... Objectives » Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Overview (active tab) Objectives National Snapshots Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health View HP2020 Data for: ...
... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons and Tobacco Use Recommend ... and Influence Resources References People who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) include all races and ...
To discuss lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-specific survivorship issues including: integrating sexual and gender minority identities with cancer survivor identities; coordinating medical care and disclosing identities to health care providers; dealing with late effects of treatment; and addressing LGBT family and relationship issues. Published articles, quotes from an online survey of 311 LGBT survivors. The transition from active cancer treatment to survivorship presents challenges, and LGBT cancer survivors may face additional challenges as they enter the survivorship phase. Oncology nurses can improve the quality of survivorship care delivered to LGBT survivors and their caregivers by addressing the disparities and gaps in health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
..., Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A... live and love as we see fit. The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community has written a... coverage to someone just because they are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Because we understand...
Security for women and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people in the conflict-affected regions in Colombia. Colombia is currently in the process of concluding peace negotiations with the guerrilla group Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARC). One of the principal expectations generated by the ...
Mulcahy, Molly; Dalton, Sarah; Kolbert, Jered; Crothers, Laura
The authors identified the process that 10 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) high school students used to establish an informal adult-mentor relationship with a school personnel member. Five major themes emerged: (a) how LGBT students determined whether this person would be a safe mentor, (b) a listing of the important qualities of…
..., Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... equality from founding promise into lasting reality. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT... Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim June 2013 as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and...
Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela; Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer
Media attention and the literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth overwhelmingly focus on violence involving hate crimes and bullying, while ignoring the fact that vulnerable youth also may be at increased risk of violence in their dating relationships. In this study, we examine physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber dating violence experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth--as compared to those of heterosexual youth, and we explore variations in the likelihood of help-seeking behavior and the presence of particular risk factors among both types of dating violence victims. A total of 5,647 youth (51 % female, 74 % White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. Results indicated that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are at higher risk for all types of dating violence victimization (and nearly all types of dating violence perpetration), compared to heterosexual youth. Further, when looking at gender identity, transgender and female youth are at highest risk of most types of victimization, and are the most likely perpetrators of all forms of dating violence but sexual coercion, which begs further exploration. The findings support the development of dating violence prevention programs that specifically target the needs and vulnerabilities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, in addition to those of female and transgender youth.
..., Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Pride Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The story of America's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) community is the story of..., Don't Tell'' policy. With this repeal, gay and lesbian Americans will be able to serve openly in our...
Erosheva, Elena A.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Emlet, Charles; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.
Purpose This study examines global social networks—including friendship, support, and acquaintance networks—of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Design and Methods Utilizing data from a large community-based study, we employ multiple regression analyses to examine correlates of social network size and diversity. Results Controlling for background characteristics, network size was positively associated with being female, transgender identity, employment, higher income, having a partner or a child, identity disclosure to a neighbor, engagement in religious activities, and service use. Controlling in addition for network size, network diversity was positively associated with younger age, being female, transgender identity, identity disclosure to a friend, religious activity, and service use. Implications According to social capital theory, social networks provide a vehicle for social resources that can be beneficial for successful aging and well-being. This study is a first step at understanding the correlates of social network size and diversity among LGBT older adults. PMID:25882129
Erosheva, Elena A; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Emlet, Charles; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I
This study examines global social networks-including friendship, support, and acquaintance networks-of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Utilizing data from a large community-based study, we employ multiple regression analyses to examine correlates of social network size and diversity. Controlling for background characteristics, network size was positively associated with being female, transgender identity, employment, higher income, having a partner or a child, identity disclosure to a neighbor, engagement in religious activities, and service use. Controlling in addition for network size, network diversity was positively associated with younger age, being female, transgender identity, identity disclosure to a friend, religious activity, and service use. According to social capital theory, social networks provide a vehicle for social resources that can be beneficial for successful aging and well-being. This study is a first step at understanding the correlates of social network size and diversity among LGBT older adults. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available There is an increasing body of research on ageing and end-of-life care (EOLC of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT older people in the UK, USA and Australia. In contrast, in South Africa, despite progressive legislation to protect LGBT rights, there has been minimal research in this area. This article reports on a critical review of literature on ageing of the LGBT community. Key themes identified include discrimination by health care workers and health risks for LGBT older people alongside the need for training of health professionals. The article concludes with consideration of the needs of LGBT persons in South Africa
Earnshaw, Valerie A; Bogart, Laura M; Poteat, V Paul; Reisner, Sari L; Schuster, Mark A
Bullying of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth is prevalent in the United States, and represents LGBT stigma when tied to sexual orientation and/or gender identity or expression. LGBT youth commonly report verbal, relational, and physical bullying, and damage to property. Bullying undermines the well-being of LGBT youth, with implications for risky health behaviors, poor mental health, and poor physical health that may last into adulthood. Pediatricians can play a vital role in preventing and identifying bullying, providing counseling to youth and their parents, and advocating for programs and policies to address LGBT bullying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
..., Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... equality on behalf of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This month, as we.... That is why we must give committed gay couples the same rights and responsibilities afforded to any...
Liddle, Becky J; Stowe, Angela M
SUMMARY Advantages of a lesbian/heterosexual team approach to education on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender issues are examined and a case study is analyzed. A lesbian guest lecturer provided a contact experience, personal anecdotes, passion, and expertise. Facilitation of later class discussion by the heterosexual instructor allowed for frank discussion among students, processing of presentation content, and modeling of gay-affirmative attitudes by the instructor and other students. Summaries of the guest lecture (fantasy exercise and informational lecture) and later discussion are provided. Student comments during discussion demonstrated evidence of deep challenge, attitude change, and heightened understanding.
Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Issues and Research Gaps and Opportunities; Board on the Health of Select Populations; Institute of Medicine
At a time when lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals--often referred to under the umbrella acronym LGBT--are becoming more visible in society and more socially acknowledged, clinicians...
Russell, Stephen T.; Fish, Jessica N.
Today’s lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified. PMID:26772206
Russell, Stephen T; Fish, Jessica N
Today's lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified.
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8387 of June 1, 2009. Lesbian, Gay... Proclamation 8387 of June 1, 2009 Proc. 8387 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2009By the... lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Out of this resistance, the LGBT rights movement...
Brennan, Ann Marie Walsh; Barnsteiner, Jane; Siantz, Mary Lou de Leon; Cotter, Valeri T; Everett, Janine
There has been limited identification of core lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, or intersexed (LGBTI) experience concepts that should be included in the nursing curricula. This article addresses the gap in the literature. To move nursing toward the goals of health equity and cultural humility in practice, education, and research, nursing curricula must integrate core LGBTI concepts, experiences, and needs related to health and illness. This article reviews LGBTI health care literature to address the attitudes, knowledge, and skills needed to address curricular gaps and provide content suggestions for inclusion in nursing curricula. Also considered is the need to expand nursing students' definition of diversity before discussing the interplay between nurses' attitudes and culturally competent care provided to persons who are LGBTI. Knowledge needed includes a life span perspective that addresses developmental needs and their impact on health concerns throughout the life course; health promotion and disease prevention with an articulation of unique health issues for this population; mental health concerns; specific health needs of transgender and intersex individuals; barriers to health care; interventions and resources including Internet sites; and legal and policy issues. Particular assessment and communication skills for LGBTI patients are identified. Finally, there is a discussion of didactic, simulation, and clinical strategies for incorporating this content into nursing curricula at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saskia Keuzenkamp; Lisette Kuyper
Original title: Acceptatie van homoseksuelen, biseksuelen en transgenders in Nederland 2013 The Dutch government is committed to equal rights for and social acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals, and also to securing their acceptance in Dutch society. Since
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex Guidance Project AGENCY: National Institute of... result in a policy guide for corrections practitioners charged with the care and custody of lesbian, gay...
Horton, Paul; Rydstrøm, Helle; Tonini, Maria
Recent public debates about sexuality in India and Vietnam have brought the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people sharply into focus. Drawing on legal documents, secondary sources and ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the urban centres of Delhi and Hanoi, this article shows how the efforts of civil society organisations dedicated to the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender rights have had different consequences in these two Asian contexts. The paper considers how these organisations navigated government regulations about their formation and activities, as well as the funding priorities of national and international agencies. The HIV epidemic has had devastating consequences for gay men and other men who have sex with men, and has been highly stigmatising. As a sad irony, the epidemic has provided at the same time a strategic entry point for organisations to struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition. This paper examines how the fight for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender recognition has been doubly framed through health-based and rights-based approaches and how the struggle for recognition has positioned lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in India and Vietnam differently.
Fassinger, Ruth E; Shullman, Sandra L; Stevenson, Michael R
This article presents an affirmative paradigm for understanding the leadership of sexual minorities-that is, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. Although research on LGBT issues in leadership to date is almost nonexistent, there are several bodies of literature that can contribute to an understanding of the unique leadership challenges faced by sexual minority people. These include the literatures on stigma and marginalization, leadership in particular status groups (e.g., college students, women), and LGBT vocational issues (especially workplace climate and identity disclosure). We propose a new, multidimensional model of LGBT leadership enactment that incorporates sexual orientation (particularly regarding identity disclosure), gender orientation (including leader gender), and the situation (conceptualized here as group composition); the model also is embedded in context, the most relevant factors that affect the enactment of leadership being stigma and marginalization. We explicate this model with findings and concepts from relevant literatures, and we conclude the article with recommendations for building a scholarly literature in LGBT leadership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Fallin, Amanda; Goodin, Amie J.; King, Brian A.
Background Menthol can mask the harshness and taste of tobacco, making menthol cigarettes easier to use and increasing their appeal among vulnerable populations. The tobacco industry has targeted youth, women, and racial minorities with menthol cigarettes, and these groups smoke menthol cigarettes at higher rates. The tobacco industry has also targeted the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities with tobacco product marketing. Purpose To assess current menthol cigarette smoking by sexual orientation among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data were obtained from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, to compare current menthol cigarette smoking between LGBT (n=2,431) and heterosexual/straight (n=110,841) adults. Data were analyzed during January–April 2014 using descriptive statistics and logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, race, and educational attainment. Results Among all current cigarette smokers, 29.6% reported usually smoking menthol cigarettes in the past 30 days. Menthol use was significantly higher among LGBT smokers, with 36.3% reporting that the cigarettes they usually smoked were menthol compared to 29.3% of heterosexual/straight smokers (p<0.05); this difference was particularly prominent among LGBT females (42.9%) compared to heterosexual/straight women (32.4%) (p<0.05). Following adjustment, LGBT smokers had greater odds of usually smoking menthol cigarettes than heterosexual/straight smokers (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.09, 1.57). Conclusions These findings suggest that efforts to reduce menthol cigarette use may have the potential to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among LGBT adults. PMID:25245795
Existing research indicates the rate of smoking among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths exceeds the general population's, possibly due to stress, habitual substance abuse, socializing in smoky venues, and tobacco marketing. The study's overall aim was to conduct qualitative research regarding tobacco use and avoidance by LGBT youths. This report focuses on identifying priority subpopulations and corresponding risk and resiliency factors. Purposive and maximum variation sampling were used to select 30 LGBT youths and 30 interactors for face-to-face interviews. Almost a third of participants said that all LGBT youths are at risk for smoking. Other respondents specified a range of high-risk groups, encompassing many subpopulations. Contributing factors for smoking included personal characteristics, interpersonal issues, environmental conditions, and structural issues. More than a third of young smokers were not acquainted with LGBT nonsmokers and could not imagine how they avoid using tobacco. Half of the interactors and four youths ascribed favorable qualities to nonsmokers--such as self-esteem, will power, and concern for personal health, appearance, and well-being. In conclusion, smoking is a pervasive problem among LGBT youths. The findings corroborate prior explanations and implicate new ones. Some risks (e.g., limited opportunities to socialize with LGBT peers outside of smoking venues, the desire to appear more masculine, and sexuality-related stress) and resiliency factors (e.g., positive sexual identity) are unique to LGBT populations, reinforcing the need for culturally specific approaches to prevention and cessation. Highlighting the positive attributes of nonsmokers and nonsmoking might prove useful in prevention campaigns.
Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.
This study examines how United States (US) teachers' experiences and beliefs may be predictive of their intervention in anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) bullying and harassment using a US national sample of teachers (N?=?726) who completed an online survey. Results from regression analysis indicated that knowing LGBT people,…
Zubernis, Lynn; Snyder, Matthew
At some point every college freshman asks "Am I okay?" or "Am I normal?" Helping students answer this question is a familiar part of college counseling. However, this task becomes more complicated when students who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender (GLBT), or questioning their sexuality seek counseling. The universal issues which all college…
Schwickrath, Heather M.
After an extensive literature review, results indicated research has been conducted examining the links between traditional bullying and suicide, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning (LGBTQ) identification and cyberbullying, as well as LGBTQ identification and suicide. However, it appears as though there is a dearth of studies…
Wolowic, Jennifer M; Heston, Laura V; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Porta, Carolyn; Eisenberg, Marla E
While the pride rainbow has been part of political and social intervention for decades, few have researched how lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer young people perceive and use the symbol. How do lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer youth who experience greater feelings of isolation and discrimination than heterosexual youth recognise and deploy the symbol? As part of a larger study on supportive lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer youth environments, we conducted 66 go-along interviews with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer youth people from Massachusetts, Minnesota and British Columbia. During interviews, young people identified visible symbols of support, including recognition and the use of the pride rainbow. A semiotic analysis reveals that young people use the rainbow to construct meanings related to affiliation and positive feelings about themselves, different communities and their futures. Constructed and shared meanings help make the symbol a useful tool for navigating social and physical surroundings. As part of this process, however, young people also recognize that there are limits to the symbolism; it is useful for navigation but its display does not always guarantee supportive places and people. Thus, the pride rainbow connotes safety and support, but using it as a tool for navigation is a learned activity that requires caution.
There is growing media interest in how lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) Muslims negotiate their seemingly incompatible religious and sexual identities. Thus, there is a need to investigate how some LGBT Muslims utilise Islam as a resource for alternative pedagogical strategies to reconcile their personal beliefs and values. Their…
Liddle, Becky J.; Luzzo, Darrell Anthony; Hauenstein, Anita L.; Schuck, Kelly
Workplace climate refers to formal and informal organizational characteristics contributing to employee welfare. Workplace climates for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) employees range from actively supportive to openly hostile. An instrument measuring LGBT workplace climate will enable research on vocational adjustment of LGBT…
Horn, Stacey S.; Romeo, Katherine E.
Peer relationships are a vital part of adolescents' lives. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, whether these relationships are supportive and positive, or filled with stigma, prejudice, and discrimination rests, to some degree, on their heterosexual peers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality. For while LGBT youth may…
Bidell, Markus P.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) students often face considerable isolation, discrimination, and violence at school, which can exacerbate the acute psychosocial and academic problems they already encounter. The purpose of this article is to introduce gay-straight alliances (GSAs) as a social justice and advocacy approach…
Craig, Shelley L.; McInroy, Lauren; McCready, Lance T.; Alaggia, Ramona
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth have the potential for considerable resilience. Positive media representations may mediate negative experiences and foster self-esteem, yet the relationship between resilience and both traditional offline and new online media remains underaddressed for this population. This…
Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Cochran, Bryan N.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to…
Russell, Stephen T.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Lee, Sun-A; Larriva, Jacqueline C.; Laub, Carolyn
A growing body of research indicates that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students are often unsafe at school. Little research has examined school safety for students with LGBT parents. We examined adolescents' perceptions of school safety for students with LGBT parents using data from a survey of 2,302 California sixth through…
Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge
Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…
Sowden, Beth; Fleming, Julia; Savage, Todd A.; Woitaszewski, Scott A.
Despite recent socially positive progression in the view and treatment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in the USA, the LGBT population continues to face complicated circumstances and significant hindrances in many societal institutions. One of the most challenging and complex arena is the educational system (Biegel…
Graybill, Emily C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Watson, Laurel B.
Researchers suggest that supportive school personnel may decrease some of the challenges encountered by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth in schools (Russell, Seif, & Truong, 2001); however, little is known about the approaches used by school-based advocates for LGBT youth. This exploratory study investigated the strategies used…
Bishop, Christa M.; Atlas, Jana G.
This study examined what elementary schools in New York State are doing to recognize lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families in terms of curriculum, policies, and practices. In all, 116 school psychologists completed an online survey regarding their districts. Findings indicated that even though most school districts serve…
Diaz, Elizabeth M.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students often face challenges that prevent them from developing a sense of connectedness to school. Many LGBT youth attend schools that are unwelcoming or even overtly hostile. For any student, being victimized at school can negatively impact their sense of school connectedness. This article discusses the…
Munoz-Plaza, Corrine; Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Rounds, Kathleen A.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth (LGBT) continue to face extreme discrimination within the school environment. Existing literature suggests that LGBT youth are at high risk for a number of health problems, including suicide ideation and attempts, harassment, substance abuse, homelessness, and declining school performance. This…
Because of discrimination and secrecy, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have poorer health outcomes, which include an increased risk for certain cancers and additional challenges in cancer treatment and survivorship. The oncology nurse also should be aware of issues of LGBT sexuality and the impact that oncology treatment may have on the LGBT patient's immediate and long-term sexual functioning.
Hoffman, Neal D; Freeman, Katherine; Swann, Stephanie
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth appear to be at higher risk for certain adverse health outcomes, and to have several personal, cultural and structural barriers to accessing healthcare. Little is known, however, about the experiences of LGBTQ youth with healthcare providers and healthcare services. Our goal was to recruit a sample of LGBTQ youth and to determine their preferences regarding healthcare providers, healthcare settings and the health issues that they consider important to discuss with a healthcare provider. We conducted a cross-sectional Internet-based survey. Respondents ages 13-21 years and living in the U.S. or Canada were asked to review three lists of items pertaining to qualities of healthcare providers, qualities of offices or health centers, and concerns or problems to discuss with a healthcare provider, and then to assign for each item a relative importance. Items in each of the three lists were then ranked, and differences among ranks were assessed. Inter-group differences by age, gender, and race/ethnicity were also assessed. 733 youth met eligibility criteria. Youth indicated as most important competence overall and specifically in issues unique to taking care of youth and LGBTQ persons, as well as being respected and treated by providers the same as other youth. Notably, youth ranked as least important the provider's gender and sexual orientation. Youth ranked accessibility issues higher than specific services provided. As health concerns to discuss with a provider, youth ranked preventive healthcare, nutrition, safe sex, and family as important as common morbidities. Youth placed as much importance on provider qualities and interpersonal skills as provider knowledge and experience, and placed little importance on a provider's gender and sexual orientation. Youth indicated the importance of providers addressing not only health risks, but also wellness and health promotion, and to do so within the context of
Johnson, Michael; Smyer, Tish; Yucha, Carolyn
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the methodological quality of quantitative lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender nursing research from 2000 to 2010. Using a key word search in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 188 studies were identified and 40 met the criteria, which included descriptive, experimental, quasi-experimental, or observational (case control, cohort, and cross-sectional) design. The methodological quality of these studies was similar to that reported for medical and nursing educational research. The foci of these lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender studies were biased toward human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and sexually transmitted diseases, and 58.5% of the funded research was related to human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To provide evidence-based health care to these populations, an understanding of the current state of research is crucial.
Lim, Fidelindo A; Hsu, Richard
The aim of this study was to critically appraise and synthesize findings from studies on the attitudes of nursing students toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons. There is paucity of research to assess the attitudes of nursing students toward LGBT persons. An electronic search was conducted using PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, EbscoHost, PsycInfo, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature using medical subject headings terminologies. Search terms used included gay, lesbian, transgender, bisexual, LGBT, nursing students, baccalaureate nursing, undergraduate nursing, homophobia, homosexuality, sexual minority, attitudes, discrimination, and prejudice. Less than 50 percent of the studies (5 out of 12) suggested positively leaning attitudes of nursing students toward LGBT persons; six studies reported negative attitudes, and one study reported neutral attitudes. There are some indications that student attitudes may be moving toward positively leaning. Studies published before 2000 reported a preponderance of negative attitudes.
Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Sanchez, Julian A.; Sutton, Steven K.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Nguyen, Giang T.; Green, B. Lee; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Schabath, Matthew B.
This article provides an overview of the current literature on seven cancer sites that may disproportionately affect lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) populations. For each cancer site we present and discuss the descriptive statistics, primary prevention, secondary prevention and preclinical disease, tertiary prevention and late stage disease, and clinical implications. Finally, an overview of psychosocial factors related to cancer survivorship is offered as well as strategies for improving access to care. PMID:26186412
This article discusses whether lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people are protected against discrimination and hate crime in Georgia. Georgia is dominated by deeply rooted traditions, history and religion which promote stigmatisation and enhance existing negative stereotypes of the LGBT community. This is aggravated by state practice and poor legislation which fail to ensure adequate protection of LGBT individuals against discrimination and hate crime. Even though homosexuality ...
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.
In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.
For 20 years, GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network) has worked to ensure safe schools for all students, regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. For 10 of those years, GLSEN has been documenting the school experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth: the prevalence of anti-LGBT…
... their lives. The Effects of Negative Attitudes on Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Some people may have negative attitudes toward gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with ...
Alencar Albuquerque, Grayce; de Lima Garcia, Cintia; da Silva Quirino, Glauberto; Alves, Maria Juscinaide Henrique; Belém, Jameson Moreira; dos Santos Figueiredo, Francisco Winter; da Silva Paiva, Laércio; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; da Silva Maciel, Érika; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Adami, Fernando
The relationship between users and health services is considered essential to strengthen the quality of care. However, the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender population suffer from prejudice and discrimination in access and use of these services. This study aimed to identify the difficulties associated with homosexuality in access and utilization of health services. A systematic review conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, SciELO, and LILACS, considering the period from 2004 to 2014. The studies were evaluated according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criterias. Were included manuscripts written in English or Portuguese, articles examining the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender population's access to health services and original articles with full text available online. The electronic databases search resulted in 667 studies, of which 14 met all inclusion criteria. Quantitative articles were predominant, showing the country of United States of America to be the largest producer of research on the topic. The studies reveal that the homosexual population have difficulties of access to health services as a result of heteronormative attitudes imposed by health professionals. The discriminatory attendance implies in human rights violations in access to health services. The non-heterosexual orientation was a determinant factor in the difficulties of accessing health care. A lot must still be achieved to ensure access to health services for sexual minorities, through the adoption of holistic and welcoming attitudes. The results of this study highlight the need for larger discussions about the theme, through new research and debates, with the aim of enhancing professionals and services for the health care of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons.
McClain, Zachary; Peebles, Rebecka
Adolescence is a crucial period for emerging sexual orientation and gender identity and also body image disturbance and disordered eating. Body image distortion and disordered eating are important pediatric problems affecting individuals along the sexual orientation and gender identity spectrum. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for eating disorders and body dissatisfaction. Disordered eating in LGBT and gender variant youth may be associated with poorer quality of life and mental health outcomes. Pediatricians should know that these problems occur more frequently in LGBT youth. There is evidence that newer treatment paradigms involving family support are more effective than individual models of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haas, Ann P.; Eliason, Mickey; Mays, Vickie M.; Mathy, Robin M.; Cochran, Susan D.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.; Silverman, Morton M.; Fisher, Prudence W.; Hughes, Tonda; Rosario, Margaret; Russell, Stephen T.; Malley, Effie; Reed, Jerry; Litts, David A.; Haller, Ellen; Sell, Randall L.; Remafedi, Gary; Bradford, Judith; Beautrais, Annette L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Diamond, Gary M.; Friedman, Mark S.; Garofalo, Robert; Turner, Mason S.; Hollibaugh, Amber; Clayton, Paula J.
Despite strong indications of elevated risk of suicidal behavior in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people, limited attention has been given to research, interventions or suicide prevention programs targeting these populations. This article is a culmination of a three-year effort by an expert panel to address the need for better understanding of suicidal behavior and suicide risk in sexual minority populations, and stimulate the development of needed prevention strategies, interventions and policy changes. This article summarizes existing research findings, and makes recommendations for addressing knowledge gaps and applying current knowledge to relevant areas of suicide prevention practice. PMID:21213174
Barrientos, Jaime; Silva, Jimena; Catalan, Susan; Gomez, Fabiola; Longueira, Jimena
This article describes the population participating in the LGBT Pride Parade in Santiago, Chile, from discrimination and victimization standpoints. The sample consisted of 488 subjects older than 18 years (M = 25.1), who were interviewed during the 2007 event. For this purpose, a questionnaire from the Latin American Centre of Sexuality and Human Rights (CLAM) was adapted and administered. Approximately 35% of respondents reported having experimented school, religious, or neighborhood discrimination. The more discriminated are transgender people. Approximately three fourths of respondents reported experiencing ridicule and almost 60% reported experiencing insults or threats. Transgender were significantly more likely than gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals to experience discrimination or victimization events. Finally, the parade acquired an important social and political character in the context of a clearly homophobic society.
Higa, Darrel; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Lindhorst, Taryn; Mincer, Shawn; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Todd, Avry; Mountz, Sarah
Factors associated with the well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth were qualitatively examined to better understand how these factors are experienced from the youths' perspectives. Largely recruited from LGBTQ youth groups, 68 youth participated in focus groups (n = 63) or individual interviews (n =…
Fisher, Emily S.; Komosa-Hawkins, Karen; Saldana, Enrique; Thomas, Genevieve M.; Hsiao, Cyndi; Rauld, Michelle; Miller, Dorian
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning (LGBTQ) students are likely to be in every classroom in every secondary school in the United States; yet, their needs are often overlooked. LGBTQ students are at risk for developing academic, social, and emotional problems due to harassment and bullying experienced at school. Although schools…
Datti, Paul A.
Incorporating J. D. Krumboltz's (1979) social learning theory of career decision making, the author explores career development issues for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (GLBTQ) adolescents and young adults. Unique challenges for the GLBTQ population are discussed, specific recommendations for effective career counseling with…
Significant progress has been made in equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA) individuals, yet schools remain institutions where sexual and gender diversity are marginalized and/or silenced. Queer theory, a non-linear theory that disrupts dominant beliefs about gender and sexuality and what…
Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network, New York, NY.
This workbook provides an instrument to objectively analyze a school's current climate with regard to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) people and the steps needed to move that school toward a more inclusive environment. It provides a detailed assessment survey (to be completed by key school stakeholders), descriptive data, and…
Snow, Kevin C.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning or queer (LGBTQ) students at evangelical Christian colleges are a population frequently overlooked in the literature on the spiritual lives of college students. The author used qualitative content analysis within a phenomenological tradition to examine blog posts by such students, who face…
The purpose of the report is to inform students, parents, school personnel, and officials of the legal issues related to harassment, bullying, and discrimination of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. This report describes existing research on the current school climate for LGBT youth as well as the harmful effects of…
Treat, Alena R.; Whittenburg, Becky
This bibliography makes available to educators and others a comprehensive resource for information regarding gifted youth who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender or questioning their sexual orientation and/or gender identity (G/GLBTQ). It includes articles, brochures, books, lesson plans, staff development, video media, and Web resources. As…
Smith, Nathan Grant
This study examined individual and institutional productivity in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) scholarship published in counseling psychology--oriented journals for the years 1990 through 2008. Eight journals were included in the analyses. An author-weighted score was calculated for each scholar, using a formula developed by…
Bishop, Christa M.
This study examined what elementary schools in New York State are doing to recognize lesbian gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families in terms of curriculum, policies, and practices. One hundred and sixteen participants were recruited through the New York Association of School Psychologists email listserve and completed a brief online…
Grossman, Arnold H.; Haney, Adam P.; Edwards, Perry; Alessi, Edward J.; Ardon, Maya; Howell, Tamika Jarrett
This qualitative study used five focus groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth attending public high schools to examine their experiences with school violence. Core themes focused on lack of community and empowerment leading to youth being without a sense of human agency in school. Negative attention themes were indicative…
Hancock, Adrienne; Haskin, Gregory
The cultures and service needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) minority groups are relevant to speech-language pathologists (SLPs). In particular, transgender individuals seeking communication services from SLPs in order to improve quality of life require culturally and clinically competent clinicians. Knowledge and attitudes regarding a population are foundational stages toward cultural competency (Turner, Wilson, & Shirah, 2006). The purpose of this research is to assess LGBTQ knowledge and attitudes among aspiring and practicing SLPs. An online survey was completed by 279 SLPs from 4 countries. Mean accuracy scores on LGBTQ culture questions were near 50%. Self-ratings indicated more comfort than knowledge, with generally positive feelings toward LGBTQ subgroups. Transgender communication is within SLPs' scope of practice, yet 47% indicated such services were not addressed in their master's curriculum, and 51% did not know how to describe transgender communication therapy. When respondents were asked to indicate priority of 10 LGBTQ topics for a continuing education seminar, communication masculinization/feminization best practice and case examples had the highest mean priority scores. There is a need to promote LGBTQ cultural competence within speech-language pathology. This study provides direction for improving LGBTQ cultural competence among SLPs.
Kitts, Robert Li
The objective of this article was to identify barriers to optimal care between physicians and LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning) adolescents. To this end, 464 anonymous, self-administered surveys were distributed in 2003 to residents and attending physicians in pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, emergency medicine, and family practice at Upstate Medical University. The survey included questions pertaining to practice, knowledge, and attitude pertaining to lesbian, gay, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) adolescents. One hundred eight four surveys were returned. The majority of physicians would not regularly discuss sexual orientation, sexual attraction, or gender identity while taking a sexual history from a sexually active adolescent. As well, the majority of physicians would not ask patients about sexual orientation if an adolescent presented with depression, suicidal thoughts, or had attempted suicide. If an adolescent stated that he or she was not sexually active, 41% of physicians reported that they would not ask additional sexual health-related questions. Only 57% agreed to an association between being a LGBTQ adolescent and suicide. The majority of physicians did not believe that they had all the skills they needed to address issues of sexual orientation with adolescents, and that sexual orientation should be addressed more often with these patients and in the course of training. This study concludes that barriers in providing optimal care for LGBTQ adolescents can be found with regard to practice, knowledge, and attitude regardless of medical field and other demographics collected. Opportunities exist to enhance care for LGBTQ adolescents.
Bolderston, A.; Ralph, S.
Systematic discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT) persists across most contemporary societies and institutions such as health care despite increasing social tolerance and legislative progress. This article explores discrimination against LGBT people, and examines LGBT health and social issues. The implications this has for health care access and quality of care delivered by patient-facing health care professionals such as radiographers are explored. Finally, three categories of suggestions to improve the care of LGBT patients are suggested; changes to the physical environment, improvement in health forms and awareness training. Some of these suggestions can be taken up directly by radiographers, particular accessing training. Others (such as positive changes in the physical space) could be championed by department managers. There is a need to promote better culturally competent training for radiographers to be able to sensitively respond to their LGBT patients' specific health and social needs. - Highlights: • Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans people can encounter health care discrimination. • Patient-facing professionals like radiographers routinely work with LGBT patients. • Positive changes can be made to improve patient care and access. • These include changes to the environment, health form improvement and training.
Ceres, Marc; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Loscalzo, Matthew; Rice, David
To describe the current state of cancer screening and uptake for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons and to propose cancer screening considerations for LGBT persons. Current and historic published literature on cancer screening and LGBT cancer screening; published national guidelines. Despite known cancer risks for members of the LGBT community, cancer screening rates are often low, and there are gaps in screening recommendations for LGBT persons. We propose evidence-based cancer screening considerations derived from the current literature and extant cancer screening recommendations. The oncology nurse plays a key role in supporting patient preventive care and screening uptake through assessment, counseling, education, advocacy, and intervention. As oncology nurses become expert in the culturally competent care of LGBT persons, they can contribute to the improvement of quality of care and overall well-being of this health care disparity population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Margolies, Liz; Brown, Carlton G
To review the current state of knowledge about cancer in lesbians, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people by focusing on four major issues across the cancer continuum including: 1) lack of data collection on sexual orientation and gender identity; 2) need for a culturally competent workforce; 3) the need for a culturally competent health care system; and 4) creating LGBT tailored patient/client information and education. Published literature. Oncology nurses and health care providers can work to improve the care of LGBT patients with cancer by following suggestions in this article. Oncology nurses and other health care providers have many distinct occasions to improve overall cancer care for LGBT patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eckstrand, Kristen L; Lunn, Mitchell R; Yehia, Baligh R
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations face numerous barriers when accessing and receiving healthcare, which amplify specific LGBT health disparities. An effective strategic approach is necessary for academic health centers to meet the growing needs of LGBT populations. Although effective organizational change models have been proposed for other minority populations, the authors are not aware of any organizational change models that specifically promote LGBT inclusion and mitigate access barriers to reduce LGBT health disparities. With decades of combined experience, we identify elements and processes necessary to accelerate LGBT organizational change and reduce LGBT health disparities. This framework may assist health organizations in initiating and sustaining meaningful organizational change to improve the health and healthcare of the LGBT communities.
Cornelius, Judith B; Enweana, Ijeoma; Alston, Celeste Kaysha; Baldwin, Dee M
Nursing students require academic and clinical training in preparation for the increased demand for culturally competent care. One group that is in need of culturally knowledgeable health care providers is lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine how LGBT health care content is integrated into North Carolina schools of nursing curricula and to examine the existence of specific LGBT policies. A survey was mailed to 70 deans and directors of RN programs in North Carolina. Over 90% of the schools indicated that LGBT health care issues were taught in the curricula. The majority of the content was taught as an "other" course (37%). More than two thirds of the schools devoted less than 5 hours teaching LGBT content. LGBT health care content is being taught, yet the presence of specific LGBT practice policies is basically nonexistent. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(4):223-226.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Nagata, Jason M
In this commentary, I reflect on challenges with conducting global health research internationally as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) person, grapple with decisions related to coming out in regions with anti-LGBT laws, and outline the risks and benefits of different advocacy options related to the promotion of LGBT health globally. Despite significant advances in LGBT rights in many countries, homosexuality remains illegal in many others. Using a critical medical anthropology framework, I argue that anti-LGBT laws constitute structural violence and have many detrimental consequences including discrimination and violence; poorer mental and physical health outcomes; and risky sexual behaviors. As a global health provider, there are many options for the promotion of LGBT health worldwide.
Wu, Harold Y; Yin, Ophelia; Monseur, Brent; Selter, Jessica; Collins, Lillian J; Lau, Brandyn D; Christianson, Mindy S
To assess geographical distribution and practice characteristics of fertility clinics inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients. Cross-sectional analysis. Not applicable. None. None. Prevalence and geographical distribution of fertility clinic websites with LGBT-specific content, indicated by keywords and home page cues specific to the LGBT patient population. Assessment of relationship between LGBT-specific content and clinic characteristics, including U.S. region, clinic size, private versus academic setting, and state-mandated fertility insurance coverage. Of 379 websites analyzed, 201 (53%) contained LGBT content. Clinics with the highest proportion of LGBT website content were in the Northeast (59/82, 72%) and West (63/96, 66%), while the lowest proportion was in the Midwest (29/74, 39%) and South (50/127, 39%). Most frequently used terms included lesbian (72%), LGBT/LGBTQ (69%), and gay (68%), while less used terms included trans/transgender (32%) and bisexual (15%). Larger clinic size was associated with LGBT-specific website content (odds ratio, 4.42; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-9.67). Practice type and state-mandated fertility insurance coverage were not associated with a clinic website having LGBT content. Over half of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member fertility clinics included LGBT content on their websites, yet those in the Midwest and South were significantly less likely to do so. Predictive factors for having LGBT website content included location in northeastern and western regions and increasing clinic size. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether inclusion of LGBT content on clinic websites impacts use of reproductive services by the LGBT patient population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goldbach, Jeremy T; Castro, Carl Andrew
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual service members can serve openly in the military with the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. The fate of transgender service members remains uncertain as the policy preventing them from serving in the military remains under review. The health care needs of these populations remain for the most part unknown, with total acceptance and integration in the military yet to be achieved. In this paper, we review the literature on the health care needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members, relying heavily on what is known about LGBT civilian and veteran populations. Significant research gaps about the health care needs of LGBT service members are identified, along with recommendations for closing those gaps. In addition, recommendations for improving LGBT acceptance and integration within the military are provided.
Green, Michael; Bobrowicz, Ania; Ang, Chee Siang
Computer-mediated communication has become a popular platform for identity construction and experimentation as well as social interaction for those who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT). The creation of user-generated videos has allowed content creators to share experiences on LGBT topics. With bullying becoming more common amongst LGBT youth, it is important to obtain a greater understanding of this phenomenon. In our study, we report on the analysis of 151 YouTube vid...
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2012
In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2010
For 20 years, GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network) has worked to ensure safe schools for all students, regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. For 10 of those years, GLSEN has been documenting the school experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth: the prevalence of anti-LGBT…
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2009
In 2007, Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) conducted the fifth National School Climate Survey (NSCS), a biennial survey of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) secondary school students. The NSCS examines the experiences of LGBT youth in U.S. middle and high schools, documenting bias and behaviors that make schools…
Mavhandu-Mudzusi, Azwihangwisi Helen; Sandy, Peter Thomas
This paper reports on the stigma and discrimination experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students at a rural university in South Africa. Twenty lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students recruited through snowball sampling participated in this study. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used as a framework for data analysis. Findings indicate that religion-related stigma and discrimination are common at a rural-based university in South Africa. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students are typically ascribed a range of labels, including 'sinners', 'devils' and 'demon possessed'. They are also exposed to a number of discriminatory acts, such as the denial of financial and healthcare services and threats of and/or actual rape. Study participants reported attempts to convert lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students' sexual orientation which involved the use of intervention in the form of prayers. Derogatory labelling and associated discriminatory acts, for example the threat of rape, led many students to conceal their sexual identity, not attend specific classes, terminate their studies and even attempt suicide. Universities should develop policies to promote greater social inclusion and the acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students. Policies should also specify the steps or approaches to be taken in addressing discriminatory practices.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A number of studies have identified that gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (GLBTI people have poorer mental health than the general population. This article describes current mental health promotion and service provision for GLBTI people in New Zealand, and the views of stakeholders on current service delivery and concerns facing the sector. METHODS: An email survey of service providers gathered descriptive data about mental health promotion and services provided for GLBTI people. Data obtained from interviews with key informants and online submissions completed by GLBTI individuals were analysed thematically. FINDINGS: Five organisations provide clear, specific and utilised services and programmes to some or all of the GLBTI populations. Twelve GLBTI-focused mental health promotion resources are identified. The analysis of data from key informants and GLBTI respondents identified factors affecting mental health for these populations occurring at three levels-macro-social environment, social acceptance and connection, and services and support. CONCLUSION: While GLBTI individuals have the same basic mental health promotion and service provision needs as members of the general population, they have additional unique issues. To enhance the mental health of GLBTI New Zealanders, a number of actions are recommended, including building sector capacity, allocating sufficient funding, ensuring adequate research and information is available, and reducing stigma, enhancing young people's safety, and supporting practitioners through training and resources. An important role for government, alongside GLBTI input, for improving mental health is noted.
Aguilar, Elizabeth; Fried, Jacquelyn
Although cultural competence education is being incorporated into most health care curricula, content addressing sexual minorities is lacking or, if present, inadequate. This void can result in compromised health care and can contribute to the social stigma surrounding the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community. Increasing the knowledge and demystifying sexual minority issues can enhance the confidence and attitudes of health care workers when treating LGBT individuals. Suggestions for creating a more welcoming health care environment for LGBT individuals in different health care settings such as private clinics, public health settings and school based programs are offered. The purpose of this literature review was to systematically review available literature on health care providers' delivery of culturally competent care to the LGBT community. The investigators searched electronic databases that included Medline (Ovid), Eric and PubMed with consultation from information specialists at the Health Sciences and Human Services Library at the University of Maryland. The information was categorized into content areas. Discussion of the findings and future directions regarding health care delivery for the LGBT community are provided. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Lee, Joseph G L
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are more likely to use tobacco products than heterosexual people. This results in disproportionate death and disability for LGBT communities. Yet, addressing the tobacco epidemic is generally low on the agenda of LGBT community organizations, and LGBT individuals report lower levels of support for some evidence-based tobacco prevention and control policies than heterosexuals. Informed by agenda-setting theory, this study investigated coverage of the tobacco epidemic in LGBT news blogs. Sixteen blogs and 105 tobacco-related posts from 2003 to March 9, 2013, were identified, and a quantitative content analysis was conducted. Coverage of the tobacco epidemic was primarily concentrated in four blogs and focused on the epidemiology of the epidemic and on tobacco-related policies. Little coverage focused on the tobacco industry, addiction, or health effects. A substantial minority of coverage focused on socially conservative arguments comparing smoking to homosexuality as a lifestyle choice. Thirty-three organizations working on LGBT tobacco prevention and control were present in blog posts. LGBT news blogs have a potentially important and mostly untapped role in tobacco-related media advocacy. LGBT health advocates would do well to cultivate relationships with LGBT bloggers as well as include bloggers in dissemination and media strategy efforts.
Rostosky, Sharon S; Black, Whitney W; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rosenkrantz, Dani
Research on heterosexual allies has focused on heterosexual identity development models and pathways to ally activism. The positive aspects or positive experiences of identifying as an ally to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identified individuals and communities have received little attention. Using an online survey of participants recruited from LGBT ally related social media, we collected open-ended responses to a question about the positive aspects of self-identifying as a heterosexual ally. A final analytic sample of 292 self-identified male and female heterosexual adults (age 18-71, M = 33.47, SD = 13.32) provided responses that generated 8 themes. Positive aspects of being a heterosexual ally were: (a) increased knowledge and awareness, (b) upholding values of justice, (c) beneficial individual relationships, (d) community belonging, (e) educating others, (f) being a role model, (g) using social privilege, and (h) speaking out and taking a stand. The findings suggest that being a heterosexual ally is rewarding and may enhance individual well-being. These findings provide information that may contribute to effective ally development efforts. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.
Introduction: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are more likely to smoke than the general population. This study evaluated a Social Branding intervention, CRUSH, which included an aspirational brand, social events, and targeted media to discourage smoking among LGBT young adults in Las Vegas, NV. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys (N = 2,395) were collected in Las Vegas LGBT bars at 2 time points 1 year apart. Multivariate logistic regressions examined associations between campaign exposure, message understanding, and current (past 30 days) smoking, controlling for demographics. Results: LGBT individuals were significantly more likely to report current (past 30 day) smoking than heterosexual/straight, gender-conforming participants. Overall, 53% of respondents reported exposure to CRUSH; of those exposed, 60% liked the campaign, 60.3% reported they would attend a CRUSH event on a night when they usually went somewhere else, and 86.3% correctly identified that the campaign was about “partying fresh and smokefree.” Current smoking was reported by 47% of respondents at Time 1 and 39.6% at Time 2. There were significant interactions between time and campaign exposure and campaign exposure and understanding the message. Among those who understood the CRUSH smokefree message, the highest level of campaign exposure was significantly associated with 37%–48% lower odds for current smoking. Conclusions: While longitudinal studies would better assess the impact of this intervention, CRUSH shows promise to reduce tobacco use among LGBT bar patrons. PMID:26180223
Gowen, L Kris; Winges-Yanez, Nichole
Sexuality education is perceived as one way to prevent unhealthy sexual behaviors. However, current sexuality education materials are not tailored to fit the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth, and many have been critiqued for disenfranchising these populations. This study solicited the perspectives of LGBTQ youth on their experiences with school-based sexuality education in order to create a framework of LGBTQ-inclusive sexuality education. Five semistructured focus groups (N = 30 LGBTQ participants) were conducted to investigate the sexuality education experiences of LGBTQ youth and to solicit youth suggestions for improving the inclusiveness of sexuality education curricula. Results indicate that LGBTQ youth perceive current sexuality education as primarily "exclusive," although examples of "inclusive" sexuality education were provided. In addition, participants provided suggestions for creating a more inclusive experience, such as directly discussing LGBTQ issues, emphasizing sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention over pregnancy prevention, and addressing healthy relationships. Educators and policymakers can use these ideas to help improve the quality of sexuality education-not only to make it more inclusive for LGBTQ youth but to make sexuality education more inclusive for all young people.
Very little is known about the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in relation to mental health services. Therefore, the overall aim of the current research was to explore LGBT people\\'s experiences of mental health service provision in Ireland. The objectives were to identify barriers and opportunities, to highlight service gaps, and to identify good practice in addressing the mental health and well-being of LGBT people. A mixed methods research design using quantitative and qualitative approaches was deployed. A multipronged sampling strategy was used and 125 respondents responded to the questionnaire. A subset of phase 1 (n = 20) were interviewed in the qualitative phase. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. The sample consisted of LGBT people (n = 125) over 18 years of age living in Ireland. Over three-quarters (77%) had received a psychiatric diagnosis. Findings include that whilst 63% of respondents were able to be \\'out\\' to practitioners, 64% felt that mental health professionals lacked knowledge about LGBT issues and 43% felt practitioners were unresponsive to their needs. Finally, respondent recommendations about how mental health services may be more responsive to LGBT people\\'s needs are presented.
Lee, Joseph G. L.; Matthews, Alicia K.; McCullen, Cramer A.; Melvin, Cathy L.
Context Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are at increased risk for the adverse effects of tobacco use given their high prevalence of use, especially smoking. Evidence regarding cessation is limited. To determine if efficacious interventions are available and to aid the development of interventions, a systematic review was conducted of gray and peer-reviewed literature describing clinical, community, and policy interventions as well as knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding tobacco use cessation among LGBT people. Evidence acquisition Eight databases for articles from 1987 to April 23, 2014 were searched. In February–November 2013, authors and researchers were contacted to identify gray literature. Evidence synthesis The search identified 57 records, of which 51 were relevant and 22 were from the gray literature; these were abstracted into evidence tables, and a narrative synthesis was conducted in October–May 2014. Group cessation curricula tailored for LGBT populations were found feasible to implement and show evidence of effectiveness. Community interventions have been implemented by and for LGBT communities; although these interventions showed feasibility, no rigorous outcome evaluations exist. Clinical interventions show little difference between LGBT and heterosexual people. Focus groups suggest that care is needed in selecting messaging used in media campaigns. Conclusions LGBT-serving organizations should implement existing evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment and clinical systems to support treatment of tobacco use. A clear commitment from government and funders is needed to investigate whether sexual orientation and gender identity moderate the impacts of policy interventions, media campaigns, and clinical interventions. PMID:25455123
Full Text Available This article explores the academic and social challenges experienced by students from the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (glbt community on campus at a South African university. A qualitative study to investigate some of these academic and social challenges experienced by glbt students at a university campus was conducted. The population of the study was all students from glbt community on campus and a purposive sample of twelve (12 respondents was constituted and a semi-structured interview guide was designed and administered to all twelve (12 participants. Data were audio recorded and transcribed. Content analysis which is a method used to systematically analyse the meaning of communications was used to analyse data. Of central interest were the core themes that speakers referred to, the information or messages that they wanted to pass on to their audience. The findings suggest that glbt students grapple with issues such as labelling, sexual abuse, discrimination/marginalisation and unfairness in the allocation of resources such as accommodation. In response to these cancerous societal ills, the helping professions exhort practitioners to empower vulnerable populations, promote social justice, support client self-determination and keep abreast of current knowledge relevant to professional practice. This article concludes with a set of recommendations on some of the strategies to address the identified socio-academic challenges.
Huebner, David M; Thoma, Brian C; Neilands, Torsten B
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, relative to their heterosexual counterparts. Although previous research has demonstrated that experiences of anti-LGBT harassment, discrimination, and victimization may explain some of this disparity, little is known about the mechanisms whereby such mistreatment leads to substance abuse. This study aimed to examine whether mechanisms suggested by the Social Development Model might explain the links between school-based victimization and substance use in this population. Five hundred and four ethnically diverse LGBT adolescents ages 14-19 reported their experiences with school victimization, substance abuse, school bonding, and deviant peer group affiliation. Anti-LGBT victimization in school was associated with substance abuse, and although causality cannot be established, structural equation modeling confirmed that the data are consistent with a theoretical model in which this association was mediated by increased affiliation with deviant peers. Preventive interventions for LGBT adolescents must not only attempt to make schools safer for these youth, but also help keep them engaged in healthy peer groups when they are confronted with mistreatment in school.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Simoni, Jane M.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L.; Yang, Joyce; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.
National health initiatives emphasize the importance of eliminating health disparities among historically disadvantaged populations. Yet, few studies have examined the range of health outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. To stimulate more inclusive research in the area, we present the Health Equity Promotion Model—a framework oriented toward LGBT people reaching their full mental and physical health potential that considers both positive and adverse health-related circumstances. The model highlights (a) heterogeneity and intersectionality within LGBT communities; (b) the influence of structural and environmental context; and (c) both health-promoting and adverse pathways that encompass behavioral, social, psychological, and biological processes. It also expands upon earlier conceptualizations of sexual minority health by integrating a life course development perspective within the health-promotion model. By explicating the important role of agency and resilience as well as the deleterious effect of social structures on health outcomes, it supports policy and social justice to advance health and well-being in these communities. Important directions for future research as well as implications for health-promotion interventions and policies are offered. PMID:25545433
Anderson, Joan I; Patterson, April N; Temple, Henry J; Inglehart, Marita Rohr
The objectives of the study reported in this article were to assess dental student leaders' perceptions of educational efforts concerning lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topics and the cultural climate concerning LGBT issues in dental schools in the United States and Canada. In addition, the perceptions of student leaders who self-identified as belonging to the LGBT community and of students with a heterosexual orientation were compared. Data were collected from 113 dental student leaders from twenty-seven dental schools in the United States and three in Canada. Fifty student leaders were females, and sixty-two were males. Only 13.3 percent of the respondents agreed that their dental education prepared them well to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds. The more the student leaders believed that their university has an honest interest in diversity, the better they felt prepared by their dental school program to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds (r=.327; pschools' administrations create a positive environment for students with LGBT orientations, the more they agreed that persons can feel comfortable regardless of their sexual orientation (r=.585; pschool administrators play an important role in ensuring that future care providers are well prepared to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds and that staff, faculty, students, and patients from these backgrounds are not discriminated against.
Sequeira, Gina M; Chakraborti, Chayan; Panunti, Brandy A
The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is a diverse, underserved, and often stigmatized group that faces many barriers to accessing quality healthcare. Not only are few practicing physicians knowledgeable about and sensitive to the needs of LGBT patients, but medical school curricula include limited LGBT-related content. Our goals were to use LGBT-related educational sessions to gauge undergraduate medical students' interest and their perceptions of relevance and to eventually incorporate this topic into the curriculum. We provided 4 educational sessions to preclinical medical students at the Tulane University School of Medicine: 3 optional, 1-hour didactic sessions and 1 standardized patient encounter. Following sessions 1-3, students completed electronic feedback forms; we then analyzed their responses thematically. THE THEMATIC ANALYSIS OF STUDENT RESPONSES IDENTIFIED KEY THEMES: a current lack of exposure to LGBT content, agreement that LGBT material is applicable to students' work as future physicians, and the relevance of including such information in the medical school curriculum. The study validated the underlying assumption that LGBT educational sessions are meaningful to and valued by medical students.
Eliason, Michele J; Dibble, Suzanne L; Robertson, Patricia A
Little is known about the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) physicians in the workplace. There is little formal education in medical school about LGBT issues, and some heterosexual physicians have negative attitudes about caring for LGBT patients or working with LGBT coworkers, setting the stage for an exclusive and unwelcoming workplace. The current study used an online survey to assess a convenience sample of 427 LGBT physicians from a database of a national LGBT healthcare organization, as well as a snowball sample generated from the members of the database. Although rates of discriminatory behaviors had decreased since earlier reports, 10% reported that they were denied referrals from heterosexual colleagues, 15% had been harassed by a colleague, 22% had been socially ostracized, 65% had heard derogatory comments about LGBT individuals, 34% had witnessed discriminatory care of an LGBT patient, 36% had witnessed disrespect toward an LGBT patient's partner, and 27% had witnessed discriminatory treatment of an LGBT coworker. Few had received any formal education on LGBT issues in medical school or residency. It appears that medical schools and health care workplaces continue to ignore LGBT issues and operate in discriminatory fashion far too often.
Huebner, David M.; Thoma, Brian C.; Neilands, Torsten B.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, relative to their heterosexual counterparts. Although previous research has demonstrated that experiences of anti-LGBT harassment, discrimination, and victimization may explain some of this disparity, little is known about the mechanisms whereby such mistreatment leads to substance abuse. This study aimed to examine whether mechanisms suggested by the Social Development Model might explain the links between school-based victimization and substance use in this population. Five hundred and four ethnically diverse LGBT adolescents ages 14–19 reported their experiences with school victimization, substance abuse, school bonding, and deviant peer group affiliation. Anti-LGBT victimization in school was associated with substance abuse, and although causality cannot be established, structural equation modeling confirmed that the data are consistent with a theoretical model in which this association was mediated by increased affiliation with deviant peers. Preventive interventions for LGBT adolescents must not only attempt to make schools safer for these youth, but also help keep them engaged in healthy peer groups when they are confronted with mistreatment in school. PMID:25529390
Ash, Marcia; Mackereth, Catherine
Health needs assessment is a fundamental tool in public health practice. It entails the identification of needs from a range of perspectives, including epidemiological data, the views of local and professional people, and the comparative needs of the group under consideration. This paper describes the process undertaken with the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) population of an area in the north-east of England. The findings were used to inform and influence commissioners and service providers about services and interventions that will address these needs, and bring about better emotional and mental health and wellbeing as identified by LGBT people themselves. Research shows that there are great inequalities in the experience of these groups when compared with the heterosexual population. This was confirmed by the local LGBT communities. Consultation with the LGBT population showed that they experience ongoing stigma and discrimination, despite the greater apparent acceptance of diversity within the community. Recommendations were identified, which particularly focus on increasing the visibility of these groups, highlighting training issues and addressing generic or specialist services, in order to reduce discrimination.
Zelle, Andraya; Arms, Tamatha
The 1.5 million older adults who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) are expected to double in number by 2030. Research suggests that health disparities are closely linked with societal stigma, discrimination, and denial of civil and human rights. More LGBT older adults struggle with depression, substance abuse, social isolation, and acceptance compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Despite individual preferences, most health care providers recognize the right of any individual to have access to basic medical services. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services requires that all hospitals receiving funds from Medicare and Medicaid respect visitation and medical decision-making rights to all individuals identifying as LGBT. The Joint Commission also requires a non-discrimination statement for accreditation. The current literature review examines LGBT health disparities and the consequential psychosocial impact on LGBT older adults as well as brings awareness to the needs of this underserved and underrepresented population. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
White, William; Brenman, Stephanie; Paradis, Elise; Goldsmith, Elizabeth S; Lunn, Mitchell R; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Stewart, Leslie; Tran, Eric; Wells, Maggie; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Fetterman, David M; Garcia, Gabriel
Phenomenon: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face significant barriers in accessing appropriate and comprehensive medical care. Medical students' level of preparedness and comfort caring for LGBT patients is unknown. An online questionnaire (2009-2010) was distributed to students (n = 9,522) at 176 allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in Canada and the United States, followed by focus groups (2010) with students (n = 35) at five medical schools. The objective of this study was to characterize LGBT-related medical curricula, to determine medical students' assessments of their institutions' LGBT-related curricular content, and to evaluate their comfort and preparedness in caring for LGBT patients. Of 9,522 survey respondents, 4,262 from 170 schools were included in the final analysis. Most medical students (2,866/4,262; 67.3%) evaluated their LGBT-related curriculum as "fair" or worse. Students most often felt prepared addressing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; 3,254/4,147; 78.5%) and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (2,851/4,136; 68.9%). They felt least prepared discussing sex reassignment surgery (1,061/4,070; 26.1%) and gender transitioning (1,141/4,068; 28.0%). Medical education helped 62.6% (2,669/4,262) of students feel "more prepared" and 46.3% (1,972/4,262) of students feel "more comfortable" to care for LGBT patients. Four focus group sessions with 29 students were transcribed and analyzed. Qualitative analysis suggested students have significant concerns in addressing certain aspects of LGBT health, specifically with transgender patients. Insights: Medical students thought LGBT-specific curricula could be improved, consistent with the findings from a survey of deans of medical education. They felt comfortable, but not fully prepared, to care for LGBT patients. Increasing curricular coverage of LGBT-related topics is indicated with emphasis on exposing students to LGBT patients in clinical settings.
Strong, Kristy L; Folse, Victoria N
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients experience barriers to health care that include fear of discrimination, as well as insensitivity and lack of knowledge about LGBT-specific health needs among providers. This study examined the effectiveness of an educational intervention designed to improve knowledge and attitudes of baccalaureate nursing students regarding LGBT patient care. Education focused on key terminology, health disparities, medical needs of transgender patients, and culturally sensitive communication skills for competent LGBT patient care. Knowledge level and attitudes were evaluated before and after the intervention using a survey based on a modified Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale and two assessment tools developed for this study. A statistically significant increase in positive attitudes and knowledge level was found immediately after the intervention. Findings from this study support the inclusion of education related to LGBT patient health care in undergraduate nursing curricula to promote cultural competence and sensitivity. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Sell, Randall L; Dunn, Patricia M
Researchers and public health advocates have long recognized the importance of demographic characteristics such as sex, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status in their efforts to understand and control the use of tobacco among population groups. Targeting prevention and cessation efforts based upon such characteristics has consistently been demonstrated to be both efficient and effective. In recent years, attention has modestly turned to how two additional demographic variables, sexual orientation and gender identity, can add to our understanding of how to reduce tobacco use. Research of tobacco industry papers has clearly documented targeted media campaigns to encourage smoking among lesbians and gays in the marketplace. The tobacco industry has long understood the role that sexual orientation can play in the uptake of smoking and the targeted marketing of brands. Those concerned with tobacco use prevention and cessation research have consequently responded to address tobacco use by lesbians and gays, and bisexuals and transgender people as well, but even more can be done. This article reviews what is known about smoking in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations and then reviews recommendations from four panels created to examine this topic. In conclusion, we recommend that sexual orientation and gender identity be considered for inclusion as variables in all major research and epidemiological studies of tobacco use. Just as such studies, without hesitation, measure sex, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status, they need to also include questions assessing sexual orientation and gender identity. Although these new variables need not be the primary focus of these studies, at a minimum, considering their use as controlling variables should be explored. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people can benefit from being openly included in the work researchers conduct to inform the design of tobacco control programs and policies.
Klotzbaugh, Ralph; Glover, Eileen
To develop an understanding of lesbian-, gay-, bisexual-, transgender-specific mental health and substance abuse needs in rural populations and to improve data about sexual orientation and gender identity. Existing literature on mental health needs for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations has continued to reveal higher levels of need. Research has also demonstrated that few mental health providers have expertise or comfort in treating lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender clients. Descriptive correlational study. A sample (n = 456) of patient records admitted to a rural lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender inpatient psychiatric clinic over 12 months were examined using descriptive statistics. Patient zip code information was used to determine the levels of rurality. Chi-square analysis was used to determine relationships between sexual orientation, rural/urban distinctions and concomitant drug use. Unexpectedly, those who identified as heterosexual were significantly more likely to concomitantly abuse alcohol and heroin than those who identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. Patients residing in small or isolated rural areas were more likely to abuse alcohol or synthetics than those residing in urban or micropolitan areas. Results of this study concerning substance abuse among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals are not reflective of prior studies. LGBT patients did not demonstrate a higher proportion of substance abuse compared with those identifying as heterosexual. Increased substance abuse among those from rural isolated areas does support prior studies. The context of gathering demographic information on sexual orientation was thought by staff to increase the number of those identifying as heterosexual. Context in which sensitive questions are asked may affect the accuracy of demographic data. Lack of information regarding patients' sexual orientation or gender identity may impact perceived need for
Full Text Available Sally StevensSouthwest Institute for Research on Women (SIROW and Department of Gender and Women’s Studies (GWS, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Research on the incidence, etiology and substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LBT women is limited. Most research indicates higher levels of alcohol and drug abuse among these populations compared to their heterosexual counterparts, with recent research indicating that substance abuse is a particular concern for transgender individuals and an increasing problem among younger LBT individuals. Risk factors and reasons for substance abuse among sexual minority women are similar to those of heterosexual women, yet are substantially complicated by issues of family rejection and lack of social support, stigma and minority stress, as well as abuse and harassment. Historically, substance abuse prevention, early intervention, and clinical treatment programs were designed to meet the needs of the sexual majority population with relatively few programs designed to incorporate the specific needs of sexual minorities. This article reviews findings from previous studies and utilizes new data collected from community-based and residential substance abuse treatment programs to (1 examine issues relevant to LBT women and substance use, and (2 make recommendations for tailoring substance abuse treatment programs to meet the needs of these populations.Keywords: lesbian, bisexual, transgender, substance abuse, family rejection, social support, stigma, minority stress, abuse, harassment
Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
Sexual orientation is seldom recorded at death in Australia, and to date there have been no studies on the relationship between those that have died by suicide and sexuality or minority gender identity in Australia. The aim of the present study is to determine whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex individuals who die by suicide constitute a unique subpopulation of those who die by suicide, when compared with non-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex suicide deaths. The Queensland Suicide Register holds records of all suicides in Queensland since 1990. All cases from 2000 to 2009 (inclusive; a total of 5,966 cases) were checked for potential indicators of individuals' sexual orientation and gender identification. A total of 35 lesbian (n = 10), gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 2), and transgender (n = 1) suicide cases were identified. Three comparison cases of non-LGBT suicides for each LGBT suicide were then located, matched by age and gender. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. It was significantly more likely that depression was mentioned in the cases of LGBT suicides than in non-LGBT cases. While 12.4% of the comparison group had been diagnosed with psychotic disorders, there were no such diagnoses among LGBT individuals. LGBT individuals experienced relationship problems more often, with relationship conflict also being more frequent than in non-LGBT cases. Despite its limitations, this study - the first of its kind in Australia - seems to indicate that LGBT people would require targeted approaches in mental and general health services. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Ewton, Tiffany A; Lingas, Elena O
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) medical providers in the United States have historically faced discrimination from their peers. To assess current workplace culture and attitudes, and to evaluate awareness of workplace and professional policies regarding LGBT discrimination, we sent a cross-sectional survey to 163 PAs (Physician Assistants). Respondents had an overall positive attitude towards LGBT providers, yet the majority was not aware of relevant policy statements (>60%). A significant association existed between policy awareness and LGBT inclusivity (Pharassment (P=.017). Despite improved societal attitudes toward LGBT providers, non-discriminatory work environments for LGBT physician assistants may relate to greater awareness of specific workplace policy standards.
Sullivan, Kathleen M
The social environment impacts the ability of older adults to interact successfully with their community and age-in-place. This study asked, for the first time, residents of existing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) senior living communities to explain why they chose to live in those communities and what, if any, benefit the community afforded them. Focus groups were conducted at 3 retirement communities. Analysis found common categories across focus groups that explain the phenomenon of LGBT senior housing. Acceptance is paramount for LGBT seniors and social networks expanded, contrary to socioemotional selectivity theory. Providers are encouraged to develop safe spaces for LGBT seniors.
Cloyes, Kristin G; Hull, William; Davis, Andra
To identify the unique needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) cancer patients and caregivers, and review recommendations supporting more effective and inclusive palliative and end-of-life care. Published research and clinical guidelines. Transitions in care raise particular challenges for LGBT patients, including provider communication, perceptions of safety and acceptance, and assessing and respecting patients' definitions of family and spirituality. LGBT patients and their caregivers need competent nurses to support them, especially during transitions. Implementing LGBT-inclusive education, training, and practice will improve outcomes for LGBT cancer patients and their caregivers - and potentially all patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Ling, Pamela M
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are more likely to smoke than the general population. This study evaluated a Social Branding intervention, CRUSH, which included an aspirational brand, social events, and targeted media to discourage smoking among LGBT young adults in Las Vegas, NV. Cross-sectional surveys (N = 2,395) were collected in Las Vegas LGBT bars at 2 time points 1 year apart. Multivariate logistic regressions examined associations between campaign exposure, message understanding, and current (past 30 days) smoking, controlling for demographics. LGBT individuals were significantly more likely to report current (past 30 day) smoking than heterosexual/straight, gender-conforming participants. Overall, 53% of respondents reported exposure to CRUSH; of those exposed, 60% liked the campaign, 60.3% reported they would attend a CRUSH event on a night when they usually went somewhere else, and 86.3% correctly identified that the campaign was about "partying fresh and smokefree." Current smoking was reported by 47% of respondents at Time 1 and 39.6% at Time 2. There were significant interactions between time and campaign exposure and campaign exposure and understanding the message. Among those who understood the CRUSH smokefree message, the highest level of campaign exposure was significantly associated with 37%-48% lower odds for current smoking. While longitudinal studies would better assess the impact of this intervention, CRUSH shows promise to reduce tobacco use among LGBT bar patrons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the social networks that is done by Ardhanary Institute LBT Women (Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender organization in Jakarta. With the thesis that the environment in Indonesia are not permissive and cons with the presence of LGBT / LBT this organization even dare to "coming out", if it is not supported by an enabling environment through social networks. This discussion describes the social networks that made this organization, from building social relationships between actors / individuals up with foreign institutions (international and domestic, as well as with the mass media.As the study of anthropology, then more emphasis on the social network that is descriptive, not at the level of analytics. Data collection technique was not through measurement but more in the process of intensive observations, in-depth interviews and participatory observation. Using an ethnographic feminist approach, where the relationships globally can only be understood in the " real materials interlocked closely in the everyday encounter", namely action and everyday practicewhich became the subject of ethnography research.Conclusions: 1. The social network that is done by Ardhanary Institute organization through a relationship between actors and LBT/LGBT organizations in these areas. Externally also through multiple agencies (domestic and foreign. The actor, who is in this organization as a motivator, facilitator, and inspirator as well as the implications effect "struggling" for the movement of other LBT organizations in Indonesia 2. This organization is actively building a broader network through cooperation with other women's organizations, crisis centers, health care providers, safe houses, legal aid organizations and the National Commission for Women. And build working relationships with law enforcement agencies in providing assistance to victims of LBT violence.
Lee, Joseph G L; Matthews, Alicia K; McCullen, Cramer A; Melvin, Cathy L
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are at increased risk for the adverse effects of tobacco use, given their high prevalence of use, especially smoking. Evidence regarding cessation is limited. To determine if efficacious interventions are available and to aid the development of interventions, a systematic review was conducted of grey and peer-reviewed literature describing clinical, community, and policy interventions, as well as knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding tobacco use cessation among LGBT people. Eight databases for articles from 1987 to April 23, 2014, were searched. In February-November 2013, authors and researchers were contacted to identify grey literature. The search identified 57 records, of which 51 were included and 22 were from the grey literature; these were abstracted into evidence tables, and a narrative synthesis was conducted in October 2013-May 2014. Group cessation curricula tailored for LGBT populations were found feasible to implement and show evidence of effectiveness. Community interventions have been implemented by and for LGBT communities, although these interventions showed feasibility, no rigorous outcome evaluations exist. Clinical interventions show little difference between LGBT and heterosexual people. Focus groups suggest that care is needed in selecting the messaging used in media campaigns. LGBT-serving organizations should implement existing evidence-based tobacco-dependence treatment and clinical systems to support treatment of tobacco use. A clear commitment from government and funders is needed to investigate whether sexual orientation and gender identity moderate the impacts of policy interventions, media campaigns, and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shiu, Chengshi; Muraco, Anna; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adult caregivers may encounter obstacles in obtaining health and aging services due to discrimination in service and legal systems. The caregiving relationships in LGBT communities also differ from the general population in that friends are providing a large portion of informal care. This article examines how the relational context of caregiving relates to caregiving demands and resources, which in turn, influence perceived stress and depressive symptomatology among older LGBT caregivers. Using data from the National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study: Caring and Aging with Pride, this study examines 451 participants who are providing caregiving to partners and friends. Structural equation modeling was applied to estimate the associations among the caregiver-care recipient relationship and caregiving demands, resources, perceived stress, and depressive symptomatology. On average, as compared with those caring for partners, those who provided care to friends reported experiencing lower levels of caregiving demands and lower levels of social support. The lower caregiving demands correlated positively with both lower perceived stress and less severe depressive symptomatology; however, the lower levels of social support were related to higher perceived stress and higher depressive symptomatology. Caregiving provided by friends, which has long been under recognized, plays an important role in the LGBT community. Because lower levels of caregiving demands are offset by less social support, LGBT friend-caregivers experience similar levels of perceived stress and depressive symptomatology to those providing care to spouses and partners. Policy and service reforms are needed to better acknowledge the continuum of informal caregiving relationships.
Joseph G L Lee
Full Text Available Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.
Graybill, Emily C; Proctor, Sherrie L
Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience harassment and discrimination in schools and these experiences lead to increased negative social-emotional outcomes. Youth who can identify at least one supportive adult at school report better outcomes than youth who cannot identify a safe adult. Yet, many educators report feeling uncomfortable or unprepared to support LGBT youth. One reason for educators' discomfort may be that content related to issues unique to LGBT youth is sometimes missing or covered minimally in university training programs. We hypothesized that LGBT content may be covered minimally in school support personnel journals, as well. This study analyzed eight school support personnel journals across the disciplines of school counseling, school nursing, school psychology, and school social work for LGBT content published between 2000 and 2014 to gain a better understanding of the visibility of LGBT issues in the research. Results suggested that there has been a lack of presence of LGBT issues in journals across disciplines. These results also suggest a need for an intentional focus on issues relevant to LGBT youth in school support personnel journals. Thus, the article concludes with an introduction to two articles in this special topic section, including Russell, Day, Ioverno, and Toomey's (in this issue) study on teacher perceptions of bullying in the context of enumerated school policies and other supportive sexual orientation and gender identity related practices and Poteat and Vecho's (in this issue) study on characteristics of bystanders in homophobic bullying situations. The broad goal of these three studies is to increase visibility of critical LGBT issues in school support personnel journals. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kamen, Charles S; Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Heckler, Charles E; Flannery, Marie; Margolies, Liz
To describe factors related to diagnosis, identity disclosure, and social support among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients with cancer, and to explore associations between these factors and self-rated health. Cross-sectional self-report survey design using descriptive and exploratory multivariate statistical approaches. Online, Internet-based. 291 LGBT patients (89% Caucasian; 50% gay, 36% lesbian, 7% bisexual, 3% transgender) with mixed cancers. Participants completed a researcher-designed online survey assessing experiences of cancer diagnosis among LGBT patients at a single time point. Demographics, which provider(s) delivered the patients' cancer diagnoses, to whom patients had disclosed their LGBT identity, how they disclosed, who was on their social support team at the time of diagnosis, and current self-rated health. 79% of participants reported disclosing their identities to more than one cancer care provider. Participants most commonly introduced the topic of LGBT identity themselves, sometimes as a way to correct heterosexual assumptions (34%). Friends were the most common members of LGBT patients' support teams (79%). Four disclosure and support factors were consistently associated with better self-rated health. Disclosure of LGBT identity is a common experience in the context of cancer care, and disclosure and support factors are associated with better self-reported health among LGBT patients. Creating safe environments for LGBT patients to disclose could improve cancer care delivery to this underserved population. Nurses and other providers should acknowledge and include diverse support team members in LGBT patients' care.
On July 17-18, 2008, the National Education Association hosted the NEA National Summit on gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) Issues in Education in Chicago, Illinois. The purpose of the Summit was to gather leading researchers, scholars, and practitioners on GLBT issues in education to assess the status of GLBT students in the United…
This article is an analysis of picture books and chapter books involving lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgender characters. Over 30 picture and chapter books were reviewed, each of which would be appropriate for use in elementary classrooms. For grades K-2, several picture books highlight different types of families, including families that…
McCormick, Adam; Schmidt, Kathryn; Clifton, Emily
Few studies have examined the effectiveness of gay-straight alliances (GSAs) on the social and academic experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youths. The limited research on GSAs suggests that they are associated with positive youth development and increased safety; however, little qualitative information…
Ng, Cara Ky; Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Knight, Rodney E; Shoveller, Jean A; Johnson, Joy L
In Canada, the issue of creating safe and inclusive school environments for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer students has been in the spotlight. Several researchers and advocates have pointed out the positive effects of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-positive policy frameworks on the health and wellbeing of all young people. In this article, we take a critical approach to analyzing narrative findings from qualitative interviews conducted with youth in three communities in British Columbia, Canada: "the North," Vancouver, and Abbotsford. Using a Foucauldian Discourse Analytic Approach and Butler's concept of Citationality, our analysis suggested that although explicit homophobia was largely absent from youth discussions, young people discursively constructed lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer identities and "communities" in ways that reified heteronormativity. Youth made references to sociopolitical discourses of libertarianism and liberalism and to homonormative stereotypes regarding gay masculinity. A few young people also alluded to egalitarian, queer-positive discourses, which appeared to interrogate structures of heteronormativity. Since studies suggest a connection between the existence of institutional supports for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer students in schools and their mental and physical wellbeing, we conclude by considering the limitations and possibilities of these sociopolitical discourses in the struggle for sexual and gender equity, and how they might help frame future health-related, anti-homophobia policy frameworks in educational settings.
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.
This study examines how locational (region and locale), community-level (school district poverty and adult educational attainment), and school district-level (district size and ratios of students to key school personnel) variables are related to indicators of hostile school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth.…
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.
Current estimates indicate that there are more than 7 million lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) parents with school-age children in the United States, yet little is known about the experiences of this growing number of LGBT-headed families in schools across the country. In order to fill this crucial gap in our knowledge of LGBT issues…
Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Pachankis, John E.
Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in Romania encounter pervasive stigma and discrimination and there is a high need for LGBT-competent mental health professionals (MHPs). We tested the impact of a pilot LGBT-affirmative training for MHPs in Romania on these professionals' LGBT-relevant attitudes, knowledge, and perception of clinical skills.
Berger, Israel; Mooney-Somers, Julie
Tobacco use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people is double the general population. Limited evidence suggests high smoking rates among intersex people. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) people are a priority population in Australian health policy, particularly mental health and aging. Despite associations between smoking and noncommunicable diseases relevant to aging and mental health, LGBTI-targeted smoking cessation interventions in Australia have been limited to people living with HIV. Applying existing interventions to marginalized populations without modification and evaluation may fail and exacerbate inequities. To assess outcomes and characterize the populations served, cultural modifications, and behavior change techniques (BCTs) of interventions to reduce LGBTI smoking. We searched MEDLINE, six additional databases, and contacted authors to retrieve published and unpublished program evaluations. We retrieved 19 studies (3663 participants). None used control groups. Overall quit rate was 61.0% at the end of interventions and stabilized at 38.6% at 3-6 months. All studies included gay men, 13 included lesbians, 13 "LGBT," 12 bisexual people, five transgender people, and none included intersex people. Transgender people comprised 3% of participants. Of programs open to women, 27.8% of participants were women. Cultural modifications were used by 17 (89.5%) studies, commonly meeting in LGBT spaces, discussing social justice, and discussing LGBT-specific triggers. Common BCTs included providing normative information, boosting motivation/self-efficacy, relapse prevention, social support, action planning, and discussing consequences. Quit rates were high; using control groups would improve evaluation. Existing programs may fail to reach groups other than gay men. This review examines the evidence for LGBTI-targeted smoking cessation interventions. Populations within LGBTI are not proportionally represented in smoking
Johnson, Michael J; Mueller, Martina; Eliason, Michele J; Stuart, Gail; Nemeth, Lynne S
The purposes of this study were to measure the prevalence of, and identify factors associated with, cervical cancer screening among a sample of lesbian, bisexual and queer women, and transgender men. Past research has found that lesbian, bisexual and queer women underuse cervical screening service. Because deficient screening remains the most significant risk factor for cervical cancer, it is essential to understand the differences between routine and nonroutine screeners. A convergent-parallel mixed methods design. A convenience sample of 21- to 65-year-old lesbian and bisexual women and transgender men were recruited in the USA from August-December 2014. Quantitative data were collected via a 48-item Internet questionnaire (N = 226), and qualitative data were collected through in-depth telephone interviews (N = 20) and open-ended questions on the Internet questionnaire. Seventy-three per cent of the sample was routine cervical screeners. The results showed that a constellation of factors influence the use of cervical cancer screening among lesbian, bisexual and queer women. Some of those factors overlap with the general female population, whereas others are specific to the lesbian, bisexual or queer identity. Routine screeners reported feeling more welcome in the health care setting, while nonroutine screeners reported more discrimination related to their sexual orientation and gender expression. Routine screeners were also more likely to 'out' to their provider. The quantitative and qualitative factors were also compared and contrasted. Many of the factors identified in this study to influence cervical cancer screening relate to the health care environment and to interactions between the patient and provider. Nurses should be involved with creating welcoming environments for lesbian, bisexual and queer women and their partners. Moreover, nurses play a large role in patient education and should promote self-care behaviours among lesbian women and transgender
Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Goldsmith, Elizabeth S; Stewart, Leslie; White, William; Tran, Eric; Brenman, Stephanie; Wells, Maggie; Fetterman, David M; Garcia, Gabriel; Lunn, Mitchell R
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals experience health and health care disparities and have specific health care needs. Medical education organizations have called for LGBT-sensitive training, but how and to what extent schools educate students to deliver comprehensive LGBT patient care is unknown. To characterize LGBT-related medical curricula and associated curricular development practices and to determine deans' assessments of their institutions' LGBT-related curricular content. Deans of medical education (or equivalent) at 176 allopathic or osteopathic medical schools in Canada and the United States were surveyed to complete a 13-question, Web-based questionnaire between May 2009 and March 2010. Reported hours of LGBT-related curricular content. Of 176 schools, 150 (85.2%) responded, and 132 (75.0%) fully completed the questionnaire. The median reported time dedicated to teaching LGBT-related content in the entire curriculum was 5 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 3-8 hours). Of the 132 respondents, 9 (6.8%; 95% CI, 2.5%-11.1%) reported 0 hours taught during preclinical years and 44 (33.3%; 95% CI, 25.3%-41.4%) reported 0 hours during clinical years. Median US allopathic clinical hours were significantly different from US osteopathic clinical hours (2 hours [IQR, 0-4 hours] vs 0 hours [IQR, 0-2 hours]; P = .008). Although 128 of the schools (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.0%-99.9%) taught students to ask patients if they "have sex with men, women, or both" when obtaining a sexual history, the reported teaching frequency of 16 LGBT-specific topic areas in the required curriculum was lower: at least 8 topics at 83 schools (62.9%; 95% CI, 54.6%-71.1%) and all topics at 11 schools (8.3%; 95% CI, 3.6%-13.0%). The institutions' LGBT content was rated as "fair" at 58 schools (43.9%; 95% CI, 35.5%-52.4%). Suggested successful strategies to increase content included curricular material focusing on LGBT-related health and health disparities at 77 schools (58
Jered B. Kolbert
Full Text Available This study was designed to ascertain teachers’ perceptions of bullying of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ youth. In a sample of 200 educators (61.0% female; 96.5% White from a county in southwestern Pennsylvania, there was a significant positive relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the supportiveness of school staff towards students regardless of sexual orientation and those teachers’ reports of the frequency of bullying victimization experienced by LGBTQ students. Teachers’ perceptions of a higher level of staff and student support was associated with higher reported frequencies of students’ use of derogatory language about LGBTQ individuals and various types of bullying of LGBTQ students. Teachers with a lesbian, gay, or bisexual orientation were found to rate the school staff and students as significantly less supportive of students regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression in comparison to heterosexual teachers. Finally, teachers who either were unaware of or believed that their school lacked an anti-bullying policy reported significantly higher rates of physical bullying victimization of LGBTQ students when compared to the rates observed by teachers who reported knowledge of their schools’ anti-bullying policies.
Kolbert, Jered B.; Crothers, Laura M.; Bundick, Matthew J.; Wells, Daniel S.; Buzgon, Julie; Berbary, Cassandra; Simpson, Jordan; Senko, Katherine
This study was designed to ascertain teachers’ perceptions of bullying of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) youth. In a sample of 200 educators (61.0% female; 96.5% White) from a county in southwestern Pennsylvania, there was a significant positive relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the supportiveness of school staff towards students regardless of sexual orientation and those teachers’ reports of the frequency of bullying victimization experienced by LGBTQ students. Teachers’ perceptions of a higher level of staff and student support was associated with higher reported frequencies of students’ use of derogatory language about LGBTQ individuals and various types of bullying of LGBTQ students. Teachers with a lesbian, gay, or bisexual orientation were found to rate the school staff and students as significantly less supportive of students regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression in comparison to heterosexual teachers. Finally, teachers who either were unaware of or believed that their school lacked an anti-bullying policy reported significantly higher rates of physical bullying victimization of LGBTQ students when compared to the rates observed by teachers who reported knowledge of their schools’ anti-bullying policies. PMID:26030341
Kolbert, Jered B; Crothers, Laura M; Bundick, Matthew J; Wells, Daniel S; Buzgon, Julie; Berbary, Cassandra; Simpson, Jordan; Senko, Katherine
This study was designed to ascertain teachers' perceptions of bullying of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) youth. In a sample of 200 educators (61.0% female; 96.5% White) from a county in southwestern Pennsylvania, there was a significant positive relationship between the teachers' perceptions of the supportiveness of school staff towards students regardless of sexual orientation and those teachers' reports of the frequency of bullying victimization experienced by LGBTQ students. Teachers' perceptions of a higher level of staff and student support was associated with higher reported frequencies of students' use of derogatory language about LGBTQ individuals and various types of bullying of LGBTQ students. Teachers with a lesbian, gay, or bisexual orientation were found to rate the school staff and students as significantly less supportive of students regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression in comparison to heterosexual teachers. Finally, teachers who either were unaware of or believed that their school lacked an anti-bullying policy reported significantly higher rates of physical bullying victimization of LGBTQ students when compared to the rates observed by teachers who reported knowledge of their schools' anti-bullying policies.
Pedro, Kris Tunac De; Esqueda, Monica Christina
Military-connected youth often experience daily stressors that affect their academic success and social and emotional development. Stressors such as multiple deployments and frequent school transitions may weaken the social ties that military-connected youth have with school communities, placing them at risk of social alienation and victimization. Within this youth population, military-connected lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth may be especially at risk of school victimization. However, to the authors' knowledge, no empirical studies have been conducted on the school experiences of military-connected LGBT youth. Drawing from the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS; n = 634,978), this study explored school victimization and weapon carrying among military-connected LGBT youth and their peers. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that military connection, LGB identity, and transgender identity were associated with an increased odds of nonphysical victimization, physical violence, and weapon carrying. Military transgender youth were at an increased risk of weapon carrying (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.23, 2.16]). Future research is needed to explore risk and protective factors influencing school victimization and weapon carrying among military-connected LGBT youth.
Full Text Available To date there has been minimal empirical inquiry on what may constitute inclusive learning environments for older (50+ years lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT adults. This paper draws upon a recent life-histories study with older LGBT adults in Scotland to consider how such environments can be developed. To do so, intersectional analysis is applied to interrogate how participants' lived realities and sense of self are enabled and constrained by the interactions between their diverse ageing, LGBT and other identities in the particular contexts of later life, post work. The paper argues that by adopting this approach to intersectional analysis, critical educational gerontology (CEG is equipped to more effectively realise inclusive, meaningful and potentially empowering learning environments for older LGBT adults. These will be more attuned to their later life realities, enabling them to reflect on the changing significance of being LGBT as they age, while allowing potential for personal growth and renewed sense of self.
Pomeranz, Jennifer L
Discrimination causes health inequities for stigmatized groups. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals, in particular, are at significantly increased risk for disparate health outcomes when they reside in states that fail to extend equal protections to them or that actively deprive equal rights to them. Several states and the federal government have proposed or enacted laws that permit residents to discriminate against LGBTQ individuals. One such law, Arkansas's Intrastate Commerce Improvement Act of 2015, preempts or prohibits local governments from enacting civil rights protections for LGBTQ individuals that are also lacking at the state level. State laws such as Arkansas's undermine local control, damage the economy, and create injustices that harm LGBTQ people. I set forth 2 constitutional arguments to challenge such laws, and I provide information to help advocates support evidence-based policymaking and prevent the passage of similar laws in their states.
Keuroghlian, Alex S.; Shtasel, Derri; Bassuk, Ellen L.
A disproportionate number of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth experience homelessness each year in the United States. LGBT youth who are homeless have particularly high rates of mental health and substance use problems, suicidal acts, violent victimization, and a range of HIV risk behaviors. Given the intense needs of LGBT youth experiencing homelessness, it is imperative that we understand their unique experiences and develop responsive practices and policies. The range and severity of health risks vary across subgroups of all homeless LGBT youth, and since the population is nonhomogeneous their particular needs must be identified and addressed. Thus the purpose of this article is to review the causes of homelessness among LGBT youth, discuss the mental health and victimization risks faced by this population, address differences among homeless LGBT subgoups, and recommend effective interventions and best practices. We conclude by discussing promising future research and public policy directions. PMID:24826829
McClain, Zachary; Hawkins, Linda A; Yehia, Baligh R
Health outcomes are affected by patient, provider, and environmental factors. Previous studies have evaluated patient-level factors; few focusing on environment. Safe clinical spaces are important for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities. This study evaluates current models of LGBT health care delivery, identifies strengths and weaknesses, and makes recommendations for LGBT spaces. Models are divided into LGBT-specific and LGBT-embedded care delivery. Advantages to both models exist, and they provide LGBT patients different options of healthcare. Yet certain commonalities must be met: a clean and confidential system. Once met, LGBT-competent environments and providers can advocate for appropriate care for LGBT communities, creating environments where they would want to seek care.
H Logie, Carmen; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Jenkinson, Jesse; Madau, Veli; Nhlengethwa, Winnie; Baral, Stefan
Swaziland has among the highest national adult HIV prevalence globally. There is limited knowledge of HIV vulnerabilities and prevention engagement among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons in the context of Swaziland's criminalization of consensual same-sex practices. This study explored social processes of marginalization to assess how they could potentiate HIV vulnerabilities and limit engagement in HIV prevention services. Additionally, we assessed positive change to better understand existing strategies employed by LGBT persons to challenge these HIV prevention barriers. Guided by community-based research methodology and conducted in Mbabane and Manzini, Swaziland, data were collected by LGBT peer-research assistants (PRA) in collaboration with an LGBT community organization in Manzini. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by trained PRAs and explored HIV prevention, including experiences of stigma and coping. Audio files were transcribed verbatim, translated to English, and analyzed using thematic techniques. Among participants (n = 51; mean age: 26.47, SD: 4.68), 40 self-identifed as gay or lesbian (78.4%), 11 bisexual (22.6%), and 12 (23.5%) identified as transgender. Findings highlighted three primary processes of marginalization and positive change in structural, community, and internal domains. First, structural marginalization, which included criminalization, healthcare discrimination, and a scarcity of LGBT tailored HIV prevention resources was challenged by grassroots networks created to access and share specific HIV resources with LGBT persons and the Ministry of Health. Second, community marginalization included stigma and multi-dimensional forms of violence, however, this was met with LGBT persons providing mutual peer support, including for accessing HIV testing services. Thirdly, internal marginalization comprised of self-stigma and associated sexual risk practices was contrasted with coping strategies focused on self
Coulter, Robert W S; Bersamin, Melina; Russell, Stephen T; Mair, Christina
We tested three competing models about whether gender- and sexuality-based harassment at school have nonindependent, additive, or interactive effects on adolescents' electronic cigarette use (i.e., vaping), cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking (HED). We also tested whether harassment mediated substance use disparities between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) adolescents and their cisgender heterosexual peers. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2013-2014 California Healthy Kids Survey, including 316,766 students in grades 7, 9, and 11 from more than 1,500 middle and high schools. We used logistic regression models and interaction terms to estimate associations of past-year gender- and sexuality-based harassment at school on past-month substance use, and the Karlson-Holm-Breen method to test whether harassment mediated LGBT disparities in substance use. Vaping, smoking, drinking, HED, and gender- and sexuality-based harassment were higher for transgender adolescents than for cisgender males and females, and for adolescents who were lesbian, gay, or bisexual only versus heterosexual only. Gender- and sexuality-based harassments were independently associated with greater odds of using each substance in every grade. These two types of harassment had positive interactions with each other for vaping in grade 11, smoking in grade 11, and HED in grades 9 and 11. Gender- and sexuality-based harassment significantly mediated many of the LGBT disparities in substance use. Gender- and sexuality-based harassment at school independently or interactively produced LGBT disparities in substance use. Reducing these types of discrimination in schools will likely mitigate these disparities. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Willis, Danny G; Amar, Angela F
Bullying has been long seen as a natural part of childhood and adolescence. However, a growing body of evidence suggests bullying and now cyberbullying may inflict harm or distress on targeted youth including physical, psychological, social, or educational harm. The purpose of this paper is to endorse the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine statement, summarize the report, and apply the recommendations to two focus areas: screening and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth as they relate to bullying and cyberbullying. Screening for bullying against youth; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth as a high-risk group for bullying victimization; and implications to address bullying against youth are exemplified. Nurses need to promote policies that foster inclusive, supportive, safe, and healthy schools and environments for youth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kenst, Karey S.; Bowen, Deborah J.; Scout
Objectives. We examined the proportion of studies funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) that focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, along with investigated health topics. Methods. We used the NIH RePORTER system to search for LGBT-related terms in NIH-funded research from 1989 through 2011. We coded abstracts for LGBT inclusion, subpopulations studied, health foci, and whether studies involved interventions. Results. NIH funded 628 studies concerning LGBT health. Excluding projects about HIV/AIDS and other sexual health matters, only 0.1% (n = 113) of all NIH-funded studies concerned LGBT health. Among the LGBT-related projects, 86.1% studied sexual minority men, 13.5% studied sexual minority women, and 6.8% studied transgender populations. Overall, 79.1% of LGBT-related projects focused on HIV/AIDS and substantially fewer on illicit drug use (30.9%), mental health (23.2%), other sexual health matters (16.4%), and alcohol use (12.9%). Only 202 studies examined LGBT health–related interventions. Over time, the number of LGBT-related projects per year increased. Conclusions. The lack of NIH-funded research about LGBT health contributes to the perpetuation of health inequities. Here we recommend ways for NIH to stimulate LGBT-related research. PMID:24328665
Gurung, Sitaji; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Savarese, Elizabeth; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Despite the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Don't Pursue (DADT) and the update to the Transgender Policy, there remain concerns about the persistence of military sexual trauma (MST) and sexual orientation discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members. A sample of 253 participants (89 women, 164 men) completed an Internet-based survey that assessed the prevalence of sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., offensive speech, physical or discriminatory behaviors) and MST (e.g., sexual harassment and sexual assault). The survey was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Women and men reported similar levels of sexual orientation discrimination in the military. Participants reported experiencing more threats and intimation, vandalism, and physical assault outside of the military than inside the military ( p sexual harassment and sexual assault) in the military was high among both genders, women were more likely to report experiences of sexual harassment compared to men ( p sexual orientation discrimination among LGBT service members in the military and point to the need for strong accountability and oversight to protect sexual minority persons while they are serving their country.
Stotzer, Rebecca L; Ka‘opua, Lana Sue I; Diaz, Tressa P
This paper presents findings from a statewide needs assessment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) people in Hawai‘i that relate to health status and health-related risk factors such as having health insurance coverage, having a regular doctor, experiencing sexual orientation (SO) or gender identity/expression (GI/E) discrimination in health/mental health care settings, and delaying care due to concerns about SO and GIE discrimination in Hawai‘i, Honolul...
Patterson Thomas L; Shoveller Jean A; Wood Evan; Marshall Brandon DL; Montaner Julio SG; Kerr Thomas
Abstract Background Methamphetamine (MA) use continues to be a major public health concern in many urban settings. We sought to assess potential relationships between MA use and individual, social, and structural HIV vulnerabilities among sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered) drug users. Methods Beginning in 2005 and ending in 2008, 2109 drug users were enroled into one of three cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada. We analysed longitudinal data from all self-identified sex...
Logie, Carmen H; James, LLana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R
Background: Lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender (LBQT) women living with HIV have been described as invisible and understudied. Yet, social and structural contexts of violence and discrimination exacerbate the risk of HIV infection among LBQT women. The study objective was to explore challenges in daily life and experiences of accessing HIV services among HIV-positive LBQT women in Toronto, Canada. Methods: We used a community-based qualitative approach guided by an intersectional theore...
Birkett, Michelle; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian
The mental health and victimization of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth have garnered media attention with the "It Gets Better Project." Despite this popular interest, there is an absence of empirical evidence evaluating a possible developmental trajectory in LGBTQ distress and the factors that might influence distress over time. This study used an accelerated longitudinal design and multilevel modeling to examine a racially/ethnically diverse analytic sample of 231 LGBTQ adolescents aged 16-20 years at baseline, across six time points, and over 3.5 years. Results indicated that both psychological distress and victimization decreased across adolescence and into early adulthood. Furthermore, time-lagged analyses and mediation analyses suggested that distress was related to prior experiences of victimization, with greater victimization leading to greater distress. Support received from parents, peers, and significant others was negatively correlated with psychological distress in the cross-sectional model but did not reach significance in the time-lagged model. Analyses suggest that psychological distress might "get better" when adolescents encounter less victimization and adds to a growing literature indicating that early experiences of stress impact the mental health of LGBTQ youth. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Griebling, Tomas L
Sex and sexuality are core components of the human experience. Many older adults and people with terminal illness still consider sexuality important in their lives. The palliative care experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons are unique in a number of important ways with regard to sexuality and sexual expression. To date, there has been relatively limited scholarly research on sexual health needs of people in palliative care and near end of life, and an even greater paucity of data specifically about sexual minorities. Forms of sexual expression may change with advancing age and illness. Physical intimacy and emotional connection may take on greater roles compared with more traditional concepts of sexual activity. Several recent studies have examined sexual health in palliative care and a few have examined LGBT cohorts. Advances in public policy, including the recent US Supreme Court decision regarding marriage equality, have continued to shape the cultural landscape for LGBT people. This article reviews recent literature with considerations for future research. Sexuality and intimacy remain important for many people facing terminal illness. LGBT people face unique challenges with regard to sexuality during palliative care. Clinicians should work to avoid heteronormative stereotypes and focus on goals of care to enhance quality of life for all patients.
Jannat-Khah, Deanna P; Dill, LeConté J; Reynolds, Simone A; Joseph, Michael A
This study contributes to the emerging literature on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer (LGBTQ) health disparities and tobacco use by examining the motivations for smoking among the New York City (NYC) LGBTQ population. We used grounded theory and blended methods from 3 grounded theorists-Strauss, Corbin, and Charmaz-for data collection, coding, and analysis. NYC has extensive legislation to prevent smoking; however, the current smoking prevalence of homosexuals is double that of heterosexuals. Study participants were leaders from 23 NYC LGBTQ organizations. Leaders were chosen to establish a relationship with community and to ensure cultural sensitivity. Eligibility criteria required holding a leadership position in an organization serving the NYC LGBTQ community. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and uploaded into Dedoose for analysis. An initial code list was developed from the interview guide. Key themes were identified as the themes with the most number of quotes. Three key themes emerged from our interviews: image, socializing, and stress. Smoking was reported to be a socialization aid and a maladaptive coping technique for stress arising from interactions of conflicting identities. Future smoking cessation interventions among the LGBTQ community should equip smokers with healthy coping mechanisms that address the stressors that arise from the intersections of smokers' many identities.
Schmitz, Rachel M; Tyler, Kimberly A
Familial responses to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) young people's identities range on a spectrum from rejection to acceptance and these reactions strongly impact family relationships and young adult well-being. Less is known, however, about how family members' reactions may differ based on young people's contexts of socioeconomic status. Through a qualitative, life course analysis of in-depth interview data from 46 LGBTQ college students and LGBTQ homeless young adults, our study highlights the diverse, contextual nuances of young people's "linked lives" within their families. We find that the context of socioeconomic status influenced how a young person managed family rejection. Conversely, processes of familial acceptance were also connected to life course transitions that worked in some cases to enhance LGBTQ young adults' family relationships. Finally, the intricacy of familial reactions to a young person's LGBTQ identity transcended socioeconomic contexts as many respondents shared similar experiences of rejection and acceptance. These findings have implications for understanding how young people manage family relationships across different contexts of socioeconomic status and how these experiences can shape their life course trajectories. Results from this study can inform LGBTQ youth service providers by tailoring intervention programs that account for contextual social diversity.
Burgess, Diana; Tran, Alisia; Lee, Richard; van Ryn, Michelle
Previous research has found that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals are at risk for a variety of mental health disorders. We examined the extent to which a recent experience of a major discriminatory event may contribute to poor mental health among LGBT persons. Data were derived from a cross-sectional strata-cluster survey of adults in Hennepin County, Minnesota, who identified as LGBT (n=472) or heterosexual (n=7,412). Compared to heterosexuals, LGBT individuals had poorer mental health (higher levels of psychological distress, greater likelihood of having a diagnosis of depression or anxiety, greater perceived mental health needs, and greater use of mental health services), more substance use (higher levels of binge drinking, greater likelihood of being a smoker and greater number of cigarettes smoked per day), and were more likely to report unmet mental healthcare needs. LGBT individuals were also more likely to report having experienced a major incident of discrimination over the past year than heterosexual individuals. Although perceived discrimination was associated with almost all of the indicators of mental health and utilization of mental health care that we examined, adjusting for discrimination did not significantly reduce mental health disparities between heterosexual and LGBT persons. LGBT individuals experienced more major discrimination and reported worse mental health than heterosexuals, but discrimination did not account for this disparity. Future research should explore additional forms of discrimination and additional stressors associated with minority sexual orientation that may account for these disparities.
Jones, K Nicole; Brewster, Melanie E
In recent history, heterosexual allies have played an integral role in promoting change for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations in the United States; however, questions have been raised as to what drives heterosexual allies to promote change via activism. To delineate factors important in engagement in activism, 207 self-identified heterosexual allies completed an online survey measuring components associated with LGBT activism using Bandura's (1986) model of triadic reciprocal determinism: personal factors (ally identity, social justice self-efficacy and outcome expectations, empathetic perspective taking, and gender) and environmental factors (social justice related supports and barriers, positive marginality, and education level) to predict behaviors (LGBT activism). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed a model accounting for 62% of the variance in LGBT activism, with dimensions of ally identification, social justice self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and education level emerging as significant predictors of engagement in activism behaviors. Empathetic perspective taking and social justice related barriers predicted lack of engagement in LGBT activism, however. Supporting the notion that personal and environmental factors simultaneously impact engagement in LGBT activism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Harper, Gary W; Schneider, Margaret
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) people continue to experience various forms of oppression and discrimination in North America and throughout the world, despite the social, legal, and political advances that have been launched in an attempt to grant LGBT people basic human rights. Even though LGBT people and communities have been actively engaged in community organizing and social action efforts since the early twentieth century, research on LGBT issues has been, for the most part, conspicuously absent within the very field of psychology that is explicitly focused on community research and action--Community Psychology. The psychological and social impact of oppression, rejection, discrimination, harassment, and violence on LGBT people is reviewed, and recent advances in the areas of LGBT health, public policy, and research are detailed. Recent advances within the field of Community Psychology with regard to LGBT research and action are highlighted, and a call to action is offered to integrate the knowledge and skills within LGBT communities with Community Psychology's models of intervention, prevention, and social change in order to build better theory and intervention for LGBT people and communities.
Shields, Linda; Zappia, Tess; Blackwood, Diana; Watkins, Rochelle; Wardrop, Joan; Chapman, Rose
Few studies have examined the issues faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-parented families in relation to their access to and satisfaction with healthcare services for their children. It is thought that LGBT individuals have experienced negative interactions with the healthcare environment. To systematically review the literature investigating the experience of LGBT parents seeking health care for their children. A search of the following databases: Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase, Google Scholar, Medline, PsychInfo, Science Direct, Sociological Abstracts, Proquest, Scopus, and Web of Science was conducted. Using the PRISMA flow chart and processes of the United Kingdom Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, we selected and analysed relevant studies. Four studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. Studies showed that while the experience of LGBT parents seeking health care was largely positive, strategies need to be implemented to improve the quality of healthcare services for LGBT families and ensure that their needs are met. Although many LGBT parents have positive experiences of health care, some still experience discrimination and prejudice. Specific educational interventions are needed to support LGBT parents seeking health care for their children. Further research is required to explore LGBT-parented families' experiences of healthcare services, and this should include children's experiences. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Bennett, Elaine; Berry, Karen; Emeto, Theophilus I; Burmeister, Oliver K; Young, Jeanine; Shields, Linda
To examine the attitudes to and knowledge and beliefs about homosexuality of nurses and allied professionals in two early parenting services in Australia. Early parenting services employ nurses and allied professionals. Access and inclusion policies are important in community health and early childhood service settings. However, little is known about the perceptions of professionals who work within early parenting services in relation to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender families. This is the final in a series of studies and was undertaken in two early parenting services in two states in Australia using a cross-sectional design with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Validated questionnaires were completed by 51 nurses and allied professionals and tested with chi-squared test of independence (or Fisher's exact test), Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance or Spearman's rank correlation. Thematic analysis examined qualitative data collected in a box for free comments. Of the constructs measured by the questionnaires, no significant relationships were found in knowledge, attitude and gay affirmative practice scores by sociodemographic variables or professional group. However, attitude scores towards lesbians and gay men were significantly negatively affected by conservative political affiliation (p = 0·038), held religious beliefs (p = 0·011) and frequency of praying (p = 0·018). Six overall themes were found as follows: respect, parenting role, implications for the child, management, disclosure, resources and training. The study provided an in-depth analysis of the attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of professionals in two early parenting services, showing that work is needed to promote acceptance of diversity and the inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender families in planning, developing, evaluating and accessing early parenting services. Access and inclusion plans for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender
, and Transgender (LGBT) Pride Month Social Media Facebook Twitter Instagram 2015 Pride Month Poster transgender environment at the Defense Department over the past 20 years. Carter: Diversity, Inclusion Critical to Force of Future Embracing diversity and inclusion is critical to recruiting and retaining the
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Pachankis, John E
In this article, we review theory and evidence on stigma and minority stress as social/structural determinants of health among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. We discuss different forms of stigma at individual (eg, identity concealment), interpersonal (eg, victimization), and structural (eg, laws and social norms) levels, as well as the mechanisms linking stigma to adverse health outcomes among LGBT youth. Finally, we discuss clinical (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) and public health (eg, antibullying policies) interventions that effectively target stigma-inducing mechanisms to improve the health of LGBT youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Watson, Lori Anne
Schools contribute heavily to the feelings of isolation and stigmatization that many gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth experience. Research demonstrates that the climate of US middle and high schools are generally unsupportive and unsafe for many of these youth who are often susceptible to harassment, discrimination, and other negative events,…
Driskell, Jeff; Bradford, Judith
While we know that minority status differentiates the experience of aging, little research has been done to examine the ways in which patterns of successful aging may differ in diverse subgroups of older adults. In this exploratory study, we investigated and described experiences of successful aging in a sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Directed by a community-based participatory research process, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 22 LGBT adults, age 60 and older. We took an inductive, grounded theory approach to analyze the taped and transcribed interviews. We coded respondent experiences in four domains: physical health, mental health, emotional state and social engagement. Four gradations of successful aging emerged. Very few in our sample met the bar for “traditional success” characterized by the absence of problems in all four domains of health. Most of the sample was coping to a degree with problems and were categorized in one of two gradations on a continuum of successful aging: “surviving and thriving” and “working at it.” A small number was “ailing”: not coping well with problems. Some of the experiences that respondents described were related to LGBT status; others were related to more general processes of aging. The research suggests that a successful aging framework that is modified to include coping can better describe the experiences of LGBT older adults. The modified conceptual model outlined here may be useful in future research on this population, as well as more broadly for diverse populations of adults, and may be adapted for use in practice to assess and improve health and well-being. PMID:23273552
People who identity as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) have specific health needs. Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health, as homophobia and heteronormativity persist as prejudices in society. LGBT patients often experience discrimination and prejudice in health care settings. While recent South African policies recognise the need for providing LGBT specific health care, no curricula for teaching about LGBT health related issues exist in South African health sciences faculties. This study aimed to determine the extent to which LGBT health related content is taught in the University of Cape Town's medical curriculum. A curriculum mapping exercise was conducted through an online survey of all academic staff at the UCT health sciences faculty, determining LGBT health related content, pedagogical methodology and assessment. 127 academics, across 31 divisions and research units in the Faculty of Health Sciences, responded to the survey, of which 93 completed the questionnaire. Ten taught some content related to LGBT health in the MBChB curriculum. No LGBT health related content was taught in the allied health sciences curricula. The MBChB curriculum provided no opportunity for students to challenge their own attitudes towards LGBT patients, and key LGBT health topics such as safer sex, mental health, substance abuse and adolescent health were not addressed. At present, UCTs health sciences curricula do not adequately address LGBT specific health issues. Where LGBT health related content is taught in the MBChB curriculum, it is largely discretionary, unsystematic and not incorporated into the overarching structure. Coordinated initiatives to integrate LGBT health related content into all health sciences curricula should be supported, and follow an approach that challenges students to develop professional attitudes and behaviour concerning care for patients from LGBT backgrounds, as well as providing them with specific LGBT
Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) university faculty worry about the effects of self-disclosure in their professional lives. One concern is that self-disclosure as LGBT could result in negative evaluations of one's teaching by students due to student bias against LGBT people. In order to investigate this concern, this study…
Perspective on Out & Equal Workplace Advocates Building Bridges Model: A Retrospect of the Past, Present, and Future of Training Impacting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Employees in the Workplace
Baillie, Pat; Gedro, Julie
As early as 1983, a group of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgenders (LGBTs) in the San Francisco Bay Area met with the United Way to discuss the needs of the community in the workplace. In 1986, the United Way authorized a board-level task force on LGBT issues, which looked at health and human care concerns. In 1990, Building Bridges was formed…
Sexual orientation and gender identity are social determinants of health for people identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT), and health disparities among sexual and gender minority populations are increasingly well understood. Although the South African constitution guarantees sexual and gender minority people the right to non-discrimination and the right to access to healthcare, homo- and transphobia in society abound. Little is known about LGBT people's healthcare experiences in South Africa, but anecdotal evidence suggests significant barriers to accessing care. Using the framework of the UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights General Comment 14, this study analyses the experiences of LGBT health service users using South African public sector healthcare, including access to HIV counselling, testing and treatment. A qualitative study comprised of 16 semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions with LGBT health service users, and 14 individual interviews with representatives of LGBT organisations. Data were thematically analysed within the framework of the UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights General Comment 14, focusing on availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of care. All interviewees reported experiences of discrimination by healthcare providers based on their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Participants recounted violations of all four elements of the UN General Comment 14: 1) Availability: Lack of public health facilities and services, both for general and LGBT-specific concerns; 2) Accessibility: Healthcare providers' refusal to provide care to LGBT patients; 3) Acceptability: Articulation of moral judgment and disapproval of LGBT patients' identity, and forced subjection of patients to religious practices; 4) Quality: Lack of knowledge about LGBT identities and health needs, leading to poor-quality care. Participants had delayed or
Banerjee, Smita C; Walters, Chasity B; Staley, Jessica M; Alexander, Koshy; Parker, Patricia A
Delivery of culturally competent care toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients depends on how health-care providers (HCPs) communicate with them; however, research about knowledge, attitude, and behavior of HCPs toward LGBT patients is scant. The objectives of our study were to describe oncology HCPs' knowledge and examine if beliefs about LGB and transgender patients mediate the effects of LGBT health-care knowledge on open communication behaviors with LGB and transgender patients, respectively. A total of 1253 HCPs (187 physicians, 153 advance practice professionals (APPs), 828 nurses, and 41 others) at a Comprehensive Cancer Center completed an online survey that included the following measures: LGBT health-care knowledge, beliefs, communication behaviors, willingness to treat LGBT patients, encouraging LGBT disclosure, and perceived importance of LGBT sensitivity training. Only 50 participants (5%) correctly answered all 7 knowledge items, and about half the respondents answered 3 (out of 7) items correctly. Favorable beliefs about LGBT health care mediated the effect of higher LGBT health-care knowledge on open communication behaviors with transgender patients, controlling for effects of type of profession, religious orientation, gender identity, sexual orientation, and having LGBT friends/family. The results of this study demonstrated an overall lack of medical knowledge and the need for more education about LGBT health care among oncology HCPs.
Smith, Elizabeth A; Thomson, Katherine; Offen, Naphtali; Malone, Ruth E
In the public health literature, it is generally assumed that the perception of "targeting" as positive or negative by the targeted audience depends on the product or message being promoted. Smoking prevalence rates are high among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, but little is known about how they perceive tobacco industry targeting. We conducted focus groups with LGBT individuals in 4 US cities to explore their perceptions. Our findings indicated that focus group participants often responded positively to tobacco company targeting. Targeting connoted community visibility, legitimacy, and economic viability. Participants did not view tobacco as a gay health issue. Targeting is a key aspect of corporate-community interaction. A better understanding of targeting may aid public health efforts to counter corporate disease promotion.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Jen, Sarah; Bryan, Amanda E. B.; Goldsen, Jayn
Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and other dementias are important health concerns for older adults. As a marginalized and growing segment of the older adult population, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults face distinct risk factors related to cognitive impairment and dementias, including social isolation, discrimination, barriers to health care access, limited availability of and support for caregivers, and higher rates of certain chronic illnesses. We examine cognitive impairment and dementias among LGBT older adults, describe their unique risk factors, and outline key competencies for health care and human service providers to ensure culturally relevant care for LGBT older adults experiencing cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, or other dementias, as well as their caregivers, families, and communities. Implications include developing an awareness of the context of LGBT older adults’ lives and relationships, the importance of early detection and support, and the development of policies and practices that promote community-level advocacy and education. PMID:27729400
Keuroghlian, Alex S; Ard, Kevin L; Makadon, Harvey J
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people face pervasive health disparities and barriers to high-quality care. Adequate LGBT sexual health education for emerging health professionals is currently lacking. Clinical training programs and healthcare organisations are well poised to start addressing these disparities and affirming LGBT patients through curricula designed to cultivate core competencies in LBGT health as well as health care environments that welcome, include and protect LGBT patients, students and staff. Health education programs can emphasise mastery of basic LGBT concepts and terminology, as well as openness towards and acceptance of LGBT people. Core concepts, language and positive attitudes can be instilled alongside clinical skill in delivering inclusive sexual health care, through novel educational strategies and paradigms for clinical implementation. Caring for the health needs of LGBT patients also involves the creation of health care settings that affirm LGBT communities in a manner that is responsive to culturally specific needs, sensitivities and challenges that vary across the globe.
Full Text Available This article provides a theoretical contemplation on how reciprocation of an assimilationist, liberationist and/or transgressive approach by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer and/or questioning (LGBTIQ+ individuals on university campuses may encourage transformation initiatives in South African universities. The author ascribe to the contributions of previous research studies on a social constructionist approach to resilience to debate how individuals potentially navigate the disparity between sexual structure and agency within their ideological and physical construction and enactment of their academic and student persona. A theoretical basis is provided for the influence of social resilience to emphasise the localised, intersectional and plural experiences of LGBTIQ+ individuals as opposed to a monolithic and universal ‘either/or’ account of their being solely docile victims or free agents in a heteronormative context.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Jen, Sarah; Bryan, Amanda E B; Goldsen, Jayn
Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias are important health concerns for older adults. As a marginalized and growing segment of the older adult population, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults face distinct risk factors related to cognitive impairment and dementias, including social isolation, discrimination, barriers to health care access, limited availability of and support for caregivers, and higher rates of certain chronic illnesses. We examine cognitive impairment and dementias among LGBT older adults, describe their unique risk factors, and outline key competencies for health care and human service providers to ensure culturally relevant care for LGBT older adults experiencing cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, or other dementias, as well as their caregivers, families, and communities. Implications include developing an awareness of the context of LGBT older adults' lives and relationships, the importance of early detection and support, and the development of policies and practices that promote community-level advocacy and education.
Logie, Carmen H; James, LLana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R
Background Lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender (LBQT) women living with HIV have been described as invisible and understudied. Yet, social and structural contexts of violence and discrimination exacerbate the risk of HIV infection among LBQT women. The study objective was to explore challenges in daily life and experiences of accessing HIV services among HIV-positive LBQT women in Toronto, Canada. Methods We used a community-based qualitative approach guided by an intersectional theoretical framework. We conducted two focus groups; one focus group was conducted with HIV-positive lesbian, bisexual and queer women (n=7) and the second with HIV-positive transgender women (n=16). Participants were recruited using purposive sampling. Focus groups were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used for analyzing data to enhance understanding of factors that influence the wellbeing of HIV-positive LBQT women. Results Participant narratives revealed a trajectory of marginalization. Structural factors such as social exclusion and violence elevated the risk for HIV infection; this risk was exacerbated by inadequate HIV prevention information. Participants described multiple barriers to HIV care and support, including pervasive HIV-related stigma, heteronormative assumptions in HIV-positive women's services and discriminatory and incompetent treatment by health professionals. Underrepresentation of LBQT women in HIV research further contributed to marginalization and exclusion. Participants expressed a willingness to participate in HIV research that would be translated into action. Conclusions Structural factors elevate HIV risk among LBQT women, limit access to HIV prevention and present barriers to HIV care and support. This study's conceptualization of a trajectory of marginalization enriches the discussion of structural factors implicated in the wellbeing of LBQT women and highlights the necessity of addressing LBQT women's needs in HIV
Logie, Carmen H; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R
Lesbian, bisexual, queer and transgender (LBQT) women living with HIV have been described as invisible and understudied. Yet, social and structural contexts of violence and discrimination exacerbate the risk of HIV infection among LBQT women. The study objective was to explore challenges in daily life and experiences of accessing HIV services among HIV-positive LBQT women in Toronto, Canada. We used a community-based qualitative approach guided by an intersectional theoretical framework. We conducted two focus groups; one focus group was conducted with HIV-positive lesbian, bisexual and queer women (n = 7) and the second with HIV-positive transgender women (n = 16). Participants were recruited using purposive sampling. Focus groups were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used for analyzing data to enhance understanding of factors that influence the wellbeing of HIV-positive LBQT women. Participant narratives revealed a trajectory of marginalization. Structural factors such as social exclusion and violence elevated the risk for HIV infection; this risk was exacerbated by inadequate HIV prevention information. Participants described multiple barriers to HIV care and support, including pervasive HIV-related stigma, heteronormative assumptions in HIV-positive women's services and discriminatory and incompetent treatment by health professionals. Underrepresentation of LBQT women in HIV research further contributed to marginalization and exclusion. Participants expressed a willingness to participate in HIV research that would be translated into action. Structural factors elevate HIV risk among LBQT women, limit access to HIV prevention and present barriers to HIV care and support. This study's conceptualization of a trajectory of marginalization enriches the discussion of structural factors implicated in the wellbeing of LBQT women and highlights the necessity of addressing LBQT women's needs in HIV prevention, care and research
Social Insertion of Transgender by Education: Transcidadania Project and Resolution No. 12/2015, of the National Council to Fight Against Discrimination and Promotion of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transvestites and Transgenders Rights
Leandro Reinaldo da Cunha
Full Text Available The transgender people's condition in actual society deserves a special attention because it is a social minority in situation of deep vulnerability. It is an attribution of the State to protect everyone, being inacceptable that, under a huge bias, segregate and marginalize those who should protect. Concerning the education aspect is important the adoption of directives that to ensure the transsexual full access to education, either through measures to prevent school evasion, as by the implantation of projects that allow his return to the student benches and a better qualification for the job. Measures such as resolution No. 12 of the National Council to Combat Discrimination and promotion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender, an agency of the Department of Human Rights, and the Transcidadania project of the São Paulo City Hall has this purpose as this paper seeks to demonstrate. To reach this goal, will use in this paper the scientific-deductive method of bibliography.
Medical students’ perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study
Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J.
ABSTRACT Background: Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. Objective: The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Design: Medical students ...
Wingo, Erin; Ingraham, Natalie; Roberts, Sarah C M
Little research documents the self-identified reproductive health priorities and health care experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (LGBTQ)-identified individuals who may be in need of services. We conducted in-depth interviews with a diverse sample of 39 female-assigned-at-birth individuals (ages 18-44) who also identified as lesbian, bisexual, queer, and/or genderqueer, or transmasculine. Interviews were primarily conducted in person in the Bay Area of California, and Baltimore, Maryland, with 11 conducted remotely with participants in other U.S. We asked participants about their current reproductive health care needs, topics they felt researchers should pursue, and past reproductive health care experiences. Data were analyzed using a framework method, incorporating deductive and inductive thematic analysis techniques. Reproductive health care needs among participants varied widely and included treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome and irregular menses, gender-affirming hysterectomies, and fertility assistance. Many faced challenges getting their needs met. Themes related to these challenges cross-cutting across identity groups included primary focus on fertility, provider lack of LGBTQ health competency relevant to reproductive health priorities and treatment, and discriminatory comments and treatment. Across themes and identity groups, participants highlighted that sexual activity and reproduction were central topics in reproductive health care settings. These topics facilitated identity disclosures to providers, but also enhanced vulnerability to discrimination. Reproductive health priorities of LGBTQ individuals include needs similar to cisgender and heterosexual groups (e.g., abortion, contraception, PCOS) as well as unique needs (e.g., gender affirming hysterectomies, inclusive safer sex guidance) and challenges in pursuing care. Future reproductive health research should pursue health care concerns prioritized by LGBTQ populations
Stotzer, Rebecca L; Ka'opua, Lana Sue I; Diaz, Tressa P
This paper presents findings from a statewide needs assessment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) people in Hawai'i that relate to health status and health-related risk factors such as having health insurance coverage, having a regular doctor, experiencing sexual orientation (SO) or gender identity/expression (GI/E) discrimination in health/mental health care settings, and delaying care due to concerns about SO and GIE discrimination in Hawai'i, Honolulu, Kaua'i, and Maui counties. Results suggest that LGBTQI people in these counties generally rated their self-assessed health as "very good" or "excellent," but had slightly higher rates of smoking and less health insurance coverage than the general population of Hawai'i. Many respondents reported challenges to their health, and negative experiences with healthcare. Unlike prior studies that have shown no difference or a rural disadvantage in care, compared to urban locations, Hawai'i's counties did not have a clear rural disadvantage. Honolulu and Kaua'i Counties demonstrated better health indicators and lower percentages of people who had delayed care due to gender identity concerns. Findings suggest that health/mental health care providers should address potential bias in the workplace to be able to provide more culturally competent practice to LGBTQI people in Hawai'i.
Bidell, Markus P
These three studies provide initial evidence for the development, factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Development of Clinical Skills Scale (LGBT-DOCSS), a new interdisciplinary LGBT clinical self-assessment for health and mental health providers. Research participants were voluntarily recruited in the United States and United Kingdom and included trainees, clinicians, and educators from applied psychology, counseling, psychotherapy, and primary care medicine. Study 1 (N = 602) used exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques, revealing an 18-item three-factor structure (Clinical Preparedness, Attitudinal Awareness, and Basic Knowledge). Study 2 established internal consistency for the overall LGBT-DOCSS (α = .86) and for each of the three subscales (Clinical Preparedness = .88, Attitudinal Awareness = .80, and Basic Knowledge = .83) and 2-week test-retest reliability (.87). In study 3 (N = 564), participant criteria (sexual orientation and education level) and four established scales that measured LGBT prejudice, assessment skills, and social desirability were used to support initial content and discriminant validity. Psychometric properties, limitations, and recommendations are discussed.
Shrader, Angela; Casero, Kellie; Casper, Bethany; Kelley, Mary; Lewis, Laura; Calohan, Jess
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals serving within the U.S. military and their beneficiaries have unique health care requirements. Department of Defense Directive 1304.26 "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" created a barrier for service members to speak candidly with their health care providers, which left specific health care needs unaddressed. There are no standardized cultural education programs to assist Military Health System (MHS) health care providers in delivering care to LGBT patients and their beneficiaries. The purpose of this project was to develop, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of an LGBT educational program for health care providers within the MHS to increase cultural awareness in caring for this special population. This multisite educational program was conducted at Travis Air Force Base and Joint Base Lewis-McChord from November 15, 2014, to January 30, 2015. A 15-question multiple-choice questionnaire was developed based on the education program and was administered before and after the education program. A total of 51 individuals completed the program. Overall posttest scores improved compared to pretest scores. This program was designed to begin the process of educating health care providers about the unique health care issues of military LGBT Service Members and their beneficiaries. This program was the first to address the disparities in LGBT health care needs within the Department of Defense. It also provided a platform for facilitating open communication among providers regarding LGBT population health needs in the military.
Bidell, Markus P; Stepleman, Lara M
There are exigent reasons to foster lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) competence, training, and ethical care for health professionals within an interdisciplinary paradigm. LGBT individuals experience serious health and psychosocial disparities; moreover, these inequalities can be amplified when other aspects of diversity such as race, ethnicity, age, gender, religion, disability, and socioeconomic status intersect with sexual orientation and gender identity (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2011). While the origins of LGBT health and psychosocial disparities are manifold, deficiencies in professional training, ethical care, and clinical competence are underlying contributors (IOM, 2011). In addition, LGBT clinical competency advancements are often siloed within the various health care disciplines-thus advances by one group of health professionals often have limited impact for those practicing in different health and human service fields. This special issue explores LGBT clinical competence, professional training, and ethical care within an interdisciplinary context and, to our knowledge, represents the first attempt to address LGBT clinical competence from a multidisciplinary health care perspective.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.
Objectives. We examined whether past-year suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents was more common in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Methods. Participants’ data came from a racially/ethnically diverse population-based sample of 9th- through 12th-grade public school students in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 1292). Of these, 108 (8.36%) reported a minority sexual orientation. We obtained data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults with battery between 2005 and 2008 from the Boston Police Department and linked the data to the adolescent’s residential address. Results. Sexual-minority youths residing in neighborhoods with higher rates of LGBT assault hate crimes were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation (P = .013) and suicide attempts (P = .006), than were those residing in neighborhoods with lower LGBT assault hate crime rates. We observed no relationships between overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes and suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents (P > .05), providing evidence for specificity of the results to LGBT assault hate crimes. Conclusions. Neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual-orientation disparities in adolescent suicidality, highlighting potential targets for community-level suicide-prevention programs. PMID:24328619
Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Pachankis, John E
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in Romania encounter pervasive stigma and discrimination and there is a high need for LGBT-competent mental health professionals (MHPs). We tested the impact of a pilot LGBT-affirmative training for MHPs in Romania on these professionals' LGBT-relevant attitudes, knowledge, and perception of clinical skills. We conducted a 2-day training for MHPs in Bucharest. Fifty-four attended and 33 provided training evaluation data at baseline and follow-up. The majority of trainees were female (90%) and heterosexual (73%) with a mean age of 36.4 (SD = 7.7). From baseline to follow-up, trainees demonstrated a significant increase in perceived LGBT-relevant clinical skills (P LGBT-affirmative practice attitudes (P LGBT individuals (P LGBT individuals were low at both baseline and follow-up. The majority of trainees reported being highly interested in the training (84%), which they reported had prepared them to interact with and care for LGBT individuals (74%). This pilot training appeared to be effective in increasing perceived LGBT competence among participating MHPs. This type of training model needs to be tested further in a randomized controlled trial with longer follow-up periods to assess intervention durability and implementation of clinical skills. Future trainings can be incorporated into existing curricula. National accreditation bodies might consider encouraging such training as part of standard educational requirements.
Adolescent health care providers frequently care for patients who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT), or who may be struggling with or questioning their sexual orientation or gender identity. Whereas these youth have the same health concerns as their non-LGBT peers, LGBT teens may face additional challenges because of the complexity of the coming-out process, as well as societal discrimination and bias against sexual and gender minorities. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages adolescent providers and researchers to incorporate the impact of these developmental processes (and understand the impacts of concurrent potential discrimination) when caring for LGBT adolescents. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages providers to help positively influence policy related to LGBT adolescents in schools, the foster care system, and the juvenile justice system, and within the family structure. Consistent with other medical organizations, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine rejects the mistaken notion that LGBT orientations are mental disorders, and opposes the use of any type of reparative therapy for LGBT adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Logie, Carmen H; Lys, Candice
Youth in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT) experience sexual and mental health disparities. Higher rates of sexual and mental health concerns among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth in comparison with heterosexual and cisgender peers have been associated with stigma and discrimination. Although LGBTQ youth in the NWT are situated at the nexus of Northern and LGBTQ health disparities, there is little known about their health, well-being and experiences of stigma. This short communication discusses the process of developing a LGBTQ youth community-based research programme in the NWT. We developed an interdisciplinary research team of LGBTQ and allied young adults, including indigenous and non-indigenous researchers, community organisers and service providers in the NWT. We conducted meetings in Yellowknife with LGBTQ youth (n=12) and key stakeholders (n=15), including faculty, students, community groups and health and social service providers. Both meetings included LGBTQ and allied participants who were LGBTQ, indigenous, youth and persons at the intersection of these identities. LGBTQ youth participants discussed community norms that devalued same sex identities and stigma surrounding LGBTQ-specific services and agencies. Stigma among LGBT youth was exacerbated for youth in secondary schools, gender non-conforming and transgender youth and young gay men. In the stakeholder meeting, service providers discussed the importance of integrating LGBTQ issues in youth programmes, and LGBTQ community groups expressed the need for flexibility in service delivery to LGBTQ youth. Stakeholders identified the need to better understand the needs of indigenous LGBTQ youth in the NWT. Community-based LGBTQ groups, researchers and health and social service providers are interested in addressing LGBTQ youth issues in the NWT. The emergence of LGBTQ community building, support groups and activism in Northern Canada suggests that this is an opportune time
Carmen H. Logie
Full Text Available Background: Youth in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT experience sexual and mental health disparities. Higher rates of sexual and mental health concerns among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ youth in comparison with heterosexual and cisgender peers have been associated with stigma and discrimination. Although LGBTQ youth in the NWT are situated at the nexus of Northern and LGBTQ health disparities, there is little known about their health, well-being and experiences of stigma. This short communication discusses the process of developing a LGBTQ youth community-based research programme in the NWT. Methods: We developed an interdisciplinary research team of LGBTQ and allied young adults, including indigenous and non-indigenous researchers, community organisers and service providers in the NWT. We conducted meetings in Yellowknife with LGBTQ youth (n=12 and key stakeholders (n=15, including faculty, students, community groups and health and social service providers. Both meetings included LGBTQ and allied participants who were LGBTQ, indigenous, youth and persons at the intersection of these identities. Results: LGBTQ youth participants discussed community norms that devalued same sex identities and stigma surrounding LGBTQ-specific services and agencies. Stigma among LGBT youth was exacerbated for youth in secondary schools, gender non-conforming and transgender youth and young gay men. In the stakeholder meeting, service providers discussed the importance of integrating LGBTQ issues in youth programmes, and LGBTQ community groups expressed the need for flexibility in service delivery to LGBTQ youth. Stakeholders identified the need to better understand the needs of indigenous LGBTQ youth in the NWT. Conclusions: Community-based LGBTQ groups, researchers and health and social service providers are interested in addressing LGBTQ youth issues in the NWT. The emergence of LGBTQ community building, support groups and activism
For many years, educational practitioners have been implementing multicultural literature about African-American, Asian, and Latino families. Teachers have also presented literature about great leaders, such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Helen Keller. However, the same cannot be said about literature depicting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and…
Choi, E P H; Wong, J Y H; Fong, D Y T
The use of social networking applications (apps) on smartphones has the potential to impact sexual health and behaviour. This was the first systematic review to critically appraise and summarize the existing literature on the use of social networking apps on smartphones and their associated sexual health and sexual behaviour effects in lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations. A systematic search was conducted in five databases (CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, PubMed, SCOPUS and Sociological Abstracts), using controlled terms and keywords. Thirteen articles from 11 studies were included in this review. Studied outcomes included rates of unprotected sexual intercourse, the number of sexual partners, drug/alcohol use prior to/during sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) testing and the prevalence of STIs. Among app users, the prevalence of unprotected sex ranged from 17.0% to 66.7%. The mean number of sexual partners ranged from 1.4 to 2.9 (last 1-month period), and from 46.2 to 79.6 (lifetime). Two studies found that the prevalence of HIV infection was 1.9% and 11.4%, respectively. The self-reported prevalence of prior diagnosis of STIs other than HIV ranged from 9.1% to 51.0%. It should be noted that the heterogeneity of the study design and outcome measures across different studies hindered the comparison of findings across different studies. Furthermore, the findings in some studies are not reliable due to methodological problems. Our results highlight the need for more research with rigorous methodology to understand the negative impacts of using these apps on sexual health and sexual behaviour. For future studies, the operational definition of outcomes, including social networking app use and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), should be clearly outlined. The use of validated tools to measure sexual behaviour and biological measures of HIV and other STDs is preferable so that outcomes can be standardized to facilitate comparisons between
Mullens, Amy B; Fischer, Jane; Stewart, Mary; Kenny, Kathryn; Garvey, Shane; Debattista, Joseph
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations are more likely to misuse alcohol and other drugs (AOD), compared to the general population. However, LGBT engagement with AOD treatment is often precluded by insensitivity and misunderstanding of LGBT issues. These treatment barriers may be a consequence of either worker attitudes, organizational factors or a combination of both. Few studies have compared service context as an impediment to AOD treatment. This pilot study sought to examine and compare staff attitudes, knowledge and awareness of LGBT issues in two state-wide AOD services within Australia. One organization was a government service, whilst the other was faith based. A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample (N = 130) of workers employed in a state-wide government AOD service (n = 65), and a state-wide non-government service (n = 65) was conducted. Participants self-completed a questionnaire comprising tools previously used to assess staff attitudes, knowledge and awareness of LGBT issues. Few significant differences in attitudes and awareness of LGBT issues between government and non-government respondents were found. Nearly all respondents were supportive of LGBT persons irrespective of organizational context, with a small number of negative views. Although most respondents demonstrated awareness of organizational policies and practices relating to LGBT clients, many were "unsure" or "neutral" of what these might be. It is confirming that the majority of staff report supportive attitudes towards LGBT clients. Findings suggest that organizations need to continue to take leadership to strengthen organizational training and capacity to deliver LGBT friendly AOD treatment practices.
Logie, Carmen H; Dias, Lisa V; Jenkinson, Jesse; Newman, Peter A; MacKenzie, Rachel K; Mothopeng, Tampose; Madau, Veli; Ranotsi, Amelia; Nhlengethwa, Winnie; Baral, Stefan D
Stigma and discrimination affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people compromise health and human rights and exacerbate the HIV epidemic. Scant research has explored effective LGBT stigma reduction strategies in low- and middle-income countries. We developed and pilot-tested a participatory theatre intervention (PTI) to reduce LGBT stigma in Swaziland and Lesotho, countries with the world's highest HIV prevalence. We collected preliminary data from in-depth interviews with LGBT people in Lesotho and Swaziland to enhance understanding of LGBT stigma. Local LGBT and theatre groups worked with these data to create a 2-hour PTI composed of three skits on LGBT stigma in health care, family, and community settings in Swaziland (Manzini) and Lesotho (Maseru, Mapoteng). Participants ( n = 106; nursing students, health care providers, educators, community members) completed 12 focus groups following the PTI. We conducted thematic analysis to understand reactions to the PTI. Focus groups revealed the PTI increased understanding of LGBT persons and issues, increased empathy, and fostered self-reflection of personal biases. Increased understanding included enhanced awareness of the negative impacts of LGBT stigma, and of LGBT people's lived experiences and issues. Participants discussed changes in attitude and perspective through self-reflection and learning. The format of the theatre performance was described as conducive to learning and preferred over more conventional educational methods. Findings indicate changed attitudes and awareness toward LGBT persons and issues following a PTI in Swaziland and Lesotho. Stigma reduction interventions may help mitigate barriers to HIV prevention, treatment, and care in these settings with a high burden of HIV.
Krakower, Douglas S; Ware, Norma C; Maloney, Kevin M; Wilson, Ira B; Wong, John B; Mayer, Kenneth H
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that one in four sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) could decrease their HIV risk by using HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Because many MSM access healthcare from primary care providers (PCPs), these clinicians could play an important role in providing access to PrEP. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 PCPs in Boston, MA, to explore how they approach decisions about prescribing PrEP to MSM and their experiences with PrEP provision. Purposive sampling included 12 PCPs from an urban community health center specializing in the care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons ("LGBT specialists") and 19 PCPs from a general academic medical center ("generalists"). Analyses utilized an inductive approach to identify emergent themes. Both groups of PCPs approached prescribing decisions about PrEP as a process of informed decision-making with patients. Providers would defer to patients' preferences if they were unsure about the appropriateness of PrEP. LGBT specialists and generalists were at vastly different stages of adopting PrEP into practice. For LGBT specialists, PrEP was a disruptive innovation that rapidly became normative in practice. Generalists had limited experience with PrEP; however, they desired succinct decision-support tools to help them achieve proficiency, because they considered preventive medicine to be central to their professional role. As generalists vastly outnumber LGBT specialists in the United States, interventions to support PrEP provision by generalists could accelerate the scale-up of PrEP for MSM nationally, which could in turn decrease HIV incidence for this priority population.
Heck, Nicholas C; Livingston, Nicholas A; Flentje, Annesa; Oost, Kathryn; Stewart, Brandon T; Cochran, Bryan N
Previous research suggests that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at elevated risk for using illicit drugs and misusing prescription drugs relative to heterosexual youth. Previous research also indicates that LGBT youth who attend high schools with a gay-straight alliance (GSA) report having fewer alcohol problems and lower levels of cigarette smoking. The present study investigates whether the absence of a GSA is associated with risk for illicit drug use and prescription drug misuse in a sample of 475 LGBT high school students (M age=16.79) who completed an online survey. After controlling for demographic variables and risk factors associated with illicit drug use, the results of 12 logistic regression analyses revealed that LGBT youth attending a high school without a GSA evidenced increased risk for using cocaine (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR]=3.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.23-7.86), hallucinogens (adjOR=2.59; 95% CI=1.18-5.70), and marijuana (adjOR=2.22; 95% CI=1.37-3.59) relative to peers attending a high school with a GSA. Youth without a GSA also evidenced increased risk for the misuse of ADHD medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.02-3.92) and prescription pain medication (adjOR=2.00; 95% CI=1.10-3.65). These findings extend the research base related to GSAs and further demonstrate the importance of providing LGBT youth with opportunities for socialization and support within the school setting. Important limitations of the present study are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wright, Leslie A; King, Diane K; Retrum, Jessica H; Helander, Kenneth; Wilkins, Shari; Boggs, Jennifer M; Portz, Jennifer Dickman; Nearing, Kathryn; Gozansky, Wendolyn S
Due to a history of oppression and lack of culturally competent services, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) seniors experience barriers to accessing social services. Tailoring an evidence-based ageing in place intervention to address the unique needs of LGBT seniors may decrease the isolation often faced by this population. To describe practices used in the formation of a community-based participatory research (CBPR), partnership involving social workers, health services providers, researchers and community members who engaged to establish a LGBT ageing in place model called Seniors Using Supports To Age In Neighborhoods (SUSTAIN). A case study approach was employed to describe the partnership development process by reflecting on past meeting minutes, progress reports and interviews with SUSTAIN's partners. Key partnering practices utilized by SUSTAIN included (i) development of a shared commitment and vision; (ii) identifying partners with intersecting spheres of influence in multiple communities of identity (ageing services, LGBT, health research); (iii) attending to power dynamics (e.g. equitable sharing of funds); and (iv) building community capacity through reciprocal learning. Although the partnership dissolved after 4 years, it served as a successful catalyst to establish community programming to support ageing in place for LGBT seniors. Multi-sector stakeholder involvement with capacity to connect communities and use frameworks that formalize equity was key to establishing a high-trust CBPR partnership. However, lack of focus on external forces impacting each partner (e.g. individual organizational strategic planning, community funding agency perspectives) ultimately led to dissolution of the SUSTAIN partnership even though implementation of community programming was realized. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Giga, Noreen M.; Villenas, Christian; Danischewski, David J.
The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) "National School Climate Survey" is our flagship report on the school experiences of LGBTQ youth in schools, including the extent of the challenges that they face at school and the school-based resources that support LGBTQ students' well-being. The survey has consistently indicated…
Patterson Thomas L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (MA use continues to be a major public health concern in many urban settings. We sought to assess potential relationships between MA use and individual, social, and structural HIV vulnerabilities among sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered drug users. Methods Beginning in 2005 and ending in 2008, 2109 drug users were enroled into one of three cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada. We analysed longitudinal data from all self-identified sexual minority participants (n = 248. Logistic regression using generalized estimating equations (GEE was used to examine the independent correlates of MA use over time. All analyses were stratified by biological sex at birth. Results At baseline, 104 (7.5% males and 144 (20.4% females reported sexual minority status, among whom 64 (62.1% and 58 (40.3% reported MA use in the past six months, respectively. Compared to heterosexual participants, sexual minority males (odds ratio [OR] = 3.74, p p = 0.003 were more likely to report recent MA use. In multivariate analysis, MA use among sexual minority males was associated with younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.93 per year older, p = 0.011, Aboriginal ancestry (AOR = 2.59, p = 0.019, injection drug use (AOR = 3.98, p p = 0.008, unprotected intercourse (AOR = 1.62, p = 0.048, and increased depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.67, p = 0.044. Among females, MA use was associated with injection drug use (AOR = 2.49, p = 0.002, Downtown South residency (i.e., an area known for drug use (AOR = 1.60, p = 0.047, and unprotected intercourse with sex trade clients (AOR = 2.62, p = 0.027. Conclusions Methamphetamine use was more prevalent among sexual minority males and females and was associated with different sets of HIV risks and vulnerabilities. Our findings suggest that interventions addressing MA-related harms may need to be informed by more nuanced understandings of the intersection between drug use patterns, social and
Marshall, Brandon D L; Wood, Evan; Shoveller, Jean A; Patterson, Thomas L; Montaner, Julio S G; Kerr, Thomas
Methamphetamine (MA) use continues to be a major public health concern in many urban settings. We sought to assess potential relationships between MA use and individual, social, and structural HIV vulnerabilities among sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered) drug users. Beginning in 2005 and ending in 2008, 2109 drug users were enrolled into one of three cohort studies in Vancouver, Canada. We analysed longitudinal data from all self-identified sexual minority participants (n = 248). Logistic regression using generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used to examine the independent correlates of MA use over time. All analyses were stratified by biological sex at birth. At baseline, 104 (7.5%) males and 144 (20.4%) females reported sexual minority status, among whom 64 (62.1%) and 58 (40.3%) reported MA use in the past six months, respectively. Compared to heterosexual participants, sexual minority males (odds ratio [OR] = 3.74, p order or area restriction (i.e., "no-go zone") impact access to services or influence where drugs are used or purchased (AOR = 4.18, p = 0.008), unprotected intercourse (AOR = 1.62, p = 0.048), and increased depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.67, p = 0.044). Among females, MA use was associated with injection drug use (AOR = 2.49, p = 0.002), Downtown South residency (i.e., an area known for drug use) (AOR = 1.60, p = 0.047), and unprotected intercourse with sex trade clients (AOR = 2.62, p = 0.027). Methamphetamine use was more prevalent among sexual minority males and females and was associated with different sets of HIV risks and vulnerabilities. Our findings suggest that interventions addressing MA-related harms may need to be informed by more nuanced understandings of the intersection between drug use patterns, social and structural HIV vulnerabilities, and gender/sexual identities. In particular, MA-focused prevention and treatment programs tailored to disenfranchised male and female sexual minority youth are recommended.
Smith, Marie L; Telford, Elina; Tree, Jeremy J
Western cultures promote a thin and curvaceous ideal body size that most women find difficult to achieve by healthy measures, resulting in poor body image and increased risk for eating pathology. Research focusing on body image in lesbian and bisexual women has yielded inconsistent results. In total, 11 lesbian and bisexual women were interviewed regarding their experiences with body image. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed that these women experienced similar mainstream pressures to conform to a thin body ideal. Furthermore, participants perceived additional pressure to conform to heteronormative standards of beauty since the normalisation of homosexuality and the increase in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender representation in mainstream media.
Bailey, J V; Farquhar, C; Owen, C; Whittaker, D
To provide data about the sexual histories of a large sample of lesbians and bisexual women, to inform those who provide health care or carry out research with women who may be sexually active with other women. Cross sectional survey. 803 lesbians and bisexual women attending, as new patients, lesbian sexual health clinics, and 415 lesbians and bisexual women from a community sample. Self reported sexual history and sexual practice with both male and female partners. 98% of the whole sample gave a history of sexual activity with women, 83% within the past year, with a median of one female partner in that year. 85% of the sample reported sexual activity with men; for most (70%) this was 4 or more years ago. First sexual experience tended to be with a man (median 18 years old), with first sexual experience with a woman a few years later (median 21 years). Oral sex, vaginal penetration with fingers, and mutual masturbation were the most commonly reported sexual practices between women. Vaginal penetration with penis or fingers and mutual masturbation were the most commonly reported sexual activities with men. These data from the largest UK survey of sexual behaviour between women to date demonstrate that lesbians and bisexual women may have varied sexual histories with both male and female partners. A non-judgmental manner and careful sexual history taking without making assumptions should help clinicians to avoid misunderstandings, and to offer appropriate sexual health advice to lesbians and bisexual women.
Is the Lack of Specific Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) Health Care Education in Medical School a Cause for Concern? Evidence From a Survey of Knowledge and Practice Among UK Medical Students.
Parameshwaran, Vishnu; Cockbain, Beatrice C; Hillyard, Miriam; Price, Jonathan R
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people frequently report negative health care encounters. Medical professionals may inadequately manage LGBTQ persons' health if they have not received training in this area. An anonymous survey measuring efficacy in health situations among LGBTQ persons was answered by 166 medical students across all years of a UK university. Results show that 84.9% of participants reported a lack of LGBTQ health care education, with deficits in confidence clarifying unfamiliar sexual and gender terms, deciding the ward in which to nurse transgender patients, finding support resources, and discussing domestic abuse with LGBTQ patients. Most participants reported that they would not clarify gender pronouns or ask about gender or sexual identity in mental health or reproductive health settings. Participants reported infrequently observing doctors making similar inquiries. Participants held positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with attitude scores positively correlating with LGBTQ terminology knowledge scores (r s = 0.5052, p LGBTQ patients.
Iverson, Susan V.; Seher, Christin
Despite the proliferation of educational interventions and attitude change strategies, the prevalence of homophobia and widespread discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people on college campuses persists. This study investigates the impact of theatre on changes in college students' attitudes. Using a pre- and…
Meyer, Ilan H.; Wilson, Patrick A.
Sampling has been the single most influential component of conducting research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. Poor sampling designs can result in biased results that will mislead other researchers, policymakers, and practitioners. Investigators wishing to study LGB populations must therefore devote significant energy and…
American Psychologist, 2012
The "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients" provide psychologists with (a) a frame of reference for the treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients and (b) basic information and further references in the areas of assessment, intervention, identity, relationships, diversity, education, training, and…
Medical students’ perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study
Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J.
ABSTRACT Background: Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. Objective: The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Design: Medical students at the University of Ottawa (N = 671) were contacted via email and invited to complete a confidential web-based survey. Results: Response rate was 15.4% (103/671). This included 66 cis-gender heterosexuals (64.1%) and 37 LGBT students (35.9%). Anti-LGBT discrimination had been witnessed by 14.6% and heterosexism by 31.1% of respondents. Anti-LGBT discrimination most often originated from fellow medical students. Respondents who self-identified as LGBT were more likely to have perceived heterosexism (favoring opposite-sex relationships) (OR = 8.2, p LGBT discrimination (OR = 6.6, p = 0.002). While half of LGBT students shared their status with all classmates (51.4%), they were more likely to conceal this from staff physicians (OR = 27.2, p = 0.002). Almost half of medical students (41.7%) reported anti-LGBT jokes, rumors, and/or bullying by fellow medical students and/or other members of the healthcare team. Still, most respondents indicated that they felt comfortable with and capable of providing medical care to LGBT patients (≥83.5%), and were interested in further education around LGBT health issues (84.5%). Conclusion: Anti-LGBT discrimination and heterosexism are noted by medical students, indicating a suboptimal learning environment for LGBT students. Nonetheless, students report a high level of comfort and confidence providing health care to LGBT patients. PMID:28853327
Medical students' perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study.
Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J
Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Medical students at the University of Ottawa (N = 671) were contacted via email and invited to complete a confidential web-based survey. Response rate was 15.4% (103/671). This included 66 cis-gender heterosexuals (64.1%) and 37 LGBT students (35.9%). Anti-LGBT discrimination had been witnessed by 14.6% and heterosexism by 31.1% of respondents. Anti-LGBT discrimination most often originated from fellow medical students. Respondents who self-identified as LGBT were more likely to have perceived heterosexism (favoring opposite-sex relationships) (OR = 8.2, p LGBT discrimination (OR = 6.6, p = 0.002). While half of LGBT students shared their status with all classmates (51.4%), they were more likely to conceal this from staff physicians (OR = 27.2, p = 0.002). Almost half of medical students (41.7%) reported anti-LGBT jokes, rumors, and/or bullying by fellow medical students and/or other members of the healthcare team. Still, most respondents indicated that they felt comfortable with and capable of providing medical care to LGBT patients (≥83.5%), and were interested in further education around LGBT health issues (84.5%). Anti-LGBT discrimination and heterosexism are noted by medical students, indicating a suboptimal learning environment for LGBT students. Nonetheless, students report a high level of comfort and confidence providing health care to LGBT patients.
"It's for us -newcomers, LGBTQ persons, and HIV-positive persons. You feel free to be": a qualitative study exploring social support group participation among African and Caribbean lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender newcomers and refugees in Toronto, Canada.
Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Lee-Foon, Nakia; Ryan, Shannon; Ramsay, Hope
Stigma and discrimination harm the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people and contribute to migration from contexts of sexual persecution and criminalization. Yet LGBT newcomers and refugees often face marginalization and struggles meeting the social determinants of health (SDOH) following immigration to countries such as Canada. Social isolation is a key social determinant of health that may play a significant role in shaping health disparities among LGBT newcomers and refugees. Social support may moderate the effect of stressors on mental health, reduce social isolation, and build social networks. Scant research, however, has examined social support groups targeting LGBT newcomers and refugees. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore experiences of social support group participation among LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees in an urban Canadian city. We conducted 3 focus groups with a venue-based sample of LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees (n = 29) who attended social support groups at an ethno-specific AIDS Service Organization. Focus groups followed a semi-structured interview guide and were analyzed using narrative thematic techniques. Participant narratives highlighted immigration stressors, social isolation, mental health issues, and challenges meeting the SDOH. Findings reveal multi-level benefits of social support group participation at intrapersonal (self-acceptance, improved mental health), interpersonal (reduced isolation, friendships), community (reciprocity, reduced stigma and discrimination), and structural (housing, employment, immigration, health care) levels. Findings suggest that social support groups tailored for LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees can address social isolation, community resilience, and enhance resource access. Health care providers can provide support groups, culturally and LGBT competent health services, and resource access to promote LGBT
... for Reproductive Medicine Counseling issues to discuss with gay men and lesbians seeking assisted reproductive technology (ART) More lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals and couples are ...
Bidell, Markus P.
Clinical training and counselor competency are essential for ethical practice when working with multiethnic, lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), and transgender clients. In this study, the author examined how multicultural courses related to students' (N = 286) LGB and multicultural competencies. Self-reported multicultural and LGB competencies…
Meyer, Elizabeth J.; Taylor, Catherine; Peter, Tracey
This paper presents findings from a national study on the beliefs and practices of K-12 educators regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues in schools. Over 3400 Canadian educators participated in the study, which took the form of a bilingual (English/French) online survey. Respondents answered questions about their…
Schools are quasi-public/private organisations and being a teacher involves negotiating personal and professional boundaries. These boundaries have posed particular challenges for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBT-Q) teachers whose everyday lives are complicated by legislative, religious and cultural constraints, moral panics…
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Giga, Noreen M.; Villenas, Christian; Danischewski, David J.
The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) "National School Climate Survey" is our flagship report on the school experiences of LGBTQ youth in schools, including the extent of the challenges that they face at school and the school-based resources that support LGBTQ students' well-being. The survey has consistently indicated…
This review critically examines "Ugly Ducklings: A National Campaign to Reduce Bullying and Harassment of LGBTQ Youth" through a DVD and educator's guidebook. The "Ugly Ducklings" Community Action Kit has two parts: (1) a documentary about the harassment of lesbian youth and (2) short dialogues with "Ugly…
... men who have sex with men (MSM), including gay and bisexual men. GLMA President Jesse Joad, MD, ... to establish clear and comprehensive regulations ensuring lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people do not face discrimination ...
Witten, Tarynn M
This study is the first to examine the experiences and needs of an international sample of current, English-speaking, lesbian, transgender-identified (trans-lesbian) adults around a number of later life and end-of-life perceptions, preparations, and concerns. I analyzed a subset (n = 276) of the cross-sectional data collected from the online Trans MetLife Survey on Later-Life Preparedness and Perceptions in Transgender-Identified Individuals (N = 1,963). I assessed perceptions and fears around aging, preparation for later life, and end-of-life as well as numerous demographic and psycho-social variables. Despite the overall feeling that they have aged successfully, the respondent trans-lesbian population harbors significant fears about later life. I found that this population, while better-prepared than the overall respondent trans-identified population, is still ill-prepared for the major legalities and events that occur in the later to end-of-life time periods.
... appropriate to your child’s age and level of maturity. Help your child come up with and practice ... likely than children of heterosexual parents to develop emotional or behavioral problems. If LGBT parents have questions ...
Daugelli, Anthony R.; Grossman, Arnold H.; Starks, Michael T.
This study used a sample of 293 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth to examine factors that differentiated youth whose parents knew of their sexual orientation from youth whose parents did not know. Earlier awareness and disclosure of same-gender attractions, greater childhood gender atypicality, and less internalized homophobia were characteristic…
van Bergen, Diana; Bos, Henny M.W.; van Lisdonk, jantine; Keuzenkamp, S; Sandfort, T.G.M
We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also
Goldfried, Marvin R.
Illustrates how clinical and research writings on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues remain invisible to mainstream psychology in such areas as life span development and aging, teen suicide, substance abuse, victimization, and family and couple relationships, examining determinants of wellbeing among GLBs and discussing what mainstream…
Parnell, Martha Keeton; Lease, Suzanne H.; Green, Michael L.
This study examined career-related barriers that gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) individuals had encountered in the past and anticipated in the future and the degree of hindrance associated with future barriers. Two hundred forty-one GLB participants (126 women and 115 men) completed the Career Barriers Inventory-Revised and 11 additional items…
Struble, Corrie Barnett; Lindley, Lisa L.; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James; Burcin, Michelle
Objective: To estimate and compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity among self-identified lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual college age women. Methods: A secondary analysis of the Spring 2006 National College Health Assessment was conducted with 31,500 female college students (aged 18 to 25 years) to compare body mass index (calculated…
van Bergen, D.D.; Bos, H.M.W.; van Lisdonk, J.; Keuzenkamp, S.; Sandfort, T.G.M.
We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also
van Bergen, D.D.; Bos, H.M.W.; van Lisdonk, J.; Keuzenkamp, S.; Sandfort, T.G.M.
We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also
SUMMARY This 1992 New Zealand survey of discrimination against 261 lesbian and bisexual women found comparable rates of public abuse and workplace discrimination to those reported by surveys in other developed countries. The women reported higher rates of assault in public places than a random sample of New Zealand women. Indigenous Maori women reported higher rates of assault, threats, verbal abuse, and workplace discrimination than the non-Maori women surveyed. Aggression against the women was often in response to public expression of affection for another woman or to rejection of men's public sexual advances. The respondents reported hostile educational environments that coincided with peer harassment of students attracted to their own gender. Around two-thirds of the women had hidden their sexuality on some occasions at work to avoid discrimination. No significant differences between the discrimination experiences of lesbian and bisexual women emerged, although the bisexual sample was too small for statistical analysis.
Kerr, Dianne L; Ding, Kele; Chaya, Julie
To compare self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students to heterosexual peers and to each other on alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) measures and alcohol use consequences. Preexisting data (Falls 2009-2011) from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA-II) were analyzed. Bisexual college students had greater odds of ATOD use than heterosexual and gay/lesbian students. Bisexual women had the highest levels of use. LGB students had more serious consequences due to alcohol use. ATOD use among LGB students was more prevalent than heterosexuals during the past 30 days, year, and life-time. LGB students report more negative alcohol consequences.
This autobiographical essay of a Chinese transgender who has grown up in a special social background involves the Chinese family, religion, and some social background to demonstrate the current situation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender groups, especially the condition of female-to-male transgender.
Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Samayoa, Andrés Castro; Gasman, Marybeth; Mobley, Steve, Jr.
Background: Researchers have tended to favor scholarship that looks at institutional forms of support for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students in the context of resource centers specifically tailored to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students. Our study makes two distinct contributions to the study of gay and lesbian students…
Kirk, James; Belovics, Robert
Because transgender individuals experience widespread employment discrimination, counselors need to understand and be able to work with members of the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender communities. The aim of this article is to help counselors become more transgender literate by (a) defining gender dysphoric disorder and related terms; (b)…
Zheng, Lijun; Wen, Guangju; Zheng, Yong
Lesbian and bisexual women who self-identify as "butch" show a masculine profile with regard to gender roles, gender nonconformity, and systemizing cognitive style, whereas lesbian and bisexual women who self-identify as "femme" show a corresponding feminine profile and those who self-identify as "androgynes" show an intermediate profile. This study examined the association between butch or femme lesbian or bisexual identity and visuospatial ability among 323 lesbian and bisexual women, compared to heterosexual women (n = 207) and men (n = 125), from multiple cities in China. Visuospatial ability was assessed using a Shepard and Metzler-type mental rotation task and Judgment of Line Angle and Position (JLAP) test on the Internet. Heterosexual men outperformed heterosexual women on both mental rotation and JLAP tasks. Lesbian and bisexual women outperformed heterosexual women on mental rotation, but not on JLAP. There were significant differences in mental rotation performance among women, with butch- and androgyne-identified lesbian/bisexual women outperforming femme-identified and heterosexual women. There were also significant differences in JLAP performance among women, with butch- and androgyne-identified lesbian/bisexual women and heterosexual women outperforming femme-identified lesbian/bisexual women. The butch-femme differences in visuospatial ability indicated an association between cognitive ability and butch-femme identity and suggest that neurobiological underpinnings may contribute to butch-femme identity although alternative explanations exist.
Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Derbyshire, Katherine
This study examined the prevalence of mental health disorders and their clinical correlates in a university sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) students.......This study examined the prevalence of mental health disorders and their clinical correlates in a university sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) students....
Kerr, Dianne L.; Santurri, Laura; Peters, Patricia
Objective: To investigate selected mental health characteristics of lesbians and bisexual undergraduate college women as compared with heterosexual college women. Participants: Self-identified lesbians and bisexual and heterosexual female college students who took part in the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment…
Balsam, Kimberly F.; Rothblum, Esther D.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.
Lifetime victimization was examined in a primarily European American sample that comprised 557 lesbian/gay, 163 bisexual, and 525 heterosexual adults. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) participants were recruited via LGB e-mail lists, periodicals, and organizations; these participants recruited 1 or more siblings for participation in the study (81%…
Lennon-Dearing, Robin; Delavega, Elena
Across the United States there has been a spate of legislative bills and initiatives that blatantly stigmatize and discriminate against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This study was a cross-sectional, exploratory survey designed to measure the attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of Tennessee social workers and future social workers toward the LGBT population and toward proposed discriminatory legislation. A 3-way factorial ANOVA investigated the effects of political affiliation, religious affiliation, and social contact on the dependent measures. Significant main effects were found. Self-reported political affiliation was found to be the most important factor predicting LGBT acceptance and LGBT respect among this sample.
Deacon, Rachel M; Mooney-Somers, Julie
To investigate smoking prevalence trends and correlates among lesbian, bisexual and queer-identifying (LBQ) women in Sydney, Australia. Data from 5007 respondents to a repeated cross-sectional community survey were used to examine smoking trends between 2004 and 2014. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine smoking correlates. Thirty percent of respondents were current smokers, including 48% of 16 to 24-year-olds. A slight decrease in all-ages smoking over time was not reflected in the youngest age group. LBQ women who smoke have fewer economic, social and psychological resources than both women who never smoke and ex-smokers. High levels of alcohol and illicit drug use are also correlated with current smoking. Population-wide interventions have failed to address the persistently high prevalence of smoking among this sample of LBQ women. Tailored interventions may find utility focusing on personal resilience to deal with general and sexuality-specific stressors, as well as attending to poly-substance use. Acknowledgment of LBQ women as a priority group for tobacco reduction is urgently needed. We call on tobacco control agencies to consider sexuality and gender orientation in policy and partner with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community organisations to develop culturally appropriate interventions. [Deacon RM, Mooney-Somers J Smoking prevalence among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Sydney remains high: Analysis of trends and correlates Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:546-554]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Cicero, Ethan C.; Wesp, Linda M.
Throughout the United States, there has been a rise in public discourse about transgender people and transgender issues. Much of this attention stems from passed and proposed anti-LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning) legislation, including "bathroom bills" that would require transgender people to use public…
Tallentire, Liz; Smith, Matthew; David, Lee; Roberts, Adam; Bruce; Morrow, Sarah; Withers, Paul; Smith, Ian
This research is about people who have intellectual disabilities and live in a secure hospital. It is about a group of people who meet at a support group. The support group is for people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender. These people with intellectual disabilities helped with planning, doing, and telling other people about the research. They told their stories about going to the support group. Their stories were joined together into a group story. The story said that the group helped people in lots of different ways. For some people going to the group was difficult at first because it was ?coming out'. This means telling other people you are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Then it got easier and people started to feel better about themselves. Then they wanted to help others and this was important in their lives. This group seemed to help people get better. We have given some ideas for setting up other groups and doing more research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vaughn, Allison A; Teeters, Stacy A; Sadler, Melody S; Cronan, Sierra B
The utility of the Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002) and the Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes map (Cuddy, Fiske, & Glick, 2007) were examined in the context of heterosexuals' attitudes toward sexual minorities. Heterosexual adults completed a survey measuring stereotypes, emotions, and behavioral tendencies toward lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men. Stereotype content differed across groups and showed "gendered" and "valenced" effects on emotions and behavioral tendencies. Competence predicted behaviors for men, whereas warmth and competence predicted behaviors for women, and, for the most part, more was better. Admiration and contempt mediated most of these relationships across most subgroups, but pity and envy played smaller roles for some subgroups. Across all groups, competence played a more predictive role than warmth.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND – Literature has studied the relation between youth alcohol consumption and sexual orientation, showing that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB young people are at increased risk to develop alcohol-related problems compared to heterosexuals.
Rich, Ashleigh; Scott, Kai; Johnston, Caitlin; Blackwell, Everett; Lachowsky, Nathan; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert; Roth, Eric
Gay, bisexual, queer and other men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by HIV in Canada. While up to 63% of transgender men identify as gay, bisexual or queer and report a variety of HIV sexual risk behaviours, transgender men are often overlooked within epidemiological HIV surveillance and research. While a growing body of research has begun to examine sexual risk for transgender gay, bisexual and queer men, most studies have been conducted in the USA. This study explored sexual HIV risk for this population in the Canadian context, specifically in British Columbia, in an environment of publically funded universal access to healthcare, including HIV testing and treatment. We conducted interviews with 11 gay, bisexual and queer transgender men. Participants' narratives suggest that HIV risk for these transgender men is shaped by a diversity of sexual behaviours, including inconsistent condom use, seeking partners online for greater safety and accessing HIV/STI testing and other healthcare services despite facing transition-related barriers. Public health prevention and health education must recognise the presence of transgender men and ensure health services and broader population health promotion meet the unique sexual health needs of this sub-population of gay, bisexual and queer men.
Colledge, Lisa; Hickson, Ford; Reid, David; Weatherburn, Peter
Bisexual- and lesbian-identified women have significantly worse mental health than heterosexual women. Less evidence exists about mental health differences between lesbian and bisexual women. Self-completion survey with community-based, opportunistic sampling recruited 937 bisexual-identified and 4769 lesbian-identified women. Associations between sexual identity and mental health indicators were assessed by logistic regression, controlling for age, income, student status and employment. As a group, bisexual women were younger, poorer, and more likely to be trans-identified, minority ethnic identified and to use marijuana, compared with lesbians. Bisexuals were more likely than lesbians to report eating problems (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.64, P women attended lesbian or bisexual social events, were 'out', or had experienced any sexuality-related discrimination, compared with lesbians. More bisexual women reported poor mental health or psychological distress than did lesbians. Bisexual women may be more likely to experience social stress due to the 'double discrimination' of homophobia and biphobia. This stress, experienced mainly as internalized and felt stigma, could result in greater risk for poor mental health compared with lesbians. Addressing both biphobia and homophobia within UK society has important preventative mental health implications. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lingiardi, Vittorio; Nardelli, Nicola; Drescher, Jack
Although homosexuality was depathologized in the last century and the majority of mental health professionals consider it to be a normal variant of human sexuality, some psychologists and psychiatrists still have negative attitudes toward lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) clients. Sometimes they provide interventions aimed at changing sexual orientation through 'reparative' or 'conversion' therapies. At other times their interventions are influenced by anti-gay prejudices or simply by lack of knowledge about sexual minorities. This paper argues for the need for appropriate treatment guidelines aimed at providing bias-free, respectful, and effective interventions given that Italian health associations have delayed providing them. Some of the main guidelines recently approved by the Consiglio Nazionale dell'Ordine degli Psicologi (National Council of the Italian Association of Psychologists) are presented. Issues addressed include differences between gender and sexual orientation, minority stress, including perceived stigma and internalized stigma, homophobic bullying, coming out, and resilience. Respectful listening to LGB and questioning clients, affirming their identities and fostering a sense of resilience are essential requirements for all mental health professionals wishing to provide effective interventions in a society where sexual minorities are subjected to discrimination throughout their entire life cycle.
Walters, Andrew S.; Rehma, Kae
Educators from a variety of disciplines include the concept of transgender and multiple gender identities in course curricula. The "T" (denoting the specific inclusion of transgender) in the popular acronym LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) often is given less pedagogical attention than is sexual orientation, and the transgender…
Taylor, Catherine G.
"Gallup's Guide to Modern Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Lifestyle" is a set of 15 volumes addressing lesbian, gay, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGTQ) topics of concern to young LGTQ readers. Each volume is attractively produced, is well presented, and answers questions systematically avoided in most school curricula. It would be a valuable…
Examines the special needs fomented by sexual orientation when considering graduate education and access to the academic job market. Offers information on terms and definitions regarding sexual orientation, cultural influences, the relationship between one's personal and professional life, institutional policy, coming out, faculty-student…
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth with a history of homelessness (running away or being evicted from their homes by parents) report more psychological symptoms than homeless heterosexual peers, it is unclear whether symptoms are due to homelessness, given the absence of a non-homeless comparison group. This study longitudinally…
Cox, Nele; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Dewaele, Alexis; Vincke, John
In this article, we examine the impact of acculturation strategies on minority stress and mental health in lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) youth in Flanders, Belgium. Building on previous identity minority studies and on the social stress model, we investigate how LGB youth acculturate within both the LGB subculture and mainstream society and how…
Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.
The authors examined the associations between internalized homophobia, outness, community connectedness, depressive symptoms, and relationship quality among a diverse community sample of 396 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Structural equation models showed that internalized homophobia was associated with greater relationship problems…
Grossman, Arnold H.; Foss, Alexander H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.
This study examined pubertal maturation, pubertal timing and outcomes, and the relationship of puberty and sexual identity developmental milestones among 507 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. The onset of menarche and spermarche occurred at the mean ages of 12.05 and 12.46, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in…
Shelton, Kimber; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
Psychological research has shown the detrimental effects that overt heterosexism have on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) clients and on the psychotherapeutic relationship. However, the effects of subtle forms of discrimination, specifically sexual orientation microaggressions, have on LGBQ clients and the therapeutic relationship have not…
Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.
Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual…
Croteau, James M.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; Phillips, Julia C.; Lark, Julianne S.
States that the literature to date has broken the silence on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues and has affirmed the field of psychology as being affirmative toward these issues. Proposes that research should move toward a greater understanding of LGB affirmative professional training by focusing on training from theoretical and empirical…
Ploderl, Martin; Fartacek, Reinhold
This is the first study in German-speaking countries to compare the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 358) with matched heterosexual adults (n = 267). The former had significantly elevated incidences of current suicide ideation (28% vs. 13%) and lifetime suicide attempts defined in three ways (14% vs. 1% to 10% vs. 2%),…
In this paper, I analyse the relationship between US high schools' organisational cultures and student perceptions of responses to anti-gay language in their school. Using data from 67 interviews with young people who identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual, I compare teachers' responses to anti-gay language in schools that do and schools that do…
Hall, William J.; McDougald, Amanda M.; Kresica, Aimee M.
This study examined high school counselors' education and training, counseling competency, and supportive behavior regarding gay, lesbian, and bisexual students. Sexual minority students often face a range of school and mental health problems. Results show that participants' counseling competency skills, knowledge, and attitudes predict…
Olive, James L.
This qualitative study explores the past experiences of six post-secondary students who self-identified as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and/or Queer (LGBQ) and held leadership roles in student organizations at one large public institution. The purpose of this exploration was to better understand the impact of friendship on the development of a…
Meyer, Ilan H.
The author addresses two issues raised in Moradi, DeBlaere, and Huang's Major Contribution to this issue: the intersection of racial/ethnic and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identities and the question of stress and resilience. The author expands on Moradi et al.'s work, hoping to encourage further research. On the intersection of identities,…
Simons, Jack D.; Hutchison, Brian; Bahr, Michael W.
This study sought to understand school counselor advocacy for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 2015). The authors analyzed data from a non-random sample of 398 school counselors in the United States. Participants completed demographic items and the Attitudes subscale of the Sexual Orientation…
Dugan, John P.; Yurman, Lauren
This study explores the appropriateness of collapsing lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students into a single category in quantitative research designs as well as the nature of their engagement with the collegiate environment. Data were collected as part of a national study and represent a total of 980 LGB self-identified college students…
Rivera-Ramos, Zully A.; Oswald, Ramona F.; Buki, Lydia P.
In response to the call for new and innovative methods of assessing campus climate (Worthington, 2008), the current study is the first to examine the readiness of a Latina/o campus community to address lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) concerns. Using the Community Readiness Model, data were collected through individual interviews with a total of…
Full Text Available The government is obliged and responsible to respect, protect, enforce, promote and meets Human Rights stipulated in this Act, other legislation, and the international law on human rights ratified by the Republic of Indonesia, thus the sound is mandated by Article 71 Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 39 of 1999 on Human Rights. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT lately is still a hot debate in our society. Of course we do not want this polemic causes trouble, inconvenience, and mutual mistrust one another. Upheaval of thought between the pros and cons ensued about the issue. The pros were claimed, that the state and society should campaign for the principle of non-discrimination between men, women, transgender, lovers of the opposite sex (heterosexual or same sex lovers (gay people. Instead, the cons are counter stated that the State and society must strive to carry out preventive measures against LGBT symptoms that will harm Indonesian next generations. For that reason, the strategic position of the government in this situation is needed to deal with LGBT polemic directly so there are no national disintegration.
Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Boesen, Madelyn J.
This study examines the availability and effectiveness of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-related school resources for a national sample of transgender youth (N = 409), as compared to a national sample of LGB cisgender (non-transgender) youth (N = 6,444). All four examined resources--gay-straight alliances (GSAs), supportive…
One of the principal aims of queer theory has been to challenge heteronormative constructions of sexuality and to work the hetero/homosexual structure to the point of critical collapse. Despite an epistemic location within this very structure, however, the category of bisexuality has been largely marginalized and even erased from the deconstructive field of queer theory. This article explores some of the factors behind this treatment of bisexuality and suggests that bisexuality's marginalization and erasure brings into relief the strained relationship between the fields of gay/lesbian history, feminism, and queer theory. In exploring some early influential queer deconstructionist texts, it argues that in overlooking the role the category of bisexuality has played in the formation of the hetero/homosexual structure, the project of queer deconstruction has in important ways fallen short of its goals. The author concludes with a call to rethink conventional deconstructive reading practices.
Internalized homophobia has been linked to depression among gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Relatively little research has investigated the link between internalized homophobia and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The current research investigated the interrelations among internalized homophobia, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation by testing additive, mediation, and moderation models. Self-identified Australian gay men (n = 360), lesbians (n = 444), and bisexual women (n = 114) completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the suicide subscale of the General Health Questionnaire. Results supported the additive and partial mediation models for gay men and the mediation and moderation models for lesbians. None of the models were supported for bisexual women. The findings imply that clinicians should focus on reducing internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men and lesbians, and depressive symptoms among bisexual women, to reduce suicidal ideation.
la Roi, Chaïm; Kretschmer, Tina; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth experience elevated levels of depressive symptoms compared to heterosexual youth. This study examined how differences in depressive symptoms between heterosexual and LGB youth developed from late childhood to early adulthood. The association between sexual
Cramer, Robert J.; Burks, Alixandra C.; Golom, Frank D.; Stroud, Caroline H.; Graham, James L.
We tested the psychometric properties of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale. Findings included (1) a three-factor structure (i.e., Negative Identity, Identity Uncertainty, Identity Superiority); (2) less positive identities among HIV-positive persons, African Americans, males, and bisexuals; and (3) convergent patterns with subjective…
Balsam, Kimberly F; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Mickey, Ruth M; Rothblum, Esther D
Self-identified lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) individuals were recruited via convenience sampling, and they in turn recruited their siblings (79% heterosexual, 19% LGB). The resulting sample of 533 heterosexual, 558 lesbian or gay male, and 163 bisexual participants was compared on mental health variables and their use of mental health services. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that sexual orientation predicted suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, self-injurious behavior, use of psychotherapy, and use of psychiatric medications over and above the effects of family adjustment. Sexual orientation was unrelated to current psychological distress, psychiatric hospitalizations, and self-esteem. This is the 1st study to model family effects on the mental health of LGB participants and their siblings. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce; Levy-Warren, Anna
Research on lesbian and bisexual women has documented various biological and behavioral differences between butch and femme women. However, little research has examined whether differences exist in sexual identity development (i.e., the coming-out process). The present study examined longitudinally potential butch/femme differences in sexual identity formation and integration among an ethnically diverse sample of 76 self-identified lesbian and bisexual young women (ages 14-21 years). A composite measure of butch/femme identity classified 43% as butch and 51% as femme. Initial comparisons found butch/femme differences in sexual identity (i.e., nearly all butches identified as lesbian, but about half of femmes identified as bisexual), suggesting the need to examine this confound. Comparisons of lesbian butches, lesbian femmes, and bisexual femmes found that lesbian butches and femmes generally did not differ on sexual identity formation, but they differed from bisexual femmes. Lesbian butches and femmes had sexual behaviors and a cognitive sexual orientation that were more centered on women than those of bisexual femmes. With respect to sexual identity integration, lesbian butches were involved in more gay social activities, were more comfortable with others knowing about their homosexuality, and were more certain, comfortable, and accepting of their sexual identity than were bisexual femmes. Fewer differences were found between lesbian femmes and bisexual femmes or between lesbian butches and lesbian femmes. The findings suggest that sexual identity formation does not differ between butch or femme women, but differences are linked to sexual identity as lesbian or bisexual. Further, the findings that lesbian femmes sometimes differed from lesbian butches and at other times from bisexual femmes on sexual identity integration suggest that neither sexual identity nor butch/femme alone may explain sexual identity integration. Research examining the intersection between
Bregman, Hallie R.; Malik, Neena M.; Page, Matthew J. L.; Makynen, Emily; Lindahl, Kristin M.
Sexual identity development is a central task of adolescence and young adulthood and can be especially challenging for sexual minority youth. Recent research has moved from a stage model of identity development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth to examining identity in a non-linear, multidimensional manner. In addition, although families have been identified as important to youth's identity development, limited research has examined the influence of parental responses to youth's discl...
Bostwick, Wendy B.; Boyd, Carol J.; Hughes, Tonda L.; West, Brady
Health disparities among sexual minority groups, particularly mental health disparities, are well-documented. Numerous studies have demonstrated heightened prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual groups as compared to heterosexuals. Some authors posit that these disparities are the result of the stress that prejudice and perceived discrimination can cause. The current study extends previous research by examining the associations between multiple types o...
Concetta P Pelullo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of discrimination, harassment, and violence and the associated factors among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men recruited from randomly selected public venues in Italy. METHODS: A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographics, frequency of discrimination, verbal harassment, and physical and sexual violence because of their sexual orientation, and their fear of suffering each types of victimization. RESULTS: In the whole sample, 28.3% and 11.9% self-reported at least one episode of victimization because of the sexual orientation in their lifetime and in the last year. Those unmarried, compared to the others, and with a college degree or higher, compared to less educated respondents, were more likely to have experienced an episode of victimization in their lifetime. Lesbians, compared to bisexual, had almost twice the odds of experiencing an episode of victimization. The most commonly reported experiences across the lifetime were verbal harassment, discrimination, and physical or sexual violence. Among those who had experienced one episode of victimization in their lifetime, 42.1% self-reported one episode in the last year. Perceived fear of suffering violence because of their sexual orientation, measured on a 10-point Likert scale with a higher score indicative of greater fear, ranges from 5.7 for verbal harassment to 6.4 for discrimination. Participants were more likely to have fear of suffering victimization because of their sexual orientation if they were female (compared to male, lesbian and gay men (compared to bisexual women and men, unmarried (compared to the others, and if they have already suffered an episode of victimization (compared to those who have not suffered an episode. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides important insights into the violence experiences of lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men and the results
Pelullo, Concetta P; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo F
This cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of discrimination, harassment, and violence and the associated factors among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men recruited from randomly selected public venues in Italy. A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographics, frequency of discrimination, verbal harassment, and physical and sexual violence because of their sexual orientation, and their fear of suffering each types of victimization. In the whole sample, 28.3% and 11.9% self-reported at least one episode of victimization because of the sexual orientation in their lifetime and in the last year. Those unmarried, compared to the others, and with a college degree or higher, compared to less educated respondents, were more likely to have experienced an episode of victimization in their lifetime. Lesbians, compared to bisexual, had almost twice the odds of experiencing an episode of victimization. The most commonly reported experiences across the lifetime were verbal harassment, discrimination, and physical or sexual violence. Among those who had experienced one episode of victimization in their lifetime, 42.1% self-reported one episode in the last year. Perceived fear of suffering violence because of their sexual orientation, measured on a 10-point Likert scale with a higher score indicative of greater fear, ranges from 5.7 for verbal harassment to 6.4 for discrimination. Participants were more likely to have fear of suffering victimization because of their sexual orientation if they were female (compared to male), lesbian and gay men (compared to bisexual women and men), unmarried (compared to the others), and if they have already suffered an episode of victimization (compared to those who have not suffered an episode). The study provides important insights into the violence experiences of lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men and the results may serve for improving policy initiatives to reduce such
Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana; Tittsworth, Josephine
Neumann (2005) called for an analysis of marginalization and inclusion of lesbian, gay, and bisexual students in psychology. As psychology instructors begin to infuse such content, the curriculum still overwhelmingly neglects the transgender community. This invisibility of transgender people within psychology courses allows for perpetuation of…
Stone, Amy L.
This paper is a content analysis of political flyers and messages developed by Religious Right campaigns between 1974 and 2013 to fight legislation supportive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The analysis focuses on 16 campaigns in which Religious Right groups made claims about transgender adults and children. In…
The large number of Thai transgender women (Kathoey) in Thailand and their visible roles in society often lead casual visitors to believe that Thailand is open and accepting of LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) culture. Hence, it is common to hear Thailand described as gender tolerant and
Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti
Aims: Epidemiological research on lesbian, gay and bisexual populations raises concerns regarding self-selection and group sizes. The aim of this research was to present strategies used to overcome these challenges in a national population-based web survey of self-reported sexual orientation...... and living conditions—exemplified with a case of daily tobacco smoking. Methods: The sample was extracted from pre-established national web panels. Utilizing an oversampling strategy, we established a sample including 315 gay men, 217 bisexual men, 789 heterosexual men, 197 lesbian women, 405 bisexual women...
Raley, Amber B; Lucas, Jennifer L
The current content analysis of prime-time network television during the fall of 2001 seeks to identify the representation of Gay male, Lesbian, and Bisexual characters in shows known to have one reoccurring homosexual character based on the theories of Clark and Berry. Clark (1969) established four stages of media representation for minority groups: non-representation, ridicule, regulation, and respect. The findings of the study support the premise that Gay males and Lesbians have passed Clark's stage of non-representation and have progressed into the stage of ridicule and some are moving into the stages of regulation and respect. Berry (1980) devised three periods based on the television portrayal of Blacks: The Stereotypic Age, The New Awareness, and Stabilization. Results were mixed, with only a partial support of the hypothesis that Gay males and Lesbians had advanced beyond The Stereotypic Age.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. METHODS The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women. RESULTS Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.
Yi, Horim; Lee, Hyemin; Park, Jooyoung; Choi, Bokyoung; Kim, Seung-Sup
This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women). Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.
Burke, Sara E; Dovidio, John F; LaFrance, Marianne; Przedworski, Julia M; Perry, Sylvia P; Phelan, Sean M; Burgess, Diana J; Hardeman, Rachel R; Yeazel, Mark W; van Ryn, Michelle
Increasing evidence suggests that bisexual people are sometimes evaluated more negatively than heterosexual and gay/lesbian people. A common theoretical account for this discrepancy argues that bisexuality is perceived by some as introducing ambiguity into a binary model of sexuality. The present brief report tests a single key prediction of this theory, that evaluations of bisexual people have a unique relationship with Need for Closure (NFC), a dispositional preference for simple ways of structuring information. Participants ( n =3406) were heterosexual medical students from a stratified random sample of 49 U.S. medical schools. As in prior research, bisexual targets were evaluated slightly more negatively than gay/lesbian targets overall. More importantly for the present investigation, higher levels of NFC predicted negative evaluations of bisexual people after accounting for negative evaluations of gay/lesbian people, and higher levels of NFC also predicted an explicit evaluative preference for gay/lesbian people over bisexual people. These results suggest that differences in evaluations of sexual minority groups partially reflect different psychological processes, and that NFC may have a special relevance for bisexual targets even beyond its general association with prejudice. The practical value of testing this theory on new physicians is also discussed.
Dewaele, Alexis; Van Houtte, Mieke; Vincke, John
The role of visibility management strategies, as an extended measure of outness related to sexual orientation, has been rarely studied with the aim of explaining the experience of external stressors (i.e., experiences of everyday discrimination and perceived sanctioning of cross-gender behavior) and internal stressors (i.e., internalized homonegativity and general mental distress). In this study, we examined gender differences within these relationships. A non-representative sample of 2,378 lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals was recruited. We found that lesbian and bisexual women scored significantly higher on perceived cross-gender sanctioning and general mental distress compared to gay and bisexual men. Multivariate analysis showed that visibility management was significantly related to the experience of internalized homonegativity in both men and women. Visibility management mediated the relationship between experiences of every day discrimination on the one hand and internalized homonegativity and general mental distress on the other. Finally, we found that compared to gay and bisexual men, lesbian and bisexual women who maintained relatively closed visibility management strategies, reported lower scores on internalized homonegativity but higher scores on general mental distress. We found fewer gender differences related to visibility management than expected and those that we did find were relatively small. Flemish lesbian and bisexual women and gay and bisexual men appear to more alike than different.
Andersen, Anna-Eva; Moberg, Catherine; Bengtsson Tops, Anita; Garmy, Pernilla
To describe lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences of nurses' attitudes in child healthcare. Lesbian, gay and bisexual people are often reluctant to disclose their gender identity for fear of discrimination. This fear may lead to avoidance of healthcare for themselves or their children and may negatively affect families' health and well-being. A qualitative inductive design was employed. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 lesbian, gay or bisexual parents (11 mothers and three fathers) with child health care experiences in southern Sweden. Interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Two themes were identified. One, a "sense of marginalisation," included lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences of heteronormative attitudes among child healthcare nurses which led them to feel alienated and questioned as parents. Another, "being respected for who you are," included experiences of being respected and included at child healthcare appointments. Findings paint a complex picture of lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' interactions with child healthcare nurses in that they experienced both positive and negative attitudes. Knowledge gaps about lesbian, gay and bisexual families within the child healthcare field must be filled. Child health care nurses should work with the entire family to provide the best care for the child; however, discrimination in health care is common and often caused by a lack of knowledge. The number of children living with same-sex parents has increased more than ten-fold since the end of the 1990s. It is therefore important to explore lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences with child healthcare nurses' attitudes to improve quality of care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
There is a growing appreciation of the significance of socio-cultural context for the experiences of an individual living with dementia. There is, too, an emergent awareness that dementia is a gendered issue, disproportionately affecting women compared with men. However, little attention has been given as yet to the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women living with dementia. This article addresses this gap in knowledge, exploring the significance of the intersection of ageing, gender and sexuality for lesbian and bisexual women with dementia. It suggests that stigma and social marginalisation associated with dementia and with ageing, gender and sexuality intersect to compound the social exclusion of lesbians and bisexual women. This has implications for early diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, community care policy, which is predicated on heterosexist norms fails to take into account older lesbians and bisexual women's support networks and so is less likely to be attuned to their needs. Residential care provision is perceived by older lesbians and bisexual women as being heteronormative at best and homophobic at worst. Services which do not recognise, validate and support their identities will compound their anxiety, confusion and distress. This may be contrary to Equality and Human Rights legislation and UK social policies. This paper draws upon, and analyses, extracts from a range of authorship, synthesising the material to present novel insights into the significance of gender and sexuality for the experience of dementia and dementia care. © The Author(s) 2014.
Savin-Williams, Ritch C.
Reviews verbal and physical abuse that threatens well-being and physical survival of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths. Notes that this response to gay male, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents by significant others in their environment is often associated with several problematic outcomes, including school-related problems, running away,…
Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G; Vélez-Vega, Carmen M; Ortiz-Sánchez, Edgardo J; Santiago-Rodríguez, Edda I; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L; Rodríguez Madera, Sheilla L; Mulinelli-Rodríguez, José J
To identify the experiences of discrimination among and the perceived priorities for the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT) people in Puerto Rico (PR). Data were collected during the 2013 LGBT Pride Parade in San Juan, using a brief self-administered survey that included questions on sociodemographic characteristics, the disclosure of sexual orientation/gender identity, experiences of discrimination, experiences while receiving social and health services, and perceived healthcare priorities and needs. Most participants reported that they had disclosed their sexual orientation to at least one person. Discrimination due to sexual orientation/gender identity was most frequently reported to have occurred in school settings. At least 25% of the sample reported regular or negative experiences based on sexual orientation/gender identity when receiving government services and when looking for support from relatives. HIV/AIDS, mental health, and sexual health were identified as healthcare priorities. In bivariate analyses, mental health services and aging were the priorities most frequently reported among older participants. HIV/AIDS was the main priority only for gay men; sexual health was the main priority for bisexuals; and mental health was the main priority for lesbians. Most participants reported that their preferred modalities for health service provision were support groups and health education. The experiences of discrimination among LGBT people in PR were consistent across age groups and sexual orientation/gender identity. Policies and interventions to address discrimination in different settings are necessary. The findings also suggest the need to prioritize HIV services among gay men and to address mental and sexual health needs among lesbian and bisexual people.
Goodrich, Kristopher M; Buser, Juleen K; Luke, Melissa; Buser, Trevor J
Although religious and spiritual issues have emerged as areas of focus in counseling, very few scholars have explored the meaning and experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients who addressed their sexual and religious/spiritual identities in counseling. Using consensual qualitative research (CQR; Hill, 2012), the current study explores the perspectives of 12 LGB persons who sought counseling that involved religious/spiritual concerns. Four themes in participant interviews are identified, including (a) self-acceptance, (b) goals of counseling, (c) identification with counselor, and (d) counseling environment and relationship. Implications of findings for the counseling field are discussed.
Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti
Epidemiological research on lesbian, gay and bisexual populations raises concerns regarding self-selection and group sizes. The aim of this research was to present strategies used to overcome these challenges in a national population-based web survey of self-reported sexual orientation and living conditions-exemplified with a case of daily tobacco smoking. The sample was extracted from pre-established national web panels. Utilizing an oversampling strategy, we established a sample including 315 gay men, 217 bisexual men, 789 heterosexual men, 197 lesbian women, 405 bisexual women and 979 heterosexual women. We compared daily smoking, representing three levels of differentiation of sexual orientation for each gender. The aggregation of all non-heterosexuals into one group yielded a higher odds ratio (OR) for non-heterosexuals being a daily smoker. The aggregation of lesbian and bisexual women indicated higher OR between this group and heterosexual women. The full differentiation yielded no differences between groups except for bisexual compared with heterosexual women. The analyses demonstrated the advantage of differentiation of sexual orientation and gender, in this case bisexual women were the main source of group differences. We recommend an oversampling procedure, making it possible to avoid self-recruitment and to increase the transferability of findings.
Tebbe, Esther N.; Moradi, Bonnie
This study aimed to identify theoretically relevant key correlates of anti-transgender prejudice. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to test the unique relations of anti-lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) prejudice; traditional gender role attitudes; need for closure; and social dominance orientation with anti-transgender prejudice.…
Roe, Stuart L.
School social workers can serve as valuable supporters of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youths in the public school system by providing services aimed to improve school climates for all students. This article describes a qualitative study that examined gay and bisexual adolescent experiences with peer support using a…
Martos, Alexander; Nezhad, Sheila; Meyer, Ilan H.
Despite a large body of literature covering sexual identity development milestones, we know little about differences or similarities in patterns of identity development among subgroups of the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population. For this study, we assessed identity milestones for 396 LGB New Yorkers, ages 18–59. Sexual identity and disclosure milestones, were measured across gender, sexual identity, race/ethnicity, and age cohort subgroups of the LGB sample. Men experienced most sexual identity milestones earlier than women, but they tended to take more time between milestones. LGBs in younger age cohorts experienced sexual identity milestones and disclosure milestones earlier than the older cohorts. Bisexual people experienced sexual identity and disclosure milestones later than gay and lesbian people. Timing of coming out milestones did not differ by race/ethnicity. By comparing differences within subpopulations, the results of this study help build understanding of the varied identity development experiences of people who are often referred to collectively as “the LGB community.” LGB people face unique health and social challenges; a more complete understanding of variations among LGB people allows health professionals and social service providers to provide services that better fit the needs of LGB communities. PMID:27695579
Bregman, Hallie R.; Malik, Neena M.; Page, Matthew J. L.; Makynen, Emily; Lindahl, Kristin M.
Sexual identity development is a central task of adolescence and young adulthood and can be especially challenging for sexual minority youth. Recent research has moved from a stage model of identity development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth to examining identity in a non-linear, multidimensional manner. In addition, although families have been identified as important to youth's identity development, limited research has examined the influence of parental responses to youth's disclosure of their LGB sexual orientation on LGB identity. The current study examined a multidimensional model of LGB identity and its links with parental support and rejection. One hundred and sixty-nine LGB adolescents and young adults (ages 14–24, 56% male, 48% gay, 31% lesbian, 21% bisexual) described themselves on dimensions of LGB identity and reported on parental rejection, sexuality-specific social support, and non-sexuality-specific social support. Using latent profile analysis (LPA), two profiles were identified, indicating that youth experience both affirmed and struggling identities. Results indicated that parental rejection and sexuality-specific social support from families were salient links to LGB identity profile classification, while non-sexuality specific social support was unrelated. Parental rejection and sexuality-specific social support may be important to target in interventions for families to foster affirmed LGB identity development in youth. PMID:22847752
Bostwick, Wendy B; Boyd, Carol J; Hughes, Tonda L; West, Brady T; McCabe, Sean Esteban
Health disparities among sexual minority groups, particularly mental health disparities, are well-documented. Numerous studies have demonstrated heightened prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual groups as compared with heterosexuals. Some authors posit that these disparities are the result of the stress that prejudice and perceived discrimination can cause. The current study extends previous research by examining the associations between multiple types of discrimination, based on race or ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation, and past-year mental health disorders in a national sample of self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual women and men (n = 577). Findings suggest that different types of discrimination may be differentially associated with past-year mental health disorders. Notably, sexual orientation discrimination was associated with higher odds of a past-year disorder only in combination with other types of discrimination. These findings point to the complexity of the relationship between discrimination experiences and mental health, and suggest that further work is needed to better explicate the interplay among multiple marginalized identities, discrimination, and mental health. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
de Graaf, Hanneke; Picavet, Charles
Studies on sexual trajectories of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people generally focus on the first same-sex attraction and sexual experience, and their relation to self-identification and coming out as LGB. Relational and opposite-sex experiences are generally not taken into account. The aim of this study was to provide a more comprehensive overview of LGBs' sexual trajectories and to distinguish subsamples with different trajectories. A sample of same-sex attracted members of an online research panel (N = 3054) completed a sexual health questionnaire, including items about the timing of sexual and relational milestones. Results showed that the majority of gay men and lesbian women had same-sex sexual and relational experiences, whereas most bisexual men and women had had experiences with the opposite sex. Among gay men and lesbian women, two trajectories emerged, differing mainly on whether people had been sexually or romantically involved with opposite-sex partners, and on age of first same-sex attraction. Among those who were not exclusively attracted to the same sex, six patterns emerged, which differed especially with regard to the nature and comprehensiveness of their same-sex experiences. Within the exclusively same-sex attracted group, the trajectory with no heterosexual experiences related to higher levels of psychological adjustment. For non-exclusive sexually attracted people, trajectories including experience of same-sex relationships seem to be most beneficial. In conclusion, both relational and opposite-sex experiences proved to be important elements of LGB men and women's sexual trajectories.
Fokkema, C.M.; Kuyper, L.
Research has shown that aging lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) often experience feelings of loneliness. The main aim of this study was to examine whether older LGB adults in the Netherlands are lonelier than their heterosexual counterparts and, if so, whether the higher levels of loneliness
Children and adolescents who are growing up gay, lesbian, bisexual, gender nonconforming, or gender discordant experience unique developmental challenges. They are at risk for certain mental health problems, many of which are significantly correlated with stigma and prejudice. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in fostering…
Padilla, Yolanda C.; Crisp, Catherine; Rew, Donna Lynn
Although gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) adolescents face many of the same developmental challenges as do heterosexual adolescents, they must also deal with the stress of being part of a stigmatized group. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which family support and involvement with the queer community may buffer the effects of…
Baams, Laura; Grossman, Arnold H.; Russell, Stephen T.
The experience of minority stress is often named as a cause for mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, including higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation. The processes or mechanisms through which these disparities occur are understudied. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits 2 key…
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.
The debate over whether same-sex couples should be allowed to enter into civil marriages continues in the United States. Forty-nine adolescents and emerging adults (ages 14-29) with lesbian, gay, and bisexual parents were interviewed for the current exploratory study, which examined how individuals perceived themselves and their families as being…
Rodriguez, Eric M; Etengoff, Chana; Vaughan, Michelle D
Much of the religious/spiritual development of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals (GLBs) has focused on experiences of conflict and distress, providing little insight into how these identities can be integrated. The present study explored the religious and spiritual lives of GLBs with a specific focus on the integration of these identities. We conducted a retrospective secondary data analysis of 750 GLB individuals from the Northern California Health Study to quantitatively assess sexual orientation and religion/spirituality integration using hierarchical cluster analysis. Resulting MANCOVA analyses of the five revealed groupings (integrated, gay identity struggle, anti-religious/spiritual, secular, and low gay salience) present numerous statistically significant differences between these integration clusters and a variety of dependent variables including measures of demographics, religiosity/spirituality, gay identity, and multiple mental health outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings while also making suggestions for future research.
Halbrook, Meghan K; Watson, Jack C; Voelker, Dana K
Despite reports that there has been a positive trend in perception and treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals in recent years (Griffin, 2012 ; Loftus, 2001 ), sport, in general, is still an uncertain, and sometimes even hostile, environment for LGB athletes (Anderson, 2005 ; Waldron & Krane, 2005 ). To gain more information on coach understanding and perceptions of the team environment, 10 high school head coaches in the United States were interviewed to explore their experiences coaching openly LGB athletes. Qualitative analyses revealed four primary themes associated with coach experiences: team environment dogmas and observations, fundamental beliefs contributing to perceptions of LGB athletes, types and timing of sexual orientation disclosure, and differential LGB athlete characteristics. Future research should examine these primary themes in more detail through interviews with LGB athletes, as well as high school coaches in more traditionally masculine sports, such as football, men's basketball, and wrestling.
Hartwell, Erica E; Serovich, Julianne M; Reed, Sandra J; Boisvert, Danielle; Falbo, Teresa
The purpose of this study is to review samples from research on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues and to evaluate the suitability of this body of research to support affirmative and evidence-based practice with GLB clients. The authors systematically reviewed the sampling methodology and sample composition of GLB-related research. All original, quantitative articles focusing on GLB issues published in couple and family therapy (CFT)-related journals since 1975 were coded (n = 153). Results suggest that within the GLB literature base there is some evidence of heterocentrism as well as neglect of issues of class, race, and gender. Suggestions to improve the diversity and representativeness of samples-and, thus, clinical implications-of GLB-related research in CFT literature are provided. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Chonody, Jill M; Kavanagh, Phillip S; Woodford, Michael R
Research suggests that contact with sexual minorities and etiology beliefs regarding the origins of homosexuality are associated with antigay bias; however, factors related to etiology beliefs have received little empirical attention. Our primary research question is: Does closeness to someone who is gay, lesbian, or bisexual influence etiology beliefs? Students (n = 851) from four U.S. universities completed an anonymous survey, and regression results indicated that contact and closeness were not significantly associated with etiology beliefs. Because both contact and relationship closeness were associated with antigay attitudes, and closeness demonstrated the largest effect, we tested three alternative structural equation models to determine if contact and closeness mediated etiology beliefs. Results suggested that contact and the degree of closeness are indirectly associated with students' etiology beliefs through antigay bias.
Martos, Alexander J; Wilson, Patrick A; Gordon, Allegra R; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Meyer, Ilan H
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) peoples' healthcare preferences are often developed in response to social and institutional factors that can ultimately deter them from care. Prior qualitative explorations of LGB healthcare preferences have been limited in their ability to identify and compare patterns across age cohort, gender, and race/ethnicity. The current study examines qualitative data from 186 modified Life Story Interviews with three age cohorts of LGB people from New York City, NY, San Francisco, CA, Tucson, AZ, and Austin, TX to understand the factors influencing LGB people's healthcare preferences. Data are analyzed using a directed content analysis approach. Five key themes emerged regarding influences on healthcare preferences: Stigma, provider expertise, identity, service type, and access. Findings suggest that healthcare preferences among LGB people are both complex and closely linked to social changes over time. Healthcare preferences among LGB people are both complex and closely linked to social changes over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The history of civil rights in Canada illustrates a growing trend by the government to support the physical, emotional, mental, legal, and financial needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered citizens. However, the education system presents a slightly different climate. Despite numerous policies and initiatives, gay and lesbian students…
The Lesbian and Gay Child Care Task Force documented anecdotal evidence of homophobia in child care and school age communities, including: (1) refusal to accept children from lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families into child care; (2) biased attitudes expressed to children when they speak about their families; and (3) demonstrated…
Hooker, Steven D.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender school educators are practically invisible within the nature of heterosexist and homophobic education (Blount, 2005). "Openly gay and lesbian teachers were once thought of as immoral, and in some states coming out is still a risk to one's job" (McCarthy, 2003, p. 182). One's sexual orientation has nothing to…
Ingraham, Natalie; Eliason, Michele J; Garbers, Samantha; Harbatkin, Dawn; Minnis, Alexandra M; McElroy, Jane A; Haynes, Suzanne G
Lesbian and bisexual (LB) women are at higher risk for obesity, but no reported interventions focus on older LB women who are overweight or obese. The Healthy Weight in Lesbian and Bisexual Women study funded five programs (n = 266 LB women age ≥40); two examined effects of mindfulness interventions on health outcomes. Analysis of variance and regression measured the impact of mindfulness-based programs on health behaviors and quality of life (MCS). Outcomes were also compared between intervention sites (mindfulness vs. standard weight loss approaches). Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ) subscale scores improved significantly from preassessment to postassessment in mindfulness interventions. LB women who reported an increase (top tertile) in mindful eating had the most significant increase in MCS scores (35.3%) compared with those with low gains (low and medium tertile) in mindfulness (3.8%). MEQ score increase predicted 40.8% of the variance (adjusted) in MCS score, R(2) = .431, F(6,145) = 18.337, p mindfulness were significantly related to increases in physical activity and some nutrition outcomes. Mindfulness intervention sites showed within-person improvements in MCS and fruit and vegetable intake, whereas standard intervention sites showed within-person decreases in alcohol intake and increases in physical activity level. Although weight loss was not a primary outcome at the mindfulness sites, small but significant weight loss and weight-to-height ratio decreases were reported at all five sites. Increases in mindfulness were associated with a number of significant self-reported health improvements, including a great increase in perceived mental health quality of life. Mindfulness may be a promising practice to address health issues in aging LB women. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.
Frederick, David A; Fales, Melissa R
One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals.
Iversen, Jenny; Dolan, Kate; Ezard, Nadine; Maher, Lisa
Women who inject drugs (WWID) are vulnerable to a range of harms, including exposure to sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections, abusive relationships, physical and sexual violence and mental health issues. Lesbians and bisexual women are at greater risk than heterosexual women for substance use disorders. This study aimed to compare a large sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian WWID and to identify correlates of sexual orientation. The Australian Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) Survey is an annual cross-sectional survey. People who inject drugs (PWID) who attend NSP services are invited to complete a brief self-administered questionnaire and provide a capillary dried blood spot. Of 22,791 survey respondents between 2004-2013, one third were women (n=7,604). Analyses were restricted to the first participation record for each respondent. Of the 5,378 individual women, 4,073 (76%) identified as heterosexual, 1,007 (19%) identified as bisexual, and 298 (6%) identified as lesbian. HIV prevalence was low (sexual orientation and risk behavior identified bisexual orientation as independently associated with increased risk. Services that target PWID need to recognise and address a broad range of sexual identities and behaviors. Future research should explore reasons for increased risk in sexual minority women.
Grabovac, Igor; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Milošević, Milan
Discrimination and harassment of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) physicians from their colleagues and superiors are known. However there is little knowledge about the patients’ attitudes and discrimination toward physicians. A cross sectional Internet survey was conducted in urban Croatian regions. The participants were asked to answer questions regarding their socio-demographic status, the Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG), and whether they would refuse to see a LGB physician and, if so, why. Of the 1004 participants, 8.8% said they would refuse a male GB physician while 7.9% would refuse a female LB physician, and 7.3% would refuse both. The two most common reasons for discriminating were: “disaccord with political or religious beliefs” and “fear of being sexually harassed”. A logistical regression model showed that male sex, higher ATLG score and higher age were associated with more refusals of male GB physicians. Also higher age, higher ATLG score were associated with more refusals of female LB physicians, while personal contact with LGB people was associated with less refusals of both groups. The observed prevalence of discrimination is significant. The results suggest that discrimination is based on emotional reasons and stereotypical beliefs. Educational efforts should be directed towards changing misconceptions about LGB people.
D'haese, Lies; Dewaele, Alexis; Houtte, Mieke Van
The understanding of how lesbians, gays, and bisexuals cope with homophobic violence is limited. Therefore, on the one hand, this study focuses on avoidance, problem-oriented, and emotion-oriented coping as general coping styles. On the other hand, special attention is paid to visibility management as a coping strategy that can be applied in a heteronormative context. Moreover, the moderating role of general coping styles and visibility management in the relationship between homophobic violence and negative mental health outcomes is studied. Data were collected from 1,402 Flemish lesbians, gays, and bisexuals. Stepwise regression analyses shows that coping styles and visibility management have a direct effect on mental health; however, no evidence for a moderating effect is found. Additionally, visibility management and emotion-oriented coping are found to exert a combined effect on mental health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB people may be at higher risk of mental disorders than heterosexual people. Method We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of mental disorder, substance misuse, suicide, suicidal ideation and deliberate self harm in LGB people. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl, the Cochrane Library Database, the Web of Knowledge, the Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Sociological Abstracts, the Campbell Collaboration and grey literature databases for articles published January 1966 to April 2005. We also used Google and Google Scholar and contacted authors where necessary. We searched all terms related to homosexual, lesbian and bisexual people and all terms related to mental disorders, suicide, and deliberate self harm. We included papers on population based studies which contained concurrent heterosexual comparison groups and valid definition of sexual orientation and mental health outcomes. Results Of 13706 papers identified, 476 were initially selected and 28 (25 studies met inclusion criteria. Only one study met all our four quality criteria and seven met three of these criteria. Data was extracted on 214,344 heterosexual and 11,971 non heterosexual people. Meta-analyses revealed a two fold excess in suicide attempts in lesbian, gay and bisexual people [pooled risk ratio for lifetime risk 2.47 (CI 1.87, 3.28]. The risk for depression and anxiety disorders (over a period of 12 months or a lifetime on meta-analyses were at least 1.5 times higher in lesbian, gay and bisexual people (RR range 1.54–2.58 and alcohol and other substance dependence over 12 months was also 1.5 times higher (RR range 1.51–4.00. Results were similar in both sexes but meta analyses revealed that lesbian and bisexual women were particularly at risk of substance dependence (alcohol 12 months: RR 4.00, CI 2.85, 5.61; drug
Baams, Laura; Grossman, Arnold H.; Russell, Stephen T.
The experience of minority stress is often named as a cause for mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, including higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation. The processes or mechanisms through which these disparities occur are understudied. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits two key mechanisms for suicidal ideation: perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness (Joiner, 2009). The aim of the current study is to assess the men...
International evidence suggests that young people are less likely to seek help for mental health problems in comparison with adults. This study focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans young people who are a population group with an elevated risk of suicide and self-harm, and little is known about their help-seeking behaviour. Utilising qualitative virtual methods, lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans youth web-based discussions about seeking help for suicidal feelings and self-harming were investigated. Findings from a thematic analysis indicate that these young people wanted assistance but found it difficult to (1) ask for help, (2) articulate emotional distress and (3) 'tell' their selves as 'failed'. This analysis suggests that key to understanding these problems are emotions such as shame which arise from negotiating norms connected to heterosexuality, adolescence and rationality. I argue that these norms act to regulate what emotions it is possible to feel, what emotions it is possible to articulate and what type of young lives that can be told. The future development of health and social care interventions which aim to reduce lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans youth suicide and self-harm need to work with a nuanced understanding of the emotional life of young people if they are to be effective. © The Author(s) 2014.
Javaherian, Heather; Christy, Amanda B; Boehringer, Molly
Occupational therapists and other allied health professionals face diversity with their clients, including sexual orientation. The purpose of this study was to determine the preparedness and comfort level of occupational therapy practitioners in working with gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. A 23-item survey was mailed to 1,051 practitioners in a midwestern state. Eighty-eight were undeliverable and 373 usable surveys were returned, yielding a 39% response rate. Most respondents felt prepared and comfortable to work with clients who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual, and 48% agreed that sexuality influences occupational choices. Twenty-nine percent agreed that sexual orientation influences occupational therapy treatment. Less than 20% of the respondents, however, received education and used inclusive language in their documentation, and only 14% reported having resources and support services for clients who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Effective education and policy-making strategies are necessary to ensure an accepting therapeutic environment and respect for the role of sexual orientation in the intervention process.
Oswald, Ramona Faith; Lazarevic, Vanja
A positive attachment to one's residential community has been linked to better mental health (McLaren, 2009), stronger social support (Young, Russell, & Powers, 2004), and a higher quality of life (Mak, Cheung, & Law, 2009). Attachment to residential community has been understudied in research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)…
Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Simpson, Paul; Willis, Paul B; Almack, Kathryn
There have been substantial achievements in legislative and human rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) older people and their visibility in health and social care has equally increased. These appear to have surpassed the ability of care services to meet their needs given documented concerns about the accessibility, inclusiveness and safety of care services particularly institutionalised care. This requires systemic change not easy to operationalise. This paper describes an action research initiative where six care homes belonging to a national care provider, collaborated to assess and develop their services with the support of local LGBT "Community Advisors" and academic partners. Framed within Rogers' (2003) change management framework and combined with a participatory leadership approach, a programme of intervention was implemented comprising structured activities around seven key areas thought to promote LGBT inclusion. A formal evaluation was conducted involving 35 pre- and post-intervention qualitative interviews with 18 people (community advisors; care home managers and senior managers). The findings are presented across three key themes (1) starting points on the journey; (2) challenges encountered along the journey (organisational and interpersonal); and (3) making change happen; opportunities, initiatives and gains. We make recommendations on the value of a programme approach for achieving tangible outcomes that demonstrate increased inclusion for older LGBT people living in long-term care settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Theo G M Sandfort
Full Text Available Even though women who have sex with women are usually understood to be at no or very low risk for HIV infection, we explored whether lesbian and bisexual women in a geographical area with high HIV prevalence (Southern Africa get tested for HIV and whether, among those women who get tested, there are women who live with HIV/AIDS. The study was conducted in collaboration with community-based organizations in Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Data were collected via written surveys of women who in the preceding year had had sex with a woman (18 years and older; N = 591. Most participating women identified as lesbian and black. Almost half of the women (47.2% reported ever having had consensual heterosexual sex. Engagement in transactional sex (lifetime was reported by 18.6% of all women. Forced sex by men or women was reported by 31.1% of all women. A large proportion of the women reported to ever have been tested for HIV (78.3%; number of lifetime female and male partners was independently associated with having been tested; women who had engaged in transactional sex with women only or with women and men were less likely to have been tested. Self-reported HIV prevalence among tested women who knew their serostatus was 9.6%. Besides age, the sole independent predictor of a positive serostatus was having experienced forced sex by men, by women, or by both men and women. Study findings indicate that despite the image of invulnerability, HIV/AIDS is a reality for lesbian and bisexual women in Southern Africa. Surprisingly, it is not sex with men per se, but rather forced sex that is the important risk factor for self-reported HIV infection among the participating women. HIV/AIDS policy should also address the needs of lesbian, bisexual and other women who have sex with women.
Blake W. Hawkins
Full Text Available In recent years, librarians in various sectors have been moving forward a conversation on the distinct information needs and information-seeking behavior of our lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ patrons and how well the profession recognizes and meets those needs. Health sciences librarianship has been slower than other areas of the profession in creating an evidence base covering the needs of its LGBTQ patrons, with, until recently, only very limited literature on this subject. LGBTQ health sciences librarianship is now starting to attract new interest, with librarians working together to bring this emerging specialization to the attention of the broader professional community. In this paper, the authors report on a dedicated panel discussion that took place at the 2016 joint annual meeting of the Medical Library Association and Canadian Health Libraries Association/Association des bibliothèques de la santé du Canada in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; discuss subsequent reflections; and highlight the emerging role for health sciences librarians in providing culturally competent services to the LGBTQ population. Recommendations are also provided for establishing a tool kit for LGBTQ health sciences librarianship from which librarians can draw. We conclude by highlighting the importance of critically reflective practice in health sciences librarianship in the context of LGBTQ health information.
Barnes, David M; Meyer, Ilan H
Most religious environments in the United States do not affirm homosexuality. The authors investigated the relationship between exposure to nonaffirming religious environments and internalized homophobia and mental health in a sample of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) in New York City. Guided by minority stress theory, the authors hypothesized that exposure to nonaffirming religious settings would lead to higher internalized homophobia, more depressive symptoms, and less psychological well-being. The authors hypothesized that Black and Latino LGBs would be more likely than White LGBs to participate in nonaffirming religious settings and would therefore have higher internalized homophobia than White LGBs. Participants were 355 LGBs recruited through community-based venue sampling and evenly divided among Black, Latino, and White race or ethnic groups and among age groups within each race or ethnic group, as well as between women and men. Results supported the general hypothesis that nonaffirming religion was associated with higher internalized homophobia. There was no main effect of nonaffirming religion on mental health, an unexpected finding discussed in this article. Latinos, but not Blacks, had higher internalized homophobia than Whites, and as predicted, this was mediated by their greater exposure to nonaffirming religion. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Wood, Susan F; Brooks, Jacquetta; Eliason, Michele J; Garbers, Samantha; McElroy, Jane A; Ingraham, Natalie; Haynes, Suzanne G
Very little research has addressed issues of recruitment and participation of lesbian and bisexual (LB) women, aged 40 and older, into research studies. This study is based on a larger cross-site intervention study that recruited women from five geographic regions in the United States for culturally specific LB healthy weight programs, lasting 12 or 16 weeks. Principal investigators (PIs) of the five intervention programs completed a questionnaire on recruitment and participation strategies and barriers. Participant data on completion and sociodemographic variables were compiled and analyzed. The recruitment strategies the programs' PIs identified as most useful included word-of-mouth participant referrals, emails to LB participants' social networks, and use of electronic health records (at the two clinic-based programs) to identify eligible participants. Flyers and web postings were considered the least useful. Once in the program, participation and completion rates were fairly high (approximately 90%), although with varying levels of engagement in the different programs. Women who were younger or single were more likely to drop out. Women with disabilities had a lower participation/completion rate (82%) than women without any disability (93%). Dropouts were associated with challenges in scheduling (time of day, location) and changes in health status. Implementation of key strategies can improve both recruitment and participation, but there is a great need for further study of best practices to recruit and promote participation of LB women for health intervention research. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.
Stanley, Ian H; Duong, Jeffrey
Empirical efforts to measure use of mental health services among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) older adults have been notably lacking. Thus this study assessed associations between sexual orientation and mental health service use among older adults and determined the mediating role of nonspecific psychological distress, excessive alcohol use, and self-perceived poor general medical health. Data from the 2011 New York City Community Health Survey were analyzed. The analytic sample comprised 5,138 adults ages 50 and over. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine associations between sexual orientation (LGB versus heterosexual) and past-year mental health service use (counseling or medication), adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping were conducted. Among LGB older adults, 23.9% reported receiving counseling, and 23.4% reported taking psychiatric medication in the past year. LGB respondents were significantly more likely than heterosexuals to have received counseling (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.49-3.13) and psychiatric medication (AOR=1.97, CI=1.36-2.86). Psychological distress, excessive alcohol use, and self-perceived poor general medical health did not mediate the association between sexual orientation and mental health service use. LGB older adults were more likely than heterosexuals to utilize mental health services, and this association was not explained by indicators of general medical, mental, or behavioral health.
Melissa M. Barnhill
Full Text Available Inequalities in health have been identified for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB populations nationally. Policies in the U.S. South offer fewer protections for LGB people than in other regions, yet, limited data exist for this region. North Carolina (NC BRFSS data from 2011 to 2014 were combined (LGB n = 604; heterosexual n = 33,170 and analyzed using SAS survey procedures to estimate health characteristics by sexual orientation within gender. Many examined indicators were not different by sexual orientation, however, other results were significant and consistent with findings from state population surveys in other regions of the country. Both genders showed inequities in mental health, having over twice the odds of five or more poor mental health days in the past month and of having ever been diagnosed with a depressive disorder. Sexual minority women had higher odds compared with heterosexual women for ever having smoked cigarettes, current smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke both in the workplace and at home, and both alcohol risk factors, binge and heavy drinking. Being part of the LGB population in NC is associated with worse health. The implementation of anti-LGB policies in the NC warrants ongoing monitoring of LGB health inequities in NC and in other southeastern states for potential effects on the health and well-being of sexual minorities.
Eisenberg, Marla E; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J
Research demonstrates that young people involved in bullying are at greater risk for poor emotional health outcomes, but this association may not be consistent for youth of different sexual orientations. Understanding the unique needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning (LGBQ) youth may suggest important opportunities for intervention and prevention. This study, therefore, examines whether involvement with bullying is differentially associated with emotional well-being across sexual orientation. Survey data were collected from a large statewide sample of 9th and 11th grade students in 2013 (N = 79,039, 49.8% female, 74.6% white). Logistic regression tested associations between sexual orientation, physical or relational bullying perpetration and five measures of emotional health. In the full sample, those reporting bullying perpetration had significantly elevated odds of emotional health problems. However, interaction terms and stratified models indicated that in nine out of ten physical bullying models and two out of ten relational bullying models, perpetration was not as strongly associated with poor emotional health among LGBQ adolescents as it was among heterosexual youth. Possible explanations for this finding include unhealthy coping strategies or masking one's own vulnerable status as LGBQ. Continued efforts to prevent bullying are needed for all youth.
Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M.
Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey (N=1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women’s current gender identity (i.e., butch, femme, androgynous, or other) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences. PMID:24003263
Lehavot, Keren; Molina, Yamile; Simoni, Jane M
Several studies have demonstrated that lesbian and bisexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and adult sexual assault. It is unknown, however, which sexual minority women are most likely to experience such abuse. We recruited adult sexual minority women living in the US through electronic fliers sent to listservs and website groups inviting them to complete an online survey ( N =1,243). We examined differences in both childhood abuse and adult sexual assault by women's current gender identity (i.e., butch , femme , androgynous , or other ) and a continuous measure of gender expression (from butch/masculine to femme/feminine), adjusting for sexual orientation identity, age, education, and income. Results indicated that a more butch/masculine current self-assessment of gender expression, but not gender identity, was associated with more overall reported childhood trauma. Although one aspect of gender expression, a more butch/masculine gender role, was associated with adult sexual assault, feminine appearance and a femme gender identity also significantly predicted adult sexual assault. These findings highlight the significance of gender identity and expression in identifying women at greater risk for various abuse experiences.
Plöderl, Martin; Fartacek, Reinhold
The role of childhood gender role nonconformity (CGNC) and childhood harassment (CH) in explaining suicidality (suicide ideation, aborted suicide attempts, and suicide attempts) was examined in a sample of 142 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and 148 heterosexual adults in Austria. Current and previous suicidality, CGNC, and CH were significantly greater in LGB participants compared to heterosexual participants. After controlling for CGNC, the effect of sexual orientation on CH diminished. CGNC correlated significantly with current suicidality in the LGB but not in the heterosexual group, and only non-significant correlations were found for CGNC with previous suicidality. Controlling for CH and CGNC diminished the effect of sexual orientation on current suicidality. Bayesian multivariate analysis indicated that current suicidality, but not previous suicidality, depended directly on CGNC. CH and CGNC are likely implicated in the elevated levels of current suicidality among adult LGB participants. As for previous suicidality, the negative impact of CGNC on suicidality might be overshadowed by stress issues affecting sexual minorities around coming out. The association of CGNC with current suicidality suggests an enduring effect of CGNC on the mental health and suicide risk of LGB individuals.
Carter, Larry W; Mollen, Debra; Smith, Nathan Grant
Within the framework of minority stress theory, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are conceptualized as members of a minority group defined by sexual orientation. Two of the component processes of minority stress hypothesized by Meyer (2003), internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events, were examined in the current study. Both internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events have been associated with increased psychological distress in LGB populations. Researchers have also observed a relationship between external locus of control and increased psychological distress in general population samples. The current study explored whether locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between the overall psychological distress of LGB individuals and both internalized heterosexism and the experience of workplace-based prejudice events (n = 165). Results indicated that locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between experience of workplace-based prejudice events and overall psychological distress but not for the relationship between internalized heterosexism and distress. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Pennay, Amy; McNair, Ruth; Hughes, Tonda L; Leonard, William; Brown, Rhonda; Lubman, Dan I
Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience substantial unmet alcohol and mental health treatment needs. This paper explores the way in which sexual identity shapes experience, and needs, in relation to alcohol and mental health treatment, and presents key messages for improving treatment. Twenty-five in-depth interviews were undertaken with same-sex attracted Australian women, aged 19-71. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically. Key messages offered by participants focused on language, disclosure and practitioner training. Variation in sexual identity did not alter treatment expectations or needs; however, we noted an important difference with respect to identity salience, with high LBQ identity salience linked with preference for disclosure and acknowledgement of sexual identity in treatment interactions, and low identity salience linked with a preference not to disclose and for sexual identity not to require acknowledgement in treatment. Treatment providers may find it useful to gather information about the centrality of sexual identity to LBQ women as a means of overcoming treatment barriers related to heteronormative conventions and discrimination, language and disclosure. Implications for public health: Treatment providers should adopt more inclusive language, seek information about identity salience and the importance of sexual identity to the current treatment, and regularly pursue LBQ-related professional development upskilling. © 2017 The Authors.
Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Riggle, Ellen D B; Horne, Sharon G; Denton, F Nicholas; Huellemeier, Julia Darnell
Political campaigns to deny same-sex couples the right to civil marriage have been demonstrated to increase minority stress and psychological distress in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals (S. S. Rostosky, E. D. B. Riggle, S. G. Horne, & A. D. Miller, 2009). To further explicate the psychological reactions of LGB individuals to marriage amendment campaigns, a content analysis was conducted of open-ended responses from 300 participants in a national online survey that was conducted immediately following the November 2006 election. LGB individuals indicated that they felt indignant about discrimination; distressed by the negative rhetoric surrounding the campaigns; fearful and anxious about protecting their relationships and families; blaming of institutionalized religion, ignorance, conservative politicians, and the ineffective political strategies used by LGBT organizers; hopeless and resigned; and, finally, hopeful, optimistic, and determined to keep fighting for justice and equal rights. These 7 themes are illustrated and discussed in light of their implications for conceptualizing and intervening to address discrimination and its negative psychological effects.
McLaughlin, Katie A; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M
We examined associations between perceived discrimination due to race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, or gender; responses to discrimination experiences; and psychiatric disorders. The sample included respondents in the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34 653). We analyzed the associations between self-reported past-year discrimination and past-year psychiatric disorders as assessed with structured diagnostic interviews among Black (n = 6587); Hispanic (n = 6359); lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB; n = 577); and female (n = 20 089) respondents. Black respondents reported the highest levels of past-year discrimination, followed by LGB, Hispanic, and female respondents. Across groups, discrimination was associated with 12-month mood (odds ratio [ORs] = 2.1-3.1), anxiety (ORs = 1.8-3.3), and substance use (ORs = 1.6-3.5) disorders. Respondents who reported not accepting discrimination and not discussing it with others had higher odds of psychiatric disorders (ORs = 2.9-3.9) than did those who did not accept discrimination but did discuss it with others. Black respondents and women who accepted discrimination and did not talk about it with others had elevated rates of mood and anxiety disorders, respectively. Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among individuals reporting past-year discrimination experiences. Certain responses to discrimination, particularly not disclosing it, are associated with psychiatric morbidity.
Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I
This study aims to: (1) test whether the minority stressors disclosure of sexual orientation; and (2) internalized heterosexism are predictive of chronic physical health conditions; and (3) depression; (4) to test direct and indirect relationships between these variables; and (5) whether chronic physical health conditions are further predictive of depression, net of disclosure of sexual orientation and internalized heterosexism. Secondary analysis of national, community-based surveys of 2349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 and older residing in the US utilizing structural equation modeling. Congruent with minority stress theory, disclosure of sexual orientation is indirectly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, mediated by internalized heterosexism with a suppressor effect. Internalized heterosexism is directly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, and further indirectly associated with depression mediated by chronic physical health conditions. Finally, chronic physical health conditions have an additional direct relationship with depression, net of other predictor variables. Minority stressors and chronic physical health conditions independently and collectively predict depression, possibly a synergistic effect. Implications for depression among older sexual minority adults are discussed.
Joseph G. L. Lee
Full Text Available With no information on tobacco use for lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB populations in West Virginia (WV, it is unclear if nationally-identified LGB tobacco disparities also exist in this State. To address this data gap, we conducted a community tobacco survey in bars and events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. Trained community surveyors used electronic and paper survey instruments in bars (n = 6 in three WV cities and community events associated with the WV Pride Parade and Festival. We analyzed results from 386 completed surveys from self-identified LGB individuals. Tobacco use among LGB bar patrons and LGB attendees at Pride-affiliated events was elevated (45%, as was current cigarette use (41%. Users of cigars and chewing tobacco were frequently dual users of cigarettes, with 80% and 60% reporting dual use, respectively. A substantial disparity likely exists in tobacco use among LGB West Virginians. Targeted interventions addressing tobacco use among LGB West Virginians are warranted in these venues, and the addition of a demographic question on sexual orientation would improve data collection and monitoring of this disparity.
Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.
Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are “coming out” at younger ages, few studies have examined if early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyze retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years identified three trajectories of development: Early (n = 951, milestones spanning ages 12 to 20), Middle (n = 239, milestones spanning ages 18 to 31), and Late (n = 70, milestones spanning ages 32 to 43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, post-hoc analyses of the Early Profile group identified two sub-groups: Child-Onset (n = 284, milestones spanning ages 8 to 18), and Teen-Onset (n = 667, milestones spanning ages 14 to 22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity-centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the Early Profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research. PMID:21942662
Ingraham, Natalie; Harbatkin, Dawn; Lorvick, Jennifer; Plumb, Marj; Minnis, Alexandra M
Lesbian and bisexual (LB) women have higher body weight than heterosexual women. Interventions focused on health and well-being versus weight loss may be more likely to succeed among LB women. This article describes effects of Women's Health and Mindfulness, a 12-week pilot intervention addressing mindfulness, healthy eating, and physical activity, on outcomes associated with chronic disease risk among overweight and obese LB women older than 40 years. Eighty women were randomized, using a stepped-wedge design, to either an immediate- or a delayed-start intervention group; the delayed-start group served as the control. Eligible participants were aged 40 years or older, identified as LB, and had a body mass index of 27 or greater. We compared differences in biological markers of chronic disease, mindfulness, nutrition, and physical activity between immediate- and delayed-start intervention groups. We observed clinically significant improvements in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but no change in hemoglobin A1c. We found evidence of intervention effects on improved mindfulness and mindful eating scores and on nutrition (improved vegetable intake). The Women's Health and Mindfulness pilot intervention appears to have initiated positive behavioral and physical health changes in this population. Refinements to the intervention model, such as extended intervention duration, and longer term follow-up are warranted to determine sustained effects.
Hawkins, Blake W; Morris, Martin; Nguyen, Tony; Siegel, John; Vardell, Emily
In recent years, librarians in various sectors have been moving forward a conversation on the distinct information needs and information-seeking behavior of our lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ) patrons and how well the profession recognizes and meets those needs. Health sciences librarianship has been slower than other areas of the profession in creating an evidence base covering the needs of its LGBTQ patrons, with, until recently, only very limited literature on this subject. LGBTQ health sciences librarianship is now starting to attract new interest, with librarians working together to bring this emerging specialization to the attention of the broader professional community. In this paper, the authors report on a dedicated panel discussion that took place at the 2016 joint annual meeting of the Medical Library Association and Canadian Health Libraries Association/Association des bibliothèques de la santé du Canada in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; discuss subsequent reflections; and highlight the emerging role for health sciences librarians in providing culturally competent services to the LGBTQ population. Recommendations are also provided for establishing a tool kit for LGBTQ health sciences librarianship from which librarians can draw. We conclude by highlighting the importance of critically reflective practice in health sciences librarianship in the context of LGBTQ health information.
Baughman, Allyson; Clark, Melissa A; Boehmer, Ulrike
To identify the experiences and needs of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC) and to expand the current understanding of LGB survivorship by obtaining in-depth knowledge of survivorship among individuals with a cancer other than breast or prostate. . Qualitative, semistructured individual interviews via telephone. . Participants were recruited using social media, flyers, word of mouth, and contact with LGB and cancer organizations during a four-month period. . Eight LGB individuals with a diagnosis of stage III CRC from 2009-2014. . All interviews were audio recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis performed by more than one analyst was used for the interview transcripts. . Participants described experiences with social support and isolation, cancer care from an LGB perspective, and substantial economic impacts of their cancer diagnosis. In addition, they reported struggles with health insurance coverage, employment, and housing during and after their treatment for CRC. . In addition to issues regarding sexual identity disclosure and social support, economic impacts of CRC exist; these are likely critical to healthy survivorship in LGB men and women. . Attention should be paid to the economic impact of CRC on LGB individuals, along with issues of social support and sexual identity disclosure. Oncology nurses could play an important role in determining the economic and social needs of patients with CRC, accepting the often nontraditional support networks of LGB individuals, and facilitating disclosure of an LGB identity.
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce
Longitudinal relations between past suicidality and subsequent changes in psychological distress at follow-up were examined among gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) youths, as were psychosocial factors (e.g., self-esteem, social support, negative social relationships) that might mediate or moderate this relation. Past suicide attempters were found to have higher levels of depressive symptoms, anxious symptoms, and conduct problems at a later time than youths who neither attempted nor ideated. Psychosocial factors failed to mediate this relation. The interaction among past suicidality, social support, and negative relationships was associated with subsequent changes in all three psychological distress indicators six months later. Specifically, high levels of support (either from family or friends) or negative relationships were found to predict increased psychological distress among those with a history of suicide attempts, but not among youths without a history of suicidality. The findings suggest that GLB youths who attempt suicide continue to have elevated levels of psychological distress long after their attempt and they highlight the importance of social relationships in the youths’ psychological distress at follow-up. PMID:22162620
Podmore, Julie A; Chamberland, Line
This article examines the spatial strategies used by Montréal lesbian activists in the 1970s and 1980s to fight for the lesbian "right to the city." After situating lesbian public activism within Henri Lefebvre's ideal of spatial justice, this article provides case studies of four moments during which Montréal lesbian activists joined or initiated public demonstrations as lesbians. The focus is on the multiple ways in which lesbian activists performed politicized lesbian identities in urban public spaces. Their spatial strategies in this first era of the lesbian and gay rights movement provide an alternative account of claiming lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer rights to the heterosexual city.
Logie, Carmen H.; Earnshaw, Valerie
Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience pervasive sexual stigma that harms wellbeing. Stigma is a multi-dimensional construct and includes perceived stigma, awareness of negative attitudes towards one’s group, and enacted stigma, overt experiences of discrimination. Despite its complexity, sexual stigma research has generally explored singular forms of sexual stigma among LBQ women. The study objective was to develop a scale to assess perceived and enacted sexual stigma among LBQ women. We adapted a sexual stigma scale for use with LBQ women. The validation process involved 3 phases. First, we held a focus group where we engaged a purposively selected group of key informants in cognitive interviewing techniques to modify the survey items to enhance relevance to LBQ women. Second, we implemented an internet-based, cross-sectional survey with LBQ women (n=466) in Toronto, Canada. Third, we administered an internet-based survey at baseline and 6-week follow-up with LBQ women in Toronto (n=24) and Calgary (n=20). We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis and descriptive statistics to explore health and demographic correlates of the sexual stigma scale. Analyses yielded one scale with two factors: perceived and enacted sexual stigma. The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal reliability (total scale alpha coefficient: 0.78; perceived sub-scale: 0.70; enacted sub-scale: 0.72), test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Perceived and enacted sexual stigma were associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem, social support, and self-rated health scores. Results suggest this sexual stigma scale adapted for LBQ women has good psychometric properties and addresses enacted and perceived stigma dimensions. The overwhelming majority of participants reported experiences of perceived sexual stigma. This underscores the importance of moving beyond a singular focus on
Carmen H Logie
Full Text Available Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ women experience pervasive sexual stigma that harms wellbeing. Stigma is a multi-dimensional construct and includes perceived stigma, awareness of negative attitudes towards one's group, and enacted stigma, overt experiences of discrimination. Despite its complexity, sexual stigma research has generally explored singular forms of sexual stigma among LBQ women. The study objective was to develop a scale to assess perceived and enacted sexual stigma among LBQ women. We adapted a sexual stigma scale for use with LBQ women. The validation process involved 3 phases. First, we held a focus group where we engaged a purposively selected group of key informants in cognitive interviewing techniques to modify the survey items to enhance relevance to LBQ women. Second, we implemented an internet-based, cross-sectional survey with LBQ women (n=466 in Toronto, Canada. Third, we administered an internet-based survey at baseline and 6-week follow-up with LBQ women in Toronto (n=24 and Calgary (n=20. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis and descriptive statistics to explore health and demographic correlates of the sexual stigma scale. Analyses yielded one scale with two factors: perceived and enacted sexual stigma. The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal reliability (total scale alpha coefficient: 0.78; perceived sub-scale: 0.70; enacted sub-scale: 0.72, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Perceived and enacted sexual stigma were associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem, social support, and self-rated health scores. Results suggest this sexual stigma scale adapted for LBQ women has good psychometric properties and addresses enacted and perceived stigma dimensions. The overwhelming majority of participants reported experiences of perceived sexual stigma. This underscores the importance of moving beyond a singular focus on
Synnes, Oddgeir; Malterud, Kirsti
This study aims to explore how minority stress related to sexual orientation is reflected in narratives from lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals in Norway, with an impact for national public health policy. Arthur Frank's dialogical narrative analysis was applied to personal stories from 65 persons self-referring to different categories of queer identities, submitted online anonymously to a Norwegian national archive for queer history. A purposive sample of three different stories were selected due to their capacity to illuminate how various aspects of minority stress are narrated in diverse interplays between individual voices and resources, and cultural scripts and societal influences. Our analysis highlighted how stories may offer significant glimpses into the dynamic and complex fashioning of sexual identities, giving precious clues to the vulnerabilities and strengths of the narrator. Contemporary queer narratives from Norway reflect meaning-making related to sexual orientation that are influenced by, and expand upon, the classical scripts dominated by tragedy and tristesse, personal progress or simply no particular tension. LGB individuals of different ages and backgrounds had experienced aspects of minority stress related to their sexual orientation, with a substantial impact on identity, even when significant others were encouraging. The stories indicate that positive proximal processes, such as personal resilience and sympathetic environments, can support mental health and counteract negative effects of distal processes contributing to minority stress, such as heteronormativity and subtle microaggression. Public health strategies addressing attitudes to sexual orientation among the general population may contribute to diverse affirmative cultural scripts about queer lives, thereby enhancing queer mental health.
De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Esqueda, Monica Christina; Gilreath, Tamika D
The majority of studies examining substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth have focused on a wide array of risk factors (e.g., victimization). Few studies have explored the protective role of schools. This study aims to fill this gap in the literature and inform programs aimed at reducing substance use among LGB youth. More specifically, this study explores the extent to which school connectedness and support from teachers and other adults at school are associated with substance use among LGB youth in school and within the past 30 days. A secondary analysis of the 2013-2015 California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) was conducted to examine associations between school protective factors (i.e., school connectedness and adult support) and substance use among LGB youth, above and beyond a key risk factor, school victimization. The study outcomes were past 30-day and in-school use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, inhalants, prescription pain medication, and other illegal drugs. Overall, school connectedness and school adult support were associated with lower odds of substance use. For example, higher levels of school connectedness were associated with 22% decreased odds of past 30-day inhalant use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72-0.86), and 25% decreased odds of past 30-day prescription pain medication use (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.69-0.82). Higher levels of adult support in school were also associated with 17% decreased odds of marijuana use on school property in the past 30 days (AOR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.77-0.91). The results indicate a need for substance use prevention programs that integrate school connectedness and adult support in school.
Van Beusekom, Gabriël; Bos, Henny Mw; Kuyper, Lisette; Overbeek, Geertjan; Sandfort, Theo Gm
We assessed among a sample of 724 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual-identified adults ( M age = 31.42) whether experiences with homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia simultaneously mediated the relation of gender nonconformity with mental health. Results indicated that homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia partially mediated the relation between gender nonconformity and mental health. Gender nonconformity was related to more mental health problems via increased experiences with homophobic stigmatization and to less mental health problems because of reduced levels of internalized homophobia. However, the mediated relation of gender nonconformity with mental health via homophobic stigmatization was only significant for men.
Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Poon, Colleen S.; Homma, Yuko; Skay, Carol L.
Over the past decade, several large-scale school-based studies of adolescents in Canada and the U.S. have documented health disparities for lesbian, gay and bisexual teens compared to their heterosexual peers, such as higher rates of suicide attempts, homelessness, and substance use. Many of these disparities have been linked to “enacted stigma,” or the higher rates of harassment, discrimination, and sexual or physical violence that sexual minority youth experience at home, at school, and in ...
Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Online and in-person sexual behaviors of cisgender lesbian, gay, queer, bisexual, heterosexual, questioning, unsure, and youth of other sexual identities were examined using data from the Teen Health and Technology study. Data were collected online between August 2010 and January 2011 from 5,078 youth 13–18 years old. Results suggested, depending on sexual identity, between 4–35% of youth had sexual conversations and 2–24% shared sexual photos with someone online in the past year. Among the 2...
Frederick, David A; John, H Kate St; Garcia, Justin R; Lloyd, Elisabeth A
There is a notable gap between heterosexual men and women in frequency of orgasm during sex. Little is known, however, about sexual orientation differences in orgasm frequency. We examined how over 30 different traits or behaviors were associated with frequency of orgasm when sexually intimate during the past month. We analyzed a large US sample of adults (N = 52,588) who identified as heterosexual men (n = 26,032), gay men (n = 452), bisexual men (n = 550), lesbian women (n = 340), bisexual women (n = 1112), and heterosexual women (n = 24,102). Heterosexual men were most likely to say they usually-always orgasmed when sexually intimate (95%), followed by gay men (89%), bisexual men (88%), lesbian women (86%), bisexual women (66%), and heterosexual women (65%). Compared to women who orgasmed less frequently, women who orgasmed more frequently were more likely to: receive more oral sex, have longer duration of last sex, be more satisfied with their relationship, ask for what they want in bed, praise their partner for something they did in bed, call/email to tease about doing something sexual, wear sexy lingerie, try new sexual positions, anal stimulation, act out fantasies, incorporate sexy talk, and express love during sex. Women were more likely to orgasm if their last sexual encounter included deep kissing, manual genital stimulation, and/or oral sex in addition to vaginal intercourse. We consider sociocultural and evolutionary explanations for these orgasm gaps. The results suggest a variety of behaviors couples can try to increase orgasm frequency.
Baldwin, Aleta; Dodge, Brian; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debra; Sanders, Stephanie A; Dhoot, Roshni; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Disclosure of sexual identity among sexual minority women is related to better outcomes and improved quality of care. The existing literature on sexual minority women's experiences of identity disclosure and related interactions with healthcare providers draws little distinction between different groups of sexual minority women, despite the different barriers, stigma and health outcomes that exist between them. This paper presents factors influencing identity disclosure and describes the characteristics of interactions that sexual minority women have with their healthcare providers around sexual identity and health. Using a mixed-methods approach, both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered using an online survey. The sample included lesbian, bisexual, queer and pansexual women from across the USA. Qualitative and quantitative data were analysed concurrently, and qualitative themes were quantified and integrated into quantitative analyses. Identity disclosure, reasons for disclosing identity and characteristics of interactions with providers varied by identity, but often overlapped. Bisexual and pansexual participants were significantly less likely to disclose identity than lesbian participants. There were no significant differences related to age or ethnicity. Findings from this study have the potential to inform ethical medical practices and improve healthcare quality among sexual minority women.
Andrew H. Rogers
Full Text Available Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB individuals report higher levels of problematic alcohol and substance use than their heterosexual peers. This disparity is linked to the experience of LGB-specific stressors, termed minority stress. Additionally, bisexual individuals show increased rates of psychopathology, including problematic alcohol and substance use, above and beyond lesbian and gay individuals. However, not everyone experiencing minority stress reports increased rates of alcohol and substance misuse. Emotion regulation (ER, which plays a critical role in psychopathology in general, is theorized to modulate the link between minority stress and psychopathology. However, it remains largely unknown whether ER plays a role in linking instances of minority stress with substance and alcohol use outcomes. To address the gap, the current study assessed 305 LGB individuals’ instances of minority stress, ER, and substance and alcohol use outcomes. We assessed the role of ER in problematic alcohol and substance use among LGB individuals using moderated mediation, where sexual minority status was entered as the moderator, and ER difficulties was entered as the mediator. The results indicated significant indirect effects of minority stress, through ER difficulties, on both problematic alcohol and substance use. However, there was no significant interaction with sexual orientation status, suggesting that ER may be important for all LGB individuals in predicting problematic alcohol and substance use. These results highlight the important role that ER plays between instances of minority stress and substance and alcohol use in LGB individuals, suggesting that ER skills may serve as a novel target for intervention.
Kahn, Ellen; Sullivan, Tom
Many medical practices are looking at options to reach out to the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender community as a means of expanding business and improving quality of care. This article sets out steps that any practice can take to market to this community and improve its cultural competence.
Brewster, Melanie E.; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie
The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered…
Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth may face particularly hostile school climates, as they often report experiencing harassment, discrimination, and other negative experiences in school. LGBT youth, regardless of their gender identity, often face victimization and stigmatization based on both sexual orientation and gender…
van der Pijl, I.H.; Oude Breuil, B.C.M.; Swetzer, Lene; Drymioti, M.; Goderie, M.J.H.
Although the Netherlands is renowned for its forerunner position in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual, and intersex (LGBTI) rights, this study urges one to question whether it can still live up to that image. Reports, news items, and signals from non-governmental organizations, such as
Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.
Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) serve lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and heterosexual youth from diverse backgrounds. Although some attention has been given to youth members in general, little attention has been given to adult advisors. Among 47 GSA advisors from 33 high schools (39 cisgender female, 8 cisgender male), the authors…
Su, Dejun; Irwin, Jay A.; Fisher, Christopher; Ramos, Athena; Kelley, Megan; Mendoza, Diana Ariss Rogel; Coleman, Jason D.
Abstract Purpose: This study assessed within a Midwestern LGBT population whether, and the extent to which, transgender identity was associated with elevated odds of reported discrimination, depression symptoms, and suicide attempts. Methods: Based on survey data collected online from respondents who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgender persons over the age of 19 in Nebraska in 2010, this study performed bivariate t- or chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regre...
Bayer, Vanessa; Robert-McComb, Jacalyn J; Clopton, James R; Reich, Darcy A
There is limited research evidence about the specific factors influencing disordered eating for lesbian and bisexual women. Therefore, this study investigated relationships among binge eating, internalized homophobia, shame, depression, and distress tolerance in a sample of lesbian (n=72) and bisexual women (n=66). Two hypotheses were tested. First, it was hypothesized that shame and depression would mediate the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating. Second, it was hypothesized that distress tolerance would moderate the relationship between shame and binge eating and the relationship between depression and binge eating in the mediation relationships proposed in the first hypothesis. Results indicated that shame was a significant mediator for the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating, that depression was not a significant mediator, and that distress tolerance did not moderate the significant mediation relationship between shame and binge eating. The data in this study also indicated that the proportions of lesbian and bisexual participants who reported binge eating and compensatory behavior did not differ significantly, but that bisexual participants reported significantly more depression and shame than lesbian participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hartwell, Erica E.; Serovich, Julianne M.; Grafsky, Erika L.; Kerr, Zachary Y.
The present study seeks to extend previous research regarding literature related to gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues published in couple and family therapy (CFT)-related journals by presenting the results from a content analysis of GLB studies in CFT-related journals from 1996 to 2010. Results of the analysis revealed a 238.8% increase in…
This article draws on the experience of the charity Educational Action Challenging Homophobia (EACH) to explore the limitations of current practice around homophobic and transphobic bullying. Since 2002, EACH has worked to affirm the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) people and reduce discrimination experienced due to sexuality or…
Szymanski, Dawn M.; Gupta, Arpana
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) persons come from diverse cultural groups with diverse racial and ethnic identities. However, most research on LGBQ persons has used primarily White samples, and most research on African Americans has used largely heterosexual samples. Thus, research has largely failed to attend to and investigate the…
Ploskonka, Rachel Ann
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students are among the most vulnerable to suicidal ideation and behaviors when compared to both heterosexual college students and other, generally older, members of the LGB community (Oswalt & Wyatt, 2011). Joiner's (2005) interpersonal psychological theory of suicide seems to be a possible framework…
This article shares the findings from a qualitative study of 49 lesbian, gay, and bisexual people from three generations: Baby Boomer, Generation X, and Millennial. Baby Boomer and Generation X perceptions of Millennials are compared to the lived experiences as told by the youth themselves. While there were more intergenerational similarities than…
Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wu, Li-Tzy
Sex with multiple partners (SMP) is one of the important contributing factors for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and young adults, especially among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB) youth. Past studies mainly focus on examining associations of alcohol or club drugs use with unprotected sexual behaviors among adult homo/bisexual men, while little is known about the temporal association between marijuana use (MU) and SMP among LGB youth. This study examined the relationship between MU and SMP among LGB adolescents and young adults. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression analyses were utilized to analyze four waves' public-use Add Health data (N = 694, youth who reported a homo/bisexual status at any wave; Wave 1: aged 11-21; Wave 4: aged 24-32). After adjusting for other substance use, current depression, mother-child relationship quality at Wave 1, and socioeconomic variables, past-year MU was both concurrently and prospectively associated with past-year SMP. The moderating effect of age was not found. MU is concurrently and prospectively associated with increased odds of SMP in the adolescent sample and in the young adult sample. Findings imply that prevention/intervention on HIV risk behaviors may benefit from MU reduction not only in LGB adolescents but also in young adults.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex with multiple partners (SMP is one of the important contributing factors for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs among adolescents and young adults, especially among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB youth. Past studies mainly focus on examining associations of alcohol or club drugs use with unprotected sexual behaviors among adult homo/bisexual men, while little is known about the temporal association between marijuana use (MU and SMP among LGB youth. Methods This study examined the relationship between MU and SMP among LGB adolescents and young adults. Generalized estimating equations (GEE logistic regression analyses were utilized to analyze four waves’ public-use Add Health data (N = 694, youth who reported a homo/bisexual status at any wave; Wave 1: aged 11–21; Wave 4: aged 24–32. Results After adjusting for other substance use, current depression, mother-child relationship quality at Wave 1, and socioeconomic variables, past-year MU was both concurrently and prospectively associated with past-year SMP. The moderating effect of age was not found. Conclusion MU is concurrently and prospectively associated with increased odds of SMP in the adolescent sample and in the young adult sample. Findings imply that prevention/intervention on HIV risk behaviors may benefit from MU reduction not only in LGB adolescents but also in young adults.
Lunn, Mitchell R; Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M; Thompson, William W; Blank, Michael B; Yehia, Baligh R
This study aimed to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of sexual minority (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual) adults and compare sexual minority and heterosexual populations on nine Healthy People 2020 leading health indicators (LHIs). Using a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (National Health Interview Survey 2013-2015) of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population (228,893,944 adults), nine Healthy People 2020 LHIs addressing health behaviors and access to care, stratified using a composite variable of sex (female, male) and sexual orientation (gay or lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual), were analyzed individually and in aggregate. In 2013-2015, sexual minority adults represented 2.4% of the U.S. Compared to heterosexuals, sexual minorities were more likely to be younger and to have never married. Gays and lesbians were more likely to have earned a graduate degree. Gay males were more likely to have a usual primary care provider, but gay/lesbian females were less likely than heterosexuals to have a usual primary care provider and health insurance. Gay males received more colorectal cancer screening than heterosexual males. Gay males, gay/lesbian females, and bisexual females were more likely to be current smokers than their sex-matched, heterosexual counterparts. Binge drinking was more common in bisexuals compared to heterosexuals. Sexual minority females were more likely to be obese than heterosexual females; the converse was true for gay males. Sexual minorities underwent more HIV testing than their heterosexual peers, but bisexual males were less likely than gay males to be tested. Gay males were more likely to meet all eligible LHIs than heterosexual males. Overall, more sexual minority adults met all eligible LHIs compared to heterosexual adults. Similar results were found regardless of HIV testing LHI inclusion. Differences between sexual minorities and heterosexuals suggest the need for targeted health assessments and public
Walker, Charles A; Cohen, Harriet; Jenkins, David
Despite sensationalized media attention, transgender individuals are the most marginalized and misunderstood group in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. The current article presents a case study of one woman's quest for identity. Narrative inquiry was used to analyze data from interview transcripts and four themes emerged during analysis: (a) naming the ambiguity, (b) revealing-concealing the authentic self, (c) discovering the transgender community, and (d) embracing the "T" identity. Lifespan and empowerment theories were used to harvest meanings from these themes. Implications for nursing practice and research were examined based on study findings. Participatory action research offers an approach for future studies in which researchers advocate for transgender individuals and remove obstacles to their health care access. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 31-38.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Zea, Maria Cecilia; Reisen, Carol A; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J
Colombia has endured six decades of civil unrest, population displacement and violence. We examined the relationships between contextual conditions, displacement and HIV among gay, bisexual and transgender individuals in Bogotá, Colombia. A total of 19 key informants provided information about internal displacement of sexual minorities. Life-history interviews were conducted with 42 participants aged 18 to 48 years and included questions about displacement experiences, sexual behaviour, life prior to displacement and participants' economic and social situation in Bogotá. The interplay of a variety of factors - including internal conflict and violence, homonegativity and 'social cleansing', gender and sexual identity and poverty - strongly shaped the varied experiences of displacement. Migration, sexual violence, exchange sex and low rates of HIV testing were risk factors that increased vulnerability for HIV in this displaced sample. Although displacement and HIV in Colombia are major problems, both are understudied.
Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Molina, Yamile; Dirkes, Jessica
Stigma negatively affects the health of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Negative attitudes and discriminatory actions towards PLWHA are thought to be based, among other factors, on stigma towards sexual minorities and beliefs about personal responsibility. Yet, there is little evidence to support these linkages and explain how they take place, especially among Latinos. This study analyzes attitudes towards PLWHA among 643 Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender (GBT) people. It examines whether discriminatory actions are predicted by beliefs about personal responsibility and internalized homosexual stigma. Results indicate that Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA is associated with HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs and Internalized Homosexual Stigma. Further, HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs partially mediates the relationship between Internalized Homosexual Stigma and Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA. Latino GBT persons who have internalized negative views about homosexuality may project those onto PLWHA. They may think PLWHA are responsible for their serostatus and, hence, deserving of rejection. PMID:23631713
Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Molina, Yamile; Dirkes, Jessica
Stigma negatively affects the health of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Negative attitudes and discriminatory actions towards PLWHA are thought to be based, among other factors, on stigma towards sexual minorities and beliefs about personal responsibility. Yet, there is little evidence to support these linkages and explain how they take place, especially among Latinos. This study analyzes attitudes towards PLWHA among 643 Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender (GBT) people. It examines whether discriminatory actions are predicted by beliefs about personal responsibility and internalized homosexual stigma. Results indicate that Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA is associated with HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs and Internalized Homosexual Stigma. Further, HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs partially mediates the relationship between Internalized Homosexual Stigma and Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA. Latino GBT persons who have internalized negative views about homosexuality may project those onto PLWHA. They may think PLWHA are responsible for their serostatus and, hence, deserving of rejection.
Shilo, Guy; Mor, Zohar
Research relating to minority stressors generally explores mental health outcomes, with limited focus on the physical dimension. In addition, minority stress research is conducted mainly in Christian-oriented societies. To address these pitfalls we used Web sampling targeting Israeli participants ages 12 to 30 (N = 952; 28 percent heterosexuals, 78 percent lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] adolescents and young adults) to assess their mental health, physical and sexual risk behaviors, minority stressors, and coping resources. Results indicate that young LGBs had lower levels of mental and physical health than heterosexuals. Among LGB participants, high levels of minority stressors and low levels of coping resources predicted lower levels of mental health, and lower levels of mental health predicted lower levels of physical health. These results emphasize that minority stressors should be recognized as risk factors for poorer mental health, as well as for physical and sexual risk behaviors.
McCabe, Sean Esteban; Bostwick, Wendy B; Hughes, Tonda L; West, Brady T; Boyd, Carol J
We examined the associations between 3 types of discrimination (sexual orientation, race, and gender) and substance use disorders in a large national sample in the United States that included 577 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Data were collected from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, which used structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews. More than two thirds of LGB adults reported at least 1 type of discrimination in their lifetimes. Multivariate analyses indicated that the odds of past-year substance use disorders were nearly 4 times greater among LGB adults who reported all 3 types of discrimination prior to the past year than for LGB adults who did not report discrimination (adjusted odds ratio = 3.85; 95% confidence interval = 1.71, 8.66). Health professionals should consider the role multiple types of discrimination plays in the development and treatment of substance use disorders among LGB adults.
Rerucha, Caitlyn M; Runser, Lloyd A; Ee, Juliana S; Hersey, Elizabeth G
This study assessed military healthcare providers' knowledge, clinical practice, and comfort in caring for active duty (AD) lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) patients. Primary care providers at Fort Bragg, North Carolina were surveyed anonymously. The response rate was 28% (n = 40). Almost two-thirds of the respondents felt comfortable discussing sexual health with AD patients, but only 5% inquired about same-sex sexual activity. Slightly less than one-third reported prior training in LGB healthcare topics and nearly four-fifths desired clear guidance from the Department of Defense regarding the process for screening and documentation of AD same-sex sexual activity. The findings highlight providers' need and desire for training in LGB patient care.
Barrett, Catherine; Crameri, Pauline; Lambourne, Sally; Latham, J R; Whyte, Carolyn
To outline the experiences and needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) Australians living with dementia - and their partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with LGBT people, their partners and service providers. LGBT people living with dementia experience unique challenges including the failure of some families of origin and service providers to understand and value their sexual orientation or gender identity. The fear of discrimination by service providers results in greater reliance on intimate partners for care and compounds social isolation. The unique experiences of LGBT people with dementia are not well understood. There is a need to recognise historical experiences, including familial relationships, and provide advocacy to ensure sexual and gender rights are not violated. There is also a need to ensure that the experiences and perspectives of LGBT people living with dementia inform the development of services. © 2015 AJA Inc.
Molina, Yamile; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Simoni, Jane
There are documented disparities in physical health behaviors and conditions, such as physical activity and obesity, with regard to both race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. However, physical health disparities for lesbian and bisexual (LB) women who are also racial minorities are relatively unexplored. Minority stressors, such as internalized stigma, may account for disparities in such multiply marginalized populations. We sought to (1) characterize inequalities among non-Hispanic white and African American LB women and (2) examine the roles of internalized sexism and homophobia in disparities. Data on health behaviors (diet, physical activity); physical health (hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity); internalized sexism; and internalized homophobia were collected via a web-based survey. Recruitment ads were sent electronically to over 200 listservs, online groups, and organizations serving the lesbian, gay, and bisexual community in all 50 U.S. states. The analytic sample consisted of 954 white and 75 African American LB women. African American participants were more likely than white participants to report low fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity, a higher body mass index, and a history of diabetes and hypertension. There were no racial differences in internalized homophobia, but African American women reported higher levels of internalized sexism. Internalized sexism partially mediated racial disparities in physical activity and diabetes, but not in the other outcomes. Findings suggest that African American LB women may be at greater risk than their white counterparts for poor health and that internalized sexism may be a mediator of racial differences for certain behaviors and conditions. PMID:25364769
Baams, Laura; Grossman, Arnold H; Russell, Stephen T
The experience of minority stress is often named as a cause for mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, including higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation. The processes or mechanisms through which these disparities occur are understudied. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits 2 key mechanisms for suicidal ideation: perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness (Joiner et al., 2009). The aim of the current study is to assess the mental health and adjustment among LGB youth emphasizing the minority stress model (Meyer, 2003) and the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (Joiner et al., 2009). With a survey of 876 LGB self-identified youth, levels of coming-out stress, sexual orientation victimization, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, depression, and suicidal ideation were examined. The results of a multigroup mediation model show that for all gender and sexual identity groups, the association of sexual orientation victimization with depression and suicidal ideation was mediated by perceived burdensomeness. For gay, lesbian, and bisexual girls coming-out stress was also found to be related to depression and suicidal ideation, mediated by perceived burdensomeness. The results suggest that feeling like a burden to "people in their lives" is a critical mechanism in explaining higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation among LGB youth. These results have implications for community and social support groups, many of which base their interventions on decreasing social isolation rather than addressing youths' beliefs of burdensomeness. Implications for future research, clinical and community settings are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
Online and in-person sexual behaviors of cisgender lesbian, gay, queer, bisexual, heterosexual, questioning, unsure, and youth of other sexual identities were examined using data from the Teen Health and Technology study. Data were collected online between August 2010 and January 2011 from 5,078 youth 13-18 years old. Results suggested that, depending on sexual identity, between 4-35 % of youth had sexual conversations and 2-24 % shared sexual photos with someone online in the past year. Among the 22 % of youth who had oral, vaginal, and/or anal sex, between 5-30 % met one of their two most recent sexual partners online. Inconsistent condom use was associated with increased odds of meeting one's most recent partner online for heterosexual adolescent men. For gay and queer adolescent men, having an older partner, a partner with a lifetime history of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and concurrent sex partners were each significantly associated with increased odds of having met one's most recent sex partner online. None of the examined characteristics significantly predicted meeting one's most recent sexual partner online versus in-person for heterosexual; bisexual; or gay, lesbian, and queer women. The Internet is not replacing in-person exploration and expression of one's sexuality and meeting sexual partners online appears to be uncommon in adolescence across sexual identities. Healthy sexuality programming that acknowledges some youth are meeting partners online is warranted, but this should not be a main focal point. Instead, inclusive STI prevention programming that provides skills to reduce risk when engaging in all types of sex is critical.
Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Online and in-person sexual behaviors of cisgender lesbian, gay, queer, bisexual, heterosexual, questioning, unsure, and youth of other sexual identities were examined using data from the Teen Health and Technology study. Data were collected online between August 2010 and January 2011 from 5,078 youth 13–18 years old. Results suggested, depending on sexual identity, between 4–35% of youth had sexual conversations and 2–24% shared sexual photos with someone online in the past year. Among the 22% of youth who had oral, vaginal, and/or anal sex, between 5–30% met one of their two most recent sexual partners online. Inconsistent condom use was associated with increased odds of meeting one’s most recent partner online for heterosexual adolescent men. For gay and queer adolescent men, having an older partner, a partner with a lifetime history of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and concurrent sex partners were each significantly associated with increased odds of having met one’s most recent sex partner online. None of the examined characteristics significantly predicted meeting one’s most recent sexual partner online versus in-person for heterosexual; bisexual; or gay, lesbian, and queer women. The Internet is not replacing in-person exploration and expression of one’s sexuality and meeting sexual partners online appears to be uncommon in adolescence across sexual identities. Healthy sexuality programming that acknowledges some youth are meeting partners online is warranted, but this should not be a main focal point. Instead, inclusive STI prevention programming that provides skills to reduce risk when engaging in all types of sex and is critical. PMID:25894645
Byrd, Rebekah; Hays, Danica G.
Much research has been dedicated to the difficulties LGBTQ individuals face. Further, school counselors have been challenged to assist LGBTQ individuals in the school setting. Being aware of the specific issues and being educated about specific ways to assist these individuals enable school counselors to be more effective clinicians (DePaul,…
Toomey, Russell B.; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M.; Card, Noel A.; Russell, Stephen T.
Past research documents that both adolescent gender nonconformity and the experience of school victimization are associated with high rates of negative psychosocial adjustment. Using data from the Family Acceptance Project's young adult survey, we examined associations among retrospective reports of adolescent gender nonconformity and adolescent…
Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Tejus Murthy, A. G.
Homosexuality has been present in human civilization from ancient times, and the condition as it existed in the Tamil land is described along with a reference to the terminology, concepts, and description. Some instances appear in the old Tamil classics and poems. The present legal status of this sexual orientation is also mentioned. PMID:28066015
Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Tejus Murthy, A G
Homosexuality has been present in human civilization from ancient times, and the condition as it existed in the Tamil land is described along with a reference to the terminology, concepts, and description. Some instances appear in the old Tamil classics and poems. The present legal status of this sexual orientation is also mentioned.
Full Text Available Homosexuality has been present in human civilization from ancient times, and the condition as it existed in the Tamil land is described along with a reference to the terminology, concepts, and description. Some instances appear in the old Tamil classics and poems. The present legal status of this sexual orientation is also mentioned.
Duke, Thomas Scott
This meta-synthesis of empirical and nonempirical literature analyzed 24 journal articles and book chapters that addressed the intersection of disability, [homo]sexuality, and gender identity/expression in P-12 schools, colleges and universities, supported living programs, and other educational and social contexts in Australia, Belgium, Canada,…
Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Issues and Research Gaps and Opportunities; Board on the Health of Select Populations; Institute of Medicine
... and researchers are faced with incomplete information about their health status. While LGBT populations often are combined as a single entity for research and advocacy purposes, each is a distinct population group with its own specific health needs...
Jacobson, Anita N; Matson, Kelly L; Mathews, Jennifer L; Parkhill, Amy L; Scartabello, Thomas A
To quantify the implementation of inclusive policies and benefits as well as institutional commitment to support LGBT faculty, staff, and students in pharmacy schools nationwide. An anonymous, electronic survey was sent to administrators at 130 pharmacy schools. Forty-four survey responses were received, indicating a 34% response rate. The survey included questions relating to campus climate, inclusive policies and benefits, and institutional commitments to the LGBT community. Approximately half of the survey respondents reported that their school has public written statements about diversity and multiculturalism that include sexual orientation and/or gender identity. About one-fifth of the respondents indicated that their school has inclusive materials for faculty, staff, and student information regarding sexual orientation and gender identity. Nearly one-fourth of schools of pharmacy had participated in a voluntary LGBT training program, such as Safe Zone, Safe Space, or Ally Program. Over half of the respondents reported having access to LGBT organizations on campus, with two schools reporting having pharmacy organizations that specifically focus on LGBT student pharmacists and allies. Less than one-tenth of schools reported offering gender-neutral/single-occupancy restrooms and no schools reported knowledge of LGBT-related scholarships. Room for improvement exists regarding the implementation of inclusive practices to improve campus climate for LGBT students, faculty, and staff. Areas with the largest room for improvement include accessible gender-neutral restrooms and availability of LGBT trainings, scholarships, and events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mallory, Christy; Herman, Jody L.; Badgett, M.V. Lee
This report analyzes evidence of employment discrimination against LGBT people in Oklahoma, and asses the impact of adding sexual orientation and gender identity to the state’s non-discrimination law. We find that LGBT people in Oklahoma face discrimination in the workplace, including lower wages. Evidence also shows that a sexual orientation and gender identity non-discrimination law may have a positive impact on businesses in the state, and will not overwhelm state enforcement agencies or ...
Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H
The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission.
Smith, E.; Offen, N.; Malone, R.
Objectives: To determine the extent of commercial tobacco imagery in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) press. Methods: Content analysis of all advertising containing tobacco related text or imagery in 20 LGB community periodicals, published between January 1990 and December 2000. Results: 3428 ads were found: 689 tobacco product ads, 1607 ads for cessation products or services, 99 ads with a political message about tobacco, and 1033 non-tobacco ads that showed tobacco (NAST). Although cessation ads were numerically dominant, tobacco product ads and NAST occupied more space and were more likely to use images. NAST almost never had an anti-tobacco message. Formal sponsorship between tobacco and other companies was very rare. Lesbian periodicals had proportionally more NAST and fewer cessation ads. Conclusions: Cigarette ads were outnumbered by NAST. Although these ads do not usually show brands, and are unlikely to be the result of formal sponsorship agreements, they may be "selling" smoking. Tobacco control advocates should persuade editors to refuse tobacco product ads and those with gratuitous tobacco imagery. PMID:16286500
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze teachers’ discourses on young lesbians in the Portuguese schools. To that end, we carried out semi-structured interviews with 24 Portuguese teachers of middle and secondary schools. After having analyzed the retrieved data from the interviews, we identified four main themes: gender polarization; lesbian invisibility; homophobia; and measures against homophobia. Based on their discourses, we concluded that these interviewees have a small amount of knowledge about lesbian women’s sexuality. Despite the legislative progress concerning the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People's rights in Portugal, teachers are not prepared to deal with this issue both inside and outside the school environment. Furthermore, this research includes some recommendations to deal with homophobia in the Portuguese school context. This study will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of the discourses and practices towards young lesbians in the school panorama, highlighting the importance of promoting non-discriminatory attitudes in the Portuguese schools
Brian Joseph Gillespie
Full Text Available Friends play important roles throughout our lives by providing expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. We examined sexual orientation, gender, and age differences in the number of friends people can rely on for expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. Additionally, we examined the extent to which people relied on same-gender versus cross-gender friends for these types of support. Participants (N = 25,185 completed a survey via a popular news website. Sexual orientation differences in number of same-gender and cross-gender friends were generally small or non-existent, and satisfaction with friends was equally important to overall life satisfaction for all groups. However, the extent to which people's friendship patterns demonstrated gender-based homophily varied by sexual orientation, gender, and age. Young adult gay and bisexual men, and to some extent bisexual women and older bisexual men, did not conform to gendered expectations that people affiliate primarily with their own gender.
Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Frederick, David; Harari, Lexi; Grov, Christian
Friends play important roles throughout our lives by providing expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. We examined sexual orientation, gender, and age differences in the number of friends people can rely on for expressive, instrumental, and companionate support. Additionally, we examined the extent to which people relied on same-gender versus cross-gender friends for these types of support. Participants (N = 25,185) completed a survey via a popular news website. Sexual orientation differences in number of same-gender and cross-gender friends were generally small or non-existent, and satisfaction with friends was equally important to overall life satisfaction for all groups. However, the extent to which people’s friendship patterns demonstrated gender-based homophily varied by sexual orientation, gender, and age. Young adult gay and bisexual men, and to some extent bisexual women and older bisexual men, did not conform to gendered expectations that people affiliate primarily with their own gender. PMID:26087008
The goal of the study is to investigate whether positive mental health complements mental illness within a theoretically informed (the dual-continua model) and psychometrically tested (the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form) framework. National-level, population-based data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey on Mental Health (CCHS-MH) was used, with comparisons between sexual minority and heterosexual adults. Results show that gay, lesbian, and bisexual Canadians have substantially lower rates of positive mental health and are more likely to have been diagnosed with a mental illness, with the disparities between health and illness being the most pronounced among lesbians and bisexual females. Results show considerable support for the dual-continua model, which posits that the absence of health does not automatically translate into the presence of illness, and vice versa. Suggestions are made for practitioners and researchers toward the use of the dual-continua model as a surveillance tool, especially among sexual minority individuals.
Clinical Exposure to Transgender Medicine Improves Students' Preparedness Above Levels Seen with Didactic Teaching Alone: A Key Addition to the Boston University Model for Teaching Transgender Healthcare.
Park, Jason A; Safer, Joshua D
Purpose: Transgender individuals are medically underserved in the United States and face many documented disparities in care due to providers' lack of education, training, and comfort. We have previously demonstrated that specific transgender medicine content in a medical school curriculum increases students' willingness to treat transgender patients. However, we have also identified that those same students are less comfortable with transgender care relative to care for lesbian, gay, and bisexual patients. We aimed to demonstrate that clinical exposure to care for transgender patients would help close this gap. Methods: At Boston University School of Medicine, we piloted a transgender medicine elective where students rotate on services that provide clinical care for transgender individuals. Pre- and postsurveys were administered to students who participated in the elective. Results: After completing the elective, students who reported "high" comfort increased from 45% (9/20) to 80% (16/20) ( p =0.04), and students who reported "high" knowledge regarding management of transgender patients increased from 0% (0/20) to 85% (17/20) ( p <0.001 ) . Conclusion: Although integrating evidence-based, transgender-specific content into medical curricula improves student knowledge and comfort with transgender medical care, gaps remain. Clinical exposure to transgender medicine during clinical years can contribute to closing that gap and improving access to care for transgender individuals.
Cicero, Ethan C; Wesp, Linda M
Throughout the United States, there has been a rise in public discourse about transgender people and transgender issues. Much of this attention stems from passed and proposed anti-LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning) legislation, including "bathroom bills" that would require transgender people to use public facilities corresponding with the sex designated on their birth certificates. With the recent discussion and legislation impacting school-aged children and adolescents, what does this mean for school nurses and how can they care and advocate for their transgender students? In this article, we aim to empower school nurses to join the discussion, advocate for inclusive and equitable school policies, and deliver gender-affirming care to transgender students. We will explain transgender identities; transgender-related stigma, prejudice, discrimination, and health concerns; gender-affirming approaches in caring for transgender youth; and implications for school nurses. School nurses play a key role in creating a space that is welcoming and affirming where transgender students can thrive.
Dunne, Courtney M.
Historically, American society has had conflicting views on the nature and nurture of Deaf people and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer (LGBTQ) people. In the context of majority cultures and societies in history, the reality of Deaf and LGBTQ people's lives has often been summarized in general terms such as invisibility and oppression.…
Lloren, Anouk; Parini, Lorena
Support for lesbians’, gay men’s, bisexuals’, and transgender people’s (LGBT) rights has increased over the last two decades. However, these recent trends hide existing disparities between and within countries. In particular, workplace discrimination is still a relatively widespread phenomenon. Although many countries lack legal provision protecting LGBT employees, numerous organizations have adopted LGBT-supportive policies over the last two decades. Many studies have investigated the busine...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender (TG persons is high and increasing in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. OBJECTIVES: To describe demographic, socioeconomic, sexual behavior and interest in future HIV prevention trials among gay and bisexual MSM and TG presenting for HIV testing (VCT and pre-screening for the iPrEx pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis trail. METHODS: In 2008-09, MSM/TG participants attending VCT were interviewed and tested for HIV and STI. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were done to assess associations with HIV infection. RESULTS: A total of 551 MSM clients (56.1% gay, 25.4% TG, and 18.5% bisexual (BS were enrolled. The mean age was 23.9 years. HIV prevalence among MSM overall was 12.9% (71/551; 16.5% among gay men, 9.3% among TG, and 6.9% among BS. Consistent use of condom was low, 33.3% in insertive anal sex and 31.9% in receptive anal sex. Interest in participation was high, 86.3% for PrEP, 69.7% for HIV vaccine trials, but 29.9% for circumcision. HIV was independently associated with being gay identified, aOR 2.8, p = 0.037 and with being aged 25-29, aOR 2.7, p = 0.027. Among repeat testers, HIV incidence was 8.2/100 PY, 95% CI, 3.7/100PY to 18.3/100PY. CONCLUSION: HIV risks and rates varied by self-reported sexual orientation and gender identity. HIV was associated with sexual practices, age, and being gay-identified. These are populations are in need of novel prevention strategies and willing to participate in prevention research.
Clinical Exposure to Transgender Medicine Improves Students' Preparedness Above Levels Seen with Didactic Teaching Alone: A Key Addition to the Boston University Model for Teaching Transgender Healthcare
Park, Jason A.; Safer, Joshua D.
Abstract Purpose: Transgender individuals are medically underserved in the United States and face many documented disparities in care due to providers' lack of education, training, and comfort. We have previously demonstrated that specific transgender medicine content in a medical school curriculum increases students' willingness to treat transgender patients. However, we have also identified that those same students are less comfortable with transgender care relative to care for lesbian, gay, and bisexual patients. We aimed to demonstrate that clinical exposure to care for transgender patients would help close this gap. Methods: At Boston University School of Medicine, we piloted a transgender medicine elective where students rotate on services that provide clinical care for transgender individuals. Pre- and postsurveys were administered to students who participated in the elective. Results: After completing the elective, students who reported “high” comfort increased from 45% (9/20) to 80% (16/20) (p=0.04), and students who reported “high” knowledge regarding management of transgender patients increased from 0% (0/20) to 85% (17/20) (ptransgender-specific content into medical curricula improves student knowledge and comfort with transgender medical care, gaps remain. Clinical exposure to transgender medicine during clinical years can contribute to closing that gap and improving access to care for transgender individuals. PMID:29344576
Dickenson, Janna A; Huebner, David M
There is considerable debate over whether adolescent sexual activity is maladaptive and associated with worse mental health outcomes versus a positive developmental milestone that is associated with better mental health outcomes. Although these perspectives are often pitted against one another, the current study employed a more integrative perspective: adolescent sexual activity may be maladaptive in certain contexts, but healthy in other contexts. We investigated whether family support and gender moderated the relation between sexual activity and mental health outcomes in a diverse sample of 519 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth. Specifically, we examined whether youth who engaged in more sexual activity would have fewer depressive symptoms in the context of a more supportive family environment, but more depressive symptoms in the context of a less supportive family environment and whether this effect was stronger for sexual minority girls. Consistent with the sexual health perspective, we found that among girls with more family support, those who engaged in more frequent same-sex sexual contact had lower levels of depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, we found that among boys with more family support, those who engaged in more frequent same-sex sexual contact had higher levels of depressive symptoms. In contrast, girls and boys with less family support showed no relation between sexual activity and depressive symptoms. Overall, results suggest that context is critical when determining whether same-sex sexual contact among LGB youth should be considered maladaptive or beneficial.
Cramer, Robert J; Golom, Frank D; Gemberling, Tess M; Trost, Kristen; Lewis, Robin; Wright, Susan
The present study contributes to a growing body of literature developing psychometrically and theoretically grounded measures of sexual orientation minority identity. We tested psychometric properties and construct validity of a 27-item measure, the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale (LGBIS). The sample consisted of 475 adult (178 male, 237 female, 16 male-to-female, 14 female-to-male, and 30 gender queer persons) members of a special interest group, the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom. Participants completed a health needs questionnaire. Prominent findings included (1) confirmatory factor-analytic, internal consistency, and inter-correlation patterns support two LGBIS factor structures; (2) men, compared primarily to women, reported elevated scores on Acceptance Concerns, Concealment Motivation, Difficulty Process, and Negative Identity; (3) queer-identifying persons tended to report low Concealment Motivation, and high Identity Affirmation and Identity Centrality scores; (4) experimenting/fluid-identifying individuals tended toward higher Identity Uncertainty and Negative Identity, and lower Identity Centrality scores; (5) LGB community involvement was negatively associated with Concealment Motivation, Identity Uncertainty, and Negative Identity, and positively associated with Identity Superiority, Identity Affirmation, and Identity Centrality scores; and (6) Acceptance Concerns, Identity Uncertainty, and Internalized Homonegativity displayed significant positive associations with such mental health symptoms as general anxiety and posttraumatic stress. The LGBIS represents a useful approach to evaluating sexual orientation minority identity. Implications for identity theory, research, and practice are provided.
Sewell, Kelsey K; McGarrity, Larissa A; Strassberg, Donald S
Prior research has examined how heterosexual individuals define sex; however, these studies have rarely focused on sexual minority individuals or included a full range of applicable sexual behaviors. Participants were recruited from a local Pride Festival across two years. Study 1 (N = 329) was primarily descriptive and examined which physically intimate behaviors lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) participants included in their definitions of sex and the behaviors in which they had previously engaged. Study 2 (N = 393) utilized a between-subjects design to assess differences in definitions of sex when judging one's own behavior compared with that of a partner outside of the relationship. The behaviors in which participants were most likely to have engaged were manual-genital (82%) and oral-genital stimulation (79%). Regarding definitions of sex, a clear "gold standard" emerged for men, with 90% endorsing penile-anal intercourse as sex. No equally clear standard existed for women. Participants who were asked to consider their partner's behavior outside of their relationship were more likely to endorse the behavior as "having sex" than participants asked to consider their own behavior. This study addressed a major limitation of prior research by investigating definitions of sex among a community sample of LGB adults, with implications for provision of health care and sexual agreements between same-sex couples.
Denton, F Nicholas; Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Danner, Fred
Understanding and intervening to address health disparities is part of the expanding role of psychologists (Johnson, 2013). We drew on Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework and Lick, Durso, and Johnson's (2013) conceptual pathways to lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) physical health disparities to test a serial mediation model in which 2 types of cognitive appraisals (proximal minority stressors and coping self-efficacy) partially account for the association between perceived discrimination and prejudice (distal minority stressor) and self-reported physical health symptoms in a nationally recruited sample of 564 LGB individuals (270 women, 294 men) who participated in a web-based survey. Results indicated that perceived experiences of discrimination and prejudice were associated with expectations of rejection and internalized homonegativity. These 2 proximal stressors were associated with lower coping self-efficacy, and the combined cognitive appraisal pathways were associated with higher levels of self-reported physical symptom severity. The pathway through emotion-focused coping self-efficacy was particularly salient in accounting for the overall mediation. Interventions to address distal and proximal minority stressors and improve emotion-focused coping self-efficacy may be particularly helpful in reducing the negative effects of stigma on physical health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Agénor, Madina; Bailey, Zinzi; Krieger, Nancy; Austin, S Bryn; Gottlieb, Barbara R
Few studies have focused on the health and health care of U.S. black lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women. To understand the facilitators of and barriers to cervical cancer screening in this population, focus group discussions were conducted in Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts between November and December 2012. Using purposive sampling methods, the authors enrolled 18 black LBQ women who participated in one of four focus groups. Using thematic analysis, patient-provider communication was identified, which consisted of four sub-themes--health care provider communication style and demeanor; heteronormative provider assumptions; heterosexism, racism, and classism; and provider professional and sociodemographic background--as the most salient theme. Participants reported fears and experiences of multiple forms of discrimination and preferred receiving care from providers who were knowledgeable about same-sex sexual health and shared their life experiences at the intersection of gender, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. The cervical cancer screening experiences of black LBQ women would be improved by training all health care providers in same-sex sexual health, offering opportunities for clinicians to learn about the effects of various forms of discrimination on women's health care, and increasing the presence of LBQ women of color in health care settings.
Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Romero, Angelita; Bowers, Marci L; Breyer, Benjamin N
We aim to describe the relationship between sexual orientation identity and medical morbidities in a large sample of male-to-female (MTF) transgender patients. We reviewed medical records of patients presenting for MTF sex reassignment surgery (SRS) by a single, high-volume surgeon from 2011 to 2015. Sexual attraction to men (heterosexual), women (lesbian), or both (bisexual) was asked of each patient. We examined 16 medical morbidities for this analysis. During the study period, 330 MTF transgender patients presented for SRS. The average age at the time of surgery was 38.9 (range 18-76). One hundred and one patients (32%) reported being heterosexual, 110 patients (34%) reported being lesbian, and 108 patients (34%) reported being bisexual. Lesbian patients presented for SRS at older ages (mean = 43 years old) compared with heterosexual patients (mean = 36 years old) and bisexual patients (mean = 37), P sexual orientation identity. Lesbian patients had greater odds of having a history of depression, age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-4.40, compared with heterosexual patients. Lesbian patients had higher odds of being married or partnered, aOR = 2.31, 95% CI (1.27-4.19), compared with heterosexual patients. Heterosexual patients had higher odds of having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), aOR = 9.07, 95% CI (1.08-76.5) compared with lesbian patients. Sexual orientation identity in MTF transgender patients is variable. The majority of medical morbidities are not associated with sexual orientation identity. Although HIV and depression are common morbidities among MTF patients seeking SRS, the prevalence of these morbidities differs by sexual orientation identity, but these findings need replication. Counseling and future research initiatives in transgender care should incorporate sexual orientation identity and associated risk behavior.
This article explores queer Japanese women's narratives of their own histories and the history of the "Japanese lesbian community," which has been constructed as a space outside the heterosexual mainstream, a space where queer women can find at least temporary refuge. It begins with the acknowledgment that the evolution and the shape of the community, along with the identities of the women who comprise it, are shifting and contested. This article specifically looks at the long history of the lesbian bar scene as well as more recent history of lesbian dance parties; the early role of lesbian feminism and activism; lesbian community-based and commercial publications, paying special attention to the critical role translation has played in Japanese lesbian discourse and the construction of multiple lesbian identities; and, finally, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) pride events and film festivals, through which the larger LGBT community has been gaining increasing visibility. This article argues that while some of the building blocks of the community are borrowed, from the "West" as well as from the Japanese gay community, there has also been creative translation, adaptation, and resistance to these imports. The resulting Japanese lesbian community is a complex and local construct, an innovative bricolage firmly sited in Japan.
Carmel, Tamar C; Erickson-Schroth, Laura
Although research into the physical and mental health disparities faced by transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) populations is becoming more popular, historically it has been limited. It is now recognized that TGNC people experience disproportionate rates of negative mental health outcomes relative to both their gender-normative, heterosexual peers, as well as their gender-normative lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) peers. The theoretical basis of current transgender mental health research is rooted in the Minority Stress Model, which postulates that we live in a hetero-centric, gender-normative society that stigmatizes and discriminates against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, subjecting them to chronic stress (Hendricks & Testa, 2012; Meyer, 1995). This chronic, potentially compounding stress, is responsible for the increased risk of negative mental health outcomes in LGBT populations. TGNC people, in particular, may experience more adverse outcomes than their LGB peers due to rejection and discrimination within society at large as well as within the LGB community. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(12), 44-48.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Su, Dejun; Irwin, Jay A; Fisher, Christopher; Ramos, Athena; Kelley, Megan; Mendoza, Diana Ariss Rogel; Coleman, Jason D
Purpose: This study assessed within a Midwestern LGBT population whether, and the extent to which, transgender identity was associated with elevated odds of reported discrimination, depression symptoms, and suicide attempts. Methods: Based on survey data collected online from respondents who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgender persons over the age of 19 in Nebraska in 2010, this study performed bivariate t - or chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine differences in reported discrimination, depression symptoms, suicide attempts, and self-acceptance of LGBT identity between 91 transgender and 676 nontransgender respondents. Results: After controlling for the effects of selected confounders, transgender identity was associated with higher odds of reported discrimination (OR=2.63, p LGBT identity was associated with substantially lower odds of reporting depression symptoms (OR=0.46, p LGBT identity was associated with depression symptoms among transgender individuals.
Molina, Y.; Ramirez-Valles, J.
Despite the increased interest in HIV/AIDS stigma and its negative effects on the health and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), little attention has been given to its assessment among Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender women (GBT) living with HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to develop a multidimensional assessment of HIV/AIDS stigma for Latino GBT living with HIV/AIDS, and to test whether such stigma is related to self-esteem, safe sex self-efficacy, s...
Lytle, Megan C; De Luca, Susan M; Blosnich, John R; Brownson, Chris
Our aim was to examine the associations of racial/ethnic identity and religious affiliation with suicidal ideation among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) and heterosexual college students. An additional aim was to determine the prevalence of passive suicidal ideation (i.e., death ideation) and active suicidal ideation among culturally diverse LGBQ individuals. Data from the National Research Consortium probability-based sample of college students from 70 postsecondary institutions (n=24,626) were used to examine active and passive suicidal ideation in the past 12-months and lifetime active suicidal ideation among students by sexual orientation, racial/ethnic identity, and religious affiliation. Across most racial/ethnic groups and religious affiliations, LGBQ students were more likely to report active suicidal ideation than non-LGBQ individuals. Among LGBQ students, Latino individuals had lower odds of reporting both past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation than their non-Hispanic white LGBQ counterparts. Compared to Christian LGBQ students, Agnostic/Atheist LGBQ individuals had greater odds of reporting past 12-month passive suicidal ideation, and Jewish LGBQ students were less likely to endorse past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation. Cross-sectional design and self-reported data. Results corroborate previous research showing elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation among LGBQ individuals in comparison to their heterosexual counterparts. These findings are among the first to document prevalence differences within the LGBQ population based on intersectional identities (race/ethnicity and religious affiliation). Providers should recognize that LGBQ individuals might need support in negotiating the complex relationship between multiple identities, especially due to their elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lytle, Megan C.; De Luca, Susan M.; Blosnich, John R.; Brownson, Christopher
Background Our aim was to examine the associations of racial/ethnic identity and religious affiliation with suicidal ideation among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) and heterosexual college students. An additional aim was to determine the prevalence of passive suicidal ideation (i.e., death ideation) and active suicidal ideation among culturally diverse LGBQ individuals. Methods Data from the National Research Consortium probability-based sample of college students from 70 postsecondary institutions (n=24,626) were used to examine active and passive suicidal ideation in the past 12-months and lifetime active suicidal ideation among students by sexual orientation, racial/ethnic identity, and religious affiliation. Results Across most racial/ethnic groups and religious affiliations, LGBQ students were more likely to report active suicidal ideation than non-LGBQ individuals. Among LGBQ students, Latino individuals had lower odds of reporting both past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation than their non-Hispanic white LGBQ counterparts. Compared to Christian LGBQ students, Agnostic/Atheist LGBQ individuals had greater odds of reporting past 12-month passive suicidal ideation, and Jewish LGBQ students were less likely to endorse past 12-month passive and active suicidal ideation. Limitations Cross-sectional design and self-reported data. Conclusions Results corroborate previous research showing elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation among LGBQ individuals in comparison to their heterosexual counterparts. These findings are among the first to document prevalence differences within the LGBQ population based on intersectional identities (race/ethnicity and religious affiliation). Providers should recognize that LGBQ individuals might need support in negotiating the complex relationship between multiple identities, especially due to their elevated prevalence of suicidal ideation. PMID:25795534
Blair, Karen L; Pukall, Caroline F; Smith, Kelly B; Cappell, Jaclyn
The literature on genital and pelvic pain has largely focused on heterosexual women. An online study examined characteristics of vulvar pain in 839 lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women 18-45 years of age and investigated associations between relationship qualities such as love and communication with participants' perceptions of pain's influence on relationships. Characteristics of vulvar pain were similar across groups. Groups differed in how they perceived pain to impact their relationships, such that better communication for same-sex couples and more love for mixed-sex couples was associated with the perception of their pain as having less of an effect on their relationship functioning.
Logie, Carmen H; Rwigema, Marie-Jolie
White privilege constructs whiteness as normative and central to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) identities and is reproduced through social norms, media representations, and daily interactions. We aimed to enhance understanding of the processes by which white privilege was experienced among lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women of color in Toronto, Canada. We conducted two focus groups with LBQ women of color, one with participants who self-identified as masculine of center (n = 8) and the second with participants who identified as feminine of center (n = 8). Findings indicate that LBQ women of color experience intersectional stigma (e.g., homophobia, racism, sexism) on a daily basis. Participant narratives revealed that white privilege shaped the representations of women of color in a particular way that promoted their exclusion from white LBQ spaces and broader society. By representing queerness as white, LBQ women of color were rendered invisible in both queer and racialized communities. LBQ women of color were further marginalized by constructions of "real" women as passive, feminine and white, and conversely perceptions of women of color as aggressive, emotional, and hypersexualized. These representations inform spatialized practices and social interactions through constructing racialized communities as discriminatory and "backwards" while maintaining the invisibility of white privilege and racism in LBQ spaces.
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Chiao, Christine; Valentine, Anne; Lê Cook, Benjamin
This study examined associations between sexual orientation of Asian-American women and receipt of mental health care and unmet need for health care. Computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with 701 unmarried Chinese-, Korean-, and Vietnamese-American women ages 18 to 35. Multivariate regression models examined whether lesbian and bisexual participants differed from exclusively heterosexual participants in use of mental health care and unmet need for health care. After the analyses controlled for mental health status and other covariates, lesbian and bisexual women were more likely than exclusively heterosexual women to have received any past-year mental health services and reported a greater unmet need for health care. Sexual-minority women were no more likely to have received minimally adequate care. Given the high rates of mental health problems among Asian-American sexual-minority women, efforts are needed to identify and overcome barriers to receipt of adequate mental health care and minimize unmet health care needs.
Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Whorms, Debra S; King, Dana S; Potter, Jennifer
We used retrospective (2012-2013) chart review to examine breast cancer screening among transgender persons and sexual minority women (n = 1263) attending an urban community health center in Massachusetts. Transgender were less likely than cisgender patients and bisexuals were less likely than heterosexuals and lesbians to adhere to mammography screening guidelines (respectively, adjusted odds ratios = 0.53 and 0.56; 95% confidence intervals = 0.31, 0.91 and 0.34, 0.92) after adjustment for sociodemographics. Enhanced cancer prevention outreach is needed among gender and sexual minorities.
Correction to “Advancing the Conversation: Next Steps for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer (LGBTQ Health Sciences Librarianship” on 105(4 October, page 325. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2017.206
Katherine G. Akers
Full Text Available Corrects author name in reference #11 of “Advancing the Conversation: Next Steps For Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer (LGBTQ Health Sciences Librarianship” on 105(4 October, page 325. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2017.206.
Bouris, Alida; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Pickard, Angela; Shiu, Chengshi; Loosier, Penny S.; Dittus, Patricia; Gloppen, Kari; Waldmiller, J. Michael
Relatively little is known about how parents influence the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents and young adults. This gap has led to a paucity of parent-based interventions for LGB young people. A systematic literature review on parental influences on the health of LGB youth was conducted to better understand how…
Mitchell, Rebecca J; Ozminkowski, Ronald J
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of health risk factors by sexual orientation over a 4-year period within a sample of employees from a large firm. Propensity score-weighted generalized linear regression models were used to estimate the proportion of employees at high risk for health problems in each year and over time, controlling for many factors. Analyses were conducted with 6 study samples based on sex and sexual orientation. Rates of smoking, stress, and certain other health risk factors were higher for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) employees compared with rates of these risks among straight employees. Lesbian, gay, and straight employees successfully reduced risk levels in many areas. Significant reductions were realized for the proportion at risk for high stress and low life satisfaction among gay and lesbian employees, and for the proportion of smokers among gay males. Comparing changes over time for sexual orientation groups versus other employee groups showed that improvements and reductions in risk levels for most health risk factors examined occurred at similar rates among individuals employed by this firm, regardless of sexual orientation. These results can help improve understanding of LGB health and provide information on where to focus workplace health promotion efforts to meet the health needs of LGB employees.
Angie L. Dahl
Full Text Available The rural context at times is characterized by heteronormativity and conservatism. For individuals who identify as a sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and/or queer, the rural context may pose particular challenges to the development of a healthy, coherent sense of self. Seven young adults (18–24 who identified as gay or lesbian participated in in-depth interviews regarding their experiences coming out in a rural Appalachian context. Findings suggest sexual minority individuals experience both trials and triumphs coming out in the rural context. Two overarching themes and six subthemes are discussed with implications for supporting sexual minority youth in the rural context.
Jaffer, Mohamed; Ayad, John; Tungol, Jose Gabriel; MacDonald, Ross; Dickey, Nathaniel; Venters, Homer
Correctional settings create unique challenges for patients with special needs, including transgender patients, who have an increased rate of overall discrimination, sexual abuse, healthcare disparities, and improper housing. As part of our correctional health quality improvement process, we sought to review and evaluate the adequacy of care for transgender patients in the New York City jail system. Using correctional pharmacy records, transgender patients receiving hormonal treatment were identified. A brief in-person survey was conducted to evaluate their care in the community before incarceration, medical care in jail, and experience in the jail environment. Survey findings and analysis of transgender patient healthcare-related complaints revealed opportunities for improvements in the provision of care and staff understanding of this population. Utilizing these findings, we conducted lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) trainings in all 12 jail clinics for medical, nursing, and mental health staff. Three months after LGBT training, patient complaints dropped by over 50%. After the development and implementation of a newly revised transgender healthcare policy, complaints dropped to zero within 6 months. Our efforts to assess the quality of care provided to transgender patients revealed significant areas for improvement. Although we have made important gains in providing quality care through the implementation of policies and procedures rooted in community standards and the express wishes of our patients, we continue to engage this patient population to identify other issues that impact their health and well-being in the jail environment.
Mattocks, Kristin M; Sullivan, J Cherry; Bertrand, Christina; Kinney, Rebecca L; Sherman, Michelle D; Gustason, Carolyn
Many lesbian women experience stigma and discrimination from their healthcare providers as a result of their sexual orientation. Additionally, others avoid disclosure of their sexual orientation to their providers for fear of mistreatment. With the increasing number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans seeking care from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), it is important to understand lesbian veterans' experiences with stigma, discrimination, and disclosure of sexual orientation. This article examines lesbian veterans' experiences with perceived stigma and discrimination in VHA healthcare, their perspectives on disclosure of sexual orientation to VHA providers, and their recommendations for improvements in VHA healthcare to create a welcoming environment for lesbian veterans. This is a mixed methods study of twenty lesbian veterans at four VHA facilities. The women veterans participated in a one-hour interview and then completed an anonymous survey. Ten percent of lesbian veterans had experienced mistreatment from VHA staff or providers, but nearly 50% feared that their Veterans Affairs (VA) providers would mistreat them if they knew about their sexual orientation. A majority of lesbian veterans (70%) believed that VHA providers should never ask about sexual orientation or should only ask if the veteran wanted to discuss it. A majority (80%) believed the VHA had taken steps to create a welcoming environment for LBGT veterans. Though many lesbian veterans have fears of stigma and discrimination in the context of VHA care, few have experienced this. Most lesbian veterans believed the VHA was trying to create a welcoming environment for its LGBT veterans. Future research should focus on expanding this study to include a larger and more diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender veterans receiving care at VA facilities across the country.
Blosnich, John R; Marsiglio, Mary C; Gao, Shasha; Gordon, Adam J; Shipherd, Jillian C; Kauth, Michael; Brown, George R; Fine, Michael J
To examine whether indicators of community- and state-level lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender equality are associated with transgender veterans' mental health. We extracted Veterans Administration data for patients who were diagnosed with gender identity disorder, had at least 1 visit in 2013, and lived in a zip code with a Municipality Equality Index score (n = 1640). We examined the associations of whether a state included transgender status in employment nondiscrimination laws and in hate crimes laws with mood disorders; alcohol, illicit drug, and tobacco use disorders; posttraumatic stress disorder; and suicidal ideation or attempt. Nearly half (47.3%) of the sample lived in states with employment discrimination protection, and 44.8% lived in states with hate crimes protection. Employment nondiscrimination protection was associated with 26% decreased odds of mood disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59, 0.93) and 43% decreased odds of self-directed violence (AOR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.95). Understanding lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender social stressors can inform treatment and care coordination for transgender populations.
Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Overberg, Elizabeth; Harris, Shannon
The purpose of this study was to determine if young adults have access through school libraries to LGBTQ-themed literature. The library collections in 125 high schools in one Southern U.S. state were examined for the inclusion of LGBTQ-themed fiction, nonfiction, and biographies, including a core collection of 21 recommended titles. Results showed…
In the UK there is a crisis in the provision of healthcare for LGBT people. This is due, in part, by the lack of focused medical, health and social care curricula content about LGBT healthcare generally. Teaching has tended to position heterosexuality and gender normativity—people conforming to social standards of what is ‘appropriate’ feminine and masculine behavior—as the primary context in which health and illness is viewed. Models of health care that promote these views of sexuality and g...
Alexander J Martos
Full Text Available LGBT community organizations in the United States have been providing health services since at least the 1970s. However, available explanations for the origins of LGBT health services do not sufficiently explain why health in particular has been so closely and consistently linked to LGBT activism. Little is also known regarding how LGBT health services may have evolved over time with the growing scientific understanding of LGBT health needs.This study begins with a review of the early intersections of sexuality and health that led to an LGBT health movement in the United States, as well as the evolution of LGBT health services over time. Informed by this, an asset map displaying the location and types of services provided by "LGBT community health centers" today in relation to the population density of LGBT people was explored. An online search of LGBT community health centers was conducted between September-December, 2015. Organizational details, including physical addresses and the services provided, were confirmed via an online database of federally-registered non-profit organizations and organizational websites. The locations and types of services provided were analyzed and presented alongside county-level census data of same-sex households using geographic information system (GIS software ArcGIS for Desktop.LGBT community health centers are concentrated within urban hubs and coastal states, and are more likely to be present in areas with a high density of same-sex couples. LGBT community health centers do not operate in 13 states. The most common health services provided are wellness programs, HIV/STI services, and counseling services.LGBT community health centers have adapted over time to meet the needs of LGBT people. However, significant gaps in service remain in the United States, and LGBT community health centers may require significant transformations going forward in order to continue serving LGBT people.
The success of a team relies as much on the relationship between coaches and players as it does on athletic skill. Coaches, at times, become surrogate parental figures in the lives of their athletes and teammates become siblings who all work together towards a common goal. Athletes at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I…
N. Bruce Baskerville
This scoping review identified a large research gap in the area of prevention and cessation interventions for LGBTQ youth and young adults. There is a need for effective, community-informed, and engaged interventions specific to LGBTQ+ youth and young adults for the prevention and cessation of tobacco.
Martos, Alexander J; Wilson, Patrick A; Meyer, Ilan H
LGBT community organizations in the United States have been providing health services since at least the 1970s. However, available explanations for the origins of LGBT health services do not sufficiently explain why health in particular has been so closely and consistently linked to LGBT activism. Little is also known regarding how LGBT health services may have evolved over time with the growing scientific understanding of LGBT health needs. This study begins with a review of the early intersections of sexuality and health that led to an LGBT health movement in the United States, as well as the evolution of LGBT health services over time. Informed by this, an asset map displaying the location and types of services provided by "LGBT community health centers" today in relation to the population density of LGBT people was explored. An online search of LGBT community health centers was conducted between September-December, 2015. Organizational details, including physical addresses and the services provided, were confirmed via an online database of federally-registered non-profit organizations and organizational websites. The locations and types of services provided were analyzed and presented alongside county-level census data of same-sex households using geographic information system (GIS) software ArcGIS for Desktop. LGBT community health centers are concentrated within urban hubs and coastal states, and are more likely to be present in areas with a high density of same-sex couples. LGBT community health centers do not operate in 13 states. The most common health services provided are wellness programs, HIV/STI services, and counseling services. LGBT community health centers have adapted over time to meet the needs of LGBT people. However, significant gaps in service remain in the United States, and LGBT community health centers may require significant transformations going forward in order to continue serving LGBT people.
Schneider, Margaret; Dimito, Anne
This study investigated the experiences of 132 LGBT and heterosexual teachers and school administrators in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed a survey that asked about their comfort addressing LGBT issues in the school setting, how safe they felt, how active they were, and their perceptions of barriers. There were few differences between the…
Wilson, Patrick A.; Meyer, Ilan H.
Background LGBT community organizations in the United States have been providing health services since at least the 1970s. However, available explanations for the origins of LGBT health services do not sufficiently explain why health in particular has been so closely and consistently linked to LGBT activism. Little is also known regarding how LGBT health services may have evolved over time with the growing scientific understanding of LGBT health needs. Methods This study begins with a review of the early intersections of sexuality and health that led to an LGBT health movement in the United States, as well as the evolution of LGBT health services over time. Informed by this, an asset map displaying the location and types of services provided by “LGBT community health centers” today in relation to the population density of LGBT people was explored. An online search of LGBT community health centers was conducted between September–December, 2015. Organizational details, including physical addresses and the services provided, were confirmed via an online database of federally-registered non-profit organizations and organizational websites. The locations and types of services provided were analyzed and presented alongside county-level census data of same-sex households using geographic information system (GIS) software ArcGIS for Desktop. Findings LGBT community health centers are concentrated within urban hubs and coastal states, and are more likely to be present in areas with a high density of same-sex couples. LGBT community health centers do not operate in 13 states. The most common health services provided are wellness programs, HIV/STI services, and counseling services. Conclusions LGBT community health centers have adapted over time to meet the needs of LGBT people. However, significant gaps in service remain in the United States, and LGBT community health centers may require significant transformations going forward in order to continue serving LGBT people. PMID:28692659
Casquarelli, Elaine J.; Fallon, Kathleen M.
Research shows that premarital counseling programs help engaged couples develop interpersonal and problem-solving skills that enhance their marital relationships. Yet, there are limited services for same-sex couples. This article assumes an integrated humanistic and social justice advocacy stance to explore the needs of lesbian, gay, and bisexual…
This thesis investigates the black lesbian, gay, transgender representations in three US-American films. Using feminist film theory and intersectionality theory, the thesis analyzes the films Set It Off, Tangerine and Moonlight. This analysis includes three themes: 1) Stereotypes including drugs, violence and low socioeconomic status 2) Power relations including white and/or heterosexual supremacy 3) Representation of gender. Overall the study seeks to understand and explore the ways of how i...
... Text Size Email Print Share Health Concerns for Gay and Lesbian Teens Page Content Article Body Sexual activity Most teens, whether they are gay, lesbian, bisexual , or straight, are not sexually active. ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use has been reported to be higher amongst lesbian and bisexual women (LBW than their heterosexual counterparts. However, few studies have been conducted with this population in Australia and rates that have been reported vary considerably. Methods A self-completed questionnaire exploring a range of health issues was administered to 917 women aged 15-65 years (median 34 years living in Western Australia, who identified as lesbian or bisexual, or reported having sex with another woman. Participants were recruited from a range of settings, including Perth Pride Festival events (67.0%, n = 615, online (13.2%, n = 121, at gay bars and nightclubs (12.9%, n = 118, and through community groups (6.9%, n = 63. Results were compared against available state and national surveillance data. Results LBW reported consuming alcohol more frequently and in greater quantities than women in the general population. A quarter of LBW (25.7%, n = 236 exceeded national alcohol guidelines by consuming more than four standard drinks on a single occasion, once a week or more. However, only 6.8% (n = 62 described themselves as a heavy drinker, suggesting that exceeding national alcohol guidelines may be a normalised behaviour amongst LBW. Of the 876 women who provided data on tobacco use, 28.1% (n = 246 were smokers, nearly double the rate in the female population as a whole. One third of the sample (33.6%, n = 308 reported use of an illicit drug in the previous six months. The illicit drugs most commonly reported were cannabis (26.4%, n = 242, meth/amphetamine (18.6%, n = 171, and ecstasy (17.9%, n = 164. Injecting drug use was reported by 3.5% (n = 32 of participants. Conclusion LBW appear to use alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs at higher rates than women generally, indicating that mainstream health promotion messages are not reaching this group or are not perceived as relevant. There is an urgent
After a brief review of the proliferation of newly coined Arabic words to speak about LGBTQIA (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and ally) identities, this article interrogates the facile imitation of Western labels and questions their usefulness in the context of Arab societies and cultures. It demonstrates that the assumptions that underlie the creation of new wordlists overlook and ultimately erase the very rich tradition on alternative sexual practices that has been prominent in the Islamicate world at least since the ninth century. Salvaging this tradition and its accompanying terminology on homosexuality challenges the claim that homosexuality is a Western importation, and renders the recourse to English categories superfluous. Moreover, uncovering the forgotten Arabic cultural material on alternative sexualities offers contemporary Arab gays and lesbians a rich and empowering indigenous heritage, as well as home-grown modes of resistance that are poised to challenge homophobic attitudes and policies in the Arab world, and the hegemony of Western sexual and cultural imperialism.
Munson, Benjamin; Deboe, Nancy
A recent study (Pierrehumbert, Bent, Munson, and Bailey, submitted) found differences in vowel production between people who are lesbian, bisexual, or gay (LBG) and people who are not. The specific differences (more fronted /u/ and /a/ in the non-LB women; an overall more-contracted vowel space in the non-gay men) were not amenable to an interpretation based on simple group differences in vocal-tract geometry. Rather, they suggested that differences were either due to group differences in some other skill, such as motor control or phonological encoding, or learned. This paper expands on this research by examining vowel production, speech-motor control (measured by diadochokinetic rates), and phonological encoding (measured by error rates in a tongue-twister task) in people who are LBG and people who are not. Analyses focus on whether the findings of Pierrehumbert et al. (submitted) are replicable, and whether group differences in vowel production are related to group differences in speech-motor control or phonological encoding. To date, 20 LB women, 20 non-LB women, 7 gay men, and 7 non-gay men have participated. Preliminary analyses suggest that there are no group differences in speech motor control or phonological encoding, suggesting that the earlier findings of Pierrehumbert et al. reflected learned behaviors.
Siobhán C Daly
Full Text Available The experiences of Irish sons and daughters born into heterosexually-organised parental partnerships/unions whose parents have separated and one has come out as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual (LGB were explored through a grounded theory approach. 15 adult children (over the age of 18 years, who varied in age when their parents separated and one disclosed as LGB, were interviewed. The primary concern that emerged centred on participants having to adjust to their parents' being separated, as opposed to their parent being LGB. This involved engaging with the tension that arose from the loss of the parental union, which involved changes to the home environment and adapting to new parental partners and family units. Heightened reflection on sexual orientation and an increased sensitivity to societal LGB prejudice were specifically associated with a parent coming out as LGB. How parents negotiated disclosing the changes to others, the level of support available to parents, and how capable parents were at maintaining the parent-child relationship had an impact on the tension experienced by sons and daughters. Participants moved from initially avoiding and resisting the family changes that were occurring to gradual consonance with their altered family environments. Concluding directions for research and clinical considerations are suggested.
Starks, Tyrel J.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Mustanski, Brian
The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:26108898
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Emlet, Charles A; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna; Erosheva, Elena A; Goldsen, Jayn; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P
Based on resilience theory, this paper investigates the influence of key health indicators and risk and protective factors on health outcomes (including general health, disability, and depression) among lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with LGB older adults, aged 50 and older (N = 2,439). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the contributions of key health indicators (access to health care and health behaviors), risk factors (lifetime victimization, internalized stigma, and sexual identity concealment), and protective factors (social support and social network size) to health outcomes, when controlling for background characteristics. The findings revealed that lifetime victimization, financial barriers to health care, obesity, and limited physical activity independently and significantly accounted for poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults. Internalized stigma was also a significant predictor of disability and depression. Social support and social network size served as protective factors, decreasing the odds of poor general health, disability, and depression. Some distinct differences by gender and sexual orientation were also observed. High levels of poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults are of major concern. These findings highlight the important role of key risk and protective factors, which significantly influences health outcomes among LGB older adults. Tailored interventions must be developed to address the distinct health issues facing this historically disadvantaged population.
Santos, Carlos E; VanDaalen, Rachel A
In this brief report, we present results from a study exploring the associations of high-risk activism (HRA) orientation in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues; HRA orientation in racial/ethnic issues; conflicts in allegiances (CIA) between one's ethnic-racial and sexual minority identities; and anxiety among LGB racial/ethnic minority adults. A racially and ethnically diverse sample of 208 LGB racial/ethnic minority adults (age: M = 27.52, SD = 8.76) completed an online survey. Bivariate correlations showed that HRA orientation in LGB and in racial/ethnic issues, as well as CIA, were each positively associated with anxiety. However, regression analyses indicated that CIA moderated the association between anxiety and HRA orientation in LGB issues (but not racial/ethnic minority issues) such that this association was significant and positive at low levels of CIA and nonsignificant at high levels of CIA. These findings can be used to not only inform psychological practice with this population (e.g., by encouraging practitioners to be more attentive to these issues as potential sources of stress), but also more broadly, as knowledge that can inform the burgeoning psychological literature on collective action. We highlight, for example, the importance of distinguishing between types of activism (i.e., high- vs. low-risk types) in relation to mental health outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Reygan, Finn C G
OBJECTIVE: The international literature points to the specific cancer risks and palliative care needs of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) populations. However, with the exception of a programme in the USA, there is a lack of training internationally for health and social care professionals providing oncological and palliative care to LGB patients. In Ireland, a training project funded by the Irish Cancer Society, the Irish Hospice Foundation and the Health Service Executive developed a training pilot programme for health and social care professionals providing oncological and palliative care to LGB patients. METHODS: Over 200 (N = 201) oncology and palliative care staff participated in 17 brief, 50-min trainings in pilot sites. Evaluation of the training included self-report questionnaires at the end of each training and an evaluation interview with one participant from each of the four sites. RESULTS: The majority of participants reported that they would recommend the training to their colleagues, were interested in further training in the area and found the training useful for their practice. They also reported becoming more familiar with LGB-related language and terminology, became more knowledgeable of LGB health issues and reported becoming more confident in providing care to LGB patients. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are that the training be made available across the health services in Ireland and included in postgraduate courses for trainee health and social care professionals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Daly, Siobhán C; MacNeela, Pádraig; MacNeela, Pádriag; Sarma, Kiran M
The experiences of Irish sons and daughters born into heterosexually-organised parental partnerships/unions whose parents have separated and one has come out as Lesbian, Gay or Bisexual (LGB) were explored through a grounded theory approach. 15 adult children (over the age of 18 years), who varied in age when their parents separated and one disclosed as LGB, were interviewed. The primary concern that emerged centred on participants having to adjust to their parents' being separated, as opposed to their parent being LGB. This involved engaging with the tension that arose from the loss of the parental union, which involved changes to the home environment and adapting to new parental partners and family units. Heightened reflection on sexual orientation and an increased sensitivity to societal LGB prejudice were specifically associated with a parent coming out as LGB. How parents negotiated disclosing the changes to others, the level of support available to parents, and how capable parents were at maintaining the parent-child relationship had an impact on the tension experienced by sons and daughters. Participants moved from initially avoiding and resisting the family changes that were occurring to gradual consonance with their altered family environments. Concluding directions for research and clinical considerations are suggested.
Fisher, Celia B.; Macapagal, Kathryn; Mustanski, Brian
Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze bisexual female youth perspectives on their experiences accessing sexual health information and services provided by a doctor, nurse, or counselor. Specifically, we sought to: (1) understand how youth perceptions of providers' attitudes and behaviors affect their seeking and obtaining sexual health information and services; (2) examine how social stigmas within the family context might be associated with barriers to sexual health information and services; and (3) assess school-based sources of sexual health information. Method: We utilized a mixed-method study design. Data from bisexual female youth were collected through an online questionnaire and asynchronous online focus groups addressing lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health and HIV prevention. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results: Barriers to sexual healthcare included judgmental attitudes and assumptions of patient heterosexuality among healthcare providers, and missed opportunities for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing. Bisexual stigma within families was associated with restricted youth openness with providers, suggesting fear of disclosure to parent or guardian. School-based sexual health education was limited by a restrictive focus on abstinence and condoms and the exclusion of STI risk information relevant to sex between women. Conclusion: We recommend that practitioners integrate nonjudgmental questions regarding bisexuality into standard contraceptive and sexual health practices involving female youth, including discussion of HIV and STI risk reduction methods. Further support for bisexual health among adolescent girls can come through addressing stigmas of female bisexuality, increasing sensitivity to privacy while engaging parents, and expanding the reach of school-based sexual health education. PMID:27604053
Zhang, S X; Shoptaw, S; Reback, C J; Yadav, K; Nyamathi, A M
A randomized controlled study was conducted with 422 homeless, stimulant-using gay/bisexual (G/B) men and 29 transgender women (n = 451) to assess two community-based interventions to reduce substance abuse and improve health: (a) a nurse case-managed program combined with contingency management (NCM + CM) versus (b) standard education plus contingency management (SE + CM). Hypotheses tested included: a) completion of hepatitis A/B vaccination series; b) reduction in stimulant use; and c) reduction in number of sexual partners. A deconstructive cost analysis approach was utilized to capture direct costs associated with the delivery of both interventions. Based on an analysis of activity logs and staff interviews, specific activities and the time required to complete each were analyzed as follows: a) NCM + CM only; b) SE + CM only; c) time to administer/record vaccines; and d) time to receive and record CM visits. Cost comparison of the interventions included only staffing costs and direct cash expenditures. The study outcomes showed significant over time reductions in all measures of drug use and multiple sex partners, compared to baseline, although no significant between-group differences were detected. Cost analysis favored the simpler SE + CM intervention over the more labor-intensive NCM + CM approach. Because of the high levels of staffing required for the NCM relative to SE, costs associated with it were significantly higher. Findings suggest that while both intervention strategies were equally effective in achieving desired health outcomes, the brief SE + CM appeared less expensive to deliver. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silenzio, Vincent M B; Duberstein, Paul R; Tang, Wan; Lu, Naiji; Tu, Xin; Homan, Christopher M
Young lesbian, gay, and bisexual (young LGB) individuals report higher rates of suicide ideation and attempts from their late teens through early twenties. Their high rate of Internet use suggests that online social networks offer a novel opportunity to reach them. This study explores online social networks as a venue for prevention research targeting young LGB. An automated data collection program was used to map the social connections between LGB self-identified individuals between 16 and 24 years old participating in an online social network. We then completed a descriptive analysis of the structural characteristics known to affect diffusion within such networks. Finally, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations of peer-driven diffusion of a hypothetical preventive intervention within the observed network under varying starting conditions. We mapped a network of 100,014 young LGB. The mean age was 20.4 years. The mean nodal degree was 137.5, representing an exponential degree distribution ranging from 1 through 4309. Monte Carlo simulations revealed that a peer-driven preventive intervention ultimately reached final sample sizes of up to 18,409 individuals. The network's structure is consistent with other social networks in terms of the underlying degree distribution. Such networks are typically formed dynamically through a process of preferential attachment. This implies that some individuals could be more important to target to facilitate the diffusion of interventions. However, in terms of determining the success of an intervention targeting this population, our simulation results suggest that varying the number of peers that can be recruited is more important than increasing the number of randomly-selected starting individuals. This has implications for intervention design. Given the potential to access this previously isolated population, this novel approach represents a promising new frontier in suicide prevention and other research areas.
Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between social media platforms and the production and dissemination of selfies in light of its implications for the visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ people. Applying an Actor Network Theory lens, two popular visual media apps, Instagram and Vine, are examined through a comparative walkthrough method. This reveals platform elements, or mediators, that can influence the conversational capacity of selfies in terms of the following: range, the variety of discourses addressed within a selfie; reach, circulation within and across publics; and salience, the strength and clarity of discourses communicated through a selfie. These mediators are illustrated through LGBTQ celebrity Ruby Rose’s Instagram selfies and Vine videos. Instagram’s use expectations encourage selfies focused on mainstream discourses of normative beauty and conspicuous consumption with an emphasis on appearance, extending through features constraining selfies’ reach and salience. In contrast, Vine’s broader use expectations enable a variety of discourses to be communicated across publics with an emphasis on creative, first-person sharing. These findings are reflected in Rose’s Instagram selfies, which mute alternative discourses of gender and sexuality through desexualized and aesthetically appealing self-representations, while Vines display her personal side, enabling both LGBTQ and heterosexual, cisgender people to identify with her without minimizing non-normative aspects of her gender and sexuality. These findings demonstrate the relevance of platforms in shaping selfies’ conversational capacity, as mediators can influence whether selfies feature in conversations reinforcing dominant discourses or in counterpublic conversations, contributing to everyday activism that challenges normative gender and sexual discourses.
McClelland, Sara I; Rubin, Jennifer D; Bauermeister, José A
There is little research on what is meant by the concept of "feeling attracted" and even less about what same-sex attraction looks and feels like for individuals. Without insight into the phenomenon of same-sex attraction, researchers risk misunderstanding the role of sexual attraction in sexual identity development and risk mis-categorizing individuals in research designs that compare LGBTQ and heterosexual samples. The current study draws from semi-structured interviews (n = 30) with young lesbian-, bisexual-, and queer-identified women (ages 18-24) about their initial memories of same-sex attraction. Two questions were pursued using qualitative analytic strategies. We examined the age that participants remembered first experiencing same-sex attraction using content analysis. Two age groups emerged as distinct: those with experiences of same-sex attraction in childhood and those with initial attractions in later adolescence. We also examined key elements in participants' descriptions of early same-sex attraction using thematic analysis. The role of embodied feelings, relationships with other young women, and social environments including media images emerged as central to initial experiences of attraction. Findings highlight how early experiences of same-sex attraction produced different types of interpretations within individuals and, in turn, these interpretations informed how participants did or did not take up LGBTQ identity labels. These findings may help guide the development of more refined measurement tools for researchers hoping to sample sexual minorities and can contribute to developing more effective supports for individuals who experience same-sex attraction but may not adopt LGBTQ identity labels and, as a result, are routinely missed in outreach efforts.
Bowleg, Lisa; Brooks, Kelly; Ritz, Susan Faye
Although the workplace stress that Black women and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people experience due to prejudice and discrimination has been well-documented in the social science literature, much of this literature focuses on Black women or LGBTs as if these groups were distinct and mutually exclusive. Consequently, there is a void of theory and research on the workplace stress that Black lesbians experience. This qualitative study involved exploratory analyses of workplace stress due to race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation, and coping strategies among a predominantly middle-class, highly educated sample of 19 Black lesbians between the ages of 26 and 68. Four workplace stressors emerged, those relevant to: heterosexism/ sexual identity; racism/race; sexism/sex/gender; and intersections of race, sex/gender, and sexual orientation. Three primary coping strategies emerged: being out and managing being out, covering their sexual orientation, and confronting or educating coworkers about prejudice and discrimination.
This article argues that African-American director Dee Rees' critically acclaimed debut Pariah (2011) is a rewriting of lesbian poet-activist Audre Lorde's iconic "bio-mythography" Zami: A New Spelling of My Name (1982). The article examines how Rees' work creatively and subtly re-envisions Lorde's Zami by way of deeply rooted and often cleverly camouflaged patterns, resonances, and contrasts. Shared topics include naming, mother-daughter bonds, the role of clothing in identity formation, domestic abuse, queer time, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender legacy discourse construction. What emerges between the visual and written texts is a hidden language of connection--what may be termed Black lesbian steganography--which proves thought-provoking to viewers and readers alike.
Ginsberg, Brian A; Calderon, Marcus; Seminara, Nicole M; Day, Doris
There are an estimated 700,000 or more transgender people in the United States, however their dermatologic needs are not fully established in the medical literature. Unique needs relate to hormone therapy, prior surgeries, and other aspects of physical transitioning. By examining attitudes and practices of transgender individuals, we aimed to identify areas for which dermatologists could contribute to their physical transformation. This cross-sectional study used an anonymous online survey, distributed via lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender organizations; social media; and at targeted locations and events. A total of 327 people completed the survey (63% men, 29% women, 9% other). Most transgender women indicated that their face was most imperative to have changed, whereas men noted their chest, in turn influencing procedures. Of women's facial procedures, hair removal predominated, followed by surgery then injectables, mostly performed by plastic surgeons. Hormone-induced facial effects varied, usually taking over 2 years for maximal effect. When choosing procedures, money was the major barrier and good aesthetic outcome the primary concern. Participants did not think that facial procedures necessitate the currently accepted prerequisites for chest and genital surgery. This study has limited size and convenience sampling. Dermatologists could contribute to the physical transformation of transgender patients through noninvasive procedures. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pineda Roa, Carlos Alejandro
A framework within sexual and reproductive health is presented to understand the mental health issues of the population of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents and young people. Different ways of understanding the nature of internalized homophobia were developed. On the other hand, in suicidology studies it is understood that the risk of suicide consists of the steps of ideation, planning and attempted suicide, and that there is an increased risk of suicide in the LGB population. Numerous factors have been associated with suicide risk in this population, one of the main internalized homophobia and other mental health problems. By means of a literature review, to establish the possible relationship between internalized homophobia and ideation and attempted suicide in the LGB population, as well as to identify the mental health problems associated to suicide risk in sexually diverse communities. Articles in English and Spanish, mainly within the last five years, were reviewed. They included articles in peer reviewed journals, and databases, such as Google Scholar, Redalyc, Byreme, Ovid, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis, MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Ebsco. It was found in the available literature that internalized homophobia is associated with suicide ideation and attempts in adults. A state of science of the major mental health problems associated with suicide risk in young LGB people reported contradictory findings. While some studies showed an association between depression, anxiety and distress and suicidal ideation and attempts, in others, the data do not allow such a conclusion. The theoretical framework presents the most important conceptualizations of suicide risk and emphasizes the social type. It identifies issues of suicide prevention, protective factors that contribute towards this, as well as elements of psychotherapy for LGB consultants. It concludes and discusses the importance of studying the sexually diverse as regards determining factors
McGuire, Jenifer K; Anderson, Charles R; Toomey, Russell B; Russell, Stephen T
Transgender youth experience negative school environments and may not benefit directly from interventions defined to support Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth. This study utilized a multi-method approach to consider the issues that transgender students encounter in school environments. Using data from two studies, survey data (total n = 2260, 68 transgender youth) from study 1 and focus groups (n = 35) from study 2, we examine transgender youth's experience of school harassment, school strategies implemented to reduce harassment, the protective role of supportive school personnel, and individual responses to harassment, including dropping out and changing schools. In both studies, we found that school harassment due to transgender identity was pervasive, and this harassment was negatively associated with feelings of safety. When schools took action to reduce harassment, students reported greater connections to school personnel. Those connections were associated with greater feelings of safety. The indirect effects of school strategies to reduce harassment on feelings of safety through connection to adults were also significant. Focus group data illuminate specific processes schools can engage in to benefit youth, and how the youth experience those interventions.
Full Text Available Although there have been studies that focus on the experiences of the gay and lesbian population serving in the United States military, few have focused on the experience of active duty transgender service members. Transgender individuals transgress the binary conception of gender by deviating from societal gender norms associated with assigned sex at birth. The Department of Defense has set policies and standards that reflect a binary conception of gender, with a focus on conformity. We argue that able-bodied gender variant service personnel are just as capable of serving their country as anyone else. Because of the repercussions associated with active duty transgender military personnel, our sample is small and involves nine clandestine service members and two international service members who wanted to share their stories from a different perspective. Snowball sampling was aimed at finding current active duty and reserve transgender service members. Using a combination of telephone interviews and questionnaires, data were collected from active duty transgender service personnel throughout the United States and two from international militaries that allow transgender people to serve. Data collection focused on the overall experiences of the participants along with questions regarding workplace discrimination, suggestions for policy changes, and their views about the overturn of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell. Our findings add to a growing source of information about the transgender military experience in the U.S. armed forces and the importance of overturning discriminatory workplace policies that negatively impact transgender service members.
Wernick, Laura J; Kulick, Alex; Inglehart, M H
Transgender young people are at increased risk for bullying, harassment, and negative mental health and academic outcomes compared to the general population as well as compared to other members of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and similarly identified (LGBTQQ) communities. To inform interventions to support transgender students, the present study investigates students' willingness to intervene when witnessing anti-transgender harassment, using data collected from a participatory action research project investigating school climate. Multi-step linear regression was used to test the impacts of hearing transphobic language and witnessing teachers and others students intervene, while controlling for demographics and school. Hostile climate negatively predicted intervention intentions while witnessing peer intervention positively predicted likelihood to intervene. Witnessing teacher intervention did not significantly predict the outcome. These findings suggest that youth-led interventions in peer networks might be effective in diminishing transphobic bullying and supporting the healthy development of transgender young people. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watson, Ryan J; Veale, Jaimie F; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
Research has documented high rates of disordered eating for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, but prevalence and patterns of disordered eating among transgender youth remain unexplored. This is despite unique challenges faced by this group, including gender-related body image and the use of hormones. We explore the relationship between disordered eating and risk and protective factors for transgender youth. An online survey of 923 transgender youth (aged 14-25) across Canada was conducted, primarily using measures from existing youth health surveys. Analyses were stratified by gender identity and included logistic regressions with probability profiles to illustrate combinations of risk and protective factors for eating disordered behaviors. Enacted stigma (the higher rates of harassment and discrimination sexual minority youth experience) was linked to higher odds of reported past year binge eating and fasting or vomiting to lose weight, while protective factors, including family connectedness, school connectedness, caring friends, and social support, were linked to lower odds of past year disordered eating. Youth with the highest levels of enacted stigma and no protective factors had high probabilities of past year eating disordered behaviors. Our study found high prevalence of disorders. Risk for these behaviors was linked to stigma and violence exposure, but offset by social supports. Health professionals should assess transgender youth for disordered eating behaviors and supportive resources. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:515-522). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Baldwin, Aleta M; Dodge, Brian; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Structural discrimination is associated with negative health outcomes among sexual minority populations. Recent changes to state-level and national legislation provide both the opportunity and the need to further explore the impact of legislation on the health indicators of sexual minorities. Using an ecosocial theory lens, the present research addresses the relationship between structural support or discrimination and satisfaction with one's health care provider among sexual minority women. Data were drawn from an online survey of sexual minority women's health care experiences. Using the Andersen Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization to operationalize the variables in our model, we examined the relationship between state-level nondiscrimination legislation and satisfaction with provider-a widely used measure of health care quality-through regression analysis. Participants in structurally supportive states (i.e., those with nondiscrimination legislation) were more likely to disclose their sexual identity to their providers and to report higher satisfaction with their providers. The absence of nondiscrimination legislation was associated negatively with satisfaction with providers. Results of our study show that the external environment in which sexual minority women seek health care, characterized by structural support or lack thereof, is related to perceived quality of health care. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Measuring the Effectiveness of a Professional Development Workshop on Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills of Mental Health Professionals in Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) Youth
McGravey, Katie Ann
Although LGBTQ youth are at risk for peer rejection, substance abuse, mental health disorders, and dropping out of school, research shows that most mental health training programs do not include a course on working with this population (Carroll & Gilroy,2001; Matthews, 2005; McCabe & Rubinson, 2008;Sherry, Whilde, & Patton, 2005;…
Islam is characterized as an extremely homophobic religion, which strictly forbids the union of two people of the same sex. This belief causes an immeasurable amount of strain and anxiety for lesbians because their feelings, desires, and emotions are considered "unnatural" and aberrant. The homophobic Islamic model of homosexuality thus celebrates heteronormative performances of gender and sexuality. In the present study, the issue of how religious identity interplays with sexual identity is examined. Using data gained from online interviews with five Muslim lesbians, the article considers whether the women are able to create their lesbian identity within a discourse that negates their sexual orientation. Their lives as Muslim lesbians produces a unique intersection where religion and sexuality converge, yet they are forced apart by religiously sanctioned homophobia, preventing them from exploring and expressing their sexuality. The article further examines whether Islam is a source upon which the women draw strength to understand their sexuality and to cope with being in the closet. Despite being members of Imaan, a Muslim LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) support group, the women continue to experience a significant degree of conflict. A reconciliation of faith with their sexuality is undermined by an unrelenting and intolerant religious attitude toward homosexuality.
Buer, Liliana; Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-esteem, perception of social acceptance and feeling of loneliness in a sample of young bisexual, lesbian and heterosexual women, including assessing self-esteem longitudinally across 13 years. The analyses were based on self......-completed questionnaires from the longitudinal study “Young in Norway” (13 years follow-up, 1992-2005). N=1,598 female participants at baseline and follow-up (45 bisexual women, 21 lesbian women, 1,532 heterosexual women), age 25-32 years at follow-up. At baseline, there were no differences in self-esteem, but at follow......-up bisexual women reported lower self-esteem, lower levels of perceived acceptance, and higher levels of loneliness. For bisexual women, self-esteem did not increase from adolescence to adulthood. At follow-up, loneliness had a stronger connection with self-esteem among bisexual women compared to lesbian...
Gamarel, Kristi E; Mereish, Ethan H; Manning, David; Iwamoto, Mariko; Operario, Don; Nemoto, Tooru
Research has demonstrated associations between reports of minority stressors and smoking behaviors among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations; however, little is known about how minority stressors are related to smoking behaviors and cessation attempts among transgender women. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the associations between transgender-based discrimination and smoking patterns among a sample of transgender women; and (2) to identify barriers to smoking cessation in a sample of transgender women with a history of smoking. A community sample of 241 transgender women completed a one-time survey. Binary and multinomial logistic regression models examined associations between minority stressors and (1) smoking behaviors and (2) cessation attempts. Both models adjusted for income, education, race/ethnicity, recent sex work, HIV status, depression, alcohol use, and current hormone use. Overall, 83% of participants indicated that they had smoked a cigarette in the last month. Of these women, 62.3% reported daily smoking and 51.7% reported an unsuccessful quit attempt. Discrimination was positively associated with currently smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.08). Discrimination was positively associated with unsuccessful cessation (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.18) and never attempting (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.11) compared to successful cessation. Discrimination was also positively associated with never attempting compared to unsuccessful cessation (AOR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.03). Smoking cessation may be driven by unique transgender-related minority stressors, such as discrimination. Future research is warranted to address unique stigmatizing contexts when understanding and providing tailored intervention addressing smoking among transgender women. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government
Scheim, Ayden I; Travers, Robb
Transgender men who have sex with men (trans MSM) may be at elevated risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and therefore require access to HIV and STI testing services. However, trans people often face stigma, discrimination, and gaps in provider competence when attempting to access health care and may therefore postpone, avoid, or be refused care. In this context, quantitative data have indicated low access to, and uptake of, HIV testing among trans MSM. The present manuscript aimed to identify trans MSM's perspectives on barriers and facilitators to HIV and STI testing. As part of a community-based research project investigating HIV risk and resilience among trans MSM, 40 trans MSM aged 18 and above and living in Ontario, Canada participated in one-on-one qualitative interviews in 2013. Participants described a number of barriers to HIV and other STI testing. These included both trans-specific and general difficulties in accessing sexual health services, lack of trans health knowledge among testing providers, limited clinical capacity to meet STI testing needs, and a perceived gap between trans-inclusive policies and their implementation in practice. Two major facilitators were identified: access to trusted and flexible testing providers, and integration of testing with ongoing monitoring for hormone therapy. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for enhancing access to HIV and STI testing for this key population.
Efectos de la violencia y la discriminación en la salud mental de bisexuales, lesbianas y homosexuales de la Ciudad de México Effects of violence and discrimination on the mental health of bisexuals, lesbians, and gays in Mexico City
Full Text Available Los objetivos del estudio fueron estimar la frecuencia de daños a la salud mental (percepción del estado de salud, ideación suicida, intento de suicidio, trastornos mentales comunes y alcoholismo en bisexuales, lesbianas y homosexuales de la Ciudad de México y analizar la posible relación de la violencia y la discriminación con la salud mental de dicha población. Se aplicó un cuestionario a 506 bisexuales, lesbianas y homosexuales de la ciudad de México para investigar si habían sufrido, debido a su orientación sexual, discriminación y violencia. Las prevalencias fueron: ideación suicida 39,0%, intento de suicidio 15,0%, trastornos mentales comunes 27,0% y alcoholismo 18,0%. En las mujeres lesbianas y bisexuales se observó una prevalencia de alcoholismo siete veces mayor a la observada en otras mujeres. La discriminación se relacionó con el intento de suicidio y los trastornos mentales comunes, mientras que la violencia fue un factor de riesgo para la ideación suicida, el intento de suicidio, los trastornos mentales comunes y el alcoholismo; por lo cual se requiere implementar políticas y programas tendientes a revertir esta situación.The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, mental disorders, and alcoholism in bisexuals, lesbians, and gays in Mexico City and analyze the possible relationship between violence, discrimination, and the mental health of these population groups. A questionnaire was administered to 506 bisexuals, lesbians, and gays attending support organizations and institutions. Eight forms of discrimination and fourteen forms of violence based on sexual orientation were researched. The study found the following prevalence rates: 39.0% suicidal ideation, 15.0% suicide attempts, 27.0% mental disorders, and 18.0% alcoholism. Prevalence of alcoholism was 21.0% among bisexual and lesbian women, which is higher than in other women. Discrimination was
Wentling, Tre; Windsor, Elroi; Schilt, Kristen; Lucal, Betsy
The recent visibility of transgender lives demonstrates the dawning of a new period in the potential to include transgender topics in sociology courses. The focus on transgender individuals, communities, and inclusive initiatives are gaining momentum on many public and private college and university campuses, awakening old and new curiosities,…
Hopwood, Max; Lea, Toby; Aggleton, Peter
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly reported among gay and bisexual men. However, little is known about the personal and social dimensions of HCV-related experience among these men in Australia. An online survey of 474 Australian gay and bisexual men was conducted from August to December 2013. A subsample of 48 HCV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected men was analysed to explore HCV knowledge, sources of information, unmet information needs and use of HCV-related services. More than half of respondents in the subsample were unaware that HIV infection increases the risk of sexually acquired HCV and most wanted information about how to prevent the sexual transmission of HCV. A majority of respondents requested gay-specific HCV services, and approximately similar proportions of men indicated that they would like these services delivered by a hepatitis organization, a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) organization and a HIV organization. Men in receipt of HIV antiretroviral treatments were most likely to request that gay-specific HCV information and support services be delivered by a LGBTI or HIV organization (OR = 8.63). These findings suggest that a variety of organizations are required to address the information and support needs of Australian gay and bisexual men with HCV. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Greta R. Bauer
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bisexual populations have higher prevalence of depression, anxiety, suicidality and substance use than heterosexuals, and often than gay men or lesbians. The co-occurrence of multiple outcomes has rarely been studied. Methods Data were collected from 405 bisexuals using respondent-driven sampling. Weighted analyses were conducted for 387 with outcome data. Multiple outcomes were defined as 3 or more of: depression, anxiety, suicide ideation, problematic alcohol use, or polysubstance use. Results Among bisexuals, 19.0 % had multiple outcomes. We did not find variation in raw frequency of multiple outcomes across sociodemographic variables (e.g. gender, age. After adjustment, gender and sexual orientation identity were associated, with transgender women and those identifying as bisexual only more likely to have multiple outcomes. Social equity factors had a strong impact in both crude and adjusted analysis: controlling for other factors, high mental health/substance use burden was associated with greater discrimination (prevalence risk ratio (PRR = 5.71; 95 % CI: 2.08, 15.63 and lower education (PRR = 2.41; 95 % CI: 1.06, 5.49, while higher income-to-needs ratio was protective (PRR = 0.44; 0.20, 1.00. Conclusions Mental health and substance use outcomes with high prevalence among bisexuals frequently co-occurred. We find some support for the theory that these multiple outcomes represent a syndemic, defined as co-occurring and mutually reinforcing adverse outcomes driven by social inequity.
Friedman, M Reuel; Dodge, Brian; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Hubach, Randolph; Bowling, Jessamyn; Goncalves, Gabriel; Krier, Sarah; Reece, Michael
A newly emergent literature suggest that bisexual men and women face profound health disparities in comparison to both heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Additionally, bisexual individuals often experience prejudice, stigma, and discrimination from both gay/lesbian and straight communities, termed "biphobia." However, only limited research exists that empirically tests the extent and predictors of this double discrimination. The Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Survey (BIAS) was developed to test associations between biphobia and sexual identity. Using standard techniques, we developed and administered a scale to a purposive online sample of adults from a wide range of social networking websites. We conducted exploratory factor analysis to refine scales assessing attitudes toward bisexual men and bisexual women, respectively. Using generalized linear modeling, we assessed relationships between BIAS scores and sexual identity, adjusting for covariates. Two separately gendered scales were developed, administered, and refined: BIAS-m (n=645), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual men; and BIAS-f (n=631), focusing on attitudes toward bisexual women. Across scales, sexual identity significantly predicted response variance. Lesbian/gay respondents had lower levels of bi-negative attitudes than their heterosexual counterparts (all p-values stereotypes and stigma may lead to dramatic disparities in depression, anxiety, stress, and other health outcomes among bisexual individuals in comparison to their heterosexual and homosexual counterparts. Our results yield valuable data for informing social awareness and intervention efforts that aim to decrease bi-negative attitudes within both straight and gay/lesbian communities, with the ultimate goal of alleviating health disparities among bisexual men and women.
As many gender teachers know, distinctions between and among complex terms in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans (gender or sexual), queer (LGBTQ) group are often difficult for students to articulate and identify. In fact, terms like "sex" and "gender" are often conflated in public discourse, and terms like…
Ortiz-Martínez, Yeimer; Ríos-González, Carlos Miguel
Background Recently, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) scientific production is growing, but transgender (TG) people is less considered in the LGBT-related research, highlighting the lack of representative data on this neglected population. To assess the current status of scientific production on TG population, a bibliometric study was performed using the articles on TG people deposited in five databases, including PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Science Citation Index (SCI), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). The PubMed/Medline search retrieved 2370 documents, which represented 0.008% of all articles recorded in Medline. The Scopus search identified 4974 articles. At SCI, 2863 articles were identified. A search of the SciELO database identified 39 articles, whereas the LILACS search identified 44 articles. Most papers were from the US (57.59%), followed by Canada (5.15%), the UK (4.42%), Australia (3.19%), The Netherlands (2.46%) and Peru (1.83%). These six countries accounted for 74.6% of all scientific output. The findings indicate that the TG-related research is low, especially in low-income developing countries, where stigma and discrimination are common. More awareness, knowledge, and sensitivity in healthcare communities are needed to eliminate barriers in health attention and research in this population.
Barefoot, K Nikki; Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant
Previous research has consistently demonstrated that, in comparison to their cisgender heterosexual counterparts, lesbians face a multitude of women's healthcare-related disparities. However, very little research has been conducted that takes an intersectionality approach to examining the potential influences of rural-urban location on the health-related needs and experiences of lesbians. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare rural and urban lesbians' access to women's health care, experiences with women's healthcare providers (WHCPs), and preventive behavior using a large, diverse sample of lesbians from across the USA. A total of 895 (31.1% rural and 68.9% urban) lesbian-identified cisgender women (ie not transgender) from the USA participated in the current online study. As part of a larger parent study, participants were recruited from across the USA through email communication to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-focused organizations and online advertisements. Participants were asked to complete a series of questions related to their women's healthcare-related experiences and behaviors (ie access to care, experiences with WHCPs, and preventive behavior). A series of χ2 analyses were utilized in order to examine rural-urban differences across dependent variables. An examination of sexual risks revealed that relatively more rural lesbians reported at least one previous male sexual partner in comparison to the urban sample of lesbians (78.1% vs 69.1%, χ2(1, N=890)=7.56, p=0.006). A similarly low percentage of rural (42.4%) and urban (42.9%) lesbians reported that they have a WHCP that they see on a regular basis for preventive care. In terms of experiences with WHCP providers, relatively fewer rural lesbians indicated that their current WHCP had discussed/recommended the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in comparison to urban lesbians (27.5% vs. 37.2%; χ2 (1, N=796)=7.24, p=0.007). No other rural-urban differences in
Fongkaew, Kangwan; Khruataeng, Anoporn; Unsathit, Sumon; Khamphiirathasana, Matawii; Jongwisan, Nisarat; Arlunaek, Oranong; Byrne, Jensen
This article presents an analysis of news reports containing information or opinions about lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and queer (LGBTIQ) people taken from six Thai media outlets over a period of one year. The aim was to explore how LGBTIQ people are portrayed in news media narratives. LGBTIQ identities were found to be vastly underrepresented and, when represented, were often represented inaccurately, stereotypically, harmfully, or without a clear understanding of the diversity of sexual orientations, gender identities, and gender expressions. (Hetero-)sexist narratives, negative portrayals, harmful stereotypes, and discriminatory speech were also widely found, fueling a climate of stigmatization and discrimination of LGBTIQ people in Thai society. This article suggests that key stakeholders in Thai news media should be sensitized on the human rights of LGBTIQ people and on basic professional ethics in journalism.
Bridgman, Becky L.
Lori Horvitz's book contains 26 essays from queer students and educators exploring how sexuality can affect classroom dynamics. Although the book's title references lesbians, it also encompasses bisexuals and highlights friendships between gays and lesbians. In addition, many of the essays discuss social justice initiatives as well as illustrate…
Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Brien, Natasha; Jones, Nicolette; Lee-Foon, Nakia; Levermore, Kandasi; Marshall, Annecka; Nyblade, Laura; Newman, Peter A
Young men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica have the highest HIV prevalence in the Caribbean. There is little information about HIV among transgender women in Jamaica, who are also overrepresented in the Caribbean epidemic. HIV-related stigma is a barrier to HIV testing among Jamaica's general population, yet little is known of MSM and transgender women's HIV testing experiences in Jamaica. We explored perceived barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young MSM and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica. We implemented a community-based research project in collaboration with HIV and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) agencies in Kingston. We held two focus groups, one with young (aged 18-30 years) transgender women (n = 8) and one with young MSM (n = 10). We conducted 53 in-depth individual semi-structured interviews focused on HIV testing experiences with young MSM (n = 20), transgender women (n = 20), and community-based key informants (n = 13). We conducted thematic analysis to identify, analyze, and report themes. Participant narratives revealed social-ecological barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Barriers included healthcare provider mistreatment, confidentiality breaches, and HIV-related stigma: these spanned interpersonal, community and structural levels. Healthcare provider discrimination and judgment in HIV testing provision presented barriers to accessing HIV services (e.g. treatment), and resulted in participants hiding their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Confidentiality concerns included: clinic physical arrangements that segregated HIV testing from other health services, fear that healthcare providers would publicly disclose their status, and concerns at LGBT-friendly clinics that peers would discover they were getting tested. HIV-related stigma contributed to fear of testing HIV-positive; this intersected with the stigma of HIV as a "gay" disease. Participants also anticipated healthcare provider
Kaiser, Matthew M.; Seitz, Keshia M.; Walters, Elizabeth A.
Ritha Smith, assistant superintendent, and Seth Hanson, principal, are faced with a difficult decision. Taylor Harper is a transgender student who identifies as male and is openly attracted to females. Taylor's parents, Lane and Morgan Harper, are lesbians; they are fully supportive of their child's identification and are well versed in their…
Mereish, Ethan H; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Woulfe, Julie
Bisexual individuals are at higher risk for poor mental health outcomes compared to heterosexual as well as lesbian and gay individuals and experience minority stressors, such as discrimination, from both heterosexual and sexual minority communities. However, there is little research examining the negative effects of bisexual-specific minority stressors on bisexual individuals' mental health as well as psychological factors that might help explain minority stressors' deleterious effects. This research examined the effects of distal minority stressors (i.e., anti-bisexual experiences from both heterosexual as well as lesbian and gay people) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized heterosexism and sexual orientation concealment) on psychological distress and suicidality among bisexual adults (N = 503). Building on the relational framing of the minority stress model, we also tested one relational factor (i.e., loneliness) as a mediator of the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and poor mental health (i.e., psychological distress and suicidality). Structural equation modeling analyses were used to test the mediating effects of loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress and suicidality. Although distal and proximal minority stressors were not associated with each other, loneliness mediated the effects of distal and proximal minority stressors on psychological distress and suicidality. The results of this study underscore the importance of targeting bisexual-specific minority stressors as well as loneliness in preventive interventions to improve the mental health of bisexual individuals.
Ayala, George; Santos, Glenn-Milo
Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men are among the small number of groups for whom HIV remains uncontrolled worldwide. Although there have been recent and notable decreases in HIV incidence across several countries, prevalence and incidence is consistently higher or rising among men who have sex with men when compared with other groups. In 2014, MSMGF (the Global Forum on MSM & HIV) conducted its third biennial Global Men's Health and Rights Study, an international, multilingual, web-based cross-sectional survey of men who have sex with men recruited through online convenience sampling. We tested hypothesized correlates (selected a priori ) of successfully achieving each step along the HIV prevention and treatment continuum by fitting separate generalized estimating equation models adjusted for clustering by country in multivariate analyses. All models controlled for ability to meet basic financial needs, age, healthcare coverage, having a regular provider, region and country-level income. Higher provider discrimination and sexual stigma were associated with lower odds of perceived access to services, service utilization and virologic suppression. Conversely, accessing services from community-based organizations focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people; greater engagement in gay community; and comfort with healthcare providers were associated with higher odds of achieving steps along the prevention and treatment continuum. To meet accelerated global HIV targets, global leaders must adopt a differentiated and bolder response, in keeping with current epidemiologic trends and community-based research. The HIV-related needs of gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men must be addressed openly, quickly and with sufficient resources to support evidence-based, community-led and human rights-affirming interventions at scale.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Shiu, Chengshi; Bryan, Amanda E B; Goldsen, Jayn; Kim, Hyun-Jun
Bisexual older adults are a growing yet largely invisible, underserved, and understudied population. Utilizing the Health Equity Promotion Model, we examined hypothesized mechanisms accounting for health disparities between bisexual older adults and lesbian and gay older adults. Based on data from Caring and Aging with Pride, the largest national survey of LGBT older adults, this study (N = 2,463) utilized structural equation modeling to investigate direct and indirect associations between sexual identity (bisexual vs. lesbian and gay) and health via sexual identity factors (identity disclosure and internalized stigma), social resources, and socioeconomic status (SES). Bisexual older adults reported significantly poorer health compared with lesbian and gay older adults. Indirect effects involving sexual identity factors, social resources, and SES explained the association between bisexual identity and poorer health. A potentially protective pathway was also identified wherein bisexuals had larger social networks after adjusting for other factors. Bisexual older adults face distinct challenges and health risks relative to other older adults, likely because of the accumulation of socioeconomic and psychosocial disadvantages across the life course. Interventions taking into account older bisexuals' unique risk and protective factors may be helpful in reducing health inequities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
FREDRIKSEN-GOLDSEN, KAREN I.; HOY-ELLIS, CHARLES P.; GOLDSEN, JAYN; EMLET, CHARLES A.; HOOYMAN, NANCY R.
Sexual orientation and gender identity are not commonly addressed in health and human service delivery, or in educational degree programs. Based on findings from Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging and Sexuality Study (CAP), the first national federally-funded research project on LGBT health and aging, this article outlines 10 core competencies and aligns them with specific strategies to improve professional practice and service development to promote the well-being of LGB...
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A; Hooyman, Nancy R
Sexual orientation and gender identity are not commonly addressed in health and human service delivery, or in educational degree programs. Based on findings from Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging and Sexuality Study (CAP), the first national federally-funded research project on LGBT health and aging, this article outlines 10 core competencies and aligns them with specific strategies to improve professional practice and service development to promote the well-being of LGBT older adults and their families. The articulation of key competencies is needed to provide a blueprint for action for addressing the growing needs of LGBT older adults, their families, and their communities.
Reshaping Time: Recommendations for Suicide Prevention in LBGT Populations. Reflections on "Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations" from Journal of Homosexuality 58(1).
This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines the journal's 2011 consensus recommendations for the prevention of LGBT suicide. Invoking the axiom approach of Eve Kosovsky Sedgwick's seminal Epistemology of the Closet, the author argues that merely offering practical guidelines at the level of the demonstrative and the instructive may not be sufficient models to address the urgency of suicide rates in LGBTQ youth populations.
FREDRIKSEN-GOLDSEN, KAREN I.; HOY-ELLIS, CHARLES P.; GOLDSEN, JAYN; EMLET, CHARLES A.; HOOYMAN, NANCY R.
Sexual orientation and gender identity are not commonly addressed in health and human service delivery, or in educational degree programs. Based on findings from Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging and Sexuality Study (CAP), the first national federally-funded research project on LGBT health and aging, this article outlines 10 core competencies and aligns them with specific strategies to improve professional practice and service development to promote the well-being of LGBT older adults and their families. The articulation of key competencies is needed to provide a blueprint for action for addressing the growing needs of LGBT older adults, their families, and their communities. PMID:24571387
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) view it differently than non-LGBT: Exposure to tobacco-related couponing, e-cigarette advertisements, and anti-tobacco messages on social and traditional media.
Emory, Kristen; Buchting, Francisco O; Trinidad, Dennis R; Vera, Lisa; Emery, Sherry L
LGBT populations use tobacco at disparately higher rates nationwide, compared to national averages. The tobacco industry has a history targeting LGBT with marketing efforts, likely contributing to this disparity. This study explores whether exposure to tobacco content on traditional and social media is associated with tobacco use among LGBT and non-LGBT. This study reports results from LGBT (N=1,092) and non-LGBT (N=16,430) respondents to a 2013 nationally representative cross-sectional online survey of US adults (N=17,522). Frequency and weighted prevalence were estimated and adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted. LGBT reported significantly higher rates of past 30-day tobacco media exposure compared to non-LGBT, this effect was strongest among LGBT who were smokers (pe-cigarettes, and anti-tobacco on new or social media (e.g. Twitter, Facebook, etc.) than did non-LGBT (pe-cigarettes, and cigars compared to non-LGBT, adjusting for past 30-day media exposure and covariates (p≤0.0001). LGBT (particularly LGBT smokers) are more likely to be exposed to and interact with tobacco-related messages on new and social media than their non-LGBT counterparts. Higher levels of tobacco-media exposure were significantly associated with higher likelihood of tobacco use. This suggests tobacco control must work toward reaching LGBT across a variety of media platforms, particularly new and social media outlets.
This article begins from imagining what it would be like to target recruitment for teachers at lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual (LGBT) people, and then examines in some detail two kinds of discrimination (or pathology) which makes life in the world of education problematic. It then turns to why, in spite of these difficulties, lesbian and gay…
Barrington, Clare; Wejnert, Cyprian; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Bailey, Gabriela Paz
The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of HIV vulnerability and opportunities for HIV prevention within the social networks of male-to-female transgender persons in San Salvador, El Salvador. We compare HIV prevalence and behavioral data from a sample of gay-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 279), heterosexual or bisexual identified MSM (n = 229) and transgender persons (n = 67) recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Transgender persons consistently reported higher rates of HIV risk behavior than the rest of the study population and were significantly more likely to be involved in sex work. While transgender persons reported the highest rates of exposure to HIV educational activities they had the lowest levels of HIV-related knowledge. Transgender respondents' social networks were homophilous and efficient at recruiting other transgender persons. Findings suggest that transgender social networks could provide an effective and culturally relevant opportunity for HIV prevention efforts in this vulnerable population.
Critics and artists influenced by the tenets of queer theory have dismissed much of the artwork made in the 1970s from a lesbian feminist perspective. The result has been very little being known or written about this pioneering work. This article is concerned with exploring an often overlooked aspect of lesbian art history: the activities and events associated with the Lesbian Art Project (LAP) founded by Terry Wolverton and Arlene Raven at the Woman's Building in Los Angeles. I argue that what is most significant about the LAP is the way in which the participants articulated lesbian identity and lesbian community through performance, art making, and writing.
Ross, Lori E; O'Gorman, Laurel; MacLeod, Melissa A; Bauer, Greta R; MacKay, Jenna; Robinson, Margaret
Bisexuality is consistently associated with poor mental health outcomes. In population-based data, this is partially explained by income differences between bisexual people and lesbian, gay, and/or heterosexual individuals. However, the interrelationships between bisexuality, poverty, and mental health are poorly understood. In this paper, we examine the relationships between these variables using a mixed methods study of 302 adult bisexuals from Ontario, Canada. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling to complete an internet-based survey including measures of psychological distress and minority stress. A subset of participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview to contextualize their mental health experiences. Using information regarding household income, number of individuals supported by the income and geographic location, participants were categorized as living below or above the Canadian Low Income Cut Off (LICO). Accounting for the networked nature of the sample, participants living below the LICO had significantly higher mean scores for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and reported significantly more perceived discrimination compared to individuals living above the LICO. Grounded theory analysis of the qualitative interviews suggested four pathways through which bisexuality and poverty may intersect to impact mental health: through early life experiences linked to bisexuality or poverty that impacted future financial stability; through effects of bisexual identity on employment and earning potential; through the impact of class and sexual orientation discrimination on access to communities of support; and through lack of access to mental health services that could provide culturally competent care. These mixed methods data help us understand the income disparities associated with bisexual identity in population-based data, and suggest points of intervention to address their impact on bisexual mental
Decades of communication research have shown that the stories we humans tell ourselves about ourselves reflect and shape our identities as members of our particular culture(s). By creating texts that portray a group rarely made visible, lesbian comic artists both represent and define lesbian identity and community. This textual analysis of the work of four comic artists, Alison Bechdel, Diane DiMassa, Justine Shaw, and Ariel Schrag, demonstrates how lesbian comic book artists draw on and contribute to the notions of lesbian identity and community. This study of the comics and secondary sources reveals three interconnected themes: visibility, self-reflexivity, and the complex interrelation of and process of defining identity and community.
This thesis reports on a study on lesbian families in which the children were born to the lesbian relationship (planned lesbian families). How strong is the desire of lesbian mothers to have a child, and what are their motivations? How do lesbian mothers experience parenthood? What do they strive
Inspired by Lynne Huffer's queer feminist genealogy, this article explores queer-trans-feminism as a project that would bring together queer, feminist, and transgender theory and politics into a shared critical lineage. I suggest that Monique Wittig is a neglected thinker who could re-enliven connections and debates within queer, feminist, and trans theory and politics. Utilizing recent historiographies of queer and feminist theory, I imagine what it would mean to hold on to the figure of the lesbian as a figure for queer-trans-feminist politics rather than render the lesbian anachronistic. I then explore the implications of Wittig's notion that "lesbians are not women" for a queer-trans-feminism. I argue that Wittig's critique of the language of the social sciences offers queer-trans-feminist scholars a source for contemporary self-critique and coalition.
Khilman Rofi Azmi
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Globalization caused by modern and dynamic society, creates several kinds of concepts, terms, and new theories today. The development in psychological science, and guidance and counseling are indicators of science development. Society problems come from the result of the change from that society, for example modern lifestyle that gives positive and negative impact. Transgender, gay, and lesbian phenomenon is one of the alternative lifestyle that spreads in Indonesia which is experienced by teenagers. It creates new problem for teenagers, their family, and their surroundings. The biggest problem in this case is there’s no specific step for counselor and psychiatrist to help transgender, gay, or lesbian counselee. The new concept that offered in this article is Six Continuum of Transgender Counseling. Six continuum are aimed to give direction for counselor that may help gay, lesbian, and transgender counselee by doing counseling. Six continuum that have to be passed by counselor are (1 self, (2 relationship, (3 differential of feeling, (4 spiritual intervention, (5 acceptance of environment. Researchers are using literature study as their research method, by explored and examined some literatures: books, journal, dissertation, e-book, and some cases that happened in our society. This article especially developed and inspired by previous article. The article’s tittle is Transgender Counseling Through (Wisdom-Oriented Counseling Approach.
Tornøe, Marie Schou; Lund, Simone Harlev; Ivanescu, Zlate; Gabriela, Roxana; Edske, Amalie Frejvald; Vigholt Olsen, Nina
This paper aims at investigating the way gender affects identity, with an emphasis on transgender individuals. It explores concepts of identity development and gender identity, uncovering the historical and transformative character of gender by looking into personal stories, statistics and laws in the transgender community. As transgender individuals do not adhere to the normative markers of intelligible reality, by not acting in accordance to the gender roles they were assigned, their very e...
Samar, V J
This essay explores, in two parts, the problems of justifying civil rights legislation for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals. Part I shows that discrimination against gays and lesbians at least in respect to employment, housing, and public accommodations is an evil unsupported by ethical traditions in utilitarianism, rights theory, and communitarianism. It also shows that two theories, Kantian theory and natural law theory, which do support such discrimination on the claim that homoerotic behavior is universally or objectively immoral only do so because of a failure to make precise the concept of "natural" which underlies those theories. Part II argues that anti-discrimination legislation is both an appropriate and effective means to promote the idea that discrimination against lesbians and gays in respect to most employment, housing, and public accommodations is sufficiently injurious to both individuals and society that it should not be tolerated. The section also explains how such legislation might succeed practically in eliminating discrimination in these areas.
In the United Kingdom the backlash against feminism in the late 1980s was initially directed at lesbians and was specifically focused on lesbians who are mothers, lesbians engaged in parenting, or lesbians wishing to do so. This backlash was initially orchestrated by a small group of far right politicians, well to the right of the Thatcher government, and was not contained in any political consensus but was developed into a major public issue by the media. This paper documents its effect in terms of a systematic legal attack on lesbian parenting. The aim of the paper is to alert readers to the backlash with a view to resistance. Our argument is that the backlash against lesbians is a first line of attack against all women as mothers.
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship among constructs related to spirituality (religious/spiritual practice, religious/spiritual belief, sense of purpose/connection, and sense of hope/control) and reported degree of likelihood to feel guilt and shame among individuals who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer. If clear…
Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M. Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G. M.
As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U.S. population. Our study provides an assessment of attitudes toward bisexual men and women among a nationally representative probability sample of heterosexual, gay, lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. Data were collected from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), via an online questionnaire with a probability sample of adults (18 years and over) from throughout the U.S. We included two modified 5-item versions of the Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Scale (BIAS), validated sub-scales that were developed to measure attitudes toward bisexual men and women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gamma regression, and paired t-tests. Gender, sexual identity, age, race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were all significantly associated with participants' attitudes toward bisexual individuals. In terms of responses to individual scale items, participants were most likely to “neither agree nor disagree” with all attitudinal statements. Across sexual identities, self-identified other participants reported the most positive attitudes, while heterosexual male participants reported the least positive attitudes. As in previous research on convenience samples, we found a wide range of demographic characteristics were related with attitudes toward bisexual individuals in our nationally-representative study of heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. In particular, gender emerged as a significant
Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G M
As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U.S. Our study provides an assessment of attitudes toward bisexual men and women among a nationally representative probability sample of heterosexual, gay, lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. Data were collected from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), via an online questionnaire with a probability sample of adults (18 years and over) from throughout the U.S. We included two modified 5-item versions of the Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Scale (BIAS), validated sub-scales that were developed to measure attitudes toward bisexual men and women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gamma regression, and paired t-tests. Gender, sexual identity, age, race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were all significantly associated with participants' attitudes toward bisexual individuals. In terms of responses to individual scale items, participants were most likely to "neither agree nor disagree" with all attitudinal statements. Across sexual identities, self-identified other participants reported the most positive attitudes, while heterosexual male participants reported the least positive attitudes. As in previous research on convenience samples, we found a wide range of demographic characteristics were related with attitudes toward bisexual individuals in our nationally-representative study of heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. In particular, gender emerged as a significant characteristic
Full Text Available Police policy documents often articulate strategies and approaches that police organizations want to implement in their efforts to break down barriers with minority groups. However, most police policy documents are written for police audiences and not for members of the public. Police policy documents serve as a reflection of the aspirations of the agency and not necessarily the practice of the officers. Differential policing has been a salient experience for members of transgender communities because, as individuals who express gender in ways that deviate from the norm, they have experienced numerous documented cases of police mismanaged practice. In Australia, achieving police reform in the area of policing of diverse community groups has been difficult as new initiatives implemented to educate police officers about diverse groups such as transgender communities are scarce. My study sought to analyze a police policy document to assess how one police agency’s policy aspires to shape police contact/experiences with transgender people and how this document might shape intergroup identity differences between transgender people and the police. It is argued that the policy document will negatively affect police perceptions of transgender people and may enhance adverse perceptions of intergroup difference between police and transgender people. I also argue that using this document to achieve police reform in the area of policing of transgender people will be problematic as the policy document lacks substantial procedural guidelines regarding interaction with transgender people and may not favorably constrain discretionary police power.
Jasruddin, Jasruddin; Daud, Jasmin
Fenomena transgender dalam masyarakat mendapatkan berbagai macam reaksi. Kasus-kasus pun banyak bermunculan sehingga membutuhkan penanganan. Dalam penelitian ini memfokuskan pada persepsi masyarakat kota Makassar terhadap keberadaan transgender. Untuk menjawabnya peneliti menggunakan pendekatan secara agama dan sosiologi. Adapun jenis penelitian ini adalah kuantitatif deskriptif dengan menggunakan metode survey , yaitu dengan melakukan pendekatan langsung terhadap masyarakat kota Makassar se...
This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…
... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Gay and Lesbian Parents Page Content Article Body I am gay. Should I worry how this will affect my children? Millions of children have one or more gay and/or lesbian parents. For some children, having ...
Mapping the contours of homophobia and heterosexism is a key concern for lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) psychology. In this paper, I present a discursive analysis of the construction of heterosexism in student focus group discussions about lesbian and gay parenting. My analysis (empirically) develops Kitzinger’s (1987) theoretical and political argument that the concept of homophobia is embedded in a liberal framework and requires people to endorse a liberal construction of homosexua...
MacKay, Jenna; Robinson, Margaret; Pinder, Sarah; Ross, Lori E
Bisexual people constitute the largest sexual minority group in North America and experience significant mental health disparities in relation to heterosexuals, gays, and lesbians. In this article, we will examine the process and experience of help seeking among bisexuals. This was a community-based study that collected qualitative interview data from 41 diverse bisexual people from across Ontario, Canada. We analyzed the interview data using grounded theory and constructed an understanding of bisexuals' experiences of help seeking. We have conceptualized an overarching model that illustrates 4 interrelated stages: (a) the consideration of services, (b) the process of finding services, (c) barriers and facilitators to accessing services, and (d) experience of service utilization. This model is nonlinear, in that participants do not necessarily move through stages in sequence. Although many stages are experienced at the individual level, they are simultaneously informed by multiple factors at interpersonal and system levels. Our findings suggest a need for interventions at the policy, service and provider levels to improve accessibility of culturally competent services for this population. Understanding the mental health experiences of bisexual people will allow mental health professionals to build competencies working with this population and thereby contribute to a reduction in mental health disparities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hagen, Whitney B; Hoover, Stephanie M; Morrow, Susan L
Psychosocial benefits of activism include increased empowerment, social connectedness, and resilience. Yet sexual minority women (SMW) and transgender individuals with multiple oppressed statuses and identities are especially prone to oppression-based experiences, even within minority activist communities. This study sought to develop an empirical model to explain the diverse meanings of social justice activism situated in SMW and transgender individuals' social identities, values, and experiences of oppression and privilege. Using a grounded theory design, 20 SMW and transgender individuals participated in initial, follow-up, and feedback interviews. The most frequent demographic identities were queer or bisexual, White, middle-class women with advanced degrees. The results indicated that social justice activism was intensely relational, replete with multiple benefits, yet rife with experiences of oppression from within and outside of activist communities. The empirically derived model shows the complexity of SMW and transgender individuals' experiences, meanings, and benefits of social justice activism.
Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Severson, Nicolette; Levine, Ethan; Martínez, Omar
Latino men who have sex with transgender women make up an overlooked sector of the population that requires more attention than is currently given in sexuality and gender studies, particularly in regard to their non-commercial, long-term sexual and romantic relationships with transgender women. Sixty-one sexual histories were selected for this qualitative analysis from a larger study on Latino male bisexuality in the New York City metropolitan area. Findings suggest that participants' sexual and gender scripts with transgender women are strongly regulated by heteronormativity. Furthermore, homonegativity and transphobia often intersect in the lived experiences of men who have sex with transgender women, resulting in relationship conflicts over the control of transgender women's bodies, sexual behaviours and gender performance both in public and in private. Findings also suggest that low relationship conflict is more common among men who have sex with transgender women who exhibit diverse sexual roles (being both insertive and receptive during anal sex), or transgress heteronormative scripts through dialogue of desires and/or by embracing transgender women as human beings and not as hyperfeminised objects of desire. Stigma reduction and alternatives to heteronormative interventions are needed to improve relationship dynamics and potentially positively impact on the sexual health and overall wellbeing of Latino men who have sex with transgender women and their transgender partners.
Newmanxy, Bernie Sue
SUMMARY This study measured the effects of religious affiliation and gender on attitudes about lesbians and gay men among 2,846 college graduates who were beginning graduate study in social work or counseling. Males were more negative than females in their attitudes toward both lesbians and gay men. Conservative Protestants were the most negative in their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, while those who were Atheist, Agnostic, Jewish or claimed no religion were most positive. Beliefs that the Bible forbids homosexuality are discussed and readings and arguments challenging this belief that can be used as class content are presented.
Routh, Douglas; Abess, Gassan; Makin, David; Stohr, Mary K; Hemmens, Craig; Yoo, Jihye
Transgender inmates provide a conundrum for correctional staff, particularly when it comes to classification, victimization, and medical and health issues. Using LexisNexis and WestLaw and state Department of Corrections (DOC) information, we collected state statutes and DOC policies concerning transgender inmates. We utilized academic legal research with content analysis to determine whether a statute or policy addressed issues concerning classification procedures, access to counseling services, the initiation and continuation of hormone therapy, and sex reassignment surgery. We found that while more states are providing either statutory or policy guidelines for transgender inmates, a number of states are lagging behind and there is a shortage of guidance dealing with the medical issues related to being transgender.
Verschenen als elektronische publicatie (pdf); niet verkrijgbaar in gedrukte versie. De maatschappelijke en politieke aandacht voor transgender personen heeft de laatste jaren een hoge vlucht genomen. Wetenschappelijke kennis over hun leefsituatie in Nederland blijft hierbij achter. Het Sociaal en
In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research. PMID:28164070
... best support your child. For people who are transgender, the realization that they feel different from others also can be very difficult. They may face rejection, discrimination, and even anger from people who don't ...
Stephen M. Rosenthal
Full Text Available In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research.
Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Makadon, Harvey J
Transgender people have experienced significant advances in societal acceptance despite experiencing continued stigma and discrimination. While it can still be difficult to access quality health care, and there is a great deal to be done to create affirming health care organizations, there is growing interest around the United States in advancing transgender health. The focus of this commentary is to provide guidance to clinicians caring for transgender men or other gender nonconforming people who are contemplating, carrying, or have completed a pregnancy. Terms transgender and gender nonconforming specifically refer to those whose gender identity (e.g., being a man) differs from their female sex assigned at birth. Many, if not most transgender men retain their female reproductive organs and retain the capacity to have children. Review of their experience demonstrates the need for preconception counseling that includes discussion of stopping testosterone while trying to conceive and during pregnancy, and anticipating increasing experiences of gender dysphoria during and after pregnancy. The clinical aspects of delivery itself fall within the realm of routine obstetrical care, although further research is needed into how mode and environment of delivery may affect gender dysphoria. Postpartum considerations include discussion of options for chest (breast) feeding, and how and when to reinitiate testosterone. A positive perinatal experience begins from the moment transgender men first present for care and depends on comprehensive affirmation of gender diversity.
Kuvalanka, Katherine A.; Leslie, Leigh A.; Radina, Rachel
Little is known about how youth with LGB (lesbian, gay, and bisexual) parents experience various forms of sexual stigma (i.e., homophobia and heterosexism). Previous studies have focused primarily on frequency of teasing and harassment; therefore, much less is known about how indirect and institutional types of sexual stigma play out in the lives…
An evaluation of social support to transgender people relating to gender identity, gender transition, discrimination and mental health, leading to consideration of the niche for transgender people in a bi-gendered society, and of the developing socialization of transgender which counter-balances the consequences of its initial medicalization.
Dickey, Lore M.; Loewy, Michael I.
Drawing on the existing literature, the authors' research and clinical experiences, and the first author's personal journey as a member and leader of the transgender community, this article offers a brief history of group work with transgender clients followed by suggestions for group work with transgender clients from a social justice…