation gating in potassium channels revealed by free energy molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Albert C; Cuello, Luis G; Perozo, Eduardo; Roux, Benoît

    2011-12-01

    The amount of ionic current flowing through K(+) channels is determined by the interplay between two separate time-dependent processes: activation and inactivation gating. Activation is concerned with the stimulus-dependent opening of the main intracellular gate, whereas inactivation is a spontaneous conformational transition of the selectivity filter toward a nonconductive state occurring on a variety of timescales. A recent analysis of multiple x-ray structures of open and partially open KcsA channels revealed the mechanism by which movements of the inner activation gate, formed by the inner helices from the four subunits of the pore domain, bias the conformational changes at the selectivity filter toward a nonconductive inactivated state. This analysis highlighted the important role of Phe103, a residue located along the inner helix, near the hinge position associated with the opening of the intracellular gate. In the present study, we use free energy perturbation molecular dynamics simulations (FEP/MD) to quantitatively elucidate the thermodynamic basis for the coupling between the intracellular gate and the selectivity filter. The results of the FEP/MD calculations are in good agreement with experiments, and further analysis of the repulsive, van der Waals dispersive, and electrostatic free energy contributions reveals that the energetic basis underlying the absence of inactivation in the F103A mutation in KcsA is the absence of the unfavorable steric interaction occurring with the large Ile100 side chain in a neighboring subunit when the intracellular gate is open and the selectivity filter is in a conductive conformation. Macroscopic current analysis shows that the I100A mutant indeed relieves inactivation in KcsA, but to a lesser extent than the F103A mutant.

  19. Cell inactivation by heavy charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, E A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Cell and Molecular Biology Div.

    1992-06-01

    The inactivation of cells resulting in lethal or aberrant effects by charged particles is of growing interest. Charged particles at extremely high LET are capable of completely eliminating cell-type and cell-line differences in repair capacity. It is still not clear however whether the repair systems are inactivated, or merely that heavy-ion lesions are less repairable. Studies correlating the particle inactivation dose of radioresistant cells with intact DNA analyzed with pulse field gel electrophoresis and other techniques may be useful, but more experiments are also needed to assess the fidelity of repair. For particle irradiations between 40-100 keV/{mu}m there is however evidence for particle-induced activation of specific genes in mammalian cells, and certain repair processes in bacteria. New data are available on the inactivation of developmental processes in several systems including seeds, and cells of the nematode C. elegans. Future experimental and theoretical modeling research emphasis should focus on exploring particle-induced inactivation of endpoints assessing functionality and not just lethality, and on analyzing molecular damage and genetic effects arising in damage but non-inactivated survivors. The discrete nature of selective types of particle damage as a function of radiation quality indicates the value of accelerated ions as probes of normal and aberrant biological processes. Information obtained from molecular analyses of damage and repair must however be integrated into the context of cellular and tissue functions of the organism. (orig.).

  20. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on a recombinant human X chromosome: implications for the spreading of X chromosome inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandas, T.; Geller, R.L.; Yen, P.H.; Rosendorff, J.; Bernstein, R.; Yoshida, A.; Shapiro, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    A pericentric inversion of human X chromosome and a recombinant X chromosome [rec(X)] derived from crossing-over within the inversion was identified in a family. The rec(X) had a duplication of the segment Xq26.3 → Xqter and a deletion of Xp22.3 → Xpter and was interpreted to be Xqter → Xq26.3::Xp22.3 → Xqter. To characterize the rec(X) chromosome, dosage blots were done on genomic DNA from carriers of this rearranged X chromosome using a number of X chromosome probes. Results showed that anonymous sequences from the distal end of the long arm to which probes 4D8, Hx120A, DX13, and St14 bind as well as the locus for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) wee duplicated on the rec(X). Mouse-human cell hybrids were constructed that retained the rec(X) in the active or inactive state. Analyses of these hybrid clones for markers from the distal short arm of the X chromosome showed that the rec(X) retained the loci for steroid sulfatase (STS) and the cell surface antigen 12E7 (MIC2); but not the pseudoautosomal sequence 113D. These molecular studies confirm that the rec(X) is a duplication-deficiency chromosome as expected. In the inactive state in cell hybrids, STS and MIC2 (which usually escape X chromosome inactivation) were expressed from the rec(X), whereas G6PD was not. Therefore, in the rec(X) X chromosome inactivation has spread through STS and MIC2 leaving these loci unaffected and has inactivated G6PD in the absence of an inactivation center in the q26.3 → qter region of the human X chromosome. The mechanism of spreading of inactivation appears to operate in a sequence-specific fashion. Alternatively, STS and MIC2 may have undergone inactivation initially but could not be maintained in an inactive state

  1. Hydrogen bonds as molecular timers for slow inactivation in voltage-gated potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Galpin, Jason D; Niciforovic, Ana P

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels enable potassium efflux and membrane repolarization in excitable tissues. Many Kv channels undergo a progressive loss of ion conductance in the presence of a prolonged voltage stimulus, termed slow inactivation, but the atomic determinants that regulate the k...... subunit(s). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01289.001....

  2. Coordinating Center: Molecular and Cellular Findings of Screen-Detected Lesions | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Molecular and Cellular Characterization of Screen‐Detected Lesions ‐ Coordinating Center and Data Management Group will provide support for the participating studies responding to RFA CA14‐10. The coordinating center supports three main domains: network coordination, statistical support and computational analysis and protocol development and database support. Support for

  3. Improved characterization of molecular phenotypes in breast lesions using 18F-FDG PET image homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kunlin; Bhagalia, Roshni; Sood, Anup; Brogi, Edi; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Larson, Steven M.

    2015-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using uorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is commonly used in the assessment of breast lesions by computing voxel-wise standardized uptake value (SUV) maps. Simple metrics derived from ensemble properties of SUVs within each identified breast lesion are routinely used for disease diagnosis. The maximum SUV within the lesion (SUVmax) is the most popular of these metrics. However these simple metrics are known to be error-prone and are susceptible to image noise. Finding reliable SUV map-based features that correlate to established molecular phenotypes of breast cancer (viz. estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression) will enable non-invasive disease management. This study investigated 36 SUV features based on first and second order statistics, local histograms and texture of segmented lesions to predict ER and PR expression in 51 breast cancer patients. True ER and PR expression was obtained via immunohistochemistry (IHC) of tissue samples from each lesion. A supervised learning, adaptive boosting-support vector machine (AdaBoost-SVM), framework was used to select a subset of features to classify breast lesions into distinct phenotypes. Performance of the trained multi-feature classifier was compared against the baseline single-feature SUVmax classifier using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results show that texture features encoding local lesion homogeneity extracted from gray-level co-occurrence matrices are the strongest discriminator of lesion ER expression. In particular, classifiers including these features increased prediction accuracy from 0.75 (baseline) to 0.82 and the area under the ROC curve from 0.64 (baseline) to 0.75.

  4. Distinct molecular sites of anaesthetic action: pentobarbital block of human brain sodium channels is alleviated by removal of fast inactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wartenberg, H. C.; Urban, B. W.; Duch, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    Fast inactivation of sodium channel function is modified by anaesthetics. Its quantitative contribution to the overall anaesthetic effect is assessed by removing the fast inactivation mechanism enzymatically. Sodium channels from human brain cortex were incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. After

  5. Functional and physical molecular size of the chicken hepatic lectin determined by radiation inactivation and sedimentation equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, C.J.; Osborne, J.C. Jr.; Kempner, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inactivation and sedimentation equilibrium analysis were used to determine the functional and physical size of the chicken hepatic membrane receptor that binds N-acetylglucosamine-terminated glycoproteins. Purified plasma membranes from chicken liver were irradiated with high energy electrons and assayed for 125I-agalactoorosomucoid binding. Increasing the dose of ionizing radiation resulted in a monoexponential decay in binding activity due to a progressive loss of binding sites. The molecular mass of the chicken lectin, determined in situ by target analysis, was 69,000 +/- 9,000 Da. When the same irradiated membranes were solubilized in Brij 58 and assayed, the binding protein exhibited a target size of 62,000 +/- 4,000 Da; in Triton X-100, the functional size of the receptor was 85,000 +/- 10,000 Da. Sedimentation equilibrium measurements of the purified binding protein yielded a lower limit molecular weight of 79,000 +/- 7,000. However, the solubilized lectin was detected as a heterogeneous population of oligomers with molecular weights as high as 450,000. Addition of calcium or calcium plus N-acetylglucosamine decreased the higher molecular weight species, but the lower limit molecular weights remained invariant. Similar results were determined when the chicken lectin was solubilized in Brij 58, C12E9, or 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane-sulfonic acid (CHAPS). Results from the present study suggest that in the plasma membrane, the functional species of the chicken hepatic lectin exists as a trimer. However, in detergent solution, the purified receptor forms a heterogeneous population of irreversible oligomers that exhibit binding activity proportional to size

  6. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

    2006-01-01

    Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here. PMID:16556320

  7. Precursor lesions of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma: morphological and molecular characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Amy L; Kurman, Robert J; Vang, Russell; Shih, Ie-Ming; Visvanathan, Kala

    2010-01-01

    The lack of proven screening tools for early detection and the high mortality of ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC), particularly high grade, have focused attention on identifying putative precursor lesions with distinct morphological and molecular characteristics. The finding of occult invasive and intraepithelial fallopian tube carcinomas in prophylactically removed specimens from asymptomatic high-risk BRCA 1/2-mutation carriers supports the notion of an origin for OSC in the fallopian tube. The intraepithelial carcinomas have been referred to as serous intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) but our own findings (unpublished data) and recent reports have drawn attention to a spectrum of changes that fall short of STICs that we have designated serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STILs).

  8. Precursor Lesions of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma: Morphological and Molecular Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Gross

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of proven screening tools for early detection and the high mortality of ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC, particularly high grade, have focused attention on identifying putative precursor lesions with distinct morphological and molecular characteristics. The finding of occult invasive and intraepithelial fallopian tube carcinomas in prophylactically removed specimens from asymptomatic high-risk BRCA 1/2-mutation carriers supports the notion of an origin for OSC in the fallopian tube. The intraepithelial carcinomas have been referred to as serous intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs but our own findings (unpublished data and recent reports have drawn attention to a spectrum of changes that fall short of STICs that we have designated serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STILs.

  9. Inactivation of Neurospora crassa conidia by singlet molecular oxygen generated by a photosensitized reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.; Egashira, T.; Takahama, U.

    1979-01-01

    Photodynamic damage of Neurospora crassa conidia was studied in the presence of the photosensitizing dye, toluidine blue O. Conidia which germinated to form colonies decreased in number as irradiation time became longer. The photoinactivation of conidia was suppressed by azide, bovine serum albumin, and histidine, and was stimulated in deuterium oxide. Wild-type conidia were less sensitive to the irradiation that albino conidia. In the wild type, carotenoid-enriched conidia were more resistant against the lethal damage than the conidia which contained small amounts of carotenoids. These results suggest that singlet molecular oxygen causes photodynamic lethal damage to N. crassa conidia and that singlet molecular oxygen is quenched by endogenous carotenoids

  10. Molecular biomarkers have the potential to improve the diagnostic work-up of pancreatic cystic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plougmann, Julie Isabelle; Klausen, Pia; Karstensen, John Gásdal

    2017-01-01

    of diagnostic tools are used to predict the malignant potential of these cysts, but specificity and sensitivity are limited. Thus, many patients undergo unnecessary operations for benign cysts. Balancing the risks of watchful waiting with those of operative management is key in managing these lesions. During...... the last decade, genetic changes of pancreatic cysts have been examined extensively to estimate their malignant potential. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest molecular and genetic aspects of pancreatic cysts and how they may contribute to the differential diagnosis in patients...

  11. Association of thymine glycol lesioned DNA with repair enzyme endonuclease III-molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, Miroslav

    2001-07-01

    The 2 nanoseconds molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been performed for the system consisting of repair enzyme and DNA 30-mer with native thymine at position 16 replaced by thymine glycol (TG) solvated in water environment. After 950 picoseconds of MD the enzyme and DNA associated together to form complex that lasted stable up to 2 ns when simulation was terminated. At the contact area of enzyme and DNA there is glutamic acid located as close as 1.6 A to the C3' atom of phosphodiester bond of TG. Initial B-DNA molecule was bent and kinked at the TG during MD. This distortion caused that phosphodiester bond was easier accessible by amino acids of enzyme. The negative value of electrostatic energy (-26 kcal/mol) discriminates TG from nearly neutral native thymine and contributes to the specific recognition of this lesion. Higher number of close water molecules at TG site before formation of complex (compared with other nucleotides) indicates that glycosyl bond of the lesion is easily approached by repair enzyme during scanning of DNA surface and suggests the importance of specific hydration at the lesion during recognition process. (author)

  12. Association of thymine glycol lesioned DNA with repair enzyme endonuclease III-molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinak, Miroslav [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    The 2 nanoseconds molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been performed for the system consisting of repair enzyme and DNA 30-mer with native thymine at position 16 replaced by thymine glycol (TG) solvated in water environment. After 950 picoseconds of MD the enzyme and DNA associated together to form complex that lasted stable up to 2 ns when simulation was terminated. At the contact area of enzyme and DNA there is glutamic acid located as close as 1.6 A to the C3' atom of phosphodiester bond of TG. Initial B-DNA molecule was bent and kinked at the TG during MD. This distortion caused that phosphodiester bond was easier accessible by amino acids of enzyme. The negative value of electrostatic energy (-26 kcal/mol) discriminates TG from nearly neutral native thymine and contributes to the specific recognition of this lesion. Higher number of close water molecules at TG site before formation of complex (compared with other nucleotides) indicates that glycosyl bond of the lesion is easily approached by repair enzyme during scanning of DNA surface and suggests the importance of specific hydration at the lesion during recognition process. (author)

  13. Molecular confocal laser endomicroscopy: a novel technique for in vivo cellular characterization of gastrointestinal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Klausen, Pia Helene; Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter

    2014-06-28

    While flexible endoscopy is essential for macroscopic evaluation, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has recently emerged as an endoscopic method enabling visualization at a cellular level. Two systems are currently available, one based on miniprobes that can be inserted via a conventional endoscope or via a needle guided by endoscopic ultrasound. The second system has a confocal microscope integrated into the distal part of an endoscope. By adding molecular probes like fluorescein conjugated antibodies or fluorescent peptides to this procedure (either topically or systemically administered during on-going endoscopy), a novel world of molecular evaluation opens up. The method of molecular CLE could potentially be used for estimating the expression of important receptors in carcinomas, subsequently resulting in immediate individualization of treatment regimens, but also for improving the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic procedures by identifying otherwise invisible mucosal lesions. Furthermore, studies have shown that fluorescein labelled drugs can be used to estimate the affinity of the drug to a target organ, which probably can be correlated to the efficacy of the drug. However, several of the studies in this research field have been conducted in animal facilities or in vitro, while only a limited number of trials have actually been carried out in vivo. Therefore, safety issues still needs further evaluations. This review will present an overview of the implications and pitfalls, as well as future challenges of molecular CLE in gastrointestinal diseases.

  14. Histologic and molecular-genetic characteristics of precancerous lesions in chronic gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Zidar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic gastritis is an inflammatory condition of the gastric mucosa, which may include glandular alterations. It is most frequently caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori, a smaller proportion is related to chemical agents and autoimmune mechanisms. Chronic gastritis may lead to the development of gastric adenocarcinoma, depending on environmental factors, bacterial strain and host immune response. The vast majority of gastric adenocarcinomas are the final step in a complex cascade process of cancerogenesis involving sequential steps of precancerous lesions – atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia.The process of cancerogenesis is associated with progressive genetic and epigenetic alterations, these being more frequent in dysplasia than in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Despite extensive research of gastric cancerogenesis, there are no molecular markers to be used for detecting patients at risk for cancer development.Biopsy remains among the most reliable ways of detecting gastric precancerous lesions. Apart from the correct histologic diagnosis, the assessment of topography is important. Biopsies must be taken according to the updated Sydney protocol. For further classifying patients at risk for gastric cancer, two systems have been developed: OLGA (Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment and OLGIM (Operative Link for Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment.Slovenian Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, and Slovenian Society for Pathology and Forensic Medicine have accepted guidelines for endoscopic and histologic management of patients with gastric precancerosis. The aim of these recommendations is to diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage and to improve survival of patients with gastric cancer in Slovenia.

  15. CT-guided transthoracic core needle biopsy for small pulmonary lesions: diagnostic performance and adequacy for molecular testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Panwen; Wang, Ye; Li, Lei; Zhou, Yongzhao; Luo, Wenxin; Li, Weimin

    2017-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic needle biopsy is a well-established, minimally invasive diagnostic tool for pulmonary lesions. Few large studies have been conducted on the diagnostic performance and adequacy for molecular testing of transthoracic core needle biopsy (TCNB) for small pulmonary lesions. This study included CT-guided TCNB with 18-gauge cutting needles in 560 consecutive patients with small (≤3 cm) pulmonary lesions from January 2012 to January 2015. There were 323 males and 237 females, aged 51.8±12.7 years. The size of the pulmonary lesions was 1.8±0.6 cm. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and complications of the biopsies were investigated. The risk factors of diagnostic failure were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The sample's adequacy for molecular testing of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was analyzed. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosis of malignancy were 92.0% (311/338), 98.6% (219/222), and 94.6% (530/560), respectively. The incidence of bleeding complications was 22.9% (128/560), and the incidence of pneumothorax was 10.4% (58/560). Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that the independent risk factors for diagnostic failure were a lesion size ≤1 cm [odds ratio (OR), 3.95; P=0.007], lower lobe lesions (OR, 2.83; P=0.001), and pneumothorax (OR, 1.98; P=0.004). Genetic analysis was successfully performed on 95.45% (168/176) of specimens diagnosed as NSCLC. At least 96.8% of samples with two or more passes from a lesion were sufficient for molecular testing. The diagnostic yield of small pulmonary lesions by CT-guided TCNB is high, and the procedure is relatively safe. A lesion size ≤1 cm, lower lobe lesions, and pneumothorax are independent risk factors for biopsy diagnostic failure. TCNB specimens could provide adequate tissues for molecular testing.

  16. DNA aptamer functionalized gold nanostructures for molecular recognition and photothermal inactivation of methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocsoy, Ismail; Yusufbeyoglu, Sadi; Yılmaz, Vedat; McLamore, Eric S; Ildız, Nilay; Ülgen, Ahmet

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we report the development of DNA aptamer-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Apt@Au NPs) and gold nanorods (Apt@Au NRs) for inactivation of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with targeted photothermal therapy (PTT). Although both Apt@Au NPs and Apt@Au NRs specifically bind to MRSA cells, Apt@Au NPs and Apt@Au NRs inactivated ∼5% and over 95% of the cells,respectively through PTT. This difference in inactivation was based on the relatively high longitudinal absorption of near-infrared (NIR) radiation and strong photothermal conversion capability for the Apt@Au NRs compared to the Apt@Au NPs. The Au NRs served as a nanoplatform for the loading of thiolated aptamer and also provided multivalent effects for increasing binding strength and affinity to MRSA. Our results indicate that the type of aptamer and the degree of multivalent effect(s) are important factors for MRSA inactivation efficiency in PTT. We show that the Apt@Au NRs are a very effective and promising nanosystem for specific cell recognition and in vitro PTT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis in endometriosis lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azizvakili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retrograde of menstrual blood into the peritoneal cavity is one of the accepted theories for initiation of endometriosis although indicated that other factors are involved in pathogenesis. Investigation of infectious agents is important in this regard. Objective: To investigate the presence of bacterial infections; Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis as risk factors in endometriosis lesions. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Sarem Hospital in 2014. DNA was extracted from 90 paraffin-embedded blocks included 40 endometriosis tissue samples, 23 samples of endometrial tissue from the same patients and 27 samples of endometrial tissue of the patients without endometriosis, and molecular analysis were performed using polymerase chain reaction. Results were analyzed by Fisher Exact Test and McNemar Test. Findings: Chlamydia trachomatis infection was seen in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 3 (13% normal tissue from patients and 10 (37% in patient without endometriosis. Mycoplasma hominis was diagnosed in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 7 (30.4% of normal tissue from patients and one patient without endometriosis (3.7%. These differences show significant relations between infection with Mycoplasma hominis and endometriosis. Conclusion: The findings of this study did not show significant association between Chlamydia trachomatis infections and endometriosis. However; it seems Mycoplasma hominis infection can increase the risk of endometriosis incidence.

  18. DETECTION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS, APOPTOSIS AND MOLECULAR LESIONS IN HUMAN OVARIAN CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Falfushynska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of gynaecological cancers. This is partly due to the lack of effective screening markers. Indices of oxidative stress are well-recognized prognostic criteria for tumorous transformation of tissue, but their value depends on the type of tumor and the stage of its development. Objective. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between antioxidant/pro-oxidant ratio and the signs of molecular lesions and apoptosis rate in blood of ovarian cancer patients and non-cancer ones. Results. The ovarian cancer group is marked by antioxidant/prooxidant balance shifting to oxidative damage in blood as the consequence of overexpression of oxyradicals (by 300%. Higher level of glutathione (by 366%, lower level of metallothioneins (by 65% as well as higher level of lipid peroxidation (by 174% and protein carbonyls (by 186% in blood of ovarian cancer patients compared to the normal ovarian group have been observed. The signs of cytotoxicity are determined in blood of ovarian cancer patients: an increased (compared to control level of DNA fragmentation (by 160%, choline esterase (up to twice, higher rate of both caspase dependent and caspase independent lysosomal mediated apoptosis. Conclusions. Cathepsin D activity both total and free, choline esterase activity, TBA-reactive substance and protein carbonyls level in blood could be used as the predictive markers of worse prognosis and the signs of human ovarian cancer.

  19. Molecular detection of bacteria associated to caries activity in dentinal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Beatriz Gonçalves; Stipp, Rafael Nóbrega; da Silva Bezerra, Daniela; de Figueiredo Guedes, Sarah Florindo; Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla Azevedo

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed at identifying and quantifying Actinomyces naeslundii, Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus mitis group, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei group, Streptococcus gordonii, and Streptococcus mutans in active and inactive carious dentine lesions of children with early childhood caries by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Fifty-six dentin lesion samples, classified as active (n = 39) or inactive (n = 17), were collected from children aged from 2 to 5 years old. Dentinal-cavitated lesions were evaluated by Nyvad criteria for the assessment of caries lesion activity. Relative quantification revealed that Bifidobacterium spp. and the L. casei group were significantly more abundant in active dentin lesions (p oral microbiota related to dentin caries activity status is relevant, this study provides insights to better understand the differences in the microbiotas between active and arrested dentin cavities.

  20. Molecular detection of Leptospira spp. from canine kidney tissues and its association with renal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit R. Dash

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to detect the prevalence of Leptospira spp. in kidney tissues collected during necropsy and to establish its association with renal lesions in dogs of Mumbai region. Materials and Methods: Kidney tissues from 40 dogs were collected during necropsy after gross examination and then fixed in neutral buffered formalin and Bouin's fluid for histopathology and histochemistry, respectively. Kidney tissues were also collected for the detection of Leptospira spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in a sterile container and stored at -80°C until further processing. Results: Of 40 cases studied, 13 (32.5% cases showed lesions of nephritis of varying histotype and severity. Glomerulonephritis was reported as the most common type of nephritis in 9 (69.23% cases, and interstitial nephritis was recorded in 4 (30.76% cases. Chronic and acute interstitial nephritis was observed in two cases each. Renal failure as a cause of death was found in 7 (17.5% dogs. Of a total of 40 cases, 9 were found positive for pathogenic Leptospira spp. genome by PCR. However, of nine PCR-positive cases, only four cases showed lesions in kidneys as glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis in two cases each. The rest five cases positive for Leptospira spp. by PCR did not show any appreciable lesions in the kidneys. Conclusion: Leptospiral DNA was detected in 9 (22.5% cases by PCR. Of these nine cases, only four cases showed renal lesions. Other five cases which were positive for Leptospira spp. by PCR did not show any appreciable gross and microscopic lesions in the kidneys which might be carriers for Leptospira spp. Considering variable reports on types of nephritis in Leptospira spp. infection and also the prevalence of non-pathogenic Leptospira spp., it is important to conduct an extensive study on the prevalence of Leptospira spp. and its association with renal lesions involving batteries of tests.

  1. Precursors and preinvasive lesions of the breast: the role of molecular prognostic markers in the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zografos George C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Precursors and preinvasive lesions of the breast include atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, and lobular neoplasia (LN. There is a significant debate regarding the classification, diagnosis, prognosis and management of these lesions. This review article describes the current theories regarding the pathogenesis and molecular evolution of these lesions. It reviews the implication of a variety of molecules in the continuum of breast lesions: estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta, c-erb-B2 (Her2/neu, p53, Ki-67, bcl-2, E-cadherin, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta, p27 (Kip1, p16 (INK4a, p21 (Waf1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. With respect to the aforementioned molecules, this article reviews their pathophysiological importance, and puts the stress on whether they confer additional risk for invasive breast cancer or not. This knowledge has the potential to be of importance in the therapeutic decisions presenting in the common clinical practice.

  2. Molecular - and genetic aspects of the repair of the lesions induced by the furocoumarin photoaddition in Sacharomyces cerevisiae : role of the PSO genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, J.A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Experiences with strains of Sacharomyces cerevisiae with the aim to obtain informations about molecular steps and genetic control of the DNA photo-induced lesion repair by furocoumarins are described. (M.A.) [pt

  3. Molecular characterization of poxviruses associated with tattoo skin lesions in UK cetaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A Blacklaws

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern for the well-being of cetacean populations around the UK. Tattoo skin disease (characterised by irregular, grey, black or yellowish, stippled cutaneous lesions caused by poxvirus infection is a potential health indicatora potential health indicator for cetaceans. Limited sequence data indicates that cetacean poxviruses (CPVs belong to an unassigned genus of the Chordopoxvirinae. To obtain further insight into the phylogenetic relationships between CPV and other Chordopoxvirinae members we partially characterized viral DNA originating from tattoo lesions collected in Delphinidae and Phocoenidae stranded along the UK coastline in 1998-2008. We also evaluated the presence of CPV in skin lesions other than tattoos to examine specificity and sensitivity of visual diagnosis. After DNA extraction, regions of the DNA polymerase and DNA topoisomerase I genes were amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared with other isolates. The presence of CPV DNA was demonstrated in tattoos from one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba, eight harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena and one short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis and in one 'dubious tattoo' lesion detected in one other porpoise. Seventeen of the 18 PCR positive skin lesions had been visually identified as tattoos and one as a dubious tattoo. None of the other skin lesions were PCR positive. Thus, visual identification had a 94.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The DNA polymerase PCR was most effective in detecting CPV DNA. Limited sequence phylogeny grouped the UK samples within the odontocete poxviruses (CPV group 1 and indicated that two different poxvirus lineages infect the Phocoenidae and the Delphinidae. The phylogenetic tree had three major branches: one with the UK Phocoenidae viruses, one with the Delphinidae isolates and one for the mysticete poxvirus (CPV group 2. This implies a radiation of poxviruses according to the host suborder and the families within

  4. Levodopa/benserazide microsphere (LBM) prevents L-dopa induced dyskinesia by inactivation of the DR1/PKA/P-tau pathway in 6-OHDA-lesioned Parkinson's rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cheng-long; Wang, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Su-fang; Yuan, Ming-Lu; Che, Jun-Yi; Gan, Jing; Song, Lu; Yuan, Wei-En; Liu, Zhen-Guo

    2014-12-16

    L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) is the gold standard for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), but long-term therapy is associated with the emergence of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). In the present study, L-dopa and benserazide were loaded by poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (LBM), which can release levodopa and benserazide in a sustained manner in order to continuous stimulate dopaminergic receptors. We investigated the role of striatal DR1/PKA/P-tau signal transduction in the molecular event underlying LID in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. We found that animals rendered dyskinetic by L-dopa treatment, administration of LBM prevented the severity of AIM score, as well as improvement in motor function. Moreover, we also showed L-dopa elicits profound alterations in the activity of three LID molecular markers, namely DR1/PKA/P-tau (ser396). These modifications are totally prevented by LBM treatment, a similar way to achieve continuous dopaminergic delivery (CDD). In conclusion, our experiments provided evidence that intermittent administration of L-dopa, but not continuous delivery, and DR1/PKA/p-tau (ser396) activation played a critical role in the molecular and behavioural induction of LID in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. In addition, LBM treatment prevented the development of LID by inhibiting the expression of DR1/PKA/p-tau, as well as PPEB mRNA in dyskintic rats.

  5. Therapeutic Implications of Black Seed and Its Constituent Thymoquinone in the Prevention of Cancer through Inactivation and Activation of Molecular Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad H. Rahmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cancer is probably the most dreaded disease in both men and women and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The current chemotherapy/radiotherapy regime used to treat cancer shows adverse side effect and may alter gene functions. Natural products are generally safe, effective, and less expensive substitutes of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Based on previous studies of their potential therapeutic uses, Nigella sativa and its constituents may be proved as good therapeutic options in the prevention of cancer. Black seeds are used as staple food in the Middle Eastern Countries for thousands of years and also in the treatment of diseases. Earlier studies have shown that N. sativa and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ have important roles in the prevention and treatment of cancer by modulating cell signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the role of N. sativa and its constituents TQ in the prevention of cancer through the activation or inactivation of molecular cell signaling pathways.

  6. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a recombinant ribosome-inactivating protein (alpha-momorcharin) from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Yubo; Liu, Honggao; He, Ying; Yan, Junjie; Wu, Zhihua; Ding, Yi

    2012-11-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MC), a member of the ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) family, has been used not only as antiviral, antimicrobial, and antitumor agents, but also as toxicant to protozoa, insects, and fungi. In this study, we expressed the protein in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) pLysS strain and purified it by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. A total of 85 mg of homogeneous protein was obtained from 1 l culture supernatant of Rosetta (DE3) pLysS, showing a high recovery rate of 73.9%. Protein activity assay indicated that α-MC had both N-glycosidase activity and DNA-nuclease activity, the former releasing RIP diagnostic RNA fragment (Endo's fragment) from rice rRNAs and the latter converting supercoiled circular DNA of plasmid pET-32a(+) into linear conformations in a concentration-dependent manner. Specially, we found that α-MC could inhibit the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum with IC(50) values of 6.23 and 4.15 μM, respectively. Results of optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that α-MC caused extensive septum formation, loss of integrity of the cell wall, separation of the cytoplasm from the cell wall, deformation of cells with irregular budding sites, and apoptosis in F. solani. Moreover, α-MC was active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an IC(50) value of 0.59 μM. The α-MC protein carries a high potential for the design of new antifungal drugs or the development of transgenic crops resistant to pathogens.

  7. Feline panleukopenia virus revisited : molecular characteristics and pathological lesions associated with three recent isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Vuuren

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The low incidence of clinical signs or pathological lesions compatible with feline panleukopenia in cats has created the perception among practitioners that the disease has disappeared since the emergence of canine parvovirus type 2 in the late 1970s.Three parvoviruses that were recently isolated from a domestic cat and 2 cheetahs in cell culture or detected by means of the polymerase chain reaction were shown to be typical feline parvoviruses. Phylogenetic comparison with other FPV isolates did not reveal a particular African cluster.

  8. Molecular dynamics of formation of TD lesioned DNA complexed with repair enzyme - onset of the enzymatic repair process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinak, Miroslav [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-12-01

    To describe the first step of the enzymatic repair process (formation of complex enzyme-DNA), in which the thymine dimer (TD) part is removed from DNA, the 500 picosecond (ps) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of TD lesioned DNA and part of repair enzyme cell (inclusive of catalytic center - Arg-22, Glu-23, Arg-26 and Thr-2) was performed. TD is UV originated lesion in DNA and T4 Endonuclease V is TD specific repair enzyme. Both molecules were located in the same simulation cell and their relative movement was examined. During the simulation the research was focused on the role of electrostatic energy in formation of complex enzyme-DNA. It is found, that during the first 100 ps of MD, the part of enzyme approaches the DNA surface at the TD lesion, interacts extensively by electrostatic and van der Walls interactions with TD part of DNA and forms complex that lasts stabile for 500 ps of MD. In the beginning of MD, the positive electrostatic interaction energy between part of enzyme and TD ({approx} +10 kcal/mol) drives enzyme towards the DNA molecule. Water-mediated hydrogen bonds between enzyme and DNA help to keep complex stabile. As a reference, the MD simulation of the identical system with native DNA molecule (two native thymines (TT) instead of TD) was performed. In this system the negative electrostatic interaction energy between part of enzyme and TT ({approx} -11 kcal/mol), in contrary to the positive one in the system with TD, doesn't drive enzyme towards DNA and complex is not formed. (author)

  9. Molecular dynamics of formation of TD lesioned DNA complexed with repair enzyme - onset of the enzymatic repair process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, Miroslav

    1999-12-01

    To describe the first step of the enzymatic repair process (formation of complex enzyme-DNA), in which the thymine dimer (TD) part is removed from DNA, the 500 picosecond (ps) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of TD lesioned DNA and part of repair enzyme cell (inclusive of catalytic center - Arg-22, Glu-23, Arg-26 and Thr-2) was performed. TD is UV originated lesion in DNA and T4 Endonuclease V is TD specific repair enzyme. Both molecules were located in the same simulation cell and their relative movement was examined. During the simulation the research was focused on the role of electrostatic energy in formation of complex enzyme-DNA. It is found, that during the first 100 ps of MD, the part of enzyme approaches the DNA surface at the TD lesion, interacts extensively by electrostatic and van der Walls interactions with TD part of DNA and forms complex that lasts stabile for 500 ps of MD. In the beginning of MD, the positive electrostatic interaction energy between part of enzyme and TD (∼ +10 kcal/mol) drives enzyme towards the DNA molecule. Water-mediated hydrogen bonds between enzyme and DNA help to keep complex stabile. As a reference, the MD simulation of the identical system with native DNA molecule (two native thymines (TT) instead of TD) was performed. In this system the negative electrostatic interaction energy between part of enzyme and TT (∼ -11 kcal/mol), in contrary to the positive one in the system with TD, doesn't drive enzyme towards DNA and complex is not formed. (author)

  10. Molecular alterations in lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands and their mammary counterparts including hidradenoma papilliferum, intraductal papilloma, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Vanecek, Tomas; Martinek, Petr; Kyrpychova, Liubov; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Stewart, Colin J R; Portelli, Francesca; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2017-06-01

    Lesions affecting anogenital mammary-like glands (AGMLG) are histopathologically very similar to those seen in the breast but whether this morphological similarity is also reflected at the genetic level is unknown. To compare the underlying molecular mechanisms in lesions of AGMLG and their mammary counterparts, we analyzed the mutational profile of 16 anogenital neoplasms including 5 hidradenomas papilliferum (HP), 1 lesion with features of HP and fibroadenoma (FA), 7 FA, 3 phyllodes tumors (PhT)) and 18 analogous breast lesions (6 intraductal papillomas (IDP), 9 FA, and 3 PhT) by high-coverage next generation sequencing (NGS) using a panel comprising 50 cancer-related genes. Additionally, all cases were analyzed for the presence of a mutation in the MED12 gene. All detected mutations with allele frequencies over 20% were independently validated by Sanger sequencing (concordance: 100%). Mutations in PIK3CA, AKT1, MET, ABL1 and TP53 genes were found in lesions of AGMLG and also their mammary counterparts. The PI3K-AKT cascade plays a role in tumors arising at both sites. It appears that some histopathologically similar anogenital and breast lesions develop along similar molecular pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular confirmation of ovine herpesvirus 2-induced malignant catarrhal fever lesions in cattle from Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn A. Headley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular findings that confirmed the participation of ovine herpesvirus 2 (OVH-2 in the lesions that were consistent with those observed in malignant catarrhal fever of cattle are described. Three mixed-breed cattle from Rio Grande do Norte state demonstrated clinical manifestations that included mucopurulent nasal discharge, corneal opacity and motor incoordination. Routine necropsy examination demonstrated ulcerations and hemorrhage of the oral cavity, corneal opacity, and lymph node enlargement. Significant histopathological findings included widespread necrotizing vasculitis, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, lymphocytic interstitial nephritis and hepatitis, and thrombosis. PCR assay performed on DNA extracted from kidney and mesenteric lymph node of one animal amplified a product of 423 base pairs corresponding to a target sequence within the ovine herpesvirus 2 (OVH-2 tegument protein gene. Direct sequencing of the PCR products, from extracted DNA of the kidney and mesenteric lymph node of one cow, amplified the partial nucleotide sequences (423 base pairs of OVH-2 tegument protein gene. Blast analysis confirmed that these sequences have 98-100% identity with similar OVH-2 sequences deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses, based on the deduced amino acid sequences, demonstrated that the strain of OVH-2 circulating in ruminants from the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Norte and Minas Gerais are similar to that identified in other geographical locations. These findings confirmed the active participation of OVH-2 in the classical manifestations of sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever.

  12. Blue diode laser versus traditional infrared diode laser and quantic molecular resonance scalpel: clinical and histological findings after excisional biopsy of benign oral lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Margherita; Bussani, Rossana; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Rupel, Katia; Bevilaqua, Lorenzo; Ottaviani, Giulia; Biasotto, Matteo

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to compare the use of the innovative blue diode laser (BLUE group) with two traditional surgical techniques: the infrared diode laser (IR group) and the quantic molecular resonance scalpel (QMR group) in the excision of benign oral lesions. Ninety-three patients underwent surgical excision of a benign oral lesion and were followed up for 30 days for pain (0 to 10 visual analogue scale), bleeding, and painkillers' assumption (yes/no). A blind pathologist evaluated the thermal damage along the cutting margin. Although referred pain was lowest in the BLUE group from day 7 on (plaser minimizes risk of bleeding with limited thermal damage.

  13. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic inactivation (PDI has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.

  14. Molecular dynamics of CYP2D6 polymorphisms in the absence and presence of a mechanism-based inactivator reveals changes in local flexibility and dominant substrate access channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker W de Waal

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs represent an important enzyme superfamily involved in metabolism of many endogenous and exogenous small molecules. CYP2D6 is responsible for ∼ 15% of CYP-mediated drug metabolism and exhibits large phenotypic diversity within CYPs with over 100 different allelic variants. Many of these variants lead to functional changes in enzyme activity and substrate selectivity. Herein, a molecular dynamics comparative analysis of four different variants of CYP2D6 was performed. The comparative analysis included simulations with and without SCH 66712, a ligand that is also a mechanism-based inactivator, in order to investigate the possible structural basis of CYP2D6 inactivation. Analysis of protein stability highlighted significantly altered flexibility in both proximal and distal residues from the variant residues. In the absence of SCH 66712, *34, *17-2, and *17-3 displayed more flexibility than *1, and *53 displayed more rigidity. SCH 66712 binding reversed flexibility in *17-2 and *17-3, through *53 remained largely rigid. Throughout simulations with docked SCH 66712, ligand orientation within the heme-binding pocket was consistent with previously identified sites of metabolism and measured binding energies. Subsequent tunnel analysis of substrate access, egress, and solvent channels displayed varied bottle-neck radii. Taken together, our results indicate that SCH 66712 should inactivate these allelic variants, although varied flexibility and substrate binding-pocket accessibility may alter its interaction abilities.

  15. Inactivation Data.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data set is a spreadsheet that contains results of inactivation experiments that were conducted to to determine the effectiveness of chlorine in inactivating B....

  16. Theory of pairwise lesion interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Dietrich; Virsik-Peuckert, Patricia; Bartels, Ernst

    1992-01-01

    A comparison between repair time constants measured both at the molecular and cellular levels has shown that the DNA double strand break is the molecular change of key importance in the causation of cellular effects such as chromosome aberrations and cell inactivation. Cell fusion experiments provided the evidence that it needs the pairwise interaction between two double strand breaks - or more exactly between the two ''repair sites'' arising from them in the course of enzymatic repair - to provide the faulty chromatin crosslink which leads to cytogenetic and cytolethal effects. These modern experiments have confirmed the classical assumption of pairwise lesion interaction (PLI) on which the models of Lea and Neary were based. It seems worthwhile to continue and complete the mathematical treatment of their proposed mechanism in order to show in quantitative terms that the well-known fractionation, protraction and linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation effects are consequences of or can at least be partly attributed to PLI. Arithmetic treatment of PLI - a second order reaction - has also the advantage of providing a prerequisite for further investigations into the stages of development of misrepair products such as chromatin crosslinks. It has been possible to formulate a completely arithmetic theory of PLI by consequently applying three biophysically permitted approximations - pure first order lesion repair kinetics, dose-independent repair time constants and low yield of the ionization/lesion conversion. The mathematical approach will be summarized here, including several formulae not elaborated at the time of previous publications. We will also study an application which sheds light on the chain of events involved in PLI. (author)

  17. Allogeneic transplantation for multiple myeloma: late relapse may occur as localised lytic lesion/plasmacytoma despite ongoing molecular remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J L; Fairbairn, J; Davy, B; Carter, I G; Bessell, E M; Russell, N H

    2003-02-01

    Allogeneic SCT for myeloma may be curative for young patients, but its role remains controversial because of a reported high TRM in some series. Since 1991, we have performed 25 allografts for myeloma using fully matched sibling donors. Of the 18 evaluable patients, 13 achieved CR at a median time of 2.5 months post-transplant. The five patients who were not in CR when assessed at 3 months received a short course of alpha-interferon and four subsequently achieved CR with this approach at a median of 82 days. One patient who failed to respond to IFN went on to achieve CR after four doses of DLI therapy, thus giving an overall CR rate of 72%. Seven patients have relapsed at a median of 4.7 years post-transplant (range 1.38-7.7 years) including two patients who had received IFN therapy. In five of these cases, relapse has been as a localised area of bone disease or isolated plasmacytoma with no evidence of marrow involvement by trephine biopsy or molecular analysis. All patients with localised relapse were treated with local radiotherapy +/-DLI and four are currently disease free despite two patients having had further treatment for a second localised lesion. Six patients died of TRM (24%) and the OS at 8 years is currently 69% with an EFS of 26%. These results suggest that allogeneic SCT for myeloma can be carried out with an acceptable TRM and a high CR rate. However, late relapses as localised disease may be a frequent finding and may represent foci of myeloma not eradicated by the conditioning. The use of pretransplant MRI scanning and top-up radiotherapy to involved areas may be useful in preventing this type of relapse.

  18. Inactivation of Caliciviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Nims

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Caliciviridae family of viruses contains clinically important human and animal pathogens, as well as vesivirus 2117, a known contaminant of biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes employing Chinese hamster cells. An extensive literature exists for inactivation of various animal caliciviruses, especially feline calicivirus and murine norovirus. The caliciviruses are susceptible to wet heat inactivation at temperatures in excess of 60 °C with contact times of 30 min or greater, to UV-C inactivation at fluence ≥30 mJ/cm2, to high pressure processing >200 MPa for >5 min at 4 °C, and to certain photodynamic inactivation approaches. The enteric caliciviruses (e.g.; noroviruses display resistance to inactivation by low pH, while the non-enteric species (e.g.; feline calicivirus are much more susceptible. The caliciviruses are inactivated by a variety of chemicals, including alcohols, oxidizing agents, aldehydes, and β-propiolactone. As with inactivation of viruses in general, inactivation of caliciviruses by the various approaches may be matrix-, temperature-, and/or contact time-dependent. The susceptibilities of the caliciviruses to the various physical and chemical inactivation approaches are generally similar to those displayed by other small, non-enveloped viruses, with the exception that the parvoviruses and circoviruses may require higher temperatures for inactivation, while these families appear to be more susceptible to UV-C inactivation than are the caliciviruses.

  19. Molecular detection of avian pox virus from nodular skin and mucosal fibrinonecrotic lesions of Iranian backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha; Namjoo, Abdolrasul

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, some outbreaks of skin lesions suspected to be avian pox were observed in the backyard poultry in different parts of western areas in Iran. Consequently, 328 backyard poultries with suspected signs of avian pox virus infection were sampled. All birds showed nodular lesions on unfeathered head skin and/or fibronecrotic lesions on mucus membrane of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. For histopathological analysis, the sections of tissue samples from cutaneous lesions of examined birds were stained with H&E method. For PCR, after DNA extraction a 578-bp fragment of avian pox virus from 4b core protein gene was amplified. Results showed 217 and 265 out of 328 (66.1 and 80.7%, respectively) samples were positive for avian pox virus on histopathological and PCR examination, respectively. In this study, the samples that had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies on pathologic examination were PCR positive. This study revealed that PCR is a valuable tool for identification of an avian pox virus and that the frequency of pox infection in backyard poultry in western areas of Iran is high.

  20. Investigation of 305 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and 20q deletion for associated cytogenetic and molecular genetic lesions and their prognostic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Ulrike; Haferlach, Torsten; Schnittger, Susanne; Zenger, Melanie; Meggendorfer, Manja; Jeromin, Sabine; Roller, Andreas; Grossmann, Vera; Krauth, Maria-Theresa; Alpermann, Tamara; Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    In patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), sole 20q deletion [del(20q)] is a recurrent favourable abnormality. We studied additional molecular and cytogenetic lesions and their prognostic impact in 305 MDS patients with del(20q) (229 males/76 females; 29-90 years). All patients were investigated by cytomorphology and chromosome banding analysis (CBA), subsets by fluorescence in situ hybridization, molecular mutation screening, and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). By aCGH (n = 30), the minimal common deleted region (CDR) was flanked by PTPRT (20q13·11) and EYA2 (20q13·12). 210 (68·9%) patients had 'early MDS' without blast increase, 95 (31·1%) 'advanced' MDS with blast increase (5-19%). Additional chromosomal abnormalities (ACAs) were detected in 88/305 (28·9%) patients. Patients with advanced MDS more frequently had ACAs (P = 0·003) and had a higher mean number of ACAs (P = 0·020) and of molecular mutations (P = 0·060). Spliceosome mutations were frequent (U2AF1: n = 31/155; 20·0%; SRSF2: n = 31/159; 19·5%; SF3B1mut: n = 8/159; 5·0%). ASXL1mut (25/153; 16·3%) were associated with advanced MDS (P = 0·001). Presence of ≥3 ACAs (P = 0·003) and ASXL1mut (P = 0·002) were associated with worse 2-year survival. In conclusion, the cytogenetic subgroup of MDS with del(20q) has a good prognosis but may be further subclassified by additional cytogenetic and molecular lesions. U2AF1mut is overrepresented in MDS with del(20q), and ASXL1mut is prognostically adverse. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Molecular Triage of Premalignant Lesions in Liquid-Based Cervical Cytology and Circulating Cell-Free DNA from Urine, Using a Panel of Methylated Human Papilloma Virus and Host Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Valle, Blanca L.; Jedlicka, Anne; Turaga, Nitesh; Folawiyo, Oluwasina; Pirini, Francesca; Lawson, Fahcina; Vergura, Angelo; Noordhuis, Maartje; Dziedzic, Amanda; Perez, Gabriela; Renehan, Marisa; Guerrero-Diaz, Carolina; Rodriguez, Edgar De Jesus; Diaz-Montes, Teresa; Orengo, Jose Rodriguez; Mendez, Keimari; Romaguera, Josefina; Trock, Bruce J.; Florea, Liliana; Sidransky, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinically useful molecular tools to triage women for a biopsy upon referral to colposcopy are not available. We aimed to develop a molecular panel to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher lesions (CIN2(+)) in women with abnormal cervical cytology and high-risk HPV

  2. Conditional inactivation of Brca1 in the mouse ovarian surface epithelium results in an increase in preneoplastic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark-Knowles, Katherine V.; Garson, Kenneth; Jonkers, Jos; Vanderhyden, Barbara C.

    2007-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is thought to arise from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE); however, the molecular events underlying this transformation are poorly understood. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene result in a significantly increased risk of developing EOC and a large proportion of sporadic EOCs display some sort of BRCA1 dysfunction. Using mice with conditional expression of Brca1, we inactivated Brca1 in the murine OSE and demonstrate that this inactivation results in the development of preneoplastic changes, such as hyperplasia, epithelial invaginations, and inclusion cysts, which arise earlier and are more numerous than in control ovaries. These changes resemble the premalignant lesions that have been reported in human prophylactic oophorectomy specimens from women with BRCA1 germline mutation. We also report that inactivation of Brca1 in primary cultures of murine OSE cells leads to a suppression of proliferation due to increased apoptosis that can be rescued by concomitant inactivation of p53. These observations, along with our finding that these cells display an increased sensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent cisplatin, indicate that loss of function of Brca1 in OSE cells impacts both cellular growth control and DNA-damage repair which results in altered cell behavior manifested as morphological changes in vivo that arise earlier and are more numerous than what can be attributed to ageing

  3. First report of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from Oreochromis niloticus in Piura, Peru: Molecular identification and histopathological lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Ortega Asencios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae isolated in farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from Piura, Peru and to characterize the histopathological lesions caused by this pathogen. Sixteen tilapias were sampled with clinic signs of the disease such as erratic swimming, exophthalmia and haemorrhages on the body and fins. Qualitative PCR in real time and histopathological analysis were performed. Nine fishes positives to S. agalactiae were found. The main histopathological findings were fibrinosuppurative epicarditis, periesplenitis, meninigitis and panophtaltmitis with predominance of mononuclear infiltration in all tissues. The correlation between qPCR and histopathological findings demonstrated nine fish (prevalence of 56.25% with Cq lower than 30, associated to high degree of tissue injuries. This study reports the first isolation of S. agalactiae by PCR in real time in tilapia farmed in Peru and characterizes the major histopathological changes caused by this bacterium.

  4. The use of molecular sieves to simulate hot lesions in (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose--positron emission tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheoud, R; Secco, C; Ridone, S; Inglese, E; Brambilla, M

    2008-04-21

    We investigated the use of a kind of zeolite, the Bowie chabazite, to produce radioactive sources of different shapes, dimensions and activity concentrations that can be used for lesion simulation in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake of a group of 12 zeolites was studied as a function of their weight (120-1,520 mg) and of the activity concentration of the (18)F-FDG solution (1-37 MBq ml(-1)), using a multiple linear regression model. The reproducibility, homogeneity and stability over time of the (18)F-FDG uptake were assessed. The fit of the regression model is good (r(2) = 0.83). This relation allows the production of zeolites of a desired (18)F-FDG activity using knowledge of the concentration of the soaking solution and the weight of the zeolite. The reproducibility of the (18)F-FDG uptake after heating the zeolites is elevated (CV% = 3.68). The almost complete regeneration of the zeolites allows us to reuse them in successive experiments. The stability of the (18)F-FDG uptake on zeolites is far from ideal. When placed in a saline solution the 'activated' zeolites release the (18)F-FDG with an effective half-time of 53 min. The sealing of the zeolites in plastic film bags has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing any release of (18)F-FDG. These features, together with their variable dimensions and shapes, make them ideal (18)F-FDG sources with a fixed target-to-background ratio that can be placed anywhere in a phantom to study lesion detectability in PET imaging.

  5. Improvement of psoriasis-associated arthritis and skin lesions by treatment with molecular hydrogen: A report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Toru; Ichikawa, Miki; Sato, Bunpei; Shibata, Shinji; Hara, Yuichi; Naritomi, Yuji; Okazaki, Ken; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Koyanagi, Samon; Hara, Hiroshi; Nagao, Tetsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, is caused by infiltrating lymphocytes and associated cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17. Effective treatments, including pathogenesis-based biological agents against psoriasis, are currently under development. Although the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been investigated, it remains to be fully elucidated; ROS-targeted therapeutic strategies are also lacking at present. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess whether H2, a ROS scavenger, has a therapeutic effect on psoriasis-associated inflammation by reducing hydroxyl radicals or peroxynitrite in the immunogenic psoriasis cascade. Three methods were used to administer H2: Drop infusion of saline containing 1 ppm H2 (H2-saline), inhalation of 3% H2 gas, and drinking of water containing a high concentration (5-7-ppm) of H2 (high-H2 water). Treatment efficacy was estimated using the disease activity score 28 (DAS28) system, based on C-reactive protein levels, and the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score, determined at baseline and following each H2 treatment. Furthermore, levels of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-17 were analyzed. The DAS28 and PASI score of the three patients decreased during H2 treatment, regardless of the administration method. The psoriatic skin lesions almost disappeared at the end of the treatment. IL-6 levels decreased during H2 treatment in Case 1 and 2. IL-17, whose concentration was high in Case 1, was reduced following H2 treatment, and TNFα also decreased in Case 1. In conclusion, H2 administration reduced inflammation associated with psoriasis in the three cases examined and it may therefore be considered as a treatment strategy for psoriasis-associated skin lesions and arthritis.

  6. The use of molecular sieves to simulate hot lesions in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheoud, R; Secco, C; Brambilla, M; Ridone, S; Inglese, E

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the use of a kind of zeolite, the Bowie chabazite, to produce radioactive sources of different shapes, dimensions and activity concentrations that can be used for lesion simulation in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake of a group of 12 zeolites was studied as a function of their weight (120-1520 mg) and of the activity concentration of the 18 F-FDG solution (1-37 MBq ml -1 ), using a multiple linear regression model. The reproducibility, homogeneity and stability over time of the 18 F-FDG uptake were assessed. The fit of the regression model is good (r 2 = 0.83). This relation allows the production of zeolites of a desired 18 F-FDG activity using knowledge of the concentration of the soaking solution and the weight of the zeolite. The reproducibility of the 18 F-FDG uptake after heating the zeolites is elevated (CV% = 3.68). The almost complete regeneration of the zeolites allows us to reuse them in successive experiments. The stability of the 18 F-FDG uptake on zeolites is far from ideal. When placed in a saline solution the 'activated' zeolites release the 18 F-FDG with an effective half-time of 53 min. The sealing of the zeolites in plastic film bags has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing any release of 18 F-FDG. These features, together with their variable dimensions and shapes, make them ideal 18 F-FDG sources with a fixed target-to-background ratio that can be placed anywhere in a phantom to study lesion detectability in PET imaging. (note)

  7. In Silico Affinity Profiling of Neuroactive Polyphenols for Post-Traumatic Calpain Inactivation: A Molecular Docking and Atomistic Simulation Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated nonlysosomal neutral proteases, calpains, are believed to be early mediators of neuronal damage associated with neuron death and axonal degeneration after traumatic neural injuries. In this study, a library of biologically active small molecular weight calpain inhibitors was used for model validation and inhibition site recognition. Subsequently, two natural neuroactive polyphenols, curcumin and quercetin, were tested for their sensitivity and activity towards calpain’s proteolytic sequence and compared with the known calpain inhibitors via detailed molecular mechanics (MM, molecular dynamics (MD, and docking simulations. The MM and MD energy profiles (SJA6017 < AK275 < AK295 < PD151746 < quercetin < leupeptin < PD150606 < curcumin < ALLN < ALLM < MDL-28170 < calpeptin and the docking analysis (AK275 < AK295 < PD151746 < ALLN < PD150606 < curcumin < leupeptin < quercetin < calpeptin < SJA6017 < MDL-28170 < ALLM demonstrated that polyphenols conferred comparable calpain inhibition profiling. The modeling paradigm used in this study provides the first detailed account of corroboration of enzyme inhibition efficacy of calpain inhibitors and the respective calpain–calpain inhibitor molecular complexes’ energetic landscape and in addition stimulates the polyphenol bioactive paradigm for post-SCI intervention with implications reaching to experimental in vitro, in cyto, and in vivo studies.

  8. Thermal Inactivation Kinetics and Secondary Structure Change of a Low Molecular Weight Halostable Exoglucanase from a Marine Aspergillus niger at High Salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dong-Sheng; Liang, Long-Yuan; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2017-11-01

    Two kinds of exoglucanase were purified from a marine Aspergillus niger. Catalytic ability of halophilic exoglucanase with a lower molecular weight and secondary structure change was analyzed at different salinities. Activity of the low molecular weight exoglucanase in 10% NaCl solution (w/v) was 1.69-fold higher of that in NaCl-free solution. Half-life time in 10% NaCl solution (w/v) was over 1.27-fold longer of that in NaCl-free solution. Free energy change of the low molecular weight exoglucanase denaturation, △G, in 10% NaCl solution (w/v) was 0.54 kJ/mol more than that in NaCl-free solution. Melt point in 10% NaCl solution (w/v), 52.01 °C, was 4.21 °C higher than that in NaCl-free solution, 47.80 °C. K m value, 0.179 mg/ml in 10% NaCl solution (w/v) was less 0.044 mg/ml than that, 0.224 mg/ml, in NaCl-free solution. High salinity made content of α-helix increased. Secondary structure change caused by high salinities improved exoglucanase thermostability and catalysis activity. The halophilic exoglucanase from a marine A. niger was valuable for hydrolyzing cellulose at high salinities.

  9. Ultraviolet inactivation of papain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugher, J.F.; Grossweiner, L.I.

    1975-01-01

    Flash photolysis transient spectra (lambda > 250 nm) of aqueous papain showed that the initial products are the neutral tryptophan radical Trp (lambdasub(max) 510 nm), the tryptophan triplet state 3 Trp (lambdasub(max) 460 nm), the disulfide bridge electron adduct -SS - - (lambdasub(max) 420 nm) and the hydrated electron esub(aq) - . The -SS - - yield was not altered by nitrous oxide or air, indicating that the formation of this product does not involve electrons in the external medium. The original papain preparation was activated by irradiating under nitrogen. The action spectrum supports previous work attributing the low initial activity to blocking of cysteinyl site 25 with a mixed disulfide. Flask lamp irradiation in nitrogen led to activation at low starting activities and inactivation at higher starting activities, while only inactivation at the same quantum yield was observed with air saturation. The results are consistent with photoionization of an essential tryptophyl residue as the key inactivating step. (author)

  10. New avenue in the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy by classical anti-epileptics: A hypothetical establishment of executioner Caspase 3 inactivation by molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vijey Aanandhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE are prescribed first-line antiepileptic drugs and surgery to the management of this disorder. Unfortunately, the surgical treatment has been shown to be beneficial for the selected patients but fails to provide a seizure-free outcome in 20-30% of TLE patients. In our present study, we investigate the possibilities of marketed antiepileptic drugs in a different manner to improve the present situation in TLE. Molecular docking simulation study and various open source computational tools were used to perform the study. AutoDock 4.2 MGL tools, Pymol visualize tools, Patch dock server, and Swarm Dock servers (protein-protein docking were used to perform the molecular modeling. FTsite and computed atlas of surface topography of protein open source server were used to understand the pocket and ligand binding information respectively. Toxtree application was used to determine the toxicity profile of the drug by Cramers rule. The obtained molecular docking models (Caspase 3, Procaspase 8, and Fas-associated death domain [FADD] with selected compounds (Clonazepam, Clobazepam, and Retigabine showed promising trio blocking event of FADD, Caspase 3, and Procaspase 8 (−6.66 kcal, −8.1 kcal, 6.46 kcal by Clonazepam respectively. Protein-protein interaction study (Swarm Dock, Patch Dock server indicated promising results that helped to establish our hypothesis. Toxtree showed a quantitative structure toxicity relationship report that helps to clarify the toxicity of the selected compounds. Clonazepam showed a trio inhibition property that may lead to develop a new era of the new generation benzodiazepine prototype drugs in the future. Filtered compounds will further process for higher in vitro, in vivo models for better understanding of the mechanism.

  11. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions and cancer from the coastal region of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya-Pilozo, Cesar H; Medina Magües, Lex G; Espinosa-García, Maylen; Sánchez, Martha; Parrales Valdiviezo, Johanna V; Molina, Denisse; Ibarra, María A; Quimis-Ponce, María; España, Karool; Párraga Macias, Karla E; Cajas Flores, Nancy V; Orlando, Solon A; Robalino Penaherrera, Jorge A; Chedraui, Peter; Escobar, Saul; Loja Chango, Rita D; Ramirez-Morán, Cecibel; Espinoza-Caicedo, Jasson; Sánchez-Giler, Sunny; Limia, Celia M; Alemán, Yoan; Soto, Yudira; Kouri, Vivian; Culasso, Andrés C A; Badano, Inés

    The aim of the present study was to gather information regarding the molecular epidemiology of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and related risk factors in a group of women with low- and high-grade cervical lesions and cancer from the coastal region of Ecuador. In addition, we studied the evolution of HPV variants from the most prevalent types and provided a temporal framework for their emergence, which may help to trace the source of dissemination within the region. We analyzed 166 samples, including 57 CIN1, 95 CIN2/3 and 14 cancer cases. HPV detection and typing was done by PCR-sequencing (MY09/MY11). HPV variants and estimation of the time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) was assessed through phylogeny and coalescence analysis. HPV DNA was found in 54.4% of CIN1, 74.7% of CIN2/3 and 78.6% of cancer samples. HPV16 (38.9%) and HPV58 (19.5%) were the most prevalent types. Risk factors for the development of cervical lesions/cancer were the following: three or more pregnancies (OR=4.3), HPV infection (OR=3.7 for high-risk types; OR=3.5 for HPV16), among others. With regard to HPV evolution, HPV16 isolates belonged to lineages A (69%) and D (31%) whereas HPV58 isolates belonged only to lineage A. The period of emergence of HPV16 was in association with human populations (tMRCA=91052 years for HPV16A and 27000 years for HPV16D), whereas HPV58A preceded Homo sapiens evolution (322257 years). This study provides novel data on HPV epidemiology and evolution in Ecuador, which will be fundamental in the vaccine era. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Epigenetic inactivation of CHFR in human tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Toyota, Minoru; Sasaki, Yasushi; Satoh, Ayumi; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Mita, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Itoh, Fumio; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.; Jair, Kam-Wing; Schuebel, Kornel E.; Imai, Kohzoh; Tokino, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Cell-cycle checkpoints controlling the orderly progression through mitosis are frequently disrupted in human cancers. One such checkpoint, entry into metaphase, is regulated by the CHFR gene encoding a protein possessing forkhead-associated and RING finger domains as well as ubiquitin–ligase activity. Although defects in this checkpoint have been described, the molecular basis and prevalence of CHFR inactivation in human tumors are still not fully understood. To address this question, w...

  13. Epigenetic inactivation of CHFR in human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Minoru; Sasaki, Yasushi; Satoh, Ayumi; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Takefumi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Mita, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Itoh, Fumio; Issa, Jean-Pierre J; Jair, Kam-Wing; Schuebel, Kornel E; Imai, Kohzoh; Tokino, Takashi

    2003-06-24

    Cell-cycle checkpoints controlling the orderly progression through mitosis are frequently disrupted in human cancers. One such checkpoint, entry into metaphase, is regulated by the CHFR gene encoding a protein possessing forkhead-associated and RING finger domains as well as ubiquitin-ligase activity. Although defects in this checkpoint have been described, the molecular basis and prevalence of CHFR inactivation in human tumors are still not fully understood. To address this question, we analyzed the pattern of CHFR expression in a number of human cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We found CpG methylation-dependent silencing of CHFR expression in 45% of cancer cell lines, 40% of primary colorectal cancers, 53% of colorectal adenomas, and 30% of primary head and neck cancers. Expression of CHFR was precisely correlated with both CpG methylation and deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the CpG-rich regulatory region. Moreover, CpG methylation and thus silencing of CHFR depended on the activities of two DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3b, as their genetic inactivation restored CHFR expression. Finally, cells with CHFR methylation had an intrinsically high mitotic index when treated with microtubule inhibitor. This means that cells in which CHFR was epigenetically inactivated constitute loss-of-function alleles for mitotic checkpoint control. Taken together, these findings shed light on a pathway by which mitotic checkpoint is bypassed in cancer cells and suggest that inactivation of checkpoint genes is much more widespread than previously suspected.

  14. Photodynamic inactivation of bacteria using polyethylenimine-chlorin(e6) conjugates: Effect of polymer molecular weight, substitution ratio of chlorin(e6) and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liyi; Zhiyentayev, Timur; Xuan, Yi; Azhibek, Dulat; Kharkwal, Gitika B; Hamblin, Michael R

    2011-04-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) is a novel technique to treat local infections. Previously we reported that the attachment of chlorin(e6) to polyethylenimine (PEI) polymers to form PEI-ce6 conjugates is an effective way to improve ce6 PDT activity against bacteria. The aim of this work was to explore how the polymer molecular weight, substitution ratio (SR) of ce6 and pH value affect the PDT efficacy. We have synthesized PEI-ce6(10) (MW = 60,000, SR = 1) and PEI-ce6(11) (MW = 60,000, SR = 5) and compared these with the previous PEI-ce6(9) (MW = 10,000, SR = 1). We tested the PDT efficacy of these three conjugates against Gram-negative E. coli and Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and E. fecalis) at three different pH values (5.0, 7.4, 10.0) that may affect the charge on both the bacterial cells and on the conjugate (that has both basic and acidic groups). PEI-ce6(9) and PEI-ce6(10) were the most effective against these tested bacteria. The PDT effect of all three conjugates depended on pH values. The effective order was pH = 10.0 > pH = 7.4 > pH = 5.0 on E. coli. For S. aureus and E. fecalis the order was pH = 5.0 > pH = 10.0 > pH = 7.4. PEI-ce6(11) PDT activity was worse than PEI-ce6(10) activity which is probably connected to the fact that ce6 molecules are self-quenched within the PEI-ce6(11) molecule. Ce6 quenching within the PEI-ce6 molecules was proved by analyzing fluorescence spectra of PEI-ce6 conjugates at different pH values. There were no differences in bacterial uptake between different pH values in three PEI-ce6 conjugates. We assume high pH (rather than low pH as was hypothesized) disaggregates the conjugates, so the higher pH was more effective than the lower pH against E. coli. But for Gram-positive bacteria, low pH was more effective possibly due to more overall positive charge on the conjugate. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Radical inactivation of a biological sulphydryl molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.S.; Lal, M.; Gaucher, G.M.; Armstrong, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reactive species produced from the free radical-induced chain oxidation of low molecular weight sulphydryl-containing molecules in aerated solutions deactivate the sulphydryl-containing enzyme papain, forming both reparable mixed disulphides and non-reparable products. This inactivation is highly efficient for penicillamine and glutathione, but almost negligible with cysteine, which is a protector of papain for [cysteine] / [papain] >= 5 under all conditions used. In the case of glutathione, superoxide dismutase caused only a small reduction in the inactivation and peroxide yields were small, implying that the deactivating species are not .O 2 - but RSOO. radicals or products from them. For penicillamine, however, dimutase was highly effective and the peroxide yields were relatively large, demonstrating that .O 2 - or a radical with similar capabilities for forming H 2 O 2 and being deactivated by dismutase was involved. Although in the presence of dismutase penicillamine is a better protector of non-reparable papain inactivation than glutathione, it suffers from a deficiency in that the papain-penicillamine mixed disulphide, which is always formed, cannot be repaired by spontaneous reaction with RSH molecules. (author)

  16. Pathogen inactivation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J P R; Transue, S; Snyder, E L

    2006-01-01

    The desire to rid the blood supply of pathogens of all types has led to the development of many technologies aimed at the same goal--eradication of the pathogen(s) without harming the blood cells or generating toxic chemical agents. This is a very ambitious goal, and one that has yet to be achieved. One approach is to shun the 'one size fits all' concept and to target pathogen-reduction agents at the Individual component types. This permits the development of technologies that might be compatible with, for example, plasma products but that would be cytocidal and thus incompatible with platelet concentrates or red blood cell units. The technologies to be discussed include solvent detergent and methylene blue treatments--designed to inactivate plasma components and derivatives; psoralens (S-59--amotosalen) designed to pathogen-reduce units of platelets; and two products aimed at red blood cells, S-303 (a Frale--frangible anchor-linker effector compound) and Inactine (a binary ethyleneimine). A final pathogen-reduction material that might actually allow one material to inactivate all three blood components--riboflavin (vitamin B2)--is also under development. The sites of action of the amotosalen (S-59), the S-303 Frale, Inactine, and riboflavin are all localized in the nucleic acid part of the pathogen. Solvent detergent materials act by dissolving the plasma envelope, thus compromising the integrity of the pathogen membrane and rendering it non-infectious. By disrupting the pathogen's ability to replicate or survive, its infectivity is removed. The degree to which bacteria and viruses are affected by a particular pathogen-reducing technology relates to its Gram-positive or Gram-negative status, to the sporulation characteristics for bacteria, and the presence of lipid or protein envelopes for viruses. Concerns related to photoproducts and other breakdown products of these technologies remain, and the toxicology of pathogen-reduction treatments is a major ongoing area

  17. Free radical inactivation of trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudina, Ivana; Jovanovic, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Reactivities of free radical oxidants, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and Cl 3 COO radical and a reductant, CO2-anion radical, with trypsin and reactive protein components were determined by pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions at pH 7, 20 0 C. Highly reactive free radicals, radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical, react with trypsin at diffusion controlled rates. Moderately reactive trichloroperoxy radical, k(Cl 3 COO radical + trypsin) preferentially oxidizes histidine residues. The efficiency of inactivation of trypsin by free radicals is inversely proportional to their reactivity. The yields of inactivation of trypsin by radical OH, Br2-anion radical and CO2-anion radical are low, G(inactivation) = 0.6-0.8, which corresponds to ∼ 10% of the initially produced radicals. In contrast, Cl 3 COO radical inactivates trypsin with ∼ 50% efficiency, i.e. G(inactivation) = 3.2. (author)

  18. Inactivation of complement by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, H M; Finke, J H; Elgert, K D; Cambell, B J; Barrett, J T

    1979-07-01

    Zymosan depletion of serum complement in guinea pigs rendered them highly resistant to lesion by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom. Guinea pigs deficient in C4 of the complement system are as sensitive to the venom as normal guinea pigs. The injection of 35 micrograms of whole recluse venom intradermally into guinea pigs lowered their complement level by 35.7%. Brown recluse spider venom in concentrations as slight as 0.02 micrograms protein/ml can totally inactivate one CH50 of guinea pig complement in vitro. Bee, scorpion, and other spider venoms had no influence on the hemolytic titer of complement. Fractionation of recluse spider venom by Sephadex G-200 filtration separated the complement-inactivating property of the venom into three major regions which could be distinguished on the basis of heat stability as well as size. None was neutralized by antivenom. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of venom resolved the complement inactivators into five fractions. Complement inactivated by whole venom or the Sephadex fractions could be restored to hemolytic activity by supplements of fresh serum but not by heat-inactivated serum, pure C3, pure C5, or C3 and C5 in combination.

  19. Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamora, Stella Maris; Guerrero, Sandra N.; Schenk, Marcela; Raffellini, Silvia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    Minimal processing techniques for food preservation allow better retention of product flavor, texture, color, and nutrient content than comparable conventional treatments. A wide range of novel alternative physical factors have been intensely investigated in the last two decades. These physical factors can cause inactivation of microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, and ultraviolet light). These technologies have been reported to reduce microorganism population in foods while avoiding the deleterious effects of severe heating on quality. Among technologies, high-energy ultrasound (i.e., intensities higher than 1 W/cm2, frequencies between 18 and 100 kHz) has attracted considerable interest for food preservation applications (Mason et al., 1996; Povey and Mason, 1998).

  20. Mean inactivation dose (D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Ng, T.C.; Raudkivi, U.; Meaney, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    By predicting treatment outcome to radiotherapy from in vitro radiobiological parameters, not only individual patient treatments can be tailored, but also new promising treatment protocols can be tried in patients in whom unfavorable outcome is predicted. In this respect, choosing the right parameter can be very important. Unlike D 0 and N which provide information of the distal part of the survival curve, mean inactivation dose (D) estimates overall radiosensitivity. However, the parameters reflecting the response at the clinically relevant low-dose region are neglected in the literature. In a literature survey of 98 papers in which survival curves or D 0 /N were used, only in 2 D was used. In 21 papers the D 0 /n values were important in drawing conclusions. By calculating D in 3 of these 21 papers, we show that the conclusion drawn may be altered with the use of D. The importance of ''low-dose-region-parameters'' is reviewed. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of FTA paper and phenol for storage, extraction and molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Linda B; Villegas, Pedro; Perozo, Francisco

    2006-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important poultry pathogen and is distributed world wide that can cause immune suppression and lesions of the bursa of Fabricius. The main component of the virus, VP2, is not only responsible for the bird's immune response, but is important for the molecular identification of this virus as well. The nucleic acid of the virus must be adequately preserved to be analyzed by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and sequenced for the molecular characterization of the field strain. Phenol inactivation has been the standard for IBDV tissue collection and international shipment; however, there have been some reports of interference with molecular detection capabilities when using phenol. Phenol is also a hazardous chemical and must be handled and shipped carefully. The ability to use the Flinders Technology Associates filter paper (FTA card) for inactivation of several avian pathogens has been proven previously, however no work has been published on its use in IBDV nucleic acid detection. Bursas from experimentally infected birds was imprinted on FTA cards, and then placed in phenol. Samples were evaluated and compared based on molecular detection capabilities between the two inactivation methods. The nucleic acid of the virus was detected in 85% of the FTA card inactivated samples compared to 71% in the phenol inactivated samples. Sequence analysis was performed on samples inactivated by both methods and no differences were found. When comparing the RNA stability at different temperatures, euthanized IBDV infected birds were held at two different temperatures before sampling. No differences were detected for FTA sampling; however, for tissues in phenol the nucleic acid was only detectable up to 2 h post-mortem in the tissues held at 4 degrees C prior to sampling. These findings indicate that the FTA card is an efficient and reliable alternative collection method for molecular detection and characterization of IBDV.

  2. Expression of MDM2 mRNA, MDM2, P53 and P16 Proteins in Urothelial Lesions in the View of the WHO 4th Edition Guidelines as A Molecular Insight towards Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfat Hammam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Here we imposed a multimarker molecular panel composed of P53, MDM2 protein & mRNA & P16 with the identification of sensitive and specific cut offs among the Egyptian urothelial carcinomas bilharzial or not emphasize the pathological and molecular classifications, pathways and prognosis as a privilege for adjuvant therapy. METHODS: Three hundred and ten urothelial lesions were pathologically evaluated and grouped as follows: 50 chronic cystitis as benign, 240 urothelial carcinomas and 20 normal bladder tissue as a control. Immunohistochemistry for MDM Protein, P16 & p53 and In Situ Hybridization for MDM2mRNA were done. RESULTS: MDM2mRNA overexpression correlated with low grade low stage non invasive tumors, while P53 > 40% & p16 40% & P16 10% from high grade, high stage invasive urothelial carcinomas (with p53 > 40, p16 40 & p16 < 10%, together with the histopathological features can distinguish in situ urothelial lesions from dysplastic and atypical lesions.

  3. Radiation inactivation of T7 phage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.; Redpath, J.L.; Grossweiner, L.I.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation inactivation of T7 phage by 25-MeV electron pulses has been measured in various media containing a wide concentration range of radical scavenging solutes and in the presence of protective and sensitizing agents. The dependence of sensitivity on pulse dose, from 1 mrad to 3.6 krad, is attributed to radical depletion via bimolecular processes. The survival data are analyzed by extending target theory to include diffusive reactions of primary and secondary radicals generated in the medium. It is concluded that OH radicals are the principal primary inactivating species and that secondary radicals from Br - , CNS - , uracil, glucose, ribose, sucrose, tyrosine, and histidine are lethal to some extent. In nutrient broth or 100 mM histidine, psoralen derivatives, Actinomycin D, and Mitomycin C are anoxic sensitizers. It is proposed that the psoralens promote the formation of non-strand break lesions as the sensitization mechanism. The target theory based on diffusional kinetics is applicable to other systems including single cells

  4. Molecular mechanism of DNA replication-coupled inactivation of the initiator protein in Escherichia coli: interaction of DnaA with the sliding clamp-loaded DNA and the sliding clamp-Hda complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Takata, Makoto; Kubota, Toshio; Matsuda, Yusaku; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2004-06-01

    In Escherichia coli, the ATP-DnaA protein initiates chromosomal replication. After the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is loaded on to DNA, DnaA-bound ATP is hydrolysed in a manner depending on Hda protein and the DNA-loaded form of the DNA polymerase III sliding clamp subunit, which yields ADP-DnaA, an inactivated form for initiation. This regulatory DnaA-inactivation represses extra initiation events. In this study, in vitro replication intermediates and structured DNA mimicking replicational intermediates were first used to identify structural prerequisites in the process of DnaA-ATP hydrolysis. Unlike duplex DNA loaded with sliding clamps, primer RNA-DNA heteroduplexes loaded with clamps were not associated with DnaA-ATP hydrolysis, and duplex DNA provided in trans did not rescue this defect. At least 40-bp duplex DNA is competent for the DnaA-ATP hydrolysis when a single clamp was loaded. The DnaA-ATP hydrolysis was inhibited when ATP-DnaA was tightly bound to a DnaA box-bearing oligonucleotide. These results imply that the DnaA-ATP hydrolysis involves the direct interaction of ATP-DnaA with duplex DNA flanking the sliding clamp. Furthermore, Hda protein formed a stable complex with the sliding clamp. Based on these, we suggest a mechanical basis in the DnaA-inactivation that ATP-DnaA interacts with the Hda-clamp complex with the aid of DNA binding. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Limited

  5. Physiological and molecular characterization of atypical lipid-dependent Malassezia yeasts from a dog with skin lesions: adaptation to a new host?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cafarchia, C.; Latrofa, M.S.; Figueredo, L.A.; da Silva Machado, M.L.; Ferreiro, L.; Guillot, J.; Boekhout, T.; Otranto, D.

    2011-01-01

    Three lipid-dependent Malassezia isolates (here named 114A, 114B and 114C) recovered from a dog with skin lesions were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. All presented ovoid cells and buds formed on a narrow base. Most of the results from physiological tests were consistent with those

  6. Functional size analysis of bioactive materials by radiation inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    1994-01-01

    When the research on various proteins including enzymes is carried out, first molecular weight is measured. The physical chemical methods used for measuring molecular weight cannot measure it in the state of actually acting in living bodies. Radiation inactivation method is the unique method which can measure the molecular weight of the active substances in living bodies. Paying attention to this point, recently it is attempted to measure the activity unit of enzymes, receptors and others, and to apply to the elucidation of their functions. In this report, the concept of the method of measuring molecular size based on radiation inactivation, the detailed experimental method and the points to which attention must be paid are described. Also its application to the elucidation of living body functions according to the example of the studies by the author is reported. The concept of the measurement of molecular weight by radiation inactivation is based on target theory. The preparation of samples, the effect of oxygen, radiation sources, dosimetry, irradiation temperature, internal standard process and so on are reported. The trend of the research is shown. (K.I.)

  7. Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

    2010-01-01

    The most ubiquitous of the primary reactive oxygen species, formed in all aerobes, is the superoxide free radical. It is believed that the superoxide anion radical shows low reactivity and in oxidative stress it is regarded mainly as an initiator of more reactive species such as · OH and ONOO - . In this paper, the effectiveness of inactivation of selected enzymes by radiation-generated superoxide radicals in comparison with the effectiveness of the other products of water radiolysis is examined. We investigate three enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We show that the direct contribution of the superoxide anion radical to GAPDH and ADH inactivation is significant. The effectiveness of the superoxide anion in the inactivation of GAPDH and ADG was only 2.4 and 2.8 times smaller, respectively, in comparison with hydroxyl radical. LDH was practically not inactivated by the superoxide anion. Despite the fact that the studied dehydrogenases belong to the same class of enzymes (oxidoreductases), all have a similar molecular weight and are tetramers, their susceptibility to free-radical damage varies. The differences in the radiosensitivity of the enzymes are not determined by the basic structural parameters analyzed. A significant role in inactivation susceptibility is played by the type of amino acid residues and their localization within enzyme molecules.

  8. Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra, E-mail: olakow@biol.uni.lodz.p [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland); Serafin, Eligiusz, E-mail: serafin@biol.uni.lodz.p [Laboratory of Computer and Analytical Techniques, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland); Puchala, Mieczyslaw, E-mail: puchala@biol.uni.lodz.p [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The most ubiquitous of the primary reactive oxygen species, formed in all aerobes, is the superoxide free radical. It is believed that the superoxide anion radical shows low reactivity and in oxidative stress it is regarded mainly as an initiator of more reactive species such as {sup {center_dot}}OH and ONOO{sup -}. In this paper, the effectiveness of inactivation of selected enzymes by radiation-generated superoxide radicals in comparison with the effectiveness of the other products of water radiolysis is examined. We investigate three enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We show that the direct contribution of the superoxide anion radical to GAPDH and ADH inactivation is significant. The effectiveness of the superoxide anion in the inactivation of GAPDH and ADG was only 2.4 and 2.8 times smaller, respectively, in comparison with hydroxyl radical. LDH was practically not inactivated by the superoxide anion. Despite the fact that the studied dehydrogenases belong to the same class of enzymes (oxidoreductases), all have a similar molecular weight and are tetramers, their susceptibility to free-radical damage varies. The differences in the radiosensitivity of the enzymes are not determined by the basic structural parameters analyzed. A significant role in inactivation susceptibility is played by the type of amino acid residues and their localization within enzyme molecules.

  9. Production of DNA strand breaks by ionizing radiation of different quality and their consequences for cell inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampf, G.

    1983-07-01

    The production of single- and double-strand breaks (DSB) in the DNA of Chinese hamster cells (V 79) was studied by use of 11 radiation qualities, with some also under hypoxic conditions. The aim was to find relations between the induction of lesions on the molecular level and the expression of this damage on the cellular level. The results suggest that release of DNA from the nuclear-membrane complex, induction of chromosome breaks, and cell inactivation are triggered by DSB. However, not simply a certain number of DSB in the DNA of the nucleus, but their cooperation within a small structural section of DNA is required for cell inactivation. Such sections may be the membrane-associated superstructure units. DSB produced under hypoxic conditions show a greater effectiveness than those produced under oxic conditions. The investigations with eukaryotic cells and bacteria suggest that not the entire DNA of all organisms but a structural unit common to them represents the critical target for radiation action. (author)

  10. Induction of DNA double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation of different quality and their relevance for cell inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampf, G.

    1988-01-01

    By investigation of the production of DNA strand breaks and of DNA release from the nuclear membrane complex in Chinese hamster cells using different radiation qualities from 1 to 360 keV/μm, partly also under hypoxic conditions, and by relating the results to the induction of chromosome aberrations and to cell inactivation it has become possible to find connections between the induction of molecular lesions and the expression of this damage on the cellular level. From the studies follows that DNA pieces are cut off from the nuclear membrane complex by DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). The share and size of the released pieces depends on radiation dose and quality as well as on the oxygen conditions. The lesions can partly be repaired. In connection with the DSB rates the results of the DNA release studies led to the conclusion that the DNA in the cells must be organized in superstructure units (MASSUs) with a DNA mass of about 2 x 10 9 g/mol, which are associated to the nuclear membrane in attachment points. The numerical relations show that for a 37% survival probability about 90 DSB per genome are required with sparsely ionizing radiation; this number declines to about 40 by use of more densely ionizing radiation up to 150 keV/μm, and increases again with further rise of the ionization density. Hence, for cell inactivation not simply a certain number of DSB per cell is required but rather seems their cooperation within a small structure section of the DNA to be relevant. These critical structures are with high probability the MASSUs. An irrepairable release of DNA from such a structure unit can bring about a chromosome break detectable in the metaphase and finally lead to cell inactivation. DSB turned out to be the essential lethal events in bacteria as well. The relatively small differences to the eukaryotic cells in the position of the maximum of radiation sensitivity on the LET scale and in the lesion sensitivity towards DSB let suggest that a common critical

  11. Murine HPV16 E7-expressing transgenic skin effectively emulates the cellular and molecular features of human high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.K. Tuong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently available vaccines prevent HPV infection and development of HPV-associated malignancies, but do not cure existing HPV infections and dysplastic lesions. Persistence of infection(s in immunocompetent patients may reflect induction of local immunosuppressive mechanisms by HPV, providing a target for therapeutic intervention. We have proposed that a mouse, expressing HPV16 E7 oncoprotein under a Keratin 14 promoter (K14E7 mice, and which develops epithelial hyperplasia, may assist with understanding local immune suppression mechanisms that support persistence of HPV oncogene-induced epithelial hyperplasia. K14E7 skin grafts recruit immune cells from immunocompetent hosts, but consistently fail to be rejected. Here, we review the literature on HPV-associated local immunoregulation, and compare the findings with published observations on the K14E7 transgenic murine model, including comparison of the transcriptome of human HPV-infected pre-malignancies with that of murine K14E7 transgenic skin. We argue from the similarity of i the literature findings and ii the transcriptome profiles that murine K14E7 transgenic skin recapitulates the cellular and secreted protein profiles of high-grade HPV-associated lesions in human subjects. We propose that the K14E7 mouse may be an appropriate model to further study the immunoregulatory effects of HPV E7 expression, and can facilitate development and testing of therapeutic vaccines.

  12. Molecular imaging of melanin distribution in vivo and quantitative differential diagnosis of human pigmented lesions using label-free harmonic generation biopsy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chi-Kuang; Wei, Ming-Liang; Su, Yu-Hsiang; Weng, Wei-Hung; Liao, Yi-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Harmonic generation microscopy is a noninvasive repetitive imaging technique that provides real-time 3D microscopic images of human skin with a sub-femtoliter resolution and high penetration down to the reticular dermis. In this talk, we show that with a strong resonance effect, the third-harmonic-generation (THG) modality provides enhanced contrast on melanin and allows not only differential diagnosis of various pigmented skin lesions but also quantitative imaging for longterm tracking. This unique capability makes THG microscopy the only label-free technique capable of identifying the active melanocytes in human skin and to image their different dendriticity patterns. In this talk, we will review our recent efforts to in vivo image melanin distribution and quantitatively diagnose pigmented skin lesions using label-free harmonic generation biopsy. This talk will first cover the spectroscopic study on the melanin enhanced THG effect in human cells and the calibration strategy inside human skin for quantitative imaging. We will then review our recent clinical trials including: differential diagnosis capability study on pigmented skin tumors; as well as quantitative virtual biopsy study on pre- and post- treatment evaluation on melasma and solar lentigo. Our study indicates the unmatched capability of harmonic generation microscopy to perform virtual biopsy for noninvasive histopathological diagnosis of various pigmented skin tumors, as well as its unsurpassed capability to noninvasively reveal the pathological origin of different hyperpigmentary diseases on human face as well as to monitor the efficacy of laser depigmentation treatments. This work is sponsored by National Health Research Institutes.

  13. Key tumor suppressor genes inactivated by "greater promoter" methylation and somatic mutations in head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Michailidi, Christina; Marchionni, Luigi; Pickering, Curtis R.; Frederick, Mitchell J.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Hadar, Tal; Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Zizkova, Veronika; Fertig, Elana; Agrawal, Nishant; Westra, William; Koch, Wayne; Califano, Joseph; Velculescu, Victor E.; Sidransky, David

    Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) are commonly inactivated by somatic mutation and/or promoter methylation; yet, recent high-throughput genomic studies have not identified key TSGs inactivated by both mechanisms. We pursued an integrated molecular analysis based on methylation binding domain sequencing

  14. Systems Biology of Immune Response to Live and Inactivated Dengue Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-2-0032 TITLE: Systems Biology of Immune Response to Live and Inactivated Dengue Virus Vaccines PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...CONTRACT NUMBER Systems Biology of Immune Response to Live and Inactivated Dengue Virus Vaccines 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-2-0032 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...cell) responses will be measured using molecular and cellular approaches and the data analyzed using a systems biology approach. During the first

  15. Systems Biology of the Immune Response to Live and Inactivated Dengue Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-2-0031 TITLE: Systems Biology of the Immune Response to Live and Inactivated Dengue Virus Vaccines PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Systems Biology of the Immune Response to Live and Inactivated Dengue Virus Vaccines 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-2-0031 5c...adaptive (T and B cell) responses will be measured using molecular and cellular approaches and the data analyzed using a systems biology approach

  16. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  17. Left-sided congenital heart lesions in mosaic Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayed Abdelmoula, Nouha; Abdelmoula, Balkiss; Smaoui, Walid; Trabelsi, Imen; Louati, Rim; Aloulou, Samir; Aloulou, Wafa; Abid, Fatma; Kammoun, Senda; Trigui, Khaled; Bedoui, Olfa; Denguir, Hichem; Mallek, Souad; Ben Aziza, Mustapha; Dammak, Jamila; Kaabi, Oldez; Abdellaoui, Nawel; Turki, Fatma; Kaabi, Asma; Kamoun, Wafa; Jabeur, Jihen; Ltaif, Wided; Chaker, Kays; Fourati, Haytham; M'rabet, Samir; Ben Ameur, Hedi; Gouia, Naourez; Mhiri, Mohamed Nabil; Rebai, Tarek

    2018-04-01

    In the era of the diseasomes and interactome networks, linking genetics with phenotypic traits in Turner syndrome should be studied thoroughly. As a part of this stratagem, mosaicism of both X and Y chromosome which is a common finding in TS and an evaluation of congenital heart diseases in the different situations of mosaic TS types, can be helpful in the identification of disturbed sex chromosomes, genes and signaling pathway actors. Here we report the case of a mosaic TS associated to four left-sided CHD, including BAV, COA, aortic aneurysms and dissections at an early age. The mosaicism included two cell lines, well-defined at the cytogenetic and molecular levels: a cell line which is monosomic for Xp and Xq genes (45,X) and another which is trisomic for pseudoautosomal genes that are present on the X and Y chromosomes and escape X inactivation: 45,X[8]/46,X,idic(Y)(pter→q11.2::q11.2→pter)[42]. This case generates two hypotheses about the contribution of genes linked to the sex chromosomes and the signaling pathways involving these genes, in left-sided heart diseases. The first hypothesis suggests the interaction between X chromosome and autosomal genes or loci of aortic development, possibly dose-dependent, and which could be in the framework of TGF-β-SMAD signaling pathways. The second implies that left-sided congenital heart lesions involve sex chromosomes loci. The reduced dosage of X chromosome gene(s), escaping X inactivation during development, contributes to this type of CHD. Regarding our case, these X chromosome genes may have homologues at the Y chromosome, but the process of inactivation of the centromeres of the isodicentric Y spreads to the concerned Y chromosome genes. Therefore, this case emerges as an invitation to consider the mosaics of Turner syndrome and to study their phenotypes in correlation with their genotypes to discover the underlying developmental and genetic mechanisms, especially the ones related to sex chromosomes.

  18. Inactivation of carotenoid-producing and albino strains of Neurospora crassa by visible light, blacklight, and ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.L.; Tuveson, R.W.; Sargent, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Suspensions of Neurospora crassa conidia were inactivated by blacklight (BL) radiation (300 to 425 nm) in the absence of exogenous photosensitizing compounds. Carotenoid-containing wild-type conidia were less sensitive to BL radiation than albino conidia, showing a dose enhancement factor (DEF) of 1.2 for dose levels resulting in less than 10 percent survival. The same strains were about equally sensitive to shortwave ultraviolet (uv) inactivation. The kinetics of BL inactivation are similar to those of photodynamic inactivation by visible light in the presence of a photosensitizing dye (methylene blue). Only limited inactivation by visible light in the absence of exogenous photosensitizers was observed. BL and UV inactivations are probably caused by different mechanisms since wild-type conidia are only slightly more resistant to BL radiation (DEF = 1.2 at 1.0 percent survival) than are conidia from a uv-sensitive strain (upr-1, uvs-3). The BL-induced lethal lesions are probably not cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers since BL-inactivated Haemophilus influenzae transforming deoxyribonucleic acid is not photoreactivated by N. crassa wild-type enzyme extracts, whereas uv-inactivated transforming deoxyribonucleic acid is photoreactivable with this treatment

  19. Domain IV voltage-sensor movement is both sufficient and rate limiting for fast inactivation in sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capes, Deborah L; Goldschen-Ohm, Marcel P; Arcisio-Miranda, Manoel; Bezanilla, Francisco; Chanda, Baron

    2013-08-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for the generation and propagation of electrical signals in most excitable cells. Activation of Na(+) channels initiates an action potential, and fast inactivation facilitates repolarization of the membrane by the outward K(+) current. Fast inactivation is also the main determinant of the refractory period between successive electrical impulses. Although the voltage sensor of domain IV (DIV) has been implicated in fast inactivation, it remains unclear whether the activation of DIV alone is sufficient for fast inactivation to occur. Here, we functionally neutralize each specific voltage sensor by mutating several critical arginines in the S4 segment to glutamines. We assess the individual role of each voltage-sensing domain in the voltage dependence and kinetics of fast inactivation upon its specific inhibition. We show that movement of the DIV voltage sensor is the rate-limiting step for both development and recovery from fast inactivation. Our data suggest that activation of the DIV voltage sensor alone is sufficient for fast inactivation to occur, and that activation of DIV before channel opening is the molecular mechanism for closed-state inactivation. We propose a kinetic model of sodium channel gating that can account for our major findings over a wide voltage range by postulating that DIV movement is both necessary and sufficient for fast inactivation.

  20. Inhibition of Retinoblastoma Protein Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Inhibition of Retinoblastoma Protein Inactivation 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0329 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Seth M...confirmed 108 compounds as giving a dose-response curve with at least 30% inhibition at 10 µM. The flowchart of hit progression is shown on the...Cancer Research Program under Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0329 to S.M.R. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the author

  1. MPLEx: a method for simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of samples for multi-omics profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Casey, Cameron P.; Stratton, Kelly G.; Gonzalez, Juan F.; Habyarimana, Fabien; Negretti, Nicholas M.; Sims, Amy C.; Chauhan, Sadhana; Thackray, Larissa B.; Halfmann, Peter J.; Walters, Kevin B.; Kim, Young-Mo; Zink, Erika M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Weitz, Karl K.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Ahmer, Brian; Konkel, Michael E.; Motin, Vladimir; Baric, Ralph S.; Diamond, Michael S.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Waters, Katrina M.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2017-01-01

    The continued emergence and spread of infectious agents is of increasing concern due to increased population growth and the associated increased livestock production to meet food demands, increased urbanization and land-use changes, and greater travel. A systems biology approach to infectious disease research can significantly advance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships and facilitate the development of new therapies and vaccines. Molecular characterization of infectious samples outside of appropriate biosafety containment can only take place subsequent to pathogen inactivation. Herein, we describe a modified Folch extraction using chloroform/methanol that facilitates the molecular characterization of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of proteins, metabolites, and lipids for subsequent mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements. This metabolite, protein and lipid extraction (MPLEx) method resulted in complete inactivation of bacterial and viral pathogens with exposed lipid membranes, including Yersinia pestis, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni in pure culture, and Yersinia pestis, Campylobacter jejuni, West Nile, MERS-CoV, Ebola, and influenza H7N9 viruses in infection studies. Partial inactivation was observed for pathogens without exposed lipid membranes including 99.99% inactivation of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 99.6% and >99% inactivation of Clostridium difficile spores and vegetative cells, respectively, and 50% inactivation of adenovirus type 5. To demonstrate that MPLEx yields biomaterial of sufficient quality for subsequent multi-omics analyses, we highlight select proteomics, metabolomics and lipidomics data from human epithelial lung cells infected with wild-type and mutant forms of influenza H7N9. We believe that MPLEx will facilitate systems biology studies of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and multi

  2. Mucosal vaccination with formalin-inactivated avian metapneumovirus subtype C does not protect turkeys following intranasal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Perkins, Laura L; Sellers, Holly S

    2008-03-01

    Studies were performed to determine if mucosal vaccination with inactivated avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C protected turkey poults from clinical disease and virus replication following mucosal challenge. Decreases in clinical disease were not observed in vaccinated groups, and the vaccine failed to inhibit virus replication in the tracheas of 96% of vaccinated birds. Histopathologically, enhancement of pulmonary lesions following virus challenge was associated with birds receiving the inactivated aMPV vaccine compared to unvaccinated birds. As determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), all virus-challenged groups increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA antibody production against the virus following challenge; however, the unvaccinated aMPV-challenged group displayed the highest increases in virus-neutralizing antibody. On the basis of these results it is concluded that intranasal vaccination with inactivated aMPV does not induce protective immunity, reduce virus shedding, or result in decreased histopathologic lesions.

  3. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as papilloma) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as Herpes simplex) Risks Risks of the procedure may ... Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy ...

  4. Induction of uterine cancer with inactivated herpes simplex virus, types 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentz, W.B.; Reagan, J.W.; Heggie, A.D.; Fu, Y.S.; Anthony, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    A series of studies were performed to evaluate the oncogenic potential of inactivated herpes simplex viruses types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) in the mouse cervix. HSV-1 or HSV-2 prepared in HEp-2 cell cultures and inactivated by exposure to formalin or ultraviolet light was applied to the mouse cervix for periods ranging from 20 to 90 weeks. Control mice were exposed for the same period to control fluids. Vaginal cytologic preparations from all animals were examined weekly to detect epithelial abnormalities. Animals were sacrificed and histopathological studies were carried out when cellular changes seen on vaginal smears resembled those indicative of premalignant or malignant changes as previously established in a similar model system using coal tar hydrocarbons. Other animals were exposed for periods up to 90 weeks, or until there was cellular evidence of invasive cancer. Cytologic and histologic materials were coded and evaluated without knowledge of whether they were from virus-exposed or control animals. Premalignant and malignant cervical lesions similar to those that occur in women were encountered in 78 to 90% of the virus-exposed animals. All controls were normal. Invasive cancer was detected in 24 to 60% of the animals and dysplasia was found in 18 to 66%. The yield of invasive cancer was twice as great after exposure to ultraviolet-inactivated HSV-2 as compared with formalin-inactivated virus. Various histologic grades of carcinoma of the cervix and endometrium were found. No primary lesions were found in the vagina or ovaries

  5. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary......The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...

  6. Radiobiological inactivation of Epstein-Barr virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, E.; Heston, L.; Grogan, E.; Miller, G.

    1978-01-01

    Lymphocyte transforming properties of B95-8 strain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are very sensitive to inactivation by either uv or x irradiation. No dose of irradiation increases the transforming capacity of EBV. The x-ray dose needed for inactivation of EBV transformation (dose that results in 37% survival, 60,000 rads) is similar to the dose required for inactivation of plaque formation by herpes simplex virus type 1 (Fischer strain). Although herpes simplex virus is more sensitive than EBV to uv irradiation, this difference is most likely due to differences in the kinetics or mechanisms of repair of uv damage to the two viruses. The results lead to the hypothesis that a large part, or perhaps all, of the EBV genome is in some way needed to initiate transformation. The abilities of EBV to stimulate host cell DNA synthesis, to induce nuclear antigen, and to immortalize are inactivated in parallel. All clones of marmoset cells transformed by irradiated virus produce extracellular transforming virus. These findings suggest that the abilities of the virus to transform and to replicate complete progeny are inactivated together. The amounts of uv and x irradiation that inactivate transformation by B95-8 virus are less than the dose needed to inactivate early antigen induction by the nontransforming P 3 HR-1 strain of EBV. Based on radiobiological inactivation, 10 to 50% of the genome is needed for early antigen induction

  7. Conformation regulation of the X chromosome inactivation center: a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Scialdone

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available X-Chromosome Inactivation (XCI is the process whereby one, randomly chosen X becomes transcriptionally silenced in female cells. XCI is governed by the Xic, a locus on the X encompassing an array of genes which interact with each other and with key molecular factors. The mechanism, though, establishing the fate of the X's, and the corresponding alternative modifications of the Xic architecture, is still mysterious. In this study, by use of computer simulations, we explore the scenario where chromatin conformations emerge from its interaction with diffusing molecular factors. Our aim is to understand the physical mechanisms whereby stable, non-random conformations are established on the Xic's, how complex architectural changes are reliably regulated, and how they lead to opposite structures on the two alleles. In particular, comparison against current experimental data indicates that a few key cis-regulatory regions orchestrate the organization of the Xic, and that two major molecular regulators are involved.

  8. Thrombin-specific inactivation of endothelial cell derived plasminogen activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highsmith, R.F.; Gallaher, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Although thrombin (T) has diverse functions in the overall hemostatic mechanism, relatively little is known about its direct effect on components of the fibrinolytic enzyme system. The authors have investigated the interaction of T with plasminogen activators (PA) derived from bovine aortic endothelial cells (EC) in culture (2-5th passage, preconfluent monolayers). Varying concentrations of purified bovine or human thrombin were added to EC-conditioned media (CM). CM + T mixtures were assayed at various times for PA activity using purified plasminogen and a sensitive 125 I-fibrinogenolytic or caseinolytic assay. T (5 nM), but not plasmin or trypsin at equivalent concentrations, resulted in a time-dependent inhibition of the PA activity in CM. T had no effect on the PA activity of urokinase, streptokinase or preformed plasmin. The ability of T to inactivate the EC-derived PA was abolished by prior treatment of T with active site-directed reagents. SDS-PAGE and zymography with copolymerized fibrinogen and plasminogen revealed further specificity in that only one of the multiple-molecular weight forms of PA present in EC-CM was inactivated by T. The authors conclude that in a highly specific fashion, T inactivates the predominant PA present in EC-CM by limited proteolysis. Thus, another potentially important function of T is suggested which may have particular significance in the temporal regulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis at the blood-endothelium interface

  9. Thrombin-specific inactivation of endothelial cell derived plasminogen activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highsmith, R.F.; Gallaher, M.J.

    1986-03-05

    Although thrombin (T) has diverse functions in the overall hemostatic mechanism, relatively little is known about its direct effect on components of the fibrinolytic enzyme system. The authors have investigated the interaction of T with plasminogen activators (PA) derived from bovine aortic endothelial cells (EC) in culture (2-5th passage, preconfluent monolayers). Varying concentrations of purified bovine or human thrombin were added to EC-conditioned media (CM). CM + T mixtures were assayed at various times for PA activity using purified plasminogen and a sensitive /sup 125/I-fibrinogenolytic or caseinolytic assay. T (5 nM), but not plasmin or trypsin at equivalent concentrations, resulted in a time-dependent inhibition of the PA activity in CM. T had no effect on the PA activity of urokinase, streptokinase or preformed plasmin. The ability of T to inactivate the EC-derived PA was abolished by prior treatment of T with active site-directed reagents. SDS-PAGE and zymography with copolymerized fibrinogen and plasminogen revealed further specificity in that only one of the multiple-molecular weight forms of PA present in EC-CM was inactivated by T. The authors conclude that in a highly specific fashion, T inactivates the predominant PA present in EC-CM by limited proteolysis. Thus, another potentially important function of T is suggested which may have particular significance in the temporal regulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis at the blood-endothelium interface.

  10. Phage inactivation by triplet acetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The exposure of lambda phage to triplet acetone is studied. The triplet acetone is obtained from aerobic oxidation of isobutanal catalysed by peroxidase. A decrease of lambda phage ability to infect Escherichia coli is reported, perhaps, partially due to the possible production of lesions in the phage genome. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Chromosomal rearrangement interferes with meiotic X chromosome inactivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, David; Ivánek, Robert; Čapková, Jana; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 10 (2007), s. 1431-1437 ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR GA301/06/1334; GA ČR GA301/07/1383 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) HHMI 55000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : chromosomal translocations * meiotic X chromosome inactivation * spermatogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.224, year: 2007

  12. Mechanism of Cd2+-coordination during Slow Inactivation in Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuraman, H.; Cordero-Morales, Julio F.; Jogini, Vishwanath; Pan, Albert C.; Kollewe, Astrid; Roux, Benoît; Perozo, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Summary In K+ channels, rearrangements of the pore outer-vestibule have been associated with C-type inactivation gating. Paradoxically, the crystal structure of Open/C-type inactivated KcsA suggest these movements to be modest in magnitude. Here, we show that under physiological conditions, the KcsA outer-vestibule undergoes relatively large dynamic rearrangements upon inactivation. External Cd2+ enhances the rate of C-type inactivation in an outer-vestibule cysteine mutant (Y82C) via metal-bridge formation. This effect is not present in a non-inactivating mutant (E71A/Y82C). Tandem dimer and tandem tetramer constructs of equivalent cysteine mutants in KcsA and Shaker K+ channels demonstrate that these Cd2+ metal bridges are formed only between adjacent subunits. This is well supported by molecular dynamics simulations. Based on the crystal structure of Cd2+-bound Y82C-KcsA in the closed state, together with EPR distance measurements in the KcsA outer-vestibule, we suggest that subunits must dynamically come in close proximity as the channels undergo inactivation. PMID:22771214

  13. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  14. Target size analysis of bioactive substances by radiation inactivation. Comparison with electron beam and. gamma. -ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Watanabe, Yuhei; Ishigaki, Isao; Hirose, Shigehisa

    1988-11-01

    The molecular sizes of various bioactive substances can be measured by the radiation inactivation method. The high energy electron beam (10 MeV) and /sup 60/Co-..gamma.. ray are mainly used for radiation inactivation method. When the practical electron accelerator (/similar to/ 3 MeV) is used for the method, the problems such as penetration and increase of temperature will arise. In this paper the radiation inactivation using 3MeV electron beam is investigated by comparison with ..gamma..-ray. When the plate type glass ampules (glass thickness 1 +- 0.1 mm) were used as the irradiation vessels, relatively uniform dose distribution was obtained. The temperature increased only from 21 degC to 35 degC by irradiation (0.77 mA, 100 passes, 100 kGy). Under the irradiation condition mentioned above, the molecular size of three enzymes were calculated from D/sub 37/ doses. The molecular sizes obtained by electron beam and ..gamma..-ray were 14,000 and 17,000 respectively for lysozyme, 33,000 for pepsin, and 191,000 and 164,000 for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. These values agreed closely with the reported molecular weight, suggesting that the 3 MeV electron beam can also be used for the radiation inactivation under limited conditions.

  15. Skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Sho; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Ohgane, Jun; Hattori, Naka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Shiota, Kunio

    2004-01-01

    In female mammals, dosage compensation for X-linked genes is accomplished by inactivation of one of two X chromosomes. The X-inactivation ratio (a percentage of the cells with inactivated maternal X chromosomes in the whole cells) is skewed as a consequence of various genetic mutations, and has been observed in a number of X-linked disorders. We previously reported that phenotypically normal full-term cloned mouse fetuses had loci with inappropriate DNA methylation. Thus, cloned mice are excellent models to study abnormal epigenetic events in mammalian development. In the present study, we analyzed X-inactivation ratios in adult female cloned mice (B6C3F1). Kidneys of eight naturally produced controls and 11 cloned mice were analyzed. Although variations in X-inactivation ratio among the mice were observed in both groups, the distributions were significantly different (Ansary-Bradley test, P < 0.01). In particular, 2 of 11 cloned mice showed skewed X-inactivation ratios (19.2% and 86.8%). Similarly, in intestine, 1 of 10 cloned mice had a skewed ratio (75.7%). Skewed X-inactivation was observed to various degrees in different tissues of different individuals, suggesting that skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice is the result of secondary cell selection in combination with stochastic distortion of primary choice. The present study is the first demonstration that skewed X-inactivation occurs in cloned animals. This finding is important for understanding both nuclear transfer technology and etiology of X-linked disorders

  16. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  17. Virus inactivation studies using ion beams, electron and gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolko, Eduardo E. [Laboratorio de Polimeros, Grupo Aplicaciones Industriales, Unidad de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Pbro. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon 15, C.P. B1802AYA Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: smolko@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Lombardo, Jorge H. [Biotech S.A., C.P. 1754 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    Known methods of virus inactivation are based on the chemical action of some substances such as acetylethylenimine, betapropiolactone, glycidalaldehyde, formaldehyde, etc. In such a process, the viral suspension should be kept at room or higher temperatures for 24-48 h. Under these conditions, physical and chemical agents act to degrade the virus antigenic proteins. On the contrary with ionizing radiations at low temperatures, the treatment does not cause such degradation allowing the study of different viral functions. In this work, particle ({alpha}, d and ss) and {gamma} irradiations were used for partial and total inactivation of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Rauscher Leukemia Virus (RLV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). Obtention of the D{sub 37} dose from survival curves and the application of the target theory, permitted the determination of molecular weight of the nucleic acid genomes, EBR values and useful information for vaccine preparation. For RLV virus, a two target model of the RNA genome was deduced in accordance with biological information while from data from the literature and our own work on the structure of the scrapie prion, considering the molecular weight obtained by application of the theory, a new model for prion replication is presented, based on a trimer molecule.

  18. Virus inactivation studies using ion beams, electron and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolko, Eduardo E.; Lombardo, Jorge H.

    2005-01-01

    Known methods of virus inactivation are based on the chemical action of some substances such as acetylethylenimine, betapropiolactone, glycidalaldehyde, formaldehyde, etc. In such a process, the viral suspension should be kept at room or higher temperatures for 24-48 h. Under these conditions, physical and chemical agents act to degrade the virus antigenic proteins. On the contrary with ionizing radiations at low temperatures, the treatment does not cause such degradation allowing the study of different viral functions. In this work, particle (α, d and ss) and γ irradiations were used for partial and total inactivation of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Rauscher Leukemia Virus (RLV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). Obtention of the D 37 dose from survival curves and the application of the target theory, permitted the determination of molecular weight of the nucleic acid genomes, EBR values and useful information for vaccine preparation. For RLV virus, a two target model of the RNA genome was deduced in accordance with biological information while from data from the literature and our own work on the structure of the scrapie prion, considering the molecular weight obtained by application of the theory, a new model for prion replication is presented, based on a trimer molecule

  19. Comparison of histological and molecular diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori in benign lesions and gastric adenocarcinoma Comparação dos diagnósticos histológico e molecular do Helicobacter pylori em lesões benignas e adenocarcinomas gástricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Gobbo César

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonization is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, intestinal metaplasia, adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the stomach. The objective of this study was to compare the results of the routinely used histology with molecular diagnosis for the detection of H. pylori. Eighty samples from gastric lesions (chronic gastritis, atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and intestinal metaplasia, 18 gastric adenocarcinoma and 10 normal mucosa H. pylori-negative (control samples were obtained. All samples were examined histologically (hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa staining, and PCR amplifications of the species-specific antigen gene (H3H4 and urease A gene segment (H5H6 of H. pylori were made, using the human gene CYP1A1 for DNA quality control. In the benign lesion and adenocarcinoma the infection was detected in 43% (42/98 and 71% (70/98 by histological and molecular diagnosis (p = 0.0001, respectively. The PCR test detected H. pylori in 27.5% (22/80 of the benign gastric lesions and in 50% (9/18 of the gastric adenocarcinoma cases, the histological diagnosis being negative for this bacterium. About 2.5% of the samples, exclusively from benign lesions and with a positive histological diagnosis, showed negative molecular results for both primers. Statistically significant differences were found between the histological and the molecular method in intestinal metaplasia (p = 0.0461 and gastric adenocarcinoma (p = 0.0011, due to underdetection of H. pylori by the histological method, which is probably due to the low density of the bacterium as a consequence of the severe atrophy of the gastric mucosa. Our findings suggest that PCR is the more efficient method for the assessment of H. pylori infection, especially in metaplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma.A colonização do Helicobacter pylori está associada com gastrite crônica, úlcera péptica, metaplasia intestinal, adenocarcinoma e linfoma gástrico. O objetivo desse estudo foi

  20. Radiation inactivation method provides evidence that membrane-bound mitochondrial creatine kinase is an oligomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quemeneur, E.; Eichenberger, D.; Goldschmidt, D.; Vial, C.; Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.

    1988-01-01

    Lyophilized suspensions of rabbit heart mitochondria have been irradiated with varying doses of gamma rays. Mitochondrial creatine kinase activity was inactivated exponentially with a radiation inactivation size of 352 or 377 kDa depending upon the initial medium. These values are in good agreement with the molecular mass previously deduced from by permeation experiments: 357 kDa. This is the first direct evidence showing that the native form of mitochondrial creatine kinase is associated to the inner membrane as an oligomer, very likely an octamer

  1. Physical inactivation and stabilization of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1979-07-01

    High temperature conditioning of sludge is a stabilization process that insures sterilization. Both thermal pasteurization and irradiation are inactivation processes. Viruses and parasites are inactivated at 70-80 0 C. Total bacterial destruction requires higher temperatures and/or detention time. Radio sensitivity of pathogens and pertinent treatment parameters are examined. If sludge is to be land disposed, disinfection requires irradiation doses ranging 500 Krad; if cattle feeding is considered, the required dose is 1 Mrad

  2. Microbial Inactivation by Ultrasound Assisted Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, Jose; Ortuño, Carmen; Castillo-Zamudio, Rosa Isela; Mulet, Antonio

    A method combining supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and high power ultrasound (HPU) has been developed and tested for microbial/enzyme inactivation purposes, at different process conditions for both liquid and solid matrices. In culture media, using only SC-CO2, the inactivation rate of E. coli and S. cerevisiae increased with pressure and temperature; and the total inactivation (7-8 log-cycles) was attained after 25 and 140 min of SC-CO2 (350 bar, 36 °C) treatment, respectively. Using SC-CO2+HPU, the time for the total inactivation of both microorganisms was reduced to only 1-2 min, at any condition selected. The SC-CO2+HPU inactivation of both microorganisms was slower in juices (avg. 4.9 min) than in culture media (avg. 1.5 min). In solid samples (chicken, turkey ham and dry-cured pork cured ham) treated with SC-CO2 and SC-CO2+HPU, the inactivation rate of E. coli increased with temperature. The application of HPU to the SC-CO2 treatments accelerated the inactivation rate of E. coli and that effect was more pronounced in treatments with isotonic solution surrounding the solid food samples. The application of HPU enhanced the SC-CO2 inactivation mechanisms of microorganisms, generating a vigorous agitation that facilitated the CO2 solubilization and the mass transfer process. The cavitation generated by HPU could damage the cell walls accelerating the extraction of vital constituents and the microbial death. Thus, using the combined technique, reasonable industrial processing times and mild process conditions could be used which could result into a cost reduction and lead to the minimization in the food nutritional and organoleptic changes.

  3. Mycobacteria inactivation using Engineered Water Nanostructures (EWNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; McDevitt, James; Gao, Ya; Branco, Alan; Eleftheriadou, Mary; Lemos, Bernardo; Nardell, Edward; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-08-01

    Airborne transmitted pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cause serious, often fatal infectious disease with enormous global health implications. Due to their unique cell wall and slow growth, mycobacteria are among the most resilient microbial forms. Herein we evaluate the ability of an emerging, chemical-free, nanotechnology-based method to inactivate M. parafortuitum (Mtb surrogate). This method is based on the transformation of atmospheric water vapor into engineered water nano-structures (EWNS) via electrospray. We demonstrate that the EWNS can interact with and inactivate airborne mycobacteria, reducing their concentration levels significantly. Additionally, EWNS can inactivate M. parafortuitum on surfaces eight times faster than the control. The mechanism of mycobacteria inactivation was also investigated in this study. It was demonstrated that the EWNS effectively deliver the reactive oxygen species, encapsulated during the electrospray process, to the bacteria oxidizing their cell membrane resulting into inactivation. Overall, this is a method with the potential to become an effective intervention technology in the battle against airborne infections. This study demonstrates the feasibility of mycobacterium inactivation in airborne form or on contact surfaces using electrospray activated water nano-structures. Given that the method is free of toxic chemicals, this might become an important tool in the prevention of mycobacterial infections, which are notoriously hard to treat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Photosensitized inactivation of DNA by monochromatic 334-nm radiation in the presence of 2-thiouracil: genetic activity and backbone breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, M.J.; Ito, A.; Peak, J.G.; Foote, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Monochromatic 334-nm radiation delivered under aerobic conditions inactivates the genetic activity (ability to transform auxotrophic recipient cells to nutritional prototrophy) of isolated transforming Bacillus subtilis DNA. The presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and mannitol reduces the 334-nm inactivation. The rate of inactivation of the genetic activity by 334-nm radiation is enhanced fivefold by the sensitizer 2-thiouracil (s 2 Ura). This enhancement is substantially reversed when the irradiations are performed in the presence of mannitol, and, to a lesser extent, SOD. Catalase slightly reduces the s 2 Ura enhancement of 334-nm inactivation of transforming activity. Backbone breaks induced in the same DNA by aerobic 334-nm radiation were also enhanced markedly by the presence of s 2 Ura; this enhancement was reversed by the presence of mannitol and, to a lesser extent, SOD during irradiation. Catalase had no effect upon s 2 Ura-enhanced, 334-nm-induced SSBs. Whereas DNA breakage may be responsible for a portion of the inactivation of the DNA by the photosensitized reaction between s 2 Ura and 334-nm radiation, it is not the only inactivating lesion, because the yield of SSBs per lethal hit per unit length of DNA is not constant for all the irradiation conditions studied. (author)

  5. Inactivation of basolateral amygdala prevents chronic immobilization stress-induced memory impairment and associated changes in corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sunil Jamuna; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Srikumar, B N; Raju, T R; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S

    2017-07-01

    Chronic stress causes detrimental effects on various forms of learning and memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) not only plays a crucial role in mediating certain forms of memory, but also in the modulation of the effects of stress. Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) results in hypertrophy of the BLA, which is believed to be one of the underlying causes for stress' effects on learning. Thus, it is plausible that preventing the effects of CIS on amygdala would preclude its deleterious cognitive effects. Accordingly, in the first part, we evaluated the effect of excitotoxic lesion of the BLA on chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial learning using a partially baited radial arm maze task. The BLA was ablated bilaterally using ibotenic acid prior to CIS. Chronically stressed rats showed impairment in spatial learning with decreased percentage correct choice and increased reference memory errors. Excitotoxic lesion of the BLA prevented the impairment in spatial learning and reference memory. In the retention test, lesion of the BLA was able to rescue the chronic stress-induced impairment. Interestingly, stress-induced enhanced plasma corticosterone levels were partially prevented by the lesion of BLA. These results motivated us to evaluate if the same effects can be observed with temporary inactivation of BLA, only during stress. We found that chronic stress-induced spatial learning deficits were also prevented by temporary inactivation of the BLA. Additionally, temporary inactivation of BLA partially precluded the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Thus, inactivation of BLA precludes stress-induced spatial learning deficits, and enhanced plasma corticosterone levels. It is speculated that BLA inactivation-induced reduction in corticosterone levels during stress, might be crucial in restoring spatial learning impairments. Our study provides evidence that amygdalar modulation during stress might be beneficial for strategic

  6. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  7. Inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in food matrices: high pressure processing, photodynamic inactivation and pressure-assisted photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A.; Couceiro, J.; Bonifácio, D.; Martins, C.; Almeida, A.; Neves, M. G. P. M. S.; Faustino, M. A. F.; Saraiva, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Traditional food processing methods frequently depend on the application of high temperature. However, heat may cause undesirable changes in food properties and often has a negative impact on nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics. Therefore, reducing the microbial load without compromising the desirable properties of food products is still a technological challenge. High-pressure processing (HPP) can be classified as a cold pasteurization technique, since it is a non-thermal food preservation method that uses hydrostatic pressure to inactivate spoilage microorganisms. At the same time, it increases shelf life and retains the original features of food. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is also regarded as promising approach for the decontamination of food matrices. In this case, the inactivation of bacterial cells is achieved by the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygens species (ROS) produced from the combined interaction of a photosensitizer molecule, light and oxygen. This short review examines some recent developments on the application of HPP and PDI with food-grade photosensitizers for the inactivation of listeriae, taken as a food pathogen model. The results of a proof-of-concept trial of the use of high-pressure as a coadjutant to increase the efficiency of photodynamic inactivation of bacterial endospores is also addressed.

  8. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  9. Inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, O.E.; Bogdanov, M.V.; Kazantseva, V.A.; Gabrilevskaia, L.N.; Kodkind, G.K.H.

    The study of ozone inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage showed the presence in sewage of suspensions of organic origin and bacterial flora to influence the rate of inactivation. The inactivation rate of poliomyelitis virus in sewage free from organic suspension and bacterial flora was significantly higher than that in sewage containing such suspension and bacterial flora. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses was found not to depend upon the protein and salt composition and pH of sewage or strain appurtenance of viruses. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses directly depended upon the dose of ozone and time of contact with it. Differences in the resistance of different types of poliomyelitis virus, ECHO and Coxsackie viruses to the effect of ozone are likely exist. These differences are manifested within the range of relatively small doses of ozone. E. coli is more resistant to ozone than entero-viruses. The results of laboratory studies were used to choose the regimen of sanitation of urban sewage to be used in technological cycles of industrial enterprises.

  10. Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium with free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Mariñas, Benito J

    2007-07-15

    The inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium with free chlorine was characterized by two stages: an initial phase at a relatively fast rate followed by a slower second stage of pseudo first-order kinetics. The inactivation rate of each stage was approximately the same for all experiments performed at a certain condition of pH and temperature; however, variability was observed for the disinfectant exposure at which the transition between the two stages occurred. This variability was not a function of the initial disinfectant concentration, the initial bacterial density, or the bacterial stock. However, the transition to the second stage varied more significantly at high temperatures (30 degrees C), while lower variability was observed at lower temperatures (5 and 20 degrees C). Experiments conducted at pH values in the range of 6-9 revealed that the inactivation of M. avium was primarily due to hypochlorous acid, with little contribution from hypochlorite ion within this pH range. The inactivation kinetics was represented with a two-population model. The activation energies for the resulting pseudo first-order rate constants for the populations with fast and slow kinetics were 100.3 and 96.5 kJ/mol, respectively. The magnitude of these values suggested that for waters of relatively high pH and low temperatures, little inactivation of M. avium would be achieved within treatment plants, providing a seeding source for distribution systems.

  11. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  12. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  13. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  14. Radiation inactivation of multimeric enzymes: application to subunit interactions of adenylate cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkman, A.S.; Skorecki, K.L.; Ausiello, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation inactivation has been applied extensively to determine the molecular weight of soluble enzyme and receptor systems from the slope of a linear ln (activity) vs. dose curve. Complex nonlinear inactivation curves are predicted for multimeric enzyme systems, composed of distinct subunits in equilibrium with multimeric complexes. For the system A1 + A2----A1A2, with an active A1A2 complex (associative model), the ln (activity) vs. dose curve is linear for high dissociation constant, K. If a monomer, A1, has all the enzyme activity (dissociative model), the ln (activity) vs. dose curve has an activation hump at low radiation dose if the inactive subunit, A2, has a higher molecular weight than A1 and has upward concavity when A2 is smaller than A1. In general, a radiation inactivation model for a multistep mechanism for enzyme activation fulfills the characteristics of an associative or dissociative model if the reaction step forming active enzyme is an associative or dissociative reaction. Target theory gives the molecular weight of the active enzyme subunit or complex from the limiting slope of the ln (activity) vs. dose curve at high radiation dose. If energy transfer occurs among subunits in the multimer, the ln (activity) vs. dose curve is linear for a single active component and is concave upward for two or more active components. The use of radiation inactivation as a method to determine enzyme size and multimeric subunit assembly is discussed with specific application to the hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system. It is shown that the complex inactivation curves presented in the accompanying paper can be used select the best mechanism out of a series of seven proposed mechanisms for the activation of adenylate cyclase by hormone

  15. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  16. SMARCB1/INI1 inactivation in renal medullary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Julien; Moroch, Julien; Pierron, Gaelle; Pedeutour, Florence; Grison, Camille; Maillé, Pascale; Soyeux, Pascale; de la Taille, Alexandre; Couturier, Jérome; Vieillefond, Annick; Rousselet, Marie Christine; Delattre, Olivier; Allory, Yves

    2012-09-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC), a rare and highly aggressive tumour which occurs in patients with sickle-cell disease, shares many clinicopathological features with collecting duct carcinoma (CDC). The molecular mechanisms underlying RMC and CDC are mainly unknown, and there is ongoing debate about their status as distinct entities. Loss of expression of SMARCB1/INI1, a chromatin remodelling regulator and repressor of cyclin D1 transcription, has been reported recently in RMC. The aim of our study was to investigate if such loss of expression is specific for RMC. SMARCB1/INI1 genetic alterations and cyclin D1 expression were also studied. Using immunochemistry, neoplastic cells showed complete loss of SMARCB1/INI1 expression in all six cases of RMC but in only one of 22 cases of CDC. In two RMC cases investigated, comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated complete loss of one SMARCB1/INI1 allele, with no other genomic imbalances, and no mutations were found on the remaining allele. Cyclin D1 was expressed in all RMCs, suggesting that SMARCB1/INI1 inactivation may result in increased cyclin D1 transcription. The specific SMARCB1/INI1 inactivation observed in RMCs suggests that RMC and CDC are different entities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The Wnt Transcriptional Switch: TLE Removal or Inactivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Aravinda-Bharathi; Sinha, Abhishek; Fan, Vinson B; Cadigan, Ken M

    2018-02-01

    Many targets of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway are regulated by TCF transcription factors, which play important roles in animal development, stem cell biology, and oncogenesis. TCFs can regulate Wnt targets through a "transcriptional switch," repressing gene expression in unstimulated cells and promoting transcription upon Wnt signaling. However, it is not clear whether this switch mechanism is a general feature of Wnt gene regulation or limited to a subset of Wnt targets. Co-repressors of the TLE family are known to contribute to the repression of Wnt targets in the absence of signaling, but how they are inactivated or displaced by Wnt signaling is poorly understood. In this mini-review, we discuss several recent reports that address the prevalence and molecular mechanisms of the Wnt transcription switch, including the finding of Wnt-dependent ubiquitination/inactivation of TLEs. Together, these findings highlight the growing complexity of the regulation of gene expression by the Wnt pathway. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Doc toxin is a kinase that inactivates elongation factor Tu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonathan W; Rothenbacher, Francesca P; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S; Dunham, Christine M; Woychik, Nancy A

    2014-03-14

    The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site.

  19. Doc Toxin Is a Kinase That Inactivates Elongation Factor Tu*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonathan W.; Rothenbacher, Francesca P.; Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Lane, William S.; Dunham, Christine M.; Woychik, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    The Doc toxin from bacteriophage P1 (of the phd-doc toxin-antitoxin system) has served as a model for the family of Doc toxins, many of which are harbored in the genomes of pathogens. We have shown previously that the mode of action of this toxin is distinct from the majority derived from toxin-antitoxin systems: it does not cleave RNA; in fact P1 Doc expression leads to mRNA stabilization. However, the molecular triggers that lead to translation arrest are not understood. The presence of a Fic domain, albeit slightly altered in length and at the catalytic site, provided a clue to the mechanism of P1 Doc action, as most proteins with this conserved domain inactivate GTPases through addition of an adenylyl group (also referred to as AMPylation). We demonstrated that P1 Doc added a single phosphate group to the essential translation elongation factor and GTPase, elongation factor (EF)-Tu. The phosphorylation site was at a highly conserved threonine, Thr-382, which was blocked when EF-Tu was treated with the antibiotic kirromycin. Therefore, we have established that Fic domain proteins can function as kinases. This distinct enzymatic activity exhibited by P1 Doc also solves the mystery of the degenerate Fic motif unique to the Doc family of toxins. Moreover, we have established that all characterized Fic domain proteins, even those that phosphorylate, target pivotal GTPases for inactivation through a post-translational modification at a single functionally critical acceptor site. PMID:24448800

  20. Risk scaling factors from inactivation to chromosome aberrations, mutations and oncogenic transformations in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaharam, A.S.; Watt, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of bio-effect mechanisms of damage to mammalian cells in terms of the quality parameter 'mean free path for primary ionisation', for heavy charged particles, strongly suggests that there is a common mechanism for the biological endpoints of chromosome aberrations, mutations and oncogenic transformation. The lethal lesions are identified as unrepaired double-strand breaks in the intracellular DNA. As data for the various endpoints studied can be represented in a unified scheme, for any radiation type, it follows that radiation risk factors can be determined on the basis of simple ratios to the inactivation cross sections. There are intrinsic physical reasons why neutrons can never reach the saturation level of heavier particles for equal fluences. The probabilities of risk with respect to inactivation, for chromosome dicentrics, mutation of the HPRT gene and of oncogenic transformation are respectively 0.24, 5.8 x 10 -5 , and 4.1 x 10 -3 . (author)

  1. Benign fibroosseous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Köseoğlu Seçgin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibroosseous lesions represent a group of lesions that share the same basic evolutive mechanism and are characterized by replacement of normal bone with a fibrous connective tissue that gradually undergoes mineralization. These lesions are presented by a variety of diseases including developmental, reactive-dysplastic processes and neoplasms. Depending on the nature and amount of calcified tissue, they can be observed as radiolucent, mixed or radiopaque. Their radiographic features could be well-defined or indistinguishable from the surrounding bone tissue. They can be asymptomatic as in osseous dysplasias and can be detected incidentally on radiographs, or they can lead to expansion in the affected bone as in ossifying fibroma. All fibroosseous lesions seen in the jaws and face are variations of the same histological pattern. Therefore, detailed clinical and radiographic evaluation in differential diagnosis is important. In this review, fibroosseous benign lesions are classified as osseous dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia and fibroosseous tumors; and radiographic features and differential diagnosis of these lesions are reviewed taking into account this classification.

  2. Porinas as an adyuvant of inactivated Newcastle vaccine in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bustos M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Three groups of 25 broilers were vaccinated on two opportunities by aerosol using inactivated NC (Newcastle virus and different helper concentrations of porinas (20 ìg, 50 ìg, 125 ìg. A fourth group was injected with live B1 virus (12 and 28 days of age nasally. The NC inactivated virus (La Sota strain was concentrated 10 times with PEG with a final titer of 1:2.056. Twenty serums for each group were taken in order to evaluate NC antibodies using the HI and double immuno-difusion tests for IgA detection at 1, 12, 28 and 42 days of age. During the study the chickens were on a restricted diet in order to control ascites (2.640 mosl. On day 42, two broilers of the fourth group (live virus presented ascites and 1 broiler of group 1 presented lung edema (20 ìg. The geometric mean for NC antibodies titers at 42 days of age was 2 in the groups 1,2,3 and 5.7 in the group 4 (Log 2. For IgA, 180 mg/dl, 135 mg/dl, 120 mg/dl and 176 mg/dl respectively. Three broilers of each group were challenged with a pathogenic strain of NC, at 42 day of age, without signs of disease after 72 hours when the positive control group was dead. Gross and microscopic lesions were not detected in the bursa of Fabricius or thymo. [thymo sounds like short hand for something that should be properly named.] Very good animal weight, conversion and efficiency results were observed in all the groups. New studies using a fixed dose of porinas, larger numbers of broilers and the establishment of protective levels of IgA against NC challenge are recommended.

  3. Inactivation of urease by catechol: Kinetics and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Luca; Cianci, Michele; Musiani, Francesco; Lente, Gábor; Palombo, Marta; Ciurli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Urease is a Ni(II)-containing enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to yield ammonia and carbamate at a rate 10 15 times higher than the uncatalyzed reaction. Urease is a virulence factor of several human pathogens, in addition to decreasing the efficiency of soil organic nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, efficient urease inhibitors are actively sought. In this study, we describe a molecular characterization of the interaction between urease from Sporosarcina pasteurii (SPU) and Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean, JBU) with catechol, a model polyphenol. In particular, catechol irreversibly inactivates both SPU and JBU with a complex radical-based autocatalytic multistep mechanism. The crystal structure of the SPU-catechol complex, determined at 1.50Å resolution, reveals the structural details of the enzyme inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Charge immobilization of the voltage sensor in domain IV is independent of sodium current inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Michael F; Hanck, Dorothy A

    2005-02-15

    Recovery from fast inactivation in voltage-dependent Na+ channels is associated with a slow component in the time course of gating charge during repolarization (i.e. charge immobilization), which results from the slow movement of the S4 segments in domains III and IV (S4-DIII and S4-DIV). Previous studies have shown that the non-specific removal of fast inactivation by the proteolytic enzyme pronase eliminated charge immobilization, while the specific removal of fast inactivation (by intracellular MTSET modification of a cysteine substituted for the phenylalanine in the IFM motif, ICMMTSET, in the inactivation particle formed by the linker between domains III and IV) only reduced the amount of charge immobilization by nearly one-half. To investigate the molecular origin of the remaining slow component of charge immobilization we studied the human cardiac Na+ channel (hH1a) in which the outermost arginine in the S4-DIV, which contributes approximately 20% to total gating charge (Qmax), was mutated to a cysteine (R1C-DIV). Gating charge could be fully restored in R1C-DIV by exposure to extracellular MTSEA, a positively charged methanethiosulphonate reagent. The RIC-DIV mutation was combined with ICMMTSET to remove fast inactivation, and the gating currents of R1C-DIV-ICM(MTSET) were recorded before and after modification with MTSEAo. Prior to MTSEAo, the time course of the gating charge during repolarization (off-charge) was best described by a single fast time constant. After MTSEA, the off-charge had both fast and slow components, with the slow component accounting for nearly 35% of Qmax. These results demonstrate that the slow movement of the S4-DIV during repolarization is not dependent upon the normal binding of the inactivation particle.

  5. Leukotriene B4 omega-hydroxylase in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Suicidal inactivation by acetylenic fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, S; Reich, N O; Goldstein, I M; Ortiz de Montellano, P R

    1985-10-25

    Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) not only generate and respond to leukotriene B4 (LTB4), but also catabolize this mediator of inflammation rapidly and specifically by omega-oxidation (probably due to the action of a cytochrome P-450 enzyme). To develop pharmacologically useful inhibitors of the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase in human PMN, we devised a general scheme for synthesizing terminal acetylenic fatty acids based on the "acetylenic zipper" reaction. We found that the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase in intact PMN and in PMN sonicates is inactivated in a concentration-dependent fashion by terminal acetylenic analogues of lauric, palmitic, and stearic acids (i.e. 11-dodecynoic, 15-hexadecynoic, and 17-octadecynoic acids). Consistent with a suicidal process, inactivation of the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase requires molecular oxygen and NADPH, is time-dependent, and follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Inactivation of the omega-hydroxylase by acetylenic fatty acids also is dependent on the terminal acetylenic moiety and the carbon chain length. Saturated fatty acids lacking a terminal acetylenic moiety do not inactivate the omega-hydroxylase. In addition, the two long-chain (C16, C18) acetylenic fatty acids inactivate the omega-hydroxylase at much lower concentrations (less than 5.0 microM) than those required for inactivation by the short-chain (C12) terminal acetylenic fatty acid (100 microM). Potent suicidal inhibitors of the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase in human PMN will help elucidate the roles played by LTB4 and its omega-oxidation products in regulating PMN function and in mediating inflammation.

  6. Oxygen-independent inactivation of Haemophilus influenzae transforming DNA by monochromatic radiation: action spectrum, effect of histidine and repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Juarez, E; Setlow, J K; Swenson, P A; Peak, M J

    1976-01-01

    The action spectrum for the oxygen-independent inactivation of native transforming DNA from Haemophilus influenzae with near-uv radiation revealed a shoulder beginning at 334 and extending to 460 nm. The presence of 0.2 M histidine during irradiation produced a small increase in inactivation at 254, 290 and 313 nm, a large increase at 334 nm and a decrease in inactivation at 365, 405, and 460 nm. Photoreactivation did not reverse the DNA damage produced at pH 7.0 at 334, 365, 405 and 460 nm, but did reactivate the DNA after irradiation at 254, 290 and 313 nm. The inactivation of DNA irradiated at 254, 290 and 313 nm was considerably greater when the transforming ability was assayed in an excision-defective mutant compared with the wild type, although DNA irradiated at 334, 365, 405 and 460 nm showed smaller differences. These results suggest that the oxygen-independent inactivation of H. influenzae DNA at pH 7 by irradiation at 334, 365, 405 and 460 nm is caused by lesions other than pyrimidine dimers.

  7. Functional size of photosynthetic electron transport chain determined by radiation inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, R.S.; Chen, L.F.; Wang, M.Y.; Tsal, M.Y.; Pan, R.L.; Hsu, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation inactivation technique was employed to determine the functional size of photosynthetic electron transport chain of spinach chloroplasts. The functional size for photosystem I+II(H 2 O to methylviologen) was 623 +/- 37 kilodaltons; for photosystem II (H 2 O to dimethylquinone/ferricyanide), 174 +/- 11 kilodaltons; and for photosystem I (reduced diaminodurene to methylviologen), 190 +/- 11 kilodaltons. The difference between 364 +/- 22 (the sum of 174 +/- 11 and 190 +/- 11) kilodaltons and 623 +/- 37 kilodaltons is partially explained to be due to the presence of two molecules of cytochrome b 6 /f complex of 280 kilodaltons. The molecular mass for other partial reactions of photosynthetic electron flow, also measured by radiation inactivation, is reported. The molecular mass obtained by this technique is compared with that determined by other conventional biochemical methods. A working hypothesis for the composition, stoichiometry, and organization of polypeptides for photosynthetic electron transport chain is proposed

  8. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  9. Inactivation of prion infectivity by ionizing rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gominet, M. [Ionisos, ZI les Chatinieres, F01120 Dagneux (France); Vadrot, C.; Austruy, G. [Paris V University, Central Pharmacy of Hospitals, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75006, Paris (France); Darbord, J.C. [Paris V University, Central Pharmacy of Hospitals, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75006, Paris (France)], E-mail: darbord@pharmacie.univ-paris5.fr

    2007-11-15

    Inactivation of prion deposits on medical devices or prion contamination in pharmaceutical raw materials is considered as impossible by using gamma irradiation. Early, the guideline WHO/CDS/CSR/APH/2000 has described irradiation as an ineffective process. But, in 2003, S. Miekka et al. noted radiation inactivation of prions in a particular application to purify human albumin, shown by the physical denaturation of the infectious protein (PrP). The aim of our study was to determine the inactivation of prions with a scrapie model (strain C506M3) by irradiating standardised preparations. Results: Gamma irradiation was partially effective, showing a 4-5 log reduction on exposure to 50 kGy. A characteristic effect-dose curve was not observed (25, 50 and 100 kGy), only an increase in the incubation period of the murine disease (229 days with 25 kGy to 290 days with 100 kGy) compared with 170 days without irradiation. Since the inactivation was not a total one, the observed effect is significant. It is proposed that further work be undertaken with the model to investigate the application of gamma radiation known levels of prion contamination.

  10. Inactivation of prion infectivity by ionizing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gominet, M.; Vadrot, C.; Austruy, G.; Darbord, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Inactivation of prion deposits on medical devices or prion contamination in pharmaceutical raw materials is considered as impossible by using gamma irradiation. Early, the guideline WHO/CDS/CSR/APH/2000 has described irradiation as an ineffective process. But, in 2003, S. Miekka et al. noted radiation inactivation of prions in a particular application to purify human albumin, shown by the physical denaturation of the infectious protein (PrP). The aim of our study was to determine the inactivation of prions with a scrapie model (strain C506M3) by irradiating standardised preparations. Results: Gamma irradiation was partially effective, showing a 4-5 log reduction on exposure to 50 kGy. A characteristic effect-dose curve was not observed (25, 50 and 100 kGy), only an increase in the incubation period of the murine disease (229 days with 25 kGy to 290 days with 100 kGy) compared with 170 days without irradiation. Since the inactivation was not a total one, the observed effect is significant. It is proposed that further work be undertaken with the model to investigate the application of gamma radiation known levels of prion contamination

  11. Pulsed electric field inactivation in a microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a novel, non-thermal pasteurization method which uses short, high electric field pulses to inactivate microorganisms. The advantage of a pasteurization method like PEF compared to regular heat pasteurization is that the taste, flavour, texture and nutritional value

  12. Cortical inactivation by cooling in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eCoomber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversible inactivation of the cortex by surface cooling is a powerful method for studying the function of a particular area. Implanted cooling cryoloops have been used to study the role of individual cortical areas in auditory processing of awake-behaving cats. Cryoloops have also been used in rodents for reversible inactivation of the cortex, but recently there has been a concern that the cryoloop may also cool non-cortical structures either directly or via the perfusion of blood, cooled as it passed close to the cooling loop. In this study we have confirmed that the loop can inactivate most of the auditory cortex without causing a significant reduction in temperature of the auditory thalamus or other sub-cortical structures. We placed a cryoloop on the surface of the guinea pig cortex, cooled it to 2°C and measured thermal gradients across the neocortical surface. We found that the temperature dropped to 20-24°C among cells within a radius of about 2.5mm away from the loop. This temperature drop was sufficient to reduce activity of most cortical cells and led to the inactivation of almost the entire auditory region. When the temperature of thalamus, midbrain, and middle ear were measured directly during cortical cooling, there was a small drop in temperature (about 4°C but this was not sufficient to directly reduce neural activity. In an effort to visualise the extent of neural inactivation we measured the uptake of thallium ions following an intravenous injection. This confirmed that there was a large reduction of activity across much of the ipsilateral cortex and only a small reduction in subcortical structures.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Markers of Aberrantly Activated Innate Immunity in Vitiligo Lesional and Non-Lesional Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanshen; Wang, Yang; Yu, Jie; Gao, Min; Levings, Megan; Wei, Shencai; Zhang, Shengquan; Xu, Aie; Su, Mingwan; Dutz, Jan; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhou, Youwen

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is characterized by the death of melanocytes in the skin. This is associated with the presence of T cell infiltrates in the lesional borders. However, at present, there is no detailed and systematic characterization on whether additional cellular or molecular changes are present inside vitiligo lesions. Further, it is unknown if the normal appearing non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients is in fact normal. The purpose of this study is to systematically characterize the molecular and cellular characteristics of the lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients. Methods and Materials Paired lesional and non-lesional skin biopsies from twenty-three vitiligo patients and normal skin biopsies from sixteen healthy volunteers were obtained with informed consent. The following aspects were analyzed: (1) transcriptome changes present in vitiligo skin using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR; (2) abnormal cellular infiltrates in vitiligo skin explant cultures using flow cytometry; and (3) distribution of the abnormal cellular infiltrates in vitiligo skin using immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Compared with normal skin, vitiligo lesional skin contained 17 genes (mostly melanocyte-specific genes) whose expression was decreased or absent. In contrast, the relative expression of 13 genes was up-regulated. The up-regulated genes point to aberrant activity of the innate immune system, especially natural killer cells in vitiligo. Strikingly, the markers of heightened innate immune responses were also found to be up-regulated in the non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients. Conclusions and Clinical Implications As the first systematic transcriptome characterization of the skin in vitiligo patients, this study revealed previously unknown molecular markers that strongly suggest aberrant innate immune activation in the microenvironment of vitiligo skin. Since these changes involve both lesional and non-lesional skin, our results suggest that therapies targeting

  14. Skewed X-chromosome inactivation in female carriers of dyskeratosis congenita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devriendt, K.; Matthijs, G.; Legius, E. [Univ. Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    In this study, we report on a family with X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (DC). Linkage analysis with markers in the factor VIII gene at Xq28 yielded a LOD score of 2 at a recombination of 0. Clinical manifestations of DC, such as skin lesions following the Blaschko lines, were present in two obligate carrier females. Highly skewed X inactivation was observed in white blood cells, cultured skin fibroblasts, and buccal mucosa from female carriers of DC in this family. This suggests a critical role for the DC gene in bone marrow-cell and fibroblast-cell proliferation. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Precancerous Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Malvehy, J; Guillén, C; Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; Fernández-Figueras, M

    Certain clinically and histologically recognizable skin lesions with a degree of risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally grouped as precancerous skin conditions but now tend to be classified as in situ carcinomas. This consensus statement discusses various aspects of these lesions: their evaluation by means of clinical and histopathologic features, the initial evaluation of the patient, the identification of risk factors for progression, and the diagnostic and treatment strategies available today. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of functional recovery of manual dexterity after unilateral spinal cord lesion or motor cortex lesion in adult macaque monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eHoogewoud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on the type of lesion? To this aim, data derived from earlier studies, using a skilled finger task (the modified Brinkman board from which pellets are retrieved from vertical or horizontal slots, in spinal cord and motor cortex injured monkeys were analyzed and compared. Twelve adult macaque monkeys were subjected to a hemi-section of the cervical cord (n=6 or to a unilateral excitotoxic lesion of the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (n=6. In addition, in each subgroup, one half of monkeys (n=3 were treated for 30 days with a function blocking antibody against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A, while the other half (n=3 represented control animals. The motor deficits, and the extent and time course of functional recovery were assessed.For some of the parameters investigated (wrist angle for horizontal slots and movement types distribution for vertical slots after cervical injury; movement types distribution for horizontal slots after motor cortex lesion, post-lesion restoration of the original movement patterns (true recovery led to a quantitatively better functional recovery. In the motor cortex lesion groups, pharmacological reversible inactivation experiments showed that the peri-lesion territory of the primary motor cortex or re-arranged, spared domain of the lesion zone, played a major role in the functional recovery, together with the ipsilesional intact premotor cortex.

  17. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjunctival lesions are frequently seen in the eye clinic, because the conjunctiva is readily ... anti-histamine drops and mast cell stabilisers can be used. e more severe cases have to be .... Ehlers J, Shah C . The Wills Eye Manual. Office and.

  18. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  19. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  20. Frequency of USP6 rearrangements in myositis ossificans, brown tumor, and cherubism: molecular cytogenetic evidence that a subset of ''myositis ossificans-like lesions'' are the early phases in the formation of soft-tissue aneurysmal bone cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukov, William R.; Erickson-Johnson, Michele; Unni, K.K.; Wang, Xiaoke; Oliveira, Andre M.; Franco, Marcello F.; Chou, Margaret M.; Wenger, Doris E.

    2008-01-01

    USP6 rearrangements with several partner genes have been identified recently in primary but not in secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs). Several lesions show histologic features that may overlap with ABC, including myositis ossificans (MO), brown tumor, and cherubism. The objective of this study was to assess whether these lesions harbored USP6 rearrangements. Twelve patients with classic radiologic and histologic features of MO, 6 with brown tumors, and 5 with cherubism diagnosed at our institution were studied for the presence of USP6 rearrangements using fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes flanking the USP6 locus on chromosome 17p13. In addition, conventional cytogenetic analysis was performed in 2 patients with cherubism. USP6 rearrangements were identified in 2 patients with radiologic and histologic features consistent with MO. None of the patients with brown tumor or cherubism demonstrated USP6 rearrangements. Cytogenetic analysis of the cherubism patients demonstrated normal karyotypes. These findings indicate that a subset of cases with apparent classic histologic and imaging features of MO are rather better classified as being soft-tissue ABC with clonal USP6 rearrangements. In contrast, no USP6 rearrangements were found in patients with cherubism or brown tumor, supporting the prevailing view that these lesions are distinct biologic entities. (orig.)

  1. Characterization of the functional domains of the natriuretic peptide receptor/guanylate cyclase by radiation inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, J.; Huot, C.; Koch, C.; Potier, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation inactivation has been used to evaluate the molecular size of domains responsible for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-binding and cyclase functions of the ANP receptor/guanylate cyclase. Two types of inactivation curves were observed for cyclase function in both adrenal cortex and aortic smooth muscle cells: (1) biphasic with enhanced guanylate cyclase activity after exposure to low radiation doses and (2) linear after preincubation of membrane proteins with 0.5 microM ANP or solubilization with Triton X-100. The existence of an inhibitory component was the simplest model that best explained the types of radiation curves obtained. Activation of guanylate cyclase by ANP or Triton X-100 could occur via the dissociation of this inhibitory component from the catalytic domain. On the other hand, the loss of ANP-binding activity was linear with increasing radiation exposures under basal, ANP treatment, and Triton X-100 solubilization conditions. Radiation inactivation sizes of about 30 kDa for cyclase function, 20 kDa for ANP-binding function, and 90 kDa for inhibitory function were calculated. These studies suggest that the ANP receptor/guanylate cyclase behaves as a multidomain protein. The results obtained by radiation inactivation of the various biological functions of this receptor are compatible with the hypothesis of an intramolecular inhibitory domain repressing the guanylate cyclase catalytic domain within its membrane environment

  2. “Redundancy” of Endocannabinoid Inactivation: New Challenges and Opportunities for Pain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Redundancy of metabolic pathways and molecular targets is a typical feature of all lipid mediators, and endocannabinoids, which were originally defined as endogenous agonists at cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, are no exception. In particular, the two most studied endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, are inactivated through alternative biochemical routes, including hydrolysis and oxidation, and more than one enzyme might be used even for the same type of inactivating reaction. These enzymes also recognize as substrates other concurrent lipid mediators, whereas, in turn, endocannabinoids might interact with noncannabinoid receptors with subcellular distribution and ultimate biological actions either similar to or completely different from those of cannabinoid receptors. Even splicing variants of endocannabinoid hydrolyzing enzymes, such as FAAH-1, might play distinct roles in endocannabinoid inactivation. Finally, the products of endocannabinoid catabolism may have their own targets, with biological roles different from those of cannabinoid receptors. These peculiarities of endocannabinoid signaling have complicated the use of inhibitors of its inactivation mechanisms as a safer and more efficacious alternative to the direct targeting of cannabinoid receptors for the treatment of several pathological conditions, including pain. However, new strategies, including the rediscovery of “dirty drugs”, and the use of certain natural products (including non-THC cannabis constituents), are emerging that might allow us to make a virtue of necessity and exploit endocannabinoid redundancy to develop new analgesics. PMID:22860203

  3. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  4. Maxillomandibular giant osteosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino LEDESMA-MONTES

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs are a group of rarely reported intraosseous lesions. Their precise diagnosis is important since they can be confused with malignant neoplasms. Objective This retrospective study aimed to record and analyze the clinical and radiographic Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs detected in the maxillomandibular area of patients attending to our institution. Materials and Methods: Informed consent from the patients was obtained and those cases of 2.5 cm or larger lesions with radiopaque or mixed (radiolucid-radiopaque appearance located in the maxillofacial bones were selected. Assessed parameters were: age, gender, radiographic aspect, shape, borders, size, location and relations to roots. Lesions were classified as radicular, apical, interradicular, interradicular-apical, radicular-apical or located in a previous teeth extraction area. Additionally, several osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs were assessed. Results Seventeen radiopacities in 14 patients were found and were located almost exclusively in mandible and were two types: idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis. GOLs were more frequent in females, and in the anterior and premolar zones. 94.2% of GOLs were qualified as idiopathic osteosclerosis and one case was condensing osteitis. All studied cases showed different osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs. The most common were: Microdontia, hypodontia, pulp stones, macrodontia and variations in the mental foramina. Conclusions GOLs must be differentiated from other radiopaque benign and malignant tumors. Condensing osteitis, was considered an anomalous osseous response induced by a chronic low-grade inflammatory stimulus. For development of idiopathic osteosclerosis, two possible mechanisms could be related. The first is modification of the normal turnover with excessive osseous deposition. The second mechanism will prevent the normal bone resorption, arresting the

  5. "Slow" Voltage-Dependent Inactivation of CaV2.2 Calcium Channels Is Modulated by the PKC Activator Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    Full Text Available CaV2.2 (N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca2+ channels play key roles in neurons and neuroendocrine cells including the control of cellular excitability, neurotransmitter / hormone secretion, and gene expression. Calcium entry is precisely controlled by channel gating properties including multiple forms of inactivation. "Fast" voltage-dependent inactivation is relatively well-characterized and occurs over the tens-to- hundreds of milliseconds timeframe. Superimposed on this is the molecularly distinct, but poorly understood process of "slow" voltage-dependent inactivation, which develops / recovers over seconds-to-minutes. Protein kinases can modulate "slow" inactivation of sodium channels, but little is known about if/how second messengers control "slow" inactivation of Ca2+ channels. We investigated this using recombinant CaV2.2 channels expressed in HEK293 cells and native CaV2 channels endogenously expressed in adrenal chromaffin cells. The PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA dramatically prolonged recovery from "slow" inactivation, but an inactive control (4α-PMA had no effect. This effect of PMA was prevented by calphostin C, which targets the C1-domain on PKC, but only partially reduced by inhibitors that target the catalytic domain of PKC. The subtype of the channel β-subunit altered the kinetics of inactivation but not the magnitude of slowing produced by PMA. Intracellular GDP-β-S reduced the effect of PMA suggesting a role for G proteins in modulating "slow" inactivation. We postulate that the kinetics of recovery from "slow" inactivation could provide a molecular memory of recent cellular activity and help control CaV2 channel availability, electrical excitability, and neurotransmission in the seconds-to-minutes timeframe.

  6. Some factors affecting urokinase inactivation. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Hiroo; Iketa, Yoshito

    1985-10-01

    The enzymatic activity of urokinase adsorbed on various polymer surfaces was measured to study the interaction between protein and polymers. The polymer films on which urokinase was adsorbed were exposed to either a high temperature or ..gamma..-radiation. The thermal inactivation rates were higher on hydrophobic polymers such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), nylon 6, and poly(vinylidene fluoride) than hydrophilic polymers like cellulose and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer, indicating their substantial dependence on the interfacial free energy between the polymer and water. A similar dependence was also seen for the ..gamma..-radiation inactivation. Urokinase adsorbed on the hydrophobic polymers lost more easily its enzymatic activity by exposure to ..gamma..-radiation. The interfacial free energy seems to be one of the driving forces to denaturate proteins on polymers.

  7. Inactivation of biological substances by local heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1982-09-01

    Mechanism of inactivation of biological substances caused by local heating was investigated. The effect of hot-zone formation by local heating on reaction of radicals was previously evaluated. The thermal increase in a hot zone due to low energy LET x-rays had little effect on reactibility of the radicals, but, in a hot zone caused by high energy LET x-rays, formed radicals seemed immediately react to active biological molecules to inactivate them. Direct thermal effect on biological molecules was analysed. Thermal increase in a hot zone may induce degenaration of biological molecules which seems to occur in a short time judged from the extension of a hot zone and the duration of high temperature.

  8. Immunogenicity of UV-inactivated measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahorska, R.; Mazur, N.; Korbecki, M.

    1978-01-01

    By means of the antigen extinction limit test it was shown that a triple dose vaccination of guinea pigs with UV-inactivated measles virus gave better results, than a single dose vaccination which was proved by the very low immunogenicity index. For both vaccination schemes (single and triple) the immune response was only sligthly influenced by a change of dose from 10 5 to 10 6 HadU 50 /ml or by the addition of aluminum adjuvant. In the antigen extinction limit test the antibody levels were determined by two methods (HIT and NT) the results of which were statistically equivalent. The UV-inactivated measles virus was also found to induce hemolysis-inhibiting antibodies. (orig.) [de

  9. Inactivation of Smad4 in gastric carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Harper, J C; Hamilton, S R; Robinson, C R; Cummings, O W

    1997-10-01

    Allelic loss of chromosome 18q has been noted in intestinal type gastric adenocarcinomas. Smad4 is a gene located at 18q that was recently cloned in humans and found to be significantly altered in pancreatic cancers. We sought to determine whether Smad4 genetic alterations played a significant role in gastric tumorigenesis by studying 35 gastric adenocarcinomas of all histopathological types and pathological stages. Microdissected specimens were used for mutational analysis of Smad4 at the nucleotide level, including the entire coding region and intron/exon boundaries. Allelic imbalance was also analyzed at the Smad4 locus using two nearby microsatellite markers. One case of apparent biallelic inactivation of Smad4 was found in our study of 35 gastric carcinomas. A nonsense point mutation at codon 334 was demonstrated, which, similar to other Smad4 mutations, is predicted to truncate the conserved COOH-terminal domain of this protein. This Smad4 C to T transition mutation was proven to be somatically acquired. Allelic loss was also noted on chromosome 18q at a marker near Smad4 in this mutated gastric cancer, apparently producing complete inactivation of Smad4 in this tumor. Significant 18q allelic loss (56% of 34 informative cases) was noted in our gastric carcinomas using microsatellite markers near the Smad4 locus, regardless of histological subtype or pathological stage. Additionally, three cases of microsatellite instability were observed. Thus, Smad4 inactivation was noted in our gastric carcinomas; however, this event was rare. The frequent loss of chromosomal arm 18q observed in gastric cancers suggests the presence of other tumor suppressor genes in this region that are involved in gastric tumorigenesis. Further studies are needed to identify these other targets of inactivation during gastric cancer development.

  10. Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Schoenmakers

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW, whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.

  11. Inactivation of Anandamide Signaling: A Continuing Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael E. Houssen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the first endocannabinoid anandamide was identified in 1992, extensive research has been conducted to characterize the elements of the tightly controlled endocannabinoid signaling system. While it was established that the activity of endocannabinoids are terminated by a two-step process that includes cellular uptake and degradation, there is still a continuing debate about the mechanistic role of these processes in inactivating anandamide signals.

  12. Photodynamic inactivation of antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paronyan, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays methicillin-resistant strain Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most widespread multiresistant bacteria. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of microorganisms by photosensitizers (PS) may be an effective and alternative therapeutic option against antibiotic resistant bacteria. The effectiveness of new PS cationic porphyrin Zn-TBut4PyP was tested on two strains of S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus). It is shown that Zn-TBut4PyP has high photodynamic activity against both strains

  13. The subthalamic nucleus keeps you high on emotion: behavioral consequences of its inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann ePelloux

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subthalamic nucleus (STN belongs to the basal ganglia and is the current target for the surgical treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson’s Disease (PD and obsessive compulsive disorders, but also a proposed site for the treatment of addiction. It is therefore very important to understand its functions in order to anticipate and prevent possible side-effects in the patients. Although the involvement of the STN is well documented in motor, cognitive and motivational processes, less is known regarding emotional processes. Here we have investigated the direct consequences of STN inactivation by excitotoxic lesions on emotional processing and reinforcement in the rat. We have used various behavioral procedures to assess affect for neutral, positive and negative reinforcers in STN lesioned rats. STN lesions reduced affective responses for positive (sweet solutions and negative (electric foot shock, Lithium Chloride-induced sickness reinforcers while they had no effect on responses for a more neutral reinforcer (novelty induced place preference. Furthermore, when given the choice between saccharine, a sweet but non caloric solution, and glucose, a more bland but caloric solution, in contrast to sham animals that preferred saccharine, STN lesioned animals preferred glucose over saccharine. Taken altogether these results reveal that STN plays a critical role in emotional processing. These results, in line with some clinical observations in PD patients subjected to STN surgery, suggest possible emotional side-effects of treatments targeting the STN. They also suggest that the increased motivation for sucrose previously reported cannot be due to increased pleasure, but could be responsible for the decreased motivation for cocaine reported after STN inactivation.

  14. Inactivation of human norovirus using chemical sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, David H; Vincent, Emily M; Meade, Gloria K; Watson, Clytrice L; Fan, Xuetong

    2014-02-03

    The porcine gastric mucin binding magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay was used to evaluate the ability of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and trisodium phosphate to inactivate human norovirus within 10% stool filtrate. One-minute free chlorine treatments at concentrations of 33 and 189 ppm reduced virus binding in the PGM-MB assay by 1.48 and 4.14 log₁₀, respectively, suggesting that chlorine is an efficient sanitizer for inactivation of human norovirus (HuNoV). Five minute treatments with 5% trisodium phosphate (pH~12) reduced HuNoV binding by 1.6 log₁₀, suggesting that TSP, or some other high pH buffer, could be used to treat food and food contact surfaces to reduce HuNoV. One minute treatments with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide dissolved in water did not reduce PGM-MB binding, suggesting that the sanitizer may not be suitable for HuNoV inactivation in liquid form. However a 60-min treatment with 350 ppm chlorine dioxide did reduce human norovirus by 2.8 log₁₀, indicating that chlorine dioxide had some, albeit limited, activity against HuNoV. Results also suggest that peroxyacetic acid has limited effectiveness against human norovirus, since 1-min treatments with up to 195 ppm reduced human norovirus binding by chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) as a HuNoV disinfectant wherever possible. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Inactivation of Parietal Reach Region Affects Reaching But Not Saccade Choices in Internally Guided Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Vassilios N; Bonaiuto, James; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A

    2015-08-19

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has traditionally been considered important for awareness, spatial perception, and attention. However, recent findings provide evidence that the PPC also encodes information important for making decisions. These findings have initiated a running argument of whether the PPC is critically involved in decision making. To examine this issue, we reversibly inactivated the parietal reach region (PRR), the area of the PPC that is specialized for reaching movements, while two monkeys performed a memory-guided reaching or saccade task. The task included choices between two equally rewarded targets presented simultaneously in opposite visual fields. Free-choice trials were interleaved with instructed trials, in which a single cue presented in the peripheral visual field defined the reach and saccade target unequivocally. We found that PRR inactivation led to a strong reduction of contralesional choices, but only for reaches. On the other hand, saccade choices were not affected by PRR inactivation. Importantly, reaching and saccade movements to single instructed targets remained largely intact. These results cannot be explained as an effector-nonspecific deficit in spatial attention or awareness, since the temporary "lesion" had an impact only on reach choices. Hence, the PPR is a part of a network for reach decisions and not just reach planning. There has been an ongoing debate on whether the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) represents only spatial awareness, perception, and attention or whether it is also involved in decision making for actions. In this study we explore whether the parietal reach region (PRR), the region of the PPC that is specialized for reaches, is involved in the decision process. We inactivated the PRR while two monkeys performed reach and saccade choices between two targets presented simultaneously in both hemifields. We found that inactivation affected only the reach choices, while leaving saccade choices intact

  16. Lesion progression in post-treatment persistent endodontic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victoria Soo Hoon; Messer, Harold Henry; Shen, Liang; Yee, Robert; Hsu, Chin-ying Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Radiographic lesions related to root-filled teeth may persist for long periods after treatment and are considered to indicate failure of initial treatment. Persistent lesions are found in a proportion of cases, but information on lesion progression is lacking. This study examined the incidence of lesion improvement, remaining unchanged, and deterioration among persistent lesions in a group of patients recruited from a university-based clinic and identified potential predictors for lesion progression. Patients of a university clinic with persistent endodontic lesions at least 4 years since treatment and with original treatment radiographs available were recruited with informed consent. Data were obtained by interview and from dental records and clinical and radiographic examinations. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS (version 19). One hundred fifty-one persistent lesions were identified in 114 patients. A majority of the lesions (107, 70.9%) received treatment between 4 and 5 years prior. Eighty-six lesions (57.0%) improved, 18 (11.9%) remained unchanged, and 47 (31.1%) deteriorated since treatment. Potential predictors for lesions that did not improve included recall lesion size, pain on biting at recall examination, history of a postobturation flare-up, and a non-ideal root-filling length (P < .05). Lesions that had persisted for a longer period appeared less likely to be improving (relative risk, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.077). A specific time interval alone should not be used to conclude that a lesion will not resolve without intervention. This study identified several clinical factors that are associated with deteriorating persistent lesions, which should aid in identifying lesions that require further intervention. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inactivation of normal and mutant Neurospora crassa conidia by visible light and near-UV: role of 1O2, carotenoid composition and sensitizer location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.A.; Sargent, M.L.; Tuveson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Inactivation of Neurospora crassa conidia from wild-type and mutant strains by visible and near-ultraviolet light was investigated in the presence and absence of photosensitizing dyes. Inactivation by near-UV was virtually unchanged by the presence of deuterium oxide or azide suggesting that, contrary to the situation with visible light and photosensitizing dyes, 1 O 2 is not involved in any substantial way in the formation of lethal lesions. Carotenoid deficient strains were similar to wild-type strains in sensitivity to near-UV inactivation which is consistent with 1 O 2 not being involved. Photodynamic inactivation of conidia by visible light occurred in the presence of methylene blue (MB), toluidine blue O (TB), or acridine orange (AO). Carotenoid deficient strains were more sensitive to such inactivation only when MB and TB were used. This suggests that MB and TB mediated damage involves the cell membrane where carotenoids are available for quenching, whereas AO mediated damage occurs in the nucleus sequestered from the protective influence of carotenoids. A newly isolated, lemon-yellow mutant exhibited sensitivities to photodynamic inactivation similar to other pure-white mutants. The sensitivity of this pigmented mutant is apparently related to insufficient unsaturation of the two coloured carotenoids produced by the mutant. (author)

  18. Radiation inactivation analysis of chloroplast CF0-CF1 ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.Y.; Chien, L.F.; Pan, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation inactivation technique was employed to measure the functional size of adenosine triphosphatase of spinach chloroplasts. The functional size for acid-base-induced ATP synthesis was 450 +/- 24 kilodaltons; for phenazine methosulfate-mediated ATP synthesis, 613 +/- 33 kilodaltons; and for methanol-activated ATP hydrolysis, 280 +/- 14 kilodaltons. The difference (170 +/- 57 kilodaltons) between 450 +/- 24 and 280 +/- 14 kilodaltons is explained to be the molecular mass of proton channel (coupling factor 0) across the thylakoid membrane. Our data suggest that the stoichiometry of subunits I, II, and III of coupling factor 0 is 1:2:15. Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase activated by methanol, heat, and trypsin digestion have a similar functional size. However, anions such as SO 3 (2-) and CO 3 (2-) increased the molecular mass for both ATPase's (except trypsin-activated Mg2+-ATPase) by 12-30%. Soluble coupling factor 1 has a larger target size than that of membrane-bound. This is interpreted as the cold effect during irradiation

  19. Enhanced resistance to blast fungus in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by expressing the ribosome-inactivating protein α-momorcharin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qian; Huang, Lin; Yi, Rong; Wang, Shuzhen; Ding, Yi

    2014-03-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea is one of the three major diseases that seriously affect the rice production. Alpha-momorcharin (α-MC), a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated from Momordica charantia seeds, has antifungal effects in vitro. In this study, the α-MC gene was constitutively expressed under the control of the 2×35S promoter in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. The nine transgenic plants were obtained and confirmed by PCR and RT-PCR, and the four (B2, B4, B7 and B9) of them whose copy numbers were 1, 2, 3 and 3, respectively, were shown to express the α-MC protein by Western blot. The molecular weight of α-MC in transgenic plants was approximately 38 kDa larger than the purified α-MC protein (28 kDa) in vitro. When the confirmed T1 generations were inoculated with a suspension of M. grisea spores for ten days, the lesions on leaves of transgenic plants were much lesser than those found on wild type (WT). According to the criteria of International Rice Research Institute standard, the mean values for morbidity and disease index numbers were 29.8% and 14.9%, respectively, which were lower than for WT. It is unclear whether RIPs could impact plant fitness and however our results suggest that the α-MC protein is an effective antifungal protein preventing rice blast in transgenic rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Action spectra for inactivation of normal and xeroderma pigmentosum human skin fibroblasts by ultraviolet radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyse, S.M.; Moss, S.H.; Davies, D.J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Action spectra for UV-induced lethality as measured by colony forming ability were determined both for a normal human skin fibroblast strain (1BR) and for an excision deficient xeroderma pigmentosum strain (XP4LO) assigned to complementation group A using 7 monochromatic wavelengths in the range 254-365 nm. The relative sensitivity of the XP strain compared to the normal skin fibroblasts shows a marked decrease at wavelengths longer than 313 nm, changing from a ratio of about 20 at the shorter wavelengths to just greater than 1.0 at the longer wavelengths. The action spectra thus indicate that the influence on cell inactivation of the DNA repair defect associated with XP cells is decreased and almost reaches zero at longer UV wavelengths. This would occur, for example, if the importance of pyrimidine dimers as the lethal lesion decreased with increasing wavelength. These results are consistent with pyrimidine dimers induced in DNA being the major lethal lesion in both cell strains over the wavelength range 254-313 nm. However, it is indicated that different mechanisms of inactivation operate at wavelengths longer than 313 nm. (author)

  1. Ultraviolet radiation inactivates SV40 by disrupting at least four genetic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.C.; Cerutti, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The most UV sensitive region within the SV40 viral genome contains the transcriptional promotors and enhancers for the early and late viral genes plus part of the origin of DNA replication. Lesions within this regulatory region are 3.2-fold more effective in inactivating viral DNA than is the same amount of damage randomly distributed throughout the viral genome. The region least sensitive to damage lies within the coding portion of the viral coat protein genes, which are expressed only late in infection and would therefore be transcribed from undamaged progeny viral genomes, provided DNA replication occurs. Damage within this region is only 45% as effective in inactivating viral DNA as are randomly distributed lesions. Thus there is a 7-fold difference in the lethal effect of DNA damage within the most and least sensitive regions of the viral genome. Intermediate sensitivities are observed within the transcribed portion of the viral A gene, coding for the T antigen whose expression is required early in infection, and in a region at the terminus of DNA replication. The sum of the individual sensitivities for all regions of the SV40 genome is equal to the total sensitivity of viral DNA subjected to random damage. (author)

  2. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  3. Endometrial-Peritoneal Interactions during Endometriotic Lesion Establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, M. Louise; Escareno, Claudia Rangel; Godsland, Jane M.; Doig, John R.; Johnson, Claire M.; Phillips, Stephen C.; Smith, Stephen K.; Tavaré, Simon; Print, Cristin G.; Charnock-Jones, D. Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The pathophysiology of endometriosis remains unclear but involves a complex interaction between ectopic endometrium and host peritoneal tissues. We hypothesized that disruption of this interaction would suppress endometriotic lesion formation. We hoped to delineate the molecular and cellular dialogue between ectopic human endometrium and peritoneal tissues in nude mice as a first step toward testing this hypothesis. Human endometrium was xenografted into nude mice, and the resulting lesions w...

  4. Prevalent Bacterial Species and Novel Phylotypes in Advanced Noma Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Paster, B. J.; Falkler, Jr., W. A.; Enwonwu, C. O.; Idigbe, E. O.; Savage, K. O.; Levanos, V. A.; Tamer, M. A.; Ericson, R. L.; Lau, C. N.; Dewhirst, F. E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial diversity in advanced noma lesions using culture-independent molecular methods. 16S ribosomal DNA bacterial genes from DNA isolated from advanced noma lesions of four Nigerian children were PCR amplified with universally conserved primers and spirochetal selective primers and cloned into Escherichia coli. Partial 16S rRNA sequences of approximately 500 bases from 212 cloned inserts were used initially to determine species identity or cl...

  5. Localization of lesions in aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Kei; Watanabe, Shunzo; Tasaki, Hiroichi; Sato, Tokijiro; Metoki, Hirobumi.

    1984-01-01

    Using a microcomputer, the locus and extent of the lesions, as demonstrated by computed tomography for 127 cases with various types of aphasia were superimposed onto standardized marices. The relationship between the foci of the lesions and the types of aphasia was investigated. Broca aphasics (n=39) : Since the accumulated site of the lesions highly involved the deep structures of the lower part of the precentral gyrus as well as the insula and lenticular nucleus, only 60% of the Broca aphasics had lesions on these areas. This finding has proved to have little localizing value. Wernicke aphasics (n=23) : The size of the lesion was significantly smaller than Broca's aphasia. At least 70% of the patients had the superior temporal lesions involving Wernicke's area and subcortical lesions of the superior and middle temporal gyri. Amnestic aphasics (n=18) : The size of the lesion was smaller than any other types. While there was some concentration of the lesions (maximum 40%) in the area of the subcortical region of the anterior temporal gyrus adjacent to Wernicke's area and the lenticular nucleus, the lesions were distributed throughout the left hemisphere. Amnestic aphasia was thought to be the least localizable. Conduction aphasics (n=11) : The lesions were relatively small in size. Many patients had posterior speech area lesions involving at least partially Wernicke's area. In particular, more than 80% of the conduction aphasics had lesions of the supramarginal gyrus and it's adjacent deep structures. Global aphasics (n=36) : In general, the size of the lesion was very large and 70% of the global aphasics had extensive lesions involving both Broca's and Wernicke's areas. However, there were observations showing that the lesions can be small and confined. (J.P.N.)

  6. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  7. Chlorine inactivation of Tubifex tubifex in drinking water and the synergistic effect of sequential inactivation with UV irradiation and chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Bao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Long, Yuan-Nan; He, Pan-Pan; Xu, Chao

    2017-06-01

    The inactivation of Tubifex tubifex is important to prevent contamination of drinking water. Chlorine is a widely-used disinfectant and the key factor in the inactivation of T. tubifex. This study investigated the inactivation kinetics of chlorine on T. tubifex and the synergistic effect of the sequential use of chlorine and UV irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the Ct (concentration × time reaction ) concept could be used to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex with chlorine, thus allowing for the use of a simpler Ct approach for the assessment of T. tubifex chlorine inactivation requirements. The inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be well-fitted to a delayed pseudo first-order Chick-Watson expression. Sequential experiments revealed that UV irradiation and chlorine worked synergistically to effectively inactivate T. tubifex as a result of the decreased activation energy, E a , induced by primary UV irradiation. Furthermore, the inactivation effectiveness of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be affected by several drinking water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand with potassium permanganate (COD Mn ) concentration. High pH exhibited pronounced inactivation effectiveness and the decrease in turbidity and COD Mn concentrations contributed to the inactivation of T. tubifex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  9. Cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide produces severe neurological impairment in fruit bats: protection by methionine and aggravation by folates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Westhuyzen, J.; Fernandes-Costa, F.; Metz, J.

    1982-11-01

    Nitrous oxide, which inactivates cobalamin when administered to fruit bats, results in severe neurological impairment leading to ataxia, paralysis and death. This occurs after about 6 weeks in animals depleted of cobalamin by dietary restriction, and after about 10 weeks in cobalamin replete bats. Supplementation of the diet with pteroylglutamic acid caused acceleration of the neurological impairment--the first unequivocal demonstration of aggravation of the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency by pteroylglutamic acid. The administration of formyltetrahydropteroylglutamic acid produced similar aggravation of the neurological lesion. Supplementation of the diet with methionine protected the bats from neurological impairment, but failed to prevent death. Methionine supplementation protected against the exacerbating effect of folate, preventing the development of neurological changes. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency may be related to a deficiency in the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine which follows diminished synthesis of methionine.

  10. Analysis of pulmonary coin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, O; Kim, K. H.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    For A long time the solitary pulmonary nodule has remained a difficult problem to solve and has attracted a great deal of attension in recent years. Circumscribed coin lesions of the lung were generally peripheral in location with respect to the pulmonary hilus. Because of this, important clinical problem in management and diagnosis arise. Such a lesion is discovered through roentgenologic examination. So the roentgenologists is the first be in a position to offer advise. This presentation is an attempt to correlate a useful diagnosis with roentgenologic findings of pulmonary coin lesion which enables us to get differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesion. Histologically proven 120 cases of the pulmonary coin lesion during the period of 8 years were reviewed through plain film, tomogram, bronchoscopy, variable laboratory findings, and clinical history. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female sex ratio was 3 : 1. In age distribution, most of the malignant pulmonary coin lesion appeared in 6th decade (39%) and 5th decade (27%). In benign lesion, the most cases were in 3 rd decade. 2. Pathological cell type are as follows: Primary bronchogenic cancer 43.3%, tuberculoma 25.8%, inflammatory lesion 17.5%, benign tumor 10%, and bronchial adenoma, harmartoma, A.V. malformation, mesothelioma, are 1 case respectively. As a result benign and malignant lesion showed equal distribution (49.1% : 50.3%). 3. In symptom analysis ; cough is the most common (43.5%) symptom in malignant lesion, next follows hemoptysis (20.9%) and chest pain (14.5%). In benign lesion, most of the patient (32.7%) did not complain any symptom. 4. In malignant lesion, the most common nodular size was 4 cm (32.3%), and in benign lesion 2 cm sized coin was most common (39.3%). 5. In general, margin of nodule was very sharp and well demarcated in benign lesion (83.3%), and in malignant lesion that was less demarcated and poorly defined. 6. Most case of calcification (82.7%) was seen in benign

  11. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  12. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  13. X Inactivation and Progenitor Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Agrelo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes is necessary to achieve dosage compensation. The 17 kb non-coding RNA called Xist triggers X inactivation. Gene silencing by Xist can only be achieved in certain contexts such as in cells of the early embryo and in certain hematopoietic progenitors where silencing factors are present. Moreover, these epigenetic contexts are maintained in cancer progenitors in which SATB1 has been identified as a factor related to Xist-mediated chromosome silencing.

  14. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  15. Instrument for Study of Microbial Thermal Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, R. W.; Read, R. B.

    1968-01-01

    An instrument was designed for the study of thermal inactivation of microorganisms using heating times of less than 1 sec. The instrument operates on the principle of rapid automatic displacement of the microorganism to and from a saturated steam atmosphere, and the operating temperature range is 50 to 90 C. At a temperature of 70 C, thermometric lag (time required to respond to 63.2% of a step change) of the fluid sample containing microorganisms was 0.12 sec. Heating time required to heat the sample to within 0.1 C of the exposure temperature was less than 1 sec, permitting exposure periods as brief as 1 sec, provided the proper corrections are made for the lethal effect of heating. The instrument is most useful for heat exposure periods of less than 5 min, and, typically, more than 500 samples can be processed for microbial inactivation determinations within an 8-hr period. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:4874466

  16. Influvac, a trivalent inactivated subunit influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Fabiano, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Influenza represents a major sanitary and socio-economic burden and vaccination is universally considered the most effective strategy for preventing the disease and its complications. Traditional influenza vaccines have been on the market since the late 1940s, with million of doses administered annually worldwide, and demonstrated a substantial efficacy and safety. The trivalent inactivated subunit vaccine has been available for more than 25 years and has been studied in healthy children, adults and the elderly and in people affected by underlying chronic medical conditions. We describe vaccine technology focusing on subunit vaccine production procedures and mode of action and provide updated information on efficacy and safety available data. A review of efficacy and safety data in healthy subjects and in high risk populations from major sponsor- and investigator-driven studies. The vaccine showed a good immunogenicity and a favorable safety profile in all target groups. In the panorama of actually available influenza vaccines, trivalent inactivated subunit vaccine represents a well-established tool for preventing flu and the associated complications.

  17. Photodynamic inactivation of pathogens causing infectious keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carole; Wolf, G.; Walther, M.; Winkler, K.; Finke, M.; Hüttenberger, D.; Bischoff, Markus; Seitz, B.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance requires new approaches also for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer (PS) Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was investigated as an alternative to antibiotic treatment. An in-vitro cornea model was established using porcine eyes. The uptake of Ce6 by bacteria and the diffusion of the PS in the individual layers of corneal tissue were investigated by fluorescence. After removal of the cornea's epithelium Ce6-concentrations tested in liquid culture against different concentrations of Ce6 (1 - 512 μM) using 10 minutes irradiation (E = 18 J/cm2 ). This demonstrated that a complete inactivation of the pathogen strains were feasible whereby SA was slightly more susceptible than PA. 3909 mutants of the Keio collection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) were screened for potential resistance factors. The sensitive mutants can be grouped into three categories: transport mutants, mutants in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and mutants in the bacterial SOS-response. In conclusion PDI is seen as a promising therapy concept for infectious keratitis.

  18. IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  19. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  20. Management of Preinvasive Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, Maria G; Corzo, Camila; Iniesta, Maria; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2017-12-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma is considered the precursor lesion of high-grade serous carcinoma, and found in both low-risk and high-risk populations. Isolated serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations are detected in ∼2% of patients undergoing risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and even with removal of the tubes and ovaries the rate of developing primary peritoneal carcinoma following remains up to 7.5%. Postoperative recommendations after finding incidental STICs remain unclear and surgical staging, adjuvant chemotherapy, or observation have been proposed. Discovery of STIC should prompt consideration of hereditary cancer program referral for BRCA1/2 mutation screening.

  1. Size determination of an equilibrium enzymic system by radiation inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, P.; Swillens, S.; Dumont, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation inactivation of complex enzymic systems is currently used to determine the enzyme size and the molecular organization of the components in the system. An equilibrium model was simulated describing the regulation of enzyme activity by association of the enzyme with a regulatory unit. It is assumed that, after irradiation, the system equilibrates before the enzyme activity is assayed. The theoretical results show that the target-size analysis of these numerical data leads to a bad estimate of the enzyme size. Moreover, some implicit assumptions such as the transfer of radiation energy between non-covalently bound molecules should be verified before interpretation of target-size analysis. It is demonstrated that the apparent target size depends on the parameters of the system, namely the size and the concentration of the components, the equilibrium constant, the relative activities of free enzyme and enzymic complex, the existence of energy transfer, and the distribution of the components between free and bound forms during the irradiation. (author)

  2. Characterization and inactivation of an agmatine deiminase from Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Justin E.; Causey, Corey P.; Lovelace, Leslie; Knuckley, Bryan; Flick, Heather; Lebioda, Lukasz; Thompson, Paul R. (SC)

    2010-11-12

    Helicobacter pylori encodes a potential virulence factor, agmatine deiminase (HpAgD), which catalyzes the conversion of agmatine to N-carbamoyl putrescine (NCP) and ammonia - agmatine is decarboxylated arginine. Agmatine is an endogenous human cell signaling molecule that triggers the innate immune response in humans. Unlike H. pylori, humans do not encode an AgD; it is hypothesized that inhibition of this enzyme would increase the levels of agmatine, and thereby enhance the innate immune response. Taken together, these facts suggest that HpAgD is a potential drug target. Herein we describe the optimized expression, isolation, and purification of HpAgD (10-30 mg/L media). The initial kinetic characterization of this enzyme has also been performed. Additionally, the crystal structure of wild-type HpAgD has been determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. This structure provides a molecular basis for the preferential deimination of agmatine, and identifies Asp198 as a key residue responsible for agmatine recognition, which has been confirmed experimentally. Information gathered from these studies led to the development and characterization of a novel class of haloacetamidine-based HpAgD inactivators. These compounds are the most potent AgD inhibitors ever described.

  3. Scale down of the inactivated polio vaccine production process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Y.E.; Oever, van 't R.; Vinke, C.M.; Spiekstra, A.; Wijffels, R.H.; Pol, van der L.A.; Bakker, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The anticipated increase in the demand for inactivated polio vaccines resulting from the success in the polio eradication program requires an increase in production capacity and cost price reduction of the current inactivated polio vaccine production processes. Improvement of existing production

  4. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during

  5. Quantum chromodynamics as the sequential fragmenting with inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the modified leading log approximation of the perturbative QCD and the sequential binary fragmentation process. We will show that in the absence of inactivation, this process is equivalent to the QCD gluodynamics. The inactivation term yields a precise prescription of how to include the hadronization in the QCD equations. (authors)

  6. Quantum chromodynamics as the sequential fragmenting with inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botet, R. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides; Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1996-12-31

    We investigate the relation between the modified leading log approximation of the perturbative QCD and the sequential binary fragmentation process. We will show that in the absence of inactivation, this process is equivalent to the QCD gluodynamics. The inactivation term yields a precise prescription of how to include the hadronization in the QCD equations. (authors). 15 refs.

  7. Mutual inactivation of Notch receptors and ligands facilitates developmental patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sprinzak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression perturbations. For lateral inhibition, we find that mutual inactivation speeds up patterning dynamics, relieves the need for cooperative regulatory interactions, and expands the range of parameter values that permit pattern formation, compared to canonical models. Furthermore, mutual inactivation enables a simple lateral inhibition circuit architecture which requires only a single downstream regulatory step. Both model systems show how mutual inactivation can facilitate robust fine-grained patterning processes that would be difficult to implement without it, by encoding a difference-promoting feedback within the signaling system itself. Together, these results provide a framework for analysis of more complex Notch-dependent developmental systems.

  8. The pulsed light inactivation of veterinary relevant microbial biofilms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that both Cryptosporidium and Giardia attach to biofilms in large numbers (100-1000 oo/cysts) in as little as 72 hours. Pulsed light successfully inactivated all test species (Listeria, Salmonella, Bacillus, Escherichia) in planktonic and biofilm form with an increase in inactivation for every increase in UV dose.

  9. Ebola Virus Inactivation by Detergents Is Annulled in Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; Tintu, Andrei; Russcher, Henk; Fraaij, Pieter L. A.; Reusken, Chantal B. E. M.; Rijken, Mikel; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Koelewijn, Rob; de Jong, Menno D.; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Robert J.; Munster, Vincent J.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of blood samples from hemorrhagic fever virus (HFV)-infected patients with 0.1% detergents has been recommended for virus inactivation and subsequent safe laboratory testing. However, data on virus inactivation by this procedure are lacking. Here we show the effect of this procedure on

  10. Method of inactivating reproducible forms of mycoplasma in biological preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veber, P.; Jurmanova, K.; Lesko, J.; Hana, L.; Veber, V.

    1978-01-01

    Inactivation of mycoplasms in biological materials was achieved using gamma radiation with a dose rate of 1x10 4 to 5x10 6 rads/h for 1 to 250 hours. The technique is advantageous for allowing the inactivation of the final form of products (tablets, vaccines, etc.). (J.P.)

  11. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  12. Estimation by radiation inactivation of the size of functional units governing Sendai and influenza virus fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundo-Morita, K.; Gibson, S.; Lenard, J.

    1987-01-01

    The target sizes associated with fusion and hemolysis carried out by Sendai virus envelope glycoproteins were determined by radiation inactivation analysis. The target size for influenza virus mediated fusion with erythrocyte ghosts at pH 5.0 was also determined for comparison. Sendai-mediated fusion with erythrocyte ghosts at pH 7.0 was likewise inactivated exponentially with increasing radiation dose, yielding a target size of 60 +/- 6 kDa, a value consistent with the molecular weight of a single F-protein molecule. The inactivation curve for Sendai-mediated fusion with cardiolipin liposomes at pH 7.0, however, was more complex. Assuming a multiple target-single hit model, the target consisted of 2-3 units of ca. 60 kDa each. A similar target was seen if the liposome contained 10% gangliosides or if the reaction was measured at pH 5.0, suggesting that fusion occurred by the same mechanism at high and low pH. A target size of 261 +/- 48 kDa was found for Sendai-induced hemolysis, in contrast with influenza, which had a more complex target size for this activity. Sendai virus fusion thus occurs by different mechanisms depending upon the nature of the target membrane, since it is mediated by different functional units. Hemolysis is mediated by a functional unit different from that associated with erythrocyte ghost fusion or with cardiolipin liposome fusion

  13. Chlorophyll mediated photodynamic inactivation of blue laser on Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Zaidan, A.; Setiawati, Ernie Maduratna; Suhariningsih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic inactivation is an inactivation method in microbial pathogens that utilize light and photosensitizer. This study was conducted to investigate photodynamic inactivation effects of low intensity laser exposure with various dose energy on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The photodynamic inactivation was achieved with the addition of chlorophyll as photosensitizers. To determine the survival percentage of Streptococcus mutans bacteria after laser exposure, the total plate count method was used. For this study, the wavelength of the laser is 405 nm and variables of energy doses are 1.44, 2.87, 4.31, 5.74, 7.18, and 8.61 in J/cm2. The results show that exposure to laser with energy dose of 7.18 J/cm2 has the best photodynamic inactivation with a decrease of 78% in Streptococcus

  14. Modelling and application of the inactivation of microorganism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oğuzhan, P.; Yangılar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of consuming contaminated food with toxic microorganisms causing infections and consideration of food protection and new microbial inactivation methods are obligatory situations. Food microbiology is mainly related with unwanted microorganisms spoiling foods during processing and transporting stages and causing diseases. Determination of pathogen microorganisms is important for human health to define and prevent dangers and elongate shelf life. Inactivation of pathogen microorganisms can provide food security and reduce nutrient losses. Microbial inactivation which is using methods of food protection such as food safety and fresh. With this aim, various methods are used such as classical thermal processes (pasteurisation, sterilisation), pressured electrical field (PEF), ionised radiation, high pressure, ultrasonic waves and plasma sterilisation. Microbial inactivation modelling is a secure and effective method in food production. A new microbiological application can give useful results for risk assessment in food, inactivation of microorganisms and improvement of shelf life. Application and control methods should be developed and supported by scientific research and industrial applications

  15. Herpesviruses in asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions: an immunohistochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboia-Dantas, C J; Coutrin de Toledo, L F; Sampaio-Filho, H R; Siqueira, J F

    2007-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been recently detected in samples from apical periodontitis lesions by means of molecular biology techniques and a role in the pathogenesis of this disease has been suggested. The present study was designed to survey asymptomatic primary apical periodontitis lesions for the presence of HCMV- and/or EBV-infected cells by means of immunohistochemistry. Apical periodontitis lesions were obtained from 35 patients [26 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -seronegative patients and nine HIV-seropositive patients] after tooth extraction and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies specific for HCMV and EBV. Fifteen of the 35 apical periodontitis lesions were positive for the target herpesviruses. Overall, EBV was found in 31% of the samples and HCMV in 23%, with 14% of the lesions showing EBV and HCMV dual infection. No association was found between HCMV or EBV with any particular histopathological type of apical periodontitis (P > 0.05). HCMV was significantly more frequent in apical periodontitis lesions from HIV-positive patients (67%) than in lesions from HIV-negative patients (8%) (P = 0.001). EBV was detected in 44% of lesions from HIV-positive patients and in 27% of lesions from HIV-negative patients, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.91). Our results showed that cells infected by HCMV and EBV can be found in apical periodontitis lesions, with a higher prevalence in HIV-positive patients. The specific role that these viruses play in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis remains to be described.

  16. Inactivation of barley limit dextrinase inhibitor by thioredoxin-catalysed disulfide reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johanne Mørch; Hägglund, Per; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2012-01-01

    and one glutathionylated cysteine. Here, thioredoxin is shown to progressively reduce disulfide bonds in LDI accompanied by loss of activity. A preferential reduction of the glutathionylated cysteine, as indicated by thiol quantification and molecular mass analysis using electrospray ionisation mass......Barley limit dextrinase (LD) that catalyses hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch-derived dextrins is inhibited by limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) found in mature seeds. LDI belongs to the chloroform/methanol soluble protein family (CM-protein family) and has four disulfide bridges...... spectrometry, was not related to LDI inactivation. LDI reduction is proposed to cause conformational destabilisation leading to loss of function....

  17. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetti by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F.; Williams, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79 C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0-64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of hte micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing C. burnetti was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes.

  18. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetii by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F. (Army Medical Research Inst. of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD (USA)); Williams, J.C. (National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79{sup 0}C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0.64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of the micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing 10{sup 11} C. burnetii ml{sup -1} was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes. (author).

  19. Inactivation of mitochondrial ATPase by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, E.; Cuellar, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present work describes experiments that show that far-ultraviolet irradiation induce the inhibition of ATPase activity in both membrane-bound and soluble F1. It was also found that ultraviolet light promotes the release of tightly bound adenine nucleotides from F1-ATPase. Experiments carried out with submitochondrial particles indicate that succinate partially protects against these effects of ultraviolet light. Titration of sulfhydryl groups in both irradiated submitochondrial particles and soluble F1-ATPase indicates that a conformational change induced by photochemical modifications of amino acid residues appears involved in the inactivation of the enzyme. Finally, experiments are described which show that the tyrosine residue located in the active site of F1-ATPase is modified by ultraviolet irradiation

  20. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetii by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F.; Williams, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79 0 C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0.64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of the micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing 10 11 C. burnetii ml -1 was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes. (author)

  1. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  2. Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme and Inactivation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Yılmaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase enzyme is found in vegetables and fruits, as well as in some animal organs and microorganisms. Polyphenol oxidase enzyme responsible for enzymatic browning is a group of copper proteins that catalyses the oxidation of phenolic compounds to quinones, which produce brown pigments, commonly found in fruits and vegetables. During the industrial preparation of fruits and vegetables, results of catalytic effect of polyphenol oxidase causes enzymatic browning. Enzymatic browning impairs the appearance of products containing phenolic compounds along with undesirable colour, odor and taste formation and significant loss of nutritional value of the products. This affects the acceptability of the products by the consumers and causes economic losses. In this review, some characteristics of polyphenol oxidase enzyme in different fruits and vegetables have been reviewed and information about chemical antibrowning agents, thermal applications, irradiation applications and alternative methods such as high pressure processing, pulse electric field, supercritical carbon dioxide and ultrasound applications to inactivate this enzyme has been presented.

  3. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts

  4. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  5. Preoperative nonpalpable breast lesions localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardellin, G; Natale, F; Perin, B

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of real time sonography and mammography are examined in localizing with a hookwire (introduced via a straight needle) the nonpalpable breast lesions. The method, used for surgery or biopsy, was successful in a series of 13 patients with nonpalpable breast lesions, 4 affectd by carcinoma. 18 refs.

  6. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, L.H.; McCormick, J.B.; Johnson, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of the cumbersome conditions experienced in a maximum containment laboratory, methods for inactivating highly pathogenic viruses were investigated. The infectivity of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses was inactivated without altering the immunological activity after radiation with 60 CO gamma rays. At 4 degrees C, Lassa virus was the most difficult to inactivate with a rate of 5.3 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad of 60 CO radiation, as compared with 6.8 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Ebola virus and 8.4 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Marburg virus. Experimental inactivation curves, as well as curves giving the total radiation needed to inactivate a given concentration of any of the three viruses, are presented. The authors found this method of inactivation to be superior to UV light or beta-propiolactone inactivation and now routinely use it for preparation of material for protein-chemistry studies or for preparation of immunological reagents

  7. Inactivation of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, L.H.; McCormick, J.B.; Johnson, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of the cumbersome conditions experienced in a maximum containment laboratory, methods for inactivating highly pathogenic viruses were investigated. The infectivity of Lassa, Marburg, and Ebola viruses was inactivated without altering the immunological activity after radiation with 60 Co gamma rays. At 4 degrees C, Lassa virus was the most difficult to inactivate with a rate of 5.3 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad of 60 Co radiation, as compared with 6.8 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Ebola virus and 8.4 X 10(-6) log 50% tissue culture infective dose per rad for Marburg virus. Experimental inactivation curves, as well as curves giving the total radiation needed to inactivate a given concentration of any of the three viruses, are presented. We found this method of inactivation to be superior to UV light or beta-propiolactone inactivation and now routinely use it for preparation of material for protein-chemistry studies or for preparation of immunological reagents

  8. Cationic antimicrobial peptides inactivate Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cogliano, Manuel E.; Hollmann, Axel; Martinez, Melina; Semorile, Liliana; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D.; Maffía, Paulo C.; Bentancor, Leticia V.

    2017-12-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria. To evaluate whether cationic properties are responsible for bacteriophage inactivation, we tested seven cationic peptides with proven antimicrobial activity as anti-bacteriophage agents, and one random sequence cationic peptide with no antimicrobial activity as a control. We observed bacteriophage inactivation after incubation with five cAMPs, but no inactivating activity was observed with the random sequence cationic peptide or with the non alpha helical cAMP Omiganan. Finally, to confirm peptide-bacteriophage interaction, zeta potential was analyzed by following changes on bacteriophage surface charges after peptide incubation. According to our results we could propose that: 1) direct interaction of peptides with phage is a necessary step for bacteriophage inactivation, 2) cationic properties are necessary but not sufficient for bacteriophage inactivation, and 3) inactivation by cationic peptides could be sequence (or structure) specific. Overall our data suggest that these peptides could be considered a new family of molecules potentially useful to decrease bacteriophage replication and Stx expression.

  9. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Inactivate Shiga Toxin-Encoding Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Del Cogliano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx is the principal virulence factor during Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC infections. We have previously reported the inactivation of bacteriophage encoding Stx after treatment with chitosan, a linear polysaccharide polymer with cationic properties. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs are short linear aminoacidic sequences, with a positive net charge, which display bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against a wide range of bacterial species. They are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown bactericidal effects against multiresistant bacteria. To evaluate whether cationic properties are responsible for bacteriophage inactivation, we tested seven cationic peptides with proven antimicrobial activity as anti-bacteriophage agents, and one random sequence cationic peptide with no antimicrobial activity as a control. We observed bacteriophage inactivation after incubation with five cAMPs, but no inactivating activity was observed with the random sequence cationic peptide or with the non-alpha helical cAMP Omiganan. Finally, to confirm peptide-bacteriophage interaction, zeta potential was analyzed by following changes on bacteriophage surface charges after peptide incubation. According to our results we could propose that: (1 direct interaction of peptides with phage is a necessary step for bacteriophage inactivation, (2 cationic properties are necessary but not sufficient for bacteriophage inactivation, and (3 inactivation by cationic peptides could be sequence (or structure specific. Overall our data suggest that these peptides could be considered a new family of molecules potentially useful to decrease bacteriophage replication and Stx expression.

  10. Luciferase inactivation in the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, C A; Baldwin, T O

    1981-06-01

    Luciferase was rapidly inactivated in stationary-phase cultures of the wild type of the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, but was stable in stationary-phase cultures of mutants of V. harveyi that are nonluminous without exogenous aldehyde, termed the aldehyde-deficient mutants. The inactivation in the wild type was halted by cell lysis and was slowed or stopped by O2 deprivation or by addition of KCN and NaF or of chloramphenicol. If KCN and NaF or chloramphenicol were added to a culture before the onset of luciferase inactivation, then luciferase inactivation did not occur. However, if these inhibitors were added after the onset of luciferase inactivation, then luciferase inactivation continued for about 2 to 3 h before the inactivation process stopped. The onset of luciferase inactivation in early stationary-phase cultures of wild-type cell coincided with a slight drop in the intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) level from a relatively constant log-phase value of 20 pmol of ATP per microgram of soluble cell protein. Addition of KCN and NaF to a culture shortly after this drop in ATP caused a rapid decrease in the ATP level to about 4 pmol of ATP per microgram whereas chloramphenicol added at this same time caused a transient increase in ATP level to about 25 pmol/microgram. The aldehyde-deficient mutant (M17) showed a relatively constant log-phase ATP level identical with that of the wild-type cells, but rather than decreasing in early stationary phase, the ATP level increased to a value twice that in log-phase cells. We suggest that the inactivation of luciferase is dependent on the synthesis of some factor which is produced during stationary phase and is itself unstable, and whose synthesis is blocked by chloramphenicol or cyanide plus fluoride.

  11. Inactivation and mutation induction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to simulated sunlight: evaluation of action spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk-Meuser, K; Pawlowsky, K; Kiefer, J

    1992-07-15

    The effectiveness of polychromatic light irradiation was investigated for haploid yeast cells. Inactivation and mutation induction were measured in both a RAD-wildtype strain and an excision-repair defective strain. The behaviour of vegetative "wet" cells was compared to that of dehydrated cells. The aim of the study was to assess the interaction of UVC with other wavelengths in cells of different states of humidity. The irradiation procedure was therefore carried out using a solar simulator either with full spectrum or with a UVC-blocking filter (modified sunlight) added. The results were analysed on the basis of separately determined action spectra. The summation of the efficiency of individual wavelengths was compared to the values obtained from polychromatic irradiation. It is shown that the effects caused by the whole-spectrum irradiation in wet cells can be predicted sufficiently from the calculation, while dried wildtype cells exhibit higher mutation rates. Thus it can be assumed that drying-specific damage leads to lethal and mutagenic lesions which are processed in different ways, causing a synergistic behaviour in mutation induction. Irradiation of vegetative cells with modified sunlight (UVC-) results in less inactivation and lower mutation rates than were calculated. From these results it can be concluded that this antagonistic behaviour is caused by the interaction of near-UV photoproducts.

  12. Protection against avian metapneumovirus subtype C in turkeys immunized via the respiratory tract with inactivated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Khatri, Mahesh; Sharma, Jagdev M

    2011-01-10

    Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes a severe upper respiratory tract (URT) infection in turkeys. Turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with inactivated aMPV/C adjuvanted with synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (Poly IC). Immunized turkeys had elevated numbers of mucosal IgA+ cells in the URT and increased levels of virus-specific IgG and IgA in the lachrymal fluid and IgG in the serum. After 7 or 21 days post immunization, turkeys were challenged oculonasally with pathogenic aMPV/C. Immunized groups were protected against respiratory lesions induced by the challenge virus. Further, the viral copy number of the challenge virus in the URT were significantly lower in the immunized turkeys than in the unimmunized turkeys (P<0.05). These results showed that inactivated aMPV/C administered by the respiratory route induced protective immunity against pathogenic virus challenge. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Glutathione mediation of papain inactivation by hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.S.; Armstrong, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Glutathione reacts with papainCys 25 SOH, formed by the reaction of papain with hydrogen peroxide, to give papainCys 25 SSG. Subsequent reaction of this mixed disulfide with glutathione is slow (k -1 sec -1 ). However, at 30 0 C it is readily cleaved by cysteine to form active papain, i.e., papainCys 25 SH. Glutathione resembles cysteine in protecting papain by the scavenging of .OH radicals, but, unlike cysteine, glutathione gave no evidence for the repair of enzyme radical lesions or for the conversion of papainCys 25 S. radicals to repairable derivatives. Its overall effectiveness for reducing the radiation inactivation of papain in aqueous solution is much less than that of cysteine

  14. Inactivation of viruses in municipal effluent by chlorine.

    OpenAIRE

    Hajenian, H. G.; Butler, M.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of pH and temperature on the efficiency of chlorine inactivation of two unrelated picornaviruses in a typical urban wastewater effluent was examined. Temperature, unlike pH, had relatively little effect on the rate of inactivation. The pH effect was complex and the two viruses differed. The f2 coliphage was more sensitive to chlorine at low pH, but at all values there was a threshold above which additional chlorine resulted in very rapid inactivation. The amount of chlorine requ...

  15. Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.M.; Chen, Y.S.; Lindburg, K.; Morales, D.

    1987-09-01

    The inactivation of simian rotavirus Sa-11 and human rotavirus type 2 (Wa) by ozone was compared at 4/sup 0/C by using single-particle virus stocks. Although the human strain was clearly more sensitive, both virus types were rapidly inactivated by ozone concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater at all pH levels tested. Comparison of the virucidal activity of ozone with that of chlorine in identical experiments indicated little significant difference in rotavirus-inactivating efficiencies when the disinfectants were used at concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater.

  16. Irreversible inactivation of snake venom l-amino acid oxidase by covalent modification during catalysis of l-propargylglycine☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jyotirmoy; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2013-01-01

    Snake venom l-amino acid oxidase (SV-LAAO, a flavor-enzyme) has attracted considerable attention due to its multifunctional nature, which is manifest in diverse clinical and biological effects such as inhibition of platelet aggregation, induction of cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity against various cells. The majority of these effects are mediated by H2O2 generated during the catalytic conversion of l-amino acids. The substrate analog l-propargylglycine (LPG) irreversibly inhibited the enzyme from Crotalus adamanteus and Crotalus atrox in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Inactivation was irreversible which was significantly protected by the substrate l-phenylalanine. A Kitz–Wilson replot of the inhibition kinetics suggested formation of reversible enzyme–LPG complex, which occurred prior to modification and inactivation of the enzyme. UV–visible and fluorescence spectra of the enzyme and the cofactor strongly suggested formation of covalent adduct between LPG and an active site residue of the enzyme. A molecular modeling study revealed that the FAD-binding, substrate-binding and the helical domains are conserved in SV-LAAOs and both His223 and Arg322 are the important active site residues that are likely to get modified by LPG. Chymotrypsin digest of the LPG inactivated enzyme followed by RP-HPLC and MALDI mass analysis identified His223 as the site of modification. The findings reported here contribute towards complete inactivation of SV-LAAO as a part of snake envenomation management. PMID:23772385

  17. Dynein Light Intermediate Chain 2 Facilitates the Metaphase to Anaphase Transition by Inactivating the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar P Mahale

    Full Text Available The multi-functional molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein performs diverse essential roles during mitosis. The mechanistic importance of the dynein Light Intermediate Chain homologs, LIC1 and LIC2 is unappreciated, especially in the context of mitosis. LIC1 and LIC2 are believed to exist in distinct cytoplasmic dynein complexes as obligate subunits. LIC1 had earlier been reported to be required for metaphase to anaphase progression by inactivating the kinetochore-microtubule attachment-sensing arm of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. However, the functional importance of LIC2 during mitosis remains elusive. Here we report prominent novel roles for the LIC2 subunit of cytoplasmic dynein in regulating the spindle assembly checkpoint. LIC2 depletion in mammalian cells led to prolonged metaphase arrest in the presence of an active SAC and also to stretched kinetochores, thus implicating it in SAC inactivation. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy of SAC components revealed accumulation of both attachment- and tension-sensing checkpoint proteins at metaphase kinetochores upon LIC2 depletion. These observations support a stronger and more diverse role in checkpoint inactivation for LIC2 in comparison to its close homolog LIC1. Our study uncovers a novel functional hierarchy during mitotic checkpoint inactivation between the closely related but homologous LIC subunits of cytoplasmic dynein. These subtle functional distinctions between dynein subpopulations could be exploited to study specific aspects of the spindle assembly checkpoint, which is a key mediator of fidelity in eukaryotic cell division.

  18. Inactivation of p15INK4b in chronic arsenic poisoning cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal has been associated with human skin lesion and cancer. However, the mechanisms of arsenic-related carcinogenesis are not fully understood. Inactivation of critical tumor suppression genes by epigenetic regulation or genetic modification might contribute to arsenic-induced carcinogenicity. This study aims to clarify the correlation between arsenic pollution and functional defect of p15INK4b gene in arsenic exposure residents from a region of Guizhou Province, China. To this end, 103 arsenic exposure residents and 105 control subjects were recruited in this study. The results showed that the exposure group exhibited higher levels of urinary and hair arsenic compared with the control group (55.28 vs 28.87 μg/L, 5.16 vs 1.36 μg/g. Subjects with higher arsenic concentrations are more likely to have p15INK4b methylation and gene deletion (χ2 = 4.28, P = 0.04 and χ2 = 4.31, P = 0.04. We also found that the degree of p15INK4b hypermethylation and gene deletion occurred at higher incidence in the poisoning cases with skin cancer (3.7% and 14.81% in non-skin cancer group, 41.18% and 47.06 in skin cancer group, and were significantly associated with the stage of skin lesions (χ2 = 12.82, P < 0.01 and χ2 = 7.835, P = 0.005. These observations indicate that inactivation of p15INK4b through genetic alteration or epigenetic modification is a common event that is associated with arsenic exposure and the development of arsenicosis.

  19. Changing activity in MS lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermode, A.G.; Tofts, P.S.; Thompson, A.J.; Rudge, P.; MacManus, D.G.; Kendall, B.E.; Moseley, I.F.; Kingsley, D.P.E.; McDonald, W.I.

    1989-01-01

    Gd-DTPA enhanced T1 weighted MRI is a discriminating test for a defective blood-brain barrier, with MS lesions showing considerable variation in the pattern of enhancement. Since little is known of the changes in the blood-brain barrier in the active plaque over time, the natural history of blood-brain barrier disturbance in the MS lesion was examined to confirm earlier reports that Gd-DTPA enhancement is a consistent early event in new lesions of relapsing/remitting MS. This knowledge is essential for the use of MRI in monitoring treatment. (author). 9 refs

  20. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  1. OCT investigation of dental lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiac, Eugen; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Scrieciu, Monica; Mercuţ, Rǎzvan; Mercuţ, Veronica; Vǎtu, Mihaela

    2018-03-01

    There are several important non carious lesions affecting the tooth structure, lesions which may be classified into four clinical forms of dental wear: abfraction, erosion, attrition and abrasion, and different types of root resorption. Search for new, non-invasive and fast methods able to detect and describe such injuries is of utmost importance. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) proved itself as an appropriate investigation method for several medical fields including ophthalmology, dermatology, cardiology etc. Our study reveals OCT preliminary investigations as a promising tool for detecting and evaluating of the mentioned lesions.

  2. Apocynin suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by inactivation of macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Ishii, Norio; Fukuda, Kazuki; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Taketa, Kayo; Kawasaki, Shuji; Hanatani, Satoko; Takeya, Motohiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examined the anti-athrogenic effect of apocynin in atherosclerotic model mice. ► Apocynin prevented atherosclerotic lesion formation. ► Apocynin suppressed ROS production in aorta and in macrophages. ► Apocynin suppressed cytokine expression and cell proliferation in macrophages. ► Apocynin may be beneficial compound for the prevention of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other proinflammatory substances by macrophages plays an important role in atherogenesis. Apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone), which is well known as a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory effects including suppression of the generation of ROS. However, the suppressive effects of apocynin on the progression of atherosclerosis are not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated anti-atherosclerotic effects of apocynin using apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE –/– ) mice in vivo and in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In atherosclerosis-prone apoE –/– mice, apocynin suppressed the progression of atherosclerosis, decreased 4-hydroxynonenal-positive area in atherosclerotic lesions, and mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in aorta. In mouse peritoneal macrophages, apocynin suppressed the Ox-LDL-induced ROS generation, mRNA expression of MCP-1, IL-6 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and cell proliferation. Moreover, immunohistochemical studies revealed that apocynin decreased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE –/– mice. These results suggested that apocynin suppressed the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, at least in part, by inactivation of macrophages. Therefore, apocynin may be a potential therapeutic material to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis

  3. Apocynin suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by inactivation of macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Hiroyuki [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Matsumura, Takeshi, E-mail: takeshim@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Ishii, Norio; Fukuda, Kazuki; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Taketa, Kayo; Kawasaki, Shuji; Hanatani, Satoko [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Takeya, Motohiro [Department of Cell Pathology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Nishikawa, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► We examined the anti-athrogenic effect of apocynin in atherosclerotic model mice. ► Apocynin prevented atherosclerotic lesion formation. ► Apocynin suppressed ROS production in aorta and in macrophages. ► Apocynin suppressed cytokine expression and cell proliferation in macrophages. ► Apocynin may be beneficial compound for the prevention of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other proinflammatory substances by macrophages plays an important role in atherogenesis. Apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone), which is well known as a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, has anti-inflammatory effects including suppression of the generation of ROS. However, the suppressive effects of apocynin on the progression of atherosclerosis are not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated anti-atherosclerotic effects of apocynin using apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE{sup –/–}) mice in vivo and in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. In atherosclerosis-prone apoE{sup –/–} mice, apocynin suppressed the progression of atherosclerosis, decreased 4-hydroxynonenal-positive area in atherosclerotic lesions, and mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in aorta. In mouse peritoneal macrophages, apocynin suppressed the Ox-LDL-induced ROS generation, mRNA expression of MCP-1, IL-6 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and cell proliferation. Moreover, immunohistochemical studies revealed that apocynin decreased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE{sup –/–} mice. These results suggested that apocynin suppressed the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, at least in part, by inactivation of macrophages. Therefore, apocynin may be a potential therapeutic material to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  4. Functional size of vacuolar H+ pumps: Estimates from radiation inactivation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarafian, V.; Poole, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The PPase and the ATPase from red beet (Beta vulgaris) vacuolar membranes were subjected to radiation inactivation by a 60 Co source in both the native tonoplast and detergent-solubilized states, in order to determine their target molecular sizes. Analysis of the residual phosphohydrolytic and proton transport activities, after exposure to varying doses of radiation, yielded exponential relationships between the activities and radiation doses. The deduced target molecular sizes for PPase activity in native and solubilized membranes were 125kD and 259kD respectively and 327kD for H + -transport. This suggests that the minimum number of subunits of 67kD for PPi hydrolysis is two in the native state and four after Triton X-100 solubilization. At least four subunits would be required for H + -translocation. Analysis of the ATPase inactivation patterns revealed target sizes of 384kD and 495kD for ATP hydrolysis in native and solubilized tonoplast respectively and 430kD for H + -transport. These results suggest that the minimum size for hydrolytic or transport functions is relatively constant for the ATPase

  5. Structure of fast ion energy depositions in water. Application to the Monte Carlo study of cellular inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    In order to understand the physical processes involved in the heavy ion irradiation of biological samples, a Monte Carlo simulation code and a random inventory code for interaction clusters in volumes comparable to those of sensible biological sites like nucleosomes (few nm 3 ) have been developed. It is now well known that macroscopic parameters like the dose rate or the stopping power are not suitable to explain the cellular inactivation induced by heavy ions irradiation. The aim of this work is the development of a mechanistic model based on the identification of primary processes susceptible to be of major importance on the biological aspect. The code developed simulates the creation and transport in water of all secondary particles produced by the impact of heavy ions. Once all energy depositions generated, an algorithm of random inventory of interaction clusters has been built in order to evaluate the type of critical energy deposition which presents a correlation with the experimental data of cellular inactivation. For light ions, like particles, this cluster model has permitted to reproduce the variations of the experimental number of lethal lesions observed, in particular the decay of biological efficiency. However, for heavy ions, these parameters do not allow to reproduce the experimental data of cellular inactivation. Therefore, the concept of ionization clusters described in terms of critical deposition in critical volumes is not sufficient. (J.S.)

  6. Current Nomenclature of Pseudohypoparathyroidism: Inactivating Parathyroid Hormone/Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Signaling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Serap

    2017-12-30

    Disorders related to parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance and PTH signaling pathway impairment are historically classified under the term of pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP). The disease was first described and named by Fuller Albright and colleagues in 1942. Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is described as an associated clinical entity with PHP, characterized by brachydactyly, subcutaneous ossifications, round face, short stature and a stocky build. The classification of PHP is further divided into PHP-Ia, pseudo-PHP (pPHP), PHP-Ib, PHP-Ic and PHP-II according to the presence or absence of AHO, together with an in vivo response to exogenous PTH and the measurement of Gsα protein activity in peripheral erythrocyte membranes in vitro. However, PHP classification fails to differentiate all patients with different clinical and molecular findings for PHP subtypes and classification become more complicated with more recent molecular characterization and new forms having been identified. So far, new classifications have been established by the EuroPHP network to cover all disorders of the PTH receptor and its signaling pathway. Inactivating PTH/PTH-related protein signaling disorder (iPPSD) is the new name proposed for a group of these disorders and which can be further divided into subtypes - iPPSD1 to iPPSD6. These are termed, starting from PTH receptor inactivation mutation (Eiken and Blomstrand dysplasia) as iPPSD1, inactivating Gsα mutations (PHP-Ia, PHP-Ic and pPHP) as iPPSD2, loss of methylation of GNAS DMRs (PHP-Ib) as iPPSD3, PRKAR1A mutations (acrodysostosis type 1) as iPPSD4, PDE4D mutations (acrodysostosis type 2) as iPPSD5 and PDE3A mutations (autosomal dominant hypertension with brachydactyly) as iPPSD6. iPPSDx is reserved for unknown molecular defects and iPPSDn+1 for new molecular defects which are yet to be described. With these new classifications, the aim is to clarify the borders of each different subtype of disease and make the classification

  7. Comparison of two different methods for inactivation of viruses in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preuss, T.; Kamstrup, Søren; Kyvsgaard, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    enterovirus (PEV) was inactivated within 3 h, The inactivation with electron-beam irradiation resulted in almost linear curves in a semilogarithmic plot of virus titer versus irradiation dose, reflecting a first-order inactivation, The rate of inactivation was almost twice as fast in the liquid samples...

  8. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF CATEGORY "A" BIO-TERRORISM AGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster presents information on the inactivation of select bioterrorist agents. Information will be presented on chlorine disinfection of vegetative cells of Brucella suis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis and endos...

  9. Fullerene C60 and graphene photosensibiles for photodynamic virus inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, I.; Hvorostovsky, A.; Kiselev, V.; Zarubaev, V.; Kiselev, O.; Piotrovsky, L.; Anfimov, P.; Krisko, T.; Muraviova, T.; Rylkov, V.; Starodubzev, A.; Sirotkin, A.; Grishkanich, A.; Kudashev, I.; Kancer, A.; Kustikova, M.; Bykovskaya, E.; Mayurova, A.; Stupnikov, A.; Ruzankina, J.; Afanasyev, M.; Lukyanov, N.; Redka, D.; Paklinov, N.

    2018-02-01

    A solid-phase photosensitizer based on aggregated C60 fullerene and graphene oxide for photodynamic inactivation of pathogens in biological fluids was studied. The most promising technologies of inactivation include the photodynamic effect, which consists in the inactivation of infectious agents by active oxygen forms (including singlet oxygen), formed when light is activated by the photosensitizer introduced into the plasma. Research shows features of solid-phase systems based on graphene and fullerene C60 oxide, which is a combination of an effective inactivating pathogens (for example, influenza viruses) reactive oxygen species formed upon irradiation of the photosensitizer in aqueous and biological fluids, a high photostability fullerene coatings and the possibility of full recovery photosensitizer from the biological environment after the photodynamic action.

  10. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents

  11. Biocontrol interventions for inactivation of foodborne pathogens on produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-harvest interventions for control of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed foods are crucial for food safety. Biocontrol interventions have the primary objective of developing novel antagonists in combinations with physical and chemical interventions to inactivate pathogenic microbes. Ther...

  12. Use of genetic algorithms for high hydrostatic pressure inactivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) for high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores, Bacillus subtilis spores and cells, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, all in milk buffer, were used to demonstrate the utility of genetic algorithms ...

  13. Inactivation of bacterial cells by cyclotron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatagai, F [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Takahashi, T; Matsuyama, A

    1975-06-01

    B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r were bombarded with ..cap alpha..-particles and heavy ions of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen accelerated in the IPCR Cyclotron. The RBE versus LETsub(infinity) curve for B. subtilis spores showed a maximum peak at 120 keV/..mu..m, while those for E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r declined without any maximum as LETsub(infinity) values increased. In the region of ..cap alpha..-particles, the effective inactivation cross section (Ssub(eff)) for these three strains increased with increasing LETsub(infinity), and the rates of increase in Ssub(eff) in the LET region from --30 to --150 keV/..mu..m were 15.0, 1.5 and 2.5 times for B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r, respectively. In the case of B. subtilis spores, Ssub(eff) values for heavy ions were almost independent of their energies, but the other two strains showed a considerable dependence upon beam energy. The characteristic LET dependence of Ssub(eff) observed in this study was fairly well explained by the target theory based on microdose concept.

  14. Inactivation of RNA viruses by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Morimoto, Akinori; Iwatsuki, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Takamasa; Ito, Hitoshi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1992-01-01

    Four kinds of RNA viruses, Bluetongue virus (BT), Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease virus (BVD·MD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (RS), Vesicular Stmatitis virus (VS), were subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation to determine the lethal doses. The D 10 values, which are the dose necessary to decimally reduce infectivity, ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature, and they increased to 2.6 to 5.0 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature. Serum neutralzing antibody titer of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not adversely changed by the exposure to 36 kGy of gamma-rays under frozen condition. Analysis of electrophoresis patterns of the bovine serum also reveales that the serum proteins were not remarkably affected, even when exposed to 36 kGy of gamma radiation under frozen condition. The results suggested that gamma irradiation under frozen condition is an effective means for inactivating both DNA and RNA viruses without adversely affecting serum proteins and neutralizing antibody titer. (author)

  15. Inactivation of RNA viruses by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Morimoto, Akinori; Iwatsuki, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Takamasa (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and fisheries, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Animal Quarantine Service); Ito, Hitoshi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Ishigaki, Isao

    1992-09-01

    Four kinds of RNA viruses, Bluetongue virus (BT), Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease virus (BVD[center dot]MD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (RS), Vesicular Stmatitis virus (VS), were subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation to determine the lethal doses. The D[sub 10] values, which are the dose necessary to decimally reduce infectivity, ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature, and they increased to 2.6 to 5.0 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature. Serum neutralzing antibody titer of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not adversely changed by the exposure to 36 kGy of gamma-rays under frozen condition. Analysis of electrophoresis patterns of the bovine serum also reveales that the serum proteins were not remarkably affected, even when exposed to 36 kGy of gamma radiation under frozen condition. The results suggested that gamma irradiation under frozen condition is an effective means for inactivating both DNA and RNA viruses without adversely affecting serum proteins and neutralizing antibody titer. (author).

  16. Inactivation of bacterial cells by cyclotron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Fumio; Takahashi, Tadashi; Matsuyama, Akira.

    1975-01-01

    B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r were bombarded with α-particles and heavy ions of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen accelerated in the IPCR Cyclotron. The RBE versus LETsub(infinity) curve for B. subtilis spores showed a maximum peak at 120 keV/μm, while those for E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r declined without any maximum as LETsub(infinity) values increased. In the region of α-particles, the effective inactivation cross section (Ssub(eff)) for these three strains increased with increasing LETsub(infinity), and the rates of increase in Ssub(eff) in the LET region from --30 to --150 keV/μm were 15.0, 1.5 and 2.5 times for B. subtilis spores, E. coli Bsub(s-1) and E. coli B/r, respectively. In the case of B. subtilis spores, Ssub(eff) values for heavy ions were almost independent of their energies, but the other two strains showed a considerable dependence upon beam energy. The characteristic LET dependence of Ssub(eff) observed in this study was fairly well explained by the target theory based on microdose concept. (auth.)

  17. Dry-heat inactivation of "Mycobacterium canettii".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Garnotel, Eric; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-06-09

    "Mycobacterium canettii" is responsible for non-transmissible lymph node and pulmonary tuberculosis in persons exposed in the Horn of Africa. In the absence of direct human transmission, contaminated water and foodstuffs could be sources of contamination. We investigated the dry-heat inactivation of "M. canettii" alone and mixed into mock-infected foodstuffs by inoculating agar cylinders and milk with 10 4 colony-forming units of "M. canettii" CIPT140010059 and two "M. canettii" clinical strains with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv as a control. Exposed to 35 °C, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, "M canettii" CIPT140010059 and "M. canettii" 157 exhibited a survival rate of 108, 95 and 81%, which is significantly higher than that of "M. canettii" 173. However, all tested mycobacteria tolerated a 90-min exposure at 45 °C. In the foodstuff models set at 70 °C, no growing mycobacteria were visualized. This study supports the premise that "M. canettii" may survive up to 45 °C; and suggests that contaminated raw drinks and foodstuffs but not cooked ones may be sources of infection for populations.

  18. Post-radiotherapeutic heart lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testart, F.M.

    1979-05-01

    Heart structures have traditionally been considered radioresistant. In fact all tissues subjected to radiotherapy can develop lesions. Possible damage includes: - pericardiac fibrosis, the commonest and best individualized, associated with a constriction this leads to a stoppage pattern usually occurring late, around the 18th month. Its frequency depends directly on the total radiation dose; - fibrous myocarditis by direct damage to the heart muscle; - stenosis type lesions of the large coronary trunks; - in exceptional cases lesions of the aorta: hyperplastic degenerescence of the intima and adventitia or of the aortic sigmoid valvules and the mitral valves. Three observations are reported, concerning a coronary, a pericardiac and a coronary, myocardiac and pericardiac lesion. Following this account the irradiation techniques and main experimental data are reviewed and the prophylactic and therapeutic consequences to be derived from our observations and those of the literature are examined [fr

  19. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class......Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can...... be classified according to previously suggested radiologic characteristics and how this classification relates to prognosis. Searching the databases of eight tertiary referral centres we identified 90 adult patients (61 women, 29 men; mean age 34 years) with ≥1 AIIDL. We collected their demographic, clinical...

  20. Difunctional bacteriophage conjugated with photosensitizers for Candida albicans-targeting photodynamic inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong S

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shuai Dong,1,2 Hongxi Shi,1 Xintong Zhang,1,2 Xi Chen,1 Donghui Cao,2 Chuanbin Mao,3,4 Xiang Gao,1 Li Wang1 1Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of Ministry of Education, Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Northeast Normal University, 2First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; 4Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Stephenson Life Science Research Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA Background: Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of the human microbiota, causing infections ranging from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Due to the increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant C. albicans strains, new approaches to control this pathogen are needed. Photodynamic inactivation is an emerging alternative to treat infections based on the interactions between visible light and photosensitisers, in which pheophorbide a (PPA is a chlorophyll-based photosensitizer that could induce cell death after light irradiation. Due to PPA’s phototoxicity and low efficiency, the main challenge is to implement photosensitizer cell targeting and attacking. Methods: In this study, PPA was conjugated with JM-phage by EDC/NHS crosslinking. UV-Vis spectra was used to determine the optimum conjugation percentages of PPA and JM-phage complex for photodynamic inactivation. After photodynamic inactivation, the efficacy of PPA-JM-phage was assessed by performing in vitro experiments, such as MTS assay, scanning electron microscopy, measurement of dysfunctional mitochondria, ROS accumulation, S cell arrest and apoptotic pathway.Results: A single-chain variable-fragment phage (JM with high affinity to MP65 was screened from human single-fold single-chain variable-fragment libraries and designed as a binding target for C. albicans cells. Subsequently, PPa was integrated into JM phage to generate

  1. Lactococcus lactis Thioredoxin Reductase Is Sensitive to Light Inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Viennet, Thibault; Skjoldager, Nicklas

    2015-01-01

    Thioredoxin, involved in numerous redox pathways, is maintained in the dithiol state by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent flavoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Here, TrxR from Lactococcus lactis is compared with the well-characterized TrxR from Escherichia coli. The two...... enzymes belong to the same class of low-molecular weight thioredoxin reductases and display similar kcat values (∼25 s-1) with their cognate thioredoxin. Remarkably, however, the L. lactis enzyme is inactivated by visible light and furthermore reduces molecular oxygen 10 times faster than E. coli Trx......-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of heat-extracted FAD from light-damaged TrxR revealed a mass increment of 13.979 Da, relative to that of unmodified FAD, corresponding to the addition of one oxygen atom and the loss of two hydrogen atoms. Tandem mass spectrometry confined the increase in mass...

  2. MRI atlas of MS lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences Sina Hospital (Iran). Dept. of Neurology; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm [Univ. Hospital Basel (Switzerland). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2008-07-01

    MRI has become the main paraclinical test in the diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis. We have demonstrated more than 400 pictures of different typical and atypical MS lesions in this atlas. Each image has a teaching point. New diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis are discussed and the book is supported by a teaching DVD where the reader can see MS lesions in different slices and sequences. (orig.)

  3. Histomorphological spetrum of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, S; Koirala, U; Khatri, R; Acharya, L; Suwal, A

    2011-04-01

    Cancer of the breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. Mass in the breast, whether benign or malignant is a cause of anxiety to the patients and the family members. All breast lumps are considered to be carcinomas until proved otherwise and are the causes of concern both for the patient and surgeon. This is a retrospective study conducted in Kathmandu Model Hospital for a total duration of three years from August 2007 to August 2010. 114 sample of breast tissue sent for histopathology were studied. Peak incidence of benign lesion was in between 21-30 years and malignant lesions in between 31-50 years. No breast lesions were seen in the first decade of life. Cancer of the breast was seen in 12.28% of cases. Fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease were the commonest benign lesion and infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest malignant lesion. Specimens from 10 male breasts were received. Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion encountered in males. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was seen in a 70 year old male. Breast cancer is one of the commonest causes of breast lump particularly in women and is growing public health problem in Nepal.

  4. High pressure inactivation of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Sanelle; Silva, Filipa V M

    2017-05-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis ("Brett") is a major spoilage concern for the wine industry worldwide, leading to undesirable sensory properties. Sulphur dioxide, is currently the preferred method for wine preservation. However, due to its negative effects on consumers, the use of new alternative non-thermal technologies are increasingly being investigated. The aim of this study was to determine and model the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) conditions and yeast strain on the inactivation of "Brett" in Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Processing at 200 MPa for 3 min resulted in 5.8 log reductions. However higher pressure is recommended to achieve high throughput in the wine industry, for example >6.0 log reductions were achieved after 400 MPa for 5 s. The inactivation of B. bruxellensis is pressure and time dependent, with increased treatment time and pressure leading to increased yeast inactivation. It was also found that yeast strain had a significant effect on HPP inactivation, with AWRI 1499 being the most resistant strain. The Weibull model successfully described the HPP "Brett" inactivation. HPP is a viable alternative for the inactivation of B. bruxellensis in wine, with the potential to reduce the industry's reliance on sulphur dioxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, Remko M; Schutyser, Maarten A I

    2017-06-15

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during baking at 175 or 205°C. In the wheat flour/water system, the thermostability of β-galactosidase increased with decreased moisture content, and a kinetic model was accurately fitted to the corresponding inactivation data (R 2 =0.99). Interestingly, the residual enzyme activity in the bread crust (about 30%) was hundredfold higher than that in the crumb (about 0.3%) after baking, despite the higher temperature in the crust throughout baking. This result suggested that the reduced moisture content in the crust increased the thermostability of the enzyme. Subsequently, the kinetic model reasonably predicted the enzyme inactivation in the crumb using the same parameters derived from the wheat flour/water system. However, the model predicted a lower residual enzyme activity in the crust compared with the experimental result, which indicated that the structure of the crust may influence the enzyme inactivation mechanism during baking. The results reported can provide a quantitative understanding of the thermal inactivation kinetics of enzyme during baking, which is essential to better retain enzymatic activity in bakery products supplemented with heat-sensitive enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Photodynamic inactivation of foodborne bacteria by eosin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, E; Dos Santos, A R; Fiori da Silva, A; Ribeiro, L H; Favero, M E; Campanerut-Sá, P A Z; de Freitas, C F; Caetano, W; Hioka, N; Mikcha, J M G

    2018-03-25

    The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of photodynamic inactivation mediated by eosin Y in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Bacteria (10 7 CFU per ml) were incubated with eosin Y at concentrations ranging from 0·1 to 10 μmol l -1 , irradiated by green LED (λ max 490-570 nm) for 5, 10 and 15 min and the cellular viability was determined. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was completely inactivated when treated with 10 μmol l -1 eosin Y for 10 min. Treatments reduced B. cereus and Salm. Typhimurium counts to 2·7 log CFU per ml and 1·7 log CFU per ml, respectively. Escherichia coli counts were slightly reduced. Staphylococcus aureus presented the highest sensitivity, being completely inactivated by eosin Y at 5 μmol l -1 and 5 min of illumination. The reduction of cellular viability of photoinactivated Staph. aureus was also demonstrated by flow cytometry and morphological changes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Eosin Y in combination with LED produced bacterial inactivation, being a potential candidate for photodynamic inactivation. This study evidenced the efficacy of photodynamic inactivation as a novel and promising alternative to bacterial control. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa; Sinconegui Gomez, Belkys; Cruz Cruz, Anaisa

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more

  8. FFA STUDY OF MACULAR LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vinayagamurthy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Macula is an important portion of retina that occupies the posterior pole of retina. Any disease that affects macula results in significant loss of central vision, form vision and colour vision to an extent. Macular lesions can be hereditary as well as acquired. Macular lesions occur in both younger and older individuals. Anatomically, a macular lesions can vary from a simple lesion like an RPF defect to a vision-threatening lesions like choroidal neovascular membrane. Many screening tests that are sensitive and specific are available to assess the functioning of macula called as ‘macular function test’. But, the greater understanding of the retinal vascular led to the usage of fluorescein angiogram in the detection and screening of macular, retinovascular and optic disc lesions. Through fundus fluorescein angiogram is a thirty-year-old procedure; it is still in vogue in almost all parts of the world. It has its own merits. The aim of the study is to study the role of fluorescein angiography in the evaluation of macular lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based prospective randomised study was done, which included 50 patients. Detailed patient history was taken and thorough ocular and systemic examination was done. All patients were examined by ophthalmoscopy (direct and indirect and slit-lamp examination with 90D followed by fluorescein angiography. Ophthalmoscopic and fluorescein angiography findings were analysed and categorised. Patients were advised proper ocular and systemic treatment and follow up. RESULTS 50 cases with macular lesions were analysed and categorised into conditions like ARMD, CSR, macular oedema, CME, degenerations and dystrophies and miscellaneous conditions. FFA altered the diagnosis in 8% cases and categorised the cases in all cases. 16% patients developed adverse reactions like allergy, vomiting and nausea. On statistical analysis, FFA proved to be cheap and superior diagnostic tool in confirming

  9. Comparison of the calcium release channel of cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum by target inactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrew, S.G.; Inui, Makoto; Chadwick, C.C.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Jung, C.Y.; Fleischer, S.

    1989-01-01

    The calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum which triggers muscle contraction in excitation-contraction coupling has recently been isolated. The channel has been found to be morphologically identical with the feet structures of the junctional face membrane of terminal cisternae and consists of an oligomer of a unique high molecular weight polypeptide. In this study, the authors compare the target size of the calcium release channel from heart and skeletal muscle using target inactivation analysis. The target molecular weights of the calcium release channel estimated by measuring ryanodine binding after irradiation are similar for heart (139,000) and skeletal muscle (143,000) and are smaller than the monomeric unit (estimated to be about 360,000). The target size, estimated by measuring polypeptide remaining after irradiation, was essentially the same for heart and skeletal muscle, 1,061,000 and 1,070,000, respectively, indicating an oligomeric association of protomers. Thus, the calcium release channel of both cardiac and skeletal muscle reacts uniquely with regard to target inactivation analysis in that (1) the size by ryanodine binding is smaller than the monomeric unit and (2) a single hit leads to destruction of more than one polypeptide, by measuring polypeptide remaining. The target inactivation analysis studies indicate that heart and skeletal muscle receptors are structurally very similar

  10. Viral inactivation in hemotherapy: systematic review on inactivators with action on nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Marial Sobral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the photoinactivators used in hemotherapy, with action on viral genomes. The SciELO, Science Direct, PubMed and Lilacs databases were searched for articles. The inclusion criterion was that these should be articles on inactivators with action on genetic material that had been published between 2000 and 2010. The key words used in identifying such articles were "hemovigilance", "viral inactivation", "photodynamics", "chemoprevention" and "transfusion safety". Twenty-four articles on viral photoinactivation were found with the main photoinactivators covered being: methylene blue, amotosalen HCl, S-303 frangible anchor linker effector (FRALE, riboflavin and inactin. The results showed that methylene blue has currently been studied least, because it diminishes coagulation factors and fibrinogen. Riboflavin has been studied most because it is a photoinactivator of endogenous origin and has few collateral effects. Amotosalen HCl is effective for platelets and is also used on plasma, but may cause changes both to plasma and to platelets, although these are not significant for hemostasis. S-303 FRALE may lead to neoantigens in erythrocytes and is less indicated for red-cell treatment; in such cases, PEN 110 is recommended. Thus, none of the methods for pathogen reduction is effective for all classes of agents and for all blood components, but despite the high cost, these photoinactivators may diminish the risk of blood-transmitted diseases.

  11. Inactivation of an enterovirus by airborne disinfectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The activity of airborne disinfectants on bacteria, fungi and spores has been reported. However, the issue of the virucidal effect of disinfectants spread by fogging has not been studied thoroughly. Methods A procedure has been developed to determine the virucidal activity of peracetic acid-based airborne disinfectants on a resistant non-enveloped virus poliovirus type 1. This virus was laid on a stainless carrier. The products were spread into the room by hot fogging at 55°C for 30 minutes at a concentration of 7.5 mL.m-3. Poliovirus inoculum, supplemented with 5%, heat inactivated non fat dry organic milk, were applied into the middle of the stainless steel disc and were dried under the air flow of a class II biological safety cabinet at room temperature. The Viral preparations were recovered by using flocked swabs and were titered on Vero cells using the classical Spearman-Kärber CPE reading method, the results were expressed as TCID50.ml-1. Results The infectious titer of dried poliovirus inocula was kept at 105 TCID50.mL-1 up to 150 minutes at room temperature. Dried inocula exposed to airborne peracetic acid containing disinfectants were recovered at 60 and 120 minutes post-exposition and suspended in culture medium again. The cytotoxicity of disinfectant containing medium was eliminated through gel filtration columns. A 4 log reduction of infectious titer of dried poliovirus inocula exposed to peracetic-based airborne disinfectant was obtained. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the virucidal activity of airborne disinfectants can be tested on dried poliovirus. PMID:23587047

  12. Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Gu, Ying; Dai, Tianhong

    2018-02-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a human-adapted, gram-negative diplococcus that infects human reproductive tracts and causes gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease, resulting in discharge and inflammation at the urethra, cervix, pharynx, or rectum. Over the years, N. gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to nearly every drug ever used to treat it, including sulfonamides, penicillin, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones. Drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae is now considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an urgent threat. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial blue light (aBL) at 405 and 470 nm for inactivating N. gonorrhoeae and reveal the mechanism of action. Our results showed that an exposure of 45 J/cm2 aBL at 405 nm reduced the bacterial CFU by 7.16-log10. When the aBL exposure was increased to 54 J/cm2, eradication of bacterial CFU was achieved. When the bacteria were exposed to aBL at 470 nm, 3-log10 reduction of CFU was observed at an aBL exposure of higher than 126 J/cm2. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic analyses revealed the presence of endogenous porphyrins and flavins in N. gonorrhoeae cells. The present study indicated that aBL is a potential strategy to control N. gonorrhoeae infections. Endogenous porphyrins play a vital role in the killing effects of aBL. In vivo experiments are ongoing in our laboratory to treat genital tract infections in mice using aBL and explore the potential clinical applications.

  13. Thermal inactivation of Phytophthora capsici oospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Aitzol; Mendarte, Sorkunde; Larregla, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a major fungal plant pathogen that causes root and crown rot of pepper crops and its oospores are the most resistant propagules. To evaluate the effect of different temperature regimes and exposure times on the survival of P. capsici oospores. Thermal inactivation treatments simulated field conditions, through the use of different constant and cycling temperature regimes, in moistened sterilized soil (15-53 °C) and sterilized water (45-53 °C). The plasmolysis method evaluated oospore viability. Relationships between oospores viability and exposure time were statistically determined by linear regression. Interpolation was used to calculate the estimated times required to kill a determined percentage of the population. The required time to reduce P. capsici oospores viability decreased with increasing temperatures. Times required to kill 100% of oospores were 199-22-6.6-4.7-1.0 hours at 40-45-47.5-50-53°C respectively in moistened soil and 31-1.0-0.2 hours at 45-50-53 °C in water. Oospores were scarcely affected at temperatures ≤ 35 °C. With 1,680 hours at 15-35 °C, oospores survival in soil ranged from 88 to 36%. The 4 hours-40 °C regime killed 100% of oospores after 28days, while the 5 hours-35°C regime after 70 days killed only 75%. Time required to achieve total oospores death was remarkably shortened in water when compared with moistened soil. The developed models can be used to predict survival values at any exposure time with constant temperatures ranging from 40 to 53 °C in moistened soil and from 45 to 53 °C in water. The weakening of P. capsici oospores under sublethal heating, is a useful observation that can be applied for pathogen control with solarization. Copyright © 2010 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL inactivation in sporadic clear cell renal cancer: associations with germline VHL polymorphisms and etiologic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee E Moore

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal tumor heterogeneity studies have utilized the von Hippel-Lindau VHL gene to classify disease into molecularly defined subtypes to examine associations with etiologic risk factors and prognosis. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of VHL inactivation in clear cell renal tumors (ccRCC and to evaluate relationships between VHL inactivation subgroups with renal cancer risk factors and VHL germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. VHL genetic and epigenetic inactivation was examined among 507 sporadic RCC/470 ccRCC cases using endonuclease scanning and using bisulfite treatment and Sanger sequencing across 11 CpG sites within the VHL promoter. Case-only multivariate analyses were conducted to identify associations between alteration subtypes and risk factors. VHL inactivation, either through sequence alterations or promoter methylation in tumor DNA, was observed among 86.6% of ccRCC cases. Germline VHL SNPs and a haplotype were associated with promoter hypermethylation in tumor tissue (OR = 6.10; 95% CI: 2.28-16.35, p = 3.76E-4, p-global = 8E-5. Risk of having genetic VHL inactivation was inversely associated with smoking due to a higher proportion of wild-type ccRCC tumors [former: OR = 0.70 (0.20-1.31 and current: OR = 0.56 (0.32-0.99; P-trend = 0.04]. Alteration prevalence did not differ by histopathologic characteristics or occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. ccRCC cases with particular VHL germline polymorphisms were more likely to have VHL inactivation through promoter hypermethylation than through sequence alterations in tumor DNA, suggesting that the presence of these SNPs may represent an example of facilitated epigenetic variation (an inherited propensity towards epigenetic variation in renal tissue. A proportion of tumors from current smokers lacked VHL alterations and may represent a biologically distinct clinical entity from inactivated cases.

  15. DNA double strand breaks as the critical type of damage with regard to inactivation of cells through ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg, D.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the effects of ionizing radiation on eukaryotic cells, aimed at revealing the molecular mechanisms leading to cell inactivation as a result of ionizing radiation. The quantitative determination of radiation-induced double strand breaks (DSB) is done via sedimentation of the DNA released from the cells in a neutral saccharose gradient in a preparative ultracentrifuge. The 'experimental mass spectrum' of DNA molecules thus obtained, the mean number of DSB per cell is calculated using a special computer program which simulates the stochastic induction of DSB in the DNA of non-irradiated cells and links the 'simulated' mass spectrum with the 'experimental' one on the basis of the least square fit. The experimental and theoretical studies with the eukaryote yeast on the whole allow insight into the relation between energy absorption and the inactivation of irradiated cells. (orig./MG) [de

  16. MRI of the stener lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haramati, N.; Hiller, N.; Dowdle, J.; Jacobson, M.; Barax, C.N.; Lieberfarb, R.I.; Lester, B.; Kulick, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Six cadaver thumbs had ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears created surgically. MR examinations (2D STIR and 3D GRASS) were performed identically on all specimens both before displacement (non-Stener) and after displacement (Stener lesion) of the UCL. The MR images were then randomly numbered. Each image was evaluated separately in blinded fashion by four musculoskeletal radiologists for the presence or absence of a Stener lesion. Each radiologist reinterpreted the images after an interval of several days. The interpretation was based on previously published criteria for Stener lesion diagnosis by MR. The sensitivity of GRASS ranged from 0.17 to 0.67 with the most experienced reader scoring the lowest. The specificity of GRASS ranged from 0.33 to 1.0 (most experienced reader 0.67, 0.83). STIR had a sensitivity of 0.00-0.17 and a specificity of 0.53-0.83. The K values for inter- and intraobserver agreement were measured. The intraobserver K for GRASS was 0.27-0.75 (most experienced reader 0.75). 2D imaging is probably inadequate for the evaluation of Stener lesions. The most likely reason is that the STIR slice thickness of 3 mm limits resolution of small UCLs. The poor sensitivity and specificity of GRASS as well as poor interobserver agreement suggest that MR may not be sufficiently accurate for Stener lesion evaluation. (orig./MG)

  17. Comparison of glycerolisation with cryopreservation methods on HIV-1 inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baare, J.; Pagnon, J.; Cameron, P.; Vardaxis, N.; Middlekoop, E.; Crowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    Cryopreservation and glycerolisation are two successful long-term preservation methods for human cadaveric donor skin, which is used in the treatment of bum patients. High concentrations of glycerol has been shown to be antibacterial and virucidal. Because fear of possible transmission of HIV-1 following allograft transplantation, this study was undertaken to investigate whether HIV can be effectively eliminated from skin explants. HIV-1 Ba-L, which has been shown to infect monocytes in skin explants and also dendritic cells, was. For the experiments we used cell-free virus, exogenously HIV infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and exogenously HIV infected cadaver split skin. Different concentrations of glycerol at various temperatures and the glycerolisation procedure as used by the Euro Skin Bank were used to determine the effects on HIV-1 Ba-L infectivity. For the cryopreservation technique we used 10% DMSO and a controlled rate freezer. HIV-1 Ba-L transfer was determined by adding uninfected PBMCs to the infected material and reverse transcriptase was measured. Cell-free HIV-1 Ba-L was not inactivated by 50% glycerol but was effectively inactivated within 30 minutes by 70% and 85% glycerol at 4 degree C, room temperature and 37 degree C. In contrast, cell-free HIV-1 Ba-L was not inactivated by cryopreservation. Most importantly, we have shown that HIV-1 Ba-L present in split skin is inactivated by incubating skin in 70% glycerol for three hours at 37-C. HIV in exogenously infected skin was not inactivated by cryopreservation. High concentrations of glycerol effectively inactivates free HIV-1 Ba-L and intracellular HIV-1 Ba-L. Also the current glycerolisation procedure carried out by the Euro Skin Bank effectively inactivates infectious virus. However, the cryopreservation technique did not show any reduction in HIV-1 Ba-L infectivity

  18. Pathological criteria and practical issues in papillary lesions of the breast - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yun-Bi; Tse, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    Papillary lesions of the breast include a broad spectrum of lesions, ranging from benign papilloma, papilloma with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to papillary carcinoma. The accurate diagnosis of mammary papillary lesions is a challenge for pathologists, owing to the overlapping features among these lesions. In this review, some of the diagnostic criteria of papillary lesions are discussed, with special emphasis on some key morphological features, namely fibrovascular cores, epithelial proliferation in a solid pattern, intraductal papilloma complicated by ADH or DCIS, and invasion and its mimics. The roles of immunohistochemistry, and the interpretation of myoepithelial cell markers, hormone receptors, and high molecular weight cytokeratin, are addressed. Finally, novel biomarkers and genetic aberrations in papillary lesions are summarized. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Traveling Rocky Roads: The Consequences of Transcription-Blocking DNA Lesions on RNA Polymerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Barbara; Marteijn, Jurgen A

    2017-10-27

    The faithful transcription of eukaryotic genes by RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) is crucial for proper cell function and tissue homeostasis. However, transcription-blocking DNA lesions of both endogenous and environmental origin continuously challenge the progression of elongating RNAP2. The stalling of RNAP2 on a transcription-blocking lesion triggers a series of highly regulated events, including RNAP2 processing to make the lesion accessible for DNA repair, R-loop-mediated DNA damage signaling, and the initiation of transcription-coupled DNA repair. The correct execution and coordination of these processes is vital for resuming transcription following the successful repair of transcription-blocking lesions. Here, we outline recent insights into the molecular consequences of RNAP2 stalling on transcription-blocking DNA lesions and how these lesions are resolved to restore mRNA synthesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterisation of prostate cancer lesions in heterozygous Men1 mutant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigne, Christelle; Fontanière, Sandra; Carreira, Christine; Lu, Jieli; Tong, Wei-Ming; Fontanière, Bernard; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Zhang, Chang Xian; Frappart, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of the MEN1 gene predispose to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. Our group and others have shown that Men1 disruption in mice recapitulates MEN1 pathology. Intriguingly, rare lesions in hormone-dependent tissues, such as prostate and mammary glands, were also observed in the Men1 mutant mice. To study the occurrence of prostate lesions, we followed a male mouse cohort of 47 Men1 +/- mice and 23 age-matched control littermates, starting at 18 months of age, and analysed the prostate glands from the cohort. Six Men1 +/- mice (12.8%) developed prostate cancer, including two adenocarcinomas and four in situ carcinomas, while none of the control mice developed cancerous lesions. The expression of menin encoded by the Men1 gene was found to be drastically reduced in all carcinomas, and partial LOH of the wild-type Men1 allele was detected in three of the five analysed lesions. Using immunostaining for the androgen receptor and p63, a basal epithelial cell marker, we demonstrated that the menin-negative prostate cancer cells did not display p63 expression and that the androgen receptor was expressed but more heterogeneous in these lesions. Furthermore, our data showed that the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1B (p27), a Men1 target gene known to be inactivated during prostate cell tumorigenesis, was notably decreased in the prostate cancers that developed in the mutant mice. Our work suggests the possible involvement of Men1 inactivation in the tumorigenesis of the prostate gland

  1. Abfraction lesions reviewed: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Vasconcelos Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-carious cervical lesions are characterized by structural loss near the cementoenamel junction, without the presence of caries. Anumber of theories have arisen to explain the etiology of such lesions, although the real causes remain obscure, as is reflected by the contradictory terminology used in the literature. In addition to describing acidic and abrasive processes documented as etiological factors, attention is given to the role of mechanical stress from occlusal load, which is the most accepted theory for the development of abfraction lesions. Considering that tensile stress leads to the failure of restorations in the cervical region and that this is a fruitful area for future research, the present study has highlighted diagnosis, prognosis and the criteria for treatment.

  2. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  3. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  4. The radiology in the solitary bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, G.A.; Cardoso, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three methods of radiologic analysis of the solitary bone lesions are reviewed. 1. Radiological analysis of the lesions with the objective to suppose the histologic type; 2. To appreciate the velocity of growth and aggressiveness of the lesions. 3. To appreciate the biological behaviour of the bone lesions, making the diagnosis necessary for the treatment. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. [The treatment of decubitus lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, G; Moroni, S; Bona, F

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a plan for pharmacological treatment of pressure sores in patients affected by neurological pathologies: cerebrovascular accidents, head injuries, spinal cord injuries. This plan is easily applicable to all pressure sores included between first and third degree of the Reuler and Cooney classification. Authors identified some drugs specifically usefull in different cutaneous lesion degrees. Skin lesions and employed medicines are described as follows: Erythema: semi occlusive bandage with porous adsorbing membrane. This dressing must be left in for five days at least. Excoriation: bactericidal or bacteriostatic medicines if it's situated in a non pressed area while the same dressing utilized for erythema if it's localized in a pressed area. Pressure sores: if there is local infection cleanse the wound from bacterial defilement using topic antibiotics apply compresses with vitamin C if the cutaneous lesion is larger than deeper, Cadexomero lodico if it's deeper than larger. Fistulas: wadding with tablets of collagen. Necrobiosis: complete or partial surgical removal of eschar preceded by the use of enzymatic drugs when eschar is firmly adherent to subcutaneous tissues. The first group collects 9 patients with stroke and head injury: 8 with sacral and 1 with heel pressure sores. First degree pressure sores heal within 45 days and third degree lesions within 160 days. The second group collects 10 spinal cord injury patients mostly with complete lesion among which: 7 sacral, 1 heel, 1 ischiatic and 1 malleolar lesions. First degree pressure sores heal within 30 days, third degree pressure sores heal within 200 days. Healing time are considered acceptable. Pressure sores recovery swiftness can be related to different factors such as pressure sores sterness, neurological pathology and arising of clinical complication (hyperthermia, infections, low serum albumin values, etc).

  6. Lesions of juxtacortical origin (surface lesions of bone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenan, S.; Abdelwahab, I.F.; Klein, M.J.; Hermann, G.; Lewis, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    A large variety of tumor and tumor-like conditions have been shown to originate from the surface of bone. Most surface lesions are associated with periosteal reaction. The periosteum is a multipotential membrane. Its cellular composition may give rise to a variety of both neoplasms and tumor-like conditions. To avoid misinterpretation, the orthopedist, radiologist, and pathologist should be familiar with the entire spectrum of surface lesions. A better understanding of the natural history and biological behavior at different lesional maturity stages and correlation of the history with the radiographic and pathological findings is essential to establish the correct diagnosis. A history of injury of blunt trauma is very important. A stress fracture may produce a periosteal reaction acd callus that can be difficult to distinguish from osteosarcoma. In this review article, the authors wish to describe and define each term by its anatomy and radiographic features while discussing the entire spectrum of surface lesions. All the illustrative cases in this review article have been proven histologically. (orig.)

  7. [Kinetics of catalase inactivation induced by ultrasonic cavitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapovich, M V; Eremin, A N; Metelitsa, D I

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic patterns of sonication-induced inactivation of bovine liver catalase (CAT) were studied in buffer solutions (pH 4-11) within the temperature range from 36 to 55 degrees C. Solutions of CAT were exposed to low-frequency (20.8 kHz) ultrasound (specific power, 48-62 W/cm2). The kinetics of CAT inactivation was characterized by effective first-order rate constants (s-1) of total inactivation (kin), thermal inactivation (*kin), and ultrasonic inactivation (kin(us)). In all cases, the following inequality was valid: kin > *kin. The value of kin(us) increased with the ultrasound power (range, 48-62 W/cm2) and exhibited a strong dependence on pH of the medium. On increasing the initial concentration of CAT (0.4-4.0 nM), kin(us) decreased. The three rate constants were minimum within the range of pH 6.5-8; their values increased considerably at pH 9. At 36-55 degrees C, temperature dependence of kin(us) was characterized by an activation energy (Eact) of 19.7 kcal/mol, whereas the value of Eact for CAT thermoinactivation was equal to 44.2 kcal/mol. Bovine serum and human serum albumins (BSA and HSA, respectively) inhibited sonication-induced CAT inactivation; complete prevention was observed at concentrations above 2.5 micrograms/ml. Dimethyl formamide (DMFA), a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals (HO.), prevented sonication-induced CAT inactivation at 10% (kin and *kin increased with the content of DMFA at concentrations in excess of 3%). The results obtained indicate that free radicals generated in the field of ultrasonic cavitation play a decisive role in the inactivation of CAT, which takes place when its solutions are exposed to low-frequency ultrasound. However, the efficiency of CAT inactivation by the radicals is determined by (1) the degree of association between the enzyme molecules in the reaction medium and (2) the composition thereof.

  8. ERADIKASI POLIO DAN IPV (INACTIVATED POLIO VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gendrowahyuhono Gendrowahyuhono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the year 1988, World Health Organization (WHO claims that polio viruses should be eradicated after year 2000. However, until year 2010 the world have not been free from polio viruses circulation. So many effort had been achieved and it is estimated that the world will be free from polio virus after the year 2013. Control of poliomyelitis in Indonesia has been commenced since 1982 with routine immunization of polio program and the National Immunization Days (NID has been commenced since 1995,1996,2005 and 2006. When the world is free from polio virus, WHO suggests several alternative effort to maintain the world free from polio viruses : I stop the OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine and no polio immunization, 2 stop OPV and stock pile mOPV (monovalent OPV, 3 use OPV and IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine in a certain times, 4 use IPV only in a certain times. IPV has been used routinely in develop countries but has not been used in the developing countries. Several studies in development countries has been conducted, but had not been done in the developing countries. Indonesia collaboration with WHO has conducted the study of IPV in Yogyakarta Province since year 2002 until year 2010. The overall aim of the study is to compile the necessary data that will inform global and national decision-making regarding future polio immunization policies for the OPV cessation era. The data generated from the study will be particularly important to make decisions regarding optimal IPV use in developing tropical countries. It is unlikely that this data can be assembled through other means than through this study. The tentative result of the study shows that OPV immunization coverage in the year 2004 is 99% in four district and 93 % in the Yogyakarta city. Environment surveillance shows that there are 65.7% polio virus detected from 137 sewage samples pre IPV swich, and 4.8% polio virus detected from 83 sewage samples post IPV swich. Survey polio antibody serologis shows

  9. Periapical lesions: diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rubio, A.; Bujaldón-Daza, A.L.; Rodríguez-Archilla, A.

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones periapicales resultado de la necrosis de la pulpa dental son las patologías que más frecuentemente ocurren encontradas en el hueso alveolar. El tratamiento consiste en la eliminación de los agentes infecciosos mediante el tratamiento del canal radicular, permitiendo la cicatrización de la lesión. Periapical lesions, which are a result of the necrosis of the dental pulp, are the most frequently occurring diseases found in the alveolar bone. The treatment involves the removal of...

  10. Localized lesions in secondary syphillis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasid, N.; Syphilis, S.

    2008-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis are variable and can mimic many skin diseases, mostly being generalized and symmetrical in distribution. Localized lesions of secondary syphilis are rarely seen in dermatology clinics. We report an unusual presentation wherein a patient had localized lesions over face and soles only. There is a need for increased awareness on the part of physicians to recognize new patterns of syphilitic infection, together with a willingness to consider the diagnosis of syphilis in patients with unusual clinical features. (author)

  11. Structure of suicide-inactivated β-hydroxydecanoyl-thioester dehydrase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, J.M.; Ho, C.K.; Li, W.B.; Townsend, C.A.; Salituro, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    β-Hydroxydecanoylthioester dehydrase, the key enzyme in biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids under anaerobic conditions, equilibrates thioesters of (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid, E-2-decenoic acid, and Z-3-decenoic acid. Dehydrase is irreversibly inactivated by the N-acetylcysteamine thioester of 3-decynoic acid (3-decynoyl-NAC), via dehydrase-catalyzed isomerization to 2,3-decadienoyl-NAC. To probe the relationship between normal catalysis and suicide inactivation, the structure of the inactivated enzyme has been studied. 3-[2- 13 C]Decynoyl-NAC was synthesized and incubated with dehydrase. 13 C NMR showed that attack of 2,3-decadienoyl-NAC by the active site histidine gives 3-histidinyl-3-decenoyl-NAC, which slowly rearranges to the more stable Δ 2 isomer. Model histidine-allene adducts have been made and characterized. Analysis of NMR data show that the C=C configuration of the decenoyl moiety of enzyme-bound inactivator is E. The suggestion that the mechanism of dehydrase inactivation parallels its normal mechanism of action is supported these findings

  12. Inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives. II. Physical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, B.; Wiebe, M.E.; Lippin, A.; Vandersande, J.; Stryker, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives was evaluated by addition of marker viruses (VSV, Sindbis, Sendai, EMC) to anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) concentrates. The rate of virus inactivation at 60 degrees C was decreased by at least 100- to 700-fold by inclusion of 2.75 M glycine and 50 percent sucrose, or 3.0 M potassium citrate, additives which contribute to retention of protein biologic activity. Nonetheless, at least 10(4) infectious units of each virus was inactivated within 10 hours. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 70 or 80 degrees C caused a 90 percent or greater loss in AHF activity. An even greater decline in the rate of virus inactivation was observed on heating AHF in the lyophilized state, although no loss in AHF activity was observed after 72 hours of heating at 60 degrees C. Several of the proteins present in lyophilized AHF concentrates displayed an altered electrophoretic mobility as a result of exposure to 60 degrees C for 24 hours. Exposure of lyophilized AHF to irradiation from a cobalt 60 source resulted in an acceptable yield of AHF at 1.0, but not at 2.0, megarads. At 1 megarad, greater than or equal to 6.0 logs of VSV and 3.3 logs of Sindbis virus were inactivated

  13. Pulsed dielectric barrier discharge for Bacillus subtilis inactivation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Arias, A. N.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.; López-Callejas, R.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Barocio, S. R.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.; de la Piedad Beneitez, A.

    2012-06-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus subtilis bacteria in water has been experimentally studied by means of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (PDBD) in a coaxial reactor endowed with an alumina dielectric. The plasma source is capable of operating at atmospheric pressure with gas, water or hybrid gas-liquid media at adjustable 25 kV pulses, 30 μs long and at a 500 Hz frequency. In order to evaluate the inactivation efficiency of the system, a set of experiments were designed on the basis of oxygen flow control. The initial data have showed a significant bacterial rate reduction of 103-107 CFU/mL. Additional results proved that applying an oxygen flow for a few seconds during the PDBD treatment inactivates the Bacillus subtilis population with 99.99% effectiveness. As a reference, without gas flow but with the same exposure times, this percentage is reduced to ~90%. The analysis of the relationship between inactivation rate and chemical species in the discharge has been carried out using optical emission spectroscopy as to identifying the main reactive species. Reactive oxygen species such as atomic oxygen and ozone tuned out to be the dominant germicidal species. Some proposed inactivation mechanisms of this technique are discussed.

  14. Removal of detergents from SDS-inactivated dextransucrase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husman, D.W.; Mayer, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Dextransucrase, which is rapidly inactivated by SDS, can be reactivated upon the addition of Triton X-100. Purification of the enzyme, in good yield and homogeneity, has been achieved by chromatography in the presence of SDS. The purified enzyme can be reactivated with Triton, but has large amounts of detergents. It was important to develop procedures for their removal. Density gradient centrifugation of SDS-inactivated or Triton-reactivated enzyme, treatment with Extracti-Gel D (Pierce) or chromatography on hydroxyl apatite (HA), have been examined for their effectiveness in providing detergent-free enzyme in good yield. Ultracentrifugation of SDS-inactivated protein provided limited recovery of active enzyme, but suggested that reactivation could be achieved by the simple removal of the detergent. While similar behavior was observed when the enzyme was eluted from Extracti-Gel, it was also shown that the limited recovery was a result of irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. Recovery could be improved if the enzyme was collected in solutions containing Triton, which has been reported to be a stabilizer. Chromatography of SDS-inactivated enzyme on HA also yielded active enzyme. Good recovery was obtained when Triton-reactivated enzyme was employed in these studies. The degree of detergent removal was determined by utilizing radiolabelled SDS and Triton X-100

  15. Thermal and high pressure inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2017-10-01

    This study for the first time investigated the stability and inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase in model systems (McIlvaine buffer, pH=3.6, the typical pH of blueberry juice) during thermal (40-80°C) and combined high pressure-thermal processing (0.1-690MPa, 30-90°C). At 70-80°C, the thermal inactivation kinetics was best described by a biphasic model with ∼61% labile and ∼39% stable fractions at temperature between 70 and 75°C. High pressure inhibited the inactivation of the enzyme with no inactivation at pressures as high as 690MPa and temperatures less than 50°C. The inactivation kinetics of the enzyme at 60-70°C, and pressures higher than 500MPa was best described by a first order biphasic model with ∼25% labile fraction and 75% stable fraction. The activation energy values at atmospheric pressure were 548.6kJ/mol and 324.5kJ/mol respectively for the stable and the labile fractions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulsed dielectric barrier discharge for Bacillus subtilis inactivation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Arias, A N; López-Callejas, R; De la Piedad Beneitez, A; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Barocio, S R; Muñoz-Castro, A E

    2012-01-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus subtilis bacteria in water has been experimentally studied by means of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (PDBD) in a coaxial reactor endowed with an alumina dielectric. The plasma source is capable of operating at atmospheric pressure with gas, water or hybrid gas-liquid media at adjustable 25 kV pulses, 30 μs long and at a 500 Hz frequency. In order to evaluate the inactivation efficiency of the system, a set of experiments were designed on the basis of oxygen flow control. The initial data have showed a significant bacterial rate reduction of 10 3 -10 7 CFU/mL. Additional results proved that applying an oxygen flow for a few seconds during the PDBD treatment inactivates the Bacillus subtilis population with 99.99% effectiveness. As a reference, without gas flow but with the same exposure times, this percentage is reduced to ∼90%. The analysis of the relationship between inactivation rate and chemical species in the discharge has been carried out using optical emission spectroscopy as to identifying the main reactive species. Reactive oxygen species such as atomic oxygen and ozone tuned out to be the dominant germicidal species. Some proposed inactivation mechanisms of this technique are discussed.

  17. Molecular cytogenetic evaluation of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and precursor lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Dekken (Herman); J.C. Alers (Janneke); P.H.J. Riegman (Peter); C. Rosenberg; H.W. Tilanus (Hugo); K.J. Vissers (Kees)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractAnalyses of cancer incidence data in the United States and Western Europe revealed steadily rising rates over the past decades of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Genetic information on gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and its preneoplasias

  18. DNA Damage by Ionizing Radiation: Tandem Double Lesions by Charged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Chaban, Galina M.; Wang, Dunyou; Dateo, Christopher E.

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative damages by ionizing radiation are the source of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, damage to the central nervous system, lowering of the immune response, as well as other radiation-induced damages to human health. Monte Carlo track simulations and kinetic modeling of radiation damages to the DNA employ available molecular and cellular data to simulate the biological effect of high and low LET radiation io the DNA. While the simulations predict single and double strand breaks and base damages, so far all complex lesions are the result of stochastic coincidence from independent processes. Tandem double lesions have not yet been taken into account. Unlike the standard double lesions that are produced by two separate attacks by charged particles or radicals, tandem double lesions are produced by one single attack. The standard double lesions dominate at the high dosage regime. On the other hand, tandem double lesions do not depend on stochastic coincidences and become important at the low dosage regime of particular interest to NASA. Tandem double lesions by hydroxyl radical attack of guanine in isolated DNA have been reported at a dosage of radiation as low as 10 Gy. The formation of two tandem base lesions was found to be linear with the applied doses, a characteristic of tandem lesions. However, tandem double lesions from attack by a charged particle have not been reported.

  19. Not All Erythema Migrans Lesions Are Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jerome

    2017-02-01

    Lyme disease is the number one arthropod-transmitted disease in the US, and one of the diagnostic criteria for the illness is development of an erythematous bull's-eye rash around a tick bite that may expand over time, hence the term erythema migrans. However, there are other erythema migrans-like rashes, such as those from a condition known as southern tick-associated rash illness. This article describes a patient with an erythema migrans-like lesion similar to that associated with Lyme disease, resulting from a bite by a nymphal-stage lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. A tick removed from the center of an erythema migrans-like lesion in a patient was identified to species and then submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for testing for the agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. The patient was evaluated by an internist 7 weeks later. After another 3 weeks, the patient's blood was tested serologically for Lyme disease by American Esoteric Laboratories, Memphis, Tenn. Both the tick and human blood sample from this patient were negative for evidence of Lyme disease. Clinically, other than the erythema migrans-like lesion, the patient displayed no signs or symptoms consistent with Lyme disease. This case presents clinical, serological, and molecular evidence that erythema migrans lesions may occur after tick bites in patients and that these lesions may not be due to infection with the agent of Lyme disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunological probes for lesions and repoair patches in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leadon, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes two immunological approaches for the detection of DNA damage and its repair. The first uses a monoclonal antibody to directly measure the production and removal of one type of oxidized base, thymine glycol; the second uses an antibody to detect the repair synthesis event itself and, when combined with the use of molecular biological techniques, can be used to monitor the production and removal of lesions in specific sequences within the genome

  1. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  2. Molecular Analysis of a Multistep Lung Cancer Model Induced by Chronic Inflammation Reveals Epigenetic Regulation of p16, Activation of the DNA Damage Response Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blanco

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular hallmarks of inflammation-mediated lung carcinogenesis have not been fully clarified, mainly due to the scarcity of appropriate animal models. We have used a silica-induced multistep lung carcinogenesis model driven by chronic inflammation to study the evolution of molecular markers, genetic alterations. We analyzed markers of DNA damage response (DDR, proliferative stress, telomeric stress: δ-H2AX, p16, p53, TERT. Lung cancer-related epigenetic, genetic alterations, including promoter hypermethylation status of p16(CDKN2A, APC, CDH13, Rassf1, Nore1A, as well as mutations of Tp53, epidermal growth factor receptor, K-ras, N-ras, c-H-ras, have been also studied. Our results showed DDR pathway activation in preneoplastic lesions, in association with inducible nitric oxide synthase, p53 induction. p16 was also induced in early tumorigenic progression, was inactivated in bronchiolar dysplasias, tumors. Remarkably, lack of mutations of Ras, epidermal growth factor receptor, a very low frequency of Tp53 mutations suggest that they are not required for tumorigenesis in this model. In contrast, epigenetic alterations in p16(CDKN2A, CDH13, APC, but not in Rassf1, Nore1A, were clearly observed. These data suggest the existence of a specific molecular signature of inflammation-driven lung carcinogenesis that shares some, but not all, of the molecular landmarks of chemically induced lung cancer.

  3. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  4. Inactivation of Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water by circular orifice plate-generated hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Daolun; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The discharge of alien ballast water is a well-known, major reason for marine species invasion. Here, circular orifice plate-generated hydrodynamic cavitation was used to inactivate Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water. In comparison with single- and multihole orifice plates, the conical-hole orifice plate yielded the highest inactivation percentage, 51.12%, and consumed only 6.84% energy (based on a 50% inactivation percentage). Repeating treatment, either using double series-connection or circling inactivation, elevated the inactivation percentage, yet consumed much more energy. The results indicate that conical-hole-generated hydrodynamic cavitation shows great potential as a pre-inactivation method for ballast water treatment.

  5. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Gompertz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases.

  6. Stereotactic lesioning for mental illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.-C.; Lee, T.-K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radiofrequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental illness. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were done for aggressive behavior. Limbic leucotomy or anterior cingulotomy was done for CCD and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was done for depression. In twenty-three patients, the lesions were made by a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator. In fifteen cases, the lesions were made with Cyberknife Radiosurgery (CKRS). The Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement during follow up period. With long-term follow up (meaning 57 months) in 25 OCDs, the mean Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (YBOCS) declined from 34 to 13 (n = 25). The Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) for ten patients with depression declined from 38.5 to 10.5 (n = 10). There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except one case with transient urinary incontinence. Authors suggest that stereotactic psychosurgery by RF and CKRS could be a safe and effective means of treating some medically intractable mental illnesses. (author)

  7. Secondary syphilis lesions resembling pityriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, N.R.; Ali, L.; Nawaz, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes a male patient who presented with generalized, centrally-ulcerated papules with crusts and hypopigmented macules. Initially, differential diagnostic considerations included pityriasis lichenoides but the serology for syphilis was positive and there was a rapid response to penicillin with clearing of the lesions at the end of three weeks treatment. (author)

  8. Microbial electrolytic disinfection process for highly efficient Escherichia coli inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Shaofeng; Huang, Shaobin; Li, Xiaohu

    2018-01-01

    extensively studied for recalcitrant organics removal, its application potential towards water disinfection (e.g., inactivation of pathogens) is still unknown. This study investigated the inactivation of Escherichia coli in a microbial electrolysis cell based bio-electro-Fenton system (renamed as microbial......Water quality deterioration caused by a wide variety of recalcitrant organics and pathogenic microorganisms has become a serious concern worldwide. Bio-electro-Fenton systems have been considered as cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment platform technology. While it has been......]OH was identified as one potential mechanism for disinfection. This study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of bio-electro-Fenton process for pathogens inactivation, which offers insight for the future development of sustainable, efficient, and cost-effective biological water treatment technology....

  9. Chlorine inactivation of fungal spores on cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S; Pardoel, D; Harun, A; Treloar, T

    1997-04-01

    Although 0.4% chlorine for 2 min has been recommended for surface disinfection of food samples before direct plating for fungal enumeration, this procedure may not be adequate for highly contaminated products. The effectiveness of a range of chlorine solutions was investigated using barley samples artificially contaminated with four different concentrations of Aspergillus flavus. A. niger, A. ochraceus, Eurotium repens, Penicillium brevicompactum P. chrysogenum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. At initial contamination levels greater than 10(4)/g, 0.4% chlorine did not inactivate sufficient spores to produce less than 20% contamination. Of the test fungi, ascospores of E. repens were the most resistant to chlorine inactivation, whereas the conidia of C. cladosporioides were the most sensitive. Rinsing the samples with 70% ethanol improved the effectiveness of the recommended surface disinfection procedure. However, some ethanol appears to permeate into the grains and may inactivate sensitive internal fungi, although a minimal effect only was observed on wheat infected with Alternaria.

  10. Lipase inactivation in wheat germ by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Pankaj Kumar; Kudachikar, V.B.; Kumar, Sourav

    2013-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve the shelf life of wheat germ by optimizing processing conditions involving γ-irradiation. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of γ-irradiation (0–30 kGy doses) on the chemical composition of wheat germ with respect to variation in moisture, total ash, crude fat, free fatty acid, protein and lipase activity. The results demonstrate that shelf stability of wheat germ was achieved by inactivation of lipase at doses of γ-irradiation greater than 12 kGy. - Highlights: Ø γ-irradiation was found to inactivate Lipase present in Wheat Germ. Ø The treatment did not result in significant changes in Total Ash, Moisture and Protein Content of Wheat Germ. Ø The irradiation at 30 kGy resulted in 31.2 % inactivation of Lipase in Wheat Germ

  11. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in milk by pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, L D; Jin, Z T; Zhang, Q H; Yousef, A E

    1998-09-01

    Pasteurized whole, 2%, and skim milk were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and treated with high-voltage pulsed electric field (PEF). The effects of milk composition (fat content) and PEF parameters (electric field strength, treatment time, and treatment temperature) on the inactivation of the bacterium were studied. No significant differences were observed in the inactivation of L. monocytogenes Scott A in three types of milk by PEF treatment. With treatment at 25 degrees C, 1- to 3-log reductions of L. monocytogenes were observed. PEF lethal effect was a function of field strength and treatment time. Higher field strength or longer treatment time resulted in a greater reduction of viable cells. A 4-log reduction of the bacterium was obtained by increasing the treatment temperature to 50 degrees C. Results indicate that the use of a high-voltage PEF is a promising technology for inactivation of foodborne pathogens.

  12. Development of inactivated-local isolate vaccine for infectious bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is an acute highly contagious viral respiratory disease of poultry caused by coronavirus. The disease causes high mortality in young chicks, reduce body weight gain in broilers and remarkable drop in egg production. IB can only be controlled by vaccination, but due to the antigenic variation among serotypes of IB viruses, the effective IB vaccine should be prepared from local isolates. The aim of this research is to develop inactivated IB vaccine derived from local IB isolates. Local isolates of IB viruses designated as I-37, I-269 and PTS-III were propagated respectively in specific pathogen free (SPF chicken eggs, the viruses then were inactivated by formaline at final concentration of 1:1,000. Subsequently, the inactivated viruses were mixed and emulsified in oil emulsion adjuvant with sorbitant mono-oleic as an emulsifier. The vaccine then was tested for its safety, potency and efficacy in broiler chickens. Birds inoculated twice with a two-week interval by inactivated vaccine did not show any adverse reaction, either systemic or local reaction. The inoculated birds developed antibody responses with high titre, while antibody of the control birds remain negative. In addition, efficacy test which was conducted in broilers demonstrated that birds vaccinated by live-commercial vaccine and boosted three weeks later by Balitvet inactivated vaccine showed high level of antibody production which provided high level of protection against challenged virus (76% against I-37, 92% against I-269 and 68% against PTS-III challenge viruses. From this study, it can be concluded that inactivated local IB vaccine is considered to be safe, potent and efficacious. The vaccine stimulates high titre of antibody responses, which provide high level of protection against challenged viruses.

  13. Inactivation of VHSV by infiltration and salt under experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by infiltration. To evaluate the inactivation effect of infiltration on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid...... be a valuable method to sanitize VHSV infected water. Changes in temperature, pH, earth types in the area used for infiltration etc. may change the virus reduction, though. As some of the fish cutting plants are also smoking rainbow trout fillets, the question arose whether a brine solution will inactivate VHSV...

  14. Social brains in context: lesions targeted to the song control system in female cowbirds affect their social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Sarah E; Schmidt, Marc F; White, David J

    2013-01-01

    Social experiences can organize physiological, neural, and reproductive function, but there are few experimental preparations that allow one to study the effect individuals have in structuring their social environment. We examined the connections between mechanisms underlying individual behavior and social dynamics in flocks of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We conducted targeted inactivations of the neural song control system in female subjects. Playback tests revealed that the lesions affected females' song preferences: lesioned females were no longer selective for high quality conspecific song. Instead, they reacted to all cowbird songs vigorously. When lesioned females were introduced into mixed-sex captive flocks, they were less likely to form strong pair-bonds, and they no longer showed preferences for dominant males. This in turn created a cascade of effects through the groups. Social network analyses showed that the introduction of the lesioned females created instabilities in the social structure: males in the groups changed their dominance status and their courtship patterns, and even the competitive behavior of other female group-mates was affected. These results reveal that inactivation of the song control system in female cowbirds not only affects individual behavior, but also exerts widespread effects on the stability of the entire social system.

  15. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  16. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassali Geovanni D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  17. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Enio; Gobbi, Helenice; Saraiva, Bruna S; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions

  18. Lesões histológicas no sistema nervoso central de cães com encefalite e diagnóstico molecular da infecção pelo vírus da cinomose canina Histopathological lesions in the central nervous system of dogs with encephalitis and molecular diagnosis of canine distemper virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.S. Gebara

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Dez amostras de urina de cães que apresentavam sinais clínicos sistêmicos e neurológicos indicativos da infecção pelo vírus da cinomose canina (CDV foram analisadas pela técnica da reação em cadeia pela polimerase precedida de transcrição reversa (RT-PCR para a detecção do RNA do CDV. O exame histopatológico foi realizado em fragmentos de cérebro, cerebelo e bexiga. Como controle negativo foram colhidos fragmentos de órgãos e urina de quatro cães sem sinais clínicos de doença infecciosa e que morreram por outras causas. Todos os cães (9/10 positivos em RT-PCR apresentaram alterações histológicas no cérebro e cerebelo, características de encefalite aguda (5/9 ou crônica (4/9 compatíveis com as causadas pelo CDV. Um dos cães com alterações clínicas neurológicas semelhantes às observadas em cinomose foi negativo na RT-PCR e apresentou alterações histopatológicas inespecíficas. Nas amostras de bexiga não foram observadas lesões histológicas. Todas as amostras biológicas provenientes dos cães-controle foram negativas na RT-PCR (urina e não apresentaram alterações histológicas (fragmentos de órgãos. O trabalho evidenciou a especificidade da RT-PCR no diagnóstico precoce e ante mortem na infecção pelo CDV.The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to detect canine distemper virus (CDV RNA in 10 urine samples from dogs that had died with clinical systemic and neurological signs indicative of CDV infection. Brain, cerebellum and urinary bladder fragments were collected for histopathological examination. For the negative control, urine and organ fragments were collected at necropsy from four dogs without clinical symptoms of infectious diseases that had died from other causes. The dogs positives in RT-PCR (9/10 presented histological lesions in the brain and cerebellum characteristic of acute (5/9 or chronic (4/9 encephalitis compatible with those caused by CDV. One of the dogs

  19. Imaging review of lipomatous musculoskeletal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt Ashley M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipomatous lesions are common musculoskeletal lesions that can arise within the soft tissues, bone, neurovascular structures, and synovium. The majority of these lesions are benign, and many of the benign lesions can be diagnosed by radiologic evaluation. However, radiologic differences between benign and malignant lipomatous lesions may be subtle and pathologic correlation is often needed. The use of sonography, computed tomography (CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is useful not only in portraying fat within the lesion, but also for evaluating the presence and extent of soft tissue components. Lipomas make up most soft tissue lipomatous lesions, but careful evaluation must be performed to distinguish these lesions from a low-grade liposarcoma. In addition to the imaging appearance, the location of the lesion and the patient demographics can be utilized to help diagnose other soft tissue lipomatous lesions, such as elastofibroma dorsi, angiolipoma, lipoblastoma, and hibernoma. Osseous lipomatous lesions such as a parosteal lipoma and intraosseous lipoma occur less commonly as their soft tissue counterpart, but are also benign. Neurovascular and synovial lipomatous lesions are much rarer lesions but demonstrate more classic radiologic findings, particularly on MRI. A review of the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of these lesions is presented.

  20. Hock lesions and free-stall design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Taszkun, I

    2000-04-01

    We compared the prevalence and severity of skin lesions on the hocks of lactating dairy cows in southern British Columbia, comparing 20 farms using three common bedding surfaces: sawdust, sand, and geotextile mattresses. Skin lesions were scored at five positions on the hock. For each position we noted if the lesion showed inflammatory attributes, and then assigned a severity score. Of the 1752 lactating cows scored, 1267 cows (73%) had at least one hock lesion. Of those cows with lesions, 87% had lesions on both legs, 76% had lesions on more than one location on the hock, and 78% had a lesion of at least moderate severity (i.e., evidence of skin breakage or an area of hair loss >10 cm2). Lesions were most prevalent on farms that used geotextile mattresses (91% of cows) and least common on farms that used sand (24% of cows). Moreover, lesions on cows from farms using mattresses were more numerous and more severe than those on cows from sand-bedded farms. The prevalence and severity of lesions on farms using sawdust was intermediate. Lesions also varied in relation to location on the hock. For farms using geotextile mattresses, lesions were more common and more severe on the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. On farms using sawdust, lesions were common on the dorsal surface of the tuber calcis and the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. Lesions were rare on all five positions for cows from sand-bedded farms. Among the 10 farms sampled using sawdust, we found a significant negative relationship between the length of the stall and severity of lesions. For cows with lesions, the number and severity of lesions increased with age.

  1. Noradrenergic lesioning with an anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklo, M. J.; Wiley, R. G.; Lappi, D. A.; Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Sympathectomy has been achieved by a variety of methods but each has its limitations. These include lack of tissue specificity, incomplete lesioning, and the age range of susceptibility to the lesioning. To circumvent these drawbacks, an immunotoxin was constructed using a monoclonal antibody against the noradrenergic specific enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) coupled via a disulfide bond to saporin, a ribosomal inactivating protein. Three days after intravenous injection of the anti-D beta H immunotoxin (50 micrograms) into adult Sprague-Dawley rats, 66% of neurons in the superior cervical ganglia were chromatolytic. Superior cervical ganglia neurons were poisoned in 1 day old and 1 week old (86% of neurons) neonatal rats following subcutaneous injection of 3.75 and 15 micrograms, respectively. The anti-D beta H immunotoxin will be a useful tool in the study of the peripheral noradrenergic system in adult and neonatal animals.

  2. Functional significance of the oligomeric structure of the Na,K-pump from radiation inactivation and ligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norby, J.G.; Jensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present article is concerned with the oligomeric structure and function of the Na,K-pump (Na,K-ATPase). The questions we have addressed, using radiation inactivation and target size analysis as well as ligand binding, are whether the minimal structural unit and the functional unit have more than one molecule of the catalytic subunit, alpha. The authors first discuss the fundamentals of the radiation inactivation method and emphasize the necessity for rigorous internal standardization with enzymes of known molecular mass. They then demonstrate that the radiation inactivation of Na,K-ATPase is a stepwise process which leads to intermediary fragments of the alpha-subunit with partial catalytic activity. From the target size analysis it is most likely that the membrane-bound Na,K-ATPase is structurally organized as a diprotomer containing two alpha-subunits. Determination of ADP- and ouabain-binding site stoichiometry favors a theory with one substrate site per (alpha beta) 2. 47 references

  3. Inactivation of Candida biofilms by non-thermal plasma and its enhancement for fungistatic effect of antifungal drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sun

    Full Text Available We investigated the antifungal effect of non-thermal plasma, as well as its combination with common antifungal drugs, against Candida biofilms. A direct current atmospheric pressure He/O(2 (2% plasma microjet (PMJ was used to treat Candida biofilms in a 96-well plate. Inactivation efficacies of the biofilms were evaluated by XTT assay and counting colony forming units (CFUs. Morphological properties of the biofilms were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The sessile minimal inhibitory concentrations (SMICs of fluconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin for the biofilms were also tested. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR spectroscopy was used to detect the reactive oxygen species (ROS generated directly and indirectly by PMJ. The Candida biofilms were completely inactivated after 1 min PMJ treatment, where severely deformed fungal elements were observed in SEM images. The SMICs of the tested antifungal drugs for the plasma-treated biofilms were decreased by 2-6 folds of dilution, compared to those of the untreated controls. ROS such as hydroxyl radical ((•OH, superoxide anion radical ((•O(2 (- and singlet molecular oxygen ((1O(2 were detected by ESR. We hence conclude that He/O(2 (2% plasma alone, as well as in combination with common antifungal drugs, is able to inactivate Candida biofilms rapidly. The generation of ROS is believed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for the fungicidal activity of plasma.

  4. Inactivation and unfolding of protein tyrosine phosphatase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 during urea and guanidine hydrochloride denaturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yejing Wang

    Full Text Available The effects of urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl on the activity, conformation and unfolding process of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase, a thermostable low molecular weight protein from Thermus thermophilus HB27, have been studied. Enzymatic activity assays showed both urea and GdnHCl resulted in the inactivation of PTPase in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Inactivation kinetics analysis suggested that the inactivation of PTPase induced by urea and GdnHCl were both monophasic and reversible processes, and the effects of urea and GdnHCl on PTPase were similar to that of mixed-type reversible inhibitors. Far-ultraviolet (UV circular dichroism (CD, Tryptophan and 1-anilinonaphthalene -8-sulfonic acid (ANS fluorescence spectral analyses indicated the existence of a partially active and an inactive molten globule-like intermediate during the unfolding processes induced by urea and GdnHCl, respectively. Based on the sequence alignment and the homolog Tt1001 protein structure, we discussed the possible conformational transitions of PTPase induced by urea and GdnHCl and compared the conformations of these unfolding intermediates with the transient states in bovine PTPase and its complex structures in detail. Our results may be able to provide some valuable clues to reveal the relationship between the structure and enzymatic activity, and the unfolding pathway and mechanism of PTPase.

  5. A Common Structural Component for β-Subunit Mediated Modulation of Slow Inactivation in Different KV Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Strutz-Seebohm

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Potassium channels are tetrameric proteins providing potassium selective passage through lipid embedded proteinaceous pores with highest fidelity. The selectivity results from binding to discrete potassium binding sites and stabilization of a hydrated potassium ion in a central internal cavity. The four potassium binding sites, generated by the conserved TTxGYGD signature sequence are formed by the backbone carbonyls of the amino acids TXGYG. Residues KV1.5-Val481, KV4.3-Leu368 and KV7.1- Ile 313 represent the amino acids in the X position of the respective channels. Methods: Here, we study the impact of these residues on ion selectivity, permeation and inactivation kinetics as well as the modulation by β-subunits using site-specific mutagenesis, electrophysiological analyses and molecular dynamics simulations. Results: We identify this position as key in modulation of slow inactivation by structurally dissimilar β-subunits in different KV channels. Conclusion: We propose a model in which structural changes accompanying activation and β-subunit modulation allosterically constrain the backbone carbonyl oxygen atoms via the side chain of the respective X-residue in the signature sequence to reduce conductance during slow inactivation.

  6. Carcinoma de células escamosas oral - contribuição de vírus oncogênicos e alguns marcadores moleculares no desenvolvimento e prognóstico da lesão: uma revisão Oral squamous cell carcinoma - contribution of oncogenic virus and some molecular markers in the development and prognosis of the lesion: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz da Rocha Miranda Venturi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma de células escamosas oral é um evento de muitas etapas, cuja incidência cresce continuamente, particularmente em jovens, numa amplitude que não pode ser completamente explicada pelo aumento da exposição a fatores de risco, como o tabaco e o álcool. Recentes investigações moleculares sugerem que existem múltiplos eventos genéticos, e vírus oncogênicos que são capazes de alterar as funções normais de oncogenes e genes de supressão tumoral. O objetivo deste artigo foi revisar o conhecimento atual sobre o papel do papilomavírus humano (HPV, Epstein-Barr vírus (EBV, P53 e telomerase no desenvolvimento e prognóstico do carcinoma de células escamosas oral.Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a multistep event that continues to increase in incidence, particularly in the young, and to an extent that cannot be fully explained by increased exposure to known risk factors, as tobacco or alcohol. Recent molecular investigations suggest that there are multiple genetic events, and oncogenic virus that are able to alter the normal functions of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The aim of the present article was to review the current knowledge on the role of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, P53 and telomerase in the development and prognosis of the oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...

  8. Use of In Situ-Generated Dimethyldioxirane for Inactivation of Biological Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallace, William H; Bushway, Karen E; Miller, Susan D; Delcomyn, Carrie A; Renard, Jean J; Henley, Michael V

    2005-01-01

    ...) at neutral pH, was investigated for inactivation of biological warfare agent simulants. The DMDO solution inactivated bacterial spores, fungal spores, vegetative bacterial cells, viruses, and protein by 7 orders of magnitude in less than 10 min...

  9. High pressure processing's potential to inactivate norovirus and other fooodborne viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure processing (HPP) can inactivate human norovirus. However, all viruses are not equally susceptible to HPP. Pressure treatment parameters such as required pressure levels, initial pressurization temperatures, and pressurization times substantially affect inactivation. How food matrix ...

  10. [Mechanism of action of neurotoxins acting on the inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, E

    1998-01-01

    2), (ii) a decrease of cellular excitability due to an important increase in the action potential duration (site 3) and (iii) an increase in cellular excitability which results in spontaneous and repetitive firing of action potentials (sites 5 and 6). The biochemical and electrophysiological studies performed with these toxins, as well as the determination of their molecular structure, have given basic information on the function and structure of the Na channel protein. Therefore, various models representing the different states of Na channels have been proposed to account for the neurotoxin-induced modifications of Na inactivation. Moreover, the localization of receptor binding sites 2, 3, 5 et 6 for these toxins on the neuronal Na channel has been deduced and the molecular identification of the recognition site(s) for some of them has been established on the alpha sub-unit forming the Na channel protein.

  11. Inactivation of proteinaceous protease inhibitors of soybeans by isolated fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, M.M.T.; Spekking, W.T.J.; Sijtsma, L.; Bont, de J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Proteinaceous protease inhibitors, Kunitz Soybean Trypsin Inhibitor (KSTI) and Bowman Birk Inhibitor (BBI), in legume seeds reduce the digestibility of proteins in feed of monogastric animals. Enzymatic inactivation of these inhibitors will increase the nutritional value of the feed. The aim of this

  12. Efficient Bacteria Inactivation by Ultrasound in Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Ernesto Amabilis-Sosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of treated wastewaters could contribute to reducing water stress. In this research, ultrasound application on bacterial inactivation in municipal wastewater (MWW was evaluated. Total and fecal coliforms were used as standard fecal indicators; volatile suspended solids (VSS were analyzed too. Samples were taken from the effluent of secondary clarifiers. In addition, inactivation tests were carried out on pure cultures of E. coli (EC and B. subtilis (BS. Sonication was performed at 20 kHz, 35% amplitude and 600 W/L for 15, 30 and 45 min. After 15 min of sonication, bacterial density was reduced by 1.85 Log10 MPN/100 mL for EC and 3.16 Log10 CFU/mL for BS. After 30 min, no CFU/mL of BS were observed in MWW and, after 45 min, the reduction of total and fecal coliforms was practically 6.45 Log10 MPN/100mL. Inactivation mechanism was made by cavitation, which causes irreversible damage to the cell wall. Although high bacterial densities were employed, percentages of inactivation >99% were reached at 45 min. This research contributes to the implementation of ultrasound as a disinfection technique with high potential due to its high efficiency without producing byproducts. In fact, the water meets the guidelines for reuse in direct human contact services.

  13. Inactivation of dairy manure-borne pathogens by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of animal manure has the potential to inactivate enteric pathogens, thereby reducing exposures to livestock and humans when the products of digestion are disposed by land-spreading or irrigation or returned to livestock uses such as bedding. Data on digester effectiv...

  14. Light-driven photosensitizer uptake increases Candida albicans photodynamic inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renan A; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Silva, Ana P da; Kurachi, Cristina; Guimarães, Francisco E G

    2017-11-01

    Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) is based on the use of a photosensitizer (PS) and light that results mainly in the production of reactive oxygen species, aiming to produce microorganism cell death. PS incubation time and light dose are key protocol parameters that influence PDI response; the correct choice of them can increase the efficiency of inactivation. The results of this study show that a minor change in the PDI protocol, namely light-driven incubation leads to a higher photosensitizer and more uniform cell uptake inside the irradiated zone. Furthermore, as the uptake increases, the damage caused by PDI also increases. The proposed light-driven incubation prior to the inactivation illumination dose has advantages when compared to the traditional PDI treatments since it can be more selective and effective. Using a violet light as pre-illumination (light-driven incubation) source and a red-light system as PDI source, it was possible to demonstrate that when compared to the traditional protocol of dark incubation, the pre-illuminated cell culture showed an inactivation increase of 7 log units. These in vitro results performed in Candida albicans cells may result in the introduction of a new protocol for PDI. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. High pressure processing inactivates human norovirus within oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of raw bivalve mollusks can result in norovirus infection. One potential intervention for virus-contaminated shellfish is high pressure processing (HPP). Currently HPP is known to inactivate Vibrio bacteria, hepatitis A virus, and murine norovirus within oysters. To evaluate the potentia...

  16. Method of inactivation of viral and bacterial blood contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, R.; Goodrich, R.P.; Van Borssum Waalkes, M.; Wong, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A method is provided for inactivating viral and/or bacterial contamination in blood cellular matter, such as erythrocytes and platelets, or protein fractions. The cells or protein fractions are mixed with chemical sensitizers and irradiated with, for example, gamma or X-ray radiation

  17. Efficiency of inactivation of trypsin inhibitory activity in some selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypsin inhibitor (TI) levels in the crop seeds varied between 0.0 in Adansonia digitata and 40.8 TIU/mg in Pterocarpus osun. Efficiency of inactivation of TI by autoclaving ranged from 58.1% in Millettia thonningii to 100% in Sesbania pachycarpa and Lonchocarpus. sericeus. It is concluded that the effect of heat treatment on ...

  18. Drying of liquid food droplets : enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerdink, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the drying of liquid food droplets is studied from three different points of view: drying kinetics, enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion. Mathematical models are developed and validated experimentally.

    Drying experiments are performed with suspended

  19. Role of polyols in thermal inactivation of shark ornithine transcarbamoylase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bellocco, E.; Lagana, G.; Barreca, D.; Ficarra, S.; Tellone, E.; Magazu, S.; Branca, C.; Kotyk, Arnošt; Galtieri, A.; Leuzzi, U.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2005), s. 395-402 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : ornithine transcarbamoylase * thermal inactivation * shark enzyme Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  20. Cellular inactivation of nitric oxide induces p53-dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research August 2016; 15 (8): 1595-1603 ... Cellular inactivation of nitric oxide induces p53-dependent apoptosis in ... apoptosis induced by a selective iNOS inhibitor, N-[(3-aminomethyl) benzyl] acetamidine (1400W), .... and nitrate. ... Nitrite production was measured in culture media.

  1. LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET STUDIES FOR INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA MURIS CYSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was initiated to confirm and expand the current database for the inactivation of Giardia spp. using ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Initially, previous research that used in vitro excystation as the indicator for UV effectiveness was confirmed. Later, the in vitro excys...

  2. LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVEIOLET STUDIES FOR INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA MURIS CYSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysts of Giardia muris were inactivated using a low pressure ultravolet (UV) light source. Cyst viability was detemined by both in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Cyst doeses were counted using a flow cytometer for the animal infectivity experiments. Using in vitro excy...

  3. Inactivation of bacteria in sewage sludge by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, G.A.; Kapila, Smita; Kelkar, V.B.; Negi, Shobha; Modi, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The survival of certain bacterial cultures suspended in sewage sludge and exposed to gamma-radiation was studied. The inactivation patterns of most of the organisms were significantly different when irradiation was performed using sewage samples collected in the summer and monsoon seasons. The summer sample collected from the anaerobic digester afforded significant protection to both Gram negative and Gram positive organisms. This was evident by the increase in dose required to bring about a 6 log cycle reduction in viable count of the bacterial cultures, when suspended in sewage samples instead of phosphate buffer. The observations made using monsoon digester samples were quite different. This sewage sludge greatly enhanced inactivation by gamma-radiation in most cases. The effects of certain chemicals on the inactivation patterns of two organisms - Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri - were examined. Arsenate, mercury and lead salts sensitised S. typhi, while barium acetate and sodium sulphide protected this culture against gamma-radiation. In the case of Sh. flexneri, barium acetate and iodacetamide proved to be radioprotectors. The effects of some chemicals on the inactivation pattern of Sh. flexneri cells irradiated in sludge are also discussed. (author)

  4. The radiation inactivation of glutamate and isocitrate dehydrogenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Failat, R.R.A.

    1980-12-01

    The reaction of free radicals produced by ionizing radiation with the enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and NADP + -specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) have been studied by steady-state and pulse radiolysis techniques. In de-aerated GDH solutions, hydroxyl radicals have been found to be the most efficient of the primary radicals generated from water in causing inactivation. The effect of reaction with the enzyme of selective free radicals (SCN) 2 - , (Br) 2 - and (I) 2 - on its activity has also been studied. In neutral solutions, the order of inactivating effectiveness is (I) 2 - > (Br) 2 - > (SCN) 2 - . In the case of the thiocyanate radical anion (SCN) 2 - , the inactivation efficiency is found to depend on KSCN concentration. The radiation inactivation of GDH at both neutral and alkaline pH is accompanied by the loss of sulphydryl groups. Pulse radiolysis was also used to determine the rate constants and the transient absorption spectra following the reaction of the free radicals with GDH. 60 Co-γ-radiolysis and pulse radiolysis were also used to study the effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of ICDH. The results obtained were similar to those of GDH. (author)

  5. Inactivation of carbenicillin by some radioresistant mutant strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahiera, T.S.; Mahmoud, M.I.; Bashandy, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Sensitivity test of five bacterial species to carbenicillin was performed microbiologically. The bacterial species were previously isolated from high level radiation environment. All the studied species could either highly decrease the antibiotic activity or even inactivate it completely. Detailed study of the inactivation of carbenicillin by the radioresistant mutant strains B. Laterosporus, B. firmus and M. roseus was performed, in the present study. Using high performace liquid chromatography technique. The gram-positive m. roseus mutant strain seemed to be the most active mutant in degrading the antibiotic. The left over of the antibiotic attained a value of 9% of the original amount after 14 day incubation of the antibiotic with this mutant strain, while the value of the left over reached 36% and 32% after the same period of incubation with the mutants B. laterosporus and B. firmus respectively. In the case of bacillus species, the degradation of the antibiotic started at the same moment when it was added to the bacterial cultures. This fact may indicate that the inactivation of the studied antibiotic by these bacillus species was due to extracellular enzymes extracted rapidly in the surrounding medium. In the case of M. roseus the inactivation process started later. after the addition of the antibiotic to the mutant culture

  6. Indicators for suicide substrate inactivation: A kinetic investigation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharmistha Dhatt

    2017-11-20

    Nov 20, 2017 ... practical ones, that can decisively conclude enzyme inactivation are considered. Steady-state approximation ... nase 1 and 2 enzymes), Exemesteme - a drug used in the treatment of breast cancer (inhibitor of aromatase enzyme), AZT and .... for a next indicator that can serve as a diagnostic tool for enzyme ...

  7. Inactivation of VHSV by Percolation and Salt Under Experimental Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Jørgensen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by percolation. To evaluate the inactivation effect of percolation on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid l...

  8. Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Shiaw (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Vaughn, J.M. (Univ. of New England College of Medicine, Biddeford, ME (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The inactivation of single-particle stocks of human (type 2, Wa) and simian (SA-11) rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide was investigated. Experiments were conducted at 4{degree}C in a standard phosphate-carbonate buffer. Both virus types were rapidly inactivated, within 20 s under alkaline conditions, when chlorine dioxide concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/liter were used. Similar reductions of 10{sup 5}-fold in infectivity required additional exposure time of 120 s at 0.2 mg/liter for Wa and at 0.5 mg/liter for SA-11, respectively, at pH 6.0. The inactivation of both virus types was moderate a neutral pH, and the sensitivities to chlorine dioxide were similar. The observed enhancement of virucidal efficiency with increasing pH was contrary to earlier findings with chlorine- and ozone-treated rotavirus particles, where efficiencies decreased with increasing alkalinity. Comparison of 99.9% virus inactivation times revealed ozone to be the most effective virucidal agent among these three disinfectants.

  9. The inactivation of papain by high LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisby, R.H.; Cundall, R.B.; Sims, H.E.; Burns, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of varying LET over a wide range (0.2-1570 eV/nm) on the radiation-induced inactivation of the enzyme papain in dilute aqueous solution has been investigated. Measurements of total, reparable and non-reparable inactivation G values in oxygen, nitrous oxide and argon saturated solutions have allowed the contributions to inactivation from radicals and hydrogen peroxide to be evaluated. At high LET the results demonstrate an increasing component due to reaction of the superoxide radical, formed from oxygen produced in the track as a primary radiolysis product. This effect was not observed in our previous study with ribonuclease due to the insensitivity of ribonuclease to inactivation by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. The results obtained with papain clearly demonstrate a maximum in G(H 2 O 2 ) at an LET of equivalent to 140 eV/nm. Generation of O 2 within the track as a primary radiolysis product at high LET now appears to be confirmed as an important mechanism leading to reduction in the oxygen enhancement ratio for cellular systems exposed to high LET radiations (Baverstock and Burns 1981). (author)

  10. Eye lesions in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1993-03-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent lesion (21/293, 8.7%), mainly found in cockatiels, parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva), budgerigars and finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae). These corneal crystals were negative to PAS and Kossa's stains. Six parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) had calcium salts deposited in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and occasionally in the iris and ciliary body. Neither inflammation nor neo-vascularization was observed when cataracts, corneal crystalline deposition, and retinal and ciliary calcification were present. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical for papovavirus infection were found in the eyelids of six budgerigars (2.5%). Similar inclusions were simultaneously found in the pars ciliaris retinae (4, 1.7%), inner plexiform of retina (1, 0.4%) and anterior epithelium of the cornea (1, 0.4%). Other lesions such as candidial endophthalmitis, conjunctival cryptosporidiosis, corneal dystrophy, keratitis, corneal perforation and iridocyclitis, were occasional findings.

  11. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  12. NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THE APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bryk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to present the clinical observations of neoplastic lesions of the appendix (one carcinoid and two mucous cysts and to discuss various manners of treatment and prognosis. Material and methods: The authors of the following paper present a description of three cases of appendix tumours, two patients with a mucous cyst and a patient with carcinoid, against the background of all the appendectomies performed at the Clinical Department of General, Endocrine and Oncological Surgery of the Provincial Polyclinical Hospital in Kielce in the years 2005–2011. Results : Within the 7-year period, a total of 11 719 surgical operations have been performed, where 834 (7.1% were that of appendectomy. Among all of the removed vermiform appendixes, neoplastic lesions occurred in three cases constituting a mere 0.3% of all of the appendectomies performed within that period. In two of the cases there was a suspicion of mucous cysts before the surgical operation. In none of the above-mentioned cases was is possible to ultimately establish the diagnosis before the operation. The patients were subjected to a simple appendectomy. The patients are in good clinical health, with no signs of relapse. Conclusions : The presented cases of patients with appendix tumours illustrate the difficulty of preoperative detection of a neoplastic lesion. This is mainly due to a scantily symptomatic course or symptoms typical of appendicitis. In light of this, histopathological examination of each appendix should be treated as obligatory.

  13. Maintenance of Macrophage Redox Status by ChREBP Limits Inflammation and Apoptosis and Protects against Advanced Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Sarrazy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced glucose utilization can be visualized in atherosclerotic lesions and may reflect a high glycolytic rate in lesional macrophages, but its causative role in plaque progression remains unclear. We observe that the activity of the carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein ChREBP is rapidly downregulated upon TLR4 activation in macrophages. ChREBP inactivation refocuses cellular metabolism to a high redox state favoring enhanced inflammatory responses after TLR4 activation and increased cell death after TLR4 activation or oxidized LDL loading. Targeted deletion of ChREBP in bone marrow cells resulted in accelerated atherosclerosis progression in Ldlr−/− mice with increased monocytosis, lesional macrophage accumulation, and plaque necrosis. Thus, ChREBP-dependent macrophage metabolic reprogramming hinders plaque progression and establishes a causative role for leukocyte glucose metabolism in atherosclerosis.

  14. Structure of 6-diazo-5-oxo-norleucine-bound human gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase 1, a novel mechanism of inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzyan, Simon S; Cook, Paul F; Heroux, Annie; Hanigan, Marie H

    2017-06-01

    Intense efforts are underway to identify inhibitors of the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 (GGT1) which cleaves extracellular gamma-glutamyl compounds and contributes to the pathology of asthma, reperfusion injury and cancer. The glutamate analog, 6-diazo-5-oxo-norleucine (DON), inhibits GGT1. DON also inhibits many essential glutamine metabolizing enzymes rendering it too toxic for use in the clinic as a GGT1 inhibitor. We investigated the molecular mechanism of human GGT1 (hGGT1) inhibition by DON to determine possible strategies for increasing its specificity for hGGT1. DON is an irreversible inhibitor of hGGT1. The second order rate constant of inactivation was 0.052 mM -1 min -1 and the K i was 2.7 ± 0.7 mM. The crystal structure of DON-inactivated hGGT1 contained a molecule of DON without the diazo-nitrogen atoms in the active site. The overall structure of the hGGT1-DON complex resembled the structure of the apo-enzyme; however, shifts were detected in the loop forming the oxyanion hole and elements of the main chain that form the entrance to the active site. The structure of hGGT1-DON complex revealed two covalent bonds between the enzyme and inhibitor which were part of a six membered ring. The ring included the OG atom of Thr381, the reactive nucleophile of hGGT1 and the α-amine of Thr381. The structure of DON-bound hGGT1 has led to the discovery of a new mechanism of inactivation by DON that differs from its inactivation of other glutamine metabolizing enzymes, and insight into the activation of the catalytic nucleophile that initiates the hGGT1 reaction. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  15. Membrane-bound Na,K-ATPase: target size and radiation inactivation size of some of its enzymatic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.; Norby, J.G.

    1988-12-05

    Frozen samples of membrane-bound pig kidney Na,K-ATPase were subjected to target size analysis by radiation inactivation with 10-MeV electrons at -15 degrees C. The various properties investigated decreased monoexponentially with radiation dose, and the decay constants, gamma, were independent of the presence of other proteins and of sucrose concentrations above 0.25 M. The temperature factor was the same as described by others. Irradiation of four proteins of known molecular mass, m, showed that gamma for protein integrity was proportional to m with a proportionality factor about 20% higher than that conventionally used. By this standard curve, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity used as internal standard gave a radiation inactivation size of 110 +/- 5 kDa, very close to m = 104-108 kDa for the dimer, as expected. For Na+/K+-transporting ATPase the following target sizes and radiation inactivation size values were very close to m = 112 kDa for the alpha-peptide: peptide integrity of alpha, 115 kDa; unmodified binding sites for ATP and vanadate, 108 kDa; K+-activated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity, 106 kDa. There was thus no sign of dimerization of the alpha-peptide or involvement of the beta-peptide. In contrast, optimal Na+/K+-transporting ATPase activity had a radiation inactivation size = 189 +/- 7 kDa, and total nucleotide binding capacity corresponded to 72 +/- 3 kDa. These latter results will be extended and discussed in a forthcoming paper.

  16. Membrane-bound Na,K-ATPase: target size and radiation inactivation size of some of its enzymatic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Norby, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Frozen samples of membrane-bound pig kidney Na,K-ATPase were subjected to target size analysis by radiation inactivation with 10-MeV electrons at -15 degrees C. The various properties investigated decreased monoexponentially with radiation dose, and the decay constants, gamma, were independent of the presence of other proteins and of sucrose concentrations above 0.25 M. The temperature factor was the same as described by others. Irradiation of four proteins of known molecular mass, m, showed that gamma for protein integrity was proportional to m with a proportionality factor about 20% higher than that conventionally used. By this standard curve, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity used as internal standard gave a radiation inactivation size of 110 +/- 5 kDa, very close to m = 104-108 kDa for the dimer, as expected. For Na+/K+-transporting ATPase the following target sizes and radiation inactivation size values were very close to m = 112 kDa for the alpha-peptide: peptide integrity of alpha, 115 kDa; unmodified binding sites for ATP and vanadate, 108 kDa; K+-activated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity, 106 kDa. There was thus no sign of dimerization of the alpha-peptide or involvement of the beta-peptide. In contrast, optimal Na+/K+-transporting ATPase activity had a radiation inactivation size = 189 +/- 7 kDa, and total nucleotide binding capacity corresponded to 72 +/- 3 kDa. These latter results will be extended and discussed in a forthcoming paper

  17. Studies on disappearance and inactivation of viruses in sewage, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Kazuyoshi; Yabuuchi, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Fumiaki.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of inactivating viruses in wastewater were studied. Polio visuses were added to the distilled water until the number of viruses reached 10sup(6.8) TCID 50 /ml, and liquid layer was 2 mm. The inactivation rate of viruses was determined at each time of ultraviolet (U.V.) irradiation (from 0.425 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 to 10.0 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 ). A linear correlation was seen between the inactivation rate of viruses and the time of U.V. irradiation obtained from logarithmic transformation. The irradiation time required for inactivation of 99.9% viruses was 15 sec when U.V. intensity was 10.0 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 and 9.6 min when it was 0.423 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 . When the U.V. intensity was 0.425 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 , the time required for inactivation was dependent on the number of viruses (120 sec in cases of 10sup(3.8) TCID 50 /ml of viruses and 720 sec in cases of 10sup(7.8) TCID 50 /ml of viruses). When viruses were added to the distilled water until the number reached 10sup(5.8) TCID 50 /ml, and the depth of water was designated as 2 mm, 10 cm, and 15 cm, the U.V. permeability was more than 89% at any depth of water, and a sixteen-min U.V. irradiation inactivated more than 99.99% of viruses. When polio viruses were added to triple step-treated water until the number reached 10sup(5.3) TCID 50 /ml, the irradiation time required for inactivation of more than 99.99% was one min when the U.V. intensity was 10.0 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 and 20 min when it was 0.425 x 10 4 μw/cm 2 . (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Strategy to inactivate Clostridium perfringens spores in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Torres, J Antonio; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2009-05-01

    The current study aimed to develop an inactivation strategy for Clostridium perfringens spores in meat through a combination of spore activation at low pressure (100-200 MPa, 7 min) and elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min); spore germination at high temperatures (55, 60 or 65 degrees C); and inactivation of germinated spores with elevated temperatures (80 and 90 degrees C, 10 and 20 min) and high pressure (586 MPa, at 23 and 73 degrees C, 10 min). Low pressures (100-200 MPa) were insufficient to efficiently activate C. perfringens spores for germination. However, C. perfringens spores were efficiently activated with elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min), and germinated at temperatures lethal for vegetative cells (>or= 55 degrees C) when incubated for 60 min with a mixture of L-asparagine and KCl (AK) in phosphate buffer (pH 7) and in poultry meat. Inactivation of spores (approximately 4 decimal reduction) in meat by elevated temperatures (80-90 degrees C for 20 min) required a long germination period (55 degrees C for 60 min). However, similar inactivation level was reached with shorter germination period (55 degrees C for 15 min) when spore contaminated-meat was treated with pressure-assisted thermal processing (568 MPa, 73 degrees C, 10 min). Therefore, the most efficient strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in poultry meat containing 50 mM AK consisted: (i) a primary heat treatment (80 degrees C, 10 min) to pasteurize and denature the meat proteins and to activate C. perfringens spores for germination; (ii) cooling of the product to 55 degrees C in about 20 min and further incubation at 55 degrees C for about 15 min for spore germination; and (iii) inactivation of germinated spores by pressure-assisted thermal processing (586 MPa at 73 degrees C for 10 min). Collectively, this study demonstrates the feasibility of an alternative and novel strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in meat products formulated with germinants specific for C

  19. Inactivation as a new regulatory mechanism for neuronal Kv7 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2007-01-01

    neuronal channels and are important for controlling excitability. Kv7.1 channels have been considered the only Kv7 channels to undergo inactivation upon depolarization. However, here we demonstrate that inactivation is also an intrinsic property of Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channels, which inactivate to a larger...

  20. Influence of pH, Salt and Temperature on Pressure Inactivation of Hepatitis A virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pH (3-7), NaCl (0-6%), and temperature on pressure inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) were determined. The HAV samples were treated at 400 MPa for 1 min at 5, 20, and 50C. Decreasing solution pH enhanced pressure inactivation of HAV. This enhanced inactivation effect was most e...

  1. Studies on the inactivation of human parvovirus 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Sally A; Tuke, Philip W; Miyagawa, Eiji; Blümel, Johannes

    2013-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is a novel parvovirus, which like parvovirus B19 (B19V) can be a contaminant of plasma pools used to prepare plasma-derived medicinal products. Inactivation studies of B19V have shown that it is more sensitive to virus inactivation strategies than animal parvoviruses. However, inactivation of PARV4 has not yet been specifically addressed. Treatment of parvoviruses by heat or low-pH conditions causes externalization of the virus genome. Using nuclease treatment combined with real-time polymerase chain reaction, the extent of virus DNA externalization was used as an indirect measure of the inactivation of PARV4, B19V, and minute virus of mice (MVM) by pasteurization of albumin and by low-pH treatment. Infectivity studies were performed in parallel for B19V and MVM. PARV4 showed greater resistance to pasteurization and low-pH treatment than B19V, although PARV4 was not as resistant as MVM. There was a 2- to 3-log reduction of encapsidated PARV4 DNA after pasteurization and low-pH treatment. In contrast, B19V was effectively inactivated while MVM was stable under these conditions. Divalent cations were found to have a stabilizing effect on PARV4 capsids. In the absence of divalent cations, even at neutral pH, there was a reduction of PARV4 titer, an effect not observed for B19V or MVM. In the case of heat treatment and incubation at low pH, PARV4 shows intermediate resistance when compared to B19V and MVM. Divalent cations seem important for stabilizing PARV4 virus particles. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Inactivation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase involves oxidative modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J N; Zhang, Z; John, P; Baldwin, J E; Schofield, C J

    1997-03-25

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of the plant signaling molecule ethylene. It is a member of the ferrous iron dependent family of oxidases and dioxygenases and is unusual in that it displays a very short half-life under catalytic conditions, typically less than 20 min, and a requirement for CO2 as an activator. The rates of inactivation of purified, recombinant ACC oxidase from tomato under various combinations of substrates and cofactors were measured. Inactivation was relatively slow in the presence of buffer alone (t1/2 > 1 h), but fast in the presence of ferrous iron and ascorbate (t1/2 approximately 10 min). The rate of iron/ascorbate-mediated inactivation was increased by the addition of ACC, unaffected by the addition of CO2 at saturation (supplied as bicarbonate) but decreased by the addition of catalase or ACC + CO2 at saturation (supplied as bicarbonate). Iron/ascorbate-mediated inactivation was accompanied by partial proteolysis as observed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The fragmentation pattern was altered when ACC was also included, suggesting that ACC can bind to ACC oxidase in the absence of bicarbonate. N-terminal sequencing of fragments resulted in identification of an internal cleavage site which we propose is proximate to active-site bound iron. Thus, ACC oxidase inactivates via relatively slow partial unfolding of the catalytically active conformation, oxidative damage mediated via hydrogen peroxide which is catalase protectable and oxidative damage to the active site which results in partial proteolysis and is not catalase protectable.

  3. Nucleus incertus inactivation impairs spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nategh, Mohsen; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2015-02-01

    Nucleus incertus (NI) is a pontine nucleus which releases mainly GABA and relaxin-3 in rats. Its suggested functions include response to stress, arousal, and modulation of hippocampal theta rhythm. Since the role of NI in learning and memory has not been well characterized, therefore the involvement of this nucleus in spatial learning and memory and the aftermath hippocampal levels of c-fos and pCREB were evaluated. NI was targeted by implanting cannula in male rats. For reference memory, NI was inactivated by lidocaine (0.4 μl, 4%) at three stages of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval in Morris water maze paradigm. For working memory, NI was inactivated in acquisition and retrieval phases. Injection of lidocaine prior to the first training session of reference memory significantly increased the distance moved, suggesting that inactivation of NI delays acquisition in this spatial task. Inactivation also interfered with the retrieval phase of spatial reference memory, as the time in target quadrant for lidocaine group was less, and the escape latency was higher compared to the control group. However, no difference was observed in the consolidation phase. In the working memory task, with inter-trial intervals of 75 min, the escape latency was higher when NI was inactivated in the retrieval phase. In addition, c-fos and pCREB/CREB levels decreased in NI-inhibited rats. This study suggests that nucleus incertus might participate in acquisition of spatial reference, and retrieval of both spatial reference and working memory. Further studies should investigate possible roles of NI in the hippocampal plasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inactivation Effect of Antibiotic-Resistant Gene Using Chlorine Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Furukawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the inactivation effects on the antibiotic-resistance gene (vanA of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE using chlorination, a disinfection method widely used in various water treatment facilities. Suspensions of VRE were prepared by adding VRE to phosphate-buffered saline, or the sterilized secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. The inactivation experiments were carried out at several chlorine concentrations and stirring time. Enterococci concentration and presence of vanA were determined. The enterococci concentration decreased as chlorine concentrations and stirring times increased, with more than 7.0 log reduction occurring under the following conditions: 40 min stirring at 0.5 mg Cl2/L, 20 min stirring at 1.0 mg Cl2/L, and 3 min stirring at 3.0 mg Cl2/L. In the inactivation experiment using VRE suspended in secondary effluent, the culturable enterococci required much higher chlorine concentration and longer treatment time for complete disinfection than the cases of suspension of VRE. However, vanA was detected in all chlorinated suspensions of VRE, even in samples where no enterococcal colonies were present on the medium agar plate. The chlorine disinfection was not able to destroy antibiotic-resistance genes, though it can inactivate and decrease bacterial counts of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB. Therefore, it was suggested that remaining ARB and/or antibiotic-resistance gene in inactivated bacterial cells after chlorine disinfection tank could be discharged into water environments.

  5. Effective inactivation of a wide range of viruses by pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröner, Albrecht; Broumis, Connie; Fang, Randel; Nowak, Thomas; Popp, Birgit; Schäfer, Wolfram; Roth, Nathan J

    2018-01-01

    Careful selection and testing of plasma reduces the risk of blood-borne viruses in the starting material for plasma-derived products. Furthermore, effective measures such as pasteurization at 60°C for 10 hours have been implemented in the manufacturing process of therapeutic plasma proteins such as human albumin, coagulation factors, immunoglobulins, and enzyme inhibitors to inactivate blood-borne viruses of concern. A comprehensive compilation of the virus reduction capacity of pasteurization is presented including the effect of stabilizers used to protect the therapeutic protein from modifications during heat treatment. The virus inactivation kinetics of pasteurization for a broad range of viruses were evaluated in the relevant intermediates from more than 15 different plasma manufacturing processes. Studies were carried out under the routine manufacturing target variables, such as temperature and product-specific stabilizer composition. Additional studies were also performed under robustness conditions, that is, outside production specifications. The data demonstrate that pasteurization inactivates a wide range of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses of diverse physicochemical characteristics. After a maximum of 6 hours' incubation, no residual infectivity could be detected for the majority of enveloped viruses. Effective inactivation of a range of nonenveloped viruses, with the exception of nonhuman parvoviruses, was documented. Pasteurization is a very robust and reliable virus inactivation method with a broad effectiveness against known blood-borne pathogens and emerging or potentially emerging viruses. Pasteurization has proven itself to be a highly effective step, in combination with other complementary safety measures, toward assuring the virus safety of final product. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  6. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin−/− mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7+ muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  7. The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byeongchun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p 6 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

  8. Cytolytic T lymphocyte responses to metabolically inactivated stimulator cells. I. Metabolic inactivation impairs both CD and LD antigen signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelso, A.; Boyle, W.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of metabolic inactivation of spleen cells on antigen presentation to precursors of alloreactive cytolytic T lymphocytes (T/sub c/) were examined. By serological methods, populations inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation, glutaraldehyde fixation or plasma membrane isolation were found to retain normal levels of H-2K/D and Ia antigens. However, comparison of the antigen doses required to stimulate secondary T/sub c/ responses in mixed leukocyte culture showed that the inactivated preparations were approximately 10-fold less immunogenic than X-irradiated spleen cells. Their total inability to stimulate primary cytolytic responses pointed to at least a 100-fold impairment of immunogenicity for unprimed T/sub c/ precursors in the case of uv-irradiated and glutaraldehyde-treated stimulator cells, and at least a 10-fold impairment for membrane fragments. Experiments showing that the capacity of cell monolayers to absorb precursor T/sub c/ from unprimed spleen populations was reduced following uv-irradiation or glutaraldehyde treatment provided direct evidence that this loss of immunogenicity was due in part to suboptimal antigen presentation to precursor T/sub c/. It is concluded that, in addition to the traditional view that these treatments damage the ''LD'' signal to helper T lymphocytes, metabolic inactivation also impairs recognition of ''CD'' determinants by precursor T/sub c/

  9. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background...

  10. Ventral, but not dorsal, hippocampus inactivation impairs reward memory expression and retrieval in contexts defined by proximal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Sadia; Schumacher, Anett; Sivagurunathan, Seyon; Van Der Meer, Matthijs; Ito, Rutsuko

    2017-07-01

    The hippocampus (HPC) has been widely implicated in the contextual control of appetitive and aversive conditioning. However, whole hippocampal lesions do not invariably impair all forms of contextual processing, as in the case of complex biconditional context discrimination, leading to contention over the exact nature of the contribution of the HPC in contextual processing. Moreover, the increasingly well-established functional dissociation between the dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) subregions of the HPC has been largely overlooked in the existing literature on hippocampal-based contextual memory processing in appetitively motivated tasks. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the individual roles of the dHPC and the vHPC in contextual biconditional discrimination (CBD) performance and memory retrieval. To this end, we examined the effects of transient post-acquisition pharmacological inactivation (using a combination of GABA A and GABA B receptor agonists muscimol and baclofen) of functionally distinct subregions of the HPC (CA1/CA3 subfields of the dHPC and vHPC) on CBD memory retrieval. Additional behavioral assays including novelty preference, light-dark box and locomotor activity test were also performed to confirm that the respective sites of inactivation were functionally silent. We observed robust deficits in CBD performance and memory retrieval following inactivation of the vHPC, but not the dHPC. Our data provides novel insight into the differential roles of the ventral and dorsal HPC in reward contextual processing, under conditions in which the context is defined by proximal cues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Inactive fibrotic lesions versus pulmonary tuberculosis with negative bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solsona Peiró, Jordi; de Souza Galvão, Maria Luiza; Altet Gómez, Maria Neus

    2014-11-01

    This article analyzes the concept of inactive fibrotic lesions of presumed tuberculous origin (old healed tuberculosis), defined by radiological characteristics and a positive tuberculin skin test (TST), and we examine the evidence-based foundation for the indication of treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in these cases. We explore the risk of reactivation in older and recent literature, and the problems raised by the differential diagnosis with active tuberculosis with negative bacteriology. We also analyze data on the prevalence of fibrotic lesions in the recent literature. We examine the possible role of Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) versus TST and other molecular antigen detection techniques in sputum that can aid in establishing the diagnosis and we discuss the current indications for chemoprophylaxis and the different options available. We propose diagnostic guidelines and therapeutic algorithms based on risk stratification by age and other factors in the management of radiological lesions that raise a differential diagnosis between fibrotic lesions and active pulmonary tuberculosis with negative bacteriology. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Precancerous lesions in the stomach: from biology to clinical patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugge, Massimo; Capelle, Lisette G; Cappellesso, Rocco; Nitti, Donato; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2013-04-01

    Gastric cancer is the final step in a multi-stage cascade triggered by long-standing inflammatory conditions (particularly Helicobacter pylori infection) resulting in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia: these lesions represent the cancerization field in which (intestinal-type) gastric cancer develops. Intraepithelial neoplasia is consistently recognized as the phenotypic bridge between atrophic/metaplastic lesions and invasive cancer. This paper addresses the epidemiology, pathology, molecular profiling, and clinical management of advanced precancerous gastric lesions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The role of reactive oxygen species in near-ultraviolet (320-400 nm) light inactivation of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammartano, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the mechanism of near-UV inactivation in Escherichia coli. Several genetic and biochemical techniques were employed to examine the role of oxygen reactive species in near-UV mediated damage to DNA and membrane components, and to identify endogenous photosensitizers. The results demonstrate that the near-UV inactivation process is initiated when the radiant energy is absorbed by components of the respiratory chain, including cytochromes. The absorption of energy causes the chromophore to be electronically excited into the triplet state which leads to subsequent generation of oxygen reactive species within the membrane. The first line of cellular defense against this oxidative stress is a complex network of antioxidants and scavengers, including catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. E. coli cells also have a second line of defense that incorporates repair systems. In this study evidence is provided for an excision repair pathway that is unique to near-UV mediated damage. Results suggest that a unique, but as yet unidentified, DNA lesion occurs in near-UV irradiated cells. Evidence is also presented that shows near-UV mediated damage also occurs in the membrane

  14. THE ANTIGENIC POTENCY OF EPIDEMIC INFLUENZA VIRUS FOLLOWING INACTIVATION BY ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Jonas E.; Lavin, G. I.; Francis, Thomas

    1940-01-01

    A study of the antigenic potency of influenza virus inactivated by ultraviolet radiation has been made. Virus so inactivated is still capable of functioning as an immunizing agent when given to mice by the intraperitoneal route. In high concentrations inactivated virus appears to be nearly as effective as active virus but when quantitative comparisons of the immunity induced by different dilutions are made, it is seen that a hundredfold loss in immunizing capacity occurs during inactivation. Virus in suspensions prepared from the lungs of infected mice is inactivated more rapidly than virus in tissue culture medium. A standard for the comparison of vaccines of epidemic influenza virus is proposed. PMID:19871057

  15. Metatranscriptomics reveals overall active bacterial composition in caries lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Simón-Soro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the microbial species in caries lesions is instrumental to determine the etiology of dental caries. However, a significant proportion of bacteria in carious lesions have not been cultured, and the use of molecular methods has been limited to DNA-based approaches, which detect both active and inactive or dead microorganisms. Objective: To identify the RNA-based, metabolically active bacterial composition of caries lesions at different stages of disease progression in order to provide a list of potential etiological agents of tooth decay. Design: Non-cavitated enamel caries lesions (n=15 and dentin caries lesions samples (n=12 were collected from 13 individuals. RNA was extracted and cDNA was constructed, which was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting 780 bp polymerase chain reaction products were pyrosequenced using Titanium-plus chemistry, and the sequences obtained were used to determine the bacterial composition. Results: A mean of 4,900 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene with an average read length of 661 bp was obtained per sample, giving a comprehensive view of the active bacterial communities in caries lesions. Estimates of bacterial diversity indicate that the microbiota of cavities is highly complex, each sample containing between 70 and 400 metabolically active species. The composition of these bacterial consortia varied among individuals and between caries lesions of the same individuals. In addition, enamel and dentin lesions had a different bacterial makeup. Lactobacilli were found almost exclusively in dentin cavities. Streptococci accounted for 40% of the total active community in enamel caries, and 20% in dentin caries. However, Streptococcus mutans represented only 0.02–0.73% of the total bacterial community. Conclusions: The data indicate that the etiology of dental caries is tissue dependent and that the disease has a clear polymicrobial origin. The low proportion of mutans streptococci

  16. Lobular neoplasia: frequency and association with other breast lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobbi Helenice

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using new molecular biology techniques, recent studies have implicated a common evolutionary pathway between lobular neoplasia, lobular carcinomas, and columnar cell lesions. Our aims were to assess the frequency of lobular neoplasia in a series of breast biopsies that were performed and examined in the same institution and to analyze the association between subtypes of lobular neoplasia and benign and malignant breast lesions. Methods Cases were selected after reviewing archived pathological reports in the Breast Pathology Laboratory, School of Medicine of Federal University of Minas Gerais (1999-2008. Cases of lobular neoplasia were reviewed and classified as atypical lobular hyperplasia, ductal involvement by cells of atypical lobular hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, and pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ. Coexistence of lobular neoplasia with other breast lesions, including columnar cell lesions, invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma, was evaluated. The association between lobular neoplasia and breast lesions was analyzed by Fisher's exact test and chi-square test for linear trend. Results We analyzed 5650 breast specimens, selecting 135 breast specimens (2.4% that had a diagnosis of lobular neoplasia, corresponding to 106 patients. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were available for 84 cases, 5 of which were excluded because they contained only "indeterminate" in situ lesions. Of the 79 remaining cases, columnar cell lesions were present in 78.5%, primarily with columnar cell changes without atypia (67.7%. Invasive carcinoma was present in 45.6% of cases of lobular neoplasia--a similar frequency (47.2% as invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. We noted a significant linear trend (p in situ compared with atypical lobular hyperplasia. Invasive lobular carcinomas were associated with lobular carcinoma in situ in 33% of cases, compared with 2.8% of atypical lobular

  17. Benign clavicular lesions that may mimic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerscovich, E.G.; Greenspan, A.; Szabo, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Nontraumatic lesions of the clavicle are infrequent. Of these, malignant tumors are more common than benign lesions. From January 1988 to January 1990, we examined 17 patients with benign lesions of the clavicle; in 8, the morphologic appearance of the lesion raised the possibility of malignancy in the differential diagnosis. The radiologic findings in these patients are presented. We propose that the unique shape and embryologic development of the clavicle may contribute to the atypical, aggressive presentation of some benign lesions in that bone. (orig.)

  18. Quantitative angiography methods for bifurcation lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Carlos; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Cavalcante, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Bifurcation lesions represent one of the most challenging lesion subsets in interventional cardiology. The European Bifurcation Club (EBC) is an academic consortium whose goal has been to assess and recommend the appropriate strategies to manage bifurcation lesions. The quantitative coronary...... angiography (QCA) methods for the evaluation of bifurcation lesions have been subject to extensive research. Single-vessel QCA has been shown to be inaccurate for the assessment of bifurcation lesion dimensions. For this reason, dedicated bifurcation software has been developed and validated. These software...

  19. Solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, D.J.; Azouz, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    We evaluated retrospectively the varying radiographic appearances of 15 solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions occurring in children. Imaging modalities used included plain films, conventional tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and computed tomography. 40% of the lesions (6) were due to osteomyelitis. The remaining lesions included tuberculosis (1), foreign body granuloma (1), chondroblastoma (2), chondromyoxid fibroma (1), enchondroma (1), osteoid osteoma (2), and eosinophilic granuloma (1). Although the radiographic appearances of such lesions may be particularly characteristic, pathologic correlation is frequently necessary. The high incidence of osteomyelitis in our cases emphasizes its importance as a cause for a lucent epiphyseal lesion.

  20. Computerized tomography of orbital lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Mayumi

    1981-01-01

    Two different types of computerized tomography scanners (CT scanner), i.e. a whole-body CT scanner (GE-CT/T8800) and a cerebral CT scanner (EMI-1010), were compared in the assessment and diagnosis of various orbital lesions. The whole-body CT scanner was found to be advantageous over the cerebral CT scanner for the following reasons: (1) CT images were more informative due to thinner slices associated with smaller-sized and larger-numbered matrices; (2) less artifacts derived from motion of the head or eyeball were produced because of the shorter scanning time; (3) with a devised gantry, coronal dissections were available whenever demanded. (author)

  1. Modeling of human factor Va inactivation by activated protein C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because understanding of the inventory, connectivity and dynamics of the components characterizing the process of coagulation is relatively mature, it has become an attractive target for physiochemical modeling. Such models can potentially improve the design of therapeutics. The prothrombinase complex (composed of the protease factor (FXa and its cofactor FVa plays a central role in this network as the main producer of thrombin, which catalyses both the activation of platelets and the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, the main substances of a clot. A key negative feedback loop that prevents clot propagation beyond the site of injury is the thrombin-dependent generation of activated protein C (APC, an enzyme that inactivates FVa, thus neutralizing the prothrombinase complex. APC inactivation of FVa is complex, involving the production of partially active intermediates and “protection” of FVa from APC by both FXa and prothrombin. An empirically validated mathematical model of this process would be useful in advancing the predictive capacity of comprehensive models of coagulation. Results A model of human APC inactivation of prothrombinase was constructed in a stepwise fashion by analyzing time courses of FVa inactivation in empirical reaction systems with increasing number of interacting components and generating corresponding model constructs of each reaction system. Reaction mechanisms, rate constants and equilibrium constants informing these model constructs were initially derived from various research groups reporting on APC inactivation of FVa in isolation, or in the presence of FXa or prothrombin. Model predictions were assessed against empirical data measuring the appearance and disappearance of multiple FVa degradation intermediates as well as prothrombinase activity changes, with plasma proteins derived from multiple preparations. Our work integrates previously published findings and through the cooperative

  2. Can miRNA Biomarkers Be Utilized to Improve the Evaluation and Management of Pancreatic Cystic Lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the current strategies and challenges of diagnosing pancreatic cystic lesions, and presents an overview of molecular tools that are available to enhance diagnostic accuracy. Specifically, we highlight the emergence of microRNAs (miRNAs as diagnostic markers. miRNA signatures have been reported for both solid tissue and biofluid specimens, including cyst fluid, collected from patients with solid and cystic pancreatic lesions. These miRNA signatures offer the opportunity to improve molecular characterization of pancreatic lesions, to help guide clinical management through early diagnosis and informed prognosis, and to provide novel therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer.

  3. Germination and Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris Spores Induced by Moderate Hydrostatic Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Barbara; Skapska, Sylwia; Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Niezgoda, Jolanta; Porebska, Izabela; Dekowska, Agnieszka; Rzoska, Sylwester J

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of spoilage caused by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris for the fruit juice industry, the objective of this work was to study the germination and inactivation of A. acidoterrestris spores induced by moderate hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure treatment can induce the germination and inactivation of A. acidoterrestris spores. At low pH, spore germination of up to 3.59-3.75 log and inactivation of 1.85-2.04 log was observed in a low pressure window (200-300 MPa) applied at 50 degrees C for 20 min. Neutral pH suppressed inactivation, the number of spores inactivated at pH 7.0 was only 0.24-1.06 log. The pressurization temperature significantly affected spore germination and inactivation. The degree of germination in apple juice after pressurization for 30 min with 200 MPa at 20 degrees C was 2.04 log, with only 0.61 log of spores being inactivated, while at 70 degrees C spore germination was 5.94 log and inactivation 4.72 log. This temperature strongly stimulated germination and inactivation under higher (500 MPa) than lower (200 MPa) pressure. When the oscillatory mode was used, the degree of germination and inactivation was slightly higher than at continuous mode. The degree of germination and inactivation was inversely proportional to the soluble solids content and was lowest in concentrated apple juice.

  4. Photoreversible UV-inactivation of messenger RNA in an insect embryo (Smittia spec., chironomidae, diptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeckle, H.; Kalthoff, K.

    1980-01-01

    Smittia embryos were UV-irradiated during intravitelline cleavage while nuclei are heavily shielded by yolk-rich cytoplasm and do not synthesize detectable amounts of RNA. Irradiation at 265, 285 and 295 nm wavelength caused biological inactivation, and pyrimidine dimer formation in maternal RNA. Marked effects on protein synthesis were also observed: (1) the overall rate of 35 S-methionine incorporation in vivo was reduced to less than half of the normal rate, (2) two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed quantitative variations in the synthetic rate of some polypeptides and the appearance of new ones in UV-irradiated embryos, (3) translation of polyadenylated RNA from Smittia embryos in a cell-free system was inhibited by UV-irradiation in vivo, (4) the apparent degradation during early embryogenesis, of maternal polyadenylated RNA was retarded in UV-irradiated embryos. Exposure to light (400 nm) after UV caused partial photoreversal of all UV effects observed. This is the first data showing that animal mRNA, after UV-irradiation, can be photoreactivated in vivo. The results also strongly suggest that the photorepairable lesions consist of pyrimidine dimers generated in a photosensitized reaction. (author)

  5. Cerebellar inactivation impairs memory of learned prism gaze-reach calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Scott A; Hathaway, Emily N; Taylor, Jordan A; Thach, W Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Three monkeys performed a visually guided reach-touch task with and without laterally displacing prisms. The prisms offset the normally aligned gaze/reach and subsequent touch. Naive monkeys showed adaptation, such that on repeated prism trials the gaze-reach angle widened and touches hit nearer the target. On the first subsequent no-prism trial the monkeys exhibited an aftereffect, such that the widened gaze-reach angle persisted and touches missed the target in the direction opposite that of initial prism-induced error. After 20-30 days of training, monkeys showed long-term learning and storage of the prism gaze-reach calibration: they switched between prism and no-prism and touched the target on the first trials without adaptation or aftereffect. Injections of lidocaine into posterolateral cerebellar cortex or muscimol or lidocaine into dentate nucleus temporarily inactivated these structures. Immediately after injections into cortex or dentate, reaches were displaced in the direction of prism-displaced gaze, but no-prism reaches were relatively unimpaired. There was little or no adaptation on the day of injection. On days after injection, there was no adaptation and both prism and no-prism reaches were horizontally, and often vertically, displaced. A single permanent lesion (kainic acid) in the lateral dentate nucleus of one monkey immediately impaired only the learned prism gaze-reach calibration and in subsequent days disrupted both learning and performance. This effect persisted for the 18 days of observation, with little or no adaptation.

  6. Ultrasonographic findings of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, In Sung; Kim, Yang Soo; Suh, Hyoung Sim

    1990-01-01

    Authors retrospectively analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 61 cases of breast lesions which were proven pathologically at Daerim St. Mary's Hospital from May 1987 to February 1990. The results were as follows : 1. Of all 61 cases, there were 27 fibroadenomas, 13 fibrocystic diseases, 11 carcinomas, 8 abscesses, 1 sclerosing adenosis, and 1 intraductal papilloma. 2. Findings suggesting benignancy were smooth contour, round or oval shape, homogeneously echolucent internal echo, echogenic boundary echo, and posterior enhancement. In the cases of abscess, the findings were rather irregular contour, strong posterior enhancement, and dirty, inhomogeneous internal echo. While irregular and lobulated shape, inhomogeneous and mixed internal echo and pectoral muscle invasion were suggested for malignancy. 3. The sensitivity was 98% and the specificity 58% in benign mass excluding abscesses, 63% and 98% in abscesses, and 55% and 98% in carcinomas. In conclusion, ultrasonography is one of the excellent imaging modality for detecting breast lesions larger than 5 mm in size, but unfortunately some of the malignant tumors simulated benignancy, thus we considered fine needle aspiration biopsy and adjunctive imaging modalities such as film mammography must be followed for better detection of breast cancer

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Sung; Kim, Yang Soo; Suh, Hyoung Sim [College of Medicine, Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Authors retrospectively analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 61 cases of breast lesions which were proven pathologically at Daerim St. Mary's Hospital from May 1987 to February 1990. The results were as follows : 1. Of all 61 cases, there were 27 fibroadenomas, 13 fibrocystic diseases, 11 carcinomas, 8 abscesses, 1 sclerosing adenosis, and 1 intraductal papilloma. 2. Findings suggesting benignancy were smooth contour, round or oval shape, homogeneously echolucent internal echo, echogenic boundary echo, and posterior enhancement. In the cases of abscess, the findings were rather irregular contour, strong posterior enhancement, and dirty, inhomogeneous internal echo. While irregular and lobulated shape, inhomogeneous and mixed internal echo and pectoral muscle invasion were suggested for malignancy. 3. The sensitivity was 98% and the specificity 58% in benign mass excluding abscesses, 63% and 98% in abscesses, and 55% and 98% in carcinomas. In conclusion, ultrasonography is one of the excellent imaging modality for detecting breast lesions larger than 5 mm in size, but unfortunately some of the malignant tumors simulated benignancy, thus we considered fine needle aspiration biopsy and adjunctive imaging modalities such as film mammography must be followed for better detection of breast cancer.

  8. Imaging in cardiac mass lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, A.; Gruber, H.P.; Dinkel, E.; Geibel, A.; Beck, A.; Wimmer, B.; Schlosser, V.

    1992-01-01

    In 26 patients with cardiac mass lesions confirmed by surgery, diagnostic imaging was performed preoperatively by means of two-dimensional echocardiography (26 patients), angiography (12 patients), correlative computed tomography (CT, 8 patients), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 patients). Two-dimensional echocardiography correctly identified the cardiac masses in all patients. Angiography missed two of 12 cardiac masses; CT missed one of eight. MRI identified three of three cardiac masses. Although the sensitivity of two-dimensional echocardiography was high (100%), all methods lacked specificity. None of the methods allowed differentiation between myxoma (n=13) and thrombus (n=7). Malignancy of the lesions was successfully predicted by noninvasive imaging methods in all six patients. However, CT and MRI provided additional information concerning cardiac mural infiltration, pericardial involvement, and extracardiac tumor extension, and should be integrated within a preoperative imaging strategy. Thus two-dimensional echocardiography is the method of choice for primary assessment of patients with suspected cardiac masses. Further preoperative imaging by CT or MRI can be limited to patients with malignancies suspected on the grounds of pericardial effusion or other clinical results. (author)

  9. Detection of atherosclerotic lesions and intimal macrophages using CD36-targeted nanovesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shufang; Zhang, Jia; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul; Sennoune, Souad; Hossen, Md Nazir; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Cao, Jun; Meyerrose, Gary E; Paone, Ralph; Soontrapa, Suthipong; Fan, Zhaoyang; Wang, Shu

    2015-12-28

    Current approaches to the diagnosis and therapy of atherosclerosis cannot target lesion-determinant cells in the artery wall. Intimal macrophage infiltration promotes atherosclerotic lesion development by facilitating the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) and increasing inflammatory responses. The presence of these cells is positively associated with lesion progression, severity and destabilization. Hence, they are an important diagnostic and therapeutic target. The objective of this study was to noninvasively assess the distribution and accumulation of intimal macrophages using CD36-targeted nanovesicles. Soy phosphatidylcholine was used to synthesize liposome-like nanovesicles. 1-(Palmitoyl)-2-(5-keto-6-octene-dioyl) phosphatidylcholine was incorporated on their surface to target the CD36 receptor. All in vitro data demonstrate that these targeted nanovesicles had a high binding affinity for the oxLDL binding site of the CD36 receptor and participated in CD36-mediated recognition and uptake of nanovesicles by macrophages. Intravenous administration into LDL receptor null mice of targeted compared to non-targeted nanovesicles resulted in higher uptake in aortic lesions. The nanovesicles co-localized with macrophages and their CD36 receptors in aortic lesions. This molecular target approach may facilitate the in vivo noninvasive imaging of atherosclerotic lesions in terms of intimal macrophage accumulation and distribution and disclose lesion features related to inflammation and possibly vulnerability thereby facilitate early lesion detection and targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds to intimal macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Polio endgame: the global introduction of inactivated polio vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish; Zipursky, Simona; Orenstein, Walt; Garon, Julie; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-05-01

    In 2013, the World Health Assembly endorsed a plan that calls for the ultimate withdrawal of oral polio vaccines (OPV) from all immunization programs globally. The withdrawal would begin in a phased manner with removal of the type 2 component of OPV in 2016 through a global switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV (containing only types 1 and 3). To mitigate risks associated with immunity gaps after OPV type 2 withdrawal, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts has recommended that all 126 OPV-only using countries introduce at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine into routine immunization programs by end-2015, before the trivalent OPV-bivalent OPV switch. The introduction of inactivated polio vaccine would reduce risks of reintroduction of type 2 poliovirus by providing some level of seroprotection, facilitating interruption of transmission if outbreaks occur, and accelerating eradication by boosting immunity to types 1 and 3 polioviruses.

  11. Fast neutron radiation inactivation of Bacillus subtilis: Absorbed dose determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lingli; Zheng Chun; Ai Zihui; Li Junjie; Dai Shaofeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, fast neutron inactivation effects of Bacillus subtilis were investigated with fission fast neutrons from CFBR-II reactor of INPC (Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry) and mono-energetic neutrons from the Van de Graaff accelerator at Peking University. The method for determining the absorbed dose in the Bacillus subtilis suspension contained in test tubes is introduced. The absorbed dose, on account of its dependence on the volume and the form of confined state, was determined by combined experiments and Monte Carlo method. Using the calculation results of absorbed dose, the fast neutron inactivation effects on Bacillus subtilis were studied. The survival rates and absorbed dose curve was constructed. (authors)

  12. Some non-thermal microbial inactivation methods in dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yangilar, F.; Kabil, E.

    2013-01-01

    During the production of dairy products, some thermal processes such as pasteurization and sterilization are used commonly to inactive microorganisms. But as a result of thermal processes, loss of nutrient and aroma, non-enzymatic browning and organoleptic differentiation especially in dairy products are seen. Because of this, alternative methods are needed to provide microbial inactivation and as major problems are caused by high temperatures, non-thermal processes are focused on. For this purpose, some methods such as high pressure (HP), pulsed light (PL), ultraviolet radiation (UV), supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) or pulsed electric field (PEF) are used in food. These methods products are processed in ambient temperature and so not only mentioned losses are minimized but also freshness and naturality of products can be preserved. In this work, we will try to be given information about methods of non-thermal microbial inactivation of dairy products. (author) [tr

  13. X-chromosome inactivation in development and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaligné, Ronan; Heard, Edith

    2014-08-01

    X-chromosome inactivation represents an epigenetics paradigm and a powerful model system of facultative heterochromatin formation triggered by a non-coding RNA, Xist, during development. Once established, the inactive state of the Xi is highly stable in somatic cells, thanks to a combination of chromatin associated proteins, DNA methylation and nuclear organization. However, sporadic reactivation of X-linked genes has been reported during ageing and in transformed cells and disappearance of the Barr body is frequently observed in cancer cells. In this review we summarise current knowledge on the epigenetic changes that accompany X inactivation and discuss the extent to which the inactive X chromosome may be epigenetically or genetically perturbed in breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inactivation of microorganisms for high pressures in the wine industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montana B, Jaime Nelson; Ortegon T, Sandra Patricia

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate experimentally the capacity of N 2 and CO 2 under pressure to inactivate wild yeasts, which remain in the Puntalarga vineyard grape, musts were exposed to hyperbaric treatment with these gases. At the end of the pascalization (after 2 hours), CO 2 at 15 degrades Celsius under pressures from 1 to 5 MPa, reached high inactivation percentages of yeast cells (> 90%). Contrary to CO 2 treatment the use of N 2 at 15 degrades Celsius at 4 and 10 MPa failed to exert microbicide effect in a same treatment time. While CO 2 gas with high solubility in water has the potential to reduce microbial loads in musts, N 2 gas with low solubility in water have not effect on the survival of the pathogenic microorganisms in these juices

  15. Patulin reduction in apple juice by inactivated Alicyclobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    VanCauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  17. Intradermal Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine: A Preclinical Dose-Finding Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kouiavskaia, Diana; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Dragunsky, Eugenia; Kochba, Efrat; Levin, Yotam; Troy, Stephanie; Chumakov, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Intradermal delivery of vaccines has been shown to result in dose sparing. We tested the ability of fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) delivered intradermally to induce levels of serum poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies similar to immunization through the intramuscular route. Immunogenicity of fractional doses of IPV was studied by comparing intramuscular and intradermal immunization of Wistar rats using NanoPass MicronJet600 microneedles. Intradermal delivery of partial...

  18. Protective effect by EDTA in radiation inactivation of enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumakura, M; Kaetsu, I

    1985-11-05

    Protective effect by EDTA in radiation inactivation of enzymes such as glucoamylase, cellulase, and urease was studied. A remarkable protective effect by EDTA was observed and had a maximum at certain EDTA concentration. The protective effect was compared with other protective agents in the irradiation of urease, in which the protective ability of EDTA was greater than those of sulfhydryl compounds such as cysteine. (author).

  19. Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Human norovirus (NoV) causes more than 80% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Europe and the United States. NoV transmission via contaminated surfaces may be significant for the spread of viruses. Therefore, measures for prevention and control, such as surface disinfection, are necessary to interrupt the dissemination of human NoV. Murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate for human NoV was used to study the efficacy of active ingredients of chemical disinfectants for virus inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides were tested in a quantitative carrier test with stainless steel discs without mechanical action. Vacuum-dried MNV was exposed to different concentrations of alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA) or glutaraldehyde (GDA) for 5 minutes exposure time. Detection of residual virus was determined by endpoint-titration on RAW 264.7 cells. Results PAA [1000 ppm], GDA [2500 ppm], ethanol [50% (v/v)] and 1-propanol [30% (v/v)] were able to inactivate MNV under clean conditions (0.03% BSA) on the carriers by ≥ 4 log10 within 5 minutes exposure time, whereas 2-propanol showed a reduced effectiveness even at 60% (v/v). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in virus reduction whatever interfering substances were used. When testing with ethanol, 1- and 2-propanol, results under clean conditions were nearly the same as in the presence of dirty conditions (0.3% BSA plus 0.3% erythrocytes). Conclusion Products based upon PAA, GDA, ethanol and 1-propanol should be used for NoV inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Our data provide valuable information for the development of strategies to control NoV transmission via surfaces. PMID:19583832

  20. Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmann Jörg

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human norovirus (NoV causes more than 80% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Europe and the United States. NoV transmission via contaminated surfaces may be significant for the spread of viruses. Therefore, measures for prevention and control, such as surface disinfection, are necessary to interrupt the dissemination of human NoV. Murine norovirus (MNV as a surrogate for human NoV was used to study the efficacy of active ingredients of chemical disinfectants for virus inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides were tested in a quantitative carrier test with stainless steel discs without mechanical action. Vacuum-dried MNV was exposed to different concentrations of alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA or glutaraldehyde (GDA for 5 minutes exposure time. Detection of residual virus was determined by endpoint-titration on RAW 264.7 cells. Results PAA [1000 ppm], GDA [2500 ppm], ethanol [50% (v/v] and 1-propanol [30% (v/v] were able to inactivate MNV under clean conditions (0.03% BSA on the carriers by ≥ 4 log10 within 5 minutes exposure time, whereas 2-propanol showed a reduced effectiveness even at 60% (v/v. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in virus reduction whatever interfering substances were used. When testing with ethanol, 1- and 2-propanol, results under clean conditions were nearly the same as in the presence of dirty conditions (0.3% BSA plus 0.3% erythrocytes. Conclusion Products based upon PAA, GDA, ethanol and 1-propanol should be used for NoV inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Our data provide valuable information for the development of strategies to control NoV transmission via surfaces.

  1. Development of methods to measure virus inactivation in fresh waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R L; Winston, P E

    1985-01-01

    This study concerns the identification and correction of deficiencies in methods used to measure inactivation rates of enteric viruses seeded into environmental waters. It was found that viable microorganisms in an environmental water sample increased greatly after addition of small amounts of nutrients normally present in the unpurified seed virus preparation. This burst of microbial growth was not observed after seeding the water with purified virus. The use of radioactively labeled poliovi...

  2. Bioburden assessment and gamma radiation inactivation patterns in parchment documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Inês; Mesquita, Nuno; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Carolino, Maria Manuela; Portugal, António; Botelho, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    Parchment documents are part of our cultural heritage and, as historical artifacts that they are, should be preserved. The aim of this study was to validate an appropriate methodology to characterize the bioburden of parchment documents, and to assess the growth and gamma radiation inactivation patterns of the microbiota present in that material. Another goal was to estimate the minimum gamma radiation dose (D min ) to be applied for the decontamination of parchment as an alternative treatment to the current toxic chemical and non-chemical decontamination methods. Two bioburden assessment methodologies were evaluated: the Swab Method (SM) and the Destructive Method (DM). The recovery efficiency of each method was estimated by artificial contamination, using a Cladosporium cladosporioides spore suspension. The parchment samples' microbiota was typified using morphological methods and the fungal isolates were identified by ITS-DNA sequencing. The inactivation pattern was assessed using the DM after exposure to different gamma radiation doses, and using C. cladosporioides as reference. Based on the applied methodology, parchment samples presented bioburden values lower than 5×10 3 CFU/cm 2 for total microbiota, and lower than 10 CFU/cm 2 for fungal propagules. The results suggest no evident inactivation trend for the natural parchment microbiota, especially regarding the fungal community. A minimum gamma radiation dose (D min ) of 5 kGy is proposed for the decontamination treatment of parchment. Determining the minimal decontamination dose in parchment is essential for a correct application of gamma radiation as an alternative decontamination treatment for this type of documents avoiding the toxicity and the degradation promoted by the traditional chemical and non-chemical treatments. - Highlights: • Characterization of the microbial population of parchment documents. • Study the inactivation pattern of parchment microbiota by gamma radiation. • Assessment of

  3. Plasma inactivation of food-related microorganisms in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsili, Lisa; Espie, Steven; Anderson, J.G.John G.; MacGregor, S.J.Scott J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on a plasma process that inactivates microorganisms in liquids through the application of high-voltage pulses. These pulses result in breakdown of the gas and liquid layers, producing many active species such as UV photons, ozone, free radicals and free electrons. Several test microorganisms representing a range of problematic microorganisms were investigated. Significant reductions in microbial population were achieved, demonstrating the effectiveness of using the plasma discharge process to treat contaminated liquids

  4. Inactivation of Aerosolized Biological Agents using Filled Nanocomposite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    radiation dose absorbed) roentgen shake slug torr (mm Hg, 0 0 C) *The bacquerel (Bq) is the SI unit of radioactivity ; 1 Bq = 1 event/s...setup was made of stainless steel. The setup was assembled and operated inside a class II biosafety cabinet (Model 6TX, Baker Co., Inc., Sanford, ME...system; (ii) Effectiveness of the facility decontamination conducted between the tests; (iii) Inactivation of spores exposed to combustion of strands

  5. Enteric virus removal inactivation by coal-based media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Chaudhuri, M. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-02-01

    Four coal-based media, viz. alum-pretreated or ferric hydroxide-impregnated Giridih bituminous coal and lignite (alum-GBC, Fe-GBC; alum-lignite and Fe-Lignite) were laboratory tested to assess their potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses in water. Batch-sorption screening tests, employing a poliovirus-spiked canal water, indicated high poliovirus sorption by Fe-GBC and alum-GBC in a short contact time of 5 min. Based on the results of further batch-sorption tests, using silver incorporated media (alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC-Ag and Fe-GBC-Ag), as well as aesthetic water quality consideration and previous findings on removal of coliforms and turbidity, alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC and alum-GBC-AG were included in downflow column studies employing poliovirus-spiked canal water. All three media showed potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses. In a separate column study employing a joint challenge of poliovirus and rotavirus, alum/Ag-GBC removed 59.3-86.5% of the viruses along with more than 99% reduction in indigenous heterotrophic bacteria. Alum/silver-pretreated bituminous coal medium appears promising for use in household water filters in rural areas of the developing world. However, improved medium preparation to further enhance its efficiency is needed; also, its efficacy in removing/inactivating indigenous enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoa has to be ensured and practicalities or economics of application need to be considered.

  6. Inactivation model for disinfection of biofilms in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlicki, A.; O'Leary, K.C.; Gagnon, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to investigate experimentally the effects of free chlorine, monochloramine and chlorine dioxide on the removal of biofilm growth in water as it applies to drinking water in distribution systems. In particular, biofilm kill for a particular dosage of disinfectant was measured as a function of time for each disinfectant over a range of disinfectant concentrations. These results were used to formulate concentration-time (Ct) inactivation values for each disinfectant to compare the efficacy of the three disinfectants for biofilm control. The biofilm reactor system consisted of a 125 mL columns, each containing tightly packed 3 mm glass beads on which heterotrophic bacterial biofilm is established. Following an initial biofilm inoculation period, the glass beads were removed from the columns and placed into glass jars for disinfection with free chlorine, monochloramine and chlorine dioxide. Cell counts were determined on a time series basis with the goal of achieving a Ct inactivation model that is similar to models presently used for inactivation of suspended cells. Ultimately this research could be used to develop a rationale method for setting regulatory values for secondary disinfection in drinking water distribution systems, which presently in only a few states and provinces. (author)

  7. Chemical Addressability of Ultraviolet-Inactivated Viral Nanoparticles (VNPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Chris; Koudelka, Kristopher J.; Destito, Giuseppe; Estrada, Mayra N.; Gonzalez, Maria J.; Manchester, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Background Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV) is increasingly being used as a nanoparticle platform for multivalent display of molecules via chemical bioconjugation to the capsid surface. A growing variety of applications have employed the CPMV multivalent display technology including nanoblock chemistry, in vivo imaging, and materials science. CPMV nanoparticles can be inexpensively produced from experimentally infected cowpea plants at high yields and are extremely stable. Although CPMV has not been shown to replicate in mammalian cells, uptake in mammalian cells does occur in vitro and in vivo. Thus, inactivation of the virus RNA genome is important for biosafety considerations, however the surface characteristics and chemical reactivity of the particles must be maintained in order to preserve chemical and structural functionality. Methodology/Principal Findings Short wave (254 nm) UV irradiation was used to crosslink the RNA genome within intact particles. Lower doses of UV previously reported to inactivate CPMV infectivity inhibited symptoms on inoculated leaves but did not prohibit systemic virus spread in plants, whereas higher doses caused aggregation of the particles and an increase in chemical reactivity further indicating broken particles. Intermediate doses of 2.0–2.5 J/cm2 were shown to maintain particle structure and chemical reactivity, and cellular binding properties were similar to CPMV-WT. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that it is possible to inactivate CPMV infectivity while maintaining particle structure and function, thus paving the way for further development of CPMV nanoparticles for in vivo applications. PMID:18830402

  8. Chemical addressability of ultraviolet-inactivated viral nanoparticles (VNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rae

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV is increasingly being used as a nanoparticle platform for multivalent display of molecules via chemical bioconjugation to the capsid surface. A growing variety of applications have employed the CPMV multivalent display technology including nanoblock chemistry, in vivo imaging, and materials science. CPMV nanoparticles can be inexpensively produced from experimentally infected cowpea plants at high yields and are extremely stable. Although CPMV has not been shown to replicate in mammalian cells, uptake in mammalian cells does occur in vitro and in vivo. Thus, inactivation of the virus RNA genome is important for biosafety considerations, however the surface characteristics and chemical reactivity of the particles must be maintained in order to preserve chemical and structural functionality.Short wave (254 nm UV irradiation was used to crosslink the RNA genome within intact particles. Lower doses of UV previously reported to inactivate CPMV infectivity inhibited symptoms on inoculated leaves but did not prohibit systemic virus spread in plants, whereas higher doses caused aggregation of the particles and an increase in chemical reactivity further indicating broken particles. Intermediate doses of 2.0-2.5 J/cm(2 were shown to maintain particle structure and chemical reactivity, and cellular binding properties were similar to CPMV-WT.These studies demonstrate that it is possible to inactivate CPMV infectivity while maintaining particle structure and function, thus paving the way for further development of CPMV nanoparticles for in vivo applications.

  9. Gamma-irradiation to inactivate thioglucosidase of crucifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessman, K.J.; McCaslin, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    The crucifers contain glucosinolates which through enzymatic hydrolysis give rise to toxicants that limit the use of oil-free meal obtainable from this plant family. Seeds from three crucifers were used to test gamma irradiation to inactivate enzyme systems as a step toward detoxification. Seeds of Crambe abyssinica Hochst (crambe), ground seeds of Sinapis alba L. (mustard), and seeds of Brassica napus L. (rape) were subjected to gamma-irradiation (6.25, 12.5, 25.0 and 50.4 Mrad) to inactivate thioglucosidase and/or destroy glucosinolates. Samples of ground seeds, their oil-free meals, previously irradiated ground seeds and their oil-free meals were assayed for glucose, a product of enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates present in the crucifer seeds. The 50.4 Mrad exposure inactivated thioglucosidase but did not destroy glucosinolates. The fatty acid contents of extracted oils were affected. The amino acid profile of defatted crambe protein meal was affected, while that of white mustard was not

  10. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sridhar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

  11. Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Dai, Tianhong; Gu, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Background: With the increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains, there is a pressing need for the development of alternative treatment for infections. Antimicrobial blue light (aBL) has provided a simple and effective approach. Methods: We first investigated the effectiveness of aBL (415 nm) inactivation of USA300 LAClux (a communityacquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain) both in the planktonic and biofilm forms. The survival of the bacteria in suspensions was determined by serial dilution and that of the biofilm-embedded bacteria was determined by bioluminescence quantification. Using a mouse model of thermal burn infected with USA300 LAClux, we further assessed the effectiveness of aBL for treating localized infections. Bioluminescence imaging was performed to monitor in real time bacterial viability in vivo. Results: In vitro study showed that, for the planktonic counterpart of the bacteria or the 24-h-old biofilms, an irradiance of 55 mW/cm2 for 60 min resulted in a 4.61 log10 or 2.56 log10 inactivation, respectively. In vivo study using infected mouse burns demonstrated that a 2.56-log10 inactivation was achieved after 100-mW/cm2 irradiation for 62 min. Conclusions: aBL is a potential alternative approach for treating Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

  12. Detection, fate and inactivation of pathogenic norovirus employing settlement and UV treatment in wastewater treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, M.; Fitzhenry, K.; O'Flaherty, V.; Dore, W.; Keaveney, S.; Cormican, M.; Rowan, N.; Clifford, E.

    2016-01-01

    It is accepted that discharged wastewaters can be a significant source of pathogenic viruses in receiving water bodies contributing to pollution and may in turn enter the human food chain and pose a risk to human health, thus norovirus (NoV) is often a predominant cause of gastroenteritis globally. Working with NoV poses particular challenges as it cannot be readily identified and detection by molecular methods does not assess infectivity. It has been proposed that the infectivity of NoV may be modelled through the use of an alternative virus; F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophages; GA genotype and other FRNA bacteriophages have been used as a surrogate in studies of NoV inactivation. This study investigated the efficiency of novel pulsed ultraviolet irradiation and low pressure ultraviolet irradiation as a potential pathogen inactivation system for NoV and FRNA bacteriophage (GA) in secondary treated wastewaters. The role of UV dose and the impact of suspended solids concentration on removal efficiency were also examined. The study also investigated the role of settlement processes in wastewater treatment plants in removing NoV. While NoV inactivation could not be determined it was found that at a maximum UV dose of 6.9 J/cm"2 (6900 mJ/cm"2) an average 2.4 log removal of FRNA bacteriophage (GA) was observed; indicating the potential need for high UV doses to remove NoV if FRNA bacteriophage prove a suitable indicator for NoV. The study found that increasing concentrations of suspended solids impacted on PUV efficiency however, it appears the extent of the impact may be site specific. Furthermore, the study found that settlement processes can play a significant role in the removal of FRNA bacteriophage, thus potentially NoV. - Highlights: • Effectiveness of low pressure UV and novel high-intensity pulsed UV disinfection in NoVs removal. • Reduction of FRNA bacteriophage was seen in clarified wastewater after settling. • Adsorption of viral particles to solids

  13. Exploring the Landscape of Diazabicyclooctane (DBO) Inhibition: Avibactam Inactivation of PER-2 β-Lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Melina; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Taracila, Magdalena A; Mojica, Maria F; Bethel, Christopher R; Rudin, Susan D; Zeiser, Elise T; Gutkind, Gabriel; Bonomo, Robert A; Power, Pablo

    2017-06-01

    PER β-lactamases are an emerging family of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) found in Gram-negative bacteria. PER β-lactamases are unique among class A enzymes as they possess an inverted omega (Ω) loop and extended B3 β-strand. These singular structural features are hypothesized to contribute to their hydrolytic profile against oxyimino-cephalosporins (e.g., cefotaxime and ceftazidime). Here, we tested the ability of avibactam (AVI), a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor to inactivate PER-2. Interestingly, the PER-2 inhibition constants (i.e., k 2 / K = 2 × 10 3 ± 0.1 × 10 3 M -1 s -1 , where k 2 is the rate constant for acylation (carbamylation) and K is the equilibrium constant) that were obtained when AVI was tested were reminiscent of values observed testing the inhibition by AVI of class C and D β-lactamases (i.e., k 2 / K range of ≈10 3 M -1 s -1 ) and not class A β-lactamases (i.e., k 2 / K range, 10 4 to 10 5 M -1 s -1 ). Once AVI was bound, a stable complex with PER-2 was observed via mass spectrometry (e.g., 31,389 ± 3 atomic mass units [amu] → 31,604 ± 3 amu for 24 h). Molecular modeling of PER-2 with AVI showed that the carbonyl of AVI was located in the oxyanion hole of the β-lactamase and that the sulfate of AVI formed interactions with the β-lactam carboxylate binding site of the PER-2 β-lactamase (R220 and T237). However, hydrophobic patches near the PER-2 active site (by Ser70 and B3-B4 β-strands) were observed and may affect the binding of necessary catalytic water molecules, thus slowing acylation ( k 2 / K ) of AVI onto PER-2. Similar electrostatics and hydrophobicity of the active site were also observed between OXA-48 and PER-2, while CTX-M-15 was more hydrophilic. To demonstrate the ability of AVI to overcome the enhanced cephalosporinase activity of PER-2 β-lactamase, we tested different β-lactam-AVI combinations. By lowering MICs to ≤2 mg/liter, the ceftaroline-AVI combination could represent a favorable

  14. Detection, fate and inactivation of pathogenic norovirus employing settlement and UV treatment in wastewater treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, M. [Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Microbiology, School of Natural sciences, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Fitzhenry, K. [Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); O' Flaherty, V. [Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Microbiology, School of Natural sciences, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Dore, W.; Keaveney, S. [Marine Institute, Galway (Ireland); Cormican, M. [Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Centre for Health from Environment, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); Rowan, N. [Bioscience Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology (Ireland); Clifford, E., E-mail: eoghan.clifford@nuigalway.ie [Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland); College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2016-10-15

    It is accepted that discharged wastewaters can be a significant source of pathogenic viruses in receiving water bodies contributing to pollution and may in turn enter the human food chain and pose a risk to human health, thus norovirus (NoV) is often a predominant cause of gastroenteritis globally. Working with NoV poses particular challenges as it cannot be readily identified and detection by molecular methods does not assess infectivity. It has been proposed that the infectivity of NoV may be modelled through the use of an alternative virus; F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophages; GA genotype and other FRNA bacteriophages have been used as a surrogate in studies of NoV inactivation. This study investigated the efficiency of novel pulsed ultraviolet irradiation and low pressure ultraviolet irradiation as a potential pathogen inactivation system for NoV and FRNA bacteriophage (GA) in secondary treated wastewaters. The role of UV dose and the impact of suspended solids concentration on removal efficiency were also examined. The study also investigated the role of settlement processes in wastewater treatment plants in removing NoV. While NoV inactivation could not be determined it was found that at a maximum UV dose of 6.9 J/cm{sup 2} (6900 mJ/cm{sup 2}) an average 2.4 log removal of FRNA bacteriophage (GA) was observed; indicating the potential need for high UV doses to remove NoV if FRNA bacteriophage prove a suitable indicator for NoV. The study found that increasing concentrations of suspended solids impacted on PUV efficiency however, it appears the extent of the impact may be site specific. Furthermore, the study found that settlement processes can play a significant role in the removal of FRNA bacteriophage, thus potentially NoV. - Highlights: • Effectiveness of low pressure UV and novel high-intensity pulsed UV disinfection in NoVs removal. • Reduction of FRNA bacteriophage was seen in clarified wastewater after settling. • Adsorption of viral particles

  15. Treatment of metastatic brain lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zaytsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Increasing survival in patients with secondary brain damage, and identifying the factors of favorable and adverse prognosis.Material and method. In P. A. Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Institute from 2007 to 2013 there were treated 268 patients with brain metastases. The mean age was 55.8 years (from 24 to 81 years. Metastases of colorectal cancer identified in 7.8%, cases of lung cancer in 34%, melanoma 9.3 %, breast cancer in 26%, kidney cancer in 11%, with non-identified primary tumor in 4.5%, other tumors accounted for 6.7%. Solitary metastasis was diagnosed in 164 (61,19% patients, oligometastasis (2-3 - 72 (26,87% patients with polymetastasis (more than 3 – 32 (11,94% patients. In 106 (39,55% of patients with brain metastases it was the only manifestation of the generalization process. To control the radical removal of the tumor in 93 (34,7% patients we used the method of fluorescence navigation (FN with the drug Alasens. In 66 (24,6% patients intraoperatively was held a session of photodynamic therapy (PDT. In 212 (79,1% cases, the removal of metastasis performed totally, 55 (20,9% patients stated Subtotal removal.Results. The observation period for the patients ranged from 3 to 79 months. Survival median among the entire group of patients with metastatic brain lesion was 12 months. Overall survival was significantly dependent on RPA class, the volume of postoperative treatment, histological type of primary tumor, number of intracerebral metastases and the timing of the relapse-free period.Conclusions. Factors that affects the overall survival are the features of the histology of the primary lesion, multiplicity of metastatic lesions, RPA class and the synchronous nature of the metastasis. The median of overall survival of patients who did not receive after surgical treatment of a particular type of therapy was only 4 months. If to use the combined treatment (surgical treatment with the irradiation of the whole brain median

  16. Mutation inactivation of Nijmegen breakage syndrome gene (NBS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS with NBS1 germ-line mutation is a human autosomal recessive disease characterized by genomic instability and enhanced cancer predisposition. The NBS1 gene codes for a protein, Nbs1(p95/Nibrin, involved in the processing/repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a complex and heterogeneous tumor with several genomic alterations. Recent studies have shown that heterozygous NBS1 mice exhibited a higher incidence of HCC than did wild-type mice. The objective of the present study is to assess whether NBS1 mutations play a role in the pathogenesis of human primary liver cancer, including HBV-associated HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC. Eight missense NBS1 mutations were identified in six of 64 (9.4% HCCs and two of 18 (11.1% ICCs, whereas only one synonymous mutation was found in 89 control cases of cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B. Analysis of the functional consequences of the identified NBS1 mutations in Mre11-binding domain showed loss of nuclear localization of Nbs1 partner Mre11, one of the hallmarks for Nbs1 deficiency, in one HCC and two ICCs with NBS1 mutations. Moreover, seven of the eight tumors with NBS1 mutations had at least one genetic alteration in the TP53 pathway, including TP53 mutation, MDM2 amplification, p14ARF homozygous deletion and promoter methylation, implying a synergistic effect of Nbs1 disruption and p53 inactivation. Our findings provide novel insight on the molecular pathogenesis of primary liver cancer characterized by mutation inactivation of NBS1, a DNA repair associated gene.

  17. Non-coding RNAs and epigenome: de novo DNA methylation, allelic exclusion and X-inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Halytskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs are widespread class of cell RNAs. They participate in many important processes in cells – signaling, posttranscriptional silencing, protein biosynthesis, splicing, maintenance of genome stability, telomere lengthening, X-inactivation. Nevertheless, activity of these RNAs is not restricted to posttranscriptional sphere, but cover also processes that change or maintain the epigenetic information. Non-coding RNAs can directly bind to the DNA targets and cause their repression through recruitment of DNA methyltransferases as well as chromatin modifying enzymes. Such events constitute molecular mechanism of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation. It is possible, that the RNA-DNA interaction is universal mechanism triggering DNA methylation de novo. Allelic exclusion can be also based on described mechanism. This phenomenon takes place, when non-coding RNA, which precursor is transcribed from one allele, triggers DNA methylation in all other alleles present in the cell. Note, that miRNA-mediated transcriptional silencing resembles allelic exclusion, because both miRNA gene and genes, which can be targeted by this miRNA, contain elements with the same sequences. It can be assumed that RNA-dependent DNA methylation and allelic exclusion originated with the purpose of counteracting the activity of mobile genetic elements. Probably, thinning and deregulation of the cellular non-coding RNA pattern allows reactivation of silent mobile genetic elements resulting in genome instability that leads to ageing and carcinogenesis. In the course of X-inactivation, DNA methylation and subsequent hete­rochromatinization of X chromosome can be triggered by direct hybridization of 5′-end of large non-coding RNA Xist with DNA targets in remote regions of the X chromosome.

  18. Determination of the effectiveness of inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus by Pretoria pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, B S; Webber, L; Mokhondo, K R; Erasmus, D

    2001-12-01

    The risk of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via breastfeeding is between 10 and 17 per cent. In resource-poor countries most HIV-infected women cannot afford to formula feed their infants and formula feeding is not desirable in areas of high infant mortality because of loss of the immunological benefits of breastmilk. A method has been devised by which HIV-infected women may express and pasteurize their breastmilk in a domestic setting using inexpensive apparatus and a simple technique. The method, Pretoria Pasteurization has been shown to be reliable under a wide range of conditions and maintains milk between 56 degrees and 62.5 degrees C for between 12 and 15 min. This study was devised to determine whether Pretoria Pasteurization effectively inactivates HIV in human milk. Samples of expressed breastmilk were obtained from a group of HIV-infected lactating women and a group of HIV-negative women. The samples of milk from the HIV-negative women were inoculated with high titres of cell-associated and cell-free HIV. Each sample was divided into a control portion and a study portion. The study portion underwent Pretoria Pasteurization. Control and pasteurized samples were inoculated into lymphocyte co-culture for a period of 35 days. All co-cultures were sampled weekly and analysed by serological and molecular methods for p24 antigen, cell-free HIV RNA and integrated DNA. Viral RNA was detected in the milk of 80 per cent amongst the known HIV-positive women. The mean serum viral load in the group of HIV positive women was 50728 copies/ml and the mean milk viral load was 422000 copies/ml. Evidence of viral replication was shown in 11 of the control specimens. There was no evidence of viral replication in any of the study specimens which had undergone Pretoria Pasteurization. It was concluded that Pretoria Pasteurization effectively inactivates HIV in human milk.

  19. Comparative Inactivation of Murine Norovirus, Human Adenovirus, and Human JC Polyomavirus by Chlorine in Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu Corrêa, Adriana; Carratala, Anna; Barardi, Celia Regina Monte; Calvo, Miquel; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2012-01-01

    Viruses excreted by humans affect the commercial and recreational use of coastal water. Shellfish produced in contaminated waters have been linked to many episodes and outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis, as well as other food-borne diseases worldwide. The risk can be reduced by appropriate treatment following harvesting and by depuration. The kinetics of inactivation of murine norovirus 1 and human adenovirus 2 in natural and artificial seawater by free available chlorine was studied by quantifying genomic copies (GC) using quantitative PCR and infectious viral particles (PFU). Human JC polyomavirus Mad4 kinetics were evaluated by quantitative PCR. DNase or RNase were used to eliminate free genomes and assess potential viral infectivity when molecular detection was performed. At 30 min of assay, human adenovirus 2 showed 2.6- and 2.7-log10 GC reductions and a 2.3- and 2.4-log10 PFU reductions in natural and artificial seawater, respectively, and infectious viral particles were still observed at the end of the assay. When DNase was used prior to the nucleic acid extraction the kinetic of inactivation obtained by quantitative PCR was statistically equivalent to the one observed by infectivity assays. For murine norovirus 1, 2.5, and 3.5-log10 GC reductions were observed in natural and artificial seawater, respectively, while no viruses remained infectious after 30 min of contact with chlorine. Regarding JC polyomavirus Mad4, 1.5- and 1.1-log10 GC reductions were observed after 30 min of contact time. No infectivity assays were conducted for this virus. The results obtained provide data that might be applicable to seawater used in shellfish depuration. PMID:22773637

  20. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine after Medium- or High-titer Measles Vaccine with Standard Titer Measles Vaccine after Inactivated Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that girls have higher mortality if their most recent immunization is an inactivated vaccine rather than a live vaccine. We therefore reanalyzed 5 randomized trials of early measles vaccine (MV) in which it was possible to compare an inactivated va...

  1. Homozygous Inactivating Mutation in NANOS3 in Two Sisters with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza G. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing understanding of female reproduction, the molecular diagnosis of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is seldom obtained. The RNA-binding protein NANOS3 poses as an interesting candidate gene for POI since members of the Nanos family have an evolutionarily conserved function in germ cell development and maintenance by repressing apoptosis. We performed mutational analysis of NANOS3 in a cohort of 85 Brazilian women with familial or isolated POI, presenting with primary or secondary amenorrhea, and in ethnically-matched control women. A homozygous p.Glu120Lys mutation in NANOS3 was identified in two sisters with primary amenorrhea. The substituted amino acid is located within the second C2HC motif in the conserved zinc finger domain of NANOS3 and in silico molecular modelling suggests destabilization of protein-RNA interaction. In vitro analyses of apoptosis through flow cytometry and confocal microscopy show that NANOS3 capacity to prevent apoptosis was impaired by this mutation. The identification of an inactivating missense mutation in NANOS3 suggests a mechanism for POI involving increased primordial germ cells (PGCs apoptosis during embryonic cell migration and highlights the importance of NANOS proteins in human ovarian biology.

  2. Effect of phenolic aldehydes and flavonoids on growth and inactivation of Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus hilgardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana Rita; Campos, Francisco; de Freitas, Víctor; Hogg, Tim; Couto, José António

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of wine phenolic aldehydes, flavonoids and tannins on growth and viability of strains of Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus hilgardii. Cultures were grown in ethanol-containing MRS/TJ medium supplemented with different concentrations of phenolic aldehydes or flavonoids and monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of tannins was evaluated by monitoring the progressive inactivation of cells in ethanol-containing phosphate buffer supplemented with grape seed extracts with different molecular weight tannins. Of the phenolic aldehydes tested, sinapaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzaldehyde significantly inhibited the growth of O. oeni VF, while vanillin and syringaldehyde had no effect at the concentrations tested. Lact. hilgardii 5 was only inhibited by sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde. Among the flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol exerted an inhibitory effect especially on O. oeni VF. Myricetin and the flavan-3-ols studied (catechin and epicatechin) did not affect considerably the growth of both strains. Condensed tannins (particularly tetramers and pentamers) were found to strongly affect cell viability, especially in the case of O. oeni VF. In general, this strain was found to be more sensitive than Lact. hilgardii 5 to the phenolic compounds studied. This work contributes to the knowledge of the effect of different phenolic compounds on the activity of wine lactic acid bacteria, which, especially in the case of aldehydes and of different molecular weight fractions of tannins, is very scarce.

  3. Modeling-independent elucidation of inactivation pathways in recombinant and native A-type Kv channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Jeffrey D.; Ritter, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A-type voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels self-regulate their activity by inactivating directly from the open state (open-state inactivation [OSI]) or by inactivating before they open (closed-state inactivation [CSI]). To determine the inactivation pathways, it is often necessary to apply several pulse protocols, pore blockers, single-channel recording, and kinetic modeling. However, intrinsic hurdles may preclude the standardized application of these methods. Here, we implemented a simple method inspired by earlier studies of Na+ channels to analyze macroscopic inactivation and conclusively deduce the pathways of inactivation of recombinant and native A-type Kv channels. We investigated two distinct A-type Kv channels expressed heterologously (Kv3.4 and Kv4.2 with accessory subunits) and their native counterparts in dorsal root ganglion and cerebellar granule neurons. This approach applies two conventional pulse protocols to examine inactivation induced by (a) a simple step (single-pulse inactivation) and (b) a conditioning step (double-pulse inactivation). Consistent with OSI, the rate of Kv3.4 inactivation (i.e., the negative first derivative of double-pulse inactivation) precisely superimposes on the profile of the Kv3.4 current evoked by a single pulse because the channels must open to inactivate. In contrast, the rate of Kv4.2 inactivation is asynchronous, already changing at earlier times relative to the profile of the Kv4.2 current evoked by a single pulse. Thus, Kv4.2 inactivation occurs uncoupled from channel opening, indicating CSI. Furthermore, the inactivation time constant versus voltage relation of Kv3.4 decreases monotonically with depolarization and levels off, whereas that of Kv4.2 exhibits a J-shape profile. We also manipulated the inactivation phenotype by changing the subunit composition and show how CSI and CSI combined with OSI might affect spiking properties in a full computational model of the hippocampal CA1 neuron. This work unambiguously

  4. 'Emotional Intelligence': Lessons from Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, J; Salvi, C; Grafman, J

    2016-10-01

    'Emotional intelligence' (EI) is one of the most highly used psychological terms in popular nomenclature, yet its construct, divergent, and predictive validities are contentiously debated. Despite this debate, the EI construct is composed of a set of emotional abilities - recognizing emotional states in the self and others, using emotions to guide thought and behavior, understanding how emotions shape behavior, and emotion regulation - that undoubtedly influence important social and personal outcomes. In this review, evidence from human lesion studies is reviewed in order to provide insight into the necessary brain regions for each of these core emotional abilities. Critically, we consider how this neuropsychological evidence might help to guide efforts to define and measure EI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Imaging of extradural spinal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Schulte-Altedorneburg, G.; Naumann, N.; Reith, W.; Nabhan, A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a wide variety of spinal extradural tumors. In addition to real neoplasms, degenerative diseases, congenital abnormalities and inflammatory disorders can be causes of extradural masses. Due to the bony boundary of the spinal canal, both benign as well as malignant masses can cause progressive neurological deficits including paraplegia. Most of the spinal tumors are benign (hemangioma of the vertebral body, degenerative diseases). In younger patients congenital abnormalities and primary tumors of the spine have to be considered, whereas in adults the list of differential diagnoses should include secondary malignancies such as metastases and lymphomas as well as metabolic disorders such as osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture and Paget's disease. Cross-sectional imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) of the spine often help to make a specific diagnosis of extradural spinal lesions and represent important tools for tumor staging and preoperative evaluation. (orig.) [de

  6. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  7. Molecularly targeted therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: It is generally agreed that current focus of nuclear medicine development should be on molecular imaging and therapy. Though, the widespread use of the terminology 'molecular imaging' is quite recent, nuclear medicine has used molecular imaging techniques for more than 20 years ago. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced for the internal therapy of malignant and inflammatory lesions in nuclear medicine. In the field of bio/medical imaging, nuclear medicine is one of the disciplines which has the privilege of organized and well developed chemistry/ pharmacy section; radio-chemistry/radiopharmacy. Fundamental principles have been developed more than 40 years ago and advanced research is going well into postgenomic era. The genomic revolution and dramatically increased insight in the molecular mechanisms underlying pathology have led to paradigm shift in drug development. Likewise does in the nuclear medicine. Here, the author will present current clinical and pre-clinical therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on molecular targets such as membrane-bound receptors, enzymes, nucleic acids, sodium iodide symporter, etc, in correlation with fundamentals of radiopharmacy. (author)

  8. Imaging pattern of calvarial lesions in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garfinkle, Jarred; Melancon, Denis; Cortes, Maria; Tampieri, Donatella [Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital-McGill University Health Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Calvarial lesions often present themselves as clinically silent findings on skull radiographs or as palpable masses that may cause localized pain or soreness. This review aims to explore the radiographic, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of calvarial neoplastic, inflammatory, and congenital lesions that are common in adults in order to facilitate a structured approach to their diagnosis and limit the differential diagnosis. In addition to reviewing the literature, we reviewed the records of 141 patients of the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital with radiologically documented calvarial lesions between 2001 and June 2009. CT is ideal for detecting bony lesions and is helpful in precisely localizing a lesion pre-surgically. MRI is best at identifying intradiploic lesions before they affect the cortical tables and is able to establish extraosseous involvement, especially when paramagnetic contrast is employed. (orig.)

  9. Detection of Fundus Lesions Using Classifier Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Hiroto; Hiramatsu, Yoshitaka; Sako, Hiroshi; Himaga, Mitsutoshi; Kato, Satoshi

    A system for detecting fundus lesions caused by diabetic retinopathy from fundus images is being developed. The system can screen the images in advance in order to reduce the inspection workload on doctors. One of the difficulties that must be addressed in completing this system is how to remove false positives (which tend to arise near blood vessels) without decreasing the detection rate of lesions in other areas. To overcome this difficulty, we developed classifier selection according to the position of a candidate lesion, and we introduced new features that can distinguish true lesions from false positives. A system incorporating classifier selection and these new features was tested in experiments using 55 fundus images with some lesions and 223 images without lesions. The results of the experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system, namely, degrees of sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 81%, respectively.

  10. In situ validation of VEGFR-2 and α v ß 3 integrin as targets for breast lesion characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehling, J.; Misiewicz, M.; von Stillfried, S.; Möckel, D.; Bzyl, J.; Pochon, S.; Lederle, W.; Knuechel, R.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Palmowski, M.; Kiessling, F.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and αvß3 integrin are the most frequently addressed targets in molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis. In preclinical studies, molecular imaging of angiogenesis has shown potential to detect and differentiate benign and malignant lesions of

  11. Hybrid Odontogenic Lesion: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Imani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid tumors are very rare tumors composed of two different tumor entities, each of which conforms to an exactly defined tumor category. A 14-year-old boy was referred for an intraosseous painless lesion with a histopathological feature of multiple odontogenic lesions including calcifying odontogenic cyst, complex odontoma and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. The final diagnosis considered to be a hybrid odontogenic lesion.

  12. Space Occupying Lesions in the Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Ebrahimi Daryani

    2009-01-01

    "nRadiology (imaging) plays a pivotal role for the diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and follow-up of focal liver lesions. The differential diagnosis in patients presenting with a focal liver lesion is broad. "nThe size of the liver mass is an important consideration in guiding the evaluation. Lesions smaller than approximately 1.0 cm are commonly benign incidental findings on imaging studies, and in most cases represent small cysts, hemangiomas, or biliary hamartomas. Further...

  13. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  14. Lesion localization in aphasia without hemiparesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Midori; Senoh, Yoko; Okamoto, Koichi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of the lesions responsible for aphasia unassociated with right-sided hemiparesis was evaluated by cranial computed tomography (CT) among stroke patients. In the Broca aphasia group were observed atypical aphasic symptoms, and the lesions were far more localized than in ordinary Broca one. In the Wernicke aphasia group showed relatively large lesions in the left superior temporal gyrus, sometimes extending to supramarginal and angular gyri, which caused such additional symptoms as apraxia without motor paresis in some cases. In the Transcortical motor aphasia group showed the occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, though without obvious abnormality at CT. In another patient a circumscribed low density lesion was disclosed in the area anterior and superior to so-called Broca's area. In the Transcortical sensory aphasia group, the lesion involved the borderzone supplied by the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In the Amnestic aphasia group showed a lesion in the left parietal lobe, while in another no remarkable change was demonstrated. In the Global aphasia group, one had multiple isolated lesions in both anterior and posterior speech areas. Another showed a large lesion involving the whole territory of the left middle cerebral artery. In the remaining one a high density area was observed in the left superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri, not extending to the frontal lobe beyond with sylvian fissure. Therefore, in interpreting CTs of such aphasic patients we must take account of not only the extent of the lesion but also the severity of destruction. (J.P.N.)

  15. Lesion localization in aphasia without hemiparesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Midori; Senoh, Yoko; Okamoto, Koichi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-06-01

    The distribution of the lesions responsible for aphasia unassociated with right-sided hemiparesis was evaluated by cranial computed tomography (CT) among stroke patients. In the Broca aphasia group were observed atypical aphasic symptoms, and the lesions were far more localized than in ordinary Broca one. In the Wernicke aphasia group showed relatively large lesions in the left superior temporal gyrus, sometimes extending to supramarginal and angular gyri, which caused such additional symptoms as apraxia without motor paresis in some cases. In the Transcortical motor aphasia group showed the occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, though without obvious abnormality at CT. In another patient a circumscribed low density lesion was disclosed in the area anterior and superior to so-called Broca's area. In the Transcortical sensory aphasia group, the lesion involved the borderzone supplied by the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In the Amnestic aphasia group showed a lesion in the left parietal lobe, while in another no remarkable change was demonstrated. In the Global aphasia group, one had multiple isolated lesions in both anterior and posterior speech areas. Another showed a large lesion involving the whole territory of the left middle cerebral artery. In the remaining one a high density area was observed in the left superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri, not extending to the frontal lobe beyond with sylvian fissure. Therefore, in interpreting CTs of such aphasic patients we must take account of not only the extent of the lesion but also the severity of destruction.

  16. Thermophysical lesions caused by HZE particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Malachowski, M.; Nelson, A.; Philpott, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with a type of damage caused by heavy particles that may occur in subcellular structures. These lesions are called thermophysical radiation injury and are similar to damage produced in solids by HZE particles. This chapter summarizes some of the experimental evidence for the presence of these lesions in certain mammalian tissues including the retina, brain, cornea, lens of mice and seeds of corn. Of all tissues examined, only the cornea exhibited a type of lesion which would fulfill the criteria of thermophysical lesions

  17. MR imaging of sacral and perisacral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, L.H.; Levine, E.; Murphey, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    This exhibit demonstrates the utility of MR imaging in evaluating sacral and perisacral lesions. Thirty-two lesions were studied using a superconducting 1.0-T MR imager. Eleven primary and 13 metastatic tumors, four congenital lesions, and four arachnoid cysts were evaluated. MR did not usually enable a more specific histologic diagnosis than other imaging techniques. However, extraosseous and proximal spinal extent of tumors was well defined without use of oral or intravenous contrast material. MR imaging is an excellent noninvasive technique for evaluating most sacral and perisacral lesions and is particularly helpful when precise tumor extent must be determined for treatment planning

  18. Visible and occult microscopic lesions of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleque Newaz Khan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Even after 300 years, most of the literature claims that pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of endometriosis is still elusive. Recurrence of pain and lesion continues to occur after effective medical or surgical therapies. Once generated within the pelvis due to retrograde entry of menstrual debris, peritoneal endometriotic lesions time-dependently change their color appearance resulting from certain biochemical change within lesions. A variable pattern of endometriotic lesions within the pelvis can be detected by laparoscopy as visible peritoneal endometriosis. It is generally believed that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system in the pelvic microenvironment by their interaction with endometrial cells and immune cells. Even with the careful eyes of an expert surgeon, we may sometimes miss detecting peritoneal lesion within the peritoneal cavity or deep into the peritoneum. In such a case, random collection of normal peritoneum may carry the possibility to identify some hidden endometriotic lesions by microscopy and these lesions can be named as occult (invisible microscopic endometriosis (OME. Here, we discuss the color appearance of peritoneal lesions and activity of these lesions by analysis of a panel of activity markers. Finally we discuss our recent findings on OME, their biological and clinical significance, and try to make a possible link in the origin between visible endometriosis and OME.

  19. Measuring Cutaneous Lesions: Trends in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shali; Blalock, Travis W

    2018-03-01

    Knowing the size of a cutaneous lesion can be important for tracking its progression over time, selecting the proper treatment modality, surgical planning, determining prognosis, and accurate billing. However, providers vary in their consistency, accuracy, and methods of measuring cutaneous lesions. To investigate the clinical practices of US dermatologists and dermatologic surgeons regarding how they determine the size of cutaneous lesions. A survey was electronically distributed to members of the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery. Four hundred twenty-six dermatologists completed the online survey. When a lesion is suspected to be malignant, 85% of respondents obtained exact measurements most, if not all, of the time; however, only 8% did for benign lesions. Most providers determined lesion sizes themselves rather than delegating to staff. When performing visual estimation, approximately three-quarters believed that they were accurate to within 1 to 2 mm. The top reasons for obtaining exact measurements were for tracking atypical pigmented lesions, determining treatment pathways, and accurate billing. The majority of respondents believed that lesion size affected management decisions; however, the need for exact measurement remains controversial, particularly for benign lesions. Future studies may investigate whether taking exact versus estimated measurements has an effect on outcomes.

  20. Lithium Chloride Dependent Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Inactivation Links Oxidative DNA Damage, Hypertrophy and Senescence in Human Articular Chondrocytes and Reproduces Chondrocyte Phenotype of Obese Osteoarthritis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Guidotti

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that GSK3 activity is chondroprotective in osteoarthritis (OA, but at the same time, its inactivation has been proposed as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic option. Here we evaluated the extent of GSK3β inactivation in vivo in OA knee cartilage and the molecular events downstream GSK3β inactivation in vitro to assess their contribution to cell senescence and hypertrophy.In vivo level of phosphorylated GSK3β was analyzed in cartilage and oxidative damage was assessed by 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine staining. The in vitro effects of GSK3β inactivation (using either LiCl or SB216763 were evaluated on proliferating primary human chondrocytes by combined confocal microscopy analysis of Mitotracker staining and reactive oxygen species (ROS production (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. Downstream effects on DNA damage and senescence were investigated by western blot (γH2AX, GADD45β and p21, flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle and light scattering properties, quantitative assessment of senescence associated β galactosidase activity, and PAS staining.In vivo chondrocytes from obese OA patients showed higher levels of phosphorylated GSK3β, oxidative damage and expression of GADD45β and p21, in comparison with chondrocytes of nonobese OA patients. LiCl mediated GSK3β inactivation in vitro resulted in increased mitochondrial ROS production, responsible for reduced cell proliferation, S phase transient arrest, and increase in cell senescence, size and granularity. Collectively, western blot data supported the occurrence of a DNA damage response leading to cellular senescence with increase in γH2AX, GADD45β and p21. Moreover, LiCl boosted 8-oxo-dG staining, expression of IKKα and MMP-10.In articular chondrocytes, GSK3β activity is required for the maintenance of proliferative potential and phenotype. Conversely, GSK3β inactivation, although preserving chondrocyte survival, results in functional impairment via

  1. Lithium Chloride Dependent Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Inactivation Links Oxidative DNA Damage, Hypertrophy and Senescence in Human Articular Chondrocytes and Reproduces Chondrocyte Phenotype of Obese Osteoarthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Serena; Minguzzi, Manuela; Platano, Daniela; Cattini, Luca; Trisolino, Giovanni; Mariani, Erminia; Borzì, Rosa Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that GSK3 activity is chondroprotective in osteoarthritis (OA), but at the same time, its inactivation has been proposed as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic option. Here we evaluated the extent of GSK3β inactivation in vivo in OA knee cartilage and the molecular events downstream GSK3β inactivation in vitro to assess their contribution to cell senescence and hypertrophy. In vivo level of phosphorylated GSK3β was analyzed in cartilage and oxidative damage was assessed by 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine staining. The in vitro effects of GSK3β inactivation (using either LiCl or SB216763) were evaluated on proliferating primary human chondrocytes by combined confocal microscopy analysis of Mitotracker staining and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining). Downstream effects on DNA damage and senescence were investigated by western blot (γH2AX, GADD45β and p21), flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle and light scattering properties, quantitative assessment of senescence associated β galactosidase activity, and PAS staining. In vivo chondrocytes from obese OA patients showed higher levels of phosphorylated GSK3β, oxidative damage and expression of GADD45β and p21, in comparison with chondrocytes of nonobese OA patients. LiCl mediated GSK3β inactivation in vitro resulted in increased mitochondrial ROS production, responsible for reduced cell proliferation, S phase transient arrest, and increase in cell senescence, size and granularity. Collectively, western blot data supported the occurrence of a DNA damage response leading to cellular senescence with increase in γH2AX, GADD45β and p21. Moreover, LiCl boosted 8-oxo-dG staining, expression of IKKα and MMP-10. In articular chondrocytes, GSK3β activity is required for the maintenance of proliferative potential and phenotype. Conversely, GSK3β inactivation, although preserving chondrocyte survival, results in functional impairment via induction of

  2. Magnetismo Molecular (Molecular Magentism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The new synthesis processes in chemistry open a new world of research, new and surprising materials never before found in nature can now be synthesized and, as a wonderful result, observed a series of physical phenomena never before imagined. Among these are many new materials the molecular magnets, the subject of this book and magnetic properties that are often reflections of the quantum behavior of these materials. Aside from the wonderful experience of exploring something new, the theoretical models that describe the behavior these magnetic materials are, in most cases, soluble analytically, which allows us to know in detail the physical mechanisms governing these materials. Still, the academic interest in parallel this subject, these materials have a number of properties that are promising to be used in technological devices, such as in computers quantum magnetic recording, magnetocaloric effect, spintronics and many other devices. This volume will journey through the world of molecular magnets, from the structural description of these materials to state of the art research.

  3. Modification of radiation-induced DNA lesions by oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, R.E.; Jenkins, W.T.

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of DNA strand break production by radiation under aerated and hypoxic conditions was determined in CHO cells using the technique of alkaline elution. The resulting oxygen enhancement ratio was surprisingly high, 7.8. When the pH of the elution was increased from 12.1, the normally used pH, to 12.8, a substantial increase in the strand breaks produced in the hypoxic cells was observed, resulting in an OER of 4.8. This difference in susceptibility of DNA strand break detection as a function of pH suggested a difference in the type of lesions produced in DNA when irradiated under aerated and hypoxic conditions. Further experiments to examine the DNA-protein crosslinks produced by radiation suggested that the apparent lower level of strand breaks in hypoxic cells may be due to a higher level of DNA-protein crosslinks produced under hypoxic conditions. Thus, oxygen may not only act by modifying the quantity of radiation-induced DNA lesions but may also cause qualitative changes. If the different types of DNA lesions have different contributions to lethality, the OER for cell survival may represent a complex composite of these changes at the molecular level

  4. Localization of lesions in aphasia, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Kei; Watanabe, Shunzo; Tasaki, Hiroichi; Sato, Tokijiro; Metoki, Hirofumi.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the focus and the extent of the lesions and the various symptoms was investigated. 1. Broca aphasics: More than 80% of the group with obvious anarthric components had lesions of the third frontal gyrus involving Broca's area and the lower part of the precental gyrus as well as opercular and insular regions. The size of the lesions of this group was significantly larger than that of the group without marked anarthric components, and the latter was proved to have little localizing value. 2. Wernicke aphasics: The group with poor reading comprehension had cortical and/or subcortical lesions, involving posterior parts of both superior and middle temporal gyri as well as the supramarginal gyrus. On the other hand, lesions of the group with poor auditory comprehension were more anteriorly located and localized in the deep structures. Lesions of the group with poor Token test scores were large and scattered more anteriorly and/or posteriorly compared with those of the group with good Token test scores. 3. Amnestic aphaiscs: The group with poor naming scores had somewhat larger lesions than the group with good naming scores, and the lesions were scattered about the left hemisphere. The finding has proved that both groups had little localizing value. 4. Conduction aphasics: Lesions of the non-fluent type were significantly larger than those of the fluent type and distributed more anteriorly. However, highly involved lesions were located in the supramarginal gyrus and posterior parts of superior and/or middle temporal gyri. 5. Global aphasics: Lesions of the group with good articulation and prosody were observed to distribute more posteriorly in comparison with those of the other global aphasics. (J.P.N.)

  5. Transvaginal sonographic evaluation at different menstrual cycle phases in diagnosis of uterine lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajishaiha M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Masomeh Hajishaiha1, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad2, Nazila Karimpour1, Nikol Mladkova3, Farzaneh Boromand11Department of Gynecology, 2Student Research Committee (SRC, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Islamic Republic of Iran; 3Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, London, UKPurpose: Intrauterine lesions (IULs are a common finding in women of reproductive age, particularly infertile women. Transvaginal sonography (TVS is a popular tool for IUL detection, but there are conflicting data with respect to its accuracy.Methods: Five hundred and six women were enrolled into the study. Of these, 496 underwent hysterosalpingography and subsequent TVS six different times during the course of their menstrual cycle. If a lesion was detected, it was further evaluated by sonohysterography (SHG and hysteroscopy.Results: Of 496 women, 41 were shown to have IULs by TVS and those lesions were confirmed in 39 by SHG and hysteroscopy. All 39 lesions were detectable during the ovulatory and early luteal phase (days 16–19 of the menstrual cycle. Accuracy of TVS during different phases was largely dependent on the size of the lesion. TVS falsely detected two lesions and missed fine adhesions in two patients.Conclusion: Accuracy of TVS in detection of IULs is highly dependent on the menstrual cycle phase, with the ovulatory and early luteal phase being the optimal time for this examination.Keywords: menstrual cycle phase, space occupying lesions, transvaginal sonography

  6. A specific inactivator of mammalian C'4 isolated from nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J A

    1969-08-01

    A material which specifically inactivates mammalian C'4 was isolated from low ionic strength precipitates of nurse shark serum. The C'4 inactivator was not detected in whole serum. The conditions of its generation and its immunoelectrophoretic behavior seem to indicate that it is an enzymatically formed cleavage product of a precursor contained in whole shark serum. The inactivator was partially purified and characterized. It had an S-value of 3.3 (sucrose gradient) which was in agreement with its retardation on gel filtration, was stable between pH 5.0 and 10.0, had a half-life of 5 min at 56 degrees C, pH 7.5, was inactivated by trypsin and was nontoxic. Its powerful anticomplementary activity in vitro and in vivo was solely due to the rapid inactivation of C'4; no other complement components were affected. No cofactor requirement was observed for the equally rapid inactivation of highly purified human and guinea pig C'4. The kinetics of C'4 inactivation and TAME hydrolysis, the greater anodic mobility of inactivated human C'4, and the influence of temperature on the rate of inactivation suggest that the inactivator is an enzyme and C'4 its substrate. This conclusion was supported by the more recent detection of a split product of C'4. Intravenous administration of the C'4 inactivator could prevent lethal Forssman shock and suppress the Arthus reaction in guinea pigs; it prolonged significantly the rejection time of renal xenografts but had no detectable effect on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Anaphylatoxin could be generated in C'4 depleted guinea pig serum with the cobra venom factor, but not with immune precipitates. The possible relationship between C'1 esterase and the C'4 inactivator is discussed on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities.

  7. Inactivation of bacteria in sewage sludge by ionizing radiation, heat, and thermoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, J.R.; Langley, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    For purposes of animal feeding or fertilizer usage on edible crops, sewage sludge must be free of pathogenic organisms. Bacterial inactivation by a combination of heat and irradiation is shown to be effective. These results must be viewed in conjunction with those from studies of parasite egg inactivation, virus inactivation, and physical-chemical benefits in order to make a fair assessment of the value of the thermoradiation treatment compared to other possible sludge treatment processes

  8. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez; Rafael A. Gutiérrez; Alicia Keszler; Maria Del Carmen Colacino; Lidia V. Alonio; Angélica R. Teyssie; Maria Alejandra Picconi

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell ...

  9. Replisome-mediated Translesion Synthesis and Leading Strand Template Lesion Skipping Are Competing Bypass Mechanisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbai, Carolina B.; Yeeles, Joseph T. P.; Marians, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    A number of different enzymatic pathways have evolved to ensure that DNA replication can proceed past template base damage. These pathways include lesion skipping by the replisome, replication fork regression followed by either correction of the damage and origin-independent replication restart or homologous recombination-mediated restart of replication downstream of the lesion, and bypass of the damage by a translesion synthesis DNA polymerase. We report here that of two translesion synthesis polymerases tested, only DNA polymerase IV, not DNA polymerase II, could engage productively with the Escherichia coli replisome to bypass leading strand template damage, despite the fact that both enzymes are shown to be interacting with the replicase. Inactivation of the 3′ → 5′ proofreading exonuclease of DNA polymerase II did not enable bypass. Bypass by DNA polymerase IV required its ability to interact with the β clamp and act as a translesion polymerase but did not require its “little finger” domain, a secondary region of interaction with the β clamp. Bypass by DNA polymerase IV came at the expense of the inherent leading strand lesion skipping activity of the replisome, indicating that they are competing reactions. PMID:25301949

  10. Traumatic brain lesions in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nícollas Nunes Rabelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The neonatal period is a highly vulnerable time for an infant. The high neonatal morbidity and mortality rates attest to the fragility of life during this period. The incidence of birth trauma is 0.8%, varying from 0.2-2 per 1,000 births. The aim of this study is to describe brain traumas, and their mechanism, anatomy considerations, and physiopathology of the newborn traumatic brain injury. Methods A literature review using the PubMed data base, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, The Cochrane Database, Google Scholar, and clinical trials. Selected papers from 1922 to 2016 were studied. We selected 109 papers, through key-words, with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Discussion This paper discusses the risk factors for birth trauma, the anatomy of the occipito-anterior and vertex presentation, and traumatic brain lesions. Conclusion Birth-related traumatic brain injury may cause serious complications in newborn infants. Its successful management includes special training, teamwork, and an individual approach.

  11. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  12. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, A

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  13. Characterization of X chromosome inactivation using integrated analysis of whole-exome and mRNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Szelinger

    Full Text Available In females, X chromosome inactivation (XCI is an epigenetic, gene dosage compensatory mechanism by inactivation of one copy of X in cells. Random XCI of one of the parental chromosomes results in an approximately equal proportion of cells expressing alleles from either the maternally or paternally inherited active X, and is defined by the XCI ratio. Skewed XCI ratio is suggestive of non-random inactivation, which can play an important role in X-linked genetic conditions. Current methods rely on indirect, semi-quantitative DNA methylation-based assay to estimate XCI ratio. Here we report a direct approach to estimate XCI ratio by integrated, family-trio based whole-exome and mRNA sequencing using phase-by-transmission of alleles coupled with allele-specific expression analysis. We applied this method to in silico data and to a clinical patient with mild cognitive impairment but no clear diagnosis or understanding molecular mechanism underlying the phenotype. Simulation showed that phased and unphased heterozygous allele expression can be used to estimate XCI ratio. Segregation analysis of the patient's exome uncovered a de novo, interstitial, 1.7 Mb deletion on Xp22.31 that originated on the paternally inherited X and previously been associated with heterogeneous, neurological phenotype. Phased, allelic expression data suggested an 83∶20 moderately skewed XCI that favored the expression of the maternally inherited, cytogenetically normal X and suggested that the deleterious affect of the de novo event on the paternal copy may be offset by skewed XCI that favors expression of the wild-type X. This study shows the utility of integrated sequencing approach in XCI ratio estimation.

  14. Is upregulation of BCL2 a determinant of tumor development driven by inactivation of CDH1/E-cadherin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Karch

    Full Text Available Inactivation of CDH1, encoding E-cadherin, promotes cancer initiation and progression. According to a newly proposed molecular mechanism, loss of E-cadherin triggers an upregulation of the anti-apoptotic oncoprotein BCL2. Conversely, reconstitution of E-cadherin counteracts overexpression of BCL2. This reciprocal regulation is thought to be critical for early tumor development. We determined the relevance of this new concept in human infiltrating lobular breast cancer (ILBC, the prime tumor entity associated with CDH1 inactivation. BCL2 expression was examined in human ILBC cell lines (IPH-926, MDA-MB-134, SUM-44 harboring deleterious CDH1 mutations. To test for an intact regulatory axis between E-cadherin and BCL2, wild-type E-cadherin was reconstituted in ILBC cells by ectopic expression. Moreover, BCL2 and E-cadherin were evaluated in primary invasive breast cancers and in synchronous lobular carcinomas in situ (LCIS. MDA-MB-134 and IPH-926 showed little or no BCL2 expression, while SUM-44 ILBC cells were BCL2-positive. Reconstitution of E-cadherin failed to impact on BCL2 expression in all cell lines tested. Primary ILBCs were almost uniformly E-cadherin-negative (97% and were frequently BCL2-negative (46%. When compared with an appropriate control group, ILBCs showed a trend towards an increased frequency of BCL2-negative cases (P = 0.064. In terminal duct-lobular units affected by LCIS, the E-cadherin-negative neoplastic component showed a similar or a reduced BCL2-immunoreactivity, when compared with the adjacent epithelium. In conclusion, upregulation of BCL2 is not involved in lobular breast carcinogenesis and is unlikely to represent an important determinant of tumor development driven by CDH1 inactivation.

  15. Inactivation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Tsutsumi, Takamasa (Animal Quarantine Service, Yokohama (Japan)); Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1990-10-01

    Radiation inactivation of Infectious Boivne Rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus was investigated by suspending in a commercial preparation medium (c.p.m.) or IBR antibody free serum and irradiated at room temperature or dry ice frozen condition. Normal pooled serum was also analysed by electrophoresis with cellulose acetate membrane after irradiation at frozen and non-frozen condition. The virus inactivation was determined by MDBK cell line which 50 % tissue culture infectious dose (TCID{sub 50}) was calculated by Behrens Kaerber method. D{sub 10} value at non-frozen condition in serum was obtained as 1.1-1.2 kGy and that in c.p.m. was 1.3-1.4 kGy. On the other hand, D{sub 10} value was increased to 3.4-3.6 kGy in serum and 3.9 kGy in c.p.m. at frozen condition. On the irradiation effect of bovine serum, four peaks of albumin, {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}-globulin fraction were obtained from non-irradiation and irradiated serum up to 2 kGy at non-frozen condition by electrophoresis. More than 4 kGy irradiation, the peaks of globulin fractions became not clear and at more than 8 kGy, changed to one large peak. On the other hand, these changes of electrophoretic patterns were not observed even at 30 kGy irradiation in frozen condition. From these results, necessary dose was decided as 20-25 kGy at frozen condition for inactivation of IBR virus in serum. (author).

  16. Inactivation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Tsutsumi, Takamasa; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inactivation of Infectious Boivne Rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus was investigated by suspending in a commercial preparation medium (c.p.m.) or IBR antibody free serum and irradiated at room temperature or dry ice frozen condition. Normal pooled serum was also analysed by electrophoresis with cellulose acetate membrane after irradiation at frozen and non-frozen condition. The virus inactivation was determined by MDBK cell line which 50 % tissue culture infectious dose (TCID 50 ) was calculated by Behrens Kaerber method. D 10 value at non-frozen condition in serum was obtained as 1.1-1.2 kGy and that in c.p.m. was 1.3-1.4 kGy. On the other hand, D 10 value was increased to 3.4-3.6 kGy in serum and 3.9 kGy in c.p.m. at frozen condition. On the irradiation effect of bovine serum, four peaks of albumin, α, β and γ-globulin fraction were obtained from non-irradiation and irradiated serum up to 2 kGy at non-frozen condition by electrophoresis. More than 4 kGy irradiation, the peaks of globulin fractions became not clear and at more than 8 kGy, changed to one large peak. On the other hand, these changes of electrophoretic patterns were not observed even at 30 kGy irradiation in frozen condition. From these results, necessary dose was decided as 20-25 kGy at frozen condition for inactivation of IBR virus in serum. (author)

  17. Inactivation of Salmonella during cocoa roasting and chocolate conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maristela da Silva do; Brum, Daniela Merlo; Pena, Pamela Oliveira; Berto, Maria Isabel; Efraim, Priscilla

    2012-10-15

    The high heat resistance of Salmonella in foods with low water activity raises particular issues for food safety, especially chocolate, where outbreak investigations indicate that few colony-forming units are necessary to cause salmonellosis. This study evaluated the efficiency of cocoa roasting and milk chocolate conching in the inactivation of Salmonella 5-strain suspension. Thermal resistance of Salmonella was greater in nibs compared to cocoa beans upon exposure at 110 to 130°C. The D-values in nibs were 1.8, 2.2 and 1.5-fold higher than those calculated for cocoa beans at 110, 120 and 130°C. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the matrices only at 140°C. Since in the conching of milk chocolate the inactivation curves showed rapid death in the first 180 min followed by a lower inactivation rate, and two D-values were calculated. For the first time interval (0-180 min) the D-values were 216.87, 102.27 and 50.99 min at 50, 60 and 70°C, respectively. The other D-values were determined from the second time interval (180-1440 min), 1076.76 min at 50°C, 481.94 min at 60°C and 702.23 min at 70°C. The results demonstrated that the type of matrix, the process temperature and the initial count influenced the Salmonella resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultraviolet inactivation of avian sarcoma virus: biological and biochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, M.; Ihara, S.; Toyoshima, K.; Kozai, Y.; Sugino, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of inactivation by ultraviolet light of the focus-forming capacity of avian sarcoma virus was almost the same as that of the virus-producing capacity, measured as plaque formation. In addition, no significant difference was observed in inactivation of the transforming capacity assayed on C/BE chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF), which carry endogenous avian tumor virus DNA, and on duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF), which are known to be devoid of this DNA. All foci induced by nonirradiated virus produced infectious sarcoma virus, but some of the foci induced by uv-irradiated virus did not produce infectious virus of either transforming or transformation-defective type. The proportion of nonproducer foci was 3.4 times more in DEF than in gs - chf - CEF. RNAs extracted from uv-irradiated virions by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatment were found to be composed of 60--70 S and 4 S RNAs by analysis in a sucrose gradient containing 0.5 percent SDS. The large RNA, however, became hydrophobic after irradiation and was sedimented with SDS by addition of one drop of saturated potassium chloride solution. This RNA was not dissociated into 30--40S components by heating at 100 0 for 45 sec, unlike 60--70 S RNA from uv-irradiated virions. After SDS--Pronase treatment, the 60--70 S RNA from uv-irradiated virions no longer had these altered characteristics. Reverse transcriptase activity with the endogenous template decreased in parallel with increase in the uv dose. The reduction rate was similar to that assayed with exogenous template or in the presence of actinomycin D. These data strongly suggest that RNA damage is not the only cause of virus inactivation by uv light

  19. Inactivation of Escherichia coli Endotoxin by Soft Hydrothermal Processing▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Toru; Okano, Shinya; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides, are a fever-producing by-product of gram-negative bacteria commonly known as pyrogens. It is essential to remove endotoxins from parenteral preparations since they have multiple injurious biological activities. Because of their strong heat resistance (e.g., requiring dry-heat sterilization at 250°C for 30 min) and the formation of various supramolecular aggregates, depyrogenation is more difficult than sterilization. We report here that soft hydrothermal processing, which has many advantages in safety and cost efficiency, is sufficient to assure complete depyrogenation by the inactivation of endotoxins. The endotoxin concentration in a sample was measured by using a chromogenic limulus method with an endotoxin-specific limulus reagent. The endotoxin concentration was calculated from a standard curve obtained using a serial dilution of a standard solution. We show that endotoxins were completely inactivated by soft hydrothermal processing at 130°C for 60 min or at 140°C for 30 min in the presence of a high steam saturation ratio or with a flow system. Moreover, it is easy to remove endotoxins from water by soft hydrothermal processing similarly at 130°C for 60 min or at 140°C for 30 min, without any requirement for ultrafiltration, nonselective adsorption with a hydrophobic adsorbent, or an anion exchanger. These findings indicate that soft hydrothermal processing, applied in the presence of a high steam saturation ratio or with a flow system, can inactivate endotoxins and may be useful for the depyrogenation of parenterals, including end products and medical devices that cannot be exposed to the high temperatures of dry heat treatments. PMID:19502435

  20. Combination of endolysins and high pressure to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nassau, Tomas J; Lenz, Christian A; Scherzinger, Anna S; Vogel, Rudi F

    2017-12-01

    Outbreaks of listeriosis are often related to the consumption of low-processed ready-to-eat food products (e.g. soft cheeses or smoked fish) contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Traditional preservation techniques, such as heat treatment, cannot eliminate Listeria from these products without strongly affecting the quality of the foods. We therefore investigated the use of endolysin (PlyP40, Ply511, or PlyP825) in combination with high hydrostatic pressure processing to kill L. monocytogenes in buffer. The results demonstrated a more than additive effect when both treatments were combined. For example, whereas 0.16 μg/mL PlyP825 or 300 MPa (1 min, 30 °C) applied individually reduced the cell count by 0.2 and 0.3 log cfu, respectively, a combined treatment resulted in a reduction of 5.5 log cfu. Similar results were obtained for the other endolysins combined with high pressure processing. We also showed that the synergistic inactivation of cells by endolysin and HHP is possible at a pressure level of only 200 MPa (2 min, 30 °C). Thus, the application of endolysins did not only substantially increase the bactericidal effect of high pressure, but it also enabled the inactivation of bacterial cells at much lower pressure levels. This shows the potential of using such combined processes for the inactivation of L. monocytogenes and food preservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Malignant Lesions as Mammographically Appearing Intramammary Ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Miraveta, P.; Pons, M. J.; Pina, L. J.; Zornoza, G.

    2004-01-01

    Intramammary ganglia are frequent mammographic findings of no pathological importance. We present two cases of malignant breast lesions whose mammographic appearance could resemble that of intramammary ganglia. Although the mammographic appearance of a lesion is similar to that of intramammary ganglia, it should be carefully studied, especially if it presents a poorly defined border or is palpable. (Author)

  2. Amalgam Contact Hypersensitivity Lesion: An Unusual Presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contact allergic reactions due to hypersensitivity to dental materials in professionals and ... Keywords: Amalgam, Amalgam contact hypersensitivity lesion, Lichenoid reaction, Oral mucosa ... was associated with mild burning sensation. The patient did ... OLLD in which oral and/or skin lesions appear in temporal association ...

  3. Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens; Prause, Jan U; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    –brown, cystic and slow-growing. The antimitochondrial antibody MU213-UC produced a distinct and intense immunostaining of all oncocytic lesions and was found to be useful in substantiating oncocytic differentiation. Twenty-six of the lesions originated in the caruncle, three in the conjunctiva, two...

  4. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  5. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  6. The Post-Ureteroscopic Lesion Scale (PULS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenthaler, Martin; Buchholz, Noor; Farin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The Post-Ureteroscopic Lesion Scale (PULS) offers a simple grading system for the description of ureteral lesions after ureteroscopy. In this article, we present the results of a video-based multicenter evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of clinically important PULS grades 0-3....

  7. Hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, Jose Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; Joao, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima, E-mail: ecamic@uol.com.br [Hospital Universitario Onofre Lopes (HUOL/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Clinica Gastrocentro e Ambulatorios de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo e de Cirurgia Hepatobiliopancreatica

    2017-09-01

    Background: The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. Aim: To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. Method: This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Results: Eighty eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p< 0.001), personal history of cancer (p=0.020), presence of >3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. Conclusion: It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine amino transaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. (author)

  8. Inactivation of E. Coli in Water Using Photocatalytic, Nanostructured Films Synthesized by Aerosol Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratim Biswas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanostructured films were synthesized by an aerosol chemical vapor deposition (ACVD method with different controlled morphologies: columnar, granular, and branched structures for the photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli in water. Effects of film morphology and external applied voltage on inactivation rate were investigated. As-prepared films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, and UV-VIS. Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical inactivation of E. coli using as-prepared TiO2 films were performed under irradiation of UVA light (note: UVA has a low efficiency to inactivate E. coli. Inactivation rate constants for each case were obtained from their respective inactivation curve through a 2 h incubation period. Photocatalytic inactivation rate constants of E. coli are 0.02/min (using columnar films, and 0.08/min (using branched films. The inactivation rate constant for the columnar film was enhanced by 330% by applied voltage on the film while that for the branched film was increased only by 30%. Photocatalytic microbial inactivation rate of the columnar and the branched films were also compared taking into account their different surface areas. Since the majority of the UV radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface is UVA, this study provides an opportunity to use sunlight to efficiently decontaminate drinking water.

  9. Inactivation of RNA Viruses by Gamma Irradiation: A Study on Mitigating Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Hume

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective inactivation of biosafety level 4 (BSL-4 pathogens is vital in order to study these agents safely. Gamma irradiation is a commonly used method for the inactivation of BSL-4 viruses, which among other advantages, facilitates the study of inactivated yet morphologically intact virions. The reported values for susceptibility of viruses to inactivation by gamma irradiation are sometimes inconsistent, likely due to differences in experimental protocols. We analyzed the effects of common sample attributes on the inactivation of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein and green fluorescent protein. Using this surrogate virus, we found that sample volume and protein content of the sample modulated viral inactivation by gamma irradiation but that air volume within the sample container and the addition of external disinfectant surrounding the sample did not. These data identify several factors which alter viral susceptibility to inactivation and highlight the usefulness of lower biosafety level surrogate viruses for such studies. Our results underscore the need to validate inactivation protocols of BSL-4 pathogens using “worst-case scenario” procedures to ensure complete sample inactivation.

  10. Sunlight inactivation of Escherichia coli in waste stabilization microcosms in a sahelian region (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Ynoussa; Denyigba, Kokou; Wethe, Joseph; Ouattara, Aboubakar Sidiki

    2009-02-09

    Experiments on sunlight inactivation of Escherichia coli were conducted from November 2006 to June 2007 in eight outdoors microcosms with different depths filled with maturation pond wastewater in order to determine pond depth influence on sunlight inactivation of E. coli. The long-term aim was to maximize sunlight inactivation of waterborne pathogens in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) in sahelian regions where number of sunny days enable longer exposure of wastewater to sunlight. The inactivation was followed during daylight from 8.00 h to 17.00 h and during the night. Sunlight inactivation rates (K(S)), as a function of cumulative global solar radiation (insolation), were 16 and 24 times higher than the corresponding dark inactivation (K(D)) rates, respectively in cold and warm season. In warm season, E. coli was inactivated far more rapidly. Inactivation of E. coli follows the evolution of radiation during the day. In shallow depth microcosms, E. coli was inactivated far more rapidly than in high depth microcosms. The physical chemical parameters [pH, dissolved oxygen (DO)] of microcosms water were higher in shallow depth microcosms than in high depth microcosms suggesting a synergistic effect of sunlight and these parameters to damage E. coli. To increase the efficiency of the elimination of waterborne bacteria, the use of maturation ponds with intermediate depths (0.4m) would be advisable in view of the high temperatures and thus evaporation recorded in sahelian regions.

  11. Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates: pathogen detection and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Védy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the reduction of transfusion related viral transmission has been a priority during the last decade, bacterial infection transmitted by transfusion still remains associated to a high morbidity and mortality, and constitutes the most frequent infectious risk of transfusion. This problem especially concerns platelet concentrates because of their favorable bacterial growth conditions. This review gives an overview of platelet transfusion-related bacterial contamination as well as on the different strategies to reduce this problem by using either bacterial detection or inactivation methods.

  12. Biophysical mechanism of cell inactivation by ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokajicek, M.

    1986-12-01

    In radiobiological mechanism it is possible to distinguish the sequence of three different phases which can be denoted as physical, physico-chemical and biological. Mathematical models of the individual phases and their mutual interrelations are discussed. A special accent is given to the relation between the models of two non-biological phases and that of the biological one. Some detailed characteristics concerning DSB formation and repair and inactivation mechanisms in cells are analyzed with the help of the considered model chain. (author). 39 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Inactivation of certain insect pathogens by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, A.; Groener, A.; Huber, J.; Zimmermann, G.

    1981-01-01

    The UV-sensitivity of two baculoviruses (granulosis virus, nuclear polyhedrosis virus) and two entomopathogenic microorganisms (Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana) was determined by radiation tests. In the far UV (254 nm) the stability, measured at an inactivation rate of 99%, was in declining order: nuclear polyhedra >= conidia of B. bassiana > granula > spores of B. thuringiensis >= vegetative cells of B. thuringiensis. In the near UV (285-380 nm) the following order could be found: conidia of B. bassiana >= nuclear polyhedra > spores of B. thuringiensis >= granula > vegetative cells of B. thuringiensis. Far UV had a much higher germicidal effect for all pathogens tested than near UV. (orig.) [de

  14. Inactivation of certain insect pathogens by ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, A.; Groener, A.; Huber, J.; Zimmermann, G.

    1981-01-01

    The UV-sensitivity of two baculoviruses (granulosis virus, nuclear polyhedrosis virus) and two entomopathogenic microorganisms (Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana) was determined by radiation tests. In the far UV (254 nm) the stability, measured at an inactivation rate of 99%, was in declining order: nuclear polyhedra >= conidia of B. bassiana > granula > spores of B. thuringiensis >= vegetative cells of B. thuringiensis. In the near UV (285-380 nm) the following order could be found: conidia of B. bassiana >= nuclear polyhedra > spores of B. thuringiensis >= granula > vegetative cells of B. thuringiensis. Far UV had a much higher germicidal effect for all pathogens tested than near UV.

  15. Inactivation of pathogens on pork by steam-ultrasound treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morild, Rikke K; Christiansen, Pia; Sørensen, Anders Morten Hay

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate a new pathogen inactivation concept that combines application of pressurized steam simultaneously with high-power ultrasound through a series of nozzles. On skin and meat surfaces of pork jowl samples, counts of total viable bacteria were reduced by 1...... in reduction was observed between samples inoculated with 10(4) CFU/cm(2) and those inoculated with 10(7) CFU/cm(2), and cold storage of samples for 24 h at 5°C after steam-ultrasound treatment did not lead to changes in recovery of bacteria....

  16. Inactivation of viable Ascaris eggs by reagents during enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K L; Darby, J L

    2001-12-01

    Various reagents commonly used to enumerate viable helminth eggs from wastewater and sludge were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Ascaris eggs under typical laboratory conditions. Two methods were used to enumerate indigenous Ascaris eggs from sludge samples. All steps in the methods were the same except that in method I a phase extraction step with acid-alcohol (35% ethanol in 0.1 N H(2)SO(4)) and diethyl ether was used whereas in method II the extraction step was avoided by pouring the sample through a 38-microm-mesh stainless steel sieve that retained the eggs. The concentration of eggs and their viability were lower in the samples processed by method I than in the samples processed by method II by an average of 48 and 70%, respectively. A second set of experiments was performed using pure solutions of Ascaris suum eggs to elucidate the effect of the individual reagents and relevant combination of reagents on the eggs. The percentages of viable eggs in samples treated with acid-alcohol alone and in combination with diethyl ether or ethyl acetate were 52, 27, and 4%, respectively, whereas in the rest of the samples the viability was about 80%. Neither the acid nor the diethyl ether alone caused any decrease in egg viability. Thus, the observed inactivation was attributed primarily to the 35% ethanol content of the acid-alcohol solution. Inactivation of the eggs was prevented by limiting the direct exposure to the extraction reagents to 30 min and diluting the residual concentration of acid-alcohol in the sample by a factor of 100 before incubation. Also, the viability of the eggs was maintained if the acid-alcohol solution was replaced with an acetoacetic buffer. None of the reagents used for the flotation step of the sample cleaning procedure (ZnSO(4), MgSO(4), and NaCl) or during incubation (0.1 N H(2)SO(4) and 0.5% formalin) inactivated the Ascaris eggs under the conditions studied.

  17. Inactivation of Prions and Amyloid Seeds with Hypochlorous Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Hughson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypochlorous acid (HOCl is produced naturally by neutrophils and other cells to kill conventional microbes in vivo. Synthetic preparations containing HOCl can also be effective as microbial disinfectants. Here we have tested whether HOCl can also inactivate prions and other self-propagating protein amyloid seeds. Prions are deadly pathogens that are notoriously difficult to inactivate, and standard microbial disinfection protocols are often inadequate. Recommended treatments for prion decontamination include strongly basic (pH ≥~12 sodium hypochlorite bleach, ≥1 N sodium hydroxide, and/or prolonged autoclaving. These treatments are damaging and/or unsuitable for many clinical, agricultural and environmental applications. We have tested the anti-prion activity of a weakly acidic aqueous formulation of HOCl (BrioHOCl that poses no apparent hazard to either users or many surfaces. For example, BrioHOCl can be applied directly to skin and mucous membranes and has been aerosolized to treat entire rooms without apparent deleterious effects. Here, we demonstrate that immersion in BrioHOCl can inactivate not only a range of target microbes, including spores of Bacillus subtilis, but also prions in tissue suspensions and on stainless steel. Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC assays showed that BrioHOCl treatments eliminated all detectable prion seeding activity of human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, cervine chronic wasting disease, sheep scrapie and hamster scrapie; these findings indicated reductions of ≥103- to 106-fold. Transgenic mouse bioassays showed that all detectable hamster-adapted scrapie infectivity in brain homogenates or on steel wires was eliminated, representing reductions of ≥~105.75-fold and >104-fold, respectively. Inactivation of RT-QuIC seeding activity correlated with free chlorine concentration and higher order aggregation or destruction of proteins generally, including prion

  18. Cryo-gamma radiation inactivation of bovine herpesvirus type-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgi, C. Fernández; Smolko, E. E.; Lombardo, J. H.

    1999-07-01

    The radioresistance of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), commonly known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), suspended in free serum Glasgow-MEM medium and frozen at -78°C was studied. The number of surviving virus at a given dose of gamma-radiation was determined by a plaque assay system. D 10 values were calculated before and after removal of cell debris. The D 10 values obtained were 4.72 kGy and 7.31 kGy before and after removal of cell debris, respectively. Our results indicate that the inactivated viral particles could be used for vaccine preparation or diagnostic reagents.

  19. Inactivation of Giardia muris cysts by free chlorine.

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, J G; Rubin, A J; Sproul, O J

    1987-01-01

    The chlorine resistance of cysts of the flagellate protozoan Giardia muris was examined. This organism, which is pathogenic to mice, is being considered as a model for the inactivation of the human pathogen Giardia lamblia. Excystation was used as the criterion for cyst viability. Experiments were performed at pH 5, 7, and 9 at 25 degrees C and pH 7 at 5 degrees C. Survival curves were "stepladder"-shaped, but concentration-time data generally conformed to Watson's Law. Chlorine was most effe...

  20. Pediatric Awake Craniotomy for Brain Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Ali; Rükşen, Mete; Çetin, H Yurday; Seval, H Özer; İşlekel, Sertaç

    2016-01-01

    Awake craniotomy is a special method to prevent motor deficits during the resection of lesions that are located in, or close to, functional areas. Although it is more commonly performed in adult patients, reports of pediatric cases undergoing awake craniotomy are limited in the literature. In our clinic, where we frequently use awake craniotomy in adult patients, we performed this method in 2 selected pediatric cases for lesion surgery. At an early age, these 2 cases diagnosed with epilepsy presented cerebral lesions, but since the lesions enclosed functional areas, surgical resection was not regarded as a treatment option at this time. In these 2 pediatric cases, we successfully completed lesion surgery with awake craniotomy. The method and the techniques employed during surgery are presented concomitant with other reports in the literature. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Bone scintigraphy in lesions of the skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Wasilewski, A.; Deitmer, T.

    1982-01-01

    The value of 3-phase-scintigraphy in bone lesions of the skull with a new seeking agent 99mTc-2,3-dicarboxypropane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (DPD) is studied. A high soft tissue-bone-ratio of DPD is emphasized. For this reason DPD is used for bone scintigraphy of the skull, because the mass of soft tissue in relation to bone is high and a higher clearance improves the interpretation of the images of the first two phases. An increased tracer uptake is found for skeletal neoplasms (malignant and benign lesions) and for acute osteomyelitis. By contrast, the chronic inflammatory bone lesions showed normal tracer uptake. This new bone seeking agent allows to localize and differentiate tumorous or acute inflammatory lesions and chronic inflammatory bone lesions of the skull

  2. Molecular hematology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Provan, Drew; Gribben, John

    2010-01-01

    ... The molecular basis of hemophilia, 219 Paul LF Giangrande 4 The genetics of acute myeloid leukemias, 42 Carolyn J Owen & Jude Fitzgibbon 19 The molecular basis of von Willebrand disease, 233 Luciano Baronc...

  3. Caught in-between: System for in-flow inactivation of enzymes as an intermediary step in “plug-and-play” microfluidic platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Ana C.; Petersen, Benjamin; Møller, Lars

    2018-01-01

    for rapidenzyme inactivation. The thermal inactivation platform developed is compared with a standard benchtop ThermoMixer in terms of inactivation efficiency for glucose oxidase and catalase. A higher activity loss was observed for enzyme inactivation under flow conditions (inactivation achieved at 120 s...

  4. Significance of localization of nonpalpable breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Choi, Hyun Ju [Yongdong Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    As mammography has become more popular for the evaluation of breast symptoms and for the screening of asymptomatic women, the smaller lesions are being detected before they become palpable, therefore preoperative localization became necessary. This has led to the development of several methods for preoperative localization of nonpalpable lesions. Authors analyzed 50 cases with preoperative localization in 45 patients which had abnormal findings on film mammogram or ultrasonomammogram since October 1985 through March 1990 at Yongdong Severance Hospital, College of Medicine, Yonsei University. The results were as follows: 1. Techniques of localization were spot method in 8 cases, conventional needle localization method in 38 cases and Kopan's needle localization method in 4 cases. 2. The most common mammographic indication for localization was focal calcifications in 29 cases(58%), which was followed by a newly developed mass in 25 cases(50%). 3. Outcome of pathologically confirmed diagnosis put into benign lesions in 37 cases(74%) and malignant lesions in 13 cases(26%). 4. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as benign lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram,all cases(100%) were confirmed in benign lesions pathologically. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as malignant lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram, pathologic malignant has been proved of 44% and possible histopathologic precursor of malignant was resulted in 25% such as atypical hyperplasia and adenosis. Conclusively, authors consider that the abnormal areas should be removed in their entirety with the sacrifice of minimum volume of contiguous normal breast tissue through the preoperative localization, hence our preoperative localization has contributed favorable prognosis based on material lesions in early stage breast cancer.

  5. Significance of localization of nonpalpable breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Choi, Hyun Ju

    1990-01-01

    As mammography has become more popular for the evaluation of breast symptoms and for the screening of asymptomatic women, the smaller lesions are being detected before they become palpable, therefore preoperative localization became necessary. This has led to the development of several methods for preoperative localization of nonpalpable lesions. Authors analyzed 50 cases with preoperative localization in 45 patients which had abnormal findings on film mammogram or ultrasonomammogram since October 1985 through March 1990 at Yongdong Severance Hospital, College of Medicine, Yonsei University. The results were as follows: 1. Techniques of localization were spot method in 8 cases, conventional needle localization method in 38 cases and Kopan's needle localization method in 4 cases. 2. The most common mammographic indication for localization was focal calcifications in 29 cases(58%), which was followed by a newly developed mass in 25 cases(50%). 3. Outcome of pathologically confirmed diagnosis put into benign lesions in 37 cases(74%) and malignant lesions in 13 cases(26%). 4. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as benign lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram,all cases(100%) were confirmed in benign lesions pathologically. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as malignant lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram, pathologic malignant has been proved of 44% and possible histopathologic precursor of malignant was resulted in 25% such as atypical hyperplasia and adenosis. Conclusively, authors consider that the abnormal areas should be removed in their entirety with the sacrifice of minimum volume of contiguous normal breast tissue through the preoperative localization, hence our preoperative localization has contributed favorable prognosis based on material lesions in early stage breast cancer

  6. Resistance and Inactivation Kinetics of Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Non-Chlorinated and Chlorinated Effluents of a WWTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Coronel-Olivares

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of water from a wastewater treatment plant that uses sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant was assessed. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were not removed efficiently. This fact allowed for the isolation of several bacterial strains from the effluents. Molecular identification indicated that the strains were related to Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli (three strains, Enterobacter cloacae, Kluyvera cryocrescens (three strains, Kluyvera intermedia, Citrobacter freundii (two strains, Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter sp. The first five strains, which were isolated from the non-chlorinated effluent, were used to test resistance to chlorine disinfection using three sets of variables: disinfectant concentration (8, 20 and 30 mg·L−1, contact time (0, 15 and 30 min and water temperature (20, 25 and 30 °C. The results demonstrated that the strains have independent responses to experimental conditions and that the most efficient treatment was an 8 mg·L−1 dose of disinfectant at a temperature of 20 °C for 30 min. The other eight strains, which were isolated from the chlorinated effluent, were used to analyze inactivation kinetics using the disinfectant at a dose of 15 mg·L−1 with various retention times (0, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 min. The results indicated that during the inactivation process, there was no relationship between removal percentage and retention time and that the strains have no common response to the treatments.

  7. Direct high-pressure NMR observation of dipicolinic acid leaking from bacterial spore: A crucial step for thermal inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Kazuyuki; Maeno, Akihiro; Yamazaki, Akira

    2017-12-01

    A bacterial spore protects itself with an unusually high concentration (~10% in dry weight of spore) of dipicolinic acid (DPA), the release of which is considered the crucial step for inactivating it under mild pressure and temperature conditions. However, the process of how the spore releases DPA in response to pressure remains obscure. Here we apply 1 H high-resolution high-pressure NMR spectroscopy, for the first time, to the spore suspension of Bacillus subtilis natto and monitor directly and in real-time the leaking process of DPA in response to pressure of 200MPa at 20°C. We find that about one third of the total DPA leaks immediately upon applying pressure, but that the rest leaks slowly in hrs upon decreasing the pressure. Once DPA is fully released from the spore, the proteins of the spore become easily denatured at a mild temperature, e.g., 80°C, much below the temperature commonly used to inactivate spores (121°C). The success of the present experiment opens a new avenue for studying bacterial spores and cells at the molecular level in response to pressure, temperature and other perturbations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Columnar cell lesions and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia like stroma: is there an epithelial-stromal interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recavarren, Rosemary A; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Dabbs, David J

    2009-10-10

    The significance of association between cancer and its microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. It has been shown in animal models that interaction between neoplastic epithelial cells and adjacent stroma can modulate tumor behavior. Carcinoma associated stromal cells can transform normal epithelial cells into neoplastic cells. In breast, columnar cell lesions are non-obligate precursors of low grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Columnar cell lesions can be seen intimately associated with PASH-like-stroma, a lesion we termed as CCPLS. Our aim is to investigate epithelial-stromal interactions in CCPLS and compare them to PASH without columnar cell lesions in breast core needle biopsies. Normal terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) epithelium was seen in association with columnar cell lesions as well as PASH. Eight (8) cases of each category were examined by a panel of immunostains: CD117 (C-kit), CD34, CD105, bFGF, AR, ER-beta, MIB-1. We observed a markedly decreased expression of c-kit in columnar cell lesions compared to TDLU-epithelium. CD105 showed a quantitative increase in activated vessels in CCPLS compared to PASH. A subset of CCPLS and PASH were androgen receptor positive. A strong nuclear positivity for ER-beta is observed in the epithelium and stroma of all CCPLS cases. We conclude that (1) activated blood vessels predominate in CCPLS; (2) A molecular alteration is signified by c-kit loss in columnar cell lesions; (3) ER-beta and androgen receptor positivity indicate CCPLS are hormonally responsive lesions. Our study suggests an intimate vascular and hormone dependent epithelial-stromal interaction exists in CCPLS lesions.

  9. Efficacy of Inactivation of Human Enteroviruses by Multiple ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has been successfully used for treating a broad suite of pathogens without the concomitant formation of carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). However, conventional mercury UV lamps have some practical limitations in water treatment applications, such as the inefficiency of energy consumption and more importantly potential mercury contamination upon disposal of the lamps. The recent invention of a novel light-emitting-diodes (LED) device generating germicidal UV wavelengths could eliminate the aforementioned limitations. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of multiple-wavelength UV LEDs for inactivating USEPA contaminant candidate list (CCL) RNA enteroviruses. Of 12 enterovirus species, serotype representatives of the four human enteric species (enterovirus A-D) such as coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10), echovirus 30 (Echo30), poliovirus 1 (PV1), and enterovirus 70 (EV70) respectively were selected as testing RNA viruses. Bench-scale performance evaluation was conducted using a collimated beam (CB) apparatus with LEDs emitting at 260 nm, 280 nm, and the combination of 260|280 nm together, as well as a monochromatic low-pressure (LP) UV lamp at 254 nm for comparison. The CB tests were performed with mixed stocks of four viruses. Infectious virus concentrations were determined using an integrated cell culture reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (ICC-RTqPCR). The 260 nm LED was most effective at inactivating all enteroviruses teste

  10. Carbodiimide Inactivation of MMPs and Effect on Dentin Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Apolonio, F.M.; Saboia, V.P.A.; Santi, S.; Angeloni, V.; Checchi, V.; Curci, R.; Di Lenarda, R.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Breschi, L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of protein cross-linking agents during bonding procedures has been recently proposed to improve bond durability. This study aimed to use zymography and in situ zymography techniques to evaluate the ability of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) cross-linker to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The hypotheses tested were that: (1) bonding procedures increase dentin gelatinolytic activity and (2) EDC pre-treatment prevents this enzymatic activity. The zymographic assay was performed on protein extracts obtained from dentin powder treated with Optibond FL or Scotchbond 1XT with or without 0.3M EDC pre-treatment. For in situ zymography, adhesive/dentin interfaces were created with the same adhesives applied to acid-etched dentin slabs pre-treated or not with EDC conditioner. Zymograms revealed increased expression of dentin endogenous MMP-2 and -9 after adhesive application, while the use of EDC as a primer inactivated dentin gelatinases. Results of in situ zymograpy showed that hybrid layers of tested adhesives exhibited intense collagenolytic activity, while almost no fluorescence signal was detected when specimens were pre-treated with EDC. The correlative analysis used in this study demonstrated that EDC could contribute to inactivate endogenous dentin MMPs within the hybrid layer created by etch-and-rinse adhesives. PMID:24334409

  11. Inactivation Methods of Trypsin Inhibitor in Legumes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Gaxiola, Sara; Chuck-Hernández, Cristina; Serna Saldívar, Sergio O

    2018-01-01

    Seed legumes have played a major role as a crop worldwide, being cultivated on about 12% to 15% of Earth's arable land; nevertheless, their use is limited by, among other things, the presence of several antinutritional factors (ANFs - naturally occurring metabolites that the plant produces to protect itself from pest attacks.) Trypsin inhibitors (TIs) are one of the most relevant ANFs because they reduce digestion and absorption of dietary proteins. Several methods have been developed in order to inactivate TIs, and of these, thermal treatments are the most commonly used. They cause loss of nutrients, affect functional properties, and require high amounts of energy. Given the above, new processes have emerged to improve the nutritional quality of legumes while trying to solve the problems caused by the use of thermal treatments. This review examines and discusses the methods developed by researchers to inactivate TI present in legumes and their effects over nutritional and functional properties. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Inactivation of poliovirus in wastewater sludge with radiation and thermoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of sludge on the rate of viral inactivation by radiation and thermoradiation was determined. The virus used for the experiments was the poliovirus type 1 strain CHAT, which was grown in HeLa cells. Radiation, heat, and thermoradiation treatments were carried out in a chamber specifically designed to permit rapid heating and cooling of the samples at the beginning and completion of treatment, respectively. The treated samples were then assayed for plaque-forming units on HeLa cells after sonication in 0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). For the radiation treatment virus was diluted 10-fold into PBS containing new sludge, irradiated at 20 0 C with 137 Cs at a dose rate of 30 krads/min, and assayed for infectious virus. The results show that raw sludge is protective of poliovirus against ionizing radiation but that small concentrations of sludge are nearly as protective as large concentrations. When heat and radiation are given simultaneously, however, the amount of protection afforded by sludge is less than the additive effects of the individual treatments. This result is especially evident at low concentrations of sludge. It appears, therefore, that thermoradiation treatment may be an effective way of inactivation viruses in waters containing low concentrations of suspended solids

  13. Human milk inactivates pathogens individually, additively, and synergistically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Charles E

    2005-05-01

    Breast-feeding can reduce the incidence and the severity of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in the suckling neonate by providing additional protective factors to the infant's mucosal surfaces. Human milk provides protection against a broad array of infectious agents through redundancy. Protective factors in milk can target multiple early steps in pathogen replication and target each step with more than one antimicrobial compound. The antimicrobial activity in human milk results from protective factors working not only individually but also additively and synergistically. Lipid-dependent antimicrobial activity in milk results from the additive activity of all antimicrobial lipids and not necessarily the concentration of one particular lipid. Antimicrobial milk lipids and peptides can work synergistically to decrease both the concentrations of individual compounds required for protection and, as importantly, greatly reduce the time needed for pathogen inactivation. The more rapidly pathogens are inactivated the less likely they are to establish an infection. The total antimicrobial protection provided by human milk appears to be far more than can be elucidated by examining protective factors individually.

  14. [Inactivated poliovirus vaccines: an inevitable choice for eliminating poliomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidor, J D; Jean-Denis, Shu

    2016-12-06

    The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is a very old tool in the fight against poliomyelitis. Though supplanted by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in the 1960s and 1970s, the IPV has now become an inevitable choice because of the increasingly recognized risks associated with continuous use of OPVs. Following the pioneering work of Jonas Salk, who established key principles for the IPV, considerable experience has accumulated over the years. This work has led to modern Salk IPV-containing vaccines, based on the use of inactivated wildtype polioviruses, which have been deployed for routine use in many countries. Very good protection against paralysis is achieved with IPV through the presence of circulating antibodies able to neutralize virus infectivity toward motor neurons. In addition, with IPV, a variable degree of protection against mucosal infection (and therefore transmission) through mucosal antibodies and immune cells is achieved, depending on previous exposure of subjects to wildtype or vaccine polioviruses. The use of an IPV-followed-by-OPV sequential immunization schedule has the potential advantage of eliminating the vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) risk, while limiting the risks of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPVs). Sabin strain-derived IPVs are new tools, only recently beginning to be deployed, and data are being generated to document their performance. IPVs will play an irreplaceable role in global eradication of polio.

  15. Biallelic inactivation of REV7 is associated with Fanconi anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluteau, Dominique; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Clairmont, Connor; Rousseau, Alix; Ceccaldi, Raphael; Dubois d'Enghien, Catherine; Bluteau, Olivier; Cuccuini, Wendy; Gachet, Stéphanie; Peffault de Latour, Régis; Leblanc, Thierry; Socié, Gérard; Baruchel, André; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; D'Andrea, Alan D; Soulier, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive genetic disease characterized by congenital abnormalities, chromosome instability, progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), and a strong predisposition to cancer. Twenty FA genes have been identified, and the FANC proteins they encode cooperate in a common pathway that regulates DNA crosslink repair and replication fork stability. We identified a child with severe BMF who harbored biallelic inactivating mutations of the translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) gene REV7 (also known as MAD2L2), which encodes the mutant REV7 protein REV7-V85E. Patient-derived cells demonstrated an extended FA phenotype, which included increased chromosome breaks and G2/M accumulation upon exposure to DNA crosslinking agents, γH2AX and 53BP1 foci accumulation, and enhanced p53/p21 activation relative to cells derived from healthy patients. Expression of WT REV7 restored normal cellular and functional phenotypes in the patient's cells, and CRISPR/Cas9 inactivation of REV7 in a non-FA human cell line produced an FA phenotype. Finally, silencing Rev7 in primary hematopoietic cells impaired progenitor function, suggesting that the DNA repair defect underlies the development of BMF in FA. Taken together, our genetic and functional analyses identified REV7 as a previously undescribed FA gene, which we term FANCV.

  16. Physicochemical stability and inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Z.D.; Birch, C.; Heath, R.; Gust, I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of various physical and chemical treatments on the stability of a human serotype 1 rotavirus and simian agent 11 (SA11) were compared by using a fluorescence focus assay. The infectivity of both strains was retained after storage at room temperature for 14 days, 4 degree C for 22 days, and -20 degree C for 32 days; lyophilization; and treatment at pH 3 to 11. Both viruses were inactivated at pH 12, as was the human virus at pH 2, although this pH resulted in only partial inactivation of SA11. The human virus also appeared to be more sensitive than SA11 to the action of ether and chloroform. The infectivity of both viruses was lost after UV irradiation for 15 min and after treatment with 8% formaldehyde for 5 min, 70% (vol/vol) ethanol for 30 min, and 2% lysol, 2% phenol, and 1% H 2 O 2 for 1 h each

  17. Physicochemical stability and inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Z.D.; Birch, C.; Heath, R.; Gust, I.

    1987-04-01

    The effects of various physical and chemical treatments on the stability of a human serotype 1 rotavirus and simian agent 11 (SA11) were compared by using a fluorescence focus assay. The infectivity of both strains was retained after storage at room temperature for 14 days, 4 degree C for 22 days, and -20 degree C for 32 days; lyophilization; and treatment at pH 3 to 11. Both viruses were inactivated at pH 12, as was the human virus at pH 2, although this pH resulted in only partial inactivation of SA11. The human virus also appeared to be more sensitive than SA11 to the action of ether and chloroform. The infectivity of both viruses was lost after UV irradiation for 15 min and after treatment with 8% formaldehyde for 5 min, 70% (vol/vol) ethanol for 30 min, and 2% lysol, 2% phenol, and 1% H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ for 1 h each.

  18. Use of articulated registration for response assessment of individual metastatic bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Stephen; Jeraj, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Accurate skeleton registration is necessary to match corresponding metastatic bone lesions for response assessment over multiple scans. In articulated registration (ART), whole-body skeletons are registered by auto-segmenting individual bones, then rigidly aligning them. Performance and robustness of the ART in lesion matching were evaluated and compared to other commonly used registration techniques. Sixteen prostate cancer patients were treated either with molecular targeted therapy or chemotherapy. Ten out of the 16 patients underwent the double baseline whole-body [F-18]NaF PET/CT scans for test-retest (TRT) evaluation. Twelve of the 16 patients underwent pre- and mid-treatment [F-18]NaF PET/CT scans. Skeletons at different time points were registered using ART, rigid, and deformable (DR) registration algorithms. The corresponding lesions were contoured and identified on successive PET images based on including the voxels with the standardized uptake value over 15. Each algorithm was evaluated for its ability to accurately align corresponding lesions via skeleton registration. A lesion matching score (MS) was measured for each lesion, which quantified the per cent overlap between the lesion's two corresponding contours. Three separate sensitivity studies were conducted to investigate the robustness of ART in matching: sensitivity of lesion matching to various contouring threshold levels, effects of imperfections in the bone auto-segmentation and sensitivity of mis-registration. The performance of ART (MS = 82% for both datasets, p ≪ 0.001) in lesion matching was significantly better than rigid (MS TRT  = 53%, MS Response  = 46%) and DR (MS TRT  = 46%, MS Response  = 45%) algorithms. Neither varying threshold levels for lesion contouring nor imperfect bone segmentation had significant (p∼0.10) impact on the ART matching performance as the MS remained unchanged. Despite the mis-registration reduced MS for ART, as low as 67% (p ≪ 0.001), the

  19. Frequency of USP6 rearrangements in myositis ossificans, brown tumor, and cherubism: molecular cytogenetic evidence that a subset of ''myositis ossificans-like lesions'' are the early phases in the formation of soft-tissue aneurysmal bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukov, William R.; Erickson-Johnson, Michele; Unni, K.K.; Wang, Xiaoke; Oliveira, Andre M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Franco, Marcello F. [Universidade Federal do Estado de Sao Paulo (UNEFESP), Departamento de Patologia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Chou, Margaret M. [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wenger, Doris E. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2008-04-15

    USP6 rearrangements with several partner genes have been identified recently in primary but not in secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs). Several lesions show histologic features that may overlap with ABC, including myositis ossificans (MO), brown tumor, and cherubism. The objective of this study was to assess whether these lesions harbored USP6 rearrangements. Twelve patients with classic radiologic and histologic features of MO, 6 with brown tumors, and 5 with cherubism diagnosed at our institution were studied for the presence of USP6 rearrangements using fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes flanking the USP6 locus on chromosome 17p13. In addition, conventional cytogenetic analysis was performed in 2 patients with cherubism. USP6 rearrangements were identified in 2 patients with radiologic and histologic features consistent with MO. None of the patients with brown tumor or cherubism demonstrated USP6 rearrangements. Cytogenetic analysis of the cherubism patients demonstrated normal karyotypes. These findings indicate that a subset of cases with apparent classic histologic and imaging features of MO are rather better classified as being soft-tissue ABC with clonal USP6 rearrangements. In contrast, no USP6 rearrangements were found in patients with cherubism or brown tumor, supporting the prevailing view that these lesions are distinct biologic entities. (orig.)

  20. Validation of the Visible Occlusal Plaque Index (VOPI) in estimating caries lesion activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, J.C.; Mestrinho, H D; Oliveira, L S

    2017-01-01

    ). RESULTS: Construct validity was assumed based on qualitative assessment as no plaque (score 0) and thin plaque (score 1) reflected the theoretical knowledge that a regular disorganization of the dental biofilm either maintains the caries process at sub-clinical levels or inactivate it clinically. The VOPI...... of the VOPI was evidenced with multivariable analysis (GEE), by its ability to discriminate between the groups of adolescents with different oral hygiene status; negative association between adolescents with thick and heavy plaque and those with sound occlusal surfaces was found (OR=0.3, p... of oral hygiene and caries lesion activity. The VOPI is recommended to standardize and categorize information on the occlusal biofilm, thus being suitable for direct application in research and clinical settings....