WorldWideScience

Sample records for leptin receptor deficient

  1. Genetics Home Reference: leptin receptor deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with leptin receptor deficiency also have hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which is a condition caused by reduced production ... weight gain associated with this disorder. Because hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occurs in leptin receptor deficiency , researchers suggest that ...

  2. Deficiency of leptin receptor in myeloid cells disrupts hypothalamic metabolic circuits and causes body weight increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Gao

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Myeloid cell leptin receptor deficient mice partially replicate the db/db phenotype. Leptin signaling in hypothalamic microglia is important for microglial function and a correct formation of the hypothalamic neuronal circuit regulating metabolism.

  3. Leptin Increases Striatal Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding in Leptin-Deficient Obese (ob/ob) Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffly, J.; Michaelides, M.; Wang, G-J.; Pessin, J.E.; Volkow, N.D.; Thanos, P.K.

    2010-06-01

    Peripheral and central leptin administration have been shown to mediate central dopamine (DA) signaling. Leptin-receptor deficient rodents show decreased DA D2 receptor (D2R) binding in striatum and unique DA profiles compared to controls. Leptin-deficient mice show increased DA activity in reward-related brain regions. The objective of this study was to examine whether basal D2R-binding differences contribute to the phenotypic behaviors of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, and whether D2R binding is altered in response to peripheral leptin treatment in these mice. Leptin decreased body weight, food intake, and plasma insulin concentration in ob/ob mice but not in wild-type mice. Basal striatal D2R binding (measured with autoradiography [{sup 3}H] spiperone) did not differ between ob/ob and wild-type mice but the response to leptin did. In wild-type mice, leptin decreased striatal D2R binding, whereas, in ob/ob mice, leptin increased D2R binding. Our findings provide further evidence that leptin modulates D2R expression in striatum and that these effects are genotype/phenotype dependent.

  4. Abalation of Ghrelin receptor in leptin-deficient mice has paradoxical effects on glucose homeostasis compared to Ghrelin-abalated Leptin-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is produced predominantly in stomach and is known to be the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Ghrelin is a GH stimulator and an orexigenic hormone. In contrast, leptin is an anorexic hormone, and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are obese and diabetic. To study...

  5. Early childhood BMI trajectories in monogenic obesity due to leptin, leptin receptor, and melanocortin 4 receptor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlsdorf, Katja; Nunziata, Adriana; Funcke, Jan-Bernd; Brandt, Stephanie; von Schnurbein, Julia; Vollbach, Heike; Lennerz, Belinda; Fritsch, Maria; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Luedeke, Manuel; Borck, Guntram; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate whether early childhood body mass index (BMI) is an appropriate indicator for monogenic obesity. A cohort of n = 21 children living in Germany or Austria with monogenic obesity due to congenital leptin deficiency (group LEP, n = 6), leptin receptor deficiency (group LEPR, n = 6) and primarily heterozygous MC4 receptor deficiency (group MC4R, n = 9) was analyzed. A control group (CTRL) was defined that consisted of n = 22 obese adolescents with no mutation in the above mentioned genes. Early childhood (0-5 years) BMI trajectories were compared between the groups at selected time points. The LEP and LEPR group showed a tremendous increase in BMI during the first 2 years of life with all patients displaying a BMI >27 kg/m 2 (27.2-38.4 kg/m 2 ) and %BMI P95 (percentage of the 95th percentile BMI for age and sex) >140% (144.8-198.6%) at the age of 2 years and a BMI > 33 kg/m 2 (33.3-45.9 kg/m 2 ) and %BMI P95  > 184% (184.1-212.6%) at the age of 5 years. The MC4R and CTRL groups had a later onset of obesity with significantly lower BMI values at both time points (p BMI trajectories in this pediatric cohort with monogenic obesity we suggest that BMI values >27.0 kg/m 2 or %BMI P95  > 140% at the age of 2 years and BMI values >33.0 kg/m 2 or %BMI P95  > 184% at the age of 5 years may be useful cut points to identify children who should undergo genetic screening for monogenic obesity due to functionally relevant mutations in the leptin gene or leptin receptor gene.

  6. Leptin Receptor Deficiency is Associated With Upregulation of Cannabinoid 1 Receptors in Limbic Brain Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    THANOS, PANAYOTIS K.; RAMALHETE, ROBERTO C.; MICHAELIDES, MICHAEL; PIYIS, YIANNI K.; WANG, GENE-JACK; VOLKOW, NORA D.

    2009-01-01

    Leptin receptor dysfunction results in overeating and obesity. Leptin regulates hypothalamic signaling that underlies the motivation to hyperphagia, but the interaction between leptin and cannabinoid signaling is poorly understood. We evaluated the role of cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1R) in overeating and the effects of food deprivation on CB1R in the brain. One-month-old Zucker rats were divided into unrestricted and restricted (fed 70% of unrestricted rats) diet groups and maintained until adulthood (4 months). Levels of relative binding sites of CB1R (CB1R binding levels) were assessed using [3H] SR141716A in vitro autoradiography. These levels were higher (except cerebellum and hypothalamus) at 4 months than at 1 month of age. One month CB1R binding levels for most brain regions did not differ between Ob and Lean (Le) rats (except in frontal and cingulate cortices in Le and in the hypothalamus in Ob). Four month Ob rats had higher CB1R binding levels than Le in most brain regions and food restriction was associated with higher CB1R levels in all brain regions in Ob, but not in Le rats. CB1R binding levels increased between adolescence and young adulthood which we believe was influenced by leptin and food availability. The high levels of CB1R in Ob rats suggest that leptin's inhibition of food-intake is in part mediated by downregulation of CB1R and that leptin interferes with CB1R upregulation under food-deprivation conditions. These results are consistent with prior findings showing increased levels of endogenous cannabinoids in the Ob rats corroborating the regulation of cannabinoid signaling by leptin. PMID:18563836

  7. Impaired clearance of influenza A virus in obese, leptin receptor deficient mice is independent of leptin signaling in the lung epithelium and macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A Radigan

    Full Text Available During the recent H1N1 outbreak, obese patients had worsened lung injury and increased mortality. We used a murine model of influenza A pneumonia to test the hypothesis that leptin receptor deficiency might explain the enhanced mortality in obese patients.We infected wild-type, obese mice globally deficient in the leptin receptor (db/db and non-obese mice with tissue specific deletion of the leptin receptor in the lung epithelium (SPC-Cre/LepR fl/fl or macrophages and alveolar type II cells (LysM-Cre/Lepr fl/fl with influenza A virus (A/WSN/33 [H1N1] (500 and 1500 pfu/mouse and measured mortality, viral clearance and several markers of lung injury severity.The clearance of influenza A virus from the lungs of mice was impaired in obese mice globally deficient in the leptin receptor (db/db compared to normal weight wild-type mice. In contrast, non-obese, SP-C-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl and LysM-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl had improved viral clearance after influenza A infection. In obese mice, mortality was increased compared with wild-type mice, while the SP-C-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl and LysM-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl mice exhibited improved survival.Global loss of the leptin receptor results in reduced viral clearance and worse outcomes following influenza A infection. These findings are not the result of the loss of leptin signaling in lung epithelial cells or macrophages. Our results suggest that factors associated with obesity or with leptin signaling in non-myeloid populations such as natural killer and T cells may be associated with worsened outcomes following influenza A infection.

  8. The daidzein- and estradiol- induced anorectic action in CCK or leptin receptor deficiency rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitani, Mina; Mizushige, Takafumi; Bhattarai, Keshab; Iwahara, Asami; Aida, Ryojiro; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of daidzein feeding and estradiol treatment on food intake in cholecystokinin-1 receptor (CCK1R) deficiency, leptin receptor (ObRb) deficiency rats and their wild-type rats. These rats underwent an ovariectomy or a sham operation. For the 5 week experiment, each rat was divided in three groups: control, daidzein (150 mg/kg diet), and estradiol (4.2 μg/rat/day) groups. In both CCK1R+ and CCK1R- rats, daidzein feeding and estradiol treatment significantly decreased food intake. Daidzein feeding significantly reduced food intake in ovariectomized ObRb- rats, although not in ObRb+ rats. Estradiol treatment significantly lowered food intake in ovariectomized ObRb+ and ObRb- rats. In the ovariectomized rats, estradiol treatment significantly increases uterine weight, while daidzein feeding did not change it, suggesting that daidzein might have no or weak estrogenic effect in our experiment. These results suggest that CCK1R and ObRb signalings were not essential for the daidzein- and estradiol-induced anorectic action.

  9. Validity of leptin receptor-deficiency (db/db) type 2 diabetes mellitus mice as a model of secondary osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Le; You, Yong-Ke; Zhu, Tracy Y.; Zheng, Li-Zhen; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Chen, Hai-Yong; Yao, Dong; Lan, Hui-Yao; Qin, Ling

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validation of the leptin receptor-deficient mice model for secondary osteoporosis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at bone micro-architectural level. Thirty three 36-week old male mice were divided into four groups: normal control (db/m) (n = 7), leptin receptor-deficient T2DM (db/db) (n = 8), human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic normal control (crp/db/m) (n = 7), and human CRP transgenic T2DM (crp/db/db) (n = 11). Lumber vertebrae (L5) and bilateral lower limbs were scanned by micro-CT to analyze trabecular and cortical bone quality. Right femora were used for three-point bending to analyze the mechanical properties. Trabecular bone quality at L5 was better in db/db or crp/db/db group in terms of bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and separation (all p  0.05). Maximum loading and energy yield in mechanical test were similar among groups while the elastic modulus in db/db and crp/db/db significantly lower than db/m. The leptin-receptor mice is not a proper model for secondary osteoporosis associated with T2DM.

  10. Whole-Body Vibration Mimics the Metabolic Effects of Exercise in Male Leptin Receptor-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wenger, Karl H; Misra, Sudipta; Davis, Catherine L; Pollock, Norman K; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Ding, Kehong; Isales, Carlos M; Hamrick, Mark W; Wosiski-Kuhn, Marlena; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Mattson, Mark P; Cutler, Roy G; Yu, Jack C; Stranahan, Alexis M

    2017-05-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has gained attention as a potential exercise mimetic, but direct comparisons with the metabolic effects of exercise are scarce. To determine whether WBV recapitulates the metabolic and osteogenic effects of physical activity, we exposed male wild-type (WT) and leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice to daily treadmill exercise (TE) or WBV for 3 months. Body weights were analyzed and compared with WT and db/db mice that remained sedentary. Glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed comparable attenuation of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice following TE or WBV. Both interventions reduced body weight in db/db mice and normalized muscle fiber diameter. TE or WBV also attenuated adipocyte hypertrophy in visceral adipose tissue and reduced hepatic lipid content in db/db mice. Although the effects of leptin receptor deficiency on cortical bone structure were not eliminated by either intervention, exercise and WBV increased circulating levels of osteocalcin in db/db mice. In the context of increased serum osteocalcin, the modest effects of TE and WBV on bone geometry, mineralization, and biomechanics may reflect subtle increases in osteoblast activity in multiple areas of the skeleton. Taken together, these observations indicate that WBV recapitulates the effects of exercise on metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: congenital leptin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Description Congenital leptin deficiency is a condition that causes severe obesity beginning in the first few months of life. ... are unknown. Congenital leptin deficiency is a rare cause of obesity. Researchers are studying the factors involved in more ...

  12. Mechanical Vibration Mitigates the Decrease of Bone Quantity and Bone Quality of Leptin Receptor-Deficient Db/Db Mice by Promoting Bone Formation and Inhibiting Bone Resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Da; Luo, Erping; Cai, Jing; Tong, Shichao; Zhai, Mingming; Shen, Guanghao; Wang, Xin; Luo, Zhuojing

    2016-09-01

    Leptin, a major hormonal product of adipocytes, is involved in regulating appetite and energy metabolism. Substantial studies have revealed the anabolic actions of leptin on skeletons and bone cells both in vivo and in vitro. Growing evidence has substantiated that leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice exhibit decreased bone mass and impaired bone microstructure despite several conflicting results previously reported. We herein systematically investigated bone microarchitecture, mechanical strength, bone turnover and its potential molecular mechanisms in db/db mice. More importantly, we also explored an effective approach for increasing bone mass in leptin receptor-deficient animals in an easy and noninvasive manner. Our results show that deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture and decreases of skeletal mechanical strength-including maximum load, yield load, stiffness, energy, tissue-level modulus and hardness-in db/db mice were significantly ameliorated by 12-week, whole-body vibration (WBV) with 0.5 g, 45 Hz via micro-computed tomography (μCT), three-point bending, and nanoindentation examinations. Serum biochemical analysis shows that WBV significantly decreased serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) and CTx-1 levels and also mitigated the reduction of serum osteocalcin (OCN) in db/db mice. Bone histomorphometric analysis confirmed that decreased bone formation-lower mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoblast numbers in cancellous bone-in db/db mice were suppressed by WBV. Real-time PCR assays show that WBV mitigated the reductions of tibial alkaline phosphatase (ALP), OCN, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), type I collagen (COL1), BMP2, Wnt3a, Lrp6, and β-catenin mRNA expression, and prevented the increases of tibial sclerostin (SOST), RANK, RANKL, RANL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene levels in db/db mice. Our results show that WBV promoted bone quantity and quality in db/db mice with obvious

  13. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold.

  14. Increased leptin/leptin receptor pathway affects systemic and airway inflammation in COPD former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Andreina; Alessi, Marinella; Soresi, Simona; Bonanno, Anna; Riccobono, Loredana; Montalbano, Angela Marina; Albano, Giusy Daniela; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Profita, Mirella

    2011-01-01

    Leptin, a hormone produced mainly by adipose tissue, regulates food intake and energy expenditure. It is involved in inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to the infection. The leptin receptor is expressed in the lung and in the neutrophils. We measured the levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and soluble form of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in sputum and plasma from 27 smoker and former smoker patients with stable COPD using ELISA methods. Further we analyzed leptin and its receptor expression in sputum cells from 16 COPD patients using immunocytochemistry. In plasma of COPD patients, leptin was inversely correlated with TNF-α and positively correlated with the patient weight, whereas the levels of sICAM-1 were positively correlated with TNF-α. In sputum of COPD patients leptin levels were correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vitality capacity. Additionally, increased levels of sputum leptin and TNF-α were observed in COPD former smokers rather than smokers. Further the expression of leptin receptor in sputum neutrophils was significantly higher in COPD former smokers than in smokers, and the expression of leptin and its receptor was positively correlated in neutrophils of COPD former smokers. Our findings suggest a role of leptin in the local and systemic inflammation of COPD and, taking into account the involvement of neutrophils in this inflammatory disease, describe a novel aspect of the leptin/leptin receptor pathway in the regulation of host defense after smoking cessation.

  15. Ablation of ghrelin receptor in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice has paradoxical effects on glucose homeostasis when compared with ablation of ghrelin in ob/ob mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The orexigenic hormone ghrelin is important in diabetes because it has an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion. Ghrelin ablation in leptin-deficient ob/ob (Ghrelin(-/-):ob/ob) mice increases insulin secretion and improves hyperglycemia. The physiologically relevant ghrelin receptor is the growth ...

  16. In Uncontrolled Diabetes, Hyperglucagonemia and Ketosis Result From Deficient Leptin Action in the Parabrachial Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Thomas H; Matsen, Miles E; Faber, Chelsea L; Samstag, Colby L; Damian, Vincent; Nguyen, Hong T; Scarlett, Jarrad M; Flak, Jonathan N; Myers, Martin G; Morton, Gregory J

    2018-04-01

    Growing evidence implicates neurons that project from the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) to the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN) in a neurocircuit that drives counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia, including increased glucagon secretion. Among LPBN neurons in this circuit is a subset that expresses cholecystokinin (LPBNCCK neurons) and is tonically inhibited by leptin. Because uncontrolled diabetes is associated with both leptin deficiency and hyperglucagonemia, and because intracerebroventricular (ICV) leptin administration reverses both hyperglycemia and hyperglucagonemia in this setting, we hypothesized that deficient leptin inhibition of LPBNCCK neurons drives activation of this LPBN→VMN circuit and thereby results in hyperglucagonemia. Here, we report that although bilateral microinjection of leptin into the LPBN does not ameliorate hyperglycemia in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (STZ-DM), it does attenuate the associated hyperglucagonemia and ketosis. To determine if LPBN leptin signaling is required for the antidiabetic effect of ICV leptin in STZ-DM, we studied mice in which the leptin receptor was selectively deleted from LPBNCCK neurons. Our findings show that although leptin signaling in these neurons is not required for the potent antidiabetic effect of ICV leptin, it is required for leptin-mediated suppression of diabetic hyperglucagonemia. Taken together, these findings suggest that leptin-mediated effects in animals with uncontrolled diabetes occur through actions involving multiple brain areas, including the LPBN, where leptin acts specifically to inhibit glucagon secretion and associated ketosis.

  17. Increased leptin/leptin receptor pathway affects systemic and airway inflammation in COPD former smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Andreina Bruno1, Marinella Alessi2, Simona Soresi2, Anna Bonanno1, Loredana Riccobono1, Angela Marina Montalbano1, Giusy Daniela Albano1, Mark Gjomarkaj1, Mirella Profita11Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, Italian National Research Council, Palermo, Italy; 2Dipartimento Biomedico di Biomedicina Interna e Specialistica, University Palermo, ItalyBackground: Leptin, a hormone produced mainly by adipose tissue, regulates food intake and energy expenditure. It is involved in inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and its deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to the infection. The leptin receptor is expressed in the lung and in the neutrophils.Methods: We measured the levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a and soluble form of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 in sputum and plasma from 27 smoker and former smoker patients with stable COPD using ELISA methods. Further we analyzed leptin and its receptor expression in sputum cells from 16 COPD patients using immunocytochemistry.Results: In plasma of COPD patients, leptin was inversely correlated with TNF-a and positively correlated with the patient weight, whereas the levels of sICAM-1 were positively correlated with TNF-a. In sputum of COPD patients leptin levels were correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vitality capacity. Additionally, increased levels of sputum leptin and TNF-a were observed in COPD former smokers rather than smokers. Further the expression of leptin receptor in sputum neutrophils was significantly higher in COPD former smokers than in smokers, and the expression of leptin and its receptor was positively correlated in neutrophils of COPD former smokers.Conclusion: Our findings suggest a role of leptin in the local and systemic inflammation of COPD and, taking into account the involvement of neutrophils in this inflammatory disease, describe a novel aspect of the leptin/leptin

  18. Increased a-series gangliosides positively regulate leptin/Ob receptor-mediated signals in hypothalamus of GD3 synthase-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shuting; Tokizane, Kyohei; Ohkawa, Yuki; Ohmi, Yuhsuke; Banno, Ryoichi; Okajima, Tetsuya; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Koichi; Furukawa, Keiko

    2016-10-21

    Gangliosides are widely involved in the regulation of cells and organs. However, little is known about their roles in adipose tissues and hypothalamus. In GD3 synthase-knockout (GD3S KO) mice, deletion of b-series gangliosides resulted in the reduction of serum leptin due to disturbed secretion from adipocytes. To examine whether leptin signals altered, leptin/leptin receptor (ObR)-mediated signaling in hypothalamus was analyzed. Hypothalamus of GD3S KO mouse showed increased expression of GM1 and GD1a, and increased activation of ObR-mediated signals such as pSTAT3 and c-Fos. Leptin stimulation of hypothalamus-derived N-41 cells and their transfectants with GD3S cDNA showed that a-series gangliosides positively regulate leptin/ObR-mediated signals. Co-precipitation analysis revealed that ObR interacts with a-series gangliosides with increased association by leptin stimulation. In brown adipose tissues (BAT) of GD3S KO mice, their weights and adipocyte numbers were increased, and BAT markers such as PGC1α and UCP-1 were also up-regulated. These results suggested that leptin/ObRb-mediated signals were enhanced in hypothalamus of GD3S KO mice due to increased a-series gangliosides, leading to the apparently similar features of energy expenditure between the KO and wild type mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of leptin receptor deficiency and fasting on cannabinoid receptor 1 mRNA expression in the rat hypothalamus, brainstem and nodose ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsing, Jacob; Larsen, Philip Just; Vrang, Niels

    2009-10-02

    Despite ample evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the control of appetite, food intake and energy balance, relatively little is known about the regulation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)R) expression in respect to leptin signalling and fasting. In the present study, we examined CB(1)R mRNA levels in lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) male Zucker rats under basal and food-restricted conditions. Using stereological sampling principles coupled with semi-quantitative radioactive in situ hybridization we provide semi-quantitative estimates of CB(1)R mRNA expression in key appetite regulatory hypothalamic and brainstem areas, as well as in the nodose ganglia. Whereas no effect of fasting were determined on CB(1)R mRNA levels in the paraventricular (PVN) and ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) nucleus, in the brainstem dorsal vagal complex or nodose ganglion of lean Zucker rats, CB(1)R mRNA levels were consistently elevated in obese Zucker rats pointing to a direct influence of disrupted leptin signalling on CB(1)R mRNA regulation.

  20. Polymorphism in leptin receptor gene was associated with obesity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pramudji Hastuti

    2016-01-11

    Jan 11, 2016 ... Abstract Background: Leptin is a hormone that regulates homeostasis energy through the cen- tral–peripheral mechanism as well as regulates hunger and satiety. Leptin receptor is important in leptin signal transduction that is located mainly in the hypothalamus. The mutation in leptin receptor (LEPR) gene ...

  1. Polymorphism in leptin receptor gene was associated with obesity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Leptin is a hormone that regulates homeostasis energy through the central– peripheral mechanism as well as regulates hunger and satiety. Leptin receptor is important in leptin signal transduction that is located mainly in the hypothalamus. The mutation in leptin receptor (LEPR) gene causes splicing ...

  2. [Leptin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedvídková, J

    1997-12-01

    Leptin (ob-protein), a previously unknown protein signal, is secreted from adipose tissue, circulates in the blood, probably bound to a family of binding proteins, and acts on central neural networks, that regulate weight and energy homeostasis. Leptin provides a communication link between fat tissue and the brain. Ob protein appears to play a major role in the control of body fat stores through coordinated regulation of feeding behavior, metabolism, autonomic nervous system and body energy balance in rodents, primates and humans. Leptin levels have pulsative and diurnal character. In lean subjects with relatively low adipose tissue, the majority of circulating leptin is in the bound form. On other hand, in obese individuals the majority of leptin circulates in free form presumably bioactive protein, and thus obese subjects are resistant to free leptin. Leptin's resistance is often coupled with insuline resistance postreceptor type. Leptin receptor is product of db genes. Ob-protein receptor belongs to the cytokine superfamily of receptors and has several variants. Leptin-receptor gene is expressed in abundant degree in ovary, uterus, testes, less in hypothalamus, hypophysis, and little in kidney. Leptin stimulates the reproductive endocrine system and may serve as a permissive signal to the reproductive system of normal animals. Ob-gene product, leptin is regulated by feedings patterns and hormones, such as insulin and glucocorticoids. There is assumed that neuropeptide Y (NPY) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and its receptor (MCR) are a critical components of the biological response to leptin levels. MCR in contrast to leptin receptors are coupled with G-transduction system.

  3. Relevance of Serum Leptin and Leptin-Receptor Concentrations in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Koch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived cytokine leptin was implicated to link inflammation and metabolic alterations. We investigated the potential role of leptin components in critically ill patients, because systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia are common features of critical illness. Upon admission to Medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU, free leptin and soluble leptin-receptor serum concentrations were determined in 137 critically ill patients (95 with sepsis, 42 without sepsis and 26 healthy controls. Serum leptin or leptin-receptor did not differ between patients or controls and were independent of sepsis. However, serum leptin was closely associated with obesity and diabetes and clearly correlated with markers of metabolism and liver function. Leptin-receptor was an unfavourable prognostic indicator, associated with mortality during three years follow-up. Our study indicates a functional role of leptin in the pathogenesis of severe illness and emphasizes the impact of complex metabolic alterations on the clinical outcome of critically ill patients.

  4. Gene Expression of Leptin and Long Leptin Receptor Isoform in Endometriosis: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Prestes Nácul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, leptin/BMI ratio in serum and peritoneal fluid and gene expression of leptin and long form leptin receptor (OB-RL were assessed in eutopic and ectopic endometria of women with endometriosis and controls. Increased serum leptin/BMI ratio was found in endometriosis patients. Leptin and OB-RL gene expression was significantly higher in ectopic versus eutopic endometrium of patients and controls. A positive, significant correlation was observed between leptin and OB-RL transcripts in ectopic endometria and also in eutopic endometria in endometriosis and control groups. A negative and significant correlation was found between OB-RL mRNA expression and peritoneal fluid leptin/BMI ratio only in endometriosis. These data suggest that, through a modulatory interaction with its active receptor, leptin might play a role in the development of endometrial implants.

  5. Structure of Leptin Receptor Related with Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toleikis, Zigmantas

    of the receptor, while the D5 domain is the central leptin-binding domain, implicated in the first steps of activation. Both domains are characterized by a fibronectin type III fold and both contain a conserved WSXWS motif (X represents an unconserved amino acid residue), a distinct feature of the cytokine...... receptors. This motif is thought to play a major role in correct folding and activation of the receptor. The complex between leptin and the D5CA domain was analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the amino acid residues implicated in the binding were determined. To investigate which parts...... interactions between the aromatic residues of the peptide. It may be speculated that these differences affect the ability of the full domains to form alternative structures around the WSXWS motif....

  6. Sheep oocyte expresses leptin and functional leptin receptor mRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Jalil Taheri

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The result of present study reveals that leptin and its functional receptor (Ob-Rb mRNA are expressed in sheep oocyte and further studies should investigate the role(s of leptin on sheep oocyte physiology and embryo development.

  7. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n=10 each: control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1 to 4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4, living and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4, and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4. Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined. Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3-4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P<0.05 to P<0.01, and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P<0.05 to P<0.01 in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions.

  8. Leptin receptor in peripheral adipose tissues of obese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Sun Junjiang; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Fu Lei; Han Liu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between leptin receptor and obesity by studying the leptin receptor density B max and dissociation constant K d in peripheral adipose tissue in subjects with different body weight mass (BMI). Methods: Leptin receptor density B max and K d were assayed via radioligand method in 71 cases, including 32 classified as obese, 19 over-weight and 20 normal control. Results: With the escalating of BMI, the leptin receptor density significantly decreased in obese and over-weight group compared with that in normal control (both P d values were of no differences among all three groups suggesting no correlation between the binding ability of leptin to its receptor and BMI. A negative correlation between BMI and B max (r=-0.76, P<0.01) displayed after all. Conclusion: Leptin receptor density correlates with the BMI in obese cases and it suggests that the down-regulation of leptin receptor may contribute to the occurrence of leptin resistance and obesity after-wards

  9. The anti-tumor activity of a neutralizing nanobody targeting leptin receptor in a mouse model of melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis McMurphy

    Full Text Available Environmental and genetic activation of a brain-adipocyte axis inhibits cancer progression. Leptin is the primary peripheral mediator of this anticancer effect in a mouse model of melanoma. In this study we assessed the effect of a leptin receptor antagonist on melanoma progression. Local administration of a neutralizing nanobody targeting the leptin receptor at low dose adjacent to tumor decreased tumor mass with no effects on body weight or food intake. In contrast, systemic administration of the nanobody failed to suppress tumor growth. Daily intraperitoneal injection of high-dose nanobody led to weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia, and central effects mimicking leptin deficiency. The blockade of central actions of leptin by systemic delivery of nanobody may compromise its anticancer effect, underscoring the need to develop peripherally acting leptin antagonists coupled with efficient cancer-targeting delivery.

  10. The anti-tumor activity of a neutralizing nanobody targeting leptin receptor in a mouse model of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurphy, Travis; Xiao, Run; Magee, Daniel; Slater, Andrew; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan; Cao, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and genetic activation of a brain-adipocyte axis inhibits cancer progression. Leptin is the primary peripheral mediator of this anticancer effect in a mouse model of melanoma. In this study we assessed the effect of a leptin receptor antagonist on melanoma progression. Local administration of a neutralizing nanobody targeting the leptin receptor at low dose adjacent to tumor decreased tumor mass with no effects on body weight or food intake. In contrast, systemic administration of the nanobody failed to suppress tumor growth. Daily intraperitoneal injection of high-dose nanobody led to weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia, and central effects mimicking leptin deficiency. The blockade of central actions of leptin by systemic delivery of nanobody may compromise its anticancer effect, underscoring the need to develop peripherally acting leptin antagonists coupled with efficient cancer-targeting delivery.

  11. Leptin as well as Free Leptin Receptor Is Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Rizk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Leptin has two forms in the circulation: free and bound forms. The soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R circulates in the blood and can bind to leptin. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of the leptin and the sOB-R in PCOS and its relation to adiposity, insulin resistance, and androgens. Methods. A cross-sectional study included 78 female students aged 17–25 years. Fasting serum leptin and sOB-R concentrations were measured. The anthropometric variables and the hormonal profile such as insulin, female and male sex hormones, and prolactin were assessed. Results. In PCOS, leptin level (ng/ml and free leptin index (FLI increased significantly while sOB-R (ng/ml significantly decreased compared to control subjects. In age-matched subjects, obese PCOS had increased leptin level in ng/ml (median level with interquartile levels of 45.67 (41.98–48.04 and decreased sOB-R in ng/ml 11.47 (7.59–16.44 compared to lean PCOS 16.97 (10.60–45.55 for leptin and 16.62 (11.61–17.96 for sOB-R with p values 0.013 and 0.042, respectively. However, body mass index (BMI is significantly correlated with leptin and s-OBR, while no significant correlations with parameters of insulin resistance were detected. Conclusion. PCOS is associated with hyperleptinemia and increased free leptin index. Decreased sOB-R could be a compensatory mechanism for the defective action of leptin.

  12. Phocid seal leptin: tertiary structure and hydrophobic receptor binding site preservation during distinct leptin gene evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Hammond

    Full Text Available The cytokine hormone leptin is a key signalling molecule in many pathways that control physiological functions. Although leptin demonstrates structural conservation in mammals, there is evidence of positive selection in primates, lagomorphs and chiropterans. We previously reported that the leptin genes of the grey and harbour seals (phocids have significantly diverged from other mammals. Therefore we further investigated the diversification of leptin in phocids, other marine mammals and terrestrial taxa by sequencing the leptin genes of representative species. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that leptin diversification was pronounced within the phocid seals with a high dN/dS ratio of 2.8, indicating positive selection. We found significant evidence of positive selection along the branch leading to the phocids, within the phocid clade, but not over the dataset as a whole. Structural predictions indicate that the individual residues under selection are away from the leptin receptor (LEPR binding site. Predictions of the surface electrostatic potential indicate that phocid seal leptin is notably different to other mammalian leptins, including the otariids. Cloning the grey seal leptin binding domain of LEPR confirmed that this was structurally conserved. These data, viewed in toto, support a hypothesis that phocid leptin divergence is unlikely to have arisen by random mutation. Based upon these phylogenetic and structural assessments, and considering the comparative physiology and varying life histories among species, we postulate that the unique phocid diving behaviour has produced this selection pressure. The Phocidae includes some of the deepest diving species, yet have the least modified lung structure to cope with pressure and volume changes experienced at depth. Therefore, greater surfactant production is required to facilitate rapid lung re-inflation upon surfacing, while maintaining patent airways. We suggest that this additional

  13. Hindbrain leptin receptor stimulation enhances the anorexic response to cholecystokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Diana L; Baskin, Denis G; Schwartz, Michael W

    2009-11-01

    Leptin is thought to reduce food intake, in part, by increasing sensitivity to satiation signals, including CCK. Leptin action in both forebrain and hindbrain reduces food intake, and forebrain leptin action augments both the anorexic and neuronal activation responses to CCK. Here, we asked whether leptin signaling in hindbrain also enhances these responses to CCK. We found that food intake was strongly inhibited at 30 min after a combination of 4th-intracerebroventricular (4th-icv) leptin injection and intraperitoneal CCK administration, whereas neither hormone affected intake during this period when given alone. Leptin injections targeted directly at the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) similarly enhanced the anorexic response to intraperitoneal CCK. Intra-DVC leptin injection also robustly increased the number of neurons positive for phospho-STAT3 staining in the area surrounding the site of injection, confirming local leptin receptor activation. Conversely, the anorexic response to 4th-icv leptin was completely blocked by IP devazepide, a CCKA-R antagonist, suggesting that hindbrain leptin reduces intake via a mechanism requiring endogenous CCK signaling. We then asked whether hindbrain leptin treatment enhances the dorsomedial hindbrain, hypothalamus, or amygdala c-Fos responses to IP CCK. We found that, in contrast to the effects of forebrain leptin administration, 4th-icv leptin injection had no effect on CCK-induced c-Fos in any structures examined. We conclude that leptin signaling in either forebrain or hindbrain areas can enhance the response to satiation signals and that multiple distinct neural circuits likely contribute to this interaction.

  14. Study of polymorphism of leptin gene receptor in Mazandaran fowls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In chickens, leptin is expressed mainly in the liver and adipose tissue. In Iran, Mazandaran native fowls are under recording and breeding programs, but according to the action modes and importance of the leptin receptor, its polymorphisms can be related to economical traits such as body weight. In this study, in order to ...

  15. Discovery of the elusive leptin in birds: identification of several 'missing links' in the evolution of leptin and its receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy W Prokop

    Full Text Available Leptin is a pleiotropic protein best known for regulation of appetite and fat storage in mammals. While many leptin orthologs have been identified among vertebrates, an authentic leptin in birds has remained elusive and controversial. Here we identify leptin sequence from the Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus (pfleptin, and identify sequences from two other birds (mallard and zebra finch, and 'missing' vertebrates (elephant shark, alligator, Indian python, Chinese soft-shelled turtle, and coelacanth. The pattern of genes surrounding leptin (snd1, rbm28 is syntenic between the falcon and mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic analysis of all known leptin protein sequences improves our understanding of leptin's evolution. Structural modeling of leptin orthologs highlights a highly conserved hydrophobic core in the four-helix cytokine packing domain. A docked model of leptin with the leptin receptor for Peregrine falcon reveals several conserved amino acids important for the interaction and possible coevolution of leptin with its receptor. We also show for the first time, an authentic avian leptin sequence that activates the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. These newly identified sequences, structures, and tools for avian leptin and its receptor will allow elucidation of the function of these proteins in feral and domestic birds.

  16. Kinetics of leptin binding to the Q223R leptin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Verkerke

    Full Text Available Studies in human populations and mouse models of disease have linked the common leptin receptor Q223R mutation to obesity, multiple forms of cancer, adverse drug reactions, and susceptibility to enteric and respiratory infections. Contradictory results cast doubt on the phenotypic consequences of this variant. We set out to determine whether the Q223R substitution affects leptin binding kinetics using surface plasmon resonance (SPR, a technique that allows sensitive real-time monitoring of protein-protein interactions. We measured the binding and dissociation rate constants for leptin to the extracellular domain of WT and Q223R murine leptin receptors expressed as Fc-fusion proteins and found that the mutant receptor does not significantly differ in kinetics of leptin binding from the WT leptin receptor. (WT: ka 1.76×106±0.193×106 M-1 s-1, kd 1.21×10-4±0.707×10-4 s-1, KD 6.47×10-11±3.30×10-11 M; Q223R: ka 1.75×106±0.0245×106 M-1 s-1, kd 1.47×10-4±0.0505×10-4 s-1, KD 8.43×10-11±0.407×10-11 M. Our results support earlier findings that differences in affinity and kinetics of leptin binding are unlikely to explain mechanistically the phenotypes that have been linked to this common genetic variant. Future studies will seek to elucidate the mechanism by which this mutation influences susceptibility to metabolic, infectious, and malignant pathologies.

  17. The effect of four weeks restricted diet on serum soluble leptin receptor levels and adipocyte leptin receptor density in normoweight rattus norvegicus strain Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Indra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the five possible mechanisms of leptin resistance in human obesity is the defect in the leptin receptor (Ob-R. Evidence has accumulated that leptin-binding activity in human serum is related to a soluble form of the leptin receptor, and restriction of energy intake resulted a decrease in circulating leptin levels. Aim of this study is to examine the difference of serum soluble leptin receptor level and leptin receptor density in rat adipose tissue of adventitial aorta after four weeks treated with different restricted diets. Soluble leptin receptor level was measured by ELISA and leptin receptor density by using immuno-histochemistry. The soluble leptin receptor in group treated with 40% of normal daily calori diet was found significantly lower than control (p = 0.02. There were no any significant differences among group treated with 40 % of normal daily calori diet, “1 day fast-1day eat”, and ”1day fast-2 days eat” groups, and among 1 day fast-1 day eat”, ”day fast - 2 days eat” and control groups as well. On the other hand, leptin receptor density in adipose tissues was higher in restricted diet group than control. Diet of 40 % normal daily calorie for 4 weeks decreased soluble leptin receptor level, but increased adipocyte leptin receptor density of the adipose tissue of rat adventitial aorta. These changes may be resulted from an up regulation mechanism in relation with homeostatic maintenance. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:145-50 Keywords: restricted diet, leptin receptor, soluble leptin receptor, adipocyte, obesity

  18. Influence of the metabolic syndrome on leptin and leptin receptor in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Paul A; Healy, Laura; Lysaght, Joanne; Boyle, Terry; Reynolds, John V; Kennedy, M John; Pidgeon, Graham; Connolly, Elizabeth M

    2011-08-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic syndrome (MetS) are recognized risk factors for breast cancer. The molecular basis for this association remains largely unknown. Adipokines, in particular leptin and adiponectin, are thought to form part of the mechanism linking obesity with cancer through their altered expression/production either systemically (endocrine pathway) or locally (paracrine/autocrine pathway). Using quantitative PCR, mRNA expression of adiponectin (AdipoQ) and leptin (Ob) in mammary adipose tissue (MAT), intratumoral leptin and associated ligand receptors (ObR, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2) was examined in 77 patients with complete anthropomorphic and serological data. Expression of Ob in MAT, and ObR in matched tumor tissue was significantly higher in patients with MetS compared to obese only or normal weight cancer patients (P < 0.005). There was no difference in intratumoral leptin adiponectin or its ligand receptors in the same groups. Individual features of MetS correlated with Ob and ObR expression, but not obesity markers (BMI, waist circumference). mRNA expression of leptin (Ob) and ObR, in adipose tissue and matched tumor samples, respectively, appear to be associated with obesity status in breast cancer. Increasing insulin resistance is a predominant feature of this higher Ob/ObR expression observed. These novel data indicate that the MetS may be an amenable risk factor for breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Neonatal exposure to leptin augments diet-induced obesity in leptin-deficient Ob/Ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Shigeo; Itoh, Hiroaki; Sagawa, Norimasa; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Nakao, Kazuwa; Kawamura, Makoto; Mogami, Haruta; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Shingo

    2008-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence has revealed that undernutrition in utero is closely associated with obesity and related detrimental metabolic sequelae in adulthood. Recently, using a wild-type (wt) mouse model in which offspring were exposed to intrauterine undernutrition (UN offspring), we reported that the premature leptin surge during neonatal growth promotes lifelong changes in energy regulating circuitry in the hypothalamus, thus playing an important role in the development of pronounced obesity on a high-fat diet (HFD) in adulthood. Here, we further evaluate the essential involvement of leptin in the developmental origins of obesity using leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. We assessed the progression of obesity on an HFD in adult leptin-deficient ob/ob male mice that were exposed to intrauterine undernutrition by maternal food restriction (ob/ob UN offspring) or to leptin treatment during the neonatal period; this treatment is comparable to the premature leptin surge observed in the wt-UN offspring. On an HFD, the body weight of the male ob/ob UN offspring paralleled that of the ob/ob offspring exposed to normal intrauterine nutrition (ob/ob NN offspring). In contrast, early exposure to leptin in the ob/ob NN offspring during early neonatal growth reproduced the development of pronounced obesity on an HFD in adulthood. The presence of leptin and associated energy regulation are indispensable in the acceleration of obesity on an HFD caused by undernutrition in utero. The premature leptin surge plays an essential role in the developmental origins of obesity as a programming signal during the early neonatal period.

  20. Duplicated leptin receptors in two species of eel bring new insights into the evolution of the leptin system in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Morini

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in mammals as a key-hormone in reproduction and metabolism, leptin has been identified in an increasing number of tetrapods and teleosts. Tetrapods possess only one leptin gene, while most teleosts possess two leptin genes, as a result of the teleost third whole genome duplication event (3R. Leptin acts through a specific receptor (LEPR. In the European and Japanese eels, we identified two leptin genes, and for the first time in vertebrates, two LEPR genes. Synteny analyses indicated that eel LEPRa and LEPRb result from teleost 3R. LEPRb seems to have been lost in the teleost lineage shortly after the elopomorph divergence. Quantitative PCRs revealed a wide distribution of leptins and LEPRs in the European eel, including tissues involved in metabolism and reproduction. Noticeably, leptin1 was expressed in fat tissue, while leptin2 in the liver, reflecting subfunctionalization. Four-month fasting had no impact on the expression of leptins and LEPRs in control European eels. This might be related to the remarkable adaptation of silver eel metabolism to long-term fasting throughout the reproductive oceanic migration. In contrast, sexual maturation induced differential increases in the expression of leptins and LEPRs in the BPG-liver axis. Leptin2 was strikingly upregulated in the liver, the central organ of the reproductive metabolic challenge in teleosts. LEPRs were differentially regulated during sexual maturation, which may have contributed to the conservation of the duplicated LEPRs in this species. This suggests an ancient and positive role of the leptin system in the vertebrate reproductive function. This study brings new insights on the evolutionary history of the leptin system in vertebrates. Among extant vertebrates, the eel represents a unique case of duplicated leptins and leptin receptors as a result of 3R.

  1. Analysis of changes of serum leptin, C-peptide levels and peripheral fat tissue leptin receptor expression in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Sun Junjiang; Wang Shukui; Fu Lei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the mechanism of obesity and obesity accompanied type two diabetes mellitus by investigating changes of serum leptin, C-peptide (C-P) levels and leptin receptor expression in peripheral adipose tissues. Methods: Peripheral leptin receptor density was measured via radio-ligand binding method, serum leptin and C - P levels were measured via radioimmunoassay in 91 cases (38 in obesity group, 23 in over weight, and 30 in normal controls). Results: With the increase of body mass index (BMI), the peripheral leptin receptor density of the over weight and obese cases decreased and was mash less than that of normal cases (both p<0.01, respectively). There was no statistical differences for Kd value among the three groups, suggesting no associated change between the binding ability of leptin receptor to its ligand. There was a negative correlation between BMI and leptin receptor density (r = -0.70, p < 0.01). The serum leptin and C-P levels in weight excess and obese subjects with type two DM were both increased, but significantly higher in obese group than those in weight excess group (p < 0.01). The increase of C-P was much marked than that of leptin. Serum C-P level was positively correlated with BMI. Conclusion: Changes of serum leptin, C-P levels and peripheral leptin receptor expression in cases with simple obesity and obesity accompanied with type two DM were related closely with BMI. Type 2 DM in obese subjects was related with leptin resistance and insulin resistance

  2. Leptin deficiency unmasks the deleterious effects of impaired peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ function (P465L PPARγ) in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gray, S.L.; Dalla Nora, E.; Grosse, J.; Manieri, M.; Stoeger, T.; Medina-Gomez, G.; Burling, K.; Wattler, S.; Russ, A.; Yeo, G.S.H.; Chatterjee, V.K.; O'Rahilly, S.; Voshol, P.J.; Cinti, S.; Vidal-Puig, A.

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ is a key transcription factor facilitating fat deposition in adipose tissue through its proadipogenic and lipogenic actions. Human patients with dominant-negative mutations in PPARγ display lipodystrophy and extreme insulin resistance. For this

  3. Leptin receptor polymorphisms and lung function decline in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Hansel, N.N.; Gao, L.; Rafaels, N.M.; Mathias, R.A.; Neptune, E.R.; Tankersley, C.; Grant, A.V.; Connett, J.; Beaty, T.H.; Wise, R.A.; Barnes, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    Only a fraction of all smokers develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), suggesting a large role for genetic susceptibility. The leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in human lung tissue and may play a role in COPD pathogenesis. The present study examined the association between genetic variants in the LEPR gene and lung function decline in COPD.

  4. Training, leptin receptors and SOCS3 in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedillas, H; Guerra, B; Guadalupe-Grau, A; Santana, A; Fuentes, T; Dorado, C; Serrano-Sanchez, J A; Calbet, J A L

    2011-05-01

    Endurance exercise induces SUPPRESSOR of CYTOKINE SIGNALING 3 (SOCS3) mRNA expression in rodent skeletal muscle and endurance training overimposed on strength training blunts the hypertrophic response to strength training by an unknown mechanism. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on fat mass, serum leptin concentration, muscle morphology, and muscle vastus lateralis leptin receptors (OB-Rb) and SOCS3 protein expression. 16 healthy young men were assigned to a control (C; n=7), and to a 12-week weightlifting (3 sessions/week)+endurance training program (T; n=9) group. Training enhanced maximal dynamic strength in lower and upper body exercises (18-54%), reduced fat mass by 1.8 kg and serum leptin concentration per kg of fat mass, and elicited muscle hypertrophy of type 2 (+18.5%, Ptraining. In conclusion, concurrent strength and endurance training reduces fat mass and serum leptin and the ratio leptin/fat mass without significant effects on vastus lateralis OB-Rb protein expression. Training does not increase the basal expression of SOCS3 protein in humans. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Leptin, its receptor and aromatase expression in deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helder F; Zendron, Carolina; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Aiceles, Verônica; Oliveira, Marco Aurélio P; Manaia, Jorge Henrique M; Babinski, Márcio A; Ramos, Cristiane F

    2015-08-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the leptin levels in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) and the protein expression in three different peritoneal ectopic implants in patients who underwent surgery for deep infiltrating endometriosis. All patients had been treated at the Department of Gynecology of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro. The study group consisted of 15 patients who underwent surgery for adnexal masses and infertility, while the control group consisted of ten women who underwent surgery for tubal ligation. Peritoneal fluid and samples tissues were collected during surgery. Serum samples were obtained before anesthesia. In this study, the leptin levels in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) were evaluated by ELISA. The protein expression of leptin and its receptors (ObR) and aromatase enzyme were evaluated by Western blot analysis of the intestine, uterosacral ligament and vaginal septum in the ectopic implants. The t-test and one-way ANOVA with Holm-Sìdak post-test were used, and p endometriosis = 19.2 ng/mL ± 1.84, p endometriosis = 7.71 ng/mL ± 0.59, p = 0.18). Comparing women with and without ovarian implants, the leptin levels in both the serum and PF were significantly higher in women without ovarian implants (serum: with ovarian implant = 15.85 ± 1.99; without ovarian implant = 23.14 ± 2.60; ng/mL, p = 0.04; PF: with ovarian implant = 4.28 ± 1.30; without ovarian implant = 11.18 ± 2.98;ng/mL, p = 0.048). The leptin, ObR and aromatase protein expression levels were increased in lesions in the vaginal septum and were decreased in the intestine lesions. This study reports several interesting associations between the leptin levels in serum, peritoneal fluid, and tissue samples and the localization of the ectopic endometrium. Although this study does not provide a clear picture of the role of leptin in the development and progression of peritoneal implants

  7. High-fat diet-induced changes in body mass and hypothalamic gene expression in wild-type and leptin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Kristy L; Lorenzi, Magen M; Widmaier, Eric P

    2008-04-01

    We tested whether diet-induced obesity results from increased energy consumption, is associated with changes in expression of genes involved in leptin signal transduction, and is altered by hyperleptinemia. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for up to 15 weeks. HFD mice weighed significantly more than LFD controls by 3 weeks, despite consuming less energy. HFD mice had significantly greater leptin, insulin, and glucose levels than LFD mice, suggesting leptin and insulin resistance. Adiponectin levels declined with age but were unaffected by diet. HFD was associated with altered hypothalamic expression of genes whose products regulate the activity or nuclear translocation of STAT3, an important mediator of leptin actions. Expression of two isoforms of the leptin receptor decreased at 15 weeks in hypothalami of HFD mice in a tissue-specific manner. The type of fat (saturated versus unsaturated) did not influence weight gain on an HFD, but animals on LFD gained significantly more weight and adiposity if the dietary fat consisted mostly of saturated fats; this occurred despite no difference in energy consumption or absorption. Replacement of leptin to leptin-deficient ob/ob mice decreased hypothalamic leptin receptor expression and did not prevent HFD-induced weight gain. It is concluded that (1) increased energy consumption is not required for HFD-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice, (2) HFD results in weight gain partly by modulating hypothalamic leptin-signaling pathways, (3) saturated fats induce weight gain even when total fat content of the diet is low, and (4) the effects of HFD are manifest in the presence or absence of circulating leptin.

  8. Absence of functional leptin receptor isoforms in the POUND (Lepr(db/lb)) mouse is associated with muscle atrophy and altered myoblast proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arounleut, Phonepasong; Bowser, Matthew; Upadhyay, Sunil; Shi, Xing-Ming; Fulzele, Sadanand; Johnson, Maribeth H; Stranahan, Alexis M; Hill, William D; Isales, Carlos M; Hamrick, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Leptin receptors are abundant in human skeletal muscle, but the role of leptin in muscle growth, development and aging is not well understood. Here we utilized a novel mouse model lacking all functional leptin receptor isoforms (POUND mouse, Lepr(db/lb)) to determine the role of leptin in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle mass and fiber diameters were examined in POUND mice, and primary myoblast cultures were used to determine the effects of altered leptin signaling on myoblast proliferation and differentiation. ELISA assays, integrated pathway analysis of mRNA microarrays, and reverse phase protein analysis were performed to identify signaling pathways impacted by leptin receptor deficiency. Results show that skeletal muscle mass and fiber diameter are reduced 30-40% in POUND mice relative to wild-type controls. Primary myoblast cultures demonstrate decreased proliferation and decreased expression of both MyoD and myogenin in POUND mice compared to normal mice. Leptin treatment increased proliferation in primary myoblasts from muscles of both adult (12 months) and aged (24 months) wild-type mice, and leptin increased expression of MyoD and myogenin in aged primary myoblasts. ELISA assays and protein arrays revealed altered expression of molecules associated with the IGF-1/Akt and MAPK/MEK signaling pathways in muscle from the hindlimbs of mice lacking functional leptin receptors. These data support the hypothesis that the adipokine leptin is a key factor important for the regulation of skeletal muscle mass, and that leptin can act directly on its receptors in peripheral tissues to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation.

  9. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligand rosiglitazone modulates bronchoalveolar lavage levels of leptin, adiponectin, and inflammatory cytokines in lean and obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin, Fernando; Rojas, Mauricio; Hart, C Michael

    2007-12-01

    Obese mice that lack leptin receptor (db (-) /db (-)) have been shown to have innate bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). It has been proposed that the obesity-mediated BHR may involve a combination of increased leptin and reduced systemic adiponectin levels. The aim of this study was to determine if obesity modifies the airway concentration of leptin and adiponectin and whether treatment with a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligand can reduce airway leptin and increase airway adiponectin. In this study, obese, leptin receptor-deficient (db (-) /db (-)), or lean (db ( + ) /db (-)) mice were treated with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg/day) or vehicle by gavage daily for 1 week. Bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) was subsequently performed to determine levels of leptin, adiponectin, and inflammatory cytokines. Treatment with rosiglitazone increased BAL adiponectin levels in lean (p = 0.04) and to a lesser extent in obese mice (p = 0.07). Rosiglitazone treatment lowered leptin levels in lean mice, but increased leptin levels in BAL fluid of obese mice (p < 0.01). The BAL levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were lower in the lean rosiglitazone-treated group compared with the obese vehicle-treated group and lower in the obese rosiglitazone-treated group compared with the obese vehicle-treated group. These results demonstrate that obesity is associated with alterations in adipokine and cytokine levels in the airways that can be modulated by treatment with roziglitazone.

  10. Relationship between expression of leptin receptors mRNA in breast tissue, plasma leptin level in breast cancer patients with obesity and clinical pathologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunrui; Liu Wenli; Sun Hanying; Zhou Jianfeng

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression of leptin receptors mRNA in breast tissue and plasma leptin levels in breast cancer patients with obesity and their relationship with clinical pathologic data, 124 subjects who were either obesity or had suffered from breast benign disease with obesity, or breast cancer with obesity were entered into this study. The levels of plasma leptin in all subjects were determined and leptin receptors mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-PCR in breast tissue of breast cancer patients with obesity and breast benign disease with obesity. The results showed that plasma leptin levels in breast cancer patients with obesity were significantly higher than those in breast benign disease with obesity and obesity patients alone (P<0.05). The expression of the leptin receptor long form [-Lep-R(L)-] mRNA and the leptin receptor short form [-Lep-R(S)-] mRNA in breast tissue of breast cancer patients with obesity were significantly higher than that in breast tissue of breast benign disease patients with obesity (P<0.05). The plasma leptin level had remarkable positive correlation with the expressions of the Lep-R(L) mRNA and the Lep-R(S) mRNA. The plasma leptin level and leptin receptors mRNA expression levels in patients were not correlated with the axillary node metastasis, menopause, the TNM stage or pathological type. Therefore, leptin may have a promoting effect on the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. (authors)

  11. Leptin deficiency in mice counteracts imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation while leptin stimulation induces inflammation in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjernholm, Theresa; Ommen, Pernille; Langkilde, Ane; Johansen, Claus; Iversen, Lars; Rosada, Cecilia; Stenderup, Karin

    2017-04-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine secreted mostly by adipose tissue. Serum leptin levels are elevated in obese individuals and correlate positively with body mass index (BMI). Interestingly, serum leptin levels are also elevated in patients with psoriasis and correlate positively with disease severity. Psoriasis is associated with obesity; patients with psoriasis have a higher incidence of obesity, and obese individuals have a higher risk of developing psoriasis. Additionally, obese patients with psoriasis experience a more severe degree of psoriasis. In this study, we hypothesised that leptin may link psoriasis and obesity and plays an aggravating role in psoriasis. To investigate leptin's role in psoriasis, we applied the widely accepted imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation mouse model on leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice and evaluated psoriasis severity. Moreover, we stimulated human keratinocytes with leptin and investigated the effect on proliferation and expression of pro-inflammatory proteins. In ob/ob mice, clinical signs of erythema, infiltration and scales in dorsal skin and inflammation in ear skin, as measured by ear thickness, were attenuated and compared with wt mice. Moreover, IL-17A and IL-22 mRNA expression levels, as well as increased epidermal thickness, were significantly less induced. In vitro, the effect of leptin stimulation on human keratinocytes demonstrated increased proliferation and induced secretion of several pro-inflammatory proteins; two hallmarks of psoriasis. In conclusion, leptin deficiency attenuated IMQ-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in a mouse model, and leptin stimulation induced a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human keratinocytes, thus, supporting an aggravating role of leptin in psoriasis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Diet-induced obese mice retain endogenous leptin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaway, Nickki; Mahbod, Parinaz; Rivero, Belen; Norman, Lee Ann; Gertler, Arieh; D'Alessio, David A; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2015-06-02

    Obesity is characterized by hyperleptinemia and decreased response to exogenous leptin. This has been widely attributed to the development of leptin resistance, a state of impaired leptin signaling proposed to contribute to the development and persistence of obesity. To directly determine endogenous leptin activity in obesity, we treated lean and obese mice with a leptin receptor antagonist. The antagonist increased feeding and body weight (BW) in lean mice, but not in obese models of leptin, leptin receptor, or melanocortin-4 receptor deficiency. In contrast, the antagonist increased feeding and BW comparably in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, an increase associated with decreased hypothalamic expression of Socs3, a primary target of leptin. These findings demonstrate that hyperleptinemic DIO mice retain leptin suppression of feeding comparable to lean mice and counter the view that resistance to endogenous leptin contributes to the persistence of DIO in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Leptin controls hair follicle cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Reiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kabashima-Kubo, Rieko; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nishio, Daisuke; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2014-04-01

    Leptin is a cytokine well known for its ability to control body weight and energy metabolism. Several lines of evidence have recently revealed that leptin also plays an important role in wound healing and immune modulation in skin. Sumikawa et al. Exp Dermatol 2014 evaluated the effect of leptin on hair follicle cycling using mutant and wild-type mice. They report that leptin is produced in dermal papilla cells in hair follicles and that leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice show an abnormality in hair follicle cycling. Moreover, leptin injection induced the transition into the growth stage of the hair cycle (anagen). On this basis, it now deserves exploration whether leptin-mediated signalling is a key stimulus for anagen induction and whether this may be targeted to manage human hair disorders with defect in the control of hair follicle cycling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Leptin receptor polymorphisms and lung function decline in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, N N; Gao, L; Rafaels, N M; Mathias, R A; Neptune, E R; Tankersley, C; Grant, A V; Connett, J; Beaty, T H; Wise, R A; Barnes, K C

    2009-07-01

    Only a fraction of all smokers develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), suggesting a large role for genetic susceptibility. The leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in human lung tissue and may play a role in COPD pathogenesis. The present study examined the association between genetic variants in the LEPR gene and lung function decline in COPD. In total, 429 European Americans were randomly selected from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Lung Health Study. 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LEPR were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate platform (Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA). Mean annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s % predicted over the 5-yr period was calculated using linear regression. Linear regression models were also used to adjust for potential confounders. In addition, in vivo expression of the receptor gene was assessed with immunohistochemistry on lungs from smoke-exposed inbred mice. We identified significant associations (pCOPD pathogenesis. We identified genetic variants in the LEPR gene significantly associated with lung function decline in a population of smokers with COPD. Our results support a role for LEPR as a novel candidate gene for COPD.

  15. Leptin Antagonizes Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Signaling in Growth Plate Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an obesity-associated cytokine-like hormone encoded by the ob gene. Recent studies reveal that leptin promotes proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, suggesting a peripheral role of leptin in regulating growth plate function. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ is a transcriptional regulator of adipogenesis. Locally, PPARγ negatively regulates chondrogenic differentiation and terminal differentiation in the growth plate. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that leptin may suppress the inhibitory effects of PPARγ on growth plate chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were collected from distal femoral growth plates of newborn rats and were cultured in monolayer or cell pellets in the presence or absence of leptin and the PPARγ agonist ciglitazone. The results show that leptin attenuates the suppressive effects of PPARγ on chondrogenic differentiation and T3-mediated chondrocyte hypertrophy. Leptin treatment also leads to a mild downregulation of PPAR mRNA expression and a significant MAPK/ERK-dependent PPARγ phosphorylation at serine 112/82. Blocking MAPK/ERK function with PD98059 confirmed that leptin antagonizes PPARγ function in growth plate chondrocytes through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Furthermore, leptin signaling in growth plate cells is also negatively modulated by activation of PPARγ, implying that these two signaling pathways are mutually regulated in growth plate chondrocytes.

  16. Leptin, Leptin Soluble Receptor, and the Free Leptin Index following a Diet and Physical Activity Lifestyle Intervention in Obese Males and Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Herrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin (LEP is associated with appetite regulation and metabolism. Concentration is linear with adiposity, suggesting LEP resistance. LEP circulates freely and bound with its soluble receptor (sOB-r; the ratio is the free leptin index (FLI, an index of leptin resistance; lower FLI suggests reduced biological action. Purpose. The aim was to determine the effect of changes in adipose tissue distribution on LEP, sOB-r, and FLI following 6 months (6 M of a diet/exercise weight loss program (WLP. In addition, we aim to identify predictors of the FLI. Methods. 6 M WLP consisted of diet/lifestyle interventions following ADA guidelines. Body composition was assessed by DXA. LEP and sOB-r analysis were done via ELISA. Results. 10 adults completed the WLP. Significant reductions were seen in total fat percentage (% fat, nontrunk fat, (NTF, and trunk fat (TF from base to 3 m and 6 M (p≤0.05. The FLI were reduced at 3 M and 6 M for males and 6 M for females. Total body fat and body weight predicted the FLI in both sexes. Conclusions. LEP and FLI reductions following 6 M of WLP were achieved independent of sOB-r changes. We also demonstrate that the FLI can be predicted noninvasively through total fat mass and body weight in kilograms.

  17. Immunoreactivities of PPARγ2, leptin and leptin receptor in oviduct of Chinese brown frog during breeding period and pre-hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Weng, J; Huang, S; Shen, Y; Sheng, X; Han, Y; Xu, M; Weng, Q

    2014-09-09

    The Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) is a special amphibian with one unique physiological phenomenon, which is that its oviduct expands prior to hibernation, instead of during the breeding period. In this study, we investigate the localization and expression level of PPARγ2, leptin and leptin receptor proteins in oviduct of Rana dybowskii during  breeding period and pre-hibernation. There were significant variations in oviductal weight and size, with values much lower in the breeding period than in pre-hibernation. PPARγ2 was observed in stromal and epithelial cells in both periods. Leptin was immunolocalized in epithelial cells in both periods, whereas leptin receptor was detected only in stromal cells. Consistently, the protein levels of PPARγ2, leptin and leptin receptor were higher in pre-hibernation as compared to the breeding period. These results suggested that oviduct was the target organ of leptin, which may play an important paracrine role in regulating the oviductal hypertrophy during pre-hibernation.

  18. Insulin downregulates the expression of the Ca2+-activated nonselective cation channel TRPM5 in pancreatic islets from leptin-deficient mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colsoul, Barbara; Jacobs, Griet; Philippaert, Koenraad; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Segal, Andrei; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Schuit, Frans; Vennekens, Rudi

    2014-03-01

    We recently proposed that the transient receptor potential melastatin 5 (TRPM5) cation channel contributes to glucose-induced electrical activity of the β cell and positively influences glucose-induced insulin release and glucose homeostasis. In this study, we investigated Trpm5 expression and function in pancreatic islets from mouse models of type II diabetes. Gene expression analysis revealed a strong reduction of Trpm5 mRNA levels in pancreatic islets of db/db and ob/ob mice. The glucose-induced Ca(2+) oscillation pattern in db/db and ob/ob islets mimicked those of Trpm5 (-/-) islets. Leptin treatment of ob/ob mice not only reversed the diabetic phenotype seen in these mice but also upregulated Trpm5 expression. Leptin treatment had no additional effect on Trpm5 expression levels when plasma insulin levels were comparable to those of the vehicle-injected control group. In murine β cell line, MIN6, insulin downregulated TRPM5 expression in a dose-dependent manner, unlike glucose or leptin. In conclusion, our data show that increased plasma insulin levels downregulate TRPM5 expression in pancreatic islets from leptin-deficient mouse models of type 2 diabetes.

  19. Increased leptin/leptin receptor pathway affects systemic and airway inflammation in COPD former smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Profita, Mirella; Bruno,; Alessi,; Soresi,; Bonanno,; Riccobono,; Montalbano,; Albano,; Gjomarkaj,

    2011-01-01

    Andreina Bruno1, Marinella Alessi2, Simona Soresi2, Anna Bonanno1, Loredana Riccobono1, Angela Marina Montalbano1, Giusy Daniela Albano1, Mark Gjomarkaj1, Mirella Profita11Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, Italian National Research Council, Palermo, Italy; 2Dipartimento Biomedico di Biomedicina Interna e Specialistica, University Palermo, ItalyBackground: Leptin, a hormone produced mainly by adipose tissue, regulates food intake and energy expenditure. It is involved in infla...

  20. Genetic variants of estrogen beta and leptin receptors may cause gynecomastia in adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Erdal; Edgunlu, Tuba; Korkmaz, Huseyin Anil; Cakir, Esra Deniz Papatya; Demir, Korcan; Cetin, Esin Sakalli; Celik, Sevim Karakas

    2014-05-15

    Gynecomastia is a benign breast enlargement in males that affects approximately one-third of adolescents. The exact mechanism is not fully understood; however, it has been proposed that estrogen receptors and aromatase enzyme activity may play important roles in the pathogenesis of gynecomastia. While many studies have reported that aromatase enzyme (CYP19) gene polymorphism is associated with gynecomastia, only one study has shown a relationship between estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta gene polymorphism and gynecomastia. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between CYP19 (rs2414096), ER alpha (rs2234693), ER beta (rs4986938), leptin (rs7799039), and leptin receptor (rs1137101) gene polymorphisms and gynecomastia. This study included 107 male adolescents with gynecomastia and 97 controls. Total serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels were measured, and DNA was extracted from whole blood using the PCR-RFLP technique. The polymorphic distributions of CYP19, ER alpha, ER beta, leptin and leptin receptor genes were compared. The median E2 level was 12.41 (5.00-65.40) pg/ml in the control group and 16.86 (2.58-78.47) pg/ml in the study group (pgynecomastia and leptin receptor rs1137101 (p=0.002) and ER beta receptor rs4986938 gene polymorphisms (p=0.002). According to our results, increased E2 level and ER beta gene rs4986938 polymorphism might explain why some adolescents have gynecomastia. Leptin receptor gene rs1137101 polymorphism might affect susceptibility to gynecomastia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute up-regulation of the rat brain somatostatin receptor-effector system by leptin is related to activation of insulin signaling and may counteract central leptin actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perianes-Cachero, A; Burgos-Ramos, E; Puebla-Jiménez, L; Canelles, S; Frago, L M; Hervás-Aguilar, A; de Frutos, S; Toledo-Lobo, M V; Mela, V; Viveros, M P; Argente, J; Chowen, J A; Arilla-Ferreiro, E; Barrios, V

    2013-11-12

    Leptin and somatostatin (SRIF) have opposite effects on food seeking and ingestive behaviors, functions partially regulated by the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus. Although it is known that the acute suppression of food intake mediated by leptin decreases with time, the counter-regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Our aims were to analyze the effect of acute central leptin infusion on the SRIF receptor-effector system in these areas and the implication of related intracellular signaling mechanisms in this response. We studied 20 adult male Wister rats including controls and those treated intracerebroventricularly with a single dose of 5 μg of leptin and sacrificed 1 or 6h later. Density of SRIF receptors was unchanged at 1h, whereas leptin increased the density of SRIF receptors at 6h, which was correlated with an elevated capacity of SRIF to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in both areas. The functional capacity of SRIF receptors was unaltered as cell membrane levels of αi1 and αi2 subunits of G inhibitory proteins were unaffected in both brain areas. The increased density of SRIF receptors was due to enhanced SRIF receptor subtype 2 (sst2) protein levels that correlated with higher mRNA levels for this receptor. These changes in sst2 mRNA levels were concomitant with increased activation of the insulin signaling, c-Jun and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB); however, activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 was reduced in the cortex and unchanged in the hippocampus and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 remained unchanged in these areas. In addition, the leptin antagonist L39A/D40A/F41A blocked the leptin-induced changes in SRIF receptors, leptin signaling and CREB activation. In conclusion, increased activation of insulin signaling after leptin infusion is related to acute up-regulation of the SRIF receptor-effector system that may antagonize short-term leptin actions in the rat brain

  2. Role of leptin on the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval Kishor Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leptin resistance oriented hyperleptinaemia is a common problem in obese subjects in association with hypercholesterolaemia. The most common target for hypercholesterolaemia is impaired low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR. This study was carried out to investigate whether any alteration in LDLR expression could explain the occurrence of hypercholesterolaemia in the event of hyperleptinaemia. Methods: Expression of LDLR and SREBP2 (sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 were examined in HepG2 cells by RT-PCR and Western blotting. JAK2 inhibitor II was used to verify the effect of JAK-STAT (Janus Kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription pathway (common mediator for cytokine signaling. Co-localization of LDLR and insulin receptor (IR was examined by confocal microscopy. Results: Leptin was found to reduce the expression of LDLR and its transcription factor SREBP2. On the other hand, a weak signal for stimulation of LDLR by leptin was noted to be mediated by JAK2 pathway. But the joint effect of the two signaling pathways kept LDLR only in depressed mode in presence of leptin. Confocal microscopy showed that LDLR made an intensively co-localized complex with insulin receptor in presence of leptin. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results show that though leptin stimulates LDLR expression very weakly through JAK-STAT signaling pathway, it mainly imposes inhibition on LDLR expression by inhibiting transcription factor SREBP2. The inter-association between LDLR and IR may be a reason to render LDLR functionally inactive in presence of leptin.

  3. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine leptin and leptin receptor genes with growth and ultrasound carcass traits in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, R C G; Ferraz, J B S; Meirelles, F V; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C; Cucco, D C; Mattos, E C; Rezende, F M; Silva, S L

    2012-10-11

    Given the important role of leptin in metabolism, we looked for a possible association of leptin and leptin receptor polymorphisms with carcass and growth traits in Nellore cattle. We examined associations of leptin and leptin receptor SNPs with ultrasound carcass (longissimus dorsi muscle area (ribeye area), backfat thickness and rump fat thickness and growth traits (weaning weight adjusted to 210 days of age, yearling weight adjusted to 550 days of age, weight gain of weaning to yearling and scrotal circumference adjusted to 550 days of age) of 2162 Bos primigenius indicus (Nellore) animals. Allele and genotypic frequencies were calculated for each marker. Allele substitution, additive and dominance effects of the polymorphisms were also evaluated. Some alleles of the molecular markers had low frequencies, lower than 1%, in the sample analyzed, although the same polymorphisms described for B. p. taurus cattle were found. Due to very low allelic frequencies, the E2JW, A59V and UASMS2 markers were not included in the analysis, because they were almost fixed. E2FB was found to be significantly associated with weight gain, ribeye area and backfat thickness. The promoter region markers, C963T and UASMS1, were also found to be significantly associated with ribeye area. T945M was significantly associated with weight gain. We conclude that the leptin and receptor gene markers would be useful for marker-assisted selection.

  4. Overexpression of leptin receptor predicts an unfavorable outcome in Middle Eastern ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavi Prashant

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that obesity is associated with ovarian cancer. Obesity hormone leptin and its receptor (Ob-R contribute to tumor development by enhancing cell growth and survival. This study was design to investigate the prevalence of leptin and Ob-R in Middle Eastern epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC and to analyze the role of leptin and the mechanisms under its action in EOC tissue sample and cell lines. Methods The expression of leptin and Ob-R was examined by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray of 156 EOC samples. Proliferation of EOC cells in response to leptin was assessed by MTT assays, and its anti-apoptotic effects were determined by flow cytometry. Effect of leptin on PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was further determined by western blotting. Results In clinical samples, Ob-R overexpression was seen in 59.2% EOCs and was significantly associated with poor progression free survival (p = 0.0032. Furthermore, Ob-R expression was associated with anti apoptotic proteins Bcl-XL (p = 0.0035 and XIAP (p = 0.0001. In vitro analysis using EOC cell lines showed that leptin stimulated cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis via activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Inhibition of PI3K activity by LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3-kinase abrogated leptin mediated PI3K/AKT signaling. Gene silencing of Ob-R with Ob-R siRNA in EOC cells resulted in down regulation of phospho-AKT and its down stream targets. Conclusion Our findings have potential clinical implication for EOC development and progression.

  5. Genetic polymorphism of exon 9-11 of the leptin gene receptor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    primer3_www.cgi). These primers were designed based on the chicken sequence leptin gene receptor (GenBank –. NC006095.2) Gallus gallus chromosome 8, reference assembly. (based on Gallus_gallus-2.1). The primers were ...

  6. The Impact of LEP G-2548A and LEPR Gln223Arg Polymorphisms on Adiposity, Leptin, and Leptin-Receptor Serum Levels in a Mexican Mestizo Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria-Avila, Efraín; Gomez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Ruiz-Quezada, Sandra-Luz; Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Sánchez-López, Lizeth; Martín-Marquez, Beatriz Teresita; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa-Elena

    2015-01-01

    The polymorphisms in leptin (LEP G-2548A) and leptin-receptor (LEPR Gln223Arg) seem to influence obesity and lipid metabolism among others. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on adiposity, leptin (sLeptin), and leptin-receptor (sLeptin-receptor) serum concentrations as well as inflammation markers. We included 382 adults originally from Western Mexico. They were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Obese individuals showed higher sLeptin (58.2 ± 31.35 ng/mL) but lower sLeptin-receptor (12.6 ± 3.74 ng/mL) levels than normal weight ones (17.6 ± 14.62 ng/mL, 17.4 ± 4.62 ng/mL, resp.), P < 0.001. Obese subjects carriers of Arg/Arg genotype had more (P = 0.016) sLeptin-receptor (14.7 ± 4.96 ng/mL) and less (P = 0.004) sLeptin (44.0 ± 28.12 ng/mL) levels than Gln/Gln genotype (11.0 ± 2.92 ng/mL, 80.3 ± 33.24 ng/mL, resp.). Body fat mass was lower (P from 0.003 to 0.045) for A/A (36.5% ± 6.80) or Arg/Arg (36.8% ± 6.82) genotypes with respect to G/G (41.3% ± 5.52) and G/A (41.6% ± 5.61) or Gln/Gln (43.7% ± 4.74) and Gln/Arg (41.0% ± 5.52) genotypes carriers. Our results suggest that LEP -2548A and LEPR 223Arg could be genetic markers of less body fat mass accumulation in obese subjects from Western Mexico. PMID:26064921

  7. Purinergic receptor X7 mediates leptin induced GLUT4 function in stellate cells in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekaran, Varun; Das, Suvarthi; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Dattaroy, Diptadip; Alhasson, Firas; Michelotti, Gregory; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic oxidative stress via CYP2E1 can act as a second hit in NASH progression. Our previous studies have shown that oxidative stress in NASH causes higher leptin levels and induces purinergic receptor X7 (P2X7r). We tested the hypothesis that higher circulating leptin due to CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress induces P2X7r. P2X7r in turn activates stellate cells and causes increased proliferation via modulating Glut4, the glucose transporter, and increased intracellular glucose. Using a hig...

  8. Leptin receptor expressing neurons express phosphodiesterase-3B (PDE3B) and leptin induces STAT3 activation in PDE3B neurons in the mouse hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Maitrayee; Sahu, Abhiram

    2015-11-01

    Leptin signaling in the hypothalamus is critical for normal food intake and body weight regulation. Cumulative evidence suggests that besides the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) pathway, several non-STAT3 pathways including the phosphodiesterase-3B (PDE3B) pathway mediate leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. We have shown that PDE3B is localized in various hypothalamic sites implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis and that the anorectic and body weight reducing effects of leptin are mediated by the activation of PDE3B. It is still unknown if PDE3B is expressed in the long form of the leptin-receptor (ObRb)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus and whether leptin induces STAT3 activation in PDE3B-expressing neurons. In this study, we examined co-localization of PDE3B with ObRb neurons in various hypothalamic nuclei in ObRb-GFP mice that were treated with leptin (5mg/kg, ip) for 2h. Results showed that most of the ObRb neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC, 93%), ventromedial nucleus (VMN, 94%), dorsomedial nucleus (DMN, 95%), ventral premammillary nucleus (PMv, 97%) and lateral hypothalamus (LH, 97%) co-expressed PDE3B. We next examined co-localization of p-STAT3 and PDE3B in the hypothalamus in C57BL6 mice that were treated with leptin (5mg/kg, ip) for 1h. The results showed that almost all p-STAT3 positive neurons in different hypothalamic nuclei including ARC, VMN, DMN, LH and PMv areas expressed PDE3B. These results suggest the possibility for a direct role for the PDE3B pathway in mediating leptin action in the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Kefir improves fatty liver syndrome by inhibiting the lipogenesis pathway in leptin-deficient ob/ob knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-L; Tung, Y-T; Tsai, C-L; Lai, C-W; Lai, Z-L; Tsai, H-C; Lin, Y-L; Wang, C-H; Chen, C-M

    2014-09-01

    Fatty liver disease is commonly associated with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Severe fatty liver is sometimes accompanied by steatohepatitis and may lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. At present, there is no effective treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); thus, recent investigations have focused on developing effective therapeutics to treat this condition. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of kefir on the hepatic lipid metabolism of ob/ob mice, which are commonly used to model fatty liver disease. In this study, we used leptin receptor-deficient ob/ob mice as an animal disease model of NAFLD. Six-week-old ob/ob mice were orally administered the dairy product kefir (140 mg kg(-1) of body weight (BW) per day) for 4 weeks. The data demonstrated that kefir improved fatty liver syndrome on BW, energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate by inhibiting serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities (Pkefir administration also significantly reduced the macrovesicular fat quantity in liver tissue. In addition, kefir markedly decreased the expression of the genes sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (Pkefir improves NAFLD on BW, energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate by inhibiting the lipogenesis pathway and that kefir may have the potential for clinical application to the prevention or treatment of NAFLD.

  10. The features of leptin and its receptor expression in metastatic cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lushnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a multifunctional hormone with the activity of cytokines, which regulates critical signaling pathways that can induce cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and tumor growth. Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of metabolism, energy exchange, functions of the neuro-endocrine system, including the pituitary, hypothalamus, adrenals, and immune system functions. Recently, some evidences have been appeared concerning the role of leptin in induction of chronic inflammatory processes, autoimmune pathologies, type 2 diabetes and cancer. An elevated blood level of the hormone is considered as a risk factor for different neoplasm developmentObjective. Analysis of the hormone leptin (Lep, the long and short isoforms of its receptor (LepR1 and LepR2 expression in blood, tumor cells and normal skin fibroblasts in the patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma (CM with various clinico-pathological characteristics for prognostic assessment.Materials and methods. 15 patients with metastatic CM (10 women and 5 men, aged 22 to 67 years with body mass from normal to obese have been studied. The expression of Lep / LepR in the patient and donor blood sera, tumor and normal skin fibroblasts were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and RT PCR using total RNAs isolated from pairs of tumor samples and normal tissue.Results. Average level of leptin in the blood of CM patients and in tumor cells exceeds the normal one. Concentration of lepin in female CM patients was higher than in male patients. The expression level of Lep and LepR1 genes (but not LepR2 in tumor cells was relatively higher than in normal skin fibroblasts of these patients, and above the level of GAPDH gene expression. In the female patients with overweight (body mass index = 25,00–29,99 kg/m2 there was a trend to higher concentrations of leptin in the blood in comparison of the patients with normal body mass and leptin level in the sera of male CM

  11. Leptin and leptin receptor are detectable in equine spermatozoa but are not involved in in vitro fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Consiglio, Anna; Corradetti, Bruna; Perrini, Claudia; Bizzaro, Davide; Cremonesi, Fausto

    2016-04-01

    In human and swine, leptin (OB) has been identified in seminal plasma and leptin receptors (OB-R) on the cell surface of spermatozoa, indicating that spermatozoa are a target for OB. This hormone has also been detected in follicular fluid (FF) in women and mares, although its role requires further study. The aims of this study were to investigate the immunolocalisation and the expression of OB and OB-R in equine spermatozoa and to evaluate the involvement of OB in equine in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Since progesterone (P) and OB are both found in FF, the individual and combined effects of these two hormones were studied in equine IVF and compared with the results obtained from the use of FF for in vitro sperm preparation. For the first time, we were able to identify OB and OB-R mRNA and their corresponding proteins in equine spermatozoa. When spermatozoa were treated with OB, there was a decrease in the three motility parameters VSL, STR and LIN, commonly associated with hyperactivation, whilst the acrosome reaction rate increased (P<0.05). The fertilisation rate was 51% with FF, 46.15% with P, 43.64% with P+OB and 0% with OB alone. The percentage of eight-cell stage embryos was 18.7% with FF, 17.1% with P and 16.7% with OB+P. OB alone did not permit oocyte fertilisation, indicating that, in the horse, OB is involved in capacitation and hyperactivation but not in sperm penetration.

  12. Leptin receptor Lys109Arg and Gln223Arg polymorphisms are associated with early atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukko, Meiju; Kesäniemi, Y Antero; Ukkola, Olavi

    2010-10-01

    Leptin is a hormone expressed by the leptin gene, primarily in adipocytes, controlling food intake and energy expenditure. The effects of leptin are mediated by its receptor (LEPR) located in the central nervous system and other tissues, including adipocytes and endothelial cells. The aim of this study was to characterize two polymorphisms of LEPR, Lys109Arg (rs1137100) and Gln223Arg (rs1137101), as risk factors for early atherosclerosis. This connection has not been studied before. This study was performed in the randomly selected, middle-aged control subjects (n=526) from our well-defined OPERA (Oulu Project Elucidating Risk of Atherosclerosis) study. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to study the associations between genotypes, intima media thickness (IMT) measurements, and risk factors for atherosclerosis. Subjects with the genotype Lys109Arg had the lowest body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.035), whereas Arg109Arg homozygotes had the highest total cholesterol (P=0.021) when adjusted for sex and age. Gln223Arg associated independently with systolic blood pressure (P=0.036). There were no differences in leptin concentrations between the genotypes. The adjusted (sex, age, BMI, smoking status, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose) means for the IMT measurements were lowest in the Arg109 and Arg223 homozygotes (P=0.042 and P=0.041, ANCOVA, respectively). The variations in the LEPR gene are independently associated with early atherosclerosis and some of its risk factors. These variations could possibly affect leptin signaling and thereby modify the effects of leptin on the atherosclerotic process.

  13. Leptin receptor Gln223Arg polymorphism and breast cancer risk in Nigerian women: A case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okobia, Michael N; Taioli, Emanuela; Bunker, Clareann H; Garte, Seymour J; Zmuda, Joseph M; Ezeome, Emmanuel R; Anyanwu, Stanley N; Uche, Emmanuel E; Kuller, Lewis H; Ferrell, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    Leptin, a 16 kDa polypeptide hormone, implicated in various physiological processes, exerts its action through the leptin receptor, a member of the class I cytokine receptor family. Both leptin and leptin receptor have recently been implicated in processes leading to breast cancer initiation and progression in animal models and humans. An A to G transition mutation in codon 223 in exon 6 of the leptin receptor gene, resulting in glutamine to arginine substitution (Gln223Arg), lies within the first of two putative leptin-binding regions and may be associated with impaired signaling capacity of the leptin receptor. This study was designed to assess the role of this polymorphism in breast cancer susceptibility in Nigerian women. We utilized a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay to evaluate the association between the Gln223Arg polymorphism of the leptin receptor gene and breast risk in Nigeria in a case control study involving 209 women with breast cancer and 209 controls without the disease. Study participants were recruited from surgical outpatient clinics and surgical wards of four University Teaching Hospitals located in Midwestern and southeastern Nigeria between September 2002 and April 2004. Premenopausal women carrying at least one LEPR 223Arg allele were at a modestly increased risk of breast cancer after adjusting for confounders (OR = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–3.2, p = 0.07). There was no association with postmenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.4–1.8, p = 0.68). Our results suggest that the LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism in the extracellular domain of the LEPR receptor gene is associated with a modestly increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer in Nigerian women

  14. Distinct roles of free leptin, bound leptin and soluble leptin receptor during the metabolic-inflammatory response in patients with liver cirrhosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockenga, J.; Tietge, U. J. F.; Boeker, K. H. W.; Manns, M. P.; Brabant, G.; Bahr, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Alteration of the leptin system appears to play a role in the inflammatory-metabolic response in catabolic diseases such as chronic liver diseases. Aim To investigate the association between leptin components, inflammatory markers and hepatic energy and substrate metabolism. Methods We

  15. Human breast milk and adipokines--A potential role for the soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) in the regulation of infant energy intake and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, F D; Rao, P; Moore, J; Stewart, R; Ladino, Yuli Martinez; Hartmann, B T

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of different adipokines in human breast milk are thought to be able to affect energy intake of the infant. Leptin is a hormone synthesized by adipose tissue and the human placenta and favors satiety. The availability of leptin in breast milk is influenced by epithelial cells of the mammary gland that are known to be able to produce leptin, as well as leptin from maternal circulation that is transported to the breast milk, and which can thus in turn reach neonatal blood after absorption. Research so far as mainly focused on leptin concentrations in breast milk. However, evidence suggests that in addition to leptin concentrations levels of the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), the main high-affinity binding protein for leptin in humans, are necessary in order to calculate the free leptin index (FLI) and to assess function of the leptin axis. FLI is calculated from the ratio of leptin to the sOb-R, and serves as the main parameter for assessing function of the leptin axis throughout maturation and development. Here we propose that assessing sOb-R levels in addition to leptin concentrations in breast milk could serve as a valuable tool to investigate effects of the leptin axis in breast milk because sOb-R concentrations can impact available leptin levels, and which in turn can have significant implications for infant energy intake and related development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leptin receptor is expressed by epidermis and skin appendages in dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercati, Francesca; Maranesi, Margherita; Dall'Aglio, Cecilia; Scocco, Paola; Pascucci, Luisa; Boiti, Cristiano; Ceccarelli, Piero

    2014-10-01

    Leptin is a polypeptide secreted by adipocytes which binds to a specific receptor (Ob-R) that is expressed in various tissues. The wide distribution of the Ob-R suggests that leptin might exert diverse biological functions, not only by regulating energy metabolism and appetite, but also by acting as a mitogen in many cell types, including keratinocytes. In this study, the presence and localization of Ob-R was investigated in the skin of the dog using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical techniques. RT-PCR revealed the presence of Ob-R m-RNA in the skin specimens collected from the dorsal region of two smooth coat breed dogs. Through immunohistochemistry performed on the skin of five dogs, the expression of the receptor was observed in the basal layer of the epidermis, in the hair follicles as well as in the apocrine sweat and sebaceous glands. No staining for Ob-R was detected in the suprabasal epidermis layers. Strong positive signals were observed in many cells of the outer root sheath of hair follicles in growing and in regressive phases. The identification of Ob-R in the above targets suggests that leptin may play a role in the regulation of cyclic renewal of the epidermis and skin appendages in dog. This study represents an important contribution to understand the complex mechanisms that are involved in the skin biology in this species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Mehmet M; Nayer, Behzad; Walford, Eric C; Johnson, Kevin B; Gaidosh, Gabriel; Reiser, Jochen; De La Cruz-Munoz, Nestor; Ortega, Luis M; Nayer, Ali

    2012-02-07

    Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver) and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus) organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was noted between ob/ob and control mice. This study

  18. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintas Mehmet M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. Results ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was

  19. Testosterone interacts with the feedback mechanisms engaged by Tyr985 of the leptin receptor and diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua A; Calo, Sal; Nair, Lekshmi; IglayReger, Heidi B; Greenwald-Yarnell, Megan; Skorupski, Josh; Myers, Martin G; Bodary, Peter F

    2012-11-01

    Inhibitory signaling through Tyr985 of the leptin receptor contributes to the attenuation of anorectic leptin action in obese animals. Leptin receptor (LEPR-B) Tyr985Leu homozygote mutant mice (termed l/l) were previously generated to study Tyr985's contributions to inhibition of LEPR-B signaling; young female l/l mice display a lean, leptin-sensitive phenotype, while young male l/l are not significantly different from wild-type. We report here that testosterone (but not estrogen) determines the sex-specificity of the l/l phenotype. This provides additional insight into the cellular mechanism by which gonadal hormones determine central sensitivity to leptin, and may help elucidate the long-noted sex differences in leptin sensitivity. Additionally, we observed that Tyr985 signaling protects against a diet-dependent switch that exacerbates obesity with high fat feeding, such that the enhanced leptin sensitivity of l/l mice on a normal diet leads to increased adiposity in the face of chronic high-fat diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Duplicated leptin receptors in two species of eel bring new insights into the evolution of the leptin system in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morini, M.; Pasquier, J.; van den Thillart, G.

    2015-01-01

    subfunctionalization. Four-month fasting had no impact on the expression of leptins and LEPRs in control European eels. This might be related to the remarkable adaptation of silver eel metabolism to long-term fasting throughout the reproductive oceanic migration. In contrast, sexual maturation induced differential...... of the duplicated LEPRs in this species. This suggests an ancient and positive role of the leptin system in the vertebrate reproductive function. This study brings new insights on the evolutionary history of the leptin system in vertebrates. Among extant vertebrates, the eel represents a unique case of duplicated...

  1. Developmental Expression and Glucocorticoid Control of the Leptin Receptor in Fetal Ovine Lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles J De Blasio

    Full Text Available The effects of endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids on fetal lung maturation are well-established, although the role of leptin in lung development before birth is unclear. This study examined mRNA and protein levels of the signalling long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb in fetal ovine lungs towards term, and after experimental manipulation of glucocorticoid levels in utero by fetal cortisol infusion or maternal dexamethasone treatment. In fetal ovine lungs, Ob-Rb protein was localised to bronchiolar epithelium, bronchial cartilage, vascular endothelium, alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes. Pulmonary Ob-Rb mRNA abundance increased between 100 (0.69 fractional gestational age and 144 days (0.99 of gestation, and by 2-4-fold in response to fetal cortisol infusion and maternal dexamethasone treatment. In contrast, pulmonary Ob-Rb protein levels decreased near term and were halved by glucocorticoid treatment, without any significant change in phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3 at Ser727, total STAT3 or the pulmonary pSTAT3:STAT3 ratio. Leptin mRNA was undetectable in fetal ovine lungs at the gestational ages studied. These findings demonstrate differential control of pulmonary Ob-Rb transcript abundance and protein translation, and/or post-translational processing, by glucocorticoids in utero. Localisation of Ob-Rb in the fetal ovine lungs, including alveolar type II pneumocytes, suggests a role for leptin signalling in the control of lung growth and maturation before birth.

  2. Leptin recruits Creb-regulated transcriptional coactivator 1 to improve hyperglycemia in insulin-deficient diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun Hyang Kim

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Our study reveals that Crtc1 functions as a conduit for leptin's glucoregulatory actions in insulin-dependent diabetes. This study also highlights a new role for Crtc1 in modulating peripheral glucose metabolism.

  3. Discovery and functional characterization of leptin and its receptors in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Xu, Chunlin; Wang, Taian; Li, Hong; Li, Yanmin; Ren, Junxiao; Tian, Yadong; Li, Zhuanjian; Jiao, Yuping; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an important endocrine regulation factor of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals; however, the existence of a poultry leptin gene (LEP) is still debated. Here, for the first time, we report the cloning of a partial exon 3 sequence of LEP (qLEP) and four different leptin receptor splicing variants, including a long receptor (qLEPRl) and three soluble receptors (qLEPR-a, qLEPR-b and qLEPR-c) in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The qLEP gene had high GC content (64%), which is similar to other reported avian leptin genes. The encoded qLEP protein possessed the conserved pair of cysteine residues that are required to form a lasso knot for full biological activity, but shared relatively low identities with LEPs of other vertebrates. The translated qLEPRl protein contained 1143 amino acids and shared high amino acid sequence identity with a chicken homolog (89% identity). qLEPRl also contained all the motifs, domains, and basic tyrosine residues that are conserved in the LEPRl proteins of other vertebrates. qRT-PCR analysis showed that LEP and the four LEPR variants were expressed extensively in all tissues examined; the expression levels of LEP were relatively high in hypothalamus, skeletal muscle, and pancreas, while the expression levels of the LEPRs were highest in the pituitary. Compared with the expression levels of juvenile qLEP and total qLEPR (including all LEPR variants), the expression levels of mature qLEP and total qLEPR were up-regulated in the hypothalamus and pituitary, and down-regulated in the ovary. The expressions of LEP/LEPR increased when fasting and decreased when refeeding in the brain and peripheral tissues of juvenile quail, which suggested that the LEP/LEPR system modulated food intake and energy expenditure, although, unlike in mammals, LEP may actually act to inhibit food intake during fasting, at least in juvenile quail. The results indicate that qLEP and qLEPR have unique expression patterns and that the encoded

  4. Brain-mediated antidiabetic, anorexic, and cardiovascular actions of leptin require melanocortin-4 receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Alexandre A; Spradley, Frank T; Granger, Joey P; Hall, John E; do Carmo, Jussara M

    2015-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that leptin has powerful central nervous system (CNS)-mediated antidiabetic actions. In this study we tested the importance of melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) for leptin's ability to suppress food intake, increase blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), and normalize glucose levels in insulin-dependent diabetes. MC4R knockout (MC4R-KO) and control wild-type (WT) rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula and BP and HR were measured 24 h/day by telemetry. After 5-day control period, an injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce diabetes. Eight days after injection, an osmotic pump was implanted subcutaneously and connected to the ICV cannula to deliver leptin (15 μg/day) for 7 days. At baseline, MC4R-KO rats were hyperphagic and 40% heavier than WT rats. Despite obesity, BP was similar (112 ± 2 vs. 111 ± 2 mmHg) and HR was lower in MC4R-KO rats (320 ± 6 vs. 347 ± 5 beats/min). Induction of diabetes increased food intake (30%) and reduced BP (∼17 mmHg) and HR (∼61 beats/min) in WT rats, while food intake, BP, and HR were reduced by ∼10%, 7 mmHg, and 33 beats/min, respectively, in MC4R-KO rats. Leptin treatment normalized blood glucose (437 ± 10 to 136 ± 18 mg/dl), reduced food intake (40%), and increased HR (+60 beats/min) and BP (+9 mmHg) in WT rats. Only modest changes in blood glucose (367 ± 16 to 326 ± 23 mg/dl), food intake (5%), HR (+16 beats/min) and BP (+4 mmHg) were observed in MC4R-KO rats. These results indicate that intact CNS MC4R signaling is necessary for leptin to exert its chronic antidiabetic, anorexic, and cardiovascular actions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Electroacupuncture Reduces Weight Gain Induced by Rosiglitazone through PPARγ and Leptin Receptor in CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyue Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA on protecting the weight gain side effect of rosiglitazone (RSG in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM rats and its possible mechanism in central nervous system (CNS. Our study showed that RSG (5 mg/kg significantly increased the body weight and food intake of the T2DM rats. After six-week treatment with RSG combined with EA, body weight, food intake, and the ratio of IWAT to body weight decreased significantly, whereas the ratio of BAT to body weight increased markedly. HE staining indicated that the T2DM-RSG rats had increased size of adipocytes in their IWAT, but EA treatment reduced the size of adipocytes. EA effectively reduced the lipid contents without affecting the antidiabetic effect of RSG. Furthermore, we noticed that the expression of PPARγ gene in hypothalamus was reduced by EA, while the expressions of leptin receptor and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 were increased. Our results suggest that EA is an effective approach for inhibiting weight gain in T2DM rats treated by RSG. The possible mechanism might be through increased levels of leptin receptor and STAT3 and decreased PPARγ expression, by which food intake of the rats was reduced and RSG-induced weight gain was inhibited.

  6. An age-dependent interaction with leptin unmasks ghrelin's bone-protective effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mutual interplay between energy homeostasis and bone metabolism is an important emerging concept. Ghrelin and leptin antagonize each other in regulating energy balance, but the role of this interaction in bone metabolism is unknown. Using ghrelin receptor and leptin-deficient mice, we show that ...

  7. The acute anorexic effect of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, does not require functional leptin receptor, serotonin, and hypothalamic POMC and CART activities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao

    2016-10-01

    The acute anorexic effect of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, did not require functional leptin receptor, serotonin, and hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin and cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript activities in mice, although decrease in functional hypothalamic orexin activity might be involved in the acute anorexic effect of liraglutide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Leptin receptor signaling inhibits ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition intake during growth strongly influences ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens, yet the underlying endocrine regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. The relevant research progress is hindered by difficulties in detection of leptin gene and its expression in the chicken. However, a functional leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in the chicken which has been implicated to play a regulatory role in ovarian follicle development and egg laying. The present study targeted LEPR by immunizing against its extracellular domain (ECD), and examined the resultant ovarian follicle development and egg-laying rate in chicken hens. Methods Hens that have been immunized four times with chicken LEPR ECD were assessed for their egg laying rate and feed intake, numbers of ovarian follicles, gene expression profiles, serum lipid parameters, as well as STAT3 signaling pathway. Results Administrations of cLEPR ECD antigen resulted in marked reductions in laying rate that over time eventually recovered to the levels exhibited by the Control hens. Together with the decrease in egg laying rate, cLEPR-immunized hens also exhibited significant reductions in feed intake, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Parallelled by reductions in feed intake, mRNA gene expression levels of AgRP, orexin, and NPY were down regulated, but of POMC, MC4R and lepR up-regulated in Immunized hen hypothalamus. cLEPR-immunization also promoted expressions of apoptotic genes such as caspase3 in theca and fas in granulosa layer, but severely depressed IGF-I expression in both theca and granulosa layers. Conclusions Immunization against cLEPR ECD in egg-laying hens generated antibodies that mimic leptin bioactivity by enhancing leptin receptor transduction. This up-regulated apoptotic gene expression in ovarian follicles, negatively regulated the expression of genes that promote follicular development

  9. Leptin receptor blockade reduces intrahepatic vascular resistance and portal pressure in an experimental model of rat liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, María Gabriela; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Marrone, Giusi; Rodríguez-Vilarrupla, Aina; Deulofeu, Ramon; Abraldes, Juan G; Bosch, Jaume; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos

    2013-10-01

    Increased hepatic vascular resistance mainly due to elevated vascular tone and to fibrosis is the primary factor in the development of portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Leptin, a hormone associated with reduction in nitric oxide bioavailability, vascular dysfunction, and liver fibrosis, is increased in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed at evaluating whether leptin influences the increased hepatic resistance in portal hypertension. CCl4-cirrhotic rats received the leptin receptor-blocker ObR antibody, or its vehicle, every other day for 1 wk. Hepatic and systemic hemodynamics were measured in both groups. Hepatic nitric oxide production and bioavailability, together with oxidative stress, nitrotyrosinated proteins, and liver fibrosis, were evaluated. In cirrhotic rats, leptin-receptor blockade significantly reduced portal pressure without modifying portal blood flow, suggesting a reduction in the intrahepatic resistance. Portal pressure reduction was associated with increased nitric oxide bioavailability and with decreased O2(-) levels and nitrotyrosinated proteins. No changes in systemic hemodynamics and liver fibrosis were observed. In conclusion, the present study shows that blockade of the leptin signaling pathway in cirrhosis significantly reduces portal pressure. This effect is probably due to a nitric oxide-mediated reduction in the hepatic vascular tone.

  10. Novel Leptin Receptor Mutations Identified in Two Girls with Severe Obesity Are Associated with Increased Bone Mineral Density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Hannema (Sabine); Wit, J.M. (Jan M.); E.C.A.M. Houdijk (Mieke); A. van Haeringen (Arie); E.C. Bik (Elsa); A. Verkerk; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.G. Kant (Sarina); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); E. Bakker (Egbert); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette); M. Losekoot (Monique)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recessive mutations in the leptin receptor (LEPR) are a rare cause of hyperphagia and severe early-onset obesity. To date, the phenotype has only been described in 25 obese children, some of whom also had altered immune function, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, reduced growth

  11. Expression and immunohistochemical localization of leptin receptor in human periapical granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, J; Carmona-Fernández, A; Pérez-Pérez, A; Sánchez-Jiménez, F; Sánchez-Margalet, V; Segura-Egea, J J

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the expression and immunohistochemical localization of leptin receptor (LEPR) in human periapical granulomas. Periapical inflammatory lesions were obtained from extracted human teeth and teeth which underwent periapical surgery. After their histopathological categorization as periapical granulomas (n = 20), they were examined by immunohistochemistry using human LEPR monoclonal antibodies. LEPR mRNA expression was also determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and the amount of LEPR protein was analysed by immunoblot. All granuloma samples expressed LEPR. Amongst inflammatory cells, only macrophages showed expression of LEPR. Western blot analysis revealed the presence in the samples of a protein with apparent molecular weight of ~120 kDa, corresponding to the estimated molecular weight of LEPR. The qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of LEPR mRNA, corresponding the size of the amplified fragment (338 bp), assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis, to that of LEPR mRNA. Human periapical granulomas express LEPR. In periapical granulomas, only macrophages showed expression of LEPR. This finding suggests that leptin can play a role in inflammatory and immune periapical responses. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Interaction between leptin and leptin receptor in gastric carcinoma: Gene ontology analysis Interacción entre la leptina y su receptor en el carcinoma gástrico: análisis de ontología genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wiwanitkit

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is a rare but important malignancy. The link between leptin, a cytokine that is elevated in obese individuals, and cancer development has been proposed. It is noted that leptin and its receptor may play a positive role in the progression in gastric cancer. However, the exact mechanism resulting form the interaction between leptin and leptin receptor has never been clarified. Here, the author used a new gene ontology technology to predict the molecular function and biological process due to the interaction between leptin and leptin receptor. Comparing to leptin and leptin receptor, the leptin-leptin receptor poses the same function and biological process as leptin receptor. This can confirm that leptin receptor has a significant suppressive effect on the expression of leptin. Loss of hormone activity and disturbance of normal cell signaling pathway of leptin can be seen. Blocking of receptor might be rational therapeutic strategy.El carcinoma gástrico es un cáncer muy poco frecuente pero importante. Se ha postulado que la leptina, una citocina que aparece elevada en las personas obesas, está relacionada con el cáncer. Se sabe que la leptina y su receptor pueden desempeñar un papel positivo en la progresión del cáncer gástrico. Sin embargo, nunca se ha dilucidado el mecanismo exacto al que daría lugar la interacción entre la leptina y el receptor de leptina. Aquí, el autor empleó una nueva tecnología de ontología genética para predecir la función molecular y el proceso biológico resultantes de la interacción entre la leptina y su receptor. Frente a la leptina y su receptor, el compuesto leptina-receptor realiza la misma función y el mismo proceso biológico que el receptor de leptina. Esto puede confirmar que el receptor de leptina ejerce un importante efecto supresor sobre la expresión de leptina. Pueden observarse una pérdida de actividad hormonal y la alteración de la vía normal de señalización celular

  13. CORRELATION BETWEEN GUT MICROBIOTA AND DEVELOPMENT OF GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE IN B6.V-Lepob/J LEPTIN DEFICIENT MICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    -Lepob/J leptin deficient mouse, a model of severe obesity and type 2 diabetes, was correlated with development of glucose intolerance. GM composition was analyzed by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), a culture independent approach, separating PCR-derived DNA amplicons of bacterial 16S r......RNA. Disease development was monitored by weekly weight and blood glucose measurements supplemented with measurements of oral glucose tolerance, HbA1c%, plasma insulin and plasma cytokines. A significant correlation was demonstrated between GM composition and glucose intolerance. Also, a significant...... correlation was found between blood glucose, HbA1c% and glucose intolerance and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12, supporting the correlation found between gut and disease, as IL-12 is secreted after microbial stimulation of immunological cells – e.g. In the gut. Further investigations concerning...

  14. Expression of mutant huntingtin in leptin receptor-expressing neurons does not control the metabolic and psychiatric phenotype of the BACHD mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Hult Lundh

    Full Text Available Metabolic and psychiatric disturbances occur early on in the clinical manifestation of Huntington's disease (HD, a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin (HTT gene. Hypothalamus has emerged as an important site of pathology and alterations in this area and its neuroendocrine circuits may play a role in causing early non-motor symptoms and signs in HD. Leptin is a hormone that controls energy homeostasis by signaling through leptin receptors in the hypothalamus. Disturbed leptin action is implicated in both obesity and depression and altered circulating levels of leptin have been reported in both clinical HD and rodent models of the disease. Pathological leptin signaling may therefore be involved in causing the metabolic and psychiatric disturbances of HD. Here we tested the hypothesis that expression of mutant HTT in leptin receptor carrying neurons plays a role in the development of the non-motor phenotype in the BACHD mouse model. Our results show that inactivation of mutant HTT in leptin receptor-expressing neurons in the BACHD mouse using cross-breeding based on a cre-loxP system did not have an effect on the metabolic phenotype or anxiety-like behavior. The data suggest that mutant HTT disrupts critical hypothalamic pathways by other mechanisms than interfering with intracellular leptin signaling.

  15. In ovo leptin administration modulates glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression specifically in the hypothalamus of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lixia; Wang, Yufeng; Hu, Yan; Zhao, Ruqian

    2017-01-18

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is well documented to play a crucial role in the central control of energy homeostasis in mammals. However, the distribution and function of the GR in the chicken brain are less clear. Leptin is a key hormone regulating energy homeostasis in mammals, yet its action in the chicken is still under debate. In this study, the distribution of GR mRNA in the chicken brain and the effects of in ovo administration of leptin and its antagonist on early post-hatch growth and GR mRNA expression in different hypothalamic nuclei were investigated via in situ hybridization (ISH) and quantitative PCR. GR mRNA was widely expressed in the chicken brain, mainly in the corpus striatum, nucleus rotundus, dorsolateral nucleus, nucleus ovoidalis, nucleus reticularis superior and the hippocampus (Hp) and in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. High doses of leptin (5.0μg) significantly promoted post-hatch growth, resulting in a significant high body weight increased by 24.64% at day (D) 21 of life. Meanwhile, hypothalamic expression of GR mRNA in the LL and HL groups was down-regulated significantly by 7.02% and 13.65% respectively (Phypothalamus of D21 broiler chickens. The leptin antagonist was able to reverse the effect of leptin on the growth rate and hypothalamic GR mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that in ovo administration of leptin influences early post-hatch growth and the hypothalamic expression of GR mRNA in broiler chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-11-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Variability in the leptin, leptin receptor and heart fatty acid binding protein genes in relationship with meat quality traits in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mikolášová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The leptin (LEP-HinfI, leptin receptor (LEPR-HpaII and heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP-HinfI genes and their genotypes combination (LEP-HinfI *LEPR-HpaII were tested for associations with the pH1, pH24, myoglobin content (mg/100 g, intramuscular fat content (% and remission (%. The genotypes were determined in Large White, Landrace and Duroc breeds (n = 106, 56 and 4, respectively. The allele frequencies were: LEP-HinfI: C = 0.133 T = 0.867; LEPR-HpaII: A = 0.331 B = 0.669; H-FABP-HinfI: H = 0.745 h = 0.255. The populations of breeds were in the genetic equilibrium according to the χ2 test in the tested loci. The combinations of LEP-HinfI and LEPR-HpaII were significantly associated with the pH24 and remission. The H-FABP-HinfI locus was significantly associated with intramuscular fat content.

  18. Leptin Enhances NR2B-mediated NMDA Responses Via a MAPK-dependent Process in Cerebellar Granule Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, A. J.; Wallace, L; Durakoglugil, D; Harvey, J.

    2006-01-01

    It is well documented that the hormone leptin regulates energy balance via its actions in the hypothalamus. However, evidence is accumulating that leptin plays a key role in numerous CNS functions. Indeed, leptin receptors are expressed in many extrahypothalamic brain regions, with high levels found in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In the hippocampus, leptin has been shown to facilitate NMDA receptor function and modulate synaptic plasticity. A role for leptin in cerebellar function is also indicated as leptin-deficient rodents display reduced mobility that is unrelated to obesity. Here we show that leptin receptor immunolabeling can be detected in cultured cerebellar granule cells, being expressed at the somatic plasma membrane and also concentrated at synapses. Furthermore, leptin facilitated NR2B NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx in cerebellar granule cells via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. These findings provide the first direct evidence for a cellular action of leptin in cerebellar neurons. In addition, given that NMDA receptor activity in the cerebellum is crucial for normal locomotor function, these data also have important implications for the potential role of leptin in the control of movement. PMID:16413128

  19. Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation through activating the NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wen-Zhu [Anesthesia and Operation Center, Hainan Branch of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Hainan 572013 (China); Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Miao, Yu-Liang [Department of Anesthesiology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Wen-Zhi [Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Military General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100700 (China); Wu, Wei, E-mail: wwzwgk@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Otolaryngology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Li, Bao-Wei [Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Otolaryngology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); An, Li-Na [Department of Anesthesiology, Armed Police General Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Fang, Wei-Wu [Department of Anesthesiology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Mi, Wei-Dong, E-mail: elite2005gg@163.com [Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • Leptin promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells isolated from embryonic mouse hippocampus. • Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation. • The effects of leptin are partially mediated by upregulating NR2B subunits. - Abstract: Corticosterone inhibits the proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The removal of corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation has been reported to contribute to neural regeneration. Leptin has been shown to regulate brain development, improve angiogenesis, and promote neural regeneration; however, its effects on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation remain unclear. Here we reported that leptin significantly promoted the proliferation of hippocampal NSCs in a concentration-dependent pattern. Also, leptin efficiently reversed the inhibition of NSCs proliferation induced by corticosterone. Interestingly, pre-treatment with non-specific NMDA antagonist MK-801, specific NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NR2B, significantly blocked the effect of leptin on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. Furthermore, corticosterone significantly reduced the protein expression of NR2B, whereas pre-treatment with leptin greatly reversed the attenuation of NR2B expression caused by corticosterone in cultured hippocampal NSCs. Our findings demonstrate that leptin reverses the corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. This process is, at least partially mediated by increased expression of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors.

  20. Somato-dendritic localization and signaling by leptin receptors in hypothalamic POMC and AgRP neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangdeuk Ha

    Full Text Available Leptin acts via neuronal leptin receptors to control energy balance. Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and agouti-related peptide (AgRP/Neuropeptide Y (NPY/GABA neurons produce anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, and express the long signaling form of the leptin receptor (LepRb. Despite progress in the understanding of LepRb signaling and function, the sub-cellular localization of LepRb in target neurons has not been determined, primarily due to lack of sensitive anti-LepRb antibodies. Here we applied light microscopy (LM, confocal-laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, and electron microscopy (EM to investigate LepRb localization and signaling in mice expressing a HA-tagged LepRb selectively in POMC or AgRP/NPY/GABA neurons. We report that LepRb receptors exhibit a somato-dendritic expression pattern. We further show that LepRb activates STAT3 phosphorylation in neuronal fibers within several hypothalamic and hindbrain nuclei of wild-type mice and rats, and specifically in dendrites of arcuate POMC and AgRP/NPY/GABA neurons of Leprb (+/+ mice and in Leprb (db/db mice expressing HA-LepRb in a neuron specific manner. We did not find evidence of LepRb localization or STAT3-signaling in axon-fibers or nerve-terminals of POMC and AgRP/NPY/GABA neurons. Three-dimensional serial EM-reconstruction of dendritic segments from POMC and AgRP/NPY/GABA neurons indicates a high density of shaft synapses. In addition, we found that the leptin activates STAT3 signaling in proximity to synapses on POMC and AgRP/NPY/GABA dendritic shafts. Taken together, these data suggest that the signaling-form of the leptin receptor exhibits a somato-dendritic expression pattern in POMC and AgRP/NPY/GABA neurons. Dendritic LepRb signaling may therefore play an important role in leptin's central effects on energy balance, possibly through modulation of synaptic activity via post-synaptic mechanisms.

  1. Osteoarthitis of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice in response to biomechanical loading in micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heep, Hansjoerg; Hilken, Gero; Hofmeister, Sebastian; Wedemeyer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    these data as body weight increases in OP mices. The correlation of the hip-joint between micro-CT data and osteoarthritis shows a decrease in these data as osteoarthritis increases in OP mices. The correlation of the knee-joint between micro-CT data and body weight shows differencies between ON and OP mices. The correlation of the knee-joint between micro-CT data and osteoarthritis shows an increase in these data as osteoarthritis increases in OP mices. biomechanical loading led to decreased bone mineral density by a decrease in the number of trabeculae. Trabecular thickness was not increased by biomechanical loading in growing mice. Decreased body weight in leptin-deficient mice protects against bone loss. This finding is consistent with the principle of light-weight construction of bone. Differences in osteoarthritis-positive and osteoarthritis-negative mices show the eventual importance of diet in leptin-deficience. It is not possible to conclude that these results also apply to human beings.

  2. Differences in trabecular bone of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice in response to biomechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heep, Hansjoerg; Wedemeyer, Christian; Wegner, Alexander; Hofmeister, Sebastian; von Knoch, Marius

    2008-06-15

    It is known that bone mineral density (BMD) and the strength of bone is predicted by body mass. Fat mass is a significant predictor of bone mineral density which correlates with body weight. This suggests that body fat regulates bone metabolism first by means of hormonal factors and second that the effects of muscle and loading are signaling factors in mechanotransduction. Leptin, a peptide hormone produced predominantly by white fat cells, is one of these hormonal factors. The aim of this study was to investigate and measure by micro-CT the different effects of weight-bearing on trabecular bone formation in mice without the stimulation of leptin. Animals with an ad-libitum-diet (Group A) were found to increase body weight significantly at the age of six weeks in comparison with lean mice (Group B). From this point on, the difference increased constantly. At the age of twenty weeks the obese mice were almost twice as heavy as the lean mice. Significant statistical differences are shown between the two groups for body weight and bone mineral density. Examination of trabecular bone (BV/TV, trabecular number (Tb.N.), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.)) revealed that the only statistically significant difference between the two groups was the Tb.N. for the proximal femur. High weight-bearing insignificantly improved all trabecular bone parameters in the obese mice. Compared with the control-diet Group B, the BV/TV and Tb.N. were slightly higher in the controlled-diet Group A, but not the Tb.Th.. However, correlation was found between Tb.N. and BMD on the one hand and body weight on the other hand. biomechanical loading led to decreased bone mineral density by a decrease in the number of trabeculae. Trabecular thickness was not increased by biomechanical loading in growing mice. Decreased body weight in leptin-deficient mice protects against bone loss. This finding is consistent with the principle of light-weight construction of bone. Differences in cortical and trabecular

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 couples cyclo-oxygenase-2 with pro-angiogenic actions of leptin on human endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Garonna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin influences the behaviour of a wide range of cell types and is now recognised as a pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory factor. In the vasculature, these effects are mediated in part through its direct leptin receptor (ObRb-driven actions on endothelial cells (ECs but the mechanisms responsible for these activities have not been established. In this study we sought to more fully define the molecular links between inflammatory and angiogenic responses of leptin-stimulated human ECs.Immunoblotting studies showed that leptin increased cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression (but not COX-1 in cultured human umbilical vein ECs (HUVEC through pathways that depend upon activation of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38(MAPK and Akt, and stimulated rapid phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 on Tyr(1175. Phosphorylation of VEGFR2, p38(MAPK and Akt, and COX-2 induction in cells challenged with leptin were blocked by a specific leptin peptide receptor antagonist. Pharmacological inhibitors of COX-2, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway and p38(MAPK abrogated leptin-induced EC proliferation (assessed by quantifying 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, calcein fluorescence and propidium iodide staining, slowed the increased migration rate of leptin-stimulated cells (in vitro wound healing assay and inhibited leptin-induced capillary-like tube formation by HUVEC on Matrigel. Inhibition of VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase activity reduced leptin-stimulated p38(MAPK and Akt activation, COX-2 induction, and pro-angiogenic EC responses, and blockade of VEGFR2 or COX-2 activities abolished leptin-driven neo-angiogenesis in a chick chorioallantoic membrane vascularisation assay in vivo.We conclude that a functional endothelial p38(MAPK/Akt/COX-2 signalling axis is required for leptin's pro-angiogenic actions and that this is regulated upstream by ObRb-dependent activation of VEGFR2

  4. Acute sleep fragmentation does not alter pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in brain or peripheral tissues of leptin-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Dumaine

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and sleep fragmentation (SF are often co-occurring pro-inflammatory conditions in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Leptin is a peptide hormone produced by adipocytes that has anorexigenic effects upon appetite while regulating immunity. The role of leptin in mediating inflammatory responses to SF is incompletely understood. Male C57BL/6j (lean and ob/ob mice (leptin-deficient mice exhibiting obese phenotype were subjected to SF or control conditions for 24 h using an automated SF chamber. Trunk blood and tissue samples from the periphery (liver, spleen, fat, and heart and brain (hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus were collected. Quantitative PCR was used to determine relative cytokine gene expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, TNF-α and anti-inflammatory (TGF-β1 cytokines. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine serum corticosterone concentration. Ob/ob mice exhibited elevated cytokine gene expression in liver (TNF-α, TGF-β1, heart (TGF-β1, fat (TNF-α, and brain (hippocampus, hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex: IL-1β, TNF-α compared with wild-type mice. Conversely, leptin deficiency decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in heart (IL-1β, TNF-α. SF significantly increased IL-1β and TNF-α gene expression in fat and TGF-β1 expression in spleen relative to controls, but only in wild-type mice. SF increased basal serum corticosterone regardless of genotype. Taken together, these findings suggest that leptin deficiency affects cytokine gene expression differently in the brain compared to peripheral tissues with minimal interaction from acute SF.

  5. Orexin A/Hypocretin Modulates Leptin Receptor-Mediated Signaling by Allosteric Modulations Mediated by the Ghrelin GHS-R1A Receptor in Hypothalamic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Mireia; Aguinaga, David; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canela, Enric I; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Franco, Rafael

    2017-07-17

    The hypothalamus is a key integrator of nutrient-seeking signals in the form of hormones and metabolites originated in both the central nervous system and the periphery. The main autocrine and paracrine target of orexinergic-related hormones such as leptin, orexin/hypocretin, and ghrelin are neuropeptide Y neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and the molecular and functional relationships between leptin, orexin/hypocretin and ghrelin receptors. Biophysical studies in a heterologous system showed physical interactions between them, with potential formation of heterotrimeric complexes. Functional assays showed robust allosteric interactions particularly different when the three receptors are expressed together. Further biochemical and pharmacological assays provided evidence of heterotrimer functional expression in primary cultures of hypothalamic neurons. These findings constitute evidence of close relationships in the action of the three hormones already starting at the receptor level in hypothalamic cells.

  6. Leptin receptor interacts with rat chromosome 1 to regulate renal disease traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gularte-Mérida, Rodrigo; Fisler, Janis S.; Hansen, Susan; Shibata, Noreene; Le, Anh; Medrano, Juan F.; Stern, Judith S.

    2012-01-01

    Linkage mapping in a backcross of {Brown Norway [BN/Crl (BN)] × ZUC-Lepr faSte (ZUC)} × ZUC identified a male-specific quantitative trait locus (QTL) for urinary albumin excretion (UAE) on rat chromosome 1. A homozygous ZUC.BN-(D1Rat42-D1Rat90)/Ste congenic was produced containing BN donor alleles from 135 to 276 Mb from chromosome 1 on the ZUC background. We observed threefold higher urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (ACR) in 15-wk-old Zucker background strain males than in same sex and age congenic animals when both strains are also homozygous for the ZUC leptin receptor fatty mutation (Lepr faSte) (P < 0.0001). We then linkage mapped within the donor region without confounded effects from other chromosomes. Phenotypes were collected in 248 F2 male rats in a population made by crossing parents heterozygous for both the BN donor region and ZUC Lepr faSte. Significant interactions were observed between the Lepr genotype and chromosome 1 QTL for six renal traits: urine volume, UAE at 10 and 15 wk, ACR, right kidney weight, and plasma urea nitrogen. A few traits, such as UAE and ACR, exhibit a second peak at the distal end of the chromosome. Hydronephrosis exhibited one or two QTLs contingent on adjustment for body weight. The results now demonstrate at least two sets of coincident traits with different correlations to kidney function. PMID:22968639

  7. [Association between feeding behavior, and genetic polymorphism of leptin and its receptor in obese Chilean children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Macarena; Obregón, Ana María; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Burrows, Raquel; Patiño, Ana; Ho-Urriola, Judith; Santos, José Luis

    2014-09-12

    Leptin (LEP) is mainly produced in adipose tissue and acts in the hypothalamus to regulate energy intake. Mutations in the LEP gene or its receptor (LEPR) that produce monogenic obesity are infrequent. However, LEP and LEPR polymorphisms have been associated with obesity multifactorial, due to the association found with body weight and eating behavior. Measure the association between LEP and LEPR polymorphisms with childhood obesity and eating behavior. 221 Chilean obese children (BMI above the 95th percentile) were recruited. Parents of 134 of these children were also recruited to determine the association between LEP and LEPR polymorphisms with obesity in a case study-parent trio. Eating behavior was measured through the questionnaire of three factors progenitors' version (TFEQ-P19) and eating behavior in children (CEBQ). No significant difference between the studied polymorphisms and childhood obesity, after correction for multiple comparisons, was observed. The dimensions; "Slow eating", "emotional eating", "enjoyment of food" and "uncontrolling eating" were significant associated with certain polymorphisms of LEP and LEPR. There would be an association between polymorphisms of the LEP and LEPR genes with eating behavior in Chilean obese children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. The Gln223Arg polymorphism in the leptin receptor is associated with familial combined hyperlipidemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, G.M. van der; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Hijmans, A.G.M.; Blom, H.J.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Graaf, J. de

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is characterized by elevated levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and apolipoprotein B (apo B) and is associated with premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Other features of FCH are obesity and insulin resistance. Serum leptin

  9. Leptin receptor (Ob-R) mRNA expression and serum leptin concentration in patients with colorectal and metastatic colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkasap, N.; Ozkurt, M.; Erkasap, S.; Yasar, F.; Uzuner, K.; Ihtiyar, E.; Uslu, S.; Kara, M.; Bolluk, O.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin on the progression of colorectal carcinoma to metastatic disease by analyzing the serum leptin concentration and Ob-R gene expression in colon cancer tissues. Tissue samples were obtained from 31 patients who underwent surgical resection for colon (18 cases) and metastatic colon (13 cases) cancer. Serum leptin concentration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Ob-R mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for both groups. ELISA data were analyzed by the Student t-test and RT-PCR data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. RT-PCR results demonstrated that mRNA expression of Ob-R in human metastatic colorectal cancer was higher than in local colorectal cancer tissues. On the other hand, mean serum leptin concentration was significantly higher in local colorectal cancer patients compared to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The results of the present study suggest a role for leptin in the progression of colon cancer to metastatic disease without weight loss. In other words, significantly increased Ob-R mRNA expression and decreased serum leptin concentration in patients with metastatic colon cancer indicate that sensitization to leptin activity may be a major indicator of metastasis to the colon tissue and the determination of leptin concentration and leptin gene expression may be used to aid the diagnosis

  10. Leptin differentially regulates chondrogenesis in mouse vertebral and tibial growth plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Jiang, Kaibiao; Chen, Bin; Wang, Hantao; Li, Xinfeng; Liu, Zude

    2017-05-31

    Leptin plays an important role in mediating chondrogenesis of limb growth plate. Previous studies suggest that bone structures and development of spine and limb are different. The expression of Ob-Rb, the gene that encodes leptin receptors, is vertebral and appendicular region-specific, suggesting the regulation of leptin on VGP and TGP chondrogenesis may be very different. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential regulation of leptin on the chondrogenesis of vertebral growth plate (VGP) and tibial growth plate (TGP). We compared the VGP and TGP from wild type (C57BL/6) and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. We then generated primary cultures of TGP and VGP chondrocytes. By treating the primary cells with different concentrations of leptin in vitro, we analyzed proliferation and apoptosis of the primary chondrocytes from TGP and VGP. We further measured expression of chondrogenic-related genes in these cells that had been incubated with different doses of leptin. Leptin-deficient mice of 8-week-old had shorter tibial and longer vertebral lengths than the wide type mice. Disturbed columnar structure was observed for TGP but not for VGP. In primary chondrocyte cultures, leptin inhibited VGP chondrocyte proliferation but promoted their apoptosis. Collagen IIA and aggrecan mRNA, and the protein levels of proliferation- and chondrogenesis-related markers, including PCNA, Sox9, and Smad4, were downregulated by leptin in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, leptin stimulated the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of TGP chondrocytes at physiological levels (i.e., 10 and 50 ng/mL) but not at high levels (i.e., 100 and 1000 ng/mL). Leptin exerts a stimulatory effect on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of the long bone growth plate but an inhibitory effect on the spine growth plate. The ongoing study will shed light on the regulatory mechanisms of leptin in bone development and metabolism.

  11. Expressão do gene da leptina e seu receptor Ob-Rb no parênquima mamário de novilhas leiteiras Leptin and leptin receptor Ob-Rb gene expression in mammary parenchyma of dairy heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Joyce Lew

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de uma dieta de alto nível de energia e proteína combinada com a aplicação de bST no perfil de expressão dos genes da leptina e de seu receptor Ob-Rb no parênquima mamário de novilhas leiteiras. Foram utilizadas amostras de parênquima mamário de 32 novilhas holandesas distribuídas aleatoriamente em quatro tratamentos (n=8: dieta com alto ou baixo teor de energia e proteína combinada ou não com a aplicação de bST. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com arranjo de tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 × 2. A extração do RNA total das amostras de tecido foi feita e o nível de expressão gênica foi analisado por qRT-PCR utilizando-se o gene da glicuronidase β como controle, pelo método 2-ΔΔCt. Animais que receberam a dieta com alto conteúdo de energia e proteína apresentaram maior expressão de mRNA de leptina, com aumento de 56%, e menor expressão de mRNA do receptor Ob-Rb, com redução de 18%. Por outro lado, a aplicação de bST resultou em diminuição da expressão do mRNA de leptina e do receptor Ob-Rb em 74% e 23%, respectivamente. Não houve interação entre dieta e aplicação de bST. O aumento na expressão de leptina pode explicar, ao menos em parte, os efeitos negativos da dieta de alta energia e proteína, oferecida no período pré-púbere, sobre a produção de leite de novilhas leiteiras.The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a diet with high level of energy and protein, combined with bST injections, on leptin and leptin-receptor (Ob-Rb gene expression profile in the mammary parenchyma of dairy heifers. Mammary parenchyma samples from 32 Holstein heifers, randomly assigned to one of four treatments (n=8, were utilized: high or low energy and protein diet, with or without bST injection. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks and arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Total RNA was extracted from tissue samples

  12. Altered glucose homeostasis and hepatic function in obese mice deficient for both kinin receptor genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos C Barros

    Full Text Available The Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS has been implicated in several aspects of metabolism, including the regulation of glucose homeostasis and adiposity. Kinins and des-Arg-kinins are the major effectors of this system and promote their effects by binding to two different receptors, the kinin B2 and B1 receptors, respectively. To understand the influence of the KKS on the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM, we generated an animal model deficient for both kinin receptor genes and leptin (obB1B2KO. Six-month-old obB1B2KO mice showed increased blood glucose levels. Isolated islets of the transgenic animals were more responsive to glucose stimulation releasing greater amounts of insulin, mainly in 3-month-old mice, which was corroborated by elevated serum C-peptide concentrations. Furthermore, they presented hepatomegaly, pronounced steatosis, and increased levels of circulating transaminases. This mouse also demonstrated exacerbated gluconeogenesis during the pyruvate challenge test. The hepatic abnormalities were accompanied by changes in the gene expression of factors linked to glucose and lipid metabolisms in the liver. Thus, we conclude that kinin receptors are important for modulation of insulin secretion and for the preservation of normal glucose levels and hepatic functions in obese mice, suggesting a protective role of the KKS regarding complications associated with obesity and T2DM.

  13. Leptin enhances NR2B-mediated N-methyl-D-aspartate responses via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent process in cerebellar granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, A J; Wallace, L; Durakoglugil, D; Harvey, J

    2006-01-01

    It is well documented that the hormone leptin regulates energy balance via its actions in the hypothalamus. However, evidence is accumulating that leptin plays a key role in numerous CNS functions. Indeed, leptin receptors are expressed in many extrahypothalamic brain regions, with high levels found in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In the hippocampus leptin has been shown to facilitate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function and modulate synaptic plasticity. A role for leptin in cerebellar function is also indicated as leptin-deficient rodents display reduced mobility that is unrelated to obesity. Here we show that leptin receptor immunolabeling can be detected in cultured cerebellar granule cells, being expressed at the somatic plasma membrane and also concentrated at synapses. Furthermore, leptin facilitated NR2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx in cerebellar granule cells via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. These findings provide the first direct evidence for a cellular action of leptin in cerebellar neurons. In addition, given that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity in the cerebellum is crucial for normal locomotor function, these data also have important implications for the potential role of leptin in the control of movement.

  14. Modulation of sweet taste sensitivities by endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Mayu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Piomelli, Daniele; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-06-01

    Potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste were examined by using pharmacological antagonists and mouse models including leptin receptor deficient (db/db) and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses of lean mice to sweet compounds were increased after administration of leptin antagonist (LA) but not affected by administration of cannabinoid receptor antagonist (AM251). db/db mice showed clear suppression of CT responses to sweet compounds after AM251, increased endocannabinoid levels in the taste organ, and enhanced expression of a biosynthesizing enzyme of endocannabinoids in taste cells. The effect of LA was gradually decreased and that of AM251 was increased during the course of obesity in DIO mice. These findings suggest that circulating leptin, but not local endocannabinoids, is a dominant modulator for sweet taste in lean mice and endocannabinoids become more effective modulators of sweet taste under conditions of deficient leptin signalling. Leptin is an anorexigenic mediator that reduces food intake by acting on hypothalamic receptor Ob-Rb. In contrast, endocannabinoids are orexigenic mediators that act via cannabinoid CB1 receptors in hypothalamus, limbic forebrain, and brainstem. In the peripheral taste system, leptin administration selectively inhibits behavioural, taste nerve and taste cell responses to sweet compounds. Opposing the action of leptin, endocannabinoids enhance sweet taste responses. However, potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste remain unclear. Here, we used pharmacological antagonists (Ob-Rb: L39A/D40A/F41A (LA), CB1 : AM251) and examined the effects of their blocking activation of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoid signalling on taste responses in lean control, leptin receptor deficient db/db, and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Lean mice exhibited significant increases in chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet compounds after LA

  15. The Expression of Leptin, Estrogen Receptors, and Vitellogenin mRNAs in Migrating Female Chum Salmon, : The Effects of Hypo-osmotic Environmental Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jae Choi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptin plays an important role in energy homeostasis and reproductive function in fish, especially in reproduction. Migrating fish, such as salmonoids, are affected by external environmental factors, and salinity changes are a particularly important influence on spawning migrations. The aim of this study was to test whether changes in salinity affect the expression of leptin, estrogen receptors (ERs, and vitellogenin (VTG in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta. The expression and activity of leptin, the expression of ERs and VTG, and the levels of estradiol-17β and cortisol increased after the fish were transferred to FW, demonstrating that changes in salinity stimulate the HPG axis in migrating female chum salmon. These findings reveal details about the role of elevated leptin levels and sex steroid hormones in stimulating sexual maturation and reproduction in response to salinity changes in chum salmon.

  16. Leptin deficient ob/ob mice and diet-induced obese mice responded differently to Roux-en-Y bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z; Münzberg, H; Rezai-Zadeh, K; Keenan, M; Coulon, D; Lu, H; Berthoud, H-R; Ye, J

    2015-05-01

    Weight regain contributes to the therapeutic failure in 15-20% of type 2 diabetic patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), and the mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to explore the mechanism of weight regain. Wild-type (WT) diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were used to mimic human obesity, and ob/ob mice were used for leptin deficiency-induced obesity. Two groups of mice were compared in weight regain for 10 months after RYGB. Weight loss, food intake, fecal energy loss and energy expenditure were monitored in the study of weight regain. Fasting insulin, insulin tolerance and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance were tested for insulin sensitivity under the weight regain. Weight loss from RYGB and calorie restriction was compared for the impact in insulin sensitivity. In WT mice, RYGB induced a sustained weight loss and insulin sensitization over the sham operation in this 10-month study. However, RYGB failed to generate the same effects in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, which suffered a weight regain over the pre-surgery level. In ob/ob mice, body weight was reduced by RYGB transiently in the first week, recovered in the second week and increased over the baseline thereafter. Weight loss was induced by RYGB relative to that of sham mice, but the loss was not sufficient to keep body weight below the pre-surgery levels. In addition, insulin sensitivity was not improved by the weight loss. The response to RYGB was improved in ob/ob mice by 2 weeks of leptin treatment. Weight loss from calorie restriction had an equivalent effect on insulin sensitization compared with that of RYGB. Those data demonstrate that ob/ob mice and DIO mice responded differently to RYGB surgery, suggesting that leptin may be one of the factors required for RYGB to prevent weight regain and diabetes recurrence.

  17. The inhibitory effect of combination treatment with leptin and cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist on food intake and body weight gain is mediated by serotonin 1B and 2C receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Juszczak, M; Drobnik, J; Bojanowska, E

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies reported that the co-injection of leptin and cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists reduces food intake and body weight in rats, and this effect is more profound than that induced by these compounds individually. Additionally, serotonin mediates the effects of numerous anorectic drugs. To investigate whether serotonin interacts with leptin and endocannabinoids to affect food intake and body weight, we administered 5-hydroxytryptamine(HT)1B and 5-hydroxytryptamine(HT)2C serotonin receptor antagonists (3 mg/kg GR 127935 and 0.5 mg/kg SB 242084, respectively) to male Wistar rats treated simultaneously with leptin (100 μg/kg) and the CB1 receptor inverse agonist AM 251 (1 mg/kg) for 3 days. In accordance with previous findings, the co-injection of leptin and AM 251, but not the individual injection of each drug, resulted in a significant decrease in food intake and body weight gain. Blockade of the 5-HT1B and 5-HT2C receptors completely abolished the leptin- and AM 251-induced anorectic and body-weight-reducing effects. These results suggest that serotonin mediates the leptin- and AM 251-dependent regulation of feeding behavior in rats via the 5-HT1B and 5-HT2C receptors.

  18. Automated pipeline to analyze non-contact infrared images of the paraventricular nucleus specific leptin receptor knock-out mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Martinez, Myriam; Ghamari-Langroudi, Masoud; Gifford, Aliya; Cone, Roger; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    Evidence of leptin resistance is indicated by elevated leptin levels together with other hallmarks of obesity such as a defect in energy homeostasis.1 As obesity is an increasing epidemic in the US, the investigation of mechanisms by which leptin resistance has a pathophysiological impact on energy is an intensive field of research.2 However, the manner in which leptin resistance contributes to the dysregulation of energy, specifically thermoregulation,3 is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the leptin receptor expressed in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons plays a role in thermoregulation at different temperatures. Non-contact infrared (NCIR) thermometry was employed to measure surface body temperature (SBT) of nonanesthetized mice with a specific deletion of the leptin receptor in the PVN after exposure to room (25 °C) and cold (4 °C) temperature. Dorsal side infrared images of wild type (LepRwtwt/sim1-Cre), heterozygous (LepRfloxwt/sim1-Cre) and knock-out (LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre) mice were collected. Images were input to an automated post-processing pipeline developed in MATLAB to calculate average and maximum SBTs. Linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between sex, cold exposure and leptin genotype with SBT measurements. Findings indicate that average SBT has a negative relationship to the LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre genotype, the female sex and cold exposure. However, max SBT is affected by the LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre genotype and the female sex. In conclusion this data suggests that leptin within the PVN may have a neuroendocrine role in thermoregulation and that NCIR thermometry combined with an automated imaging-processing pipeline is a promising approach to determine SBT in non-anesthetized mice.

  19. Reduction of obesity, as induced by leptin, reverses endothelial dysfunction in obese (Lep(ob)) mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, B.; Mo, Z.; Brooks-Asplund, E.; Kim, S.; Shoukas, A.; Li, D.; Nyhan, D.; Berkowitz, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    Obesity is a major health care problem and is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity. Leptin, a neuroendocrine hormone released by adipose tissue, is important in modulating obesity by signaling satiety and increasing metabolism. Moreover, leptin receptors are expressed on vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and mediate angiogenesis. We hypothesized that leptin may also play an important role in vasoregulation. We investigated vasoregulatory mechanisms in the leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mouse model and determined the influence of leptin replacement on endothelial-dependent vasorelaxant responses. The direct effect of leptin on EC nitric oxide (NO) production was also tested by using 4, 5-diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate staining and measurement of nitrate and nitrite concentrations. Vasoconstrictor responses to phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and U-46619 were markedly enhanced in aortic rings from ob/ob mice and were modulated by NO synthase inhibition. Vasorelaxant responses to ACh were markedly attenuated in mesenteric microvessels from ob/ob mice. Leptin replacement resulted in significant weight loss and reversal of the impaired endothelial-dependent vasorelaxant responses observed in ob/ob mice. Preincubation of ECs with leptin enhanced the release of NO production. Thus leptin-deficient ob/ob mice demonstrate marked abnormalities in vasoregulation, including impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilation, which is reversed by leptin replacement. These findings may be partially explained by the direct effect of leptin on endothelial NO production. These vascular abnormalities are similar to those observed in obese, diabetic, leptin-resistant humans. The ob/ob mouse may, therefore, be an excellent new model for the study of the cardiovascular effects of obesity.

  20. Physiology of leptin: energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahima, Rexford S

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, metabolism, immune function and other systems through its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Leptin administration has been shown to restore metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities in individuals with leptin-deficient states, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. In contrast, obese individuals are resistant to leptin. Recombinant leptin is beneficial in patients with congenital leptin deficiency or generalized lipodystrophy. However, further research on molecular mediators of leptin resistance is needed for the development of targeted leptin sensitizing therapies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Leptin reverses hyperglycemia and hyperphagia in insulin deficient diabetic rats by pituitary-independent central nervous system actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre A da Silva

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis has been postulated to play a major role in mediating the antidiabetic effects of leptin. We tested if the pituitary is essential for the chronic central nervous system mediated actions of leptin on metabolic and cardiovascular function in insulin-dependent diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Male 12-week-old hypophysectomized Sprague-Dawley rats (Hypo, n = 5 were instrumented with telemetry probes for determination of mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR 24-hrs/day and an intracerebroventricular (ICV cannula was placed into the brain lateral ventricle for continuous leptin infusion. In additional groups of Hypo and control rats (n = 5/group, diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, IP. Hypo rats were lighter, had lower MAP and HR (83±4 and 317±2 vs 105±4 mmHg and 339±4 bpm, with similar caloric intake per kilogram of body weight and fasting plasma glucose levels (84±4 vs 80±4 mg/dl compared to controls. Chronic ICV leptin infusion (7 days, 0.62 μg/hr in non-diabetic rats reduced caloric intake and body weight (-10% in Hypo and control rats and markedly increased HR in control rats (~25 bpm while causing only modest HR increases in Hypo rats (8 bpm. In diabetic Hypo and control rats, leptin infusion reduced caloric intake, body weight and glucose levels (323±74 to 99±20 and 374±27 to 108±10 mg/dl, respectively; however, the effects of leptin on HR were abolished in Hypo rats. These results indicate that hypophysectomy attenuates leptin's effect on HR regulation without altering leptin's ability to suppress appetite or normalize glucose levels in diabetes.

  2. Transactivation of ErbB receptors by leptin in the cardiovascular system: mechanisms, consequences and target for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jazmroz-Wiśniewska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Many experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that elevated leptin concentration in patients with obesity/metabolic syndrome contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders including arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, restenosis after coronary angioplasty and myocardial hypertrophy. Receptor tyrosine kinases belonging to the ErbB family, especially ErbB1 (epidermal growth factor receptor) and ErbB2 are abundantly expressed in the blood vessels and the heart. EGFR is activated not only by its multiple peptide ligands but also by many other factors including angiotensin II, endothelin-1, norepinephrine, thrombin and prorenin; the phenomenon referred to as "transactivation". Augmented EGFR signaling contributes to abnormalities of vascular tone and renal sodium handling as well as vascular remodeling and myocardial hypertrophy through various intracellular mechanisms, in particular extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Recent experimental studies indicate that chronically elevated leptin transactivates the EGFR through the mechanisms requiring reactive oxygen species and cytosolic tyrosine kinase, c-Src. In addition, hyperleptinemia increases ErbB2 activity in the arterial wall. Stimulation of EGFR and ErbB2 downstream signaling pathways such as ERK and PI3K in the vascular wall and the kidney may contribute to the increase in vascular tone, enhanced tubular sodium reabsorption as well as vascular and renal lesions in hyperleptinemic obese subjects.

  3. Genetic polymorphism of exon 9-11 of the leptin gene receptor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... pothalamic NPY (orexigenic effector) to inhibit ingestive behavior (Schwartz et al., 1997). Several studies have shown that .... Almeidate EA, Almeida JC, Morqes F, Weimer T (2003). Molecular marker in the leptin gene and reproductive performance of beef cattle. J. Anin. Endo. 9(2): 106-120. Bado A ...

  4. GH Receptor Deficiency in Ecuadorian Adults Is Associated With Obesity and Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Arlan L.; Balasubramanian, Priya; Teran, Enrique; Guevara-Aguirre, Marco; Guevara, Carolina; Procel, Patricio; Alfaras, Irene; De Cabo, Rafael; Di Biase, Stefano; Narvaez, Luis; Saavedra, Jannette

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ecuadorian subjects with GH receptor deficiency (GHRD) have not developed diabetes, despite obesity. Objective: We sought to determine the metabolic associations for this phenomenon. Design: Four studies were carried out: 1) glucose, lipid, adipocytokine concentrations; 2) metabolomics evaluation; 3) metabolic responses to a high-calorie meal; and 4) oral glucose tolerance tests. Setting: Clinical Research Institute in Quito, Ecuador. Subjects: Adults homozygous for the E180 splice mutation of the GH receptor (GHRD) were matched for age, gender, and body mass index with unaffected control relatives (C) as follows: study 1, 27 GHRD and 35 C; study 2, 10 GHRD and 10 C; study 3, seven GHRD and 11 C; and study 4, seven GHRD and seven C. Results: Although GHRD subjects had greater mean percentage body fat than controls, their fasting insulin, 2-hour blood glucose, and triglyceride levels were lower. The indicator of insulin sensitivity, homeostasis model of assessment 2%S, was greater (P < .0001), and the indicator of insulin resistance, homeostasis model of assessment 2-IR, was lower (P = .0025). Metabolomic differences between GHRD and control subjects were consistent with their differing insulin sensitivity, including postprandial decreases of branched-chain amino acids that were more pronounced in controls. High molecular weight and total adiponectin concentrations were greater in GHRD (P = .0004 and P = .0128, respectively), and leptin levels were lower (P = .02). Although approximately 65% the weight of controls, GHRD subjects consumed an identical high-calorie meal; nonetheless, their mean glucose concentrations were lower, with mean insulin levels one-third those of controls. Results of the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test were similar. Main Outcome Measures: Measures of insulin sensitivity, adipocytokines, and energy metabolites. Conclusions: Without GH counter-regulation, GHRD is associated with insulin efficiency and obesity. Lower leptin levels

  5. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity exacerbates ultraviolet B radiation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and cell survival signals in ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Som D.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases and in different types of cancer. Chronic inflammation induced by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases, including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. As the relationship between obesity and susceptibility to UV radiation-caused inflammation is not clearly understood, we assessed the role of obesity on UVB-induced inflammation, and mediators of this inflammatory response, using the genetically obese (leptin-deficient) mouse model. Leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice and wild-type counterparts (C57/BL6 mice) were exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm 2 ) on alternate days for 1 month. The mice were then euthanized and skin samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. Here, we report that the levels of inflammatory responses were higher in the UVB-exposed skin of the ob/ob obese mice than those in the UVB-exposed skin of the wild-type non-obese mice. The levels of UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression, prostaglandin-E 2 production, proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser 473 ) were higher in the skin of the ob/ob obese mice than the those in skin of their wild-type non-obese counterparts. Compared with the wild-type non-obese mice, the leptin-deficient obese mice also exhibited greater activation of NF-κB/p65 and fewer apoptotic cells in the UVB-irradiated skin. Our study suggests for the first time that obesity in mice is associated with greater susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammatory responses and, therefore, obesity may increase susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  6. The Gln223Arg polymorphism of the leptin receptor in Pima Indians: influence on energy expenditure, physical activity and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, N; Vozarova, B; Del Parigi, A

    2002-01-01

    whether this variant influences energy metabolism and adiposity in Pima Indians, we genotyped non-diabetic Pima Indians in whom we had measured body composition and 24 h energy expenditure (24 h EE), physical activity level (PAL) and 24 h respiratory quotient (24 h RQ) in a respiratory chamber (n=268......Leptin regulates body weight by its receptor-mediated anorectic, thermogenic and antisteatotic effects. Recently, lower leptin binding to the soluble form of the leptin receptor (LEPR) was shown in carriers of the Arg223-encoding allele of the Gln223Arg polymorphism of the LEPR. To investigate......) and who had undergone percutaneous fat biopsies from the periumbilical region (n=184). Genotype was not associated with percent body fat (P>0.39), but was associated with 24 h EE, PAL and mean subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size (SAAS all P...

  7. Growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome) in black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-Caucasians with growth honnone receptor (GHR) deficiency/Lamn syndrome among the approximately 180 recognised cases are rare, and include a Japanese and 3 African Americans. Black African siblings, a brother and a sister seen initially at 11 years 9 months and 5 years 6 months of age respectively were -7,4 ...

  8. Androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism is associated with serum testosterone levels, obesity and serum leptin in men with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanworth, R D; Kapoor, D; Channer, K S; Jones, T H

    2008-12-01

    To determine the relationships between androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism length (AR CAG), sex hormones and clinical variables in men with type 2 diabetes (DM2). Men with DM2 are known to have a high prevalence of low testosterone levels. Studies suggest that testosterone replacement therapy may improve insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control in men with DM2 and reduces central obesity and serum leptin. AR CAG is known to correlate negatively with AR sensitivity and positively with body fat, insulin levels, and leptin in healthy men. Cross-sectional study set in a district general hospital diabetes centre. Sex hormones, AR CAG and symptoms of hypogonadism were assessed in 233 men with DM2. Associations were sought between these variables and others such as obesity, leptin, glycaemic control, and blood pressure. Testosterone was negatively associated and AR CAG positively associated with obesity and leptin. The associations of AR CAG with leptin and obesity were independent of testosterone, estradiol, gonadotropins, and age. AR CAG was also independently associated with total, bioavailable and free testosterone, LH, waist circumference, body mass index, leptin, and systolic blood pressure. There was no association of AR CAG with sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, HbA(1C) or the symptoms of hypogonadism. The association of longer AR CAG with obesity and leptin suggests that shorter AR CAG may have an influence in maintaining healthy anthropomorphics and metabolism in men with DM2. Testosterone and LH levels are higher in men with longer AR CAG, probably reflecting reduced negative feedback through a less sensitive receptor.

  9. The Prader-Willi syndrome proteins MAGEL2 and necdin regulate leptin receptor cell surface abundance through ubiquitination pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesuriya, Tishani Methsala; De Ceuninck, Leentje; Masschaele, Delphine; Sanderson, Matthea R; Carias, Karin Vanessa; Tavernier, Jan; Wevrick, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    In Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), obesity is caused by the disruption of appetite-controlling pathways in the brain. Two PWS candidate genes encode MAGEL2 and necdin, related melanoma antigen proteins that assemble into ubiquitination complexes. Mice lacking Magel2 are obese and lack leptin sensitivity in hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin neurons, suggesting dysregulation of leptin receptor (LepR) activity. Hypothalamus from Magel2-null mice had less LepR and altered levels of ubiquitin pathway proteins that regulate LepR processing (Rnf41, Usp8, and Stam1). MAGEL2 increased the cell surface abundance of LepR and decreased their degradation. LepR interacts with necdin, which interacts with MAGEL2, which complexes with RNF41 and USP8. Mutations in the MAGE homology domain of MAGEL2 suppress RNF41 stabilization and prevent the MAGEL2-mediated increase of cell surface LepR. Thus, MAGEL2 and necdin together control LepR sorting and degradation through a dynamic ubiquitin-dependent pathway. Loss of MAGEL2 and necdin may uncouple LepR from ubiquitination pathways, providing a cellular mechanism for obesity in PWS. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Magel2 is required for leptin-mediated depolarization of POMC neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Mercer

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi Syndrome is the most common syndromic form of human obesity and is caused by the loss of function of several genes, including MAGEL2. Mice lacking Magel2 display increased weight gain with excess adiposity and other defects suggestive of hypothalamic deficiency. We demonstrate Magel2-null mice are insensitive to the anorexic effect of peripherally administered leptin. Although their excessive adiposity and hyperleptinemia likely contribute to this physiological leptin resistance, we hypothesized that Magel2 may also have an essential role in intracellular leptin responses in hypothalamic neurons. We therefore measured neuronal activation by immunohistochemistry on brain sections from leptin-injected mice and found a reduced number of arcuate nucleus neurons activated after leptin injection in the Magel2-null animals, suggesting that most but not all leptin receptor-expressing neurons retain leptin sensitivity despite hyperleptinemia. Electrophysiological measurements of arcuate nucleus neurons expressing the leptin receptor demonstrated that although neurons exhibiting hyperpolarizing responses to leptin are present in normal numbers, there were no neurons exhibiting depolarizing responses to leptin in the mutant mice. Additional studies demonstrate that arcuate nucleus pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC expressing neurons are unresponsive to leptin. Interestingly, Magel2-null mice are hypersensitive to the anorexigenic effects of the melanocortin receptor agonist MT-II. In Prader-Willi Syndrome, loss of MAGEL2 may likewise abolish leptin responses in POMC hypothalamic neurons. This neural defect, together with increased fat mass, blunted circadian rhythm, and growth hormone response pathway defects that are also linked to loss of MAGEL2, could contribute to the hyperphagia and obesity that are hallmarks of this disorder.

  11. Leptin Boosts Cellular Metabolism by Activating AMPK and the Sirtuins to Reduce Tau Phosphorylation and β-Amyloid in Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Steven J.; Hamzelou, Ashkan; Johnston, Jane M.; Smith, Mark A.; Ashford, J. Wesson; Tezapsidis, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone primarily secreted by adipocytes. A high density of functional Leptin receptors has been reported to be expressed in the hippocampus and other cortical regions of the brain, the physiological significance of which has not been explored extensively. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is marked by impaired brain metabolism with decreased glucose utilization in those regions which often precede pathological changes. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that plasma Leptin is protective against AD. Specifically, elderly with plasma Leptin levels in the lowest quartile were found to be four times more likely to develop AD than those in the highest quartile. We have previously reported that Leptin modulates AD pathological pathways in vitro through a mechanism involving the energy sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To this end, we investigated the extent to which activation of AMPK as well as another class of sensors linking energy availability to cellular metabolism, the sirtuins (SIRT), mediate Leptin’s biological activity. Leptin directly activated neuronal AMPK and SIRT in cell lines. Additionally, the ability of Leptin to reduce tau phosphorylation and β-amyloid production was sensitive to the AMPK and sirtuin inhibitors, compound C and nicotinamide, respectively. These findings implicate that Leptin normally acts as a signal for energy homeostasis in neurons. Perhaps Leptin deficiency in AD contributes to a neuronal imbalance in handling energy requirements, leading to higher Aβ and phospho-tau, which can be restored by replenishing low Leptin levels. This may also be a legitimate strategy for therapy. PMID:21945934

  12. Serum transferrin receptors in detection of iron deficiency in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, U; Flowers, C; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sood, S K; Sikka, M

    1999-08-01

    A prospective hospital-based study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of serum transferrin receptors in the detection of iron deficiency in pregnant women. The iron status of 100 pregnant women with single uncomplicated term pregnancies in the first stage of labor was established using standard laboratory measures. These included complete hemogram, red cell indices, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin. In addition, serum transferrin receptor (STFR) was estimated. The results of 81 women with complete laboratory profiles were analyzed. Thirty-five (43.2%) women were anemic (hemoglobin <11 g/dl). Hemoglobin (Hb) showed a significant correlation with MCH, MCHC, serum iron, and percent transferrin saturation, suggesting that the anemia was likely to be due to iron deficiency. The mean STFR level was 18.05+/-9.9 mg/l in the anemic women and was significantly raised (p<0.001) compared with that of the nonanemic women. STFR correlated significantly with Hb (p<0.001), MCH (p<0.05), MCHC (p<0.01), serum iron (p<0.01), and percent transferrin saturation (p<0.01) and also showed a highly significant correlation with the degree of anemia. Serum ferritin in these women did not correlate with Hb, and only 54.4% of the women had levels <12 ng/ml, which does not reflect the true prevalence of iron deficiency. Serum transferrin receptor estimation is thus a useful measure for detecting iron deficiency in pregnancy.

  13. CRF1 receptor-deficiency increases cocaine reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contarino, Angelo; Kitchener, Pierre; Vallée, Monique; Papaleo, Francesco; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2017-05-01

    Stimulant drugs produce reward but also activate stress-responsive systems. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-responsive systems are activated by stimulant drugs. However, their role in stimulant drug-induced reward remains poorly understood. Herein, we report that CRF 1 receptor-deficient (CRF 1 -/-), but not wild-type, mice show conditioned place preference (CPP) responses to a relatively low cocaine dose (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Conversely, wild-type, but not CRF 1 -/-, mice display CPP responses to a relatively high cocaine dose (20 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating that CRF 1 receptor-deficiency alters the rewarding effects of cocaine. Acute pharmacological antagonism of the CRF 1 receptor by antalarmin also eliminates cocaine reward. Nevertheless, CRF 1 -/- mice display higher stereotypy responses to cocaine than wild-type mice. Despite the very low plasma corticosterone concentration, CRF 1 -/- mice show higher nuclear glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in the brain region of the hippocampus than wild-type mice. Full rescue of wild-type-like corticosterone and GR circadian rhythm and level in CRF 1 -/- mice by exogenous corticosterone does not affect CRF 1 receptor-dependent cocaine reward but induces stereotypy responses to cocaine. These results indicate a critical role for the CRF 1 receptor in cocaine reward, independently of the closely related HPA axis activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonist diminishes the decrease in free plasma leptin during maintenance of weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, E W; Lundgren, J; Dirksen, C

    2015-01-01

    of weight gain, low-calorie diet products were allowed to replace up to two meals per day to achieve equal weight maintenance. Glucose tolerance and hormone responses were investigated before and after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: increase in soluble leptin receptor.......3 kg (95% CI=-0.6 to -4.0)), and had fewer meal replacements per day compared with the control group (minus one meal per day (95% CI=-0.6 to -1)), P....3±0.1 mmol l(-1) to the level before weight loss (-0.5mmol l(-1) (95% CI=-0.1 to -0.9)), PMeal response of peptide PYY3-36 was higher at week 52 in the GLP-1RA group compared with the control group, P

  15. High expression of leptin receptor leads to temozolomide resistance with exhibiting stem/progenitor cell features in gliobalastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guosheng; Wang, Laixing; Zhao, Wenyuan; Yue, Zhijian; Zhao, Rui; Li, Yanan; Zhou, Xiaoping; Hu, Xiaowu; Liu, Jianmin

    2013-12-15

    Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive malignant disease with notable resistance to chemotherapy. In this study, we found that leptin receptor (ObR)-positive glioblastoma cells were resistant to temozolomide (TMZ), and TMZ-resistant cells exhibited high expression of ObR. ObR can serve as a marker to enrich glioblastoma cells with some stem/progenitor cell traits, which explained the reason for TMZ resistance of ObR+ cells. STAT3-mediated SOX2/OCT4 signaling axis maintained the stem/progenitor cell properties of ObR+ cells, which indirectly regulated glioblastoma TMZ resistance. These findings gain insight into the molecular link between obesity and glioblastoma, and better understanding of this drug-resistant population may lead to the development of more effective therapeutic interventions for glioblastoma.

  16. [Role of leptin in human reproduction (anorexia, bulimia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilka, L; Rumpík, D; Pilka, R

    2012-12-01

    Leptin may act as the critical link between adipose tissue and the reproductive system, indicating whether adequate energy reserves are presenting for normal reproductive functions. Future interventional studies involving leptin administration are excepted to further clarify this role of leptin and may provide new therapeutic options for the reproductive dysfunctions associated with states of relative leptin deficiency or resistance.

  17. Growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome) in black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-Caucasians with growth honnone receptor (GHR) deficiency/Lamn syndrome among the .... 4,3 cm (-2,4 SOS for bone age 8,5 years at age 12); the girl's height at age 7 years was 77,5 cm (-8,0 SOS, height ... of serum incubated with '25I-labelled human growth hormone and expressed as relative specific binding ...

  18. Nasal administration of leptin dose-dependently increases dopamine and serotonin outflow in the rat nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Sonya; Varatharajan, Ramya; Joseph, Kevin; Moser, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Leptin is an anorexigenic hormone that acts via its receptor (LepR) to regulate the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus circuitry to mediate energy homeostasis and feeding behavior. Moreover, leptin decreases the reward value of natural and artificial rewards, and low levels of circulating leptin have been implicated in several mood disorders linking leptin to the mesolimbic system. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether and to what extent an acute intranasal application of leptin is able to modulate monoamine neurotransmitters in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Microdialysis experiments were carried out in freely moving Wistar rats and in LepR-deficient Zucker rats (LepR fa/fa ). Samples were analysed for the levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and their metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. We show that in Wistar rats, nasal application of leptin dose-dependently increased extracellular DA and 5-HT levels in the NAc. By contrast, in the LepR fa/fa rats, nasal application of 0.12 mg/kg leptin failed to increase levels of either DA or 5-HT, but their metabolites (DOPAC and HIAA, respectively) were significantly decreased. In addition, leptin interaction with the melanocortin system was tested. Nasal co-administration of leptin and the melanocortin receptor antagonist, SHU9119, completely abolished the leptin-induced increase of both DA and 5-HT outflow in the NAc. These results indicate a marked leptin effect on the basal ganglia-related reward system involving melanocortin receptors.

  19. Decreased serum level of soluble-leptin-receptor in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, K; Ebadi, P; Naeimi, S

    2012-09-01

    There is some evidence suggesting that leptin and its negative regulator, soluble-leptinreceptor (SLR) may be able to influence inflammatory and autoimmune processes. In this study, several variables including socio-demographics, health-related habits, depression score, serum molecules and blood parameters besides the SLR level were evaluated in patients with SLE (SLE-patients) and healthy controls. The patients had significantly lower SLR level and higher depression score than the controls and both of these variables have a significant association with the occurrence of disease in logistic regression model. Moreover, the results of Pearson correlation analysis showed that patients' SLR level was negatively correlated with their weights and BDI scores. For the first time, this study indicated a lower level of SLR in SLE-patients and suggested that lower concentrations of SLR in these patients may be implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  20. Leptin potentiates GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing rodent hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien eGuimond

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that leptin is not only a hormone regulating energy homeostasis but also a neurotrophic factor impacting a number of brain regions, including the hippocampus. Although leptin promotes the development of GABAergic transmission in the hypothalamus, little is known about its action on the GABAergic system in the hippocampus. Here we show that leptin modulates GABAergic transmission onto developing CA3 pyramidal cells of newborn rats. Specifically, leptin induces a long-lasting potentiation (LLP-GABAA of miniature GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic current (GABAA-PSC frequency. Leptin also increases the amplitude of evoked GABAA-PSCs in a subset of neurons along with a decrease in the coefficient of variation and no change in the paired-pulse ratio, pointing to an increased recruitment of functional synapses. Adding pharmacological blockers to the recording pipette showed that the leptin-induced LLP-GABAA requires postsynaptic calcium released from internal stores, as well as postsynaptic MAPK/ERK kinases 1 and/or 2 (MEK1/2, phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K and calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase (CaMKK. Finally, study of CA3 pyramidal cells in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice revealed a reduction in the basal frequency of miniature GABAA-PSCs compared to wild type littermates. In addition, presynaptic GAD65 immunostaining was reduced in the CA3 stratum pyramidale of mutant animals, both results converging to suggest a decreased number of functional GABAergic synapses in ob/ob mice. Overall, these results show that leptin potentiates and promotes the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing hippocampus likely via an increase in the number of functional synapses, and provide insights into the intracellular pathways mediating this effect. This study further extends the scope of leptin’s neurotrophic action to a key regulator of hippocampal development and function, namely GABAergic transmission.

  1. Evaluation of Serum Leptin Level in Children With Acute Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Shahramian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Leptin is a multifunctional hormone plays an important role in regulating lipid, energy, homeostasis, angiogenesis, inflammation, hematopoiesis and cell cycle. This polypeptide is effective in growth and differentiation of leukemic cells through an Ob-R receptor expressed by them. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum leptin levels in patients with acute leukemia and compare it in lymphoid and myeloid groups. Patients and Methods This analytical case-control study, conducted on 60 children in age ranged from 6 months to 16 years in two case and control groups in Ali ibn Abi Talib hospital, Zahedan. They matched based on age and gender and examined after their parent’s satisfaction according to the parental consent forms. None of patients had heart disease, digestive, glandular and metabolic problems, iron deficiency anemia and chronic kidney disease. After collecting the samples, leptin levels of both groups were measured with ELISA kit. Then, the gathered data were analyzed in SPSS-20 software, using independent t-test in considering of 95% confidence interval. Results Leptin serum levels in patients with acute leukemia and controls showed significant difference (P < 0.05. Leptin serum levels in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloblastic leukemia showed significant difference (P < 0.05. Leptin serum level in relation to age and gender groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions The findings of this study showed that in patients with acute leukemia, leptin serum levels increase independently of age and gender. In addition, leptin serum levels in acute lymphoid leukemia were higher than acute myeloid leukemia in this study.

  2. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Impairs Motor Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Wei; Li, Yi-Fei; Wang, Zhao-Tao; Jia, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellum plays an essential role in balance and motor coordination. Purkinje cells (PCs) are the sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex and are critical for the execution of its functions, including motor coordination. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is involved in the innate immune response and is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system; however, little is known about its role in cerebellum-related motor functions. To address this question, we evaluated motor behavior in TLR4 deficient mice. We found that TLR4(-∕-) mice showed impaired motor coordination. Morphological analyses revealed that TLR4 deficiency was associated with a reduction in the thickness of the molecular layer of the cerebellum. TLR4 was highly expressed in PCs but not in Bergmann glia or cerebellar granule cells; however, loss of TLR4 decreased the number of PCs. These findings suggest a novel role for TLR4 in cerebellum-related motor coordination through maintenance of the PC population.

  3. LEPTIN AND OBESITY – NEUROENDOCRINE , METABOLIC AND ATHEROGENIC EFFECTS OF LEPTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišo Šabovič

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that was recently discovered. Leptin and leptin resistance play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Leptin acts by binding to specific receptors in the hypothalamus to alter the expression of several neuropeptides that regulate food intake and energy expenditure. As commonly found, obese persons have leptin resistance and consequently attenuated effects of leptin. Mechanism underlying leptin resistance has not been explained yet: it might be the result of a receptor or post receptor defect, impaired transport of leptin through cerebrovascular barrier or inactivation of leptin by binding proteins. Phase I and II clinical trials proved that recombinant leptin administration to humans is safe. First results of the current phase III clinical trials demonstrated that leptin is moderately effective in the treatment of obesity.Conclusions. Beside anti-obesity effect, leptin can have important metabolic and neuroendocrine effects. It is involved in glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, pathogenesis of polymetabolic syndrome, diabetes and arterial hypertension. In addition it affects some processes of atherothrombosis. It interacts with and significantly influences hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal, thyroid, sexual glands and growth hormone axes. Explaining the mechanism of leptin resistance could be important for understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and associated pathologic states as polymetabolic syndrom, diabetes, arterial hipertension and atherothrombosis.

  4. Overview of the physiology and pathophysiology of leptin with special emphasis on its role in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Mona P; Ziyadeh, Fuad N

    2013-01-01

    The adipocyte product leptin is a pleiotropic adipokine and hormone, with a role extending beyond appetite suppression and increased energy expenditure. This review summarizes the biology of the leptin system and the roles of its different receptors in a multitude of cellular functions in different organs, with special emphasis on the kidney. Leptin's physiological functions as well as deleterious effects in states of leptin deficiency or hyperleptinemia are emphasized. Chronic hyperleptinemia can increase blood pressure through the sympathetic nervous system and renal salt retention. The concept of selective leptin resistance in obesity is emerging, whereby leptin's effect on appetite and energy expenditure is blunted, with a concomitant increase in leptin's other effects as a result of the accompanying hyperleptinemia. The divergence in response likely is explained by different receptors and post-receptor activating mechanisms. Chronic kidney disease is a known cause of hyperleptinemia. There is an emerging view that the effect of hyperleptinemia on the kidney can contribute to the development and/or progression of chronic kidney disease in selective resistance states such as in obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of renal injury are likely the result of exaggerated and undesirable hemodynamic influences as well as profibrotic effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toll-like receptor signaling in primary immune deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Paul J.; Simchoni, Noa; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation of the immune system. Patients with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) affecting TLR signaling can elucidate the importance of these proteins to the human immune system. Defects in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) lead to susceptibility to infections with bacteria, while mutations in nuclear factor-κB essential modulator (NEMO) and other downstream mediators generally induce broader susceptibility to bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In contrast, TLR3 signaling defects are specific for susceptibility to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis. Other PIDs induce functional alterations of TLR signaling pathways, such as common variable immunodeficiency in which plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) defects enhance defective responses of B cells to shared TLR agonists. Dampening of TLR responses is seen for TLRs 2 and 4 in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Enhanced TLR responses, meanwhile, are seen for TLRs 5 and 9 in CGD, TLRs 4, 7/8, and 9 in XLA, TLRs 2 and 4 in hyper IgE syndrome, and for most TLRs in adenosine deaminase deficiency. PMID:25930993

  6. Leptin as local inflammatory marker in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, R; Vernooy, J H J; Schols, A M W J; Dentener, M A; Wouters, E F M

    2005-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the lung is a characteristic finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Leptin is a pleiotropic cytokine thought to play a role in host response to inflammation. As recent studies have shown that leptin receptors are present in the lung, this study aimed to determine if leptin is detectable in induced sputum of COPD patients and if there is a relationship between leptin and other inflammatory markers in sputum. Sputum was induced in 14 male patients with moderate COPD (FEV1: 56 (15) % pred.). Leptin, total tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed in induced sputum supernatant by ELISA. Leptin was also determined in EDTA plasma. Leptin was detectable in induced sputum of 10 COPD patients. A significant relationship was found between sputum leptin and CRP (r = 0.943, P leptin and sputum leptin were inversely correlated (r = -0.643, P leptin is detectable in induced sputum of patients with moderate COPD and is related to other inflammatory markers. The observed correlations between leptin and inflammatory markers in sputum may indicate that leptin is involved in the local inflammatory response in COPD.

  7. TrpC5 Mediates Acute Leptin and Serotonin Effects via Pomc Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying acute leptin and serotonin 2C receptor-induced hypophagia remain unclear. Here, we show that neuronal and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc-specific loss of transient receptor potential cation 5 (TrpC5 subunits is sufficient to decrease energy expenditure and increase food intake resulting in elevated body weight. Deficiency of Trpc5 subunits in Pomc neurons is also sufficient to block the anorexigenic effects of leptin and serotonin 2C receptor (Ht2Cr agonists. The loss of acute anorexigenic effects of these receptors is concomitant with a blunted electrophysiological response to both leptin and Ht2Cr agonists in arcuate Pomc neurons. We also demonstrate that the Ht2Cr agonist lorcaserin-induced improvements in glucose and insulin tolerance are blocked by TrpC5 deficiency in Pomc neurons. Together, our results link TrpC5 subunits in the brain with leptin- and serotonin 2C receptor-dependent changes in neuronal activity, as well as energy balance, feeding behavior, and glucose metabolism.

  8. Studies on leptin utilizing to obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Minghui

    2001-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone synthesized and secreted by lipid cells. It is a product encoded and expressed by the obese gene. Administration of recombinant leptin decreases food intake, increases energy expenditure and promotes weight loss. Most studies indicate that leptin is a main regulating factor of catabolism and anabolism of adipose tissue. The circulating leptin level is a sensitive index which indicates the confusion of the rate of lipid metabolism such as hyperlipemia, lipo-liver and so on. The human leptin radioimmunoassay has been developed to quantitate human leptin in plasma or serum, and to further investigate the relationship between serum leptin concentration and body fat, gender, age, sexual hormones, endocrine of insulin, etc. Especially, serum leptin concentrations are correlated with body-mass-index (BMI), suggesting that most obese persons are resistant to leptin; Those who are relatively deficient of leptin may become the good candidates of leptin treatment in the future. The discovery and application of leptin make the study of obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes and other correlation diseases enter a new stage

  9. Hematopoietic sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase deficiency decreases atherosclerotic lesion development in LDL-receptor deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Bot

    Full Text Available AIMS: Altered sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P homeostasis and signaling is implicated in various inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. As S1P levels are tightly controlled by S1P lyase, we investigated the impact of hematopoietic S1P lyase (Sgpl1(-/- deficiency on leukocyte subsets relevant to atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: LDL receptor deficient mice that were transplanted with Sgpl1(-/- bone marrow showed disrupted S1P gradients translating into lymphopenia and abrogated lymphocyte mitogenic and cytokine response as compared to controls. Remarkably however, Sgpl1(-/- chimeras displayed mild monocytosis, due to impeded stromal retention and myelopoiesis, and plasma cytokine and macrophage expression patterns, that were largely compatible with classical macrophage activation. Collectively these two phenotypic features of Sgpl1 deficiency culminated in diminished atherogenic response. CONCLUSIONS: Here we not only firmly establish the critical role of hematopoietic S1P lyase in controlling S1P levels and T cell trafficking in blood and lymphoid tissue, but also identify leukocyte Sgpl1 as critical factor in monocyte macrophage differentiation and function. Its, partly counterbalancing, pro- and anti-inflammatory activity spectrum imply that intervention in S1P lyase function in inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis should be considered with caution.

  10. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Fen Yan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. By intraperitoneal (IP injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, cholecystokinin (CCK, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH and proopiomelanocortin (POMC in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model.

  11. Selective Deletion of Leptin Signaling in Endothelial Cells Enhances Neointima Formation and Phenocopies the Vascular Effects of Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Astrid; Bochenek, Magdalena L; Schütz, Eva; Gogiraju, Rajinikanth; Münzel, Thomas; Schäfer, Katrin

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is associated with elevated circulating leptin levels and hypothalamic leptin resistance. Leptin receptors (LepRs) are expressed on endothelial cells, and leptin promotes neointima formation in a receptor-dependent manner. Our aim was to examine the importance of endothelial LepR (End.LepR) signaling during vascular remodeling and to determine whether the cardiovascular consequences of obesity are because of hyperleptinemia or endothelial leptin resistance. Mice with loxP-flanked LepR alleles were mated with mice expressing Cre recombinase controlled by the inducible endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase promoter. Obesity was induced with high-fat diet. Neointima formation was examined after chemical carotid artery injury. Morphometric quantification revealed significantly greater intimal hyperplasia, neointimal cellularity, and proliferation in End.LepR knockout mice, and similar findings were obtained in obese, hyperleptinemic End.LepR wild-type animals. Analysis of primary endothelial cells confirmed abrogated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 phosphorylation in response to leptin in LepR knockout and obese LepR wild-type mice. Quantitative PCR, ELISA, and immunofluorescence analyses revealed increased expression and release of endothelin-1 in End.LepR-deficient and LepR-resistant cells, and ET receptor A/B antagonists abrogated their paracrine effects on murine aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation. Reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and increased nuclear activator protein-1 staining was observed in End.LepR-deficient and LepR-resistant cells, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ antagonization increased endothelial endothelin-1 expression. Our findings suggest that intact endothelial leptin signaling limits neointima formation and that obesity represents a state of endothelial leptin resistance. These observations and the identification of endothelin-1 as soluble mediator of the

  12. Sweet Taste Receptor Serves to Activate Glucose- and Leptin-Responsive Neurons in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus and Participates in Glucose Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Daisuke; Koike, Miho; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Kojima, Itaru; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC): glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanisms underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood. The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of taste type 1 receptor 2 (T1R2) and taste type 1 receptor 3 (T1R3) and senses sweet tastes. T1R2 and T1R3 are distributed in multiple organs including the tongue, pancreas, adipose tissue, and hypothalamus. However, the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC remains to be clarified. To examine the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC, cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in isolated single ARC neurons were measured using Fura-2 fluorescent imaging. An artificial sweetener, sucralose at 10 -5 -10 -2 M dose dependently increased [Ca 2+ ] i in 12-16% of ARC neurons. The sucralose-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increase was suppressed by a sweet taste receptor inhibitor, gurmarin. The sucralose-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increase was inhibited under an extracellular Ca 2+ -free condition and in the presence of an L-type Ca 2+ channel blocker, nitrendipine. Sucralose-responding neurons were activated by high-concentration of glucose. This response to glucose was markedly suppressed by gurmarin. More than half of sucralose-responding neurons were activated by leptin but not ghrelin. Percentages of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons among sucralose-responding neurons and sweet taste receptor expressing neurons were low, suggesting that majority of sucralose-responding neurons are non-POMC neurons. These data suggest that sweet taste receptor-mediated cellular activation

  13. Leptin Receptor Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Sun, Dali

    2017-04-03

    Few studies have assessed the association between leptin receptor (LEPR) gene polymorphism and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Of the few epidemiological studies on this topic, the results are still controversial. PubMed and Embase were screened for studies from their inception to 9 October 2016. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding confidence intervals (CI) were used to measure the effect size for studies that reported the association under allelic, homozygous, and dominant models. Pre-specified characteristics were conducted in the subgroup analysis. Heterogeneity between subgroups was evaluated by meta-regression analysis. Seven eligible studies involving 44,133 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Borderline significant association was observed between the LEPR gene polymorphism (rs1137101, rs1137100, rs6700896, and rs8179183) and the increased risk of CVD with considerable heterogeneity under the allelic model, and the overall pooled OR (95% CI) was 1.10 (0.99, 1.22). The LEPR gene variant rs6700896, 109G allele, and 109GG genotype were significantly associated with the increased risk of CVD. Furthermore, stratified group analysis revealed that the association was more pronounced for stroke. Race-differences might also cause the considerable heterogeneity and non-significant association. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between LEPR gene variants and CVD risk. Some LEPR gene variants were significantly associated with the increased risk of CVD. However, the present study is limited in its small number of included studies, considerable heterogeneity, and observational study design. Further research is still warranted to confirm the magnitude of the association.

  14. Adult exposure to tributyltin affects hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, Y1 receptor distribution, and circulating leptin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, E; Farinetti, A; Marraudino, M; Sterchele, D; Eva, C; Gotti, S; Panzica, G

    2016-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a pesticide used in antifouling paints, is toxic for aquatic invertebrates. In vertebrates, TBT may act in obesogen- inducing adipogenetic gene transcription for adipocyte differentiation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that acute administration of TBT induces c-fos expression in the arcuate nucleus. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult exposure to TBT may alter a part of the nervous pathways controlling animal food intake. In particular, we investigated the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity. This neuropeptide forms neural circuits dedicated to food assumption and its action is mediated by Y1 receptors that are widely expressed in the hypothalamic nuclei responsible for the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. To this purpose, TBT was orally administered at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg/day/body weight to adult animals [male and female C57BL/6 (Y1-LacZ transgenic mice] for 4 weeks. No differences were found in body weight and fat deposition, but we observed a significant increase in feed efficiency in TBT-treated male mice and a significant decrease in circulating leptin in both sexes. Computerized quantitative analysis of NPY immunoreactivity and Y1-related β-galactosidase activity demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in NPY and Y1 transgene expression in the hypothalamic circuit controlling food intake of treated male mice in comparison with controls. In conclusion, the present results indicate that adult exposure to TBT is profoundly interfering with the nervous circuits involved in the stimulation of food intake. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Effects of high fat diet, ovariectomy, and physical activity on leptin receptor expression in rat brain and white fat tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažetić, Senka; Labak, Irena; Viljetić, Barbara; Balog, Marta; Vari, Sandor G.; Krivošíková, Zora; Gajdoš, Martin; Kramárová, Patrícia; Kebis, Anton; Vuković, Rosemary; Puljak, Livia; Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Heffer, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate in a rat animal model whether ovariectomy, high fat diet (HFD), and physical activity in the form of running affect leptin receptor (Ob-R) distribution in the brain and white fat tissue compared to sham (Sh) surgery, standard diet (StD), and sedentary conditions. Methods The study included 48 female laboratory Wistar rats (4 weeks old). Following eight weeks of feeding with standard or HFD, rats were subjected to either OVX or Sh surgery. After surgery, all animals continued StD or HFD for the next 10 weeks. During these 10 weeks, ovariectomy and Sh groups were subjected to physical activity or sedentary conditions. Free-floating immunohistochemistry and Western blot methods were carried out to detect Ob-R in the brain and adipose tissue. Results StD-ovariectomy-sedentary group had a greater number of Ob-R positive neurons in lateral hypothalamic nuclei than StD-Sh-sedentary group. There was no difference in Ob-R positive neurons in arcuatus nuclei between all groups. Ob-R distribution in the barrel cortex was higher in HFD group than in StD group. Ob-R presence in perirenal and subcutaneous fat was decreased in StD-ovariectomy group. Conclusion HFD and ovariectomy increased Ob-R distribution in lateral hypothalamic nuclei, but there was no effect on arcuatus nuclei. Our results are first to suggest that HFD, ovariectomy, and physical activity affect Ob-R distribution in the barrel cortex, which might be correlated with the role of Ob-R in election of food in rats. PMID:24891281

  16. The over-expression of miR-200a in the hypothalamus of ob/ob mice is linked to leptin and insulin signaling impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépin, Delphine; Benomar, Yacir; Riffault, Laure; Amine, Hamza; Gertler, Arieh; Taouis, Mohammed

    2014-03-25

    Early in life, leptin plays a crucial role in hypothalamic neural organization. Leptin, most likely, controls neural gene expression conferring then specific phenotype regarding energy homeostasis. MicroRNAs are new regulators for several physiological functions, including the regulation of metabolism. However, the impact of leptin on hypothalamic microRNA patterns remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-429 are up-regulated in the hypothalamus of genetically obese and leptin deficient ob/ob mice. Leptin treatment down-regulates these miRNAs in ob/ob hypothalamus. The hypothalamic silencing of miR-200a increased the expression level of leptin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2, reduced body weight gain, and restored liver insulin responsiveness. In addition, the overexpression of pre-miR-200a in a human neuroblastoma cell line impaired insulin and leptin signaling. These findings link the alteration of leptin and insulin signaling to the up-regulation of hypothalamic miR-200a which could be a new target for treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hematopoietic androgen receptor deficiency promotes visceral fat deposition in male mice without impairing glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinow, K B; Wang, S; den Hartigh, L J; Subramanian, S; Morton, G J; Buaas, F W; Lamont, D; Gray, N; Braun, R E; Page, S T

    2015-07-01

    Androgen deficiency in men increases body fat, but the mechanisms by which testosterone suppresses fat deposition have not been elucidated fully. Adipose tissue macrophages express the androgen receptor (AR) and regulate adipose tissue remodeling. Thus, testosterone signaling in macrophages could alter the paracrine function of these cells and thereby contribute to the metabolic effects of androgens in men. A metabolic phenotyping study was performed to determine whether the loss of AR signaling in hematopoietic cells results in greater fat accumulation in male mice. C57BL/6J male mice (ages 12-14 weeks) underwent bone marrow transplant from either wild-type (WT) or AR knockout (ARKO) donors (n = 11-13 per group). Mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% fat) for 16 weeks. At baseline, 8 and 16 weeks, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed, and body composition was analyzed with fat-water imaging by MRI. No differences in body weight were observed between mice transplanted with WT bone marrow [WT(WTbm)] or ARKO bone marrow [WT(ARKObm)] prior to initiation of the high-fat diet. After 8 weeks of high-fat feeding, WT(ARKObm) mice exhibited significantly more visceral and total fat mass than WT(WTbm) animals. Despite this, no differences between groups were observed in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, or plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, leptin, or cholesterol, although WT(ARKObm) mice had higher plasma levels of adiponectin. Resultant data indicate that AR signaling in hematopoietic cells influences body fat distribution in male mice, and the absence of hematopoietic AR plays a permissive role in visceral fat accumulation. These findings demonstrate a metabolic role for AR signaling in marrow-derived cells and suggest a novel mechanism by which androgen deficiency in men might promote increased adiposity. The relative contributions of AR signaling in macrophages and other marrow-derived cells require further investigation. © 2015 American

  18. The designer leptin antagonist peptide Allo-aca compensates for short serum half-life with very tight binding to the receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otvos, Laszlo; Vetter, Stefan W; Koladia, Mohit; Knappe, Daniel; Schmidt, Rico; Ostorhazi, Eszter; Kovalszky, Ilona; Bionda, Nina; Cudic, Predrag; Surmacz, Eva; Wade, John D; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2014-04-01

    The leptin receptor antagonist peptide Allo-aca exhibits picomolar activities in various cellular systems and sub-mg/kg subcutaneous efficacies in animal models making it a prime drug candidate and target validation tool. Here we identified the biochemical basis for its remarkable in vivo activity. Allo-aca decomposed within 30 min in pooled human serum and was undetectable beyond the same time period from mouse plasma during pharmacokinetic measurements. The C max of 8.9 μg/mL at 5 min corresponds to approximately 22% injected peptide present in the circulation. The half-life was extended to over 2 h in bovine vitreous fluid and 10 h in human tears suggesting potential efficacy in ophthalmic diseases. The peptide retained picomolar anti-proliferation activity against a chronic myeloid leukemia cell line; addition of a C-terminal biotin label increased the IC50 value by approximately 200-fold. In surface plasmon resonance assays with the biotin-labeled peptide immobilized to a NeutrAvidin-coated chip, Allo-aca exhibited exceptionally tight binding to the binding domain of the human leptin receptor with ka = 5 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and kdiss = 1.5 × 10(-4) s(-1) values. Peptides excel in terms of high activity and selectivity to their targets, and may activate or inactivate receptor functions considerably longer than molecular turnovers that take place in experimental animals.

  19. Leptin Is Required for Glucose Homeostasis after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokadem, Mohamad; Zechner, Juliet F; Uchida, Aki; Aguirre, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Leptin, the protein product of the ob gene, increases energy expenditure and reduces food intake, thereby promoting weight reduction. Leptin also regulates glucose homeostasis and hepatic insulin sensitivity via hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin neurons in mice. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induces weight loss that is substantial and sustained despite reducing plasma leptin levels. In addition, patients who fail to undergo diabetes remission after RYGB are hypoletinemic compared to those who do and to lean controls. We have previously demonstrated that the beneficial effects of RYGB in mice require the melanocortin-4 receptor, a downstream effector of leptin action. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that leptin is required for sustained weight reduction and improved glucose homeostasis observed after RYGB. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed RYGB or sham operations on leptin-deficient ob/ob mice maintained on regular chow. To investigate whether leptin is involved in post-RYGB weight maintenance, we challenged post-surgical mice with high fat diet. RYGB reduced total body weight, fat and lean mass and caused reduction in calorie intake in ob/ob mice. However, it failed to improve glucose tolerance, glucose-stimulated plasma insulin, insulin tolerance, and fasting plasma insulin. High fat diet eliminated the reduction in calorie intake observed after RYGB in ob/ob mice and promoted weight regain, although not to the same extent as in sham-operated mice. We conclude that leptin is required for the effects of RYGB on glucose homeostasis but not body weight or composition in mice. Our data also suggest that leptin may play a role in post-RYGB weight maintenance.

  20. Leptin Is Required for Glucose Homeostasis after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mokadem

    Full Text Available Leptin, the protein product of the ob gene, increases energy expenditure and reduces food intake, thereby promoting weight reduction. Leptin also regulates glucose homeostasis and hepatic insulin sensitivity via hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin neurons in mice. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB induces weight loss that is substantial and sustained despite reducing plasma leptin levels. In addition, patients who fail to undergo diabetes remission after RYGB are hypoletinemic compared to those who do and to lean controls. We have previously demonstrated that the beneficial effects of RYGB in mice require the melanocortin-4 receptor, a downstream effector of leptin action. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that leptin is required for sustained weight reduction and improved glucose homeostasis observed after RYGB.To investigate this hypothesis, we performed RYGB or sham operations on leptin-deficient ob/ob mice maintained on regular chow. To investigate whether leptin is involved in post-RYGB weight maintenance, we challenged post-surgical mice with high fat diet.RYGB reduced total body weight, fat and lean mass and caused reduction in calorie intake in ob/ob mice. However, it failed to improve glucose tolerance, glucose-stimulated plasma insulin, insulin tolerance, and fasting plasma insulin. High fat diet eliminated the reduction in calorie intake observed after RYGB in ob/ob mice and promoted weight regain, although not to the same extent as in sham-operated mice. We conclude that leptin is required for the effects of RYGB on glucose homeostasis but not body weight or composition in mice. Our data also suggest that leptin may play a role in post-RYGB weight maintenance.

  1. Pharmacokinetics (PK), Pharmacodynamics (PD) and Integrated PK/PD Modeling of a Novel Long Acting FGF21 Clinical Candidate PF-05231023 in Diet-Induced Obese and Leptin-Deficient Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Barbara; Yan, Qingyun; Zhu, Yimin; Brenner, Martin B.; Vage, Chandra; Logan, Alison; Calle, Roberto; Talukdar, Saswata

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological administration of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) improves metabolic profile in preclinical species and humans. FGF21 exerts its metabolic effects through formation of beta-klotho (KLB)/FGF receptor 1c FGFR1c complex and subsequent signaling. Data from various in vitro systems demonstrate the intact C- and N-terminus of FGF21 is required for binding with KLB, and interaction with FGFR1c, respectively. However the relative roles of the termini for in vivo pharmacological effects are unclear. Here we report PF-05231023, a long-acting FGF21 analogue which is unique in that the half-life and subcutaneous (SC) bioavailability of the intact C-terminus are significantly different from those of the intact N-terminus (2 vs. 22 hr for half-life and 4~7 vs. ~50% SC bioavailability). Therefore, this molecule serves as a valuable tool to evaluate the relative roles of intact C-terminus vs. N-terminus in in vivo pharmacology studies in preclinical species. We determined the effects of PF-05231023 administration on body weight (BW) loss and glucose reduction during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) following SC and intravenous (IV) administration in diet-induced obese (DIO) and leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice, respectively. Our data show that the intact N-terminus of FGF21 in PF-05231023 appears to be sufficient to drive glucose lowering during OGTT and sustain BW loss in DIOs. Further, PK/PD modeling suggests that while the intact FGF21 C-terminus is not strictly required for glucose lowering during OGTT in ob/ob mice or for BW reduction in DIO mice, the higher potency conferred by intact C-terminus contributes to a rapid initiation of pharmacodynamic effects immediately following dosing. These results provide additional insight into the strategy of developing stabilized versions of FGF21 analogs to harness the full spectrum of its metabolic benefits. PMID:25790234

  2. Deficiency of alpha7 cholinergic receptors facilitates bacterial clearance in Escherichia coli peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebelen, Ilona A. J.; Le Moine, Alain; van den Pangaart, Petra S.; Sadis, Claude; Goldman, Michel; Florquin, Sandrine; van der Poll, Tom

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efferent vagus nerve can inhibit inflammation via interaction between acetylcholine and alpha7 cholinergic receptors. METHODS: To determine the role played by alpha7 receptors in antibacterial defense, peritonitis was induced in alpha7 receptor-deficient (alpha7(-/-)) and wild-type

  3. LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN CONTENT IN BLOOD SERUM AND RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN OSTEOPENIA AND OSTEOPOROSIS IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Ugay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to identify the leptin and adiponectin content in blood regarding their receptor expression in the soft tissue of the hip in case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with the signs of osteporosis.80 COPD patients and 76 healthy persons were examined. Receptor expression to leptin and adiponectin in the vessels was tested by immune-fluorescent technique in 30 patients.Control leptin and adiponectin expression was presented in skin, subcutaneous fat and cross-striped muscles. In case of COPD leptin and adiponectin expression was identified in skin and subcutaneous fat. In control cases and COPD leptin expression was identified in endothelium and myocytes achieving confident reduction at stages II and III. Adiponectin expression in control cases and in stage I was detection only in adventitia. In stages II and III stages adiponectin is expressed in myocytes and endothelium. Receptor expression to leptin and adiponectin repeats their content in blood. The correlations between leptin and adiponectin and their expression with body mass index and mineral bone density have been found out.The detected changes confirm the contribution of adiponectin to re-modeling of muscle and bone tissue in case of COPD. 

  4. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered...

  5. LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN CONTENT IN BLOOD SERUM AND RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN OSTEOPENIA AND OSTEOPOROSIS IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    L. G. Ugay; V. A. Nevzorova; E. A. Kochetkova; E. V. Burtseva; Yu. V. Maystrovskaya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose is to identify the leptin and adiponectin content in blood regarding their receptor expression in the soft tissue of the hip in case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with the signs of osteporosis.80 COPD patients and 76 healthy persons were examined. Receptor expression to leptin and adiponectin in the vessels was tested by immune-fluorescent technique in 30 patients.Control leptin and adiponectin expression was presented in skin, subcutaneous fat and cross-striped muscles...

  6. Correlation between maternal and cord blood leptin and fetal growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-05

    Sep 5, 2007 ... IL -2 and growth hormone. The long form of the leptin receptor functions similarly to cytokine ... regulation of leptin synthesis and the risk for obesity in the offspring. In species such as the human and sheep, ..... Hormonal regulation of leptin levels in the fetus and neonate might be different from the endocrine ...

  7. Influence of age on leptin induced skeletal muscle signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe Grau, Amelia; Larsen, Steen; Guerra, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Age associated fat mass accumulation could be due to dysregulation of leptin signaling in skeletal muscle. Thus, we investigated total protein expression and phosphorylation levels of the long isoform of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), and leptin signaling through Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal...... skeletal muscle of different age....

  8. Dihydromyricetin ameliorates atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting Ting; Zeng, Yi; Tang, Kun; Chen, XueMeng; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xiao Le

    2017-07-01

    Dihydromyricetin, the most abundant flavonoid in Ampelopsis grossedentata, exerts numerous pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and lipid regulatory activities; however, its protective effect against atherosclerosis remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dihydromyricetin on high fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis using LDL receptor deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice. Blood samples were collected for determination of serum lipid profiles, oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Histology, hepatic lipid content, quantification of atherosclerosis, assessment of oxidative stress and inflammation were performed on liver and aorta samples by molecular biology methods. The effects of dihydromyricetin on ox-LDL-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) dysfunction and foam cell formation were further studied. (1) Dihydromyricetin ameliorated hyperlipidemia, reduced serum ox-LDL, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in HFD-fed LDLr -/- mice. Moreover, (2) dihydromyricetin suppressed hepatic lipid accumulation and increased protein expressions of PPARα, LXRα and ABCA1. (3) It inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and favoured features of plaque stability. (4) Dihydromyricetin prevented hepatic and aortic inflammation as evidenced by the reduced IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression; (5) it prevented hepatic and aortic oxidative stress by normalizing activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver and suppressing reactive oxygen species generation and NOX2 protein expression in both liver and aorta; (6) it inhibited oxLDL-induced injury, monocytes adhesion and oxidative stress in HUVECs and (7) inhibited macrophage foam cell formation and enhanced cholesterol efflux. These findings suggest that dihydromyricetin could reduce atherosclerosis via its pleiotropic effects, including improvement of endothelial dysfunction, inhibition of macrophage foam cell formation

  9. Increased vascular sympathetic modulation in mice with Mas receptor deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello Casali, Karina; Ravizzoni Dartora, Daniela; Moura, Marina; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Bader, Michael; Haibara, Andrea; Alenina, Natalia; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Santos, Robson A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang)-(1–7)/Mas axis could modulate the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure variabilities (BPV) which are important predictors of cardiovascular risk and provide information about the autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system. Therefore we investigated the effect of Mas deficiency on autonomic modulation in wild type and Mas-knockout (KO) mice. Methods: Blood pressure was recorded at high sample rate (4000 Hz). Stationary sequences of 200–250 beats were randomly chosen. Frequency domain analysis of HR and BPV was performed with an autoregressive algorithm on the pulse interval sequences and on respective systolic sequences. Results: The KO group presented an increase of systolic arterial pressure (SAP; 127.26±11.20 vs 135.07±6.98 mmHg), BPV (3.54±1.54 vs 5.87±2.12 mmHg2), and low-frequency component of systolic BPV (0.12±0.11 vs 0.47±0.34 mmHg2). Conclusions: The deletion of Mas receptor is associated with an increase of SAP and with an increased BPV, indicating alterations in autonomic control. Increase of sympathetic vascular modulation in absence of Mas evidences the important role of Ang-(1–7)/Mas on cardiovascular regulation. Moreover, the absence of significant changes in HR and HRV can indicate an adaptation of autonomic cardiac balance. Our results suggest that the Ang-(1–7)/Mas axis seems more important in autonomic modulation of arterial pressure than HR. PMID:27080540

  10. Accelerated Central Nervous System Autoimmunity in BAFF-Receptor-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Susan S.; Richman, David P.; Zamvil, Scott S.; Agius, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    B cell activating factor (BAFF) is critical for B cell survival, a function that is mediated by BAFF receptor, (BAFF-R). The role of BAFF (or BAFF-R) in the multiple sclerosis model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), was examined using BAFF-R-deficient mice. BAFF-R deficiency resulted in paradoxically increased severity of EAE induced by myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35-55. Inflammatory foci in BAFF-R-deficient mice comprised increased numbers of activated m...

  11. Effects of leptin replacement alone and with exendin-4 on food intake and weight regain in weight-reduced diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haver, Alvin; Chelikani, Prasanth K.; Apenteng, Bettye; Perriotte-Olson, Curtis; Anders, Krista; Steenson, Sharalyn; Blevins, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Weight loss in obese humans produces a relative leptin deficiency, which is postulated to activate potent orexigenic and energy conservation mechanisms to restrict weight loss and promote weight regain. Here we determined whether leptin replacement alone or with GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Forty percent restriction in daily intake of a high-fat diet in DIO rats for 4 wk reduced body weight by 12%, body fat by 29%, and plasma leptin by 67% and normalized leptin sensitivity. When food restriction ended, body weight, body fat, and plasma leptin increased rapidly. Daily administration of leptin [3-h intraperitoneal (ip) infusions (4 nmol·kg−1·h−1)] at onset and end of dark period for 3 wk did not attenuate hyperphagia and weight regain, nor did it affect mean daily meal sizes or meal numbers. Exendin-4 (50 pmol·kg−1·h−1) infusions during the same intervals prevented postrestriction hyperphagia and weight regain by normalizing meal size. Coadministration of leptin and exendin-4 did not reduce body weight more than exendin-4 alone. Instead, leptin began to attenuate the inhibitory effects of exendin-4 on food intake, meal size, and weight regain by the end of the second week of administration. Plasma leptin in rats receiving leptin was sevenfold greater than in rats receiving vehicle and 17-fold greater than in rats receiving exendin-4. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis that leptin replacement alone or with exendin-4 attenuates weight regain or promotes greater weight loss in weight-reduced DIO rats. PMID:22510712

  12. The significance of soluble transferrin receptors in diagnosing iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijanić Ivan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In recent years, determination of soluble transferrin receptor levels has been emerging as a test that can reliably indicate iron deficiency in various states, and that is non-invasive and easy to use. The aim of this study was: to determine reference values of soluble transferrin receptor concentrations in serums in our population, to examine the reliability of this method in the diagnosis of anemia due to iron deficiency and associated iron deficiency in anemia accompanying malignant hemopathies, and to identify possible limitations of the test in certain conditions.

  13. Soluble Transferrin Receptor - A Marker For Iron Deficiency; A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters for measuring iron deficiency have been established for decades and have served clinicians in the management of this nutritional disorder. The bone marrow still remains the gold standard in the final diagnosis of iron deficiency. However, researchers have been able to identify the dominating role of the ...

  14. Decreased autophosphorylation of EGF receptor in insulin-deficient diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.; Kahn, C.R.; Maron, R.; White, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that despite an increase in receptor concentration, there is a decrease in autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor in insulin-deficient diabetic rats. To determine if other tyrosine kinases might be altered, they have studied the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase in wheat germ agglutinin-purified, Triton X-100-solubilized liver membranes from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the insulin-deficient BB rat. They find that autophosphorylation of EGF receptor is decreased in proportion to the severity of the diabetic state in STZ rats with a maximal decrease of 67%. A similar decrease in autophosphorylation was observed in diabetic BB rats that was partially normalized by insulin treatment. Separation of tryptic phosphopeptides by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed a decrease in labeling at all sites of autophosphorylation. A parallel decrease in EGF receptor phosphorylation was also found by immunoblotting with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. EGF receptor concentration, determined by Scatchard analysis of 125 I-labeled EGF binding, was decreased by 39% in the STZ rat and 27% in the diabetic BB rat. Thus autophosphorylation of EGF receptor, like that of the insulin receptor, is decreased in insulin-deficient rat liver. In the case of EGF receptor, this is due in part to a decrease in receptor number and in part to a decrease in the specific activity of the kinase

  15. Leptin Regulation of Mammary Cell Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pighetti, Gina

    2000-01-01

    .... The studies of this proposal were designed to test the hypothesis that the interaction of leptin with its receptor regulates normal and pathologic mammary epithelial cell proliferation and/or differentiation...

  16. The Trend in Distribution of Q223R Mutation of Leptin Receptor Gene in Amoebic Liver Abscess Patients from North India: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Host genetic susceptibility is an important risk factor in infectious diseases. We explored the distribution of Q223R mutation in leptin receptor gene of amoebic liver abscess (ALA patients of North India. A total of 55 ALA samples along with 102 controls were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis. The frequency of allele “G” (coding for arginine was in general high in Indian population irrespective of the disease. Our results of Fisher exact test shows that heterozygous mutant (QQ versus QR, P=0.049 and homozygous mutant (QQ versus RR, P=0.004 were significantly associated with amoebic liver abscess when compared with homozygous wild (QQ.

  17. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food.

  18. Integration of stress and leptin signaling by CART producing neurons in the rodent midbrain centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu eXu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Leptin targets the brain to regulate feeding, neuroendocrine function and metabolism. The leptin receptor is present in hypothalamic centers controlling energy metabolism as well as in the centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWcp, a region implicated in the stress response and in various aspects of stress-related behaviors. We hypothesized that the stress response by cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART-producing EWcp-neurons would depend on the animal’s energy state. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of changes in energy state (mimicked by low, normal and high leptin levels, which were achieved by 24h fasting, normal chow and leptin injection, respectively on the response of CART neurons in the EWcp of rats subjected or not to acute restraint stress. Our data show that leptin treatment alone significantly increases CART mRNA expression in the rat EWcp and that in leptin receptor deficient (db/db mice, the number of CART producing neurons in this nucleus is reduced. This suggests that leptin has a stimulatory effect on the production of CART in the EWcp under non-stressed condition. Under stressed condition, however, leptin blunts stress-induced activation of EWcp neurons and decreases their CART mRNA expression. Interestingly, fasting, does not influence the stress-induced activation of EWcp-neurons, and specifically EWcp-CART neurons are not activated. These results suggest that the stress response by the EWcp depends to some degree on the animal’s energy state, a mechanism that may contribute to a better understanding of the complex interplay between obesity and stress.

  19. Serum transferrin receptor levels in the evaluation of iron deficiency in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusia, U; Flowers, C; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sood, S K; Sikka, M

    1996-10-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major global problem. Early onset of iron deficiency in developing countries makes it imperative to identify iron deficiency in neonates. Most conventional laboratory parameters of iron status fail to distinguish neonates with iron deficient erythropoiesis. Serum transferrin receptor (STFR) levels are a recent sensitive measure of iron deficiency and the present study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of cord serum transferrin receptors in identifying iron deficient erythropoiesis in neonates. A complete hemogram, red cell indices, iron profile: serum iron (SI), percent transferrin saturation (TS%) and serum ferritin (SF) was carried out in 100 full-term neonates and their mothers at parturition. Cord and maternal STFR levels were estimated using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Anemic women had a significantly lower SI, their TS% and high STFR levels suggesting that iron deficiency was responsible for the anemia. In the neonates of iron deficient mothers, cord SI, TS% and cord ferritin were not significantly different from those of neonates born to non-anemic mothers. Cord STFR level correlated well with hemoglobin (Hb) and laboratory parameters of iron status, and its level was significantly higher in neonates born to anemic mothers than in those born to non-anemic mothers. It was the only laboratory parameter to differentiate between neonates born to anemic and non-anemic mothers. Therefore, STFR is a sensitive index of iron status in neonates and identifies neonates with iron deficient erythropoiesis.

  20. Leptin Signaling in AgRP Neurons Modulates Puberty Onset and Adult Fertility in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Olivia K; Inglis, Megan A; Anderson, Greg M

    2017-04-05

    metabolic imbalance has significant public health implications. Deficient leptin signaling attributable to diet-induced leptin resistance is associated with infertility in humans and rodents, and treatments for human infertility show a decreased success rate with increasing body mass index. Here we show that the transmission of metabolic information to the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is mediated by leptin receptors on AgRP neurons. These results provide conclusive new insights into the mechanisms that cause infertility attributable to malnourishment. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/373875-12$15.00/0.

  1. Does leptin play a cytokine-like role within the airways of COPD patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, A; Chanez, P; Chiappara, G; Siena, L; Giammanco, S; Gjomarkaj, M; Bonsignore, G; Bousquet, J; Vignola, A M

    2005-09-01

    The leptin-leptin receptor system might be up-regulated in the airways of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In bronchial biopsies obtained from normal subjects and smokers, with and without COPD, the present study examined leptin and leptin-receptor expression and their co-localisation in airway and inflammatory cells. Combining immunohistochemistry with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labelling techniques, apoptosis in airway and inflammatory cells and in leptin and leptin-receptor expressing cells was investigated. In the epithelial cells both leptin and leptin-receptor expression was higher in normal subjects than in smokers and COPD subjects. By contrast, in the sub-mucosa, leptin was over-expressed in COPD when compared with normal subjects and smokers. Leptin and its receptor were co-localised, mainly with activated T cells (CD45R0) and CD8+ T lymphocytes. In smokers, apoptosis was found in some inflammatory cells, whereas in COPD inflammatory cells, leptin and leptin-receptor positive cells were not apoptotic. Leptin expression was related to COPD severity and assessed using the Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification. In conclusion, the present study shows an increased leptin expression in bronchial mucosa of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, associated with airway inflammation and airflow obstruction.

  2. Role of leptin during childhood growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, J N; Rogol, A D

    1999-12-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob/ob gene in rodents, regulates energy balance and fertility. Two genetic models, the ob/ob mouse (deletion of leptin protein) and the db/db mouse (deletion of leptin receptor) have markedly augmented research in obesity. Human obesity is more closely linked to leptin resistance than to the absence of leptin. Serum leptin concentrations reflect the size of the subcutaneous fat depot better than total fat mass or abdominal visceral fat. At the initiation of puberty there is a divergence in circulating leptin concentrations between boys and girls. In boys, leptin concentrations increase and then markedly decrease to prepubertal concentration levels. In girls there are only increasing concentrations. The authors believe these patterns are relevant to the markedly different alterations in the regional distribution of body fat that occurs in boys and girls at puberty.

  3. Thyroid hormone and leptin in the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fonte Ramos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs. Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in humans and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis.

  4. Pharmacokinetics (PK, pharmacodynamics (PD and integrated PK/PD modeling of a novel long acting FGF21 clinical candidate PF-05231023 in diet-induced obese and leptin-deficient obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Weng

    Full Text Available Pharmacological administration of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 improves metabolic profile in preclinical species and humans. FGF21 exerts its metabolic effects through formation of beta-klotho (KLB/FGF receptor 1c FGFR1c complex and subsequent signaling. Data from various in vitro systems demonstrate the intact C- and N-terminus of FGF21 is required for binding with KLB, and interaction with FGFR1c, respectively. However the relative roles of the termini for in vivo pharmacological effects are unclear. Here we report PF-05231023, a long-acting FGF21 analogue which is unique in that the half-life and subcutaneous (s.c. bioavailability of the intact C-terminus are significantly different from those of the intact N-terminus (2 vs. 22 hr for half-life and 4~7 vs. ~50% SC bioavailability. Therefore, this molecule serves as a valuable tool to evaluate the relative roles of intact C-terminus vs. N-terminus in in vivo pharmacology studies in preclinical species. We determined the effects of PF-05231023 administration on body weight (BW loss and glucose reduction during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT following SC and intravenous (i.v. administration in diet-induced obese (DIO and leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob mice, respectively. Our data show that the intact N-terminus of FGF21 in PF-05231023 appears to be sufficient to drive glucose lowering during OGTT and sustain BW loss in DIOs. Further, PK/PD modeling suggests that while the intact FGF21 C-terminus is not strictly required for glucose lowering during OGTT in ob/ob mice or for BW reduction in DIO mice, the higher potency conferred by intact C-terminus contributes to a rapid initiation of pharmacodynamic effects immediately following dosing. These results provide additional insight into the strategy of developing stabilized versions of FGF21 analogs to harness the full spectrum of its metabolic benefits.

  5. Toll-like receptor 2 or toll-like receptor 4 deficiency does not modify lupus in MRLlpr mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Freeley

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease with a high morbidity and nephritis is a common manifestation. Previous studies in murine lupus models have suggest a role for Toll-like receptor 2 and 4. We examined the role of these molecules in MRL lpr mice which is one of the most established and robust murine models. We compared disease parameters in Toll-like receptor 2 or Toll-like receptor 4 deficient mice with their littermate controls. We found no difference in the severity of glomerulonephritis as assessed by histology, serum creatinine and albuminuria when Toll-like receptor 2 or Toll-like receptor 4 deficient MRLlpr mice were compared with Toll-like receptor sufficient controls. We also found similar levels of anti-dsDNA and anti-ssDNA antibodies. These results show that Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 do not play a significant role in MRLlpr mice, and therefore they may not be important in human lupus.

  6. Role of leptin in farm animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mácajová, M; Lamosová, D; Zeman, M

    2004-05-01

    The discovery of hormone leptin has led to better understanding of the energy balance control. In addition to its effects on food intake and energy expenditure, leptin has now been implicated as a mediator of diverse physiological functions. Recently, leptin has been cloned in several domestic species. The sequence similarity suggests a common function or mechanism of this peptide hormone across species. Leptin receptors are expressed in most of tissues, which is consistent with the multiplicity of leptin functions. The main goal of this review was to summarize knowledge about effect of leptin on physiology of farm animals. Experiments point to a stimulatory action of leptin on growth hormone (GH) secretion, normal growth and development of the brain. Surprisingly, leptin is synthesized at a high rate in placenta and may function as a growth factor for fetus, signalling the nutritional status from the mother to her offspring. Maturation of reproductive system can be stimulated by leptin administration. Morphological and hormonal changes, consistent with a major role of leptin in the reproductive system, have also been described, including the stimulation of the release of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. Leptin has a substantial effect on food intake and feeding behaviour in animals. Administration of leptin reduces food intake. Its level decrease within hours after initiation of fasting. Leptin also serves as a mediator of the adaptation to fasting, and this role may be the primary function for which was the molecule evolved.

  7. Leptin administration favors muscle mass accretion by decreasing FoxO3a and increasing PGC-1alpha in ob/ob mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neira Sáinz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Absence of leptin has been associated with reduced skeletal muscle mass in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of leptin on the catabolic and anabolic pathways regulating muscle mass. Gastrocnemius, extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscle mass as well as fiber size were significantly lower in ob/ob mice compared to wild type littermates, being significantly increased by leptin administration (P<0.001. This effect was associated with an inactivation of the muscle atrophy-related transcription factor forkhead box class O3 (FoxO3a (P<0.05, and with a decrease in the protein expression levels of the E3 ubiquitin-ligases muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx (P<0.05 and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1 (P<0.05. Moreover, leptin increased (P<0.01 protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha, a regulator of muscle fiber type, and decreased (P<0.05 myostatin protein, a negative regulator of muscle growth. Leptin administration also activated (P<0.01 the regulators of cell cycle progression proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and cyclin D1, and increased (P<0.01 myofibrillar protein troponin T. The present study provides evidence that leptin treatment may increase muscle mass of ob/ob mice by inhibiting myofibrillar protein degradation as well as enhancing muscle cell proliferation.

  8. Leptin, NPY, Melatonin and Zinc Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: The Relation to Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-06-01

    Since zinc mediates the effects of many hormones or is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors, zinc deficiency leads to various functional impairments in the hormone balance. And also thyroid hormones have important activity on metabolism and feeding. NPY and leptin are affective on food intake and regulation of appetite. The present study is conducted to determine how zinc supplementation and deficiency affect thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4), melatonin, leptin, and NPY levels in thyroid dysfunction in rats. The experiment groups in the study were formed as follows: Control (C); Hypothyroidism (PTU); Hypothyroidism+Zinc (PTU+Zn); Hypothyroidism+Zinc deficient; Hyperthyroidism (H); Hyperthyroidism+Zinc (H+Zn); and Hyperthyroidism+Zinc deficient. Thyroid hormone parameters (FT 3 , FT 4 , TT 3 , and TT 4 ) were found to be reduced in hypothyroidism groups and elevated in the hyperthyroidism groups. Melatonin values increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels both increased in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. Zinc supplementation, particularly when thyroid function is impaired, has been demonstrated to markedly prevent these changes.

  9. Circulating ghrelin and leptin concentrations and growth hormone secretagogue receptor abundance in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of beef cattle exhibiting differences in composition of gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, J S; Wertz-Lutz, A E; Pritchard, R H; Weaver, A D; Keisler, D H; Bruns, K

    2011-12-01

    Data from species other than cattle indicate that ghrelin and GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) could play a key role in fat deposition, energy homeostasis, or glucose metabolism by directly affecting liver and adipose tissue metabolism. Beef steers (n = 72) were used to test the hypothesis that plasma ghrelin and leptin concentrations and abundance of the GHS-R in liver, muscle, and adipose tissues differ in steers exhibiting differences in composition of gain. At trial initiation (d 0), 8 steers were slaughtered for initial carcass composition. The remaining 64 steers were stratified by BW, allotted to pen, and treatment was assigned randomly to pen. Steers were not implanted with anabolic steroids. Treatments were 1) a low-energy (LE) diet fed during the growing period (0 to 111 d) followed by a high-energy (HE) diet during the finishing period (112 to 209 d; LE-HE) or 2) the HE diet for the duration of the trial (1 to 209 d; HE-HE). Eight steers per treatment were slaughtered on d 88, 111, 160, and 209. Carcass ninth, tenth, and eleventh rib sections were dissected for chemical composition and regression equations were developed to predict compositional gain. Liver, muscle, and subcutaneous adipose tissues were frozen in liquid nitrogen for subsequent Western blotting for GHS-R. Replicate blood samples collected before each slaughter were assayed for ghrelin and leptin concentrations. When compared at a common compositional fat end-point, the rate of carcass fat accretion (g·kg of shrunk BW(-1)) was greater (P muscle, and subcutaneous adipose tissue was not different between treatment groups. The role of ghrelin in cattle metabolism warrants further investigation as it could have a significant effect on composition of BW gain, feed efficiency, and metabolic disorders such as ketosis and fatty liver.

  10. QCM-4, a 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist ameliorates plasma HPA axis hyperactivity, leptin resistance and brain oxidative stress in depression and anxiety-like behavior in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhe, Yeshwant; Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Devadoss, Thangaraj

    2015-01-02

    Several preclinical studies have revealed antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effect of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. In our earlier study, we have reported the antidepressive-like effect of 3-methoxy-N-p-tolylquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (QCM-4) in obese mice subjected to chronic stress. The present study deals with the biochemical mechanisms associated with depression co-morbid with obesity. Mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks, further subjected for treatment with QCM-4 (1 and 2mg/kg p.o.) and standard antidepressant escitalopram (ESC) (10mg/kg p.o.) for 28 days. Behavioral assays for depression such as sucrose preference test (SPT), forced swim test (FST) and for anxiety such as light and dark test (LDT) and hole board test (HBT) were performed in obese mice. Biochemical assessments including plasma leptin and corticosterone concentration followed by brain oxidative stress parameters malonaldehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were performed. Results confirmed that QCM-4 exhibits antidepressive effect by increasing the sucrose consumption in SPT, reducing immobility time in FST and anxiolytic effect by increasing transitions and time in light chamber in LDT, increasing head dip and crossing score in HBT. Furthermore, QCM-4 attenuated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity by reducing the plasma corticosterone, reversing altered plasma leptin, restoring the imbalance of brain MDA and GSH concentration. In conclusion, QCM-4 showed antidepressive and anxiolytic effect by reversing the behavioral alterations that were supported by biochemical estimations in obese mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [The Relationship Study between Expressions of P2X5 Receptor and Deficiency-cold Syndrome/Deficiency-heat Syndrome at Various Ambient Temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-ping; Yu, Hong-jie; Huang, Rui; Li, Xin-min; Zhan, Xiang-hong; Hou, Jun-lin

    2015-05-01

    To detect the expression of the peripheral blood P2X5 receptor at various ambient temperatures, and to explore its relationship with deficiency-cold syndrome and deficiency-heat syndrome. Subjects were selected by questionnaire and expert diagnosis, and assigned to the normal control group, the deficiency-cold syndrome group, and the deficiency-heat syndrome group, 20 in each group. 5 mL venous blood was collected at room temperature (25 °C) and cold temperature (-4-5 °C) respectively. Then the expression of P2X5 receptor was relatively quantified by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, and compared at room temperature and cold temperature respectively. The expression of P2X5 receptor in deficiency-cold syndrome and deficiency-heat syndrome groups was lower than that in the normal control group at room temperature (P cold temperature in the deficiency-cold syndrome group than in the normal control group (P receptor showed no difference in all groups at two different temperatures (P > 0.05). The expression of P2X5 receptor was different in different syndrome groups at various ambient temperatures. Ambient temperatures had insignificant effect on the expression of P2X5 receptor of the population with the same syndrome.

  12. Presynaptic Regulation of Leptin in a Defined Lateral Hypothalamus-Ventral Tegmental Area Neurocircuitry Depends on Energy State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Bello, Nicholas T; Pang, Zhiping P

    2017-12-06

    Synaptic transmission controls brain activity and behaviors, including food intake. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, acts on neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to maintain energy homeostasis and regulate food intake behavior. The specific synaptic mechanisms, cell types, and neural projections mediating this effect remain unclear. In male mice, using pathway-specific retrograde tracing, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and post hoc cell type identification, we found that leptin reduces excitatory synaptic strength onto both melanin-concentrating hormone- and orexin-expressing neurons projecting from the LHA to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which may affect dopamine signaling and motivation for feeding. A presynaptic mechanism mediated by distinct intracellular signaling mechanisms may account for this regulation by leptin. The regulatory effects of leptin depend on intact leptin receptor signaling. Interestingly, the synaptic regulatory function of leptin in the LHA-to-VTA neuronal pathway is highly sensitive to energy states: both energy deficiency (acute fasting) and excessive energy storage (high-fat diet-induced obesity) blunt the effect of leptin. These data revealed that leptin may regulate synaptic transmission in the LHA-to-VTA neurocircuitry in an inverted "U-shape" fashion dependent on plasma glucose levels and related to metabolic states. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to ventral tegmental area (VTA) projection is an important neural pathway involved in balancing whole-body energy states and reward. We found that the excitatory synaptic inputs to both orexin- and melanin-concentrating hormone expressing LHA neurons projecting to the VTA were suppressed by leptin, a peptide hormone derived from adipocytes that signals peripheral energy status to the brain. Interestingly, energy states seem to affect how leptin regulates synaptic transmission since both the depletion of energy induced by acute food

  13. Expression and immunohistochemical localization of leptin in human periapical granulomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Jénifer; Carmona-Fernández, Antonio; Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Flora; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptin, initially described as an adipocyte-derived hormone to regulate weight control, is expressed in normal and inflamed human dental pulp, being up-regulated during pulp experimental inflammation. Leptin receptor (LER) has been identified in human periapical granulomas. The aim of this study was to analyze and characterize the expression of leptin in human periapical granulomas. Material and Methods Fifteen periapical inflammatory lesions were obtained from extracted human teeth and teeth which underwent periapical surgery. After their morphological categorization as periapical granulomas and gradation of the inflammatory infiltrate, they were examined by immunohistochemistry using human leptin policlonal antibodies. Leptin mRNA expression was also determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the amount of leptin protein was analyzed by immunoblot. Results All periapical lesions exhibited the characteristic of chronic granulomatous inflammatory process with inflammatory infiltrate grade III. Leptin+ cells were detected in 13 periapical granulomas (86.6%). The median number of Leptin+ cells in periapical granulomas was 1.70 (0.00-7.4). Amongst the inflammatory cells in the periapical granulomas, only macrophages were reactive to leptin antibodies. Western blot analysis revealed the presence in all samples of a protein with apparent molecular weight of approximately 16 kDa, corresponding to the estimated molecular weights of leptin. The expression of leptin mRNA was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis and the size of the amplified fragment (296 bp for leptin and 194 bp for cyclophilin) was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Conclusions For the first time, it has been demonstrated that human periapical granuloma expresses the adipokine leptin. Key words: Apical granuloma, dental pulp, endodontics, leptin, leptin receptor, immune system, immunohistochemistry, periapical inflammatory response. PMID:25662559

  14. Epithelial-microbial crosstalk in polymeric Ig receptor deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reikvam, D.H.; Derrien, M.M.N.; Islam, R.; Erofeev, A.; Grcic, V.; Sandvik, A.; Gaustad, P.; Meza-Zepeda, L.A.; Jahnsen, F.L.; Smidt, H.; Johansen, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Innate and adaptive mucosal defense mechanisms ensure a homeostatic relationship with the large and complex mutualistic gut microbiota. Dimeric IgA and pentameric IgM are transported across the intestinal epithelium via the epithelial polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) and provide a significant portion of

  15. Physiological roles revealed by ghrelin and ghrelin receptor deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a hormone made in the stomach and known primarily for its growth hormone releasing and orexigenic properties. Nevertheless, ghrelin through its receptor, the GHS-R1a, has been shown to exert many roles including regulation of glucose homeostasis, memory & learning, food addiction and neur...

  16. Soluble transferrin receptor: a differentiating marker between iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboor, M.; Moinuddin, A.; Naureen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders are the two major causes of microcytic and hypochromic anaemia. Many times the diagnosis of these conditions becomes difficult through conventional laboratory tests. Determination of soluble transferrin receptors is a helpful laboratory test for the differential diagnosis of these conditions. The study was conducted to evaluate the role of soluble transferrin receptors in the differential diagnosis between iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders. Methods: A total of 80 blood samples were evaluated, i.e., 20 samples from normal adult male, 20 samples from normal adult female, 20 samples from iron deficiency anaemia group and 20 samples from patients with anaemia of chronic disorders. Soluble transferrin receptors were determined by ELISA technique using Quantikine IVD kit (R and D Systems). Results: There was significant difference in the levels of sTfR in iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders. Statistically non-significant difference was observed between the levels of sTfR in patients with anaemia of chronic disorders as compared to normal control group. Conclusion: The sTfR determination can be used as a reliable differentiating marker in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disorders. (author)

  17. Systematic screening of Drosophila deficiency mutations for embryonic phenotypes and orphan receptor ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley P Wright

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines a collection of Drosophila deletion mutations (deficiencies that can be systematically screened for embryonic phenotypes, orphan receptor ligands, and genes affecting protein localization. It reports the results of deficiency screens we have conducted that have revealed new axon guidance phenotypes in the central nervous system and neuromuscular system and permitted a quantitative assessment of the number of potential genes involved in regulating guidance of specific motor axon branches. Deficiency "kits" that cover the genome with a minimum number of lines have been established to facilitate gene mapping. These kits cannot be systematically analyzed for phenotypes, however, since embryos homozygous for many deficiencies in these kits fail to develop due to the loss of key gene products encoded within the deficiency. To create new kits that can be screened for phenotype, we have examined the development of the nervous system in embryos homozygous for more than 700 distinct deficiency mutations. A kit of approximately 400 deficiency lines for which homozygotes have a recognizable nervous system and intact body walls encompasses >80% of the genome. Here we show examples of screens of this kit for orphan receptor ligands and neuronal antigen expression. It can also be used to find genes involved in expression, patterning, and subcellular localization of any protein that can be visualized by antibody staining. A subset kit of 233 deficiency lines, for which homozygotes develop relatively normally to late stage 16, covers approximately 50% of the genome. We have screened it for axon guidance phenotypes, and we present examples of new phenotypes we have identified. The subset kit can be used to screen for phenotypes affecting all embryonic organs. In the future, these deficiency kits will allow Drosophila researchers to rapidly and efficiently execute genome-wide anatomical screens that require examination of individual embryos at

  18. The impact of leptin on perinatal development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleau, Jeanette C; Sullivan, Elinor L

    2014-11-01

    Leptin has long been associated with metabolism as it is a critical regulator of both food intake and energy expenditure, but recently, leptin dysregulation has been proposed as a mechanism of psychopathology. This review discusses the evidence supporting a role for leptin in mental health disorders and describes potential mechanisms that may underlie this association. Leptin plays a critical role in pregnancy and in fetal growth and development. Leptin's role and profile during development is examined in available human studies, and the validity of applying studies conducted in animal models to the human population are discussed. Rodents experience a postnatal leptin surge, which does not occur in humans or larger animal models. This suggests that further research using large mammal models, which have a leptin profile across pregnancy and development similar to humans, are of high importance. Maternal obesity and hyperleptinemia correlate with increased leptin levels in the umbilical cord, placenta, and fetus. Leptin levels are thought to impact fetal brain development; likely by activating proinflammatory cytokines that are known to impact many of the neurotransmitter systems that regulate behavior. Leptin is likely involved in behavioral regulation as leptin receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and leptin influences cortisol release, the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway, serotonin synthesis, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In humans, both high and low levels of leptin are reported to be associated with psychopathology. This inconsistency is likely due to differences in the metabolic state of the study populations. Leptin resistance, which occurs in the obese state, may explain how both high and low levels of leptin are associated with psychopathology, as well as the comorbidity of obesity with numerous mental illnesses. Leptin resistance is likely to influence disorders such as depression and anxiety where high leptin levels have been correlated

  19. 20 years of leptin: leptin and reproduction: past milestones, present undertakings, and future endeavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehab, Farid F

    2014-10-01

    The association between leptin and reproduction originated with the leptin-mediated correction of sterility in ob/ob mice and initiation of reproductive function in normal female mice. The uncovering of a central leptin pathway regulating food intake prompted the dissection of neuroendocrine mechanisms involving leptin in the metabolic control of reproduction. The absence of leptin receptors on GnRH neurons incited a search for intermediary neurons situated between leptin-responsive and GnRH neurons. This review addresses the most significant findings that have furthered our understanding of recent progress in this new field. The role of leptin in puberty was impacted by the discovery of neurons that co-express kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin and these could act as leptin intermediates. Furthermore, the identification of first-order leptin-responsive neurons in the premammilary ventral nucleus and other brain regions opens new avenues to explore their relationship to GnRH neurons. Central to these advances is the unveiling that agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y neurons project onto GnRH and kisspeptin neurons, allowing for a crosstalk between food intake and reproduction. Finally, while puberty is a state of leptin sensitivity, mid-gestation represents a state of leptin resistance aimed at building energy stores to sustain pregnancy and lactation. The mechanisms underlying leptin resistance in pregnancy have lagged; however, the establishment of this natural state is significant. Reproduction and energy balance are tightly controlled and backed up by redundant mechanisms that are critical for the survival of our species. It will be the goal of the following decade to shed new light on these complex and essential pathways. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Mammary gland leptin in relation to lactogenesis in the periparturient dairy goat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Alice Neess; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2008-01-01

    The role of leptin in development of mammary gland secretory function was studied during the periparturient period in dairy goats. Changes in mammary leptin and leptin receptor (short cytoplasmic form) expression were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and related to changes in milk and plasma leptin...... peak in milk leptin 2 days post-partum needs to be understood. We did not find evidence that milk leptin can be absorbed, and thus play a role in systemic regulation, of the neonatal goat....... concentrations from 5 weeks pre-partum to 7 weeks post-partum. It was further investigated if systemic leptin concentration in the neonate is affected by milk leptin intake. We found no evidence of accumulation of leptin in colostrum pre-partum. Pre- and post-partum milk leptin concentrations were similar...

  1. Leptin, adiponectin and pulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Assad, Nour; Sood, Akshay

    2012-10-01

    Adipose tissue produces leptin and adiponectin - energy-regulating adipokines that may also play a role in inflammatory pulmonary conditions, as suggested by some murine studies. Leptin and adiponectin and their respective receptors are expressed in the human lung. The association between systemic or airway leptin and asthma in humans is currently controversial, particularly among adults. The majority of the evidence among children however suggests that systemic leptin may be associated with greater asthma prevalence and severity, particularly among prepubertal boys and peripubertal/postpubertal girls. Systemic and airway leptin concentrations may also be disproportionately higher in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, particularly among women, and reflect greater airway inflammation and disease severity. Quite like leptin, the association between systemic and airway adiponectin and asthma in humans is also controversial. Some but not all studies, demonstrate that serum adiponectin concentrations are protective against asthma among premenopausal women and peripubertal girls. On the other hand, serum adiponectin concentrations are inversely associated with asthma severity among boys but positively associated among men. Further, systemic and airway adiponectin concentrations are higher in COPD patients than controls, as demonstrated by case-control studies of men. Systemic adiponectin is also positively associated with lung function in healthy adults but inversely associated with lung function in subjects with COPD. It is therefore possible that pro-inflammatory effects of adiponectin dominate under certain physiologic conditions and anti-inflammatory effects under others. The adipokine-lung disease literature has critical gaps that include a lack of adequately powered longitudinal or weight-intervention studies; inadequate adjustment for confounding effect of obesity; and unclear understanding of potential sex interactions. It is also uncertain

  2. Protective Effects of Six Selected Dietary Compounds against Leptin-Induced Proliferation of Oestrogen Receptor Positive (MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meran Keshawa Ediriweera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Obesity is considered as one of the risk factors for breast cancer. Leptin has been found to be involved in breast cancer progression. Therefore, novel approaches to antagonize biological effects of leptin are much needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of six dietary compounds (quercetin, curcumin, gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, ascorbic acid and catechin and assess the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 in leptin-stimulated MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. Methods: MCF-7 cells were exposed to leptin, leptin and compound and compound alone for 48 h. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT and fluorometric assays after 48 h incubation. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was quantified by ELISA. Results: Only quercetin, curcumin and EGCG showed significant protective effects against leptin-induced proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to leptin was reduced by the addition of quercetin, curcumin and EGCG. Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of obesity, this observation provides a rationale for use of curcumin, quercetin and EGCG as antagonists of leptin in the treatment of obese breast cancer patients.

  3. Reduced anorexigenic efficacy of leptin, but not of the melanocortin receptor agonist melanotan-II, predicts diet-induced obesity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, G; de Vries, K; Nyakas, C; Buwalda, B; Adage, T; Kuipers, F; Kas, M.J.H.; Adan, RAH; Wilkinson, CW; Thiele, TE; Scheurink, AJW

    2005-01-01

    Leptin gains access to the central nervous system where it influences activity of neuronal networks involved in ingestive behavior, neuroendocrine activity, and metabolism. In particular, the brain melanocortin (MC) system is important in leptin signaling and maintenance of energy balance. Although

  4. Endogenous androgen deficiency enhances diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Nicholas W; Srodulski, Sarah J; Chan, Huei-Wei; Zhang, Xuan; Tannock, Lisa R; King, Victoria L

    2012-10-01

    Despite numerous clinical and animal studies, the role of sex steroid hormones on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis remain controversial. We sought to determine the effects of endogenous estrogen and testosterone on lipoprotein levels and atherosclerosis using mice fed a low-fat diet with no added cholesterol. Male and female low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice were fed an open stock low-fat diet (10% of kcals from fat) for 2, 4, or 17 weeks. Ovariectomy, orchidectomy, or sham surgeries were performed to evaluate the effects of the presence or absence of endogenous hormones on lipid levels, lipoprotein distribution, and atherosclerosis development. Female mice fed the study diet for 17 weeks had a marked increase in levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein-B containing lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis compared with male mice. Surprisingly, ovariectomy in female mice had no effect on any of these parameters. In contrast, castration of male mice markedly increased total cholesterol concentrations, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, and atherosclerotic lesion formation compared with male and female mice. These data suggest that endogenous androgens protect against diet-induced increases in cholesterol concentrations, formation of proatherogenic lipoproteins, and atherosclerotic lesions formation. Conversely orchidectomy, which decreases androgen concentrations, promotes increases in cholesterol concentrations, proatherogenic lipoprotein formation, and atherosclerotic lesion formation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice in response to a low-fat diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. P2X7 receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to bone cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, RR; Nielsen, CK; Nasser, A

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and has been suggested as a possible target in pain treatment. However, the specific role of the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer pain is unknown. We demonstrated that BALB/cJ P2X7 receptor knockout (P2X7R KO) mice...... of the P2X7R KO mouse. Further experiments are needed to elucidate the exact role of the P2X7 receptors in bone cancer pain. Pain-related behaviours had an earlier onset in bone cancer-bearing, P2X7 receptor-deficient mice, and treatment with A-438079 failed to alleviate pain-related behaviours....

  6. [Interaction of polymorphisms of Leptin receptor gene Gln223Arg, MnSOD9Ala/Val genes and smoking in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaoxian; Guo, Like; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the interaction of polymorphisms of leptin receptor (LR) gene Gln223Arg, manganese superoxide dismutase9Ala/Val (MnSOD9Ala/Val) genes and smoking in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The genetic polymorphisms of LEPR gene Gln223 Arg and MnSOD9Ala/Val were analyzed bypolymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in peripheral blood leukocytes of 600 NAFLD cases and 600 healthy persons. The frequencies of LR gene Gln223Arg (G/G) and MnSOD9Ala/Val (V/V) were 48. 67% and 50.17% in NAFLD cases and 21. 17% and 21. 50% in healthy controls respectively. Statistical tests showed significant difference in the frequencies between the two groups (P smoking rate of the case group was significantly higher than which in the control group (OR = 3. 6754, 95% CI = 1. 4193 - 4. 9581, P smoking and Gln223Arg ( G/G)/ MnSOD9Ala/Val (V/V) which increase risk of NAFLD ( OR = 9. 8665; OR = 8. 5476). Gln223Arg (G/G), MnSOD9Ala/Val (V/V) and smoking are the risk factors in NAFLD, and the significant interactions between geneticpolymorphisms of Gln223Arg,MnSOD9Ala/Val and smoking added the risk of NAFLD.

  7. Leptin Receptor Gene Gln223Arg Polymorphism Is Not Associated with Hypertension: A Preliminary Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geórgia das Graças Pena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is responsible for high morbidity and mortality as one of the most important cardiometabolic risk factors. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the Gln223Arg in the leptin receptor (LEPR influences the prevalence of hypertension. A cross-sectional study was carried out in individuals aged ≥ 18 years. Polymorphism identification was performed using PCR-RFLP analysis. Participants with blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg or medication use were considered hypertensive. Frequencies, means, cross-tabulations, and multivariate models were produced to study differences in hypertension prevalence by genotypes. The study includes 470 participants. The frequency of GG polymorphism variant was 10.43%, 46.81% AG, and 42.77% AA. The distribution of hypertension frequency by LEPR genotypes was the following: AA 43.8%, AG 40.4%, and GG 40.8%; there were no significant differences between groups. Comparative analysis which used multivariate Poisson regression adjusted by many potential confounders (age, sex, schooling, smoking, alcohol intake, obesity, and family history of parental obesity did not modify this result. In this large sample of population-based study, the association of the LEPR Gln223Arg gene polymorphism with hypertension was not observed.

  8. Leptin and Pathological Indexes in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Noori Alavicheh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and one of the factors threatening the health of women worldwide. Leptin is a 16 kD glycoprotein hormone produced predominantly by white adipose tissue. Leptin binds to receptors in the hypothalamus and plays a key role in regulation of metabolism. Both leptin and leptin receptor have recently been implicated in processes and progress leading to breast cancer initiation. The aim of this study was to identify if there is association between leptin and pathological indexes in patients with breast cancer Methods: 45women with breast cancer were enrolled. Serum leptin levels of patients were measured by the ELISA method. Pathological information such as stage of the breast cancer, Hormonal receptor (ER, PR and Her2 status in these patients were determined. Result: Results revealed that the patients who were in stage one and two, the mean serum leptin level was (34.18±21.22 ng/ml And patients who were in stage three and four, the mean serum leptin level was (32.21±21/93 ng/ml. Also the mean serum leptin levels in patients whose receptor status of ER, PR and HER2 positive were (35.90±23.55, 35.74±23.91and 37.02±24.25ng/ml, respectively. The Patients whose receptor status of ER, PR and HER2 negative were 26.64±13.13, 28.17±14.26and31.32±19.9ng/ml respectively. No significant association was found between leptin leveland stage of the breast cancer, hormonal receptor (ER, PR and Her2 status in Patients with Breast cancer(p>0.05. Conclusions: In this study, no association was found between serum leptin level and pathological indices in women with Breast cancer in Yasuj, Iran.

  9. Leptin and its cardiovascular effects: Focus on angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Tahergorabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an endocrine hormone synthesized by adipocytes. It plays a key role in the energy homeostasis in central and peripheral tissues and has additional roles are attributed to it, such as the regulation of reproduction, immune function, bone homeostasis, and angiogenesis. The plasma concentration of leptin significantly increases in obese individuals. In the present review, we give an introduction concerning leptin, its receptors, signaling pathways, and its effect on cardiovascular system, especially on angiogenesis.

  10. Leptin and psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    obese and normal body weight controls, and negatively corre- lated with weight loss due to food restriction. Reports of studies of leptin in patients with anorexia nervosa are limited. In starved female anorectics at very low body weights, leptin levels are reduced significantly.15,16 Leptin in-. Fig. 2. A schematic representation ...

  11. Urethral dysfunction in female mice with estrogen receptor β deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hsiang Chen

    Full Text Available Estrogen has various regulatory functions in the growth, development, and differentiation of the female urogenital system. This study investigated the roles of ERβ in stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Wild-type (ERβ(+/+ and knockout (ERβ(-/- female mice were generated (aged 6-8 weeks, n = 6 and urethral function and protein expression were measured. Leak point pressures (LPP and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP were assessed in mice under urethane anesthesia. After the measurements, the urethras were removed for proteomic analysis using label-free quantitative proteomics by nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis. The interaction between these proteins was further analysed using MetaCore. Lastly, Western blot was used to confirm the candidate proteins. Compared with the ERβ(+/+ group, the LPP and MUCP values of the ERβ(-/- group were significantly decreased. Additionally, we identified 85 differentially expressed proteins in the urethra of ERβ(-/- female mice; 57 proteins were up-regulated and 28 were down-regulated. The majority of the ERβ knockout-modified proteins were involved in cell-matrix adhesion, metabolism, immune response, signal transduction, nuclear receptor translational regelation, and muscle contraction and development. Western blot confirmed the up-regulation of myosin and collagen in urethra. By contrast, elastin was down-regulated in the ERβ(-/- mice. This study is the first study to estimate protein expression changes in urethras from ERβ(-/- female mice. These changes could be related to the molecular mechanism of ERβ in SUI.

  12. CD1d deficiency inhibits the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms in LDL receptor deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs H M van Puijvelde

    Full Text Available An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a dilatation of the abdominal aorta leading to serious complications and mostly to death. AAA development is associated with an accumulation of inflammatory cells in the aorta including NKT cells. An important factor in promoting the recruitment of these inflammatory cells into tissues and thereby contributing to the development of AAA is angiotensin II (Ang II. We demonstrate that a deficiency in CD1d dependent NKT cells under hyperlipidemic conditions (LDLr-/-CD1d-/- mice results in a strong decline in the severity of angiotensin II induced aneurysm formation when compared with LDLr-/- mice. In addition, we show that Ang II amplifies the activation of NKT cells both in vivo and in vitro. We also provide evidence that type I NKT cells contribute to AAA development by inducing the expression of matrix degrading enzymes in vSMCs and macrophages, and by cytokine dependently decreasing vSMC viability. Altogether, these data prove that CD1d-dependent NKT cells contribute to AAA development in the Ang II-mediated aneurysm model by enhancing aortic degradation, establishing that therapeutic applications which target NKT cells can be a successful way to prevent AAA development.

  13. Leptin and cancer: Pathogenesis and modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, a product of Ob gene from adipocytes regulates appetite, energy expenditure and body mass composition by decreasing orexigenic and increasing anorexigenic neuropeptide release from hypothalamus. Research over the past few years have suggested leptin/leptin receptor dysregulation to have a role in the development of a large variety of malignancies like breast ca, thyroid ca, endometrial ca and gastrointestinal malignancies, predominantly through JAK/STAT pathway which modulates PI3K/AKT3 signaling, ERK1/2 signaling, expression of antiapoptotic proteins (like XIAP, systemic inflammation (TNF-α, IL6, angiogenic factors (VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a expression. In this review, the current understanding of leptin′s role in carcinogenesis has been elaborated. Also a few agents modulating leptin signaling to inhibit cancer cell growth has been described.

  14. Pivotal role of leptin in insulin effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Ceddia

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The OB protein, also known as leptin, is secreted by adipose tissue, circulates in the blood, probably bound to a family of binding proteins, and acts on central neural networks regulating ingestive behavior and energy balance. The two forms of leptin receptors (long and short forms have been identified in various peripheral tissues, a fact that makes them possible target sites for a direct action of leptin. It has been shown that the OB protein interferes with insulin secretion from pancreatic islets, reduces insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes, and increases glucose transport, glycogen synthesis and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Under normoglycemic and normoinsulinemic conditions, leptin seems to shift the flux of metabolites from adipose tissue to skeletal muscle. This may function as a peripheral mechanism that helps control body weight and prevents obesity. Data that substantiate this hypothesis are presented in this review.

  15. Dietary components in the development of leptin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R; Scarpace, Philip J; Harris, Ruth B S; Banks, William A

    2013-03-01

    Classically, leptin resistance has been associated with increased body fat and circulating leptin levels, and the condition is believed to contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of obesity. Although a great deal is known about the central nervous system mechanisms mediating leptin resistance, considerably less is known about the role of diet in establishing and maintaining this altered hormonal state. An exciting new finding has recently been published demonstrating the existence of leptin resistance in normal-weight rats with lean leptin levels by feeding them a high-concentration-fructose diet. This finding has opened the possibility that specific macronutrients may be capable of inducing leptin resistance, independently of the amount of body fat or circulating leptin present in the treated animals. This review describes several lines of research that have recently emerged indicating that specific types of dietary sugars and fats are capable of inducing leptin resistance in experimental rodent models. The results further show that diet-induced leptin resistance is capable of increasing energy intake and elevating body weight gain under appropriate dietary challenges. It appears that biological mechanisms on multiple levels may underlie the dietary induction of leptin resistance, including alterations in the leptin blood-to-brain transport system, in peripheral glucose metabolism, and in central leptin receptor signaling pathways. What is clear from the findings reviewed here is that diet-induced leptin resistance can occur in the absence of elevated circulating leptin levels and body weight, rendering it a potential cause and/or predisposing factor to excess body weight gain and obesity.

  16. Dietary Components in the Development of Leptin Resistance123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R.; Scarpace, Philip J.; Harris, Ruth B. S.; Banks, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, leptin resistance has been associated with increased body fat and circulating leptin levels, and the condition is believed to contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of obesity. Although a great deal is known about the central nervous system mechanisms mediating leptin resistance, considerably less is known about the role of diet in establishing and maintaining this altered hormonal state. An exciting new finding has recently been published demonstrating the existence of leptin resistance in normal-weight rats with lean leptin levels by feeding them a high-concentration-fructose diet. This finding has opened the possibility that specific macronutrients may be capable of inducing leptin resistance, independently of the amount of body fat or circulating leptin present in the treated animals. This review describes several lines of research that have recently emerged indicating that specific types of dietary sugars and fats are capable of inducing leptin resistance in experimental rodent models. The results further show that diet-induced leptin resistance is capable of increasing energy intake and elevating body weight gain under appropriate dietary challenges. It appears that biological mechanisms on multiple levels may underlie the dietary induction of leptin resistance, including alterations in the leptin blood-to-brain transport system, in peripheral glucose metabolism, and in central leptin receptor signaling pathways. What is clear from the findings reviewed here is that diet-induced leptin resistance can occur in the absence of elevated circulating leptin levels and body weight, rendering it a potential cause and/or predisposing factor to excess body weight gain and obesity. PMID:23493533

  17. Adenosine receptors as markers of brain iron deficiency: Implications for Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, César; Gulyani, Seema; Ruiqian, Wan; Bonaventura, Jordi; Cutler, Roy; Pearson, Virginia; Allen, Richard P.; Earley, Christopher J.; Mattson, Mark P.; Ferré, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Deficits of sensorimotor integration with periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and hyperarousal and sleep disturbances in Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) constitute two pathophysiologically distinct but interrelated clinical phenomena, which seem to depend mostly on alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. Brain iron deficiency is considered as a main pathogenetic mechanism in RLS. Rodents with brain iron deficiency represent a valuable pathophysiological model of RLS, although they do not display motor disturbances. Nevertheless, they develop the main neurochemical dopaminergic changes found in RLS, such as decrease in striatal dopamine D2 receptor density. On the other hand, brain iron deficient mice exhibit the characteristic pattern of hyperarousal in RLS, providing a tool to find the link between brain iron deficiency and sleep disturbances in RLS. The present study provides evidence for a role of the endogenous sleep-promoting factor adenosine. Three different experimental preparations, long-term (22 weeks) severe or moderate iron-deficient (ID) diets (3- or 7-ppm iron diet) in mice and short-term (3 weeks) severe ID diet (3-ppm iron diet) in rats, demonstrated a significant downregulation (Western blotting in mouse and radioligand binding saturation experiments in rat brain tissue) of adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) in the cortex and striatum, concomitant to striatal D2R downregulation. On the other hand, the previously reported upregulation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) was only observed with severe ID in both mice and rats. The results suggest a key role for A1R downregulation in the PLMS and hyperarousal in RLS. PMID:27600688

  18. Adenosine receptors as markers of brain iron deficiency: Implications for Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, César; Gulyani, Seema; Ruiqian, Wan; Bonaventura, Jordi; Cutler, Roy; Pearson, Virginia; Allen, Richard P; Earley, Christopher J; Mattson, Mark P; Ferré, Sergi

    2016-12-01

    Deficits of sensorimotor integration with periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and hyperarousal and sleep disturbances in Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) constitute two pathophysiologically distinct but interrelated clinical phenomena, which seem to depend mostly on alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. Brain iron deficiency is considered as a main pathogenetic mechanism in RLS. Rodents with brain iron deficiency represent a valuable pathophysiological model of RLS, although they do not display motor disturbances. Nevertheless, they develop the main neurochemical dopaminergic changes found in RLS, such as decrease in striatal dopamine D 2 receptor density. On the other hand, brain iron deficient mice exhibit the characteristic pattern of hyperarousal in RLS, providing a tool to find the link between brain iron deficiency and sleep disturbances in RLS. The present study provides evidence for a role of the endogenous sleep-promoting factor adenosine. Three different experimental preparations, long-term (22 weeks) severe or moderate iron-deficient (ID) diets (3- or 7-ppm iron diet) in mice and short-term (3 weeks) severe ID diet (3-ppm iron diet) in rats, demonstrated a significant downregulation (Western blotting in mouse and radioligand binding saturation experiments in rat brain tissue) of adenosine A 1 receptors (A1R) in the cortex and striatum, concomitant to striatal D2R downregulation. On the other hand, the previously reported upregulation of adenosine A 2A receptors (A2AR) was only observed with severe ID in both mice and rats. The results suggest a key role for A1R downregulation in the PLMS and hyperarousal in RLS. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Hematopoietic androgen receptor deficiency promotes visceral fat deposition in male mice without impairing glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, K. B.; Wang, S.; den Hartigh, L. J.; Subramanian, S.; Morton, G. J.; Buaas, F. W.; Lamont, D.; Gray, N.; Braun, R. E.; Page, S. T.

    2015-01-01

    Androgen deficiency in men increases body fat, but the mechanisms by which testosterone suppresses fat deposition have not been elucidated fully. Adipose tissue macrophages express the androgen receptor (AR) and regulate adipose tissue remodeling. Thus, testosterone signaling in macrophages could alter the paracrine function of these cells and thereby contribute to the metabolic effects of androgens in men. A metabolic phenotyping study was performed to determine whether the loss of AR signal...

  20. Inactivation of SOCS3 in leptin receptor-expressing cells protects mice from diet-induced insulin resistance but does not prevent obesity a

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, João A.B.; Buonfiglio, Daniella C.; Cardinali, Lais I.; Furigo, Isadora C.; Ramos-Lobo, Angela M.; Tirapegui, Julio; Elias, Carol F.; Donato, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Therapies that improve leptin sensitivity have potential as an alternative treatment approach against obesity and related comorbidities. We investigated the effects of Socs3 gene ablation in different mouse models to understand the role of SOCS3 in the regulation of leptin sensitivity, diet-induced obesity (DIO) and glucose homeostasis. Neuronal deletion of SOCS3 partially prevented DIO and improved glucose homeostasis. Inactivation of SOCS3 only in LepR-expressing cells protected against lep...

  1. Mexico City normal weight children exposed to high concentrations of ambient PM2.5 show high blood leptin and endothelin-1, vitamin D deficiency, and food reward hormone dysregulation versus low pollution controls. Relevance for obesity and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Rodríguez-Díaz, Joel; Blaurock-Busch, Eleonore; Busch, Yvette; Chao, Chih-kai; Thompson, Charles; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George

    2015-07-01

    Millions of Mexico, US and across the world children are overweight and obese. Exposure to fossil-fuel combustion sources increases the risk for obesity and diabetes, while long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mexico City Metropolitan Area children are chronically exposed to PM2.5 and O3 concentrations above the standards and exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We investigated adipokines, food reward hormones, endothelial dysfunction, vitamin D and apolipoprotein E (APOE) relationships in 80 healthy, normal weight 11.1±3.2 year olds matched by age, gender, BMI and SES, low (n: 26) versus high (n:54) PM2.5 exposures. Mexico City children had higher leptin and endothelin-1 (pMexico City APOE 4 versus 3 children had higher glucose (p=0.009). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin DMexico City children. Leptin is strongly positively associated to PM 2.5 cumulative exposures. Residing in a high PM2.5 and O3 environment is associated with 12h fasting hyperleptinemia, altered appetite-regulating peptides, vitamin D deficiency, and increases in ET-1 in clinically healthy children. These changes could signal the future trajectory of urban children towards the development of insulin resistance, obesity, type II diabetes, premature cardiovascular disease, addiction-like behavior, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Increased efforts should be made to decrease pediatric PM2.5 exposures, to deliver health interventions prior to the development of obesity and to identify and mitigate environmental factors influencing obesity and Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. OSCAR is a collagen receptor that costimulates osteoclastogenesis in DAP12-deficient humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Alexander David; Raynal, Nicolas; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Slatter, David A; Bihan, Dominique; Pugh, Nicholas; Cella, Marina; Kim, Taesoo; Rho, Jaerang; Negishi-Koga, Takako; Delaisse, Jean-Marie; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Lorenzo, Joseph; Colonna, Marco; Farndale, Richard W; Choi, Yongwon; Trowsdale, John

    2011-09-01

    Osteoclasts are terminally differentiated leukocytes that erode the mineralized bone matrix. Osteoclastogenesis requires costimulatory receptor signaling through adaptors containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs), such as Fc receptor common γ (FcRγ) and DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa. Identification of these ITAM-containing receptors and their ligands remains a high research priority, since the stimuli for osteoclastogenesis are only partly defined. Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) was proposed to be a potent FcRγ-associated costimulatory receptor expressed by preosteoclasts in vitro, but OSCAR lacks a cognate ligand and its role in vivo has been unclear. Using samples from mice and patients deficient in various ITAM signaling pathways, we show here that OSCAR costimulates one of the major FcRγ-associated pathways required for osteoclastogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, we found that OSCAR binds to specific motifs within fibrillar collagens in the ECM that become revealed on nonquiescent bone surfaces in which osteoclasts undergo maturation and terminal differentiation in vivo. OSCAR promoted osteoclastogenesis in vivo, and OSCAR binding to its collagen motif led to signaling that increased numbers of osteoclasts in culture. Thus, our results suggest that ITAM-containing receptors can respond to exposed ligands in collagen, leading to the functional differentiation of leukocytes, which provides what we believe to be a new concept for ITAM regulation of cytokine receptors in different tissue microenvironments.

  3. Complementary Effects of Genetic Variations in LEPR on Body Composition and Soluble Leptin Receptor Concentration after 3-Month Lifestyle Intervention in Prepubertal Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gajewska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In obese individuals, weight loss might be affected by variants of the adipokine-encoding genes. We verified whether selected functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ are associated with changes in serum levels of the respective adipokines and weight loss in 100 prepubertal obese (SDS-BMI > 2 Caucasian children undergoing lifestyle intervention. Frequencies of the -2548G > A LEP, Q223R LEPR, K656N LEPR, -11377C > G and -11426A > G ADIPOQ polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Serum adipokine and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R concentrations were measured using the ELISA method. Among the analyzed polymorphisms, only LEPR polymorphisms were associated with changes of SDS-BMI or sOB-R concentrations in children after therapy. Carriers of the wild-type K665N and at least one minor Q223R allele had the greatest likelihood of losing weight (OR = 5.09, p = 0.006, an increase in sOB-R (ptrend = 0.022 and decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with the decrease of fat mass (p < 0.001. In contrast, carrying of the wild-type Q223R and at least one minor K665N allele were associated with a decrease in sOB-R concentrations and a decrease in SDS-BMI correlated with a decrease in fat-free mass (p = 0.002. We suggest that the combination of different LEPR variants, not a single variant, might determine predisposition to weight loss in the prepubertal period.

  4. Association between Salivary Leptin Levels and Taste Perception in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénia Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI affects such relationship. Sweet and bitter taste sensitivity was assessed for 121 children aged 9-10 years and unstimulated whole saliva was collected for leptin quantification, using ELISA technique. Children females with lower sweet taste sensitivity presented higher salivary leptin levels, but this is only in the normal weight ones. For bitter taste, association between salivary leptin and caffeine threshold detection was observed only in preobese boys, with higher levels of salivary hormone in low sensitive individuals. This study is the first presenting evidences of a relationship between salivary leptin levels and taste perception, which is sex and BMI dependent. The mode of action of salivary leptin at taste receptor level should be elucidated in future studies.

  5. Evaluation of a melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist (Setmelanotide) in MC4R deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Tinh-Hai; Dubern, Béatrice; Mokrosinski, Jacek; Connors, Hillori; Keogh, Julia M; Mendes de Oliveira, Edson; Henning, Elana; Poitou-Bernert, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Tounian, Patrick; Marchelli, Florence; Alili, Rohia; Le Beyec, Johanne; Pépin, Dominique; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Gottesdiener, Andrew; Bounds, Rebecca; Sharma, Shubh; Folster, Cathy; Henderson, Bart; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Stoner, Elizabeth; Gottesdiener, Keith; Panaro, Brandon L; Cone, Roger D; Clément, Karine; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Van der Ploeg, Lex H T

    2017-10-01

    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides act on neurons expressing the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) to reduce body weight. Setmelanotide is a highly potent MC4R agonist that leads to weight loss in diet-induced obese animals and in obese individuals with complete POMC deficiency. While POMC deficiency is very rare, 1-5% of severely obese individuals harbor heterozygous mutations in MC4R. We sought to assess the efficacy of Setmelanotide in human MC4R deficiency. We studied the effects of Setmelanotide on mutant MC4Rs in cells and the weight loss response to Setmelanotide administration in rodent studies and a human clinical trial. We annotated the functional status of 369 published MC4R variants. In cells, we showed that Setmelanotide is significantly more potent at MC4R than the endogenous ligand alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and can disproportionally rescue signaling by a subset of severely impaired MC4R mutants. Wild-type rodents appear more sensitive to Setmelanotide when compared to MC4R heterozygous deficient mice, while MC4R knockout mice fail to respond. In a 28-day Phase 1b clinical trial, Setmelanotide led to weight loss in obese MC4R variant carriers. Patients with POMC defects upstream of MC4R show significantly more weight loss with Setmelanotide than MC4R deficient patients or obese controls. Setmelanotide led to weight loss in obese people with MC4R deficiency; however, further studies are justified to establish whether Setmelanotide can elicit clinically meaningful weight loss in a subset of the MC4R deficient obese population. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  6. Leptin im Knochenstoffwechsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vock L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin ist ein in Adipozyten exprimiertes Hormon mit vielfältigen Funktionen im gesamten Organismus. Verschiedene Studien legen eine positive Wirkung von Leptin auf den Knochenstoffwechsel nahe. In vitro führte die Inkubation von Knochenmarkstromazellen mit Leptin zu deren Differenzierung zu Osteoblasten und Mineralisation der Matrix. Bei ovarektomierten Ratten konnte durch Leptin der Knochenverlust vermindert werden. Überraschenderweise zeigten andere Studien eine zentrale inhibitorische Wirkung von Leptin auf Osteoblasten bei Nagern. Diese einander scheinbar widersprechenden Ergebnisse zeigen, daß die molekularen Mechanismen, mit welchen Leptin auf den Knochenstoffwechsel wirkt, noch nicht ausreichend verstanden werden. In klinischen Studien findet sich eine protektive Wirkung von Fettmasse und "body mass index" (BMI auf die Knochendichte (postmenopausaler Frauen überwiegend bestätigt. Damit im Einklang, konnten erhöhte Leptinspiegel gefunden werden. Ob Leptin nun direkt in den Knochenstoffwechsel eingreift oder bloß indirekt etwa über eine erhöhte mechanische Belastung, läßt sich aus klinischen Studien allein nicht beantworten. Hingegen dürfte Leptin im Knochenstoffwechsel von Männern keine oder nur eine untergeordnete Rolle spielen. Die Situation bei Kindern und Jugendlichen ist noch unklar, wobei eine positive Wirkung von Leptin in fetalem Knochen relativ sicher ist. Leptin könnte jedoch auch im Wachstum und der Knochenreifung bei Kindern und Jugendlichen eine Rolle spielen.

  7. The role of the GPR39 receptor in zinc deficient-animal model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Reczyński, Witold; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Nowak, Gabriel

    2013-02-01

    During the last decade it has been shown that zinc may activate neural transmissions via the GPR39 Zn(2+)-sensing receptor, which can be involved in the regulation of neuronal plasticity. According to the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression, decreased brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in depressed patients play a key role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. BDNF, similarly as zinc, is known to be involved in the process of neuron survival and the regulation of neuronal plasticity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the administration of a 6-week diet deficient in zinc would cause depressive-like behaviour and if such behavioural alterations would correlate with changes in the expression of the BDNF protein and GPR39 receptor. In the first part of the present study the animal behaviour after a 6-week zinc-deficient diet, in the forced swim test (FST) was investigated. In the second part expression of the GPR39 and BDNF protein level in the frontal cortex was measured using the Western Blot method. Administration of a zinc-deficient diet for 6 weeks increased immobility time in the FST by 24%, so exerted depression-like behaviour. A biochemical study showed a significant reduction in GPR39 (by 53%) and BDNF (by 49%) protein expression in the frontal cortex in mice receiving the zinc deficient diet for 6 weeks. Our study provides evidence that the GPR39 Zn(2+)-sensing receptor may be responsible for lowering the BDNF protein level and in consequence may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Leptin distribution and metabolism in the pregnant rat: transplacental leptin passage increases in late gestation but is reduced by excess glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy T; Waddell, Brendan J

    2003-07-01

    Leptin is essential for the establishment of pregnancy and appears to promote fetal growth, but the mechanisms regulating fetal leptin exposure remain unclear. In rodents, indirect evidence suggests that fetal leptin is partly derived from the maternal circulation via transplacental passage. Indeed, the placenta expresses mRNA for Ob-Ra, one of the short forms of the leptin receptor (Ob-R(S)) important in leptin transport, and this expression increases markedly in late pregnancy. Therefore, we determined the transplacental passage of maternal leptin to the fetus in the rat and whether this transport increases near term in association with a rise in placental expression of Ob-R(S) protein. Because of the proposed role of leptin in promoting fetal growth, we also assessed the effect of glucocorticoid-induced fetal growth retardation on placental leptin transport. Anesthetized rats received a constant infusion of (125)I-leptin via a jugular cannula before and at d 16 and 22 of pregnancy (term = d 23); plasma samples were obtained at 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 min, and fetuses and placentas were collected at the time of the final sample. The metabolic clearance rate of leptin fell (P pregnancy. Over this same period, Ob-R(S) protein expression in the placental labyrinth zone increased by almost 2-fold. Transplacental leptin passage was reduced (P pregnancy. Consistent with the proposed role of leptin as a fetal growth factor, transplacental leptin passage is reduced in association with glucocorticoid-induced fetal growth retardation.

  9. Validation of dopamine receptor DRD1 and DRD2 antibodies using receptor deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Tamara; Orlova, Michaela; Sialana, Fernando J; Höger, Harald; Stuchlik, Stanislav; Milenkovic, Ivan; Aradska, Jana; Lubec, Gert

    2017-06-01

    Dopamine receptors 1 and 2 (DRD1, DRD2) are essential for signaling in the brain for a multitude of brain functions. Previous work using several antibodies against these receptors is abundant but only the minority of antibodies used have been validated and, therefore, the results of these studies remain uncertain. Herein, antibodies against DRD1 (Merck Millipore AB1765P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-14001, Sigma Aldrich D2944, Alomone Labs ADR-001) and DRD2 (Abcam ab21218, Merck Millipore AB5084P, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-5303) have been tested using western blotting and immunohistochemistry on mouse striatum (wild type and corresponding knock-out mice) and when specific, they were further evaluated on rat and human striatum. Moreover, a DRD1 antibody and a DRD2 antibody that were found specific in our tests were used for immunoprecipitation with subsequent mass spectrometrical identification of the immunoprecipitate. Two out of nine antibodies (anti DRD1 Sigma Aldrich D2944 and anti DRD2 Merck Millipore AB5084P) against the abovementioned dopamine receptors were specific for DRD1 and DRD2 as evaluated by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and the immunoprecipitate indeed contained DRD1 and DRD2 as revealed by mass spectrometry. The observed findings may question the use of so far non-validated antibodies against the abovementioned dopamine receptors. Own observations may be valuable for the interpretation of previous results and the design of future studies using dopamine receptors DRD1 or DRD2.

  10. Role of leptin in blood pressure regulation and arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełtowski, Jerzy

    2006-05-01

    Leptin is a 16-kDa protein secreted by white adipose tissue that is primarily involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Plasma leptin concentration is proportional to the amount of adipose tissue and is markedly increased in obese individuals. Recent studies suggest that leptin is involved in cardiovascular complications of obesity, including arterial hypertension. Acutely administered leptin has no effect on blood pressure, probably because it concomitantly stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and counteracting depressor mechanisms such as natriuresis and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasorelaxation. By contrast, chronic hyperleptinemia increases blood pressure because these acute depressor effects are impaired and/or additional sympathetic nervous system-independent pressor effects appear, such as oxidative stress, NO deficiency, enhanced renal Na reabsorption and overproduction of endothelin. Although the cause-effect relationship between leptin and high blood pressure in humans has not been demonstrated directly, many clinical studies have shown elevated plasma leptin in patients with essential hypertension and a significant positive correlation between leptin and blood pressure independent of body adiposity both in normotensive and in hypertensive individuals. In addition, leptin may contribute to end-organ damage in hypertensive individuals such as left ventricular hypertrophy, retinopathy and nephropathy, independent of regulating blood pressure. Here, current knowledge about the role of leptin in the regulation of blood pressure and in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension is presented.

  11. Deficiency of the GPR39 receptor is associated with obesity and altered adipocyte metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia Steen; Jin, Chunyu; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    on body weight and adipocyte metabolism. GPR39-deficient mice were subjected to a high-fat diet and body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, food intake, and energy expenditure were evaluated. The cell biology of adipocyte metabolism was studied on both mRNA and protein levels......-induced thermogenesis, measured by the oxygen consumption rate (Vo(2)) on change from normal to high-fat diet. Analysis of the adipose tissue for lipolytic enzymes demonstrated decreased level of phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and a decreased level of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) by 35 and 60......, conceivably due to decreased energy expenditure and adipocyte lipolytic activity.-Petersen, P. S., Jin, C., Madsen, A. N., Rasmussen, M., Kuhre, R., L. Egerod, K. L., Nielsen, L. B., Schwartz. T. W., Holst, B. Deficiency of the GPR39 receptor is associated with obesity and altered adipocyte metabolism....

  12. Toll-like receptor-2 deficiency enhances non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady Kristen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we reported that mice deficient in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 signalling were protected from diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Another member of the toll-like receptor family, TLR-2, has been shown to play a role in lipid trafficking via uptake of diacylated lipoproteins. However, a role for TLR-2 in NASH has not been elucidated. The objectives of the current study were to examine the influence of dietary fat quality and TLR-2 on NASH pathogenesis. Methods Steatohepatitis was induced in male Db, C57BL/6 and TLR-2-/- mice by feeding an L-amino acid-defined diet that was deficient in methionine and choline (MCDD. Mice fed the base diet supplemented with methionine and choline (control diet; CD were used as controls. To determine the role of fat quality, MCDD was enriched with polyunsaturated corn oil (PUFA or coconut oil that is comprised mostly of saturated fat (SAFA; the total amount of each fat was 112.9 g/kg of diet. After 8 weeks of feeding CD or MCDD, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and necrosis were evaluated in histological sections. Total RNA was extracted from frozen liver samples and mRNA expression of TNFα, collagen α1, IL-10, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ, TLR-4, and CD14, was analyzed via real-time PCR. Protein levels of TLR-2 were analyzed by western blot. Results Panlobular macrovessicular steatosis and diffuse leukocyte infiltration were noted in PUFA-fed Db mice. Histological scores demonstrated significantly less steatosis, inflammation and necrosis in SAFA-fed mice of all mouse strains. However, compared to wild type mice, hepatocellular damage was notably more severe in TLR-2-/- mice. Consistent with histological findings, mRNA expression of TNFα was elevated by approximately 3-fold in TLR-2-/- mice; PPAR-γ expression was blunted in this strain compared to wild type. Expression of the matrix protein collagen αI was also significantly higher in TLR-2

  13. Role of leptin as a link between metabolism and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Vilariño-García, Teresa; Fernández-Riejos, Patricia; Martín-González, Jenifer; Segura-Egea, Juan José; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2017-06-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone not only with an important role in the central control of energy metabolism, but also with many pleiotropic effects in different physiological systems. One of these peripheral functions of leptin is a regulatory role in the interplay between energy metabolism and the immune system, being a cornerstone of the new field of immunometabolism. Leptin receptor is expressed throughout the immune system and the regulatory effects of leptin include cells from both the innate and adaptive immune system. Leptin is one of the adipokines responsible for the inflammatory state found in obesity that predisposes not only to type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, but also to autoimmune and allergic diseases. Leptin is an important mediator of the immunosuppressive state in undernutrition status. Placenta is the second source of leptin and it may play a role in the immunomodulation during pregnancy. Finally, recent work has pointed to the participation of leptin and leptin receptor in the pathophysiology of inflammation in oral biology. Therefore, leptin and leptin receptor should be considered for investigation as a marker of inflammation and immune activation in the frontier of innate-adaptive system, and as possible targets for intervention in the immunometabolic mediated pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Body Mass Influences Cortical Bone Mass Independent of Leptin Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaniec, U.T.; Dube, M.G.; Boghossian, S.; Song, H.; Helferich, W.G.; Turner, R.T.; Kalra, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity in humans is associated with increased bone mass. Leptin, a hormone produced by fat cells, functions as a sentinel of energy balance, and may mediate the putative positive effects of body mass on bone. We performed studies in male C57Bl/6 wild type (WT) and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice to determine whether body mass gain induced by high fat intake increases bone mass and, if so, whether this requires central leptin signaling. The relationship between body mass and bone mass and archite...

  15. A novel method to generate T-cell receptor-deficient chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Takahiro; Wong, Desmond; Png, Yi Tian; Campana, Dario

    2018-03-13

    Practical methods are needed to increase the applicability and efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies. Using donor-derived CAR-T cells is attractive, but expression of endogenous T-cell receptors (TCRs) carries the risk for graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). To remove surface TCRαβ, we combined an antibody-derived single-chain variable fragment specific for CD3ε with 21 different amino acid sequences predicted to retain it intracellularly. After transduction in T cells, several of these protein expression blockers (PEBLs) colocalized intracellularly with CD3ε, blocking surface CD3 and TCRαβ expression. In 25 experiments, median TCRαβ expression in T lymphocytes was reduced from 95.7% to 25.0%; CD3/TCRαβ cell depletion yielded virtually pure TCRαβ-negative T cells. Anti-CD3ε PEBLs abrogated TCRαβ-mediated signaling, without affecting immunophenotype or proliferation. In anti-CD3ε PEBL-T cells, expression of an anti-CD19-41BB-CD3ζ CAR induced cytokine secretion, long-term proliferation, and CD19 + leukemia cell killing, at rates meeting or exceeding those of CAR-T cells with normal CD3/TCRαβ expression. In immunodeficient mice, anti-CD3ε PEBL-T cells had markedly reduced GVHD potential; when transduced with anti-CD19 CAR, these T cells killed engrafted leukemic cells. PEBL blockade of surface CD3/TCRαβ expression is an effective tool to prepare allogeneic CAR-T cells. Combined PEBL and CAR expression can be achieved in a single-step procedure, is easily adaptable to current cell manufacturing protocols, and can be used to target other T-cell molecules to further enhance CAR-T-cell therapies. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Prenatal caffeine exposure induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin mainly via placental mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yi-meng; Luo, Han-wen; Kou, Hao; Wen, Yin-xian; Shen, Lang; Pei, Ling-guo; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yuan-zhen; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    It's known that blood leptin level is reduced in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) fetus, and placental leptin is the major source of fetal blood leptin. This study aimed to investigate the decreased fetal blood leptin level by prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) and its underlying placental mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30–120 mg/kg day) from gestational day 9 to 20. The level of fetal serum leptin and the expression of placental leptin-related genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduced placental leptin's expression by treatment with caffeine (0.8–20 μM) in the BeWo cells. In vivo, PCE significantly decreased fetal serum leptin level in caffeine dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, placental mRNA expression of adenosine A2a receptor (Adora2a), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a short-type leptin receptor (Ob-Ra) and leptin was reduced in the PCE groups. In vitro, caffeine significantly decreased the mRNA expression of leptin, CREB and ADORA2A in concentration and time-dependent manners. The addition of ADORA2A agonist or adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist reversed the inhibition of leptin expression induced by caffeine. PCE induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin, which the primary mechanism is that caffeine inhibited antagonized Adora2a and AC activities to decreased cAMP synthesis, thus inhibited the expression of the transcription factor CREB and target gene leptin in the placenta. Meantime, the reduced transportation of maternal leptin by placental Ob-Ra also contributed to the reduced fetal blood leptin. Together, PCE decreased fetal blood leptin mainly via reducing the expression and transportation of leptin in the placenta. - Highlights: • Caffeine reduced fetal blood leptin level. • Caffeine inhibited placental leptin production and transport. • Caffeine down-regulated placental leptin expression via antagonizing ADORA2. • Caffeine

  17. Infection by and protective immune responses against Plasmodium berghei ANKA are not affected in macrophage scavenger receptors A deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portugal Sílvia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scavenger receptors (SRs recognize endogenous molecules modified by pathological processes as well as components of diverse microorganisms. Mice deficient for both SR-AI and II are more susceptible to infections by a variety of bacterial and viral pathogens. Results Here we show that SR-A deficient mice and wild type mice are equally susceptible to malaria infection both during liver and blood stages. Moreover, like wild type mice, SR-A deficient mice are able to mount a protective immune response against radiation attenuated sporozoites. Conclusion Our results do not reveal a function of SR-A I and II receptors in the Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection, both in the development of CM and parasitemia control. Moreover, these receptors appear not to be required for the establishment of a protective immune response against the malaria liver stages.

  18. Melanocortin 1 Receptor Deficiency Promotes Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, James J.; Velasco-Delgado, Mauricio; Nuutinen, Salla; Viitala, Miro; Hollmén, Maija; Rami, Martina; Savontaus, Eriika; Steffens, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Objective— The MC1-R (melanocortin 1 receptor) is expressed by monocytes and macrophages where it mediates anti-inflammatory actions. MC1-R also protects against macrophage foam cell formation primarily by promoting cholesterol efflux through the ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1) and ABCG1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 1). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether global deficiency in MC1-R signaling affects the development of atherosclerosis. Approach and Results— Apoe−/− (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice were crossed with recessive yellow (Mc1re/e) mice carrying dysfunctional MC1-R and fed a high-fat diet to induce atherosclerosis. Apoe−/− Mc1re/e mice developed significantly larger atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic sinus and in the whole aorta compared with Apoe−/− controls. In terms of plaque composition, MC1-R deficiency was associated with less collagen and smooth muscle cells and increased necrotic core, indicative of more vulnerable lesions. These changes were accompanied by reduced Abca1 and Abcg1 expression in the aorta. Furthermore, Apoe−/− Mc1re/e mice showed a defect in bile acid metabolism that aggravated high-fat diet–induced hypercholesterolemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocyte profile revealed that dysfunctional MC1-R enhanced arterial accumulation of classical Ly6Chigh monocytes and macrophages, effects that were evident in mice fed a normal chow diet but not under high-fat diet conditions. In support of enhanced arterial recruitment of Ly6Chigh monocytes, these cells had increased expression of L-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1. Conclusions— The present study highlights the importance of MC1-R in the development of atherosclerosis. Deficiency in MC1-R signaling exacerbates atherosclerosis by disturbing cholesterol handling and by increasing arterial monocyte accumulation. PMID:29284608

  19. Melanocortin 1 Receptor Deficiency Promotes Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-/-Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Petteri; Kadiri, James J; Velasco-Delgado, Mauricio; Nuutinen, Salla; Viitala, Miro; Hollmén, Maija; Rami, Martina; Savontaus, Eriika; Steffens, Sabine

    2018-02-01

    The MC1-R (melanocortin 1 receptor) is expressed by monocytes and macrophages where it mediates anti-inflammatory actions. MC1-R also protects against macrophage foam cell formation primarily by promoting cholesterol efflux through the ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1) and ABCG1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 1). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether global deficiency in MC1-R signaling affects the development of atherosclerosis. Apoe -/- (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice were crossed with recessive yellow (Mc1r e/e ) mice carrying dysfunctional MC1-R and fed a high-fat diet to induce atherosclerosis. Apoe -/- Mc1r e/e mice developed significantly larger atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic sinus and in the whole aorta compared with Apoe -/- controls. In terms of plaque composition, MC1-R deficiency was associated with less collagen and smooth muscle cells and increased necrotic core, indicative of more vulnerable lesions. These changes were accompanied by reduced Abca1 and Abcg1 expression in the aorta. Furthermore, Apoe -/- Mc1r e/e mice showed a defect in bile acid metabolism that aggravated high-fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocyte profile revealed that dysfunctional MC1-R enhanced arterial accumulation of classical Ly6C high monocytes and macrophages, effects that were evident in mice fed a normal chow diet but not under high-fat diet conditions. In support of enhanced arterial recruitment of Ly6C high monocytes, these cells had increased expression of L-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1. The present study highlights the importance of MC1-R in the development of atherosclerosis. Deficiency in MC1-R signaling exacerbates atherosclerosis by disturbing cholesterol handling and by increasing arterial monocyte accumulation. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Insulin downregulates the expression of the Ca2+-activated nonselective cation channel TRPM5 in pancreatic islets from leptin-deficient mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Colsoul, Barbara; Jacobs, Griet; Philippaert, Koenraad; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Segal, Andrei; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Schuit, Frans; Vennekens, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    We recently proposed that the transient receptor potential melastatin 5 (TRPM5) cation channel contributes to glucose-induced electrical activity of the β cell and positively influences glucose-induced insulin release and glucose homeostasis. In this study, we investigated Trpm5 expression and function in pancreatic islets from mouse models of type II diabetes. Gene expression analysis revealed a strong reduction of Trpm5 mRNA levels in pancreatic islets of db/db and ob/ob mice. The glucose-i...

  1. Leptin, obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Marcelo Lima de Gusmao; Haynes, William Geoffrey

    2004-03-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Leptin levels are increased in obesity and leptin exhibits cardiovascular actions that may contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. We review the sympathetic, renal and vascular actions of leptin and their relevance to cardiovascular disease. Leptin possesses cardio-renal actions potentially contributing to obesity-related hypertension including generalized sympathoactivation. However, given that leptin resistance occurs in obesity, it has been difficult to link hyperleptinemia with hypertension. One possibility is that leptin resistance is confined to the metabolic effects of leptin, with preservation of its sympathoexcitatory actions. Other mechanisms may contribute to the pressor effects of leptin. For instance, angiotensin II induces leptin generation. Leptin also potentiates the pressor effect of insulin. Therefore, interactions between angiotensin II and insulin with leptin could have deleterious cardiovascular effects in obesity. Additionally, leptin appears to stimulate vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertophy. These actions may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy. The potential actions of leptin in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular complications of obesity are diverse, despite evidence of leptin resistance to its metabolic actions. However, most information about cardiovascular actions of leptin derives from in-vitro and animal studies. Future research in humans is widely awaited.

  2. Leptin promotes systemic lupus erythematosus by increasing autoantibody production and inhibiting immune regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Elaine V; Liu, Aijing; Matarese, Giuseppe; La Cava, Antonio

    2016-09-20

    Leptin is an adipocytokine that plays a key role in the modulation of immune responses and the development and maintenance of inflammation. Circulating levels of leptin are elevated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, but it is not clear whether this association can reflect a direct influence of leptin on the propathogenic events that lead to SLE. To investigate this possibility, we compared the extent of susceptibility to SLE and lupus manifestations between leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and H2-matched leptin-sufficient (wild-type, WT) mice that had been treated with the lupus-inducing agent pristane. Leptin deficiency protected ob/ob mice from the development of autoantibodies and renal disease and increased the frequency of immunoregulatory T cells (Tregs) compared with leptin-sufficient WT mice. The role of leptin in the development of SLE was confirmed in the New Zealand Black (NZB) × New Zealand White (NZW)F1 (NZB/W) mouse model of spontaneous SLE, where elevated leptin levels correlated with disease manifestations and the administration of leptin accelerated development of autoantibodies and renal disease. Conversely, leptin antagonism delayed disease progression and increased survival of severely nephritic NZB/W mice. At the cellular level, leptin promoted effector T-cell responses and facilitated the presentation of self-antigens to T cells, whereas it inhibited the activity of regulatory CD4 T cells. The understanding of the role of leptin in modulating autoimmune responses in SLE can open possibilities of leptin-targeted therapeutic intervention in the disease.

  3. Role of leptin in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Flora; Maymó, Julieta; Dueñas, José L; Varone, Cecilia; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive function is dependent on energy resources. The role of weight, body composition, fat distribution and the effect of diet have been largely investigated in experimental female animals as well as in women. Any alteration in diet and/or weight may induce abnormalities in timing of sexual maturation and fertility. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in the fine coordination of energy balance and reproduction are largely unknown. The brain and hypothalamic structures receive endocrine and/or metabolic signals providing information on the nutritional status and the degree of fat stores. Adipose tissue acts both as a store of energy and as an active endocrine organ, secreting a large number of biologically important molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines have been shown to be involved in regulation of the reproductive functions. The first adipokine described was leptin. Extensive research over the last 10 years has shown that leptin is not only an adipose tissue-derived messenger of the amount of energy stores to the brain, but also a crucial hormone/cytokine for a number of diverse physiological processes, such as inflammation, angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, immune function, and most importantly, reproduction. Leptin plays an integral role in the normal physiology of the reproductive system with complex interactions at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. In addition, leptin is also produced by placenta, where it plays an important autocrine function. Observational studies have demonstrated that states of leptin excess, deficiency, or resistance can be associated with abnormal reproductive function. This review focuses on the leptin action in female reproduction.

  4. Myeloid interferon-γ receptor deficiency does not affect atherosclerosis in LDLR(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshuizen, Marieke C S; Neele, Annette E; Gijbels, Marion J J; van der Velden, Saskia; Hoeksema, Marten A; Forman, Ruth A; Muller, Werner; Van den Bossche, Jan; de Winther, Menno P J

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic lipid-driven inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is an important immunomodulatory cytokine and a known pro-atherosclerotic mediator. However, cell-specific targeting of IFNγ or its signaling in atherosclerosis development has not been studied yet. As macrophages are important IFNγ targets, we here addressed the involvement of myeloid IFNγ signaling in murine atherosclerosis. Bone marrow was isolated from interferon gamma receptor 2 chain (IFNγR2) wildtype and myeloid IFNγR2 deficient mice and injected into lethally irradiated LDLR(-/-) mice. After recovery mice were put on a high fat diet for 10 weeks after which atherosclerotic lesion analysis was performed. In addition, the accompanying liver inflammation was assessed. Even though absence of myeloid IFNγ signaling attenuated the myeloid IFNγ response, no significant differences in atherosclerotic lesion size or phenotype were found. Also, when examining the liver inflammatory state no effects of IFNγR2 deficiency could be observed. Overall, our data argue against a role for myeloid IFNγR2 in atherosclerosis development. Since myeloid IFNγ signaling seems to be nonessential throughout atherogenesis, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which IFNγ acts in atherogenesis. In the future new studies should be performed considering other cell-specific targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. β1-Adrenergic receptor deficiency in ghrelin-expressing cells causes hypoglycemia in susceptible individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Bharath K; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Vijayaraghavan, Prasanna; Hepler, Chelsea; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic gastric peptide hormone secreted when caloric intake is limited. Ghrelin also regulates blood glucose, as emphasized by the hypoglycemia that is induced by caloric restriction in mouse models of deficient ghrelin signaling. Here, we hypothesized that activation of β1-adrenergic receptors (β1ARs) localized to ghrelin cells is required for caloric restriction-associated ghrelin release and the ensuing protective glucoregulatory response. In mice lacking the β1AR specifically in ghrelin-expressing cells, ghrelin secretion was markedly blunted, resulting in profound hypoglycemia and prevalent mortality upon severe caloric restriction. Replacement of ghrelin blocked the effects of caloric restriction in β1AR-deficient mice. We also determined that treating calorically restricted juvenile WT mice with beta blockers led to reduced plasma ghrelin and hypoglycemia, the latter of which is similar to the life-threatening, fasting-induced hypoglycemia observed in infants treated with beta blockers. These findings highlight the critical functions of ghrelin in preventing hypoglycemia and promoting survival during severe caloric restriction and the requirement for ghrelin cell-expressed β1ARs in these processes. Moreover, these results indicate a potential role for ghrelin in mediating beta blocker-associated hypoglycemia in susceptible individuals, such as young children.

  6. Novel Toll-like receptor-4 deficiency attenuates trastuzumab (Herceptin induced cardiac injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif Nasser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac inflammation and generation of oxidative stress are known to contribute to trastuzumab (herceptin induced cardiac toxicity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a part of the innate immune system and are involved in cardiac stress reactions. Since TLR4 might play a relevant role in cardiac inflammatory signaling, we investigated whether or not TLR4 is involved in trastuzumab induced cardiotoxicity. Methods Seven days after a single injection of herceptin (2 mg/kg; i.p., left ventricular pressure volume loops were measured in HeN compotent (TLR4+/+ and HeJ mutant (TLR4-/- treated with trastuzumab and control mice. Immunofluorescent staining for monocyte infiltration and analyses of plasma by (ELISAs for different chemokines including: MCP-1and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, Western immunoblotting assay for ICAM-1, and used troponin I for cardiac injury marker. Results Trastuzumab injection resulted in an impairment of left ventricular function in TLR-4 competent (HeN, in contrast TLR4-/- trastuzumab mice showed improved left ventricular function EF%, CO; p -/-; p -/-, marked reduction of myocardial troponin-I levels in TLR4-deficient mice. Data are presented as means ± SE; n = 8 in each group p Conclusions Treatment with trastuzumab induces an inflammatory response that contributes to myocardial tissue TLR4 mediates chemokine expression (TNF-α, MCP-1and ICAM-1, so in experimental animals TLR4 deficiency improves left ventricular function and attenuates pathophysiological key mechanisms in trastuzumab induced cardiomyopathy.

  7. NADPH oxidase 1 deficiency alters caveolin phosphorylation and angiotensin II-receptor localization in vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Olivier; Deffert, Christine; Foti, Michelangelo; Bedard, Karen; Jaquet, Vincent; Ogier-Denis, Eric; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2009-10-01

    The superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase NOX1 is thought to be involved in signaling by the angiotensin II-receptor AT1R. However, underlying signaling steps are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of AngII on aortic smooth muscle from wild-type and NOX1-deficient mice. NOX1-deficient cells showed decreased basal ROS generation and did not produce ROS in response to AngII. Unexpectedly, AngII-dependent Ca(2+) signaling was markedly decreased in NOX1-deficient cells. Immunostaining demonstrated that AT1R was localized on the plasma membrane in wild-type, but intracellularly in NOX1-deficient cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting showed a decreased expression of AT1R in the aorta of NOX1-deficient mice. To investigate the basis of the abnormal AT1R targeting, we studied caveolin expression and phosphorylation. The amounts of total caveolin and of caveolae were not different in NOX1-deficient mice, but a marked decrease occurred in the phosphorylated form of caveolin. Exogenous H(2)O(2) or transfection of a NOX1 plasmid restored AngII responses in NOX1-deficient cells. Based on these findings, we propose that NOX1-derived reactive oxygen species regulate cell-surface expression of AT1R through mechanisms including caveolin phosphorylation. The lack cell-surface AT1R expression in smooth muscle could be involved in the decreased blood pressure in NOX1-deficient mice.

  8. A bovine papillomavirus-1 based vector restores the function of the low-density lipoprotein receptor in the receptor-deficient CHO-ldlA7 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustav Mart

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rationale of using bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1 derived vectors in gene therapy protocols lies in their episomal maintenance at intermediate to high copy number, and stable, high-level expression of the gene products. We constructed the BPV-1 based vector harbouring the human low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene cDNA and tested its ability to restore the function of the LDLR in the receptor-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7. Results The introduced vector p3.7LDL produced functionally active LDL receptors in the receptor-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7 during the 32-week period of observation as determined by the internalisation assay with the labelled LDL particles. Conclusion Bovine papillomavirus type-1 (BPV-1-derived vectors could be suitable for gene therapy due to their episomal maintenance at intermediate to high copy number and stable, high-level expression of the gene products. The constructed BPV-1 based vector p3.7LDL produced functionally active LDL receptors in the LDLR-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7 during the 32-week period of observation. In vivo experiments should reveal, whether 1–5% transfection efficiency obtained in the current work is sufficient to bring about detectable and clinically significant lowering of the amount of circulating LDL cholesterol particles.

  9. Leptin: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezapsidis, Nikolaos; Johnston, Jane M.; Smith, Mark A.; Ashford, J. Wesson; Casadesus, Gemma; Robakis, Nikolaos K.; Wolozin, Benjamin; Perry, George; Zhu, Xiongwei; Greco, Steven J.; Sarkar, Sraboni

    2010-01-01

    Adipocyte-derived leptin appears to regulate a number of features defining Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the molecular and physiological level. One activity of leptin is the control of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK). In addition to maintaining lipid levels, AMPK regulates glycogen synthase kinase-3, which modulates tau phosphorylation. Leptin has been shown to reduce the amount of extracellular amyloid-β, both in cell culture and animal models of AD, as well as reduce tau phosphorylation in neuronal cells. Importantly, chronic administration of leptin resulted in a significant improvement in the cognitive performance of transgenic animal models of AD. In humans, weight loss often precedes the onset of dementia in AD and the level of circulating leptin is inversely proportional to the severity of dementia among AD patients. It is speculated that a deficiency in leptin levels or function may contribute to systemic and central nervous system abnormalities leading to AD, suggesting that a leptin replacement therapy may be beneficial for AD. This may be an attractive alternative to the drugs that are currently under development. PMID:19387109

  10. Deficient dopamine D2 receptor function causes renal inflammation independently of high blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Zhang

    Full Text Available Renal dopamine receptors participate in the regulation of blood pressure. Genetic factors, including polymorphisms of the dopamine D(2 receptor gene (DRD2 are associated with essential hypertension, but the mechanisms of their contribution are incompletely understood. Mice lacking Drd2 (D(2-/- have elevated blood pressure, increased renal expression of inflammatory factors, and renal injury. We tested the hypothesis that decreased dopamine D(2 receptor (D(2R function increases vulnerability to renal inflammation independently of blood pressure, is an immediate cause of renal injury, and contributes to the subsequent development of hypertension. In D(2-/- mice, treatment with apocynin normalized blood pressure and decreased oxidative stress, but did not affect the expression of inflammatory factors. In mouse RPTCs Drd2 silencing increased the expression of TNFα and MCP-1, while treatment with a D(2R agonist abolished the angiotensin II-induced increase in TNF-α and MCP-1. In uni-nephrectomized wild-type mice, selective Drd2 silencing by subcapsular infusion of Drd2 siRNA into the remaining kidney produced the same increase in renal cytokines/chemokines that occurs after Drd2 deletion, increased the expression of markers of renal injury, and increased blood pressure. Moreover, in mice with two intact kidneys, short-term Drd2 silencing in one kidney, leaving the other kidney undisturbed, induced inflammatory factors and markers of renal injury in the treated kidney without increasing blood pressure. Our results demonstrate that the impact of decreased D(2R function on renal inflammation is a primary effect, not necessarily associated with enhanced oxidant activity, or blood pressure; renal damage is the cause, not the result, of hypertension. Deficient renal D(2R function may be of clinical relevance since common polymorphisms of the human DRD2 gene result in decreased D(2R expression and function.

  11. Deficient dopamine D2 receptor function causes renal inflammation independently of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanrong; Cuevas, Santiago; Asico, Laureano D; Escano, Crisanto; Yang, Yu; Pascua, Annabelle M; Wang, Xiaoyan; Jones, John E; Grandy, David; Eisner, Gilbert; Jose, Pedro A; Armando, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Renal dopamine receptors participate in the regulation of blood pressure. Genetic factors, including polymorphisms of the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2) are associated with essential hypertension, but the mechanisms of their contribution are incompletely understood. Mice lacking Drd2 (D(2)-/-) have elevated blood pressure, increased renal expression of inflammatory factors, and renal injury. We tested the hypothesis that decreased dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)R) function increases vulnerability to renal inflammation independently of blood pressure, is an immediate cause of renal injury, and contributes to the subsequent development of hypertension. In D(2)-/- mice, treatment with apocynin normalized blood pressure and decreased oxidative stress, but did not affect the expression of inflammatory factors. In mouse RPTCs Drd2 silencing increased the expression of TNFα and MCP-1, while treatment with a D(2)R agonist abolished the angiotensin II-induced increase in TNF-α and MCP-1. In uni-nephrectomized wild-type mice, selective Drd2 silencing by subcapsular infusion of Drd2 siRNA into the remaining kidney produced the same increase in renal cytokines/chemokines that occurs after Drd2 deletion, increased the expression of markers of renal injury, and increased blood pressure. Moreover, in mice with two intact kidneys, short-term Drd2 silencing in one kidney, leaving the other kidney undisturbed, induced inflammatory factors and markers of renal injury in the treated kidney without increasing blood pressure. Our results demonstrate that the impact of decreased D(2)R function on renal inflammation is a primary effect, not necessarily associated with enhanced oxidant activity, or blood pressure; renal damage is the cause, not the result, of hypertension. Deficient renal D(2)R function may be of clinical relevance since common polymorphisms of the human DRD2 gene result in decreased D(2)R expression and function.

  12. Leptin as regulator of pulmonary immune responses: involvement in respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooy, Juanita H J; Ubags, Niki D J; Brusselle, Guy G; Tavernier, Jan; Suratt, Benjamin T; Joos, Guy F; Wouters, Emiel F M; Bracke, Ken R

    2013-08-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone, recognized as a critical mediator of the balance between food intake and energy expenditure by signalling through its functional receptor (Ob-Rb) in the hypothalamus. Structurally, leptin belongs to the long-chain helical cytokine family, and is now known to have pleiotropic functions in both innate and adaptive immunity. The presence of the functional leptin receptor in the lung together with evidence of increased airspace leptin levels arising during pulmonary inflammation, suggests an important role for leptin in lung development, respiratory immune responses and eventually pathogenesis of inflammatory respiratory diseases. The purpose of this article is to review our current understanding of leptin and its functional role on the different resident cell types of the lung in health as well as in the context of three major respiratory conditions being chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and pneumonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular cloning, characterization and evolutionary analysis of leptin gene in Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Hai-feng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an important hormone possessing diverse physiological roles in mammals and teleosts. However, it has been characterized only in a few amphibian species, and its evolutions are still under debate. Here, the full length of the leptin (Adlep cDNA of Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus, an early diverging amphibian species, is characterized and according to the results of the primary sequence analysis, tertiary structure reconstruction and phylogenetic analysis is confirmed to be an ortholog of mammalian leptin. An intron was identified between the coding exons of A. davidianus leptin, which indicated that the leptin is present in the salamander genome and contains a conserved gene structure in vertebrates. Adlep is widely distributed but expression levels vary among different tissues, with highest expression levels in the muscle. Additionally, the leptin receptor and other genes were mapped to three known leptin signaling pathways, suggesting that the leptin signaling pathways are present in A. davidianus. Phylogenetic topology of leptins are consistent with the generally accepted evolutionary relationships of vertebrates, and multiple leptin members found in teleosts seem to be obtained through a Cluopeocephala-specific gene duplication event. Our results will lay a foundation for further investigations into the physiological roles of leptin in A. davidianus.

  14. Enhanced pulmonary leptin expression in patients with severe COPD and asymptomatic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooy, J H J; Drummen, N E A; van Suylen, R J; Cloots, R H E; Möller, G M; Bracke, K R; Zuyderduyn, S; Dentener, M A; Brusselle, G G; Hiemstra, P S; Wouters, E F M

    2009-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by an abnormal inflammatory reaction of the lungs involving activation of epithelial cells. Leptin is a pleiotropic cytokine important in the regulation of immune responses via its functional receptor Ob-Rb. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that severe COPD is associated with increased leptin expression in epithelial cells. Immunohistochemistry for leptin was performed on peripheral lung specimens from 20 patients with COPD (GOLD stage 4), 14 asymptomatic ex-smokers and 13 never smokers. Leptin and Ob-Rb mRNA expression were determined by rtPCR in cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells and primary type II pneumocytes. NCI-H292 and A549 cell lines were used to study functional activation of leptin signalling. Leptin immunoreactivity in lung tissue was observed in bronchial epithelial cells, type II pneumocytes, macrophages (tissue/alveolar) and interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates. rtPCR analysis confirmed pulmonary leptin and Ob-Rb mRNA expression in primary bronchial epithelial cells and pneumocytes. Leptin-expressing bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages were markedly higher in patients with severe COPD and ex-smokers than in never smokers (pleptin and Ob-Rb (pLeptin induced phosphorylation of STAT3 in both NCI-H292 and A549 cells. Leptin expression is increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages of ex-smokers with or without severe COPD compared with never smokers. A functional leptin signalling pathway is present in lung epithelial cells.

  15. Comparitive Study of Serum Leptin Levels in Diabetic Obese Patients and Non-Diabetic Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    M Afkhami-Ardakani; J Mohiti-Ardakani; H Sedghi

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Leptin was first discovered from the "Ob Gene" by Friedwan and co-workers in 1994. It is a small peptide with 167 amino acids and molecular weight of 16 Kd . It is secreted by adipose tissues. Leptin has two type of receptors in Hypothalamus and other tissues including muscles, liver and intestines. Leptin inhibits neuropeptide Y resulting in decreased appetite and on the other hand increases the basic metabolic rate of the body resulting in homeostasis of body energy. Insulin v...

  16. Role of PCSK9 and IDOL in the pathogenesis of acquired LDL receptor deficiency and hypercholesterolemia in nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuman; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2014-03-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) leads to elevation of serum total and LDL cholesterol. This is largely due to impaired LDL clearance, which is caused by hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) deficiency despite normal LDLR mRNA expression, pointing to a post-transcriptional process. The mechanism(s) by which NS causes LDLR deficiency is not known. By promoting degradation of LDLR, Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and inducible degrader of the LDL receptor (IDOL) play a major role in post-translational regulation of LDLR. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that LDLR deficiency despite its normal gene expression in NS may be due to upregulation of hepatic PCSK9 and IDOL. LDLR, IDOL and PCSK9 expressions and nuclear translocation of liver X receptor (LXR) that regulates IDOL expression were determined in the liver of rats with puromycin-induced NS and control (CTL) rats. Compared with the CTLs, the NS rats showed marked elevation of serum total and LDL cholesterol and a significant reduction in hepatic LDLR protein expression. This was accompanied by marked upregulation of hepatic PCSK9 and IDOL expressions and heightened LXR activation. LDLR deficiency, hypercholesterolemia and elevated plasma LDL in NS are associated with upregulation of PCSK9 and IDOL. Interventions targeting these pathways may be effective in the management of hypercholesterolemia and the associated cardiovascular and other complications of NS.

  17. Correlation of the leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finucane, F; Luan, J; Wareham, N

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity is the dominant cause of insulin resistance. In adult humans it is characterised by a combination of adipocyte hypertrophy and, to a lesser extent, adipocyte hyperplasia. As hypertrophic adipocytes secrete more leptin and less adiponectin, the plasma leptin......:adiponectin ratio (LAR) has been proposed as a potentially useful measure of insulin resistance and vascular risk. We sought to assess the usefulness of the LAR as a measure of insulin resistance in non-diabetic white adults. METHODS: Leptin and adiponectin levels were measured in 2,097 non-diabetic individuals...... from the Ely and European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Risk (RISC) study cohorts. LAR was compared with fasting insulin and HOMA-derived insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) in all individuals and with the insulin sensitivity index...

  18. Adenosine A2A Receptor Deletion Blocks the Beneficial Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri in Regulatory T-Deficient Scurfy Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baokun He

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a functional Foxp3 transcription factor and regulatory T (Treg cells causes lethal, CD4+ T cell-driven autoimmune diseases in scurfy (SF mice and humans. Recent studies have shown that adenosine A2A receptor activation limits inflammation and tissue damage, thereby playing an anti-inflammatory role. However, the role of the adenosine A2A receptor in the development of disease in SF mice remains unclear. Using a genetic approach, we found that adenosine A2A receptor deletion in SF mice (SF⋅A2A-/- does not affect early life events, the development of a lymphoproliferative disorder, or hyper-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines seen in the Treg-deficiency state. As shown previously, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 treatment prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. In marked contrast, A2A receptor deletion completely blocked these beneficial effects of L. reuteri in SF mice. Altogether, these results suggest that although absence of the adenosine A2A receptor does not affect the development of disease in SF mice, it plays a critical role in the immunomodulation by L. reuteri in Treg-deficiency disease. The adenosine A2A receptor and its activation may have a role in treating other Treg dysfunction-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  19. Adenosine A2A Receptor Deletion Blocks the Beneficial Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri in Regulatory T-Deficient Scurfy Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Baokun; Hoang, Thomas K.; Tran, Dat Q.; Rhoads, Jon Marc; Liu, Yuying

    2017-01-01

    The lack of a functional Foxp3 transcription factor and regulatory T (Treg) cells causes lethal, CD4+ T cell-driven autoimmune diseases in scurfy (SF) mice and humans. Recent studies have shown that adenosine A2A receptor activation limits inflammation and tissue damage, thereby playing an anti-inflammatory role. However, the role of the adenosine A2A receptor in the development of disease in SF mice remains unclear. Using a genetic approach, we found that adenosine A2A receptor deletion in SF mice (SF⋅A2A-/-) does not affect early life events, the development of a lymphoproliferative disorder, or hyper-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines seen in the Treg-deficiency state. As shown previously, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 treatment prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. In marked contrast, A2A receptor deletion completely blocked these beneficial effects of L. reuteri in SF mice. Altogether, these results suggest that although absence of the adenosine A2A receptor does not affect the development of disease in SF mice, it plays a critical role in the immunomodulation by L. reuteri in Treg-deficiency disease. The adenosine A2A receptor and its activation may have a role in treating other Treg dysfunction-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:29270168

  20. Leptin effects on the regenerative capacity of human periodontal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Keser, Sema; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Jäger, Andreas; Jepsen, Søren; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Bourauel, Christoph; Eick, Sigrun; Deschner, James

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is increasing throughout the globe and characterized by excess adipose tissue, which represents a complex endocrine organ. Adipose tissue secrets bioactive molecules called adipokines, which act at endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine levels. Obesity has recently been shown to be associated with periodontitis, a disease characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium, and also with compromised periodontal healing. Although the underlying mechanisms for these associations are not clear yet, increased levels of proinflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, as found in obese individuals, might be a critical pathomechanistic link. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of leptin on the regenerative capacity of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and also to study the local leptin production by these cells. Leptin caused a significant downregulation of growth (TGFβ1, and VEGFA) and transcription (RUNX2) factors as well as matrix molecules (collagen, and periostin) and inhibited SMAD signaling under regenerative conditions. Moreover, the local expression of leptin and its full-length receptor was significantly downregulated by inflammatory, microbial, and biomechanical signals. This study demonstrates that the hormone leptin negatively interferes with the regenerative capacity of PDL cells, suggesting leptin as a pathomechanistic link between obesity and compromised periodontal healing.

  1. Brain Structure and Function Associated with Younger Adults in Growth Hormone Receptor-Deficient Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Guevara-Aguirre, Jaime; Braskie, Meredith N; Hafzalla, George W; Velasco, Rico; Balasubramanian, Priya; Wei, Min; Thompson, Paul M; Mather, Mara; Nelson, Marvin D; Guevara, Alexandra; Teran, Enrique; Longo, Valter D

    2017-02-15

    Growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD) results in short stature, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and low circulating levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Previous studies in mice and humans suggested that GHRD has protective effects against age-related diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Whereas GHRD mice show improved age-dependent cognitive performance, the effect of GHRD on human cognition remains unknown. Using MRI, we compared brain structure, function, and connectivity between 13 people with GHRD and 12 unaffected relatives. We assessed differences in white matter microstructural integrity, hippocampal volume, subregional volumes, and cortical thickness and surface area of selected regions. We also evaluated brain activity at rest and during a hippocampal-dependent pattern separation task. The GHRD group had larger surface areas in several frontal and cingulate regions and showed trends toward larger dentate gyrus and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. They had lower mean diffusivity in the genu of the corpus callosum and the anterior thalamic tracts. The GHRD group showed enhanced cognitive performance and greater task-related activation in frontal, parietal, and hippocampal regions compared with controls. Furthermore, they had greater functional synchronicity of activity between the precuneus and the rest of the default mode network at rest. The results suggest that, compared with controls, GHRD subjects have brain structure and function that are more consistent with those observed in younger adults reported in previous studies. Further investigation may lead to improved understanding of underlying mechanisms and could contribute to the identification of treatments for age-related cognitive deficits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT People and mice with growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD or Laron syndrome) are protected against age-related diseases including cancer and diabetes. However, in humans, it is unknown whether cognitive

  2. Phosphorylated and sumoylation-deficient progesterone receptors drive proliferative gene signatures during breast cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Progesterone receptors (PR) are emerging as important breast cancer drivers. Phosphorylation events common to breast cancer cells impact PR transcriptional activity, in part by direct phosphorylation. PR-B but not PR-A isoforms are phosphorylated on Ser294 by mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Phospho-Ser294 PRs are resistant to ligand-dependent Lys388 SUMOylation (that is, a repressive modification). Antagonism of PR small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylation by mitogenic protein kinases suggests a mechanism for derepression (that is, transcriptional activation) of target genes. As a broad range of PR protein expression is observed clinically, a PR gene signature would provide a valuable marker of PR contribution to early breast cancer progression. Methods Global gene expression patterns were measured in T47D and MCF-7 breast cancer cells expressing either wild-type (SUMOylation-capable) or K388R (SUMOylation-deficient) PRs and subjected to pathway analysis. Gene sets were validated by RT-qPCR. Recruitment of coregulators and histone methylation levels were determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Changes in cell proliferation and survival were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and western blotting. Finally, human breast tumor cohort datasets were probed to identify PR-associated gene signatures; metagene analysis was employed to define survival rates in patients whose tumors express a PR gene signature. Results 'SUMO-sensitive' PR target genes primarily include genes required for proliferative and pro-survival signaling. DeSUMOylated K388R receptors are preferentially recruited to enhancer regions of derepressed genes (that is, MSX2, RGS2, MAP1A, and PDK4) with the steroid receptor coactivator, CREB-(cAMP-response element-binding protein)-binding protein (CBP), and mixed lineage leukemia 2 (MLL2), a histone methyltransferase mediator of nucleosome

  3. Beneficial Effect of Leptin on Spatial Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghasemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which may be accompanied by cognitive impairments. The expression of the obesity gene (ob is decreased in insulin-deficient diabetic animals and increased after the administration of insulin or leptin. Plasma leptin levels are reduced in the streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, the deleterious effects of diabetes on memory may be due to the reduction of leptin. Aims: Investigate the effect of subcutaneous injection of leptin on spatial learning and memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The rats were divided into three groups: 1- control, 2- diabetic, and 3- diabetic-leptin. Diabetes was induced in groups 2 and 3 by STZ injection (55 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p. The animals received leptin (0.1 mg/kg or saline subcutaneously (s.c for 10 days before behavioral studies. Then, they were examined in the Morris water maze over 3 blocks after 3 days of the last injection of leptin. Results: The travelled path length and time spent to reach the platform significantly increased in the diabetic group (p<0.001 and decreased with leptin treatment (p<0.01 & p<0.001 respectively; also, a significant increase in path length and time was observed between the diabetic-leptin group and the diabetic group (p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively in the probe test. Conclusion: Leptin can exert positive effects on memory impairments in diabetic rats.

  4. In vivo neutralization of IL-6 receptors ameliorates gastrointestinal dysfunction in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, J; Buckley, M M; O'Halloran, K D; O'Malley, D

    2016-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease characterized by progressive deterioration and degeneration of striated muscle. A mutation resulting in the loss of dystrophin, a structural protein which protects cells from contraction-induced damage, underlies DMD pathophysiology. Damage to muscle fibers results in chronic inflammation and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, loss of cellular dystrophin also affects neurons and smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with complaints such as hypomotility, pseudo-obstruction, and constipation reported in DMD patients. Using dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, studies were carried out to examine colonic morphology and function compared with wild-type mice. Treatment with neutralizing IL-6 receptor antibodies (xIL-6R) and/or the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 2 receptor agonist, urocortin 2 (uro2) was tested to determine if they ameliorated GI dysfunction in mdx mice. Mdx mice exhibited thickening of colonic smooth muscle layers and delayed stress-induced defecation. In organ bath studies, neurally mediated IL-6-evoked contractions were larger in mdx colons. In vivo treatment of mdx mice with xIL-6R normalized defecation rates and colon lengths. Uro2 treatment did not affect motility or morphology. The potentiated colonic contractile response to IL-6 was attenuated by treatment with xIL-6R. These findings confirm the importance of dystrophin in normal GI function and implicate IL-6 as an important regulator of GI motility in the mdx mouse. Inhibition of IL-6 signaling may offer a potential new therapeutic strategy for treating DMD-associated GI symptoms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Methyl donor deficiency impairs bone development via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α-dependent vitamin D receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigerlova, Eva; Demarquet, Lea; Melhem, Hassan; Ghemrawi, Rose; Battaglia-Hsu, Shyue-Fang; Ewu, Essi; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Helle, Deborah; Weryha, Georges; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2016-10-01

    Deficiency in methyl donor (folate and vitamin B 12 ) and in vitamin D is independently associated with altered bone development. Previously, methyl donor deficiency (MDD) was shown to weaken the activity of nuclear receptor coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α), for nuclear signaling in rat pups, including estrogen receptor-α and estrogen-related receptor-α; its effect on vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling, however, is unknown. We studied bone development under MDD in rat pups and used human MG-63 preosteoblast cells to better understand the associated molecular mechanism. In young rats, MDD decreased total body bone mineral density, reduced tibia length, and impaired growth plate maturation, and in preosteoblasts, MDD slowed cellular proliferation. Mechanistic studies revealed decreased expression of VDR, estrogen receptor-α, PGC1α, arginine methyltransferase 1, and sirtuin 1 in both rat proximal diaphysis of femur and in MG-63, as well as decreased nuclear VDR-PGC1α interaction in MG-63 cells. The weaker VDR-PGC1α interaction could be attributed to the reduced protein expression, imbalanced PGC1α methylation/acetylation, and nuclear VDR sequestration by heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). These together compromised bone development, which is reflected by lowered bone alkaline phosphatase and increased proadipogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, adiponectin, and estrogen-related receptor-α expression. Of interest, under MDD, the bone development effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 were ineffectual and these could be rescued by the addition of S-adenosylmethionine, which restored expression of arginine methyltransferase 1, PGC1α, adiponectin, and HSP90. In conclusion, MDD inactivates vitamin D signaling via both disruption of VDR-PGC1α interaction and sequestration of nuclear VDR attributable to HSP90 overexpression. These data suggest that vitamin D treatment may be ineffective under MDD

  6. Leptin as a critical regulator of hepatocellular carcinoma development through modulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanou Nikolaos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous epidemiological studies have documented that obesity is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological actions regulated by leptin, the obesity biomarker molecule, and its receptors in HCC and the correlation between leptin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT, a known mediator of cellular immortalization. Methods We investigated the relationship between leptin, leptin receptors and hTERT mRNA expression in HCC and healthy liver tissue samples. In HepG2 cells, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to study signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3 and myc/mad/max transcription factors downstream of leptin which could be responsible for hTERT regulation. Flow cytometry was used for evaluation of cell cycle modifications and MMP1, 9 and 13 expression after treatment of HepG2 cells with leptin. Blocking of leptin's expression was achieved using siRNA against leptin and transfection with liposomes. Results We showed, for the first time, that leptin's expression is highly correlated with hTERT expression levels in HCC liver tissues. We also demonstrated in HepG2 cells that leptin-induced up-regulation of hTERT and TA was mediated through binding of STAT3 and Myc/Max/Mad network proteins on hTERT promoter. We also found that leptin could affect hepatocellular carcinoma progression and invasion through its interaction with cytokines and matrix mettaloproteinases (MMPs in the tumorigenic microenvironment. Furthermore, we showed that histone modification contributes to leptin's gene regulation in HCC. Conclusions We propose that leptin is a key regulator of the malignant properties of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through modulation of hTERT, a critical player of oncogenesis.

  7. Leptin as a critical regulator of hepatocellular carcinoma development through modulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanou, Nikolaos; Papanikolaou, Vassilis; Furukawa, Yoichi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tsezou, Aspasia

    2010-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have documented that obesity is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the biological actions regulated by leptin, the obesity biomarker molecule, and its receptors in HCC and the correlation between leptin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a known mediator of cellular immortalization. We investigated the relationship between leptin, leptin receptors and hTERT mRNA expression in HCC and healthy liver tissue samples. In HepG2 cells, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to study signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and myc/mad/max transcription factors downstream of leptin which could be responsible for hTERT regulation. Flow cytometry was used for evaluation of cell cycle modifications and MMP1, 9 and 13 expression after treatment of HepG2 cells with leptin. Blocking of leptin's expression was achieved using siRNA against leptin and transfection with liposomes. We showed, for the first time, that leptin's expression is highly correlated with hTERT expression levels in HCC liver tissues. We also demonstrated in HepG2 cells that leptin-induced up-regulation of hTERT and TA was mediated through binding of STAT3 and Myc/Max/Mad network proteins on hTERT promoter. We also found that leptin could affect hepatocellular carcinoma progression and invasion through its interaction with cytokines and matrix mettaloproteinases (MMPs) in the tumorigenic microenvironment. Furthermore, we showed that histone modification contributes to leptin's gene regulation in HCC. We propose that leptin is a key regulator of the malignant properties of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through modulation of hTERT, a critical player of oncogenesis

  8. Circulating leptin and thyroid dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Belsing, Tina; Brabant, Georg; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    the fields of nutrition, metabolism and endocrinology. Leptin is accepted as an adipose signal, and even though the underlying mechanisms are not fully clarified, leptin, in addition to the thyroid hormones, is believed to be involved in regulation during the switch from the fed to the starved state...... relationship between leptin and thyroid hormones, there might also be a peripheral relationship although this effect is not clear. Both thyroid hormones and leptin might be involved in the adaptive thermogenesis through mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and heat production because both thyroxine...... hormone involvement in thermogenesis and regulation of uncoupling proteins. In this review, we have focused on leptin in relation to thyroid pathophysiology....

  9. Modeling the impact of growth and leptin deficits on the neuronal regulation of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrekera, Baiba; Roghair, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The risk of hypertension is increased by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth. In the search for modifiable etiologies for this life-threatening cardiovascular morbidity, a number of pathways have been investigated, including excessive glucocorticoid exposure, nutritional deficiency and aberration in sex hormone levels. As a neurotrophic hormone that is intimately involved in the cardiovascular regulation and whose levels are influenced by glucocorticoids, nutritional status and sex hormones, leptin has emerged as a putative etiologic and thus a therapeutic agent. As a product of maternal and late fetal adipocytes and the placenta, circulating leptin typically surges late in gestation and declines after delivery until the infant consumes sufficient leptin-containing breast milk or accrues sufficient leptin-secreting adipose tissue to reestablish the circulating levels. The leptin deficiency seen in IUGR infants is a multifactorial manifestation of placental insufficiency, exaggerated glucocorticoid exposure and fetal adipose deficit. The preterm infant suffers from the same cascade of events, including separation from the placenta, antenatal steroid exposure and persistently underdeveloped adipose depots. Preterm infants remain leptin deficient beyond term gestation, rendering them susceptible to neurodevelopmental impairment and subsequent cardiovascular dysregulation. This pathologic pathway is efficiently modeled by placing neonatal mice into atypically large litters, thereby recapitulating the perinatal growth restriction-adult hypertension phenotype. In this model, neonatal leptin supplementation restores the physiologic leptin surge, attenuates the leptin-triggered sympathetic activation in adulthood and prevents leptin- or stress-evoked hypertension. Further pathway interrogation and clinical translation are needed to fully test the therapeutic potential of perinatal leptin supplementation. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Leptin induces CYP1B1 expression in MCF-7 cells through ligand-independent activation of the ERα pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanal, Tilak; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Do, Minh Truong; Choi, Jae Ho; Won, Seong Su [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Wonku [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul [Department of Food Science and Culinary, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Leptin, a hormone with multiple biological actions, is produced predominantly by adipose tissue. Among its functions, leptin can stimulate tumour cell growth. Oestrogen receptor α (ERα), which plays an essential role in breast cancer development, can be transcriptionally activated in a ligand-independent manner. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on CYP1B1 expression and its mechanism in breast cancer cells. Leptin induced CYP1B1 protein, messenger RNA expression and promoter activity in ERα-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 cells. Also, ERα knockdown by siRNA significantly blocked the induction of CYP1B1 expression by leptin, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression via an ERα-dependent mechanism. Transient transfection with CYP1B1 deletion promoter constructs revealed that the oestrogen response element (ERE) plays important role in the up-regulation of CYP1B1 by leptin. Furthermore, leptin stimulated phosphorylation of ERα at serine residues 118 and 167 and increased ERE-luciferase activity, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression by ERα activation. Finally, we found that leptin activated ERK and Akt signalling pathways, which are upstream kinases related to ERα phosphorylation induced by leptin. Taken together, our results indicate that leptin-induced CYP1B1 expression is mediated by ligand-independent activation of the ERα pathway as a result of the activation of ERK and Akt in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • Leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. • Leptin activated ERK and Akt kinases related to ERα phosphorylation. • Leptin induces phosphorylation of ERα at serine residues 118 and 167. • Leptin induces ERE-luciferase activity.

  11. TNF-alpha, leptin, and lymphocyte function in human aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    2000-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased inflammatory activity and concomitant decreased T cell mediated immune responses. Leptin may provide a link between inflammation and T cell function in aging. The aim of the study was to investigate if plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were...... associated with leptin, circulating interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R), and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) induced IL-2 production in whole blood in elderly humans. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and sIL-2R were higher in elderly humans (N=42) compared to a young control group (N=37) whereas...... there was no difference with regard to IL-2 production. Furthermore, there were no age-related differences in serum levels of leptin, However, women had higher levels than men. In the elderly people, serum levels of leptin were correlated with TNF-alpha in univariate regression analysis and in a multiple linear...

  12. Citrullus lanatus `Sentinel' (Watermelon) Extract Reduces Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L.; Saha, Shubin K.; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar `sentinel', on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male LDL receptor deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus `sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water, while fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake, and urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus `sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate/low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1 and IFN-γ were decreased and IL-10 increased in mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  13. State-dependent alterations in hippocampal oscillations in serotonin 1A receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joshua A; Lacefield, Clay O; Kentros, Clifford G; Hen, Rene

    2005-07-13

    Mice lacking the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT(1A)R) show increased levels of anxiety-related behavior across multiple tests and background strains. Tissue-specific rescue experiments, lesion studies, and neurophysiological findings all point toward the hippocampus as a potential mediator of the phenotype. Serotonin, acting through 5-HT(1A)Rs, can suppress hippocampal theta-frequency oscillations, suggesting that theta oscillations might be increased in the knock-outs. To test this hypothesis, local field potential recordings were obtained from the hippocampus of awake, behaving knock-outs and wild-type littermates. The magnitude of theta oscillations was increased in the knock-outs, specifically in the anxiety-provoking elevated plus maze and not in a familiar environment or during rapid eye movement sleep. Theta power correlated with the fraction of time spent in the open arms, an anxiety-related behavioral variable. These results suggest a possible role for the hippocampus, and theta oscillations in particular, in the expression of anxiety in 5-HT(1A)R-deficient mice.

  14. 4PS/insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 is the alternative substrate of the insulin receptor in IRS-1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, M E; Sun, X J; Bruening, J C; Araki, E; Lipes, M A; White, M F; Kahn, C R

    1995-10-20

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is the major cytoplasmic substrate of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptors. Transgenic mice lacking IRS-1 are resistant to insulin and IGF-1, but exhibit significant residual insulin action which corresponds to the presence of an alternative high molecular weight substrate in liver and muscle. Recently, Sun et al. (Sun, X.-J., Wang, L.-M., Zhang, Y., Yenush, L. P., Myers, M. G., Jr., Glasheen, E., Lane, W.S., Pierce, J. H., and White, M. F. (1995) Nature 377, 173-177) purified and cloned 4PS, the major substrate of the IL-4 receptor-associated tyrosine kinase in myeloid cells, which has significant structural similarity to IRS-1. To determine if 4PS is the alternative substrate of the insulin receptor in IRS-1-deficient mice, we performed immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase assays using specific antibodies to 4PS. Following insulin stimulation, 4PS is rapidly phosphorylated in liver and muscle, binds to the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, and activates the enzyme. Insulin stimulation also results in the association of 4PS with Grb 2 in both liver and muscle. In IRS-1-deficient mice, both the phosphorylation of 4PS and associated PI 3-kinase activity are enhanced, without an increase in protein expression. Immunodepletion of 4PS from liver and muscle homogenates removes most of the phosphotyrosine-associated PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1-deficient mice. Thus, 4PS is the primary alternative substrate, i.e. IRS-2, which plays a major role in physiologic insulin signal transduction via both PI 3-kinase activation and Grb 2/Sos association. In IRS-1-deficient mice, 4PS/IRS-2 provides signal transduction to these two major pathways of insulin signaling.

  15. Leptin: a cardiovascular perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Leptin: a cardiovascular perspective. 72. 2012 Volume 17 No 2. JEMDSA. Introduction. Within the realms of noncommunicable disease development in South Africa, obesity is a disease that causes concern. This especially holds true for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Disheartened.

  16. Megalin is a receptor for apolipoprotein M, and kidney-specific megalin-deficiency confers urinary excretion of apolipoprotein M

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Kirsten; Hvidberg, Vibeke; Moestrup, Søren K

    2006-01-01

    . In addition, apoM is expressed at high levels in the kidney tubule cells. In this study, we show that the multiligand receptor megalin, which is expressed in kidney proximal tubule cells, is a receptor for apoM and mediates its uptake in the kidney. To examine apoM binding to megalin, a recombinant apo....... To examine the importance of apoM binding by megalin in vivo, we analyzed mice with a tissue-specific deficiency of megalin in the kidney. Megalin deficiency was associated with pronounced urinary excretion of apoM, whereas apoM was not detected in normal mouse, human, or rat urine. Gel filtration analysis...... showed that the urinary apoM-containing particles were small and devoid of apoA-I. The results suggest that apoM binds to megalin and that megalin-mediated endocytosis in kidney proximal tubules prevents apoM excretion in the urine....

  17. The Beneficial Effects of Leptin on REM Sleep Deprivation-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Fu; Su, Chun-Lin; Chang, Chih-Hua; Chen, Yu-Wen; Gean, Po-Wu

    2013-01-01

    Leptin, a 167 amino acid peptide, is synthesized predominantly in the adipose tissues and plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Recent studies indicate that leptin receptor is expressed with high levels in many brain regions that may regulate synaptic plasticity. Here we show that deprivation of rapid eye movement…

  18. Mechanism of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B-mediated inhibition of leptin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, I K; Hansen, J A; Andersen, H S

    2005-01-01

    Upon leptin binding, the leptin receptor is activated, leading to stimulation of the JAK/STAT signal transduction cascade. The transient character of the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 suggests the involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) as negative regulators of this sign...

  19. Abnormalities in osteoclastogenesis and decreased tumorigenesis in mice deficient for ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1 has been shown to be a proton sensing receptor in vitro. We have shown that OGR1 functions as a tumor metastasis suppressor gene when it is over-expressed in human prostate cancer cells in vivo. To examine the physiological functions of OGR1, we generated conditional OGR1 deficient mice by homologous recombination. OGR1 deficient mice were viable and upon gross-inspection appeared normal. Consistent with in vitro studies showing that OGR1 is involved in osteoclastogenesis, reduced osteoclasts were detected in OGR1 deficient mice. A pH-dependent osteoclasts survival effect was also observed. However, overall abnormality in the bones of these animals was not observed. In addition, melanoma cell tumorigenesis was significantly inhibited in OGR1 deficient mice. OGR1 deficient mice in the mixed background produced significantly less peritoneal macrophages when stimulated with thioglycolate. These macrophages also showed altered extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK activation and nitric oxide (NO production in response to lipopolysaccharide. OGR1-dependent pH responses assessed by cAMP production and cell survival in macrophages or brown fat cells were not observed, presumably due to the presence of other proton sensing receptors in these cells. Our results indicate that OGR1's role in osteoclastogenesis is not strong enough to affect overall bone development and its role in tumorigenesis warrants further investigation. The mice generated can be potentially used for several disease models, including cancers or osteoclast-related diseases.

  20. Leptin interferes with 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP signaling to inhibit steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HoYuen Basil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of female infertility. Leptin, an adipocytokine which is elevated during obesity, may influence gonadal function through modulating steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. Methods The effect of leptin on progesterone production in simian virus 40 immortalized granulosa (SVOG cells was examined by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The effect of leptin on the expression of the steroidogenic enzymes (StAR, P450scc, 3betaHSD in SVOG cells was examined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The mRNA expression of leptin receptor isoforms in SVOG cells were examined by using PCR. SVOG cells were co-treated with leptin and specific pharmacological inhibitors to identify the signaling pathways involved in leptin-reduced progesterone production. Silencing RNA against leptin receptor was used to determine that the inhibition of leptin on cAMP-induced steroidogenesis acts in a leptin receptor-dependent manner. Results and Conclusion In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying leptin-regulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells. We show that leptin inhibits 8-bromo cAMP-stimulated progesterone production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that leptin inhibits expression of the cAMP-stimulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein, the rate limiting de novo protein in progesterone synthesis. Leptin induces the activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK but only the ERK1/2 (PD98059 and p38 (SB203580 inhibitors attenuate the leptin-induced inhibition of cAMP-stimulated StAR protein expression and progesterone production. These data suggest that the leptin-induced MAPK signal transduction pathway interferes with cAMP/PKA-stimulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells. Moreover, siRNA mediated knock-down of the endogenous leptin receptor attenuates the effect of leptin on cAMP-induced StAR protein expression and progesterone

  1. GLP-1/glucagon coagonism restores leptin responsiveness in obese mice chronically maintained on an obesogenic diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Chabenne, Joseph; Finan, Brian

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported restoration of leptin responsiveness in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice using a pharmacologically optimized, polyethylene-glycolated (PEG)-leptin analog in combination with exendin-4 or FGF21. However, the return of leptin action required discontinuation of high-fat diet (HFD......) exposure. Here we assess whether a single peptide possessing balanced coagonism at the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon receptors can restore leptin responsiveness in DIO mice maintained on a HFD. DIO mice were treated with PEG-GLP-1/glucagon (30 nmol/kg every fourth day) to induce an ∼15% body...

  2. Bile acids override steatosis in farnesoid X receptor deficient mice in a model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weibin; Liu, Xijun; Peng, Xiaomin [Gene Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xue, Ruyi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Liver Disease, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ji, Lingling [Gene Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shen, Xizhong [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Liver Disease, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen, She, E-mail: shechen@fudan.edu.cn [Gene Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Gu, Jianxin [Gene Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang, Si, E-mail: zhangsi@fudan.edu.cn [Gene Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2014-05-23

    Highlights: • FXR deficiency enhanced MCD diet-induced hepatic fibrosis. • FXR deficiency attenuated MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. • FXR deficiency repressed genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation. - Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, and the pathogenesis is still not well known. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and plays an essential role in maintaining bile acid and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we study the role of FXR in the pathogenesis of NFALD. We found that FXR deficient (FXR{sup −/−}) mice fed methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet had higher serum ALT and AST activities and lower hepatic triglyceride levels than wild-type (WT) mice fed MCD diet. Expression of genes involved in inflammation (VCAM-1) and fibrosis (α-SMA) was increased in FXR{sup −/−} mice fed MCD diet (FXR{sup −/−}/MCD) compared to WT mice fed MCD diet (WT/MCD). Although MCD diet significantly induced hepatic fibrosis in terms of liver histology, FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice showed less degree of hepatic steatosis than WT/MCD mice. Moreover, FXR deficiency synergistically potentiated the elevation effects of MCD diet on serum and hepatic bile acids levels. The super-physiological concentrations of hepatic bile acids in FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice inhibited the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation, which may be an explanation for less steatosis in FXR{sup −/−}/MCD mice in contrast to WT/MCD mice. These results suggest that hepatic bile acids accumulation could override simple steatosis in hepatic injury during the progression of NAFLD and further emphasize the role of FXR in maintaining hepatic bile acid homeostasis in liver disorders and in hepatic protection.

  3. Bile acids override steatosis in farnesoid X receptor deficient mice in a model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Weibin; Liu, Xijun; Peng, Xiaomin; Xue, Ruyi; Ji, Lingling; Shen, Xizhong; Chen, She; Gu, Jianxin; Zhang, Si

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • FXR deficiency enhanced MCD diet-induced hepatic fibrosis. • FXR deficiency attenuated MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. • FXR deficiency repressed genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation. - Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, and the pathogenesis is still not well known. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and plays an essential role in maintaining bile acid and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we study the role of FXR in the pathogenesis of NFALD. We found that FXR deficient (FXR −/− ) mice fed methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet had higher serum ALT and AST activities and lower hepatic triglyceride levels than wild-type (WT) mice fed MCD diet. Expression of genes involved in inflammation (VCAM-1) and fibrosis (α-SMA) was increased in FXR −/− mice fed MCD diet (FXR −/− /MCD) compared to WT mice fed MCD diet (WT/MCD). Although MCD diet significantly induced hepatic fibrosis in terms of liver histology, FXR −/− /MCD mice showed less degree of hepatic steatosis than WT/MCD mice. Moreover, FXR deficiency synergistically potentiated the elevation effects of MCD diet on serum and hepatic bile acids levels. The super-physiological concentrations of hepatic bile acids in FXR −/− /MCD mice inhibited the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation, which may be an explanation for less steatosis in FXR −/− /MCD mice in contrast to WT/MCD mice. These results suggest that hepatic bile acids accumulation could override simple steatosis in hepatic injury during the progression of NAFLD and further emphasize the role of FXR in maintaining hepatic bile acid homeostasis in liver disorders and in hepatic protection

  4. Impaired LDL receptor-related protein 1 translocation correlates with improved dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip L S M Gordts

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determination of the in vivo significance of LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 dysfunction on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis development in absence of its main ligand apoE. METHODS AND RESULTS: LRP1 knock-in mice carrying an inactivating mutation in the NPxYxxL motif were crossed with apoE-deficient mice. In the absence of apoE, relative to LRP1 wild-type animals, LRP1 mutated mice showed an increased clearance of postprandial lipids despite a compromised LRP1 endocytosis rate and inefficient insulin-mediated translocation of the receptor to the plasma membrane, likely due to inefficient slow recycling of the mutated receptor. Postprandial lipoprotein improvement was explained by increased hepatic clearance of triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins and accompanied by a compensatory 1.6-fold upregulation of LDLR expression in hepatocytes. One year-old apoE-deficient mice having the dysfunctional LRP1 revealed a 3-fold decrease in spontaneous atherosclerosis development and a 2-fold reduction in LDL-cholesterol levels. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the NPxYxxL motif in LRP1 is important for insulin-mediated translocation and slow perinuclear endosomal recycling. These LRP1 impairments correlated with reduced atherogenesis and cholesterol levels in apoE-deficient mice, likely via compensatory LDLR upregulation.

  5. HER2 induces expression of leptin in human breast epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aree Moon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A close association between the obesity hormone leptin andbreast cancer progression has been suggested. The presentstudy investigated the molecular mechanism for enhancedleptin expression in breast cancer cells and its functionalsignificance in breast cancer aggressiveness. We examinedwhether leptin expression level is affected by the oncoproteinhuman epidermal growth factor receptor2 (HER2, which isoverexpressed in ∼30% of breast tumors. Here, we report, forthe first time, that HER2 induces transcriptional activation ofleptin in MCF10A human breast epithelial cells. We alsoshowed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalingwas involved in leptin expression induced by HER2. Weshowed a crucial role of leptin in the invasiveness ofHER2-MCF10A cells using an siRNA molecule targeting leptin.Taken together, the results indicate a molecular link betweenHER2 and leptin, providing supporting evidence that leptinrepresents a target for breast cancer therapy.

  6. Subcloning, expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human leptin-binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandowski, Yael; Raver, Nina; Gussakovsky, Eugene E; Shochat, Suzan; Dym, Orly; Livnah, Oded; Rubinstein, Menachem; Krishna, Radha; Gertler, Arieh

    2002-11-29

    A subdomain of the human leptin receptor encoding part of the extracellular domain (amino acids 428 to 635) was subcloned, expressed in a prokaryotic host, and purified to homogeneity, as evidenced by SDS-PAGE, with over 95% monomeric protein. The purified leptin-binding domain (LBD) exhibited the predicted beta structure, was capable of binding human, ovine, and chicken leptins, and formed a stable 1:1 complex with all mammalian leptins. The binding kinetics, assayed by surface plasmon resonance methodology, showed respective k(on) and k(off) values (mean +/- S.E.) of 1.20 +/- 0.23 x 10(-5) mol(-1) s(-1) and 1.85 +/- 0.30 x 10(-3) s(-1) and a K(d) value of 1.54 x 10(-8) m. Similar results were achieved with conventional binding experiments. LBD blocked leptin-induced, but not interleukin-3-induced, proliferation of BAF/3 cells stably transfected with the long form of human leptin receptor. The modeled LBD structure and the known three-dimensional structure of human leptin were used to construct a model of 1:1 LBD.human leptin complex. Two main residues, Phe-500, located in loop L3, and Tyr-441, located in L1, are suggested to contribute to leptin binding.

  7. Leptin affects prolactin action on milk protein and fat synthesis in the bovine mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuermann, Y; Mabjeesh, S J; Shamay, A

    2004-09-01

    Leptin, a protein hormone produced and secreted predominantly by white adipose tissue, has a critical role in the regulation and coordination of energy metabolism. Identification of leptin in the milk of several mammals, including humans, led us to investigate its presence and regulatory effect in the cow mammary gland. The expression of leptin receptor in tissue culture of lactating mammary gland was augmented approximately 25 times by prolactin, but had no effect on virgin calf mammary tissue. Expression of leptin in tissue culture from mammary glands of lactating cows was enhanced 2.2-fold by prolactin. No effect of prolactin on leptin and leptin receptor expression was found in mammary gland tissue culture from calves. Leptin-enhanced fatty acid synthesis in the presence of prolactin, but had no effect without presence of prolactin. A similar pattern was found in the expression of alpha-casein and beta-lactoglobulin in mammary gland explants from a lactating cow. Our findings indicate that leptin plays an important role in mammary gland lactogenesis, and that the expression of leptin requires the presence of prolactin.

  8. The unique cysteine knot regulates the pleotropic hormone leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Haglund

    Full Text Available Leptin plays a key role in regulating energy intake/expenditure, metabolism and hypertension. It folds into a four-helix bundle that binds to the extracellular receptor to initiate signaling. Our work on leptin revealed a hidden complexity in the formation of a previously un-described, cysteine-knotted topology in leptin. We hypothesized that this unique topology could offer new mechanisms in regulating the protein activity. A combination of in silico simulation and in vitro experiments was used to probe the role of the knotted topology introduced by the disulphide-bridge on leptin folding and function. Our results surprisingly show that the free energy landscape is conserved between knotted and unknotted protein, however the additional complexity added by the knot formation is structurally important. Native state analyses led to the discovery that the disulphide-bond plays an important role in receptor binding and thus mediate biological activity by local motions on distal receptor-binding sites, far removed from the disulphide-bridge. Thus, the disulphide-bridge appears to function as a point of tension that allows dissipation of stress at a distance in leptin.

  9. Leptin signaling molecular actions and drug target in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nan Jiang,1,* Rongtong Sun,2,* Qing Sun3 1Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Weihai Municipal Hospital, Weihai, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pathology, QianFoShan Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Previous reports indicate that over 13 different tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, are related to obesity. Obesity-associated inflammatory, metabolic, and endocrine mediators, as well as the functioning of the gut microbiota, are suspected to contribute to tumorigenesis. In obese people, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-1 and IL-6, insulin and insulin-like growth factors, adipokines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, adiponectin, and leptin are found to play crucial roles in the initiation and development of cancer. The cytokines induced by leptin in adipose tissue or tumor cells have been intensely studied. Leptin-induced signaling pathways are critical for biological functions such as adiposity, energy balance, endocrine function, immune reaction, and angiogenesis as well as oncogenesis. Leptin is an activator of cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis in several cell types, and an inducer of cancer stem cells; its critical roles in tumorigenesis are based on its oncogenic, mitogenic, proinflammatory, and pro-angiogenic actions. This review provides an update of the pathological effects of leptin signaling with special emphasis on potential molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targeting, which could potentially be used in future clinical settings. In addition, leptin-induced angiogenic ability and molecular mechanisms in HCC are discussed. The stringent binding affinity of leptin and its receptor Ob-R, as well as the highly upregulated expression of both

  10. The leptin system and its expression at different nutritional and pregnant stages in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixian Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an essential hormone for the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in vertebrate animals. To better understand the physiological roles of leptin in nutrient regulation in paternal ovoviviparous fish (family Syngnathidae, the present study cloned the full-length of leptin-a and leptin receptor (lepr genes in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus. Results showed that there was a 576-bp intron between two exons in leptin-a gene but no leptin-b gene in seahorse. Although the primary amino acid sequence conservation of seahorse leptin-a was very low, the 3-D structure modeling of seahorse leptin-a revealed strong conservation of tertiary structure with other vertebrates. Seahorse leptin-a mRNA was highly expressed in brain, whereas lepr mRNA was mainly expressed in ovary and gill. Interestingly, both leptin-a and lepr mRNA were expressed in the brood pouch of male seahorse, suggesting the leptin system plays a role during the male pregnancy. Physiological experiments showed that the expression of hepatic leptin-a and lepr mRNA in unfed seahorses was significantly higher than that in those fed 100%, as well as 60%, of their food during the fasting stage, showing that seahorse might initiate the leptin system to regulate its energy metabolism while starving. Moreover, the expression of leptin-a in the brood pouch of pregnant seahorse was significantly upregulated compared with non-pregnant seahorse, whereas the expression of lepr was downregulated, suggesting that the leptin system might be involved in the male pregnancy. In conclusion, the leptin system plays a role in the energy metabolism and food intake, and might provide new insights into molecular regulation of male pregnancy in seahorse.

  11. Citrullus lanatus 'sentinel' (watermelon) extract reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L; Saha, Shubin K; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar 'sentinel,' on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water while being fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake and in urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate-/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon-gamma were decreased and those of interleukin-10 were increased in mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Baroreflex deficiency aggravates atherosclerosis via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Dian-Hua; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, En-Hui; Liu, Chong; Su, Ding-Feng; Cai, Guo-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress play a key role in the initiation, propagation, and development of atherosclerosis. Arterial baroreflex (ABR) dysfunction induced by sinoaortic denervation (SAD) promoted the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE -/- mice. The present work was designed to examine whether ABR deficiency affected inflammation and oxidative stress via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) leading to the aggravation of atherosclerosis in mice. ApoE -/- mice were fed with a high-cholesterol diet for 6weeks and half of the mice received sinoaortic denervation that destroyed ABR. We studied the expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), α7nAChR and levels of inflammatory response and oxidative stress. The results showed that baroreflex dysfunction could promote atherosclerosis, meanwhile, decrease the expression of VAChT and α7nAChR and significantly increase the levels of oxidative stress and inflammation in SAD mice. After treated with PNU-282987 (a selective α7nAChR agonist, 0.53mg/kg/day) for 6weeks in SAD and Sham mice, we found that PNU-282987 could attenuate atherosclerosis and significantly decreased oxidative stress and inflammation after SAD. In addition, α7nAChR +/+ and α7nAChR -/- mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet for 8weeks were co-treated with ketanserin (0.6mg/kg/day), a drug that can enhance baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Ketanserin could alleviate atherosclerosis and markedly decrease oxidative stress and inflammation in α7nAChR +/+ mice. But there were no effects in α7nAChR knockout mice. Our results demonstrate that ABR dysfunction aggravates atherosclerosis in mice via the vagus-ACh-α7nAChR-inflammation and oxidative stress pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. C5a receptor deficiency alters energy utilization and fat storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Roy

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of whole body C5a receptor (C5aR deficiency on energy metabolism and fat storage.Male wildtype (WT and C5aR knockout (C5aRKO mice were fed a low fat (CHOW or a high fat high sucrose diet-induced obesity (DIO diet for 14 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured weekly. Indirect calorimetry, dietary fatload clearance, insulin and glucose tolerance tests were also evaluated. Liver, muscle and adipose tissue mRNA gene expression were measured by RT-PCR.At week one and 12, C5aRKO mice on DIO had increased oxygen consumption. After 12 weeks, although food intake was comparable, C5aRKO mice had lower body weight (-7% CHOW, -12% DIO as well as smaller gonadal (-38% CHOW, -36% DIO and inguinal (-29% CHOW, -30% DIO fat pads than their WT counterparts. Conversely, in WT mice, C5aR was upregulated in DIO vs CHOW diets in gonadal adipose tissue, muscle and liver, while C5L2 mRNA expression was lower in C5aRKO on both diet. Furthermore, blood analysis showed lower plasma triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels in both C5aRKO groups, with faster postprandial triglyceride clearance after a fatload. Additionally, C5aRKO mice showed lower CD36 expression in gonadal and muscle on both diets, while DGAT1 expression was higher in gonadal (CHOW and liver (CHOW and DIO and PPARγ was increased in muscle and liver.These observations point towards a role (either direct or indirect for C5aR in energy expenditure and fat storage, suggesting a dual role for C5aR in metabolism as well as in immunity.

  14. The role of leptin in gastric cancer: Clinicopathologic features and molecular mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ho Soon, E-mail: hschoi96@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sun Young [Department of Internal Medicine, Healthcare Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Ki; Lee, Young Yiul; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Hahm, Joon Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Seung Sam [Pathology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Leptin and Ob-R are expressed in gastric adenoma and early and advanced cancer. • Leptin is more likely associated with differentiated gastric cancer or cardia cancer. • Leptin proliferates gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. - Abstract: Obesity is associated with certain types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, it is still unclear whether obesity-related cytokine, leptin, is implicated in gastric cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of leptin in gastric cancer. The expression of leptin and its receptor, Ob-R, was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and was compared in patients with gastric adenoma (n = 38), early gastric cancer (EGC) (n = 38), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) (n = 38), as a function of their clinicopathological characteristics. Gastric cancer cell lines were studied to investigate the effects of leptin on the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways using MTT assays, immunoblotting, and inhibition studies. Leptin was expressed in gastric adenomas (42.1%), EGCs (47.4%), and AGCs (43.4%). Ob-R expression tended to increase from gastric adenoma (2%), through EGC (8%), to AGC (18%). Leptin induced the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating STAT3 and ERK1/2 and up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Blocking Ob-R with pharmacological inhibitors and by RNAi decreased both the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 and the leptin-induced expression of VEGF. Leptin plays a role in gastric cancer by stimulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways.

  15. The role of leptin in gastric cancer: Clinicopathologic features and molecular mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Choi, Ho Soon; Yang, Sun Young; Park, Hyun Ki; Lee, Young Yiul; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Hahm, Joon Soo; Paik, Seung Sam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Leptin and Ob-R are expressed in gastric adenoma and early and advanced cancer. • Leptin is more likely associated with differentiated gastric cancer or cardia cancer. • Leptin proliferates gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. - Abstract: Obesity is associated with certain types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, it is still unclear whether obesity-related cytokine, leptin, is implicated in gastric cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of leptin in gastric cancer. The expression of leptin and its receptor, Ob-R, was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and was compared in patients with gastric adenoma (n = 38), early gastric cancer (EGC) (n = 38), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) (n = 38), as a function of their clinicopathological characteristics. Gastric cancer cell lines were studied to investigate the effects of leptin on the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways using MTT assays, immunoblotting, and inhibition studies. Leptin was expressed in gastric adenomas (42.1%), EGCs (47.4%), and AGCs (43.4%). Ob-R expression tended to increase from gastric adenoma (2%), through EGC (8%), to AGC (18%). Leptin induced the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating STAT3 and ERK1/2 and up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Blocking Ob-R with pharmacological inhibitors and by RNAi decreased both the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 and the leptin-induced expression of VEGF. Leptin plays a role in gastric cancer by stimulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways

  16. Leptin differentially regulate STAT3 activation in ob/ob mouse adipose mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as elevated adipose tissue and systemic inflammation. Multipotent stem cells isolated from adult adipose tissue can differentiate into adipocytes ex vivo and thereby contribute toward increased adipocyte cell numbers, obesity, and inflamm ation. Currently, information is lacking regarding regulation of adipose stem cell numbers as well as leptin-induced inflammation and its signaling pathway in ob/ob mice. Methods Using leptin deficient ob/ob mice, we investigated whether leptin injection into ob/ob mice increases adipose stem cell numbers and adipose tissue inflammatory marker MCP-1 mRNA and secretion levels. We also determined leptin mediated signaling pathways in the adipose stem cells. Results We report here that adipose stem cell number is significantly increased following leptin injection in ob/ob mice and with treatment of isolated stem cells with leptin in vitro. Leptin also up-regulated MCP-1 secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further showed that increased MCP-1 mRNA levels were due to increased phosphorylation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 Ser727 but not STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation, suggesting differential regulation of MCP-1 gene expression under basal and leptin-stimulated conditions in adipose stem cells. Conclusions Taken together, these studies demonstrate that leptin increases adipose stem cell number and differentially activates STAT3 protein resulting in up-regulation of MCP-1 gene expression. Further studies of mechanisms mediating adipose stem cell hyperplasia and leptin signaling in obesity are warranted and may help identify novel anti-obesity target strategies.

  17. Reference values for serum leptin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Louise Hedley, Paula; Esmann Fonvig, Cilius; Stjernholm, Theresa; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-11-01

    Adipokines are biologically active, low-molecular weight peptides, which play a major role in metabolic homeostasis in humans. Leptin has gained increasing attention in pediatrics as a biomarker for various metabolic pathologies. Yet, its usefulness is hampered by the relative lack of reference values from pediatric settings. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate serum concentrations of leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and free leptin index (FLI) in healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-18 years and subsequently to establish reference intervals across sex and age groups. A total of 1193 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (730 girls, 463 boys) aged 6-18 years (median 11.9) were examined by trained medical staff. Serum leptin and sOB-R concentrations in venous fasting blood samples were quantitated by immunoassay. Percentile curves of leptin, sOB-R, and free leptin index were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Significant age and sex-dependent differences in circulating leptin levels were found. In boys, the median leptin concentration for all ages combined was 3.35 μg/L (95%-interval: 0.71-22.47) and in girls, it was 9.89 ng/L (95%-interval: 2.06-41.49). For SOB-R, no sex-specific difference was found, and the median sOB-R concentration was 8.24 μg/L (IQR: 3.58-23.74; range: < 1.56-744.15). We demonstrated an age-dependent correlation with both serum leptin concentration and free leptin index with a gradual and significant increase in girls throughout childhood and adolescence and a significantly higher leptin concentration and free leptin index bell-shaped peak in early adolescence in boys.

  18. Kupffer cell depletion attenuates leptin-mediated methoxamine-stimulated portal perfusion pressure and thromboxane A2 release in a rodent model of NASH-cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Ying; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lee, Shou-Dong; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2012-12-01

    Cirrhotic portal hypertension is characterized by increased hepatic oxidative stress, AA (arachidonic acid)-derived TXA(2) (thromboxane A(2)) release and exaggerated hepatic response to the α-adrenergic agonist MTX (methoxamine). Besides promoting hepatic fibrosis, the role of hyperleptinaemia in the modulation of vascular response in NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) rat livers remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible links between hyperleptinaemia and the disarrangement in the hepatic microcirculation. NASH-cirrhosis with hyperleptinaemia was induced in lean rats by feeding with an HF/MCD (high-fat/methionine-choline-deficient) diet. Portal haemodynamics, various substances, protein and mRNA expression and PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) composition were measured. Finally, the effects of leptin pre-infusion on TXA(2) release and concentration-PPP (portal perfusion pressure) curves in response to MTX were evaluated by simultaneously pre-treatment with the Kupffer cell inactivators GdCl(3) (gadolinium chloride) or EC (encapsulated clodronate), the TXS (TXA(2) synthase) inhibitor furegrelate, the TP receptor (TXA(2) receptor) antagonist SQ29548 and the dual TXS/TP receptor antagonist BM567. In HF/MCD+leptin-lean rats, cirrhosis-induced PPP and MTX hyper-responsiveness were associated with increased hepatic TXA(2) production, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances) levels and the AA (arachidonic acid)/n-3 PUFA ratio, and up-regulation of hepatic leptin, FAS (fatty acid synthase), NADPH oxidase subunits, TXS, TP receptor, TGFβ(1) (transforming growth factor β(1)) proteins and mRNAs. Pre-infusion of leptin significantly enhanced MTX-stimulated PPP elevation and TXA(2) release, which were attenuated by GdCl(3) and EC pre-treatment. Concomitantly pre-incubation with BM567, but not furegrelate or SQ29548, significantly abolished the leptin-enhanced MTX-stimulated increase in PPP in NASH-cirrhotic rats. Hyperleptinaemia

  19. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Suvarthi [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Kumar, Ashutosh [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Seth, Ratanesh Kumar [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Tokar, Erik J. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Kadiiska, Maria B. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Mason, Ronald P. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh, E-mail: schatt@mailbox.sc.edu [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-α levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ► BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ► BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ► Increased leptin mediates

  20. Up-regulation of striatal adenosine A2A receptors with iron deficiency in rats. Effects on locomotion and cortico-striatal neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, César; Pearson, Virginia; Gulyani, Seema; Allen, Richard; Earley, Christopher; Ferré, Sergi

    2010-01-01

    Brain iron deficiency leads to altered dopaminergic function in experimental animals, which can provide a mechanistic explanation for iron deficiency-related human sensory-motor disorders, such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). However, mechanisms linking both conditions have not been determined. Considering the strong modulation exerted by adenosine on dopamine signaling, one connection could involve changes in adenosine receptor expression or function. In the striatum, presynaptic A2A receptors are localized in glutamatergic terminals contacting GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to block the motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Postsynaptic A2A receptors are localized in the dendritic field of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by studying the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to produce locomotor activity and to counteract striatal ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Increased density of striatal A2A receptors was found in rats fed during three weeks with an iron-deficient diet during the post-weaning period. In iron-deficient rats, the selective A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3, at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, was more effective at blocking motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation (presynaptic A2A receptor-mediated effect) and at enhancing locomotor activation and blocking striatal ERK phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation (postsynaptic A2A receptor-mediated effects). These results indicate that brain iron deficiency induces a functional up-regulation of both striatal pre- and postsynaptic A2A receptor, which could be involved in sensory-motor disorders associated with iron deficiency such as RLS. PMID:20385128

  1. Up-regulation of striatal adenosine A(2A) receptors with iron deficiency in rats: effects on locomotion and cortico-striatal neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, César; Pearson, Virginia; Gulyani, Seema; Allen, Richard; Earley, Christopher; Ferré, Sergi

    2010-07-01

    Brain iron deficiency leads to altered dopaminergic function in experimental animals, which can provide a mechanistic explanation for iron deficiency-related human sensory-motor disorders, such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). However, mechanisms linking both conditions have not been determined. Considering the strong modulation exerted by adenosine on dopamine signaling, one connection could involve changes in adenosine receptor expression or function. In the striatum, presynaptic A(2A) receptors are localized in glutamatergic terminals contacting GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by the ability of A(2A) receptor antagonists to block the motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Postsynaptic A(2A) receptors are localized in the dendritic field of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by studying the ability of A(2A) receptor antagonists to produce locomotor activity and to counteract striatal ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Increased density of striatal A(2A) receptors was found in rats fed during 3 weeks with an iron-deficient diet during the post-weaning period. In iron-deficient rats, the selective A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3, at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, was more effective at blocking motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation (presynaptic A(2A) receptor-mediated effect) and at enhancing locomotor activation and blocking striatal ERK phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation (postsynaptic A(2A) receptor-mediated effects). These results indicate that brain iron deficiency induces a functional up-regulation of both striatal pre- and postsynaptic A(2A) receptor, which could be involved in sensory-motor disorders associated with iron deficiency such as RLS. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Leptin increases skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase and postprandial lipid metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, William T; Stob, Nicole R; Ammon, Stefen; Levin, Nancy; Eckel, Robert H

    2011-03-01

    The ability of leptin to preserve lean tissue during weight loss may be in part due to differences in nutrient partitioning. Because lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a key role in partitioning lipid nutrients, this study was conducted to test the hypothesis that leptin would modify the tissue-specific regulation of LPL and result in increased lipid oxidation and decreased storage. The effects of daily intraperitoneal leptin injections (2 mg/kg body weight) over 2 weeks on LPL activity and postprandial lipid metabolism were tested in both wild-type (WT), leptin-deficient ob/ob obese mice and mice pair fed to the leptin-treated mice. On the experimental day, mice were given food by gavage, blood was drawn periodically, and adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were harvested for measurements of LPL activity at 240 minutes. After 2 weeks of leptin administration, skeletal muscle LPL (SMLPL) activity was increased in leptin-treated compared with pair-fed (P = .012) and WT (P = .002) mice. There was no effect of leptin or pair feeding on postprandial adipose tissue LPL activity. In ob/ob mice, leptin treatment normalized the decrease in postprandial free fatty acid concentration (P = .066). Leptin had no effect on either the area under the triglyceride (TG) excursion or the integrated area under the TG excursion in WT mice. In ob/ob mice, however, the TG excursion was lower in the leptin-treated than the pair-fed mice by area under the TG excursion (P = .012) and was lower than in the WT mice by integrated area under the TG excursion (P = .027). As expected, 2 weeks of leptin treatment decreased body weight in both the WT and ob/ob mice (-2.6% and -10.4%, respectively). Leptin treatment increased SMLPL, an effect that may have contributed to the leptin-induced weight loss. The leptin-induced decreased postprandial TG excursion in ob/ob mice suggests that leptin acts to augment clearance of postprandial TG-rich lipoprotein lipid and that this increase may in part be secondary

  3. Lateral thinking about leptin: a review of leptin action via the lateral hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinninger, Gina M

    2011-09-26

    The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was initially described as a "feeding center" but we are now beginning to understand that the LHA contributes to other aspects of physiology as well. Indeed, the best-characterized neuronal populations of the LHA (which contain melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or the hypocretins/orexins (OX)) are not strictly orexigenic, but also have roles in regulation of the autonomic and sympathetic nervous systems as well as in modulating motivated behavior. Leptin is an anorectic hormone that regulates energy homeostasis and the mesolimbic DA system (which transduces the wanting of food, drugs of abuse, and sex) in part, via actions at the LHA. At least three populations of LHA neurons are regulated by leptin: those containing MCH, OX or the long form of the leptin receptor, LepRb. The emerging picture of leptin interaction with these LHA populations suggests that the LHA is not merely regulating feeding, but is a crucial integrator of energy balance and motivated behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Baroreflex deficiency hampers angiogenesis after myocardial infarction via acetylcholine-α7-nicotinic ACh receptor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Guang; Song, Shu-Wei; Shu, He; Fan, Sai-Jun; Liu, Ai-Jun; Liu, Chong; Guo, Wei; Guo, Jin-Min; Miao, Chao-Yu; Su, Ding-Feng

    2013-08-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for re-establishing blood supply to ischaemic myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI). Human studies have associated arterial baroreflex (ABR) deficiency with higher rate of sudden death after MI. The present work was designed to examine whether ABR deficiency affects angiogenesis in MI rats. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was determined in conscious rats at 1 month after occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The survival time was significantly shorter in Sprague-Dawley rats with BRS ACh) transporter and α7-nicotinic ACh receptor (α7-nAChR). Angiogenesis after MI was significantly attenuated in α7-nAChR knockout mice. In contrast, increase in endogenous ACh with cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine (30 mg/kg/day) increased angiogenesis after MI. In cultured cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, ACh stimulated the expression of VEGF, phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2, and tube formation in a manner dependent upon α7-nAChR. Our results demonstrated that ABR deficiency could attenuate angiogenesis in ischaemic myocardium. These findings provide further mechanistic basis for enhancing baroreflex function in the treatment of MI.

  5. OSCAR is a collagen receptor that costimulates osteoclastogenesis in DAP12-deficient humans and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrow, Alexander David; Raynal, Nicolas; Levin Andersen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Osteoclasts are terminally differentiated leukocytes that erode the mineralized bone matrix. Osteoclastogenesis requires costimulatory receptor signaling through adaptors containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs), such as Fc receptor common γ (FcRγ) and DNAX-activating pr...

  6. Angiotensin II type 1a receptor signals are involved in the progression of heart failure in MLP-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Rie; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Ito, Kaoru; Toko, Haruhiro; Sano, Masanori; Yasuda, Noritaka; Qin, Yingjie; Kudo, Yoko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Chien, Kenneth R; Komuro, Issei

    2007-12-01

    Angiotensin II (AT) is implicated in the development of cardiac remodeling, which leads to heart failure, and pharmacological inhibition of the AT type 1 (AT1) receptor has improved mortality and morbidity in patients of heart failure. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the AT1 receptor in disease progression in muscle LIM protein (MLP)-deficient mice, which are susceptible to heart failure because of defective function of mechanosensors in cardiomyocytes. Hearts from MLP knockout (MLPKO) mice and MLP-AT1a receptor double knockout (DKO) mice were analyzed. MLPKO hearts showed marked chamber dilatation with cardiac fibrosis and reactivation of the fetal gene program. All of these changes were significantly milder in the DKO hearts. Impaired left ventricular (LV) contractility and filling were alleviated in DKO hearts. However, the impaired relaxation and downregulated expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase 2 were unchanged in DKO hearts. The AT1a receptor is involved in progression of LV remodeling and deterioration of cardiac function in the hearts of MLPKO mice. These results suggest that blockade of the receptor is effective in preventing progression of heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy.

  7. Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 3 Deficiency Delays Cutaneous Wound Healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Godwin

    Full Text Available Wound healing consists of a complex, dynamic and overlapping process involving inflammation, proliferation and tissue remodeling. A better understanding of wound healing process at the molecular level is needed for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3 controls programmed necrosis in response to TNF-α during inflammation and has been shown to be highly induced during cutaneous wound repair. However, its role in wound healing remains to be demonstrated. To study this, we created dorsal cutaneous wounds on male wild-type (WT and RIPK3-deficient (Ripk3-/- mice. Wound area was measured daily until day 14 post-wound and skin tissues were collected from wound sites at various days for analysis. The wound healing rate in Ripk3-/- mice was slower than the WT mice over the 14-day course; especially, at day 7, the wound size in Ripk3-/- mice was 53% larger than that of WT mice. H&E and Masson-Trichrome staining analysis showed impaired quality of wound closure in Ripk3-/- wounds with delayed re-epithelialization and angiogenesis and defected granulation tissue formation and collagen deposition compared to WT. The neutrophil infiltration pattern was altered in Ripk3-/- wounds with less neutrophils at day 1 and more neutrophils at day 3. This altered pattern was also reflected in the differential expression of IL-6, KC, IL-1β and TNF-α between WT and Ripk3-/- wounds. MMP-9 protein expression was decreased with increased Timp-1 mRNA in the Ripk3-/- wounds compared to WT. The microvascular density along with the intensity and timing of induction of proangiogenic growth factors VEGF and TGF-β1 were also decreased or delayed in the Ripk3-/- wounds. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs from Ripk3-/- mice migrated less towards chemoattractants TGF-β1 and PDGF than MEFs from WT mice. These results clearly demonstrate that RIPK3 is an essential molecule to maintain the temporal manner of the

  8. A Hypothalamic Leptin-Glutamate Interaction in the Regulation of Sympathetic Nerve Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated evidence indicates that obesity-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D is associated with enhanced sympathetic activation. The present study was conducted to investigate the role for leptin-glutamate signaling within the hypothalamus in regulating sympathetic nerve activity. In anesthetized rats, microinjections of leptin (5 ng ~ 100 ng into the arcuate nucleus (ARCN and paraventricular nucleus (PVN induced increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA, blood pressure (BP, and heart rate (HR. Prior microinjections of NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 (16 pmol into the ARCN or PVN reduced leptin-induced increases in RSNA, BP, and HR in both ARCN and PVN. Knockdown of a leptin receptor with siRNA inhibited NMDA-induced increases in RSNA, BP, and HR in the ARCN but not in the PVN. Confocal calcium imaging in the neuronal NG108 and astrocytic C6 cells demonstrated that preincubation with leptin induced an increase in intracellular calcium green fluorescence when the cells were challenged with glutamate. In high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin-induced T2D rats, we found that leptin receptor and NMDA NR1 receptor expressions in the ARCN and PVN were significantly increased. In conclusion, these studies provide evidence that within the hypothalamic nuclei, leptin-glutamate signaling regulates the sympathetic activation. This may contribute to the sympathoexcitation commonly observed in obesity-related T2D.

  9. Discovery and characterization of the first genuine avian leptin gene in the rock dove (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Einat, Miriam; Cogburn, Larry A; Yosefi, Sara; Hen, Gideon; Shinder, Dmitry; Shirak, Andrey; Seroussi, Eyal

    2014-09-01

    Leptin, the key regulator of mammalian energy balance, has been at the center of a great controversy in avian biology for the last 15 years since initial reports of a putative leptin gene (LEP) in chickens. Here, we characterize a novel LEP in rock dove (Columba livia) with low similarity of the predicted protein sequence (30% identity, 47% similarity) to the human ortholog. Searching the Sequence-Read-Archive database revealed leptin transcripts, in the dove's liver, with 2 noncoding exons preceding 2 coding exons. This unusual 4-exon structure was validated by sequencing of a GC-rich product (76% GC, 721 bp) amplified from liver RNA by RT-PCR. Sequence alignment of the dove leptin with orthologous leptins indicated that it consists of a leader peptide (21 amino acids; aa) followed by the mature protein (160 aa), which has a putative structure typical of 4-helical-bundle cytokines except that it is 12 aa longer than human leptin. Extra residues (10 aa) were located within the loop between 2 5'-helices, interrupting the amino acid motif that is conserved in tetrapods and considered essential for activation of leptin receptor (LEPR) but not for receptor binding per se. Quantitative RT-PCR of 11 tissues showed highest (P < .05) expression of LEP in the dove's liver, whereas the dove LEPR peaked (P < .01) in the pituitary. Both genes were prominently expressed in the gonads and at lower levels in tissues involved in mammalian leptin signaling (adipose; hypothalamus). A bioassay based on activation of the chicken LEPR in vitro showed leptin activity in the dove's circulation, suggesting that dove LEP encodes an active protein, despite the interrupted loop motif. Providing tools to study energy-balance control at an evolutionary perspective, our original demonstration of leptin signaling in dove predicts a more ancient role of leptin in growth and reproduction in birds, rather than appetite control.

  10. Hypothyroidism reduces ObRb-STAT3 leptin signalling in the hypothalamus and pituitary of rats associated with resistance to leptin acute anorectic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvino, Camila; Souza, Luana L; Costa-e-Sousa, Ricardo H; Almeida, Norma A S; Trevenzoli, Isis H; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C

    2012-10-01

    Leptin has been shown to regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, acting primarily through the STAT3 pathway triggered through the binding of leptin to the long-chain isoform of the leptin receptor, ObRb. We previously demonstrated that although hyperthyroid rats presented leptin effects on TSH secretion, those effects were abolished in hypothyroid rats. We addressed the hypothesis that changes in the STAT3 pathway might explain the lack of TSH response to leptin in hypothyroidism by evaluating the protein content of components of leptin signalling via the STAT3 pathway in the hypothalamus and pituitary of hypothyroid (0·03% methimazole in the drinking water/21 days) and hyperthyroid (thyroxine 5 μg/100 g body weight /5 days) rats. Hypothyroid rats exhibited decreased ObRb and phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) protein in the hypothalamus, and in the pituitary gland they exhibited decreased ObRb, total STAT3, pSTAT3 and SOCS3 (P<0·05). Except for a modest decrease in pituitary STAT3, no other alterations were observed in hyperthyroid rats. Moreover, unlike euthyroid rats, the hypothyroid rats did not exhibit a reduction in food ingestion after a single injection of leptin (0·5 mg/kg body weight). Therefore, hypothyroidism decreased ObRb-STAT3 signalling in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which likely contributes to the loss of leptin action on food intake and TSH secretion, as previously observed in hypothyroid rats.

  11. Proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT1a receptors induces blood pressure responses to intracellular angiotensin II in AT1a receptor-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao C.

    2013-01-01

    The role of intracellular ANG II in proximal tubules of the kidney remains poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT1a receptors in the cortex mediates intracellular ANG II-induced blood pressure responses in AT1a receptor-deficient (Agtr1a-/-) mice. A GFP-tagged AT1a receptor, AT1aR/GFP, and an enhanced cyan fluorescent intracellular ANG II fusion protein, ECFP/ANG II, were expressed in proximal tubules of Agtr1a-/- mouse kidneys via the adenoviral transfer using a sodium and glucose cotransporter 2 promoter. Transfer of AT1aR/GFP alone or with ECFP/ANG II induced proximal tubule-dominant expression of AT1aR/GFP and/or ECFP/ANG II with a peak response at 2 wk. No significant AT1aR/GFP and/or ECFP/ANG II expression was observed in the glomeruli, medulla, or extrarenal tissues. Transfer of AT1aR/GFP alone, but not ECFP/ANG II, increased systolic blood pressure by 12 ± 2 mmHg by day 14 (n = 9, P tubule-dominant transfer of AT1aR/GFP alone (P tubules (P tubules had no effect on all indices. These results suggest that AT1a receptors and intracellular ANG II in proximal tubules of the kidney play an important physiological role in blood pressure regulation. PMID:23427083

  12. Wen-Dan Decoction Improves Negative Emotions in Sleep-Deprived Rats by Regulating Orexin-A and Leptin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengzhi Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Dan Decoction (WDD, a formula of traditional Chinese medicine, has been clinically used for treating insomnia for approximately 800 years. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of WDD remain unclear. Orexin-A plays a key role in the sleep-wake cycle, while leptin function is opposite to orexin-A. Thus, orexin-A and leptin may be important factors in sleep disorders. In this study, 48 rats were divided into control, model, WDD-treated, and diazepam-treated groups. The model of insomnia was produced by sleep deprivation (SD for 14 days. The expressions of orexin-A, leptin, and their receptors in blood serum, prefrontal cortex, and hypothalamus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, and real time PCR. Open field tests showed that SD increased both crossing movement (Cm and rearing-movement (Rm times. Orexin-A and leptin levels in blood serum increased after SD but decreased in brain compared to the control group. mRNA expressions of orexin receptor 1 and leptin receptor after SD were decreased in the prefrontal cortex but were increased in hypothalamus. WDD treatment normalized the behavior and upregulated orexin-A, leptin, orexin receptor 1 and leptin receptor in brain. The findings suggest that WDD treatment may regulate SD-induced negative emotions by regulating orexin-A and leptin expression.

  13. Circulating leptin and thyroid dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Belsing, Tina; Brabant, Georg; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    the fields of nutrition, metabolism and endocrinology. Leptin is accepted as an adipose signal, and even though the underlying mechanisms are not fully clarified, leptin, in addition to the thyroid hormones, is believed to be involved in regulation during the switch from the fed to the starved state....... It is not clear whether leptin and the melanocortin pathways interact with the thyroid axis under physiological conditions other than during starvation or in response to severe illness, both states in which the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis may be severely suppressed. In addition to the suggested central...... relationship between leptin and thyroid hormones, there might also be a peripheral relationship although this effect is not clear. Both thyroid hormones and leptin might be involved in the adaptive thermogenesis through mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and heat production because both thyroxine...

  14. Leptin Is Produced by Parathyroid Glands and Stimulates Parathyroid Hormone Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Don; Broer, Niclas; Sosa, Julie A; Abitbol, Nathalie; Yao, Xiaopan; Li, Fangyong; Rivera-Molina, Felix; Toomre, Derek K; Roman, Sanziana A; Sue, Gloria; Kim, Samuel; Li, Alexander Y; Callender, Glenda G; Simpson, Christine; Narayan, Deepak

    2017-12-01

    We asked if leptin and its cognate receptor were present in normal and diseased parathyroid glands, and if so, whether they had any functional effects on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in parathyroid neoplasms. The parathyroid glands acting through PTH play a critical role in the regulation of serum calcium. Based on leptin's recently discovered role in bone metabolism, we hypothesized these glands were the sites of a functional interaction between these 2 hormones. From July 2010 to July 2011, 96 patients were enrolled in a prospective study of leptin and hyperparathyroidism, all of whom were enrolled based on their diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism, and their candidacy for surgical intervention provided informed consent. Immediately after parathyroidectomy, 100 to 300 mg of adenomatous or hyperplastic diseased parathyroid tissue was prepared and processed according to requirements of the following: in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence by conventional and spinning disc confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, parathyroid culture, whole organ explant, and animal model assays. Leptin, leptin receptor (long isoform), and PTH mRNA transcripts and protein were detected in an overlapping fashion in parathyroid chief cells in adenoma and hyperplastic glands, and also in normal parathyroid by in situ hybridization, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Confocal microscopy confirmed active exogenous leptin uptake in cultured parathyroid cells. PTH secretion in explants increased in response to leptin and decreased with leptin receptor signaling inhibition by AG490, a JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor. Ob/ob mice injected with mouse leptin exhibited increased PTH levels from baseline. Taken together, these data suggest that leptin is a functionally active product of the parathyroid glands and stimulates PTH release.

  15. Effect of deficiency of tumor necrosis factor alpha or both of its receptors on Streptococcus pneumoniae central nervous system infection and peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, A; Gerber, J; Ragheb, J; Zysk, G; Kunst, T; Smirnov, A; Brück, W; Nau, R

    2001-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and TNF-beta are key mediators in bacterial inflammation. We therefore examined the role of TNF-alpha and its two receptors in murine pneumococcal central nervous system infection. TNF-alpha knockout mice and age- and sex-matched controls and TNF receptor (p55 and p75)-deficient mice and heterozygous littermates were infected intracerebrally with a Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 strain. Mice were monitored until death or were killed 36 h after infection. Bacterial titers in blood, spleen, and brain homogenates were determined. Leukocyte infiltration and neuronal damage were assessed by histological scores. TNF-alpha-deficient mice died earlier than the controls after intracerebral infection although overall survival was similar. TNF-alpha deficiency did not inhibit leukocyte recruitment into the subarachnoid space and did not lead to an increased density of bacteria in brain homogenates. However, it caused a substantial rise of the concentration of S. pneumoniae cells in blood and spleen. Spleen bacterial titers were also increased in p55- and p75-deficient mice. TNF receptor-deficient mice showed decreased meningeal inflammation. Neuronal damage was not affected by either TNF-alpha or TNF receptor deficiency. In a murine model of pneumococcal peritonitis, 10(2) CFU of S. pneumoniae produced fatal peritonitis in TNF-alpha-deficient, but not wild-type, mice. Early leukocyte influx into the peritoneum was impaired in TNF-alpha-deficient mice. The lack of TNF-alpha or its receptors renders mice more susceptible to S. pneumoniae infections.

  16. Farnesoid X Receptor Deficiency Improves Glucose Homeostasis in Mouse Models of Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prawitt, Janne; Abdelkarim, Mouaadh; Stroeve, Johanna H. M.; Popescu, Iuliana; Duez, Helene; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dumont, Julie; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; van Dijk, Theo H.; Lucas, Anthony; Dorchies, Emilie; Daoudi, Mehdi; Lestavel, Sophie; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Oresic, Matej; Cariou, Bertrand; Kuipers, Folkert; Caron, Sandrine; Staels, Bart

    OBJECTIVE-Bile acids (BA) participate in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis acting through different signaling pathways. The nuclear BA receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates pathways in BA, lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism, which become dysregulated in obesity. However, the role

  17. Hypothalamic CART is a new anorectic peptide regulated by leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, P; Judge, M E; Thim, L; Ribel, U; Christjansen, K N; Wulff, B S; Clausen, J T; Jensen, P B; Madsen, O D; Vrang, N; Larsen, P J; Hastrup, S

    1998-05-07

    The mammalian hypothalamus strongly influences ingestive behaviour through several different signalling molecules and receptor systems. Here we show that CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), a brain-located peptide, is a satiety factor and is closely associated with the actions of two important regulators of food intake, leptin and neuropeptide Y. Food-deprived animals show a pronounced decrease in expression of CART messenger RNA in the arcuate nucleus. In animal models of obesity with disrupted leptin signalling, CART mRNA is almost absent from the arcuate nucleus. Peripheral administration of leptin to obese mice stimulates CART mRNA expression. When injected intracerebroventricularly into rats, recombinant CART peptide inhibits both normal and starvation-induced feeding, and completely blocks the feeding response induced by neuropeptide Y. An antiserum against CART increases feeding in normal rats, indicating that CART may be an endogenous inhibitor of food intake in normal animals.

  18. Circulating leptin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, N; Nakamura, H; Abe, S; Hino, T; Saito, H; Yuki, H; Kato, S; Tomoike, H

    1999-04-01

    Unexplained weight loss is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Since leptin, an obesity gene product, is known to play important roles in the control of body weight and energy expenditure, we investigated serum leptin levels, along with circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R55 and -R75) levels, in 31 patients with COPD and 15 age-matched healthy controls. The body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%fat) were significantly lower in the COPD patients than in the healthy controls (BMI = 18.1 +/- 2.7 kg/m2 versus 22.8 +/- 2.2 kg/m2 [mean +/- SD]; p leptin levels were significantly lower in the COPD patients than in the healthy controls (1.14 +/- 1.17 ng/ml versus 2.47 +/- 2.01 ng/ml; p COPD patients than in the healthy controls. Importantly, circulating leptin levels (log transformed) did correlate well with BMI and %fat, but not with TNF-alpha or with sTNF-R levels in the COPD patients. These data suggest that circulating leptin is independent of the TNF-alpha system and is regulated physiologically even in the presence of cachexia in patients with COPD.

  19. The association of serum leptin levels with metabolic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Pi Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a 167-amino-acid protein released by white adipose tissue and encoded by the obese gene. It has a role as a negative regulator of appetite control through sending a satiety signal to act on receptors within the hypothalamus. At normal levels, leptin can exert its effects on weight regulation according to white fat mass, induce sodium excretion, maintain vascular tone, and repair the myocardium. Beyond these effects, elevated serum leptin levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and multiple cardiovascular diseases. In addition, hyperleptinemia had been reported to contribute to renal diseases through multiple mechanisms resulting in glomerulopathy presenting with a decreased glomerular filtration rate, increased albuminuria, and related clinical symptoms, which are pathophysiological features of chronic kidney disease. Because these cardiovascular and metabolic disorders are great challenges for physicians, understanding the related pathophysiological association with leptin might become a valuable aid in handling patients in daily clinical practice. This review will discuss the roles of leptin in the regulation of biological functions of multiple organs beyond the maintenance of feeding and metabolism.

  20. Mechanism of attenuation of leptin signaling under chronic ligand stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamberg-Lemper Simone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that acts via its hypothalamic receptor (LEPRb to regulate energy balance. A downstream effect essential for the weight-regulatory action of leptin is the phosphorylation and activation of the latent transcription factor STAT3 by LEPRb-associated Janus kinases (JAKs. Obesity is typically associated with chronically elevated leptin levels and a decreased ability of LEPRb to activate intracellular signal transduction pathways (leptin resistance. Here we have studied the roles of the intracellular tyrosine residues in the negative feedback regulation of LEPRb-signaling under chronic leptin stimulation. Results Mutational analysis showed that the presence of either Tyr985 and Tyr1077 in the intracellular domain of LEPRb was sufficient for the attenuation of STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas mutation of both tyrosines rendered LEPRb resistant to feedback regulation. Overexpression and RNA interference-mediated downregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 revealed that both Tyr985 and Tyr1077 were capable of supporting the negative modulatory effect of SOCS3 in reporter gene assays. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of SOCS1 was enhanced by the presence of Tyr985 but not Tyr1077. Finally, the reduction of the STAT-phosphorylating activity of the LEPRb complex after 2 h of leptin stimulation was not accompanied by the dephosphorylation or degradation of LEPRb or the receptor-associated JAK molecule, but depended on Tyr985 and/or Tyr1077. Conclusions Both Tyr985 and Tyr1077 contribute to the negative regulation of LEPRb signaling. The inhibitory effects of SOCS1 and SOCS3 differ in the dependence on the tyrosine residues in the intracellular domain of LEPRb.

  1. Leptin/HER2 crosstalk in breast cancer: in vitro study and preliminary in vivo analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorio, Elena; Bonetti, Franco; Giordano, Antonio; Cetto, Gian Luigi; Surmacz, Eva; Mercanti, Anna; Terrasi, Marianna; Micciolo, Rocco; Remo, Andrea; Auriemma, Alessandra; Molino, Annamaria; Parolin, Veronica; Di Stefano, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with increased breast cancer risk, development of more aggressive tumors and resistance to certain anti-breast cancer treatments. Some of these effects might be mediated by obesity hormone leptin, acting independently or modulating other signaling pathways. Here we focused on the link between leptin and HER2. We tested if HER2 and the leptin receptor (ObR) can be coexpressed in breast cancer cell models, whether these two receptors can physically interact, and whether leptin can transactivate HER2. Next, we studied if leptin/ObR can coexist with HER2 in breast cancer tissues, and if presence of these two systems correlates with specific clinicopathological features. Expression of ObR, HER2, phospo-HER2 was assessed by immonoblotting. Physical interactions between ObR and HER2 were probed by immunoprecipitation and fluorescent immunostaining. Expression of leptin and ObR in breast cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Associations among markers studied by IHC were evaluated using Fisher's exact test for count data. HER2 and ObR were coexpressed in all studied breast cancer cell lines. In MCF-7 cells, HER2 physically interacted with ObR and leptin treatment increased HER2 phosphorylation on Tyr 1248. In 59 breast cancers, the presence of leptin was correlated with ObR (the overall association was about 93%). This result was confirmed both in HER2-positive and in HER2-negative subgroups. The expression of leptin or ObR was numerically more frequent in larger (> 10 mm) tumors. Coexpression of HER2 and the leptin/ObR system might contribute to enhanced HER2 activity and reduced sensitivity to anti-HER2 treatments

  2. Liraglutide, leptin and their combined effects on feeding: additive intake reduction through common intracellular signalling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoski, S E; Ong, Z Y; Fortin, S M; Schlessinger, E S; Grill, H J

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the behavioural and intracellular mechanisms by which the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, liraglutide, and leptin in combination enhance the food intake inhibitory and weight loss effects of either treatment alone. We examined the effects of liraglutide (a long-acting GLP-1 analogue) and leptin co-treatment, delivered in low or moderate doses subcutaneously (s.c.) or to the third ventricle, respectively, on cumulative intake, meal patterns and hypothalamic expression of intracellular signalling proteins [phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B)] in lean rats. A low-dose combination of liraglutide (25 µg/kg) and leptin (0.75 µg) additively reduced cumulative food intake and body weight, a result mediated predominantly through a significant reduction in meal frequency that was not present with either drug alone. Liraglutide treatment alone also reduced meal size; an effect not enhanced with leptin co-administration. Moderate doses of liraglutide (75 µg/kg) and leptin (4 µg), examined separately, each reduced meal frequency, cumulative food intake and body weight; only liraglutide reduced meal size. In combination these doses did not further enhance the anorexigenic effects of either treatment alone. Ex vivo immunoblot analysis showed elevated pSTAT3 in the hypothalamic tissue after liraglutide-leptin co-treatment, an effect which was greater than that of leptin treatment alone. In addition, s.c. liraglutide reduced the expression of PTP1B (a negative regulator of leptin receptor signalling), revealing a potential mechanism for the enhanced pSTAT3 response after liraglutide-leptin co-administration. Collectively, these results show novel behavioural and molecular mechanisms underlying the additive reduction in food intake and body weight after liraglutide-leptin combination treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hypersensitivity to thromboxane receptor mediated cerebral vasomotion and CBF oscillations during acute NO-deficiency in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Horváth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low frequency (4-12 cpm spontaneous fluctuations of the cerebrovascular tone (vasomotion and oscillations of the cerebral blood flow (CBF have been reported in diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction. Since endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO suppresses constitutively the release and vascular effects of thromboxane A(2 (TXA(2, NO-deficiency is often associated with activation of thromboxane receptors (TP. In the present study we hypothesized that in the absence of NO, overactivation of the TP-receptor mediated cerebrovascular signaling pathway contributes to the development of vasomotion and CBF oscillations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Effects of pharmacological modulation of TP-receptor activation and its downstream signaling pathway have been investigated on CBF oscillations (measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized rats and vasomotion (measured by isometric tension recording in isolated rat middle cerebral arteries, MCAs both under physiological conditions and after acute inhibition of NO synthesis. Administration of the TP-receptor agonist U-46619 (1 µg/kg i.v. to control animals failed to induce any changes of the systemic or cerebral circulatory parameters. Inhibition of the NO synthesis by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 mg/kg i.v. resulted in increased mean arterial blood pressure and a decreased CBF accompanied by appearance of CBF-oscillations with a dominant frequency of 148±2 mHz. U-46619 significantly augmented the CBF-oscillations induced by L-NAME while inhibition of endogenous TXA(2 synthesis by ozagrel (10 mg/kg i.v. attenuated it. In isolated MCAs U-46619 in a concentration of 100 nM, which induced weak and stable contraction under physiological conditions, evoked sustained vasomotion in the absence of NO, which effect could be completely reversed by inhibition of Rho-kinase by 10 µM Y-27632. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that hypersensitivity of the TP-receptor

  4. Inhibitory effect of leptin on rosiglitazone-induced differentiation of primary adipocytes prepared from TallyHO/Jng mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Joo Young; Sung, Yoon-Young; Jung, Won Hoon; Kim, Hee-Youn; Park, Ji Seon; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong [Medicinal Science Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 100 Jang-dong, Yuseong, 305-600 Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Sang Dal, E-mail: sdrhee@krict.re.kr [Medicinal Science Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 100 Jang-dong, Yuseong, 305-600 Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} In this study, we investigated the effects of leptin on adipocyte differentiation prepared from subcutaneous fat of TallyHo mice. {yields} Leptin inhibited the adipocytes differentiation at physiological concentration via inhibition of PPAR{gamma} expression. {yields} Inhibitors of ERK and STAT1 restored the leptin's inhibitory activity both in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: The effects of leptin on rosiglitazone-induced adipocyte differentiation were investigated in the primary adipocytes prepared from subcutaneous fat of TallyHO/Jng (TallyHO) mouse, a recently developed model animal for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The treatment of leptin inhibited the rosiglitazone-induced adipocyte differentiation with a decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) a key adipogenic transcription factor, both in mRNA and protein levels. Leptin (10 nM) was sufficient to inhibit the adipocyte differentiation, which seemed to come from increased expression of leptin receptor genes in the fat of TallyHO mice. The inhibition of adipogenesis by leptin was restored by the treatment of inhibitors for extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (PD98059) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) (fludarabine). Furthermore, in vivo intraperitoneal administration of PD98059 and fludarabine increased the PPAR{gamma} expression in the subcutaneous fat of TallyHO mice. These data suggest that leptin could inhibit the PPAR{gamma} expression and adipocyte differentiation in its physiological concentration in TallyHO mice.

  5. Low Leptin Availability as a Risk Factor for Dementia in Chilean Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Albala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to study the role of leptin in the development of dementia. Methods: Follow-up of the ALEXANDROS cohorts, with baseline measurements in 2000. From 1,136 available subjects free of dementia at baseline, 667 subjects had frozen baseline blood samples for measuring leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R. The free leptin index (FLI was calculated as the ratio of leptin to sOB-R. Dementia was defined as an MMSE score 5 in the Pfeffer Activities Questionnaire. Results: After 15 years of follow-up, 42 incident cases of dementia were identified. No difference in serum leptin was observed between people with and without dementia, but sOB-R was higher in demented than in nondemented subjects (sOB-R: 44.94 ± 23.97 vs. 33.73 ± 21.13 ng/ml. The adjusted risk for dementia increased, the higher the log sOB (hazard ratio = 3.58; 95% CI 1.72-7.45, p = 0.001. Conclusion: Lower availability of free leptin was found in demented than in nondemented people, suggesting a role of leptin in cognition.

  6. Leptin and regulatory T-lymphocytes in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Alice; Tu, Ly; Gambaryan, Natalia; Girerd, Barbara; Perros, Frédéric; Montani, David; Fabre, Dominique; Fadel, Elie; Eddahibi, Saadia; Cohen-Kaminsky, Sylvia; Guignabert, Christophe; Humbert, Marc

    2012-10-01

    Immune mechanisms and autoimmunity seem to play a significant role in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) pathogenesis and/or progression, but the pathophysiology is still unclear. Recent evidence has demonstrated a detrimental involvement of leptin in promoting various autoimmune diseases by controlling regulatory T-lymphocytes. Despite this knowledge, the role of leptin in IPAH is currently unknown. We hypothesised that leptin, synthesised by dysfunctional pulmonary endothelium, might play a role in the immunopathogenesis of IPAH by regulating circulating regulatory T-lymphocytes function. First, we collected serum and regulatory T-lymphocytes from controls, and IPAH and scleroderma-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) patients; secondly, we recovered tissue samples and cultured endothelial cells after either surgery or transplantation in controls and IPAH patients, respectively. Our findings indicate that serum leptin was higher in IPAH and SSc-PAH patients than controls. Circulating regulatory T-lymphocyte numbers were comparable in all groups, and the percentage of those expressing leptin receptor was higher in IPAH and SSc-PAH compared with controls, whereas their function was reduced in IPAH and SSc-PAH patients compared with controls, in a leptin-dependent manner. Furthermore, endothelial cells from IPAH patients synthesised more leptin than controls. Our data suggest that endothelial-derived leptin may play a role in the immunopathogenesis of IPAH.

  7. Leptin differentially increases sympathetic nerve activity and its baroreflex regulation in female rats: role of oestrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhigang; Brooks, Virginia L

    2015-01-01

    Key points Leptin increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in males, which contributes to obesity-induced hypertension; however, whether leptin is equally effective in females is unknown. We report that leptin does increase SNA and heart rate in female rats; however, for lumbar and renal SNA, this action is only evident in pro-oestrus and in oestrogen-treated ovariectomized rats, but not in ovariectomized or dioestrus rats. Leptin increases SNA and heart rate similarly in male and pro-oestrus female rats; however, leptin increases arterial pressure only in males. Blockade of MC3/4 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) with SHU9119 decreases SNA in leptin-treated pro-oestrus rats, suggesting that leptin increases SNA in part by increasing α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone drive of PVN presympathetic neurons. Our data establish sex differences in leptin's effects to increase SNA and arterial pressure, which emphasizes the need for enhanced recognition and investigation of sex differences in obesity-induced sympathoexcitation and hypertension. Abstract Obesity and hypertension are commonly associated, and activation of the sympathetic nervous system is considered to be a major contributor, at least in part due to the central actions of leptin. However, while leptin increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in males, whether leptin is equally effective in females is unknown. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) leptin increases lumbar (LSNA) and renal (RSNA) SNA and baroreflex control of LSNA and RSNA in α-chloralose anaesthetized female rats, but only during pro-oestrus. In contrast, i.c.v. leptin increased basal and baroreflex control of splanchnic SNA (SSNA) and heart rate (HR) in rats in both the pro-oestrus and dioestrus states. The effects of leptin on basal LSNA, RSNA, SSNA and HR were similar in males and pro-oestrus females; however, i.c.v. leptin increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) only in males. Leptin did not alter LSNA or HR

  8. GABAB receptor deficiency causes failure of neuronal homeostasis in hippocampal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertkin, Irena; Styr, Boaz; Slomowitz, Edden; Ofir, Nir; Shapira, Ilana; Berner, David; Fedorova, Tatiana; Laviv, Tal; Barak-Broner, Noa; Greitzer-Antes, Dafna; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Lotan, Ilana; Slutsky, Inna

    2015-06-23

    Stabilization of neuronal activity by homeostatic control systems is fundamental for proper functioning of neural circuits. Failure in neuronal homeostasis has been hypothesized to underlie common pathophysiological mechanisms in a variety of brain disorders. However, the key molecules regulating homeostasis in central mammalian neural circuits remain obscure. Here, we show that selective inactivation of GABAB, but not GABA(A), receptors impairs firing rate homeostasis by disrupting synaptic homeostatic plasticity in hippocampal networks. Pharmacological GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R) blockade or genetic deletion of the GB(1a) receptor subunit disrupts homeostatic regulation of synaptic vesicle release. GABA(B)Rs mediate adaptive presynaptic enhancement to neuronal inactivity by two principle mechanisms: First, neuronal silencing promotes syntaxin-1 switch from a closed to an open conformation to accelerate soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex assembly, and second, it boosts spike-evoked presynaptic calcium flux. In both cases, neuronal inactivity removes tonic block imposed by the presynaptic, GB(1a)-containing receptors on syntaxin-1 opening and calcium entry to enhance probability of vesicle fusion. We identified the GB(1a) intracellular domain essential for the presynaptic homeostatic response by tuning intermolecular interactions among the receptor, syntaxin-1, and the Ca(V)2.2 channel. The presynaptic adaptations were accompanied by scaling of excitatory quantal amplitude via the postsynaptic, GB(1b)-containing receptors. Thus, GABA(B)Rs sense chronic perturbations in GABA levels and transduce it to homeostatic changes in synaptic strength. Our results reveal a novel role for GABA(B)R as a key regulator of population firing stability and propose that disruption of homeostatic synaptic plasticity may underlie seizure's persistence in the absence of functional GABA(B)Rs.

  9. Insulin and Leptin Signaling Interact in the Mouse Kiss1 Neuron during the Peripubertal Period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Qiu

    Full Text Available Reproduction requires adequate energy stores for parents and offspring to survive. Kiss1 neurons, which are essential for fertility, have the potential to serve as the central sensors of metabolic factors that signal to the reproductive axis the presence of stored calories. Paradoxically, obesity is often accompanied by infertility. Despite excess circulating levels of insulin and leptin, obese individuals exhibit resistance to both metabolic factors in many neuron types. Thus, resistance to insulin or leptin in Kiss1 neurons could lead to infertility. Single deletion of the receptors for either insulin or the adipokine leptin from Kiss1 neurons does not impair adult reproductive dysfunction. However, insulin and leptin signaling pathways may interact in such a way as to obscure their individual functions. We hypothesized that in the presence of genetic or obesity-induced concurrent insulin and leptin resistance, Kiss1 neurons would be unable to maintain reproductive function. We therefore induced a chronic hyperinsulinemic and hyperleptinemic state in mice lacking insulin receptors in Kiss1 neurons through high fat feeding and examined the impact on fertility. In an additional, genetic model, we ablated both leptin and insulin signaling in Kiss1 neurons (IR/LepRKiss mice. Counter to our hypothesis, we found that the addition of leptin insensitivity did not alter the reproductive phenotype of IRKiss mice. We also found that weight gain, body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance were normal in mice of both genders. Nonetheless, leptin and insulin receptor deletion altered pubertal timing as well as LH and FSH levels in mid-puberty in a reciprocal manner. Our results confirm that Kiss1 neurons do not directly mediate the critical role that insulin and leptin play in reproduction. However, during puberty kisspeptin neurons may experience a critical window of susceptibility to the influence of metabolic factors that can modify the onset of

  10. Regulation of chick bone growth by leptin and catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, L J; Wenzel, S J; Sindberg, G M

    2010-04-01

    Leptin and the sympathetic nervous system have a unique role in linking nutritional status to skeletal metabolism in mammals. Such a regulatory mechanism has not been identified in birds but would be beneficial to signal information about energy reserves to an organ system essential for locomotion, reproduction, and survival. To explore this potential role of leptin and the sympathetic nervous system in birds, an ex vivo chick tibiotarsal model was used to test the effects of leptin and sympathetic activity on longitudinal bone growth and the expression of chondrocyte markers. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed the expression of chicken leptin receptor mRNA as well as both alpha-adrenergic (alpha1A, alpha2A, alpha2B, alpha2C) and beta adrenergic (beta1, beta2) receptor subtype mRNA in the whole bone. Incubation with norepinephrine (NE; 0, 10, or 100 microM for 4 d) caused a significant increase in distal condyle length as compared with vehicle-treated, contralateral tibiotarsi. In contrast, no change in condyle length was detected after leptin treatment (0 or 10 nM or 1 microM for 4 d). Analysis of cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation revealed no increase in bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells in the condyles in response to leptin or NE treatments. Real-time PCR analysis showed that NE enhanced type X collagen mRNA expression, a marker of mature hypertrophic chondrocytes, with no effect on type II collagen mRNA, the matrix protein secreted by proliferating chondrocytes. Leptin treatment had no effect on the expression of either matrix protein. Treatment with agonists specific for alpha- or beta-adrenergic receptors indicates that the activation of alpha-adrenergic receptors is most likely responsible for the sympathetic effect on type X collagen gene expression. These results suggest that NE and other sympathetic agonists have positive effects on bone elongation and the changes in critical genes associated with this process. These

  11. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva

    2003-01-01

    .001). An inverse relation between BMD adjusted for body weight and serum leptin emerged in both the control group (r = -0.186; P multiple linear regression, fat mass, lean body mass, and occupational physical activity were positively associated...

  12. P2X7 receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to bone cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Rie; Nielsen, Christian K.; Nasser, Arafat

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and has been suggested as a possible target in pain treatment. However, the specific role of the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer pain is unknown. We demonstrated that BALB/cJ P2X7 receptor knockout (P2X7R KO) mice...... were susceptible to bone cancer pain and moreover had an earlier onset of pain-related behaviours compared with cancer-bearing, wild-type mice. Furthermore, acute treatment with the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, A-438079, failed to alleviate pain-related behaviours in models of bone cancer pain...... with and without astrocyte activation (BALB/cJ or C3H mice inoculated with 4T1 mammary cancer cells or NCTC 2472 osteosarcoma cells, respectively), suggesting that astrocytic P2X7 receptors play a negligible role in bone cancer pain. The results support the hypothesis that bone cancer pain is a separate pain state...

  13. Leptin increases prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Fontana, Constanza M; Maselli, María E; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael F; Di Milta Mónaco, Nicolás A; Uvilla Recupero, Ana L; López Laur, José D

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that adipose tissue and adipocytokines might affect the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Leptin would have a stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells by inducing promotion and progression, whereas adiponectin would have a protective effect. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between body composition, leptin, and adiponectin levels with the prevalence and aggressiveness of PCa in men of Mendoza, Argentina. Seventy volunteers between 50 and 80 years (35 healthy men as control group and 35 with PCa) were selected. The PCa group was subclassified according to the Gleason Score (GS). Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatic biopsy were performed; PSA, testosterone, leptin, and adiponectin levels were determined; and a nutritional interview including anthropometric measurements and a food frequency questionnaire was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, ANOVA I, and Bonferroni (p Body mass index and percentage of body fat mass were not statistically different between PCa and control groups. However, body fat mass was higher in subjects with more aggressive tumors (p = 0.032). No differences were observed regarding leptin levels between the groups. Nevertheless, leptin levels were higher in subjects with high GS (p consumption and nutrient intake did not differ in the studied groups. In conclusion, body composition and leptin are related to the PCa aggressiveness but not with its prevalence.

  14. Urate crystal induced inflammation and joint pain are reduced in transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 deficient mice--potential role for transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Lauri J; Hämäläinen, Mari; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Nieminen, Riina M; Moilanen, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    In gout, monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposit intra-articularly and cause painful arthritis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that Transient Receptor Poten-tial Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel mediating nociceptive signals and neurogenic in-flammation, is involved in MSU crystal-induced responses in gout by utilizing three experi-mental murine models. The effects of selective pharmacological inhibition (by HC-030031) and genetic depletion of TRPA1 were studied in MSU crystal-induced inflammation and pain by using 1) spontaneous weight-bearing test to assess MSU crystal-induced joint pain, 2) subcutaneous air-pouch model resembling joint inflammation to measure MSU crystal-induced cytokine production and inflammatory cell accumulation, and 3) MSU crystal-induced paw edema to assess acute vascular inflammatory responses and swelling. Intra-articularly injected MSU crystals provoked spontaneous weight shift off from the affected limb in wild type but not in TRPA1 knock-out mice referring alleviated joint pain in TRPA1 deficient animals. MSU crystal-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulation of cytokines MCP-1, IL-6, IL-1beta, MPO, MIP-1alpha and MIP-2 into subcu-taneous air-pouch (resembling joint cavity) was attenuated in TRPA1 deficient mice and in mice treated with the selective TRPA1 inhibitor HC-030031 as compared to control animals. Further, HC-030031 treated and TRPA1 deficient mice developed tempered inflammatory edema when MSU crystals were injected into the paw. TRPA1 mediates MSU crystal-induced inflammation and pain in experimental models supporting the role of TRPA1 as a potential mediator and a drug target in gout flare.

  15. Altered circadian food anticipatory activity rhythms in PACAP receptor 1 (PAC1) deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2016-01-01

    glutamate receptors and the specific PACAP type 1 (PAC1) receptor. Light entrainment occurs during the twilight zones and has little effect on clock phase during daytime. When nocturnal animals have access to food only for a few hours during the resting phase at daytime, they adapt behavior...... in RF with access to food for 4-5 h during the subjective day, a significant change in behavior was observed in PAC1-/- mice compared to PAC1+/+ mice. While PAC1-/- mice showed similar FAA as PAC1+/+ animals in FPP at 300 lux, PAC1-/- mice demonstrated an advanced onset of FAA with a nearly 3-fold...

  16. Gene expression of a truncated and the full-length growth hormone (GH) receptor in subcutaneous fat and skeletal muscle in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Kristensen, K; Rosenfalck, A M

    2001-01-01

    In humans at least two GH receptors are significantly expressed. One is the full-length receptor (GHR); the other is a truncated form (GHRtr), that lacks most of the intracellular domain. This receptor may inhibit the action of the full-length receptor. Circulating GH-binding protein (GHBP......) is a proteolytically cleaved product from both of these receptors. The clinical relevance of the different receptor types is unknown. We examined the gene expression of GHR and GHRtr in human adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and the influence of GH treatment on this expression. Furthermore, we studied...... the relationship of circulating GHBP and body composition to GHR and GHRtr gene expression. Eleven adult GH-deficient patients were studied before and after 4 months of GH substitution therapy. Abdominal fat obtained by liposuction and femoral muscle biopsies were taken at baseline and after 4 months. Gene...

  17. Defects in articular cartilage metabolism and early arthritis in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valverde-Franco, G.; Binette, J.S.; Li, W.; Wang, H.; Chai, S.; Laflamme, F.; Tran-Khanh, N.; Quenneville, E.; Meijers, T.; Poole, A.R.; Mort, J.S.; Buschmann, M.D.; Henderson, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 3 has been identified as a key regulator of endochondral bone development and of post-natal bone metabolism through its action on growth plate chondrocytes and osteoblasts, respectively. It has also been shown to promote chondrogenesis and cartilage production

  18. Protease-activated receptor-1 deficiency protects against streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waasdorp, Maaike; Duitman, Janwillem; Florquin, Sandrine; Spek, C. Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Endogenously administered activated protein C ameliorates diabetic nephropathy (DN) in a protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1)-dependent manner, suggesting that PAR-1 activation limits the progression of DN. Activation of PAR-1 in fibroblast-like cells, however, induces proliferation and

  19. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, J.D.; van Boxtel, R.; Bergen, D.J.; Brans, M.A.; Brakkee, J.H.; Toonen, P.W.; Garner, K.M.; Adan, R.A.; Cuppen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is

  20. Novel mechanism by which probucol lowers low density lipoprotein levels demonstrated in the LDL receptor-deficient rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruszewicz, M.; Carew, T.E.; Pittman, R.C.; Witztum, J.L.; Steinberg, D.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient rabbits (WHHL rabbits) with probucol (1% w/w in a chow diet) lowered their LDL-cholesterol levels by 36%, consonant with the reported effectiveness of the drug in patients deficient in the LDL receptor. Initial studies of LDL fractional catabolic rate (FCR) using 125 I-labeled LDL prepared from the serum of untreated WHHL rabbits showed no difference between probucol-treated WHHL rabbits and untreated WHHL rabbits. When, however, 125 I-labeled LDL was prepared from donor WHHL rabbits under treatment with probucol and injected back into them, the FCR was found to be increased by about 50% above that measured simultaneously using 131 I-labeled LDL prepared from untreated WHHL donors. The labeled LDL from probucol-treated donors was also metabolized more rapidly than that from untreated donors when injected into untreated WHHL rabbits or into untreated wild-type New Zealand White rabbits. Finally, it was shown that rabbit skin fibroblasts in culture degraded labeled LDL prepared from probucol-treated WHHL rabbits more rapidly than that prepared from untreated WHHL donors. This was true both for normal rabbit fibroblasts and also for WHHL skin fibroblasts, although the absolute degradation rates in the latter were, of course, much lower for both forms of LDL. The data indicate that a major mechanism by which probucol lowers LDL levels relates not to changes in the cellular mechanisms for LDL uptake or to changes in LDL production but rather to intrinsic changes in the structure and metabolism of the plasma LDL of the probucol-treated animal

  1. Sepse por Salmonella associada à deficiência do receptor da Interleucina-12 (IL-12Rb1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Beatriz Tavares Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever caso clínico de uma criança que desenvolveu septicemia por Salmonella enteritidis, sendo diagnosticada imunodeficiência primária. DESCRIÇÃO: paciente masculino, de um ano e 9 meses, com febre e lesões de pele há 50 dias, internado com lesão perilabial ulcerada com secreção purulenta, lesão ulcerada friável em língua, lesões ulcerocrostosas em membros, pneumonia bilateral com derrame pleural e choque séptico, sendo diagnosticado Salmonella enteritidis como agente etiológico. A identificação desta bactéria direcionou a investigação para a síndrome MIM. O diagnóstico de deficiência do receptor da interleucina-12 (IL-12Rbeta1 foi confirmado através da dosagem de IL-12 e do interferon (IFN-gama produzido pelas células do paciente em meio de cultura. O resultado demonstrou ausência de produção de IL-12 e do IFN-gama mesmo após estímulo adequado. COMENTÁRIOS: a identificação da Salmonella enteritidis como agente etiológico de septicemia sugere uma disfunção do sistema imunológico. Foi realizada avaliação laboratorial das imunidades humoral, celular e inata. Após avaliação laboratorial direcionada para síndrome MIM, foi confirmada a deficiência do receptor da Interleucina-12 (IL-12Rbeta1. O uso do IFN-gama é recomendado nos casos graves, assim como o tratamento de suporte e o aconselhamento genético.

  2. Effects of radiation combined injury on hippocampal function are modulated in mice deficient in chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Antiño R; Eilertson, Kirsten; Sharma, Sourabh; Schneider, Danielle; Baure, Jennifer; Allen, Barrett; Rosi, Susanna; Raber, Jacob; Fike, John R

    2013-07-01

    Chemokines and their receptors play a crucial role in normal brain function as well as in pathological conditions such as injury and disease-associated neuroinflammation. Chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2), which mediates the recruitment of infiltrating and resident microglia to sites of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, is upregulated by ionizing irradiation and traumatic brain injury. Our objective was to determine if a deficiency in CCR2 and subsequent effects on brain microglia affect neurogenesis and cognitive function after radiation combined injury (RCI). CCR2 knock-out ⁻/⁻ and wild-type (WT) mice received 4 Gy of whole body ¹³⁷Cs irradiation. Immediately after irradiation, unilateral traumatic brain injury was induced using a controlled cortical impact system. Forty-four days postirradiation, animals were tested for hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance in the Morris water-maze. After cognitive testing, animals were euthanized and their brains snap frozen for immunohistochemical assessment of neuroinflammation (activated microglia) and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. All animals were able to locate the visible and hidden platform locations in the water maze; however, treatment effects were seen when spatial memory retention was assessed in the probe trials (no platform). In WT animals that received combined injury, a significant impairment in spatial memory retention was observed in the probe trial after the first day of hidden platform training (first probe trial). This impairment was associated with increased neurogenesis in the ipsilateral hemisphere of the dentate gyrus. In contrast, CCR2⁻/⁻ mice, independent of insult showed significant memory retention in the first probe trial and there were no differences in the numbers of newly born neurons in the animals receiving irradiation, trauma or combined injury. Although the mechanisms involved are not clear, our data suggests that CCR2 deficiency can exert a protective

  3. Perturbed bone composition and integrity with disorganized osteoblast function in zinc receptor/Gpr39-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Milena; Schmidt, Felix N; Guterman-Ram, Gali; Khayyeri, Hanifeh; Hiram-Bab, Sahar; Orenbuch, Ayelet; Katchkovsky, Svetlana; Aflalo, Anastasia; Isaksson, Hanna; Busse, Björn; Jähn, Katharina; Levaot, Noam

    2018-01-08

    Changes in bone matrix composition are frequently found with bone diseases and may be associated with increased fracture risk. Bone is rich in the trace element zinc. Zinc was established to play a significant role in the growth, development, and maintenance of healthy bones; however, the mechanisms underlying zinc effects on the integrity of the skeleton are poorly understood. Here, we show that the zinc receptor (ZnR)/Gpr39 is required for normal bone matrix deposition by osteoblasts. Initial analysis showed that Gpr39-deficient ( Gpr39 -/- ) mice had weaker bones as a result of altered bone composition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed high mineral-to-matrix ratios in the bones of Gpr39 -/- mice. Histologic analysis showed abnormally high numbers of active osteoblasts but normal osteoclast numbers on the surfaces of bones from Gpr39 -/- mice. Furthermore, Gpr39 -/- osteoblasts had disorganized matrix deposition in vitro with cultures exhibiting abnormally low collagen and high mineral contents, findings that demonstrate a cell-intrinsic role for ZnR/Gpr39 in these cells. We show that both collagen synthesis and deposition by Gpr39 -/- osteoblasts are perturbed. Finally, the expression of the zinc transporter Zip13 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs family of zinc-dependent metalloproteases that regulate collagen processing was downregulated in Gpr39 -/- osteoblasts. Altogether, our results suggest that zinc sensing by ZnR/Gpr39 affects the expression levels of zinc-dependent enzymes in osteoblasts and regulates collagen processing and deposition.-Jovanovic, M., Schmidt, F. N., Guterman-Ram, G., Khayyeri, H., Hiram-Bab, S., Orenbuch, A., Katchkovsky, S., Aflalo, A., Isaksson, H., Busse, B., Jähn, K., Levaot, N. Perturbed bone composition and integrity with disorganized osteoblast function in zinc receptor/Gpr39-deficient mice.

  4. Deficiency of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor confers resistance to oxidative stress in C2C12 myoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Thakur

    Full Text Available IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R signaling regulates cell growth, transformation and survival. Haploinsufficiency of the IGF-1R is reported to paradoxically confer resistance to oxidative stress in vivo and in cells cultured from Igf1r(+/- mice. In order to determine whether IGF-1R deficiency directly confers resistance to oxidative stress in specific cell types, an siRNA-mediated approach was applied to reduce IGF-1R in C2C12 myoblasts, NIH3T3 fibroblasts and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Treating the IGF-1R deficient myoblasts with H2O2 resulted in significantly higher phosphorylation of Akt as compared to cells having normal expression of IGF-1R. Similar results were obtained with UV treatment, another inducer of oxidative stress. This enhanced activation of Akt was associated with reduced level of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP. Moreover, in the IGF-1R knockdown myoblasts, phosphorylation of the Akt substrate Bad was enhanced after peroxide treatment. However, in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, the loss of IGF-1R by siRNA directed knockdown was associated with reduced levels of phosphorylated Akt on treatment with H2O2 or UV as compared to control cells and these cells showed more apoptosis. These results suggest a novel mechanism of cell type specific differential regulation of resistance to oxidative stress induced apoptosis by reduced levels of IGF-1R.

  5. Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughaday, W.H.; Trivedi, B.

    1987-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, the authors have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of 125 I-labeled hGH incubated with serum has been measured after gel filtration of the serum through an Ultrogel AcA 44 minicolumn. Results are expressed as percent of specifically bound 125 I-hGH and as specific binding relative to that of a reference serum after correction is made for endogenous GH. The mean +/- SEM of specific binding of sera from eight normal adults (26-46 years of age) was 21.6 +/- 0.45%, and the relative specific binding was 101.1 +/- 8.6%. Sera from 11 normal children had lower specific binding of 12.5 +/- 1.95% and relative specific binding of 56.6 +/- 9.1%. Sera from three children with Laron-type dwarfism lacked any demonstrable GH binding, whereas sera from 10 other children with other types of nonpituitary short stature had normal relative specific binding. They suggest that the serum GH-binding protein is a soluble derivative of the GH receptor. Measurement of the serum GH-binding protein may permit recognition of other abnormalities of the GH receptor

  6. Effects of High Fat Feeding and Diabetes on Regression of Atherosclerosis Induced by Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Therapy in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Willecke

    Full Text Available We tested whether a high fat diet (HFD containing the inflammatory dietary fatty acid palmitate or insulin deficient diabetes altered the remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques in LDL receptor knockout (Ldlr-/- mice. Cholesterol reduction was achieved by using a helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd carrying the gene for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr; HDAd-LDLR. After injection of the HDAd-LDLR, mice consuming either HFD, which led to insulin resistance but not hyperglycemia, or low fat diet (LFD, showed regression compared to baseline. However there was no difference between the two groups in terms of atherosclerotic lesion size, or CD68+ cell and lipid content. Because of the lack of effects of these two diets, we then tested whether viral-mediated cholesterol reduction would lead to defective regression in mice with greater hyperglycemia. In both normoglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ-treated hyperglycemic mice, HDAd-LDLR significantly reduced plasma cholesterol levels, decreased atherosclerotic lesion size, reduced macrophage area and lipid content, and increased collagen content of plaque in the aortic sinus. However, reductions in anti-inflammatory and ER stress-related genes were less pronounced in STZ-diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic mice. In conclusion, HDAd-mediated Ldlr gene therapy is an effective and simple method to induce atherosclerosis regression in Ldlr-/- mice in different metabolic states.

  7. Nutritional Omega-3 Deficiency Alters Glucocorticoid Receptor-Signaling Pathway and Neuronal Morphology in Regionally Distinct Brain Structures Associated with Emotional Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Larrieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive evidence suggests that long term dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs deficiency results in altered emotional behaviour. We have recently demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs deficiency induces emotional alterations through abnormal corticosterone secretion which leads to altered dendritic arborisation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Here we show that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis feedback inhibition was not compromised in n-3 deficient mice. Rather, glucocorticoid receptor (GR signaling pathway was inactivated in the PFC but not in the hippocampus of n-3 deficient mice. Consequently, only dendritic arborisation in PFC was affected by dietary n-3 PUFAs deficiency. In addition, occlusion experiment with GR blockade altered GR signaling in the PFC of control mice, with no further alterations in n-3 deficient mice. In conclusion, n-3 PUFAs deficiency compromised PFC, leading to dendritic atrophy, but did not change hippocampal GR function and dendritic arborisation. We argue that this GR sensitivity contributes to n-3 PUFAs deficiency-related emotional behaviour deficits.

  8. Clinical features of Candidiasis in patients with inherited interleukin 12 receptor β1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouederni, Monia; Sanal, Ozden; Ikinciogullari, Aydan; Tezcan, Ilhan; Dogu, Figen; Sologuren, Ithaisa; Pedraza-Sánchez, Sigifredo; Keser, Melike; Tanir, Gonul; Nieuwhof, Chris; Colino, Elena; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Levy, Jacov; Kutukculer, Necil; Aytekin, Caner; Herrera-Ramos, Estefanía; Bhatti, Micah; Karaca, Neslihan; Barbouche, Ridha; Broides, Arnon; Goudouris, Ekaterini; Franco, José Luis; Parvaneh, Nima; Reisli, Ismail; Strickler, Alexis; Shcherbina, Anna; Somer, Ayper; Segal, Anthony; Angel-Moreno, Alfonso; Lezana-Fernandez, José Luis; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Bobadilla-Del Valle, Miriam; Kachboura, Salem; Sentongo, Timothy; Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Bustamante, Jacinta; Picard, Capucine; Puel, Anne; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 12Rβ1 (IL-12Rβ1)-deficient patients are prone to clinical disease caused by mycobacteria, Salmonella, and other intramacrophagic pathogens, probably because of impaired interleukin 12-dependent interferon γ production. About 25% of patients also display mucocutaneous candidiasis, probably owing to impaired interleukin 23-dependent interleukin 17 immunity. The clinical features and outcome of candidiasis in these patients have not been described before, to our knowledge. We report here the clinical signs of candidiasis in 35 patients with IL-12Rβ1 deficiency. Most (n = 71) of the 76 episodes of candidiasis were mucocutaneous. Isolated oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) was the most common presentation (59 episodes, 34 patients) and was recurrent or persistent in 26 patients. Esophageal candidiasis (n = 7) was associated with proven OPC in 2 episodes, and cutaneous candidiasis (n = 2) with OPC in 1 patient, whereas isolated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC; n = 3) was not. Five episodes of proven invasive candidiasis were documented in 4 patients; 1 of these episodes was community acquired in the absence of any other comorbid condition. The first episode of candidiasis occurred earlier in life (median age±standard deviation, 1.5 ± 7.87 years) than infections with environmental mycobacteria (4.29 ± 11.9 years), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (4 ± 3.12 years), or Salmonella species (4.58 ± 4.17 years) or other rare infections (3 ± 11.67 years). Candidiasis was the first documented infection in 19 of the 35 patients, despite the vaccination of 10 of these 19 patients with live bacille Calmette-Guérin. Patients who are deficient in IL-12Rβ1 may have candidiasis, usually mucocutaneous, which is frequently recurrent or persistent. Candidiasis may be the first clinical manifestation in these patients.

  9. Congenital myasthenic syndromes in two kinships with end-plate acetylcholine receptor and utrophin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieb, J P; Dörfler, P; Tzartos, S

    1998-01-01

    We studied two families with five affected members suffering from ptosis and slowly progressive limb-girdle muscle weakness. All patients had abnormal decremental response on low-frequency nerve stimulation, but there were no repetitive responses to single stimuli. The patients improved on anti...... known to be involved in orchestrating the end-plate structure showed deficiency of the AChR-associated protein utrophin. These patients appear to have a defect in the development or maintenance of the postsynaptic clefts; whether this defect results from or causes a reduced expression of utrophin or ACh...

  10. Leptin and Fasting Regulate Rat Gastric Glucose-Regulated Protein 58

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana B. Bravo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The stomach secretes a wide range of peptides with essential metabolic functions, and thereby plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Disulfide isomerase glucose-regulated protein 58 (GRp58 is a molecular chaperone member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling pathway, which is a marker for human gastric cancer. Since GRp58 seems to be regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pattern shift, we used the 2DE gel methodology and peptide mass fingerprinting-protein identification by means of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We show that gastric mucosa GRp58 is dephosphorylated by fasting, and this effect is blunted when fasted rats are treated with leptin. Furthermore, we assessed the gene expression of GRp58 under different physiological settings known to be associated with energy homeostasis (fasting, leptin treatment and leptin deficiency. We found that intraperitoneal administration of leptin increases whereas leptin deficiency decreases GRp58 mRNA levels. However, GRp58 expression remains unchanged after fasting, indicating that leptin actions on GRp58 are no direct sensitivity to fasting. Dissection of the molecular pathways mediating the interactions between ER stress-related factors and nutrient availability, as well as their target genes, may open a new avenue for the study of obesity and other metabolic disorders.

  11. Influence of the d3-growth hormone (GH) receptor isoform on short-term and long-term treatment response to GH replacement in GH-deficient adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; van der Straaten, Tahar; Baak-Pablo, Renee; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Pereira, Alberto M.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant human GH (rhGH) replacement in adults is aimed at improving signs and symptoms of the adult GH deficiency (GHD) syndrome. In children, a common polymorphism of the GH receptor (exon-3 deletion, d3GHR) increases the response to rhGH replacement. The aim of this study was to assess the

  12. Interleukin-1 receptor type I gene-deficient mice are less susceptible to Staphylococcus epidermidis biomaterial-associated infection than are wild-type mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, J. J.; van der Poll, T.; Zaat, S. A.; Murk, J. L.; Weening, J. J.; Dankert, J.

    2000-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1) were found in tissue surrounding biomaterials infected with Staphylococcus epidermidis. To determine the role of IL-1 in biomaterial-associated infection (BAI), IL-1 receptor type I-deficient (IL-1R(-/-)) and wild-type mice received subcutaneous

  13. The effect of 9-cis-retinoic acid on proliferation and differentiation of a spermatogonia and retinoid receptor gene expression in the vitamin A-deficient mouse testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, I. C.; Sonneveld, E.; van Pelt, A. M.; Schrans, B. H.; Themmen, A. P.; van der Saag, P. T.; de rooij, D. G.

    1998-01-01

    Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are key regulators in retinoid signaling. Knowledge about the effects of 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA), the natural ligand for the RXRs, may also provide insight in the functions of RXRs. In this study, the effect of 9-cis-RA on spermatogenesis in vitamin A-deficient

  14. Leptin levels in infertile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, S.; Bibi, R.; Ahmed, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the leptin levels in the serum of normal, sub fertile and infertile men. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Sciences Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad and Dr. Salma and Kafeel Medical Centre, Islamabad, from April to December 2009. Methodology: Serum leptin levels hormonal concentrations (LH, FSH and testosterone) were determined by EIA in 154 males including 24 (15.58%) fertile, 19 (12.34%) polyzoospermic (PZs), 26 (16.88%) teratozoospermic (TZs), 27 (17.53%) astheno-teratozoospermic (ATZs), 18 (11.69%) oligozoospermic (OZs), 18 (11.69%) oligo-astheno-teratozoospermic (OATZs), 11 (7.14%) obstructive azoospermic (OBST-AZOOs) and 11 (7.14%) non-obstructive azoospermic (NON-OBST-AZOOs). BMI was also determined, divided into groups of greater than 24. Hormonal concentrations were compared by ANOVA and correlation was performed by using Graph pad prism version 5. Results: Significantly high levels of leptin concentrations were found in fertile (p 24 compared to fertile and infertile male patients with BMI 24. Leptin showed a significant positive correlation with LH (p < 0.01) and FSH (p < 0.002) and a significant negative correlation with testosterone (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Abnormal leptin level was significantly associated with fertility problems in males. Providing a link between leptin and reproduction factors contributing in control of testosterone and gonadotropins secretion in many aspects depending on fertility status in male subjects. BMI appears to have significant association with serum leptin levels. (author)

  15. Leptin in the hindbrain facilitates phosphorylation of STAT3 in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Bhavna N; Harris, Ruth B S

    2015-03-01

    Leptin receptors (ObRs) in the forebrain and hindbrain have been independently recognized as important mediators of leptin responses. We recently used low-dose leptin infusions to show that chronic activation of both hypothalamic and hindbrain ObRs is required to reduce body fat. The objective of the present study was to identify the brain nuclei that are selectively activated in rats that received chronic infusion of leptin in both the forebrain and hindbrain. Either saline or leptin was infused into third and fourth ventricles (0.1 μg/24 h in the third ventricle and 0.6 μg/24 h in the fourth ventricle) of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 6 days using Alzet pumps. Rats infused with leptin into both ventricles (LL rats) showed a significant increase in phosphorylated (p)STAT3 immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsomedial hypothalamus, and posterior hypothalamus compared with other groups. No differences in pSTAT3 immunoreactivity were observed in midbrain or hindbrain nuclei despite a sixfold higher infusion of leptin into the fourth ventricle than the third ventricle. ΔFosB immunoreactivity, a marker of chronic neuronal activation, showed that multiple brain nuclei were chronically activated due to the process of infusion, but only the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsomedial hypothalamus, and ventral tuberomamillary nucleus showed a significant increase in LL rats compared with other groups. These data demonstrate that low-dose leptin in the hindbrain increases pSTAT3 in areas of the hypothalamus known to respond to leptin, supporting the hypothesis that leptin-induced weight loss requires an integrated response from both the hindbrain and forebrain. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Endogenous leptin contributes to baroreflex suppression within the solitary tract nucleus of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Amy C; Diz, Debra I

    2014-12-01

    The decline in cardiovagal baroreflex function that occurs with aging is accompanied by an increase in circulating leptin levels. Our previous studies showed that exogenous leptin impairs the baroreflex sensitivity for control of heart rate in younger rats, but the contribution of this hormone to baroreflex dysfunction during aging is unknown. Thus we assessed the effect of bilateral leptin microinjection (500 fmol/60 nl) within the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) on the baroreflex sensitivity in older (66 ± 2 wk of age) urethane/chloralose anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats with elevated circulating leptin levels. In contrast to the 63% reduction observed in younger rats, leptin did not alter the baroreflex sensitivity for bradycardia evoked by phenylephrine in older rats (0.76 ± 0.19 baseline vs. 0.71 ± 0.15 ms/mmHg after leptin; P = 0.806). We hypothesized that this loss of sensitivity reflected endogenous suppression of the baroreflex by elevated leptin, rather than cardiovascular resistance to the peptide. Indeed, NTS administration of a leptin receptor antagonist (75 pmol/120 nl) improved the baroreflex sensitivity for bradycardia in older rats (0.73 ± 0.13 baseline vs. 1.19 ± 0.26 at 10 min vs. 1.87 ± 0.32 at 60 min vs. 1.22 ± 0.54 ms/mmHg at 120 min; P = 0.002), with no effect in younger rats. There was no effect of the leptin antagonist on the baroreflex sensitivity for tachycardia, responses to cardiac vagal chemosensitive fiber activation, or resting hemodynamics in older rats. These findings suggest that the actions of endogenous leptin within the NTS, either produced locally or derived from the circulation, contribute to baroreflex suppression during aging. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. G protein-coupled receptor 39 deficiency is associated with pancreatic islet dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Egerod, Kristoffer L; Jin, Chunyu

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-39 is a seven-transmembrane receptor expressed mainly in endocrine and metabolic tissues that acts as a Zn(++) sensor signaling mainly through the G(q) and G(12/13) pathways. The expression of GPR39 is regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1alpha and HNF-4......alpha, and in the present study, we addressed the importance of GPR39 for glucose homeostasis and pancreatic islets function. The expression and localization of GPR39 were characterized in the endocrine pancreas and pancreatic cell lines. Gpr39(-/-) mice were studied in vivo, especially in respect...... of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and in vitro in respect of islet architecture, gene expression, and insulin secretion. Gpr39 was down-regulated on differentiation of the pluripotent pancreatic cell line AR42J cells toward the exocrine phenotype but was along with Pdx-1 strongly up...

  18. Deficiency in type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor in mice protects against oxygen-induced lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flejou Jean-François

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular responses to aging and oxidative stress are regulated by type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R. Oxidant injury, which is implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of respiratory diseases, acutely upregulates IGF-1R expression in the lung. This led us to suspect that reduction of IGF-1R levels in lung tissue could prevent deleterious effects of oxygen exposure. Methods Since IGF-1R null mutant mice die at birth from respiratory failure, we generated compound heterozygous mice harboring a hypomorphic (Igf-1rneo and a knockout (Igf-1r- receptor allele. These IGF-1Rneo/- mice, strongly deficient in IGF-1R, were subjected to hyperoxia and analyzed for survival time, ventilatory control, pulmonary histopathology, morphometry, lung edema and vascular permeability. Results Strikingly, after 72 h of exposure to 90% O2, IGF-1Rneo/- mice had a significantly better survival rate during recovery than IGF-1R+/+ mice (77% versus 53%, P neo/- mice which developed conspicuously less edema and vascular extravasation than controls. Also, hyperoxia-induced abnormal pattern of breathing which precipitated respiratory failure was elicited less frequently in the IGF-1Rneo/- mice. Conclusion Together, these data demonstrate that a decrease in IGF-1R signaling in mice protects against oxidant-induced lung injury.

  19. Did hypocretin receptor 2 autoantibodies cause narcolepsy with hypocretin deficiency in Pandemrix-vaccinated children? Comment on “Antibodies to influenza nucleoprotein cross-react with human hypocretin receptor 2”

    OpenAIRE

    Vassalli Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Did hypocretin receptor 2 auto antibodies cause narcolepsy with hypocretin deficiency in Pandemrix vaccinated children as suggested by Ahmed et al.? Using newly developed mouse models to report and inactivate hypocretin receptor expression Vassalli et al. now show that hypocretin neurons (whose loss causes narcolepsy) do not express hypocretin autoreceptors raising questions to the interpretation of Ahmed et al.’s findings. Mouse Genome Informatics: www.informatics.jax.org/reference/...

  20. Aberrant intestinal microbiota due to IL-1 receptor antagonist deficiency promotes IL-17- and TLR4-dependent arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogier, Rebecca; Ederveen, Thomas H A; Boekhorst, Jos; Wopereis, Harm; Scher, Jose U; Manasson, Julia; Frambach, Sanne J C M; Knol, Jan; Garssen, Johan; van der Kraan, Peter M; Koenders, Marije I; van den Berg, Wim B; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla

    2017-06-23

    Perturbation of commensal intestinal microbiota has been associated with several autoimmune diseases. Mice deficient in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn -/- mice) spontaneously develop autoimmune arthritis and are susceptible to other autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, diabetes, and encephalomyelitis; however, the mechanisms of increased susceptibility to these autoimmune phenotypes are poorly understood. We investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in regulation of commensal intestinal microbiota, and assessed the involvement of microbiota subsets and innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses that underlie the development of spontaneous arthritis in Il1rn -/- mice. Using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we show that IL-1Ra critically maintains the diversity and regulates the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice. IL-1Ra deficiency reduced the intestinal microbial diversity and richness, and caused specific taxonomic alterations characterized by overrepresented Helicobacter and underrepresented Ruminococcus and Prevotella. Notably, the aberrant intestinal microbiota in IL1rn -/- mice specifically potentiated IL-17 production by intestinal lamina propria (LP) lymphocytes and skewed the LP T cell balance in favor of T helper 17 (Th17) cells, an effect transferable to WT mice by fecal microbiota. Importantly, LP Th17 cell expansion and the development of spontaneous autoimmune arthritis in IL1rn -/- mice were attenuated under germ-free condition. Selective antibiotic treatment revealed that tobramycin-induced alterations of commensal intestinal microbiota, i.e., reduced Helicobacter, Flexispira, Clostridium, and Dehalobacterium, suppressed arthritis in IL1rn -/- mice. The arthritis phenotype in IL1rn -/- mice was previously shown to depend on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Using the ablation of both IL-1Ra and TLR4, we here show that the aberrations in the IL1rn -/- microbiota are partly TLR4-dependent. We further

  1. Relief from detrimental consequences of chronic psychosocial stress in mice deficient for the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlik, Daniel; Stangl, Christina; Bludau, Anna; Grabski, Dominik; Strasser, Robert; Schmidt, Dominic; Flor, Peter J; Uschold-Schmidt, Nicole

    2017-03-15

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric conditions and comorbid somatic pathologies are an enormous public health concern in modern society. The etiology of these disorders is complex, with stressors holding a chronic and psychosocial component representing the most acknowledged risk factor. During the last decades, research on the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu) system advanced dramatically and much attention was given to the role of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 (mGlu7) in acute stress-related behavior and physiology. However, virtually nothing is known about the potential involvement of mGlu7 in chronic psychosocial stress-related conditions. Using the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC, 19 days) in male mice, we addressed whether central mGlu7 is altered upon chronic psychosocial stressor exposure and whether genetic ablation of mGlu7 interferes with the multitude of chronic stress-induced alterations. CSC exposure resulted in a downregulation of mGlu7 mRNA transcript levels in the prefrontal cortex, a brain region relevant for stress-related behaviors and physiology. Interestingly, mGlu7 deficiency relieved multiple chronic stress-induced alterations including the CSC-induced anxiety-prone phenotype; mGlu7 ablation also ameliorated CSC-induced physiological and immunological consequences such as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunctions and colonic inflammation, respectively. Together, our findings provide first evidence for the involvement of mGlu7 in a wide range of behavioral and physiological alterations in response to chronic psychosocial stressor exposure. Moreover, the stress-protective phenotype of genetic mGlu7 ablation suggests mGlu7 pharmacological blockade to be a relevant option for the treatment of chronic stress-related emotional and somatic dysfunctions. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors, 5 years on'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined IL-12 receptor and IgA deficiency in an adult man intestinally infested by an unknown, non-cultivable mycobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schejbel, L; Rasmussen, E M; Kemp, Helle Bruunsgaard

    2011-01-01

    of his IL12R deficiency. Antimycobacterial chemotherapy and interferon-¿ treatment for 2 years significantly improved his condition. This is the first description of IL12R¿1 deficiency combined with another immunodeficiency, and we suggest that combinatory defects may circumvent the otherwise low......Interleukin-12 receptor deficiency is a well-described cause of human susceptibility to infection with low-virulent mycobacteria and Salmonella species. We identified a male patient presenting in his late forties with severe gastroenteropathy because of outbred infestation by a previously unknown...... mycobacterium. In addition to selective IgA deficiency, the patient was found to carry a not previously described R283X homozygous mutation in his IL12R¿1 gene. Two of his sisters, a brother, and his four children were healthy, heterozygous carriers of the mutation. In this patient, the combination of two...

  3. Leptin-induced RORγt expression in CD4+ T cells promotes Th17 responses in systemic lupus erythematosus1

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yiyun; Liu, Yaoyang; Shi, Fu-Dong; Zou, Hejian; Matarese, Giuseppe; Cava, Antonio La

    2013-01-01

    Th17 CD4+ cells promote inflammation and autoimmunity. Here we report that Th17 cell frequency is reduced in ob/ob mice that are genetically deficient in the adipokine leptin, and that the administration of leptin to ob/ob mice restored Th17 cell numbers to values comparable to those found in wild type animals. Leptin promoted Th17 responses in normal human CD4+ T cells and in mice, both in vitro and in vivo, by inducing RORγt transcription. Leptin also increased Th17 responses in (NZB × NZW)...

  4. Serum leptin and insulin tests in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yin; Jiang Xiaojin; Leng Xiumei

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance and the relations of leptin and insulin on obesity group. Methods: Leptin and insulin were tested with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in pre-obesity group and obesity group respectively. Results: Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly elevated in obesity group compare with the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Changing with insulin, the elevation of leptin in obesity group has been identified as an important agent of diabetes mellitus (DM)

  5. Leptin amplifies the action of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the solitary nucleus: an in vitro calcium imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Richard C; McDougal, David H; Hermann, Gerlinda E

    2011-04-18

    Leptin exerts a powerful permissive influence on neurogenic thermogenesis. During starvation and an absence of leptin, animals cannot produce thermogenic reactions to cold stress. However, thermogenesis is rescued by restoring leptin. We have previously observed a highly cooperative interaction between leptin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone [TRH] to activate hindbrain-generated thermogenic responses (Hermann et al., 2006). In vivo physiological studies (Rogers et al., 2009) suggested that the thermogenic impact of TRH in the hindbrain is amplified by the action of leptin through a leptin receptor-mediated production of phosphoinositol-trisphosphate [PIP3]. In turn, PIP3 can activate a tyrosine kinase whose target is the Src-SH2 regulatory site on the phospholipase C [PLC] complex. The TRH receptor signals through the PLC complex. Our immunohistochemical studies (Barnes et al., 2010) suggest that this transduction interaction between leptin and TRH occurs within neurons of the solitary nucleus [NST], though this interaction had not been verified. The present in vitro live cell calcium imaging study shows that while medial NST neurons are rarely activated by leptin alone, leptin pre-treatment significantly augments NST neurons' responsiveness to TRH. This leptin-mediated priming of NST neurons was uncoupled by pre-treatment with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor [wortmannin], the phospholipase C inhibitor [U73122] and the Src-SH2 antagonist [PP2]. TTX did not eliminate the synergistic response of the agonists, thus the sensitization cannot be attributed to pre-synaptic mechanisms. It seems likely that NST neurons are involved in the leptin-mediated increase in BAT temperature by sensitizing the TRH-PLC-IP3-calcium release mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved leptin sensitivity as a potential candidate responsible for the spontaneous food restriction of the Lou/C rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Veyrat-Durebex

    Full Text Available The Lou/C rat, an inbred strain of Wistar origin, was described as a model of resistance to age- and diet-induced obesity. Although such a resistance involves many metabolic parameters described in our previous studies, Lou/C rats also exhibit a spontaneous food restriction due to decreased food consumption during the nocturnal period. We then attempted to delineate the leptin sensitivity and mechanisms implicated in this strain, using different protocols of acute central and peripheral leptin administration. A first analysis of the meal patterns revealed that Lou/C rats eat smaller meals, without any change in meal number compared to age-matched Wistar animals. Although the expression of the recognized leptin transporters (leptin receptors and megalin measured in the choroid plexus was normal in Lou/C rats, the decreased triglyceridemia observed in these animals is compatible with an increased leptin transport across the blood brain barrier. Improved hypothalamic leptin signaling in Lou/C rats was also suggested by the higher pSTAT3/STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 ratio observed following acute peripheral leptin administration, as well as by the lower hypothalamic mRNA expression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3, known to downregulate leptin signaling. To conclude, spontaneous hypophagia of Lou/C rats appears to be related to improved leptin sensitivity. The main mechanism underlying such a phenomenon consists in improved leptin signaling through the Ob-Rb leptin receptor isoform, which seems to consequently lead to overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH.

  7. Increased plasma leptin attenuates adaptive metabolism in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Richard A; Foskolos, Andreas; Giesy, Sarah L; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Krumm, Christopher S; Butler, W Ronald; Quirk, Susan M; Waldron, Matthew R; Boisclair, Yves R

    2016-05-01

    Mammals meet the increased nutritional demands of lactation through a combination of increased feed intake and a collection of adaptations known as adaptive metabolism (e.g., glucose sparing via insulin resistance, mobilization of endogenous reserves, and increased metabolic efficiency via reduced thyroid hormones). In the modern dairy cow, adaptive metabolism predominates over increased feed intake at the onset of lactation and develops concurrently with a reduction in plasma leptin. To address the role of leptin in the adaptive metabolism of early lactation, we asked which adaptations could be countered by a constant 96-h intravenous infusion of human leptin (hLeptin) starting on day 8 of lactation. Compared to saline infusion (Control), hLeptin did not alter energy intake or milk energy output but caused a modest increase in body weight loss. hLeptin reduced plasma glucose by 9% and hepatic glycogen content by 73%, and these effects were associated with a 17% increase in glucose disposal during an insulin tolerance test. hLeptin attenuated the accumulation of triglyceride in the liver by 28% in the absence of effects on plasma levels of the anti-lipolytic hormone insulin or plasma levels of free fatty acids, a marker of lipid mobilization from adipose tissue. Finally, hLeptin increased the plasma concentrations of T4 and T3 by nearly 50% without affecting other neurally regulated hormones (i.e., cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH)). Overall these data implicate the periparturient reduction in plasma leptin as one of the signals promoting conservation of glucose and energy at the onset of lactation in the energy-deficient dairy cow. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Combined IL-12 receptor and IgA deficiency in an adult man intestinally infested by an unknown, non-cultivable mycobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejbel, L; Rasmussen, E M; Kemp, H B; Lundstedt, A-C; Nielsen, K R; Obel, N; Marquart, H; Andersen, A B

    2011-12-01

    Interleukin-12 receptor deficiency is a well-described cause of human susceptibility to infection with low-virulent mycobacteria and Salmonella species. We identified a male patient presenting in his late forties with severe gastroenteropathy because of outbred infestation by a previously unknown mycobacterium. In addition to selective IgA deficiency, the patient was found to carry a not previously described R283X homozygous mutation in his IL12RΒ1 gene. Two of his sisters, a brother, and his four children were healthy, heterozygous carriers of the mutation. In this patient, the combination of two deficiencies could promote illness. Even though the IgA deficiency in itself does not predispose to mycobacterial disease, the lack of secreted IgA may have disturbed the intestinal homoeostasis and increased the susceptibility to the low-virulent mycobacterium that the patient was not able to clear because of his IL12R deficiency. Antimycobacterial chemotherapy and interferon-γ treatment for 2 years significantly improved his condition. This is the first description of IL12RΒ1 deficiency combined with another immunodeficiency, and we suggest that combinatory defects may circumvent the otherwise low penetrance of IL12RB1 deficiency. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Genistein Precipitated Hypothyroidism, Altered Leptin and C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genistein Precipitated Hypothyroidism, Altered Leptin and C-Reactive Protein Synthesis in Pregnant Rats. ... Thyroid hormone, C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin assay was carried using the blood samples. Leptin was also assayed in the placenta and amniotic fluid supernatant. Oral exposure of pregnant rats to genistein ...

  10. Altered Circadian Food Anticipatory Activity Rhythms in PACAP Receptor 1 (PAC1 Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hannibal

    Full Text Available Light signals from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs entrain the circadian clock and regulate negative masking. Two neurotransmitters, glutamate and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP, found in the ipRGCs transmit light signals to the brain via glutamate receptors and the specific PACAP type 1 (PAC1 receptor. Light entrainment occurs during the twilight zones and has little effect on clock phase during daytime. When nocturnal animals have access to food only for a few hours during the resting phase at daytime, they adapt behavior to the restricted feeding (RF paradigm and show food anticipatory activity (FAA. A recent study in mice and rats demonstrating that light regulates FAA prompted us to investigate the role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling in the light mediated regulation of FAA. PAC1 receptor knock out (PAC1-/- and wild type (PAC1+/+ mice placed in running wheels were examined in a full photoperiod (FPP of 12:12 h light/dark (LD and a skeleton photoperiod (SPP 1:11:1:11 h L:DD:L:DD at 300 and 10 lux light intensity. Both PAC1-/- mice and PAC1+/+ littermates entrained to FPP and SPP at both light intensities. However, when placed in RF with access to food for 4-5 h during the subjective day, a significant change in behavior was observed in PAC1-/- mice compared to PAC1+/+ mice. While PAC1-/- mice showed similar FAA as PAC1+/+ animals in FPP at 300 lux, PAC1-/- mice demonstrated an advanced onset of FAA with a nearly 3-fold increase in amplitude compared to PAC1+/+ mice when placed in SPP at 300 lux. The same pattern of FAA was observed at 10 lux during both FPP and SPP. The present study indicates a role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling during light regulated FAA. Most likely, PACAP found in ipRGCs mediating non-image forming light information to the brain is involved.

  11. Group 1B phospholipase A₂ inactivation suppresses atherosclerosis and metabolic diseases in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollie, Norris I; Konaniah, Eddy S; Goodin, Colleen; Hui, David Y

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that inactivation of the group 1B phospholipase A2 (Pla2g1b) suppresses diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice. A possible influence of Pla2g1b inactivation on atherosclerosis has not been addressed previously. The current study utilized LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice with plasma lipid levels and distribution similar to hyperlipidemic human subjects as a preclinical animal model to test the effectiveness of Pla2g1b inactivation on atherosclerosis. The Pla2g1b(+/+)Ldlr(-/-) and Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice were fed a low fat chow diet or a hypercaloric diet with 58.5 kcal% fat and 25 kcal% sucrose for 10 weeks. Minimal differences were observed between Pla2g1b(+/+)Ldlr(-/-) and Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice when the animals were maintained on the low fat chow diet. However, when the animals were maintained on the hypercaloric diet, the Pla2g1(+/+)Ldlr(-/-) mice showed the expected body weight gain but the Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice were resistant to diet-induced body weight gain. The Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice also displayed lower fasting glucose, insulin, and plasma lipid levels compared to the Pla2g1b(+/+)Ldlr(-/-) mice, which displayed robust hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia in response to the hypercaloric diet. Importantly, atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic roots were also reduced 7-fold in the Pla2g1b(-/-)Ldlr(-/-) mice. The effectiveness of Pla2g1b inactivation to suppress diet-induced body weight gain and reduce diabetes and atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice suggests that pharmacological inhibition of Pla2g1b may be a viable strategy to decrease diet-induced obesity and the risk of diabetes and atherosclerosis in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... was unaltered. During saline infusion the adipose tissue release averaged 0.8 ± 0.3 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1) whereas skeletal muscle release was 0.5 ± 0.1 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1). In young healthy humans, skeletal muscle contribution to whole body leptin production could be substantial given the greater...

  13. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award lecture: Molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells--focus on leptin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Y P; Maymó, J L; Pérez Pérez, A; Calvo, J C; Sánchez-Margalet, V; Varone, C L

    2012-02-01

    The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol is an estrogen that influences multiple aspects of placental function and fetal development in humans. During early pregnancy it plays a role in the regulation of blastocyst implantation, trophoblast differentiation and invasiveness, remodeling of uterine arteries, immunology and trophoblast production of hormones such as leptin. Estradiol exerts some effects through the action of classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which act as ligand-activated transcription factors and regulate gene expression. In addition, estradiol can elicit rapid responses from membrane-associated receptors, like activation of protein-kinase pathways. Thus, the cellular effects of estradiol will depend on the specific receptors expressed and the integration of their signaling events. Leptin, the 16,000MW protein product of the obese gene, was originally considered an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule for the central control of metabolism. However, pleiotropic effects of leptin have been identified in reproduction and pregnancy. The leptin gene is expressed in placenta, where leptin promotes proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells. Expression of leptin in placenta is highly regulated by key pregnancy molecules as hCG and estradiol. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells; focusing on mechanisms involved in estradiol regulation of placental leptin expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In vivo regulation of intestinal absorption of amino acids by leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul, Carmen; Barrenetxe, Jaione; De Pablo-Maiso, Lorena; Lostao, María Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is secreted by the gastric mucosa and is able to reach the intestinal lumen and bind to its receptors located in the apical membranes of enterocytes. We have previously demonstrated that apical leptin inhibits uptake of amino acids in rat intestine in vitro and in Caco-2 cells. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of leptin on absorption of amino acids using in vivo techniques, which generate situations closer to physiological conditions. In vivo intestinal absorption of amino acids in rats was measured by isolating a jejunal loop and using the single-pass perfusion system. Disappearance of glutamine (Gln), proline (Pro), and β-alanine (β-Ala) from the perfusate, in the absence or presence of leptin, was measured using a radioactivity method. Luminal leptin (25 nM) inhibited the absorption of 2 mM Pro, 5 mM β-Ala, and 5 mM Gln by approximately 45% after 5-15 min; the effect remained constant until the end of the experiment (80 min) and was rapidly and completely reversed when leptin was removed from the perfusion medium. Moreover, leptin was able to regulate the absorption of galactose and Gln in the same animal, indicating a direct action of the hormone on the specific transporters implicated in the uptake of each nutrient. The results of the present work indicate that luminal leptin decreases absorption of amino acids in vivo in a short-term manner and in a reversible way. These results, together with our previous findings, make it evident that leptin can be considered as a hormone which provides the intestine with a control mechanism to handle absorption of nutrients. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Diazepam improves aspects of social behaviour and neuron activation in NMDA receptor-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, C. A.; Horsfall, W.; Ramsey, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    NR1 knockdown (NR1KD) mice are genetically modified to express low levels of the NR1 subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and show deficits in affiliative social behaviour. In this study, we determined which brain regions were selectively activated in response to social stimulation and asked whether differences in neuronal activation could be observed in mice with reduced sociability. Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether brain activation patterns correlated with the amelioration of social deficits through pharmacological intervention. The cingulate cortex, lateral septal nuclei, hypothalamus, thalamus and amygdala showed an increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity that was selective for exposure to social stimuli. NR1KD mice displayed a reduction in social behaviour and a reduction in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the cingulate cortex and septal nuclei. Acute clozapine did not significantly alter sociability; however, diazepam treatment did increase sociability and neuronal activation in the lateral septal region. This study has identified the lateral septal region as a neural substrate of social behaviour and the GABA system as a potential therapeutic target for social dysfunction. PMID:25040071

  16. D4 receptor deficiency in mice has limited effects on impulsivity and novelty seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, C M; Gubner, N R; Wilhelm, C J; Mitchell, S H; Grandy, D K

    2008-09-01

    Alleles of the human dopamine D(4) receptor (D(4)R) gene (DRD4.7) have repeatedly been found to correlate with novelty seeking, substance abuse, pathological gambling, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). If these various psychopathologies are a result of attenuated D(4)R-mediated signaling, mice lacking D(4)Rs (D(4)KO) should be more impulsive than wild-type (WT) mice and exhibit more novelty seeking. However, in our study, D(4)KO and WT mice showed similar levels of impulsivity as measured by delay discounting performance and response inhibition on a Go/No-go test, suggesting that D(4)R-mediated signaling may not affect impulsivity. D(4)KO mice were more active than WT mice in the first 5 min of a novel open field test, suggesting greater novelty seeking. For both genotypes, more impulsive mice habituated less in the novel open field. These data suggest that the absence of D(4)Rs is not sufficient to cause psychopathologies associated with heightened impulsivity and novelty seeking.

  17. Reduced cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in Toll-like receptor 4 deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Canxiang; Yang Qingwu; Lv Fenglin; Cui Jie; Fu Huabin; Wang Jingzhou

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory reaction plays an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, however, its mechanism is still unclear. Our study aims to explore the function of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. We made middle cerebral artery ischemia-reperfusion model in mice with line embolism method. Compared with C3H/OuJ mice, scores of cerebral water content, cerebral infarct size and neurologic impairment in C3H/Hej mice were obviously lower after 6 h ischemia and 24 h reperfusion. Light microscopic and electron microscopic results showed that cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in C3H/Hej mice was less serious than that in C3H/OuJ mice. TNF-α and IL-6 contents in C3H/HeJ mice were obviously lower than that in C3H/OuJ mice with ELISA. The results showed that TLR4 participates in the process of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury probably through decrease of inflammatory cytokines. TLR4 may become a new target for prevention of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our study suggests that TLR4 is one of the mechanisms of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury besides its important role in innate immunity

  18. Relationship and significance of serum leptin with blood insulin and lipid in 6-13 years old obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Chunyong; Wang Chunlan; Zhang Linong

    2005-01-01

    To explore relationship and significance of Serum Leptin with BMI, Insulin, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) in obese children aged 6-13 years. Serum Leptin of school-age children 118 (64 male, 54 female; normal non-obese 56 and obese 62) were deter- mined and compared with BMI, Insulin, TG and TC. The results showed that: (1) Each index of obese children was remarkably higher than that of non-obese children (P 0.05). (3) Leptin was poritinely corelation with BMI, insulin, TG and TC(P=0.001). Leptin level in serum may varied according to sex, BMI or blood lipid level. It is of great significance in prevention and treatment of obesity to use drug which may improve Leptin receptor effect. (authors)

  19. Leptin differentially regulates STAT3 activation in the ob/ob mice adipose mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptin-deficient genetically obese ob/ob mice exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as elevated adipose tissue and systemic inflammation. Studies have shown that multipotent stem cells isolated from adult adipose tissue can differentiate into adipocytes ex vivo and thereby contribute...

  20. Estradiol Supplementation Helps Overcome Central Leptin Resistance of Ovariectomized Mice on a High Fat Diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matyšková, Resha; Železná, Blanka; Maixnerová, Jana; Koutová, Darja; Haluzík, M.; Maletínská, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2010), s. 182-186 ISSN 0018-5043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/0427; GA ČR GA303/09/0744 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : leptin * estrogen deficiency * obesity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.414, year: 2010

  1. Alpha/beta interferon receptor deficiency in mice significantly enhances susceptibility of the animals to pseudorabies virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingyun; Ma, Yanmei; Wang, Long; Chi, Xiaojuan; Yan, Ruoxiang; Wang, Song; Li, Xinxin; Chen, Xiaoyong; Shao, Wenhan; Chen, Ji-Long

    2017-05-01

    Pseudorabies virus, one of the neurotropic viruses, can infect numerous mammals. In particular, pseudorabies virus infection of swine occurs worldwide, and is a major threat to swine industry. However, the mechanism underlying the interaction between pseudorabies virus and host innate immune system is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the involvement of interferon α/β (IFN-α/β) receptor (IFNAR) in the pathogenesis of pseudorabies virus in a mouse model. The results showed that IFNAR-deficient (IFNAR -/- ) mice were highly susceptible to the virus infection, as evidenced by markedly reduced survival rate of infected animals and increased viral replication. The expression of IFN-α/β and relevant interferon-stimulated genes in IFNAR -/- mice was significantly lower than that in wild-type (WT) littermates after the viral infection. Moreover, in response to the virus challenge, IFNAR -/- mice displayed elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1β, and IFNAR -/- cells showed increased phosphorylation of STAT3. Collectively, these data reveal that the IFNAR -/- mice are more sensitive to pseudorabies virus infection than WT animals, and excessive IL-6/STAT3 response in IFNAR -/- mice may contribute to the pathogenesis. Our findings suggest that type I IFNs/IFNAR-dependent homeostatic control of the innate immunity is required for host defense against pseudorabies virus infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Establishment of a bluetongue virus infection model in mice that are deficient in the alpha/beta interferon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Calvo-Pinilla

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT is a noncontagious, insect-transmitted disease of ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV. A laboratory animal model would greatly facilitate the studies of pathogenesis, immune response and vaccination against BTV. Herein, we show that adult mice deficient in type I IFN receptor (IFNAR((-/- are highly susceptible to BTV-4 and BTV-8 infection when the virus is administered intravenously. Disease was characterized by ocular discharges and apathy, starting at 48 hours post-infection and quickly leading to animal death within 60 hours of inoculation. Infectious virus was recovered from the spleen, lung, thymus, and lymph nodes indicating a systemic infection. In addition, a lymphoid depletion in spleen, and severe pneumonia were observed in the infected mice. Furthermore, IFNAR((-/- adult mice immunized with a BTV-4 inactivated vaccine showed the induction of neutralizing antibodies against BTV-4 and complete protection against challenge with a lethal dose of this virus. The data indicate that this mouse model may facilitate the study of BTV pathogenesis, and the development of new effective vaccines for BTV.

  3. Cross-talk between estrogen and leptin signaling in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Horvath, Tamas L

    2008-05-01

    Obesity, characterized by enhanced food intake (hyperphagia) and reduced energy expenditure that results in the accumulation of body fat, is a major risk factor for various diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In the United States, more than half of adults are overweight, and this number continues to increase. The adipocyte-secreted hormone leptin and its downstream signaling mediators play crucial roles in the regulation of energy balance. Leptin decreases feeding while increasing energy expenditure and permitting energy-intensive neuroendocrine processes, such as reproduction. Thus, leptin also modulates the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. The gonadal steroid hormone estrogen plays a central role in the regulation of reproduction and also contributes to the regulation of energy balance. Estrogen deficiency promotes feeding and weight gain, and estrogen facilitates, and to some extent mimics, some actions of leptin. In this review, we examine the functions of estrogen and leptin in the brain, with a focus on mechanisms by which leptin and estrogen cooperate in the regulation of energy homeostasis.

  4. Leptin in pediatrics: A hormone from adipocyte that wheels several functions in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The protein leptin, a pleiotropic hormone regulates appetite and energy balance of the body and plays important roles in controlling linear growth, pubertal development, cardiovascular function, and immunity. Recent findings in the understanding of the structure, functional roles, and clinical significance of conditions with increased and decreased leptin secretion are summarized. Balance between leptin and other hormones is significantly regulated by nutritional status. This balance influences many organ systems, including the brain, liver, and skeletal muscle, to mediate the essential adaptation process. The aim of this review is to summarize the possible physiological functions of leptin and its signaling pathways during childhood and adolescence including control of food intake, energy regulation, growth and puberty, and immunity. Moreover, its secretion and possible roles in the adaptation process during different disease states (obesity, malnutrition, eating disorders, delayed puberty, congenital heart diseases and hepatic disorders are discussed. The clinical manifestations and the successful management of patients with genetic leptin deficiency and the application of leptin therapy in other diseases including lipodystrophy, states with severe insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus are discussed.

  5. Differences in zinc status and the leptin axis in anorexic and recovered adolescents and young adults: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D. Zepf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from animal studies suggests that leptin metabolism is associated with zinc (Zn status. However, research investigating this relationship in adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa (AN is scarce; the present study aims to fill that gap.Serum concentrations of leptin, the soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R and the free leptin index (FLI were obtained in healthy control subjects (n=19, acutely ill individuals (n=14 and recovered patients with AN (n=15. Serum Zn concentrations noted in previous research data were also incorporated for all groups.Leptin, FLI and Zn concentrations were higher in recovered subjects with AN when compared with acutely ill AN patients. Remitted patients showed higher sOB-R concentrations but no difference in FLI compared with the control group. Leptin and FLI were lower in the acutely ill patients compared with the control subjects, who showed no differences in Zn concentrations. Zn concentrations were not correlated with leptin, sOB-R or FLI concentrations in any of the three investigated subgroups.The present investigation does not entirely support an association between Zn, Leptin and FLI concentrations in subjects with AN, possibly due to limited statistical power. Further research and replication of the present findings related to the interaction between leptin and Zn is warranted. However, with respect to serum leptin levels the data of the present investigation indicate that acutely ill and remitted patients with AN differ as regards serum leptin concentrations and FLI, which is in line with previous research.

  6. [Role of leptin and leptin resistance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development in persons with obesity and overweight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livzan, M A; Lapteva, I V; Miller, T S

    2014-01-01

    To study the impact of leptin and leptinresistance on formation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) of people with obesity and overweight. 105 patients with obesity and overweight were examined, among them 19 men and 86 women, median age 58 (50-63) years. Risk factors development NAFLD, anthropometric indices, biochemical analysis of blood, abdominal ultrasonic studies, levels leptin and its soluble receptor were estimated. examined people with NAFLD were included into 2 groups: main group (patients NAFLD, n = 77) and comparison group (n = 28). Waist volume, body mass index, blood glucose were higher in group of patients with NAFLD (p liver development (rs = (0.376), p obesity and overweight negative correlation of moderate strength (rs = (-0.370), p obesity and excess body weight, phenomenon of leptinresistance arises to patients with obesity and can be considered as predictor of the development and progression of NAFLD among this category of patients.

  7. Comparison of leptin protein levels in Prader-Willi syndrome and control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M G; Moore, J; Morawiecki, A; Nicolson, M

    1998-01-06

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by early childhood obesity, mental deficiency, hypogonadism, hypotonia, hypopigmentation, short stature, small hands and feet, and a characteristic face. It is the most common genetic cause of obesity and obesity is the most significant health problem for PWS patients. Ob protein (leptin), which is produced by adipose tissue, is thought to play a significant role in obesity; thus, unusually low plasma leptin levels, or relative loss of sensitivity to leptin in PWS subjects, could be an important factor in their obesity. We measured plasma leptin levels in 19 obese and 14 non-obese PWS patients [mean body mass index (BMI) 37.2 and 22.0, respectively] and compared these levels to those of 28 obese controls (mean BMI 35.5) and 16 non-obese control individuals (mean BMI 21.6). The mean plasma leptin concentration (ng/ml) for obese PWS subjects was 33.4 and 23.6 for non-obese PWS subjects. Obese control leptin was 36.2 ng/ml and non-obese control was 9.9. Among the control groups, leptin levels in females were significantly higher than those in males; the obese males and females had significantly higher leptin than their respective non-obese counterparts. These differences did not hold true for the PWS subjects. Leptin levels in obese PWS males and females were similar, and the same was true of the non-obese PWS males and females. The differences between obese and non-obese PWS subjects of both sexes were small and not significant. Comparing control groups with their PWS counterparts revealed no significant differences, with one exception: circulating plasma leptin levels in non-obese PWS males were nearly five times higher than in non-obese control males with similar BMI. This difference may reflect a more female pattern of fat distribution and hypogonadism, which are characteristic of PWS males. Leptin levels in PWS patients were not obviously correlated with the chromosome 15 finding seen in the patients.

  8. IL-17 receptor A and adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency in siblings with recurrent infections and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellmann, Florence; Angelini, Federica; Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Perreau, Matthieu; Arenas Ramirez, Natalia; Simon, Gregoire; Boyman, Onur; Demaria, Olivier; Christen-Zaech, Stephanie; Hohl, Daniel; Belfiore, Marco; von Scheven-Gete, Annette; Gilliet, Michel; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Perrin, Yannick; Beck Popovic, Maya; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Beckmann, Jacques S; Martinet, Danielle; Hofer, Michaël

    2016-04-01

    Data on patients affected by chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis underscore the preponderant role of IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) in preserving mucocutaneous immunity. Little is known about the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) 2 in regulation of immune responses, although recent reports linked ADA2 deficiency with inflammation and vasculitis. We sought to investigate the mechanisms of chronic inflammation and vasculitis in a child lacking IL-17RA and ADA2 to identify therapeutic targets. We report a family with 2 siblings who have had recurrent mucocutaneous infections with Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus and chronic inflammatory disease and vasculitis since early childhood, which were refractory to classical treatments. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis showed that both siblings are homozygous for a 770-kb deletion on chr22q11.1 encompassing both IL17RA and cat eye critical region 1 (CECR1). Immunologic studies were carried out by means of flow cytometry, ELISA, and RIA. As expected, in the affected child we found a lack of IL-17RA expression, which implies a severe malfunction in the IL-17 signaling pathway, conferring susceptibility to recurrent mucocutaneous infections. Surprisingly, we detected an in vitro and in vivo upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, notably IL-1β and TNF-α, which is consistent with the persistent systemic inflammation. This work emphasizes the utility of whole-genome analyses combined with immunologic investigation in patients with unresolved immunodeficiency. This approach is likely to provide an insight into immunologic pathways and mechanisms of disease. It also provides molecular evidence for more targeted therapies. In addition, our report further corroborates a potential role of ADA2 in modulating immunity and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Orp8 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells reduces atherosclerotic lesion progression in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik van Kampen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oxysterol binding protein Related Proteins (ORPs mediate intracellular lipid transport and homeostatic regulation. ORP8 downregulates ABCA1 expression in macrophages and cellular cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I. In line, ORP8 knockout mice display increased amounts of HDL cholesterol in blood. However, the role of macrophage ORP8 in atherosclerotic lesion development is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: LDL receptor knockout (KO mice were transplanted with bone marrow (BM from ORP8 KO mice and C57Bl/6 wild type mice. Subsequently, the animals were challenged with a high fat/high cholesterol Western-type diet to induce atherosclerosis. After 9 weeks of Western-Type diet feeding, serum levels of VLDL cholesterol were increased by 50% in ORP8 KO BM recipients compared to the wild-type recipients. However, no differences were observed in HDL cholesterol. Despite the increase in VLDL cholesterol, lesions in mice transplanted with ORP8 KO bone marrow were 20% smaller compared to WT transplanted controls. In addition, ORP8 KO transplanted mice displayed a modest increase in the percentage of macrophages in the lesion as compared to the wild-type transplanted group. ORP8 deficient macrophages displayed decreased production of pro-inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNFα, decreased expression of differentiation markers and showed a reduced capacity to form foam cells in the peritoneal cavity. CONCLUSIONS: Deletion of ORP8 in bone marrow-derived cells, including macrophages, reduces lesion progression after 9 weeks of WTD challenge, despite increased amounts of circulating pro-atherogenic VLDL. Reduced macrophage foam cell formation and lower macrophage inflammatory potential are plausible mechanisms contributing to the observed reduction in atherosclerosis.

  10. Mice deficient in interferon-gamma or interferon-gamma receptor 1 have distinct inflammatory responses to acute viral encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Schultz, Kimberly L W; Griffin, Diane E

    2013-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-gamma is an important component of the immune response to viral infections that can have a role both in controlling virus replication and inducing inflammatory damage. To determine the role of IFN-gamma in fatal alphavirus encephalitis, we have compared the responses of wild type C57BL/6 (WTB6) mice with mice deficient in either IFN-gamma (GKO) or the alpha-chain of the IFN-gamma receptor (GRKO) after intranasal infection with a neuroadapted strain of sindbis virus. Mortalities of GKO and GRKO mice were similar to WTB6 mice. Both GKO and GRKO mice had delayed virus clearance from the brain and spinal cord, more infiltrating perforin(+) cells and lower levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 mRNAs than WTB6 mice. However, inflammation was more intense in GRKO mice than WTB6 or GKO mice with more infiltrating CD3(+) T cells, greater expression of major histocompatibility complex-II and higher levels of interleukin-17A mRNA. Fibroblasts from GRKO embryos did not develop an antiviral response after treatment with IFN-gamma, but showed increases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, CXCL9 and CXCL10 mRNAs although these increases developed more slowly and were less intense than those of WTB6 fibroblasts. These data indicate that both GKO and GRKO mice fail to develop an IFN-gamma-mediated antiviral response, but differ in regulation of the inflammatory response to infection. Therefore, GKO and GRKO cannot be considered equivalent when assessing the role of IFN-gamma in CNS viral infections.

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid ameliorates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a novel mouse model using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Kuniha; Itoh, Michiko; Suganami, Takayoshi; Kanai, Sayaka; Nakagawa, Nobutaka; Sakai, Takeru; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Hara, Mitsuko; Kojima, Soichi; Izumi, Yuichi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to find novel therapeutic strategies for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), while their clinical efficacy is unclear. We have recently reported a novel rodent model of NASH using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO) mice, which exhibit the sequence of events that comprise hepatic steatosis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma with obesity-related phenotypes. In the liver of MC4R-KO mice, there is a unique histological feature termed hepatic crown-like structures (hCLS), where macrophages interact with dead hepatocytes and fibrogenic cells, thereby accelerating inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we employed MC4R-KO mice to examine the effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a clinically available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on the development of NASH. EPA treatment markedly prevented the development of hepatocyte injury, hCLS formation and liver fibrosis along with lipid accumulation. EPA treatment was also effective even after MC4R-KO mice developed NASH. Intriguingly, improvement of liver fibrosis was accompanied by the reduction of hCLS formation and plasma kallikrein-mediated transforming growth factor-β activation. Moreover, EPA treatment increased the otherwise reduced serum concentrations of adiponectin, an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Collectively, EPA treatment effectively prevents the development and progression of NASH in MC4R-KO mice along with amelioration of hepatic steatosis. This study unravels a novel anti-fibrotic mechanism of EPA, thereby suggesting a clinical implication for the treatment of NASH.

  12. Eicosapentaenoic acid ameliorates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a novel mouse model using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniha Konuma

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to find novel therapeutic strategies for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, while their clinical efficacy is unclear. We have recently reported a novel rodent model of NASH using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO mice, which exhibit the sequence of events that comprise hepatic steatosis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma with obesity-related phenotypes. In the liver of MC4R-KO mice, there is a unique histological feature termed hepatic crown-like structures (hCLS, where macrophages interact with dead hepatocytes and fibrogenic cells, thereby accelerating inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we employed MC4R-KO mice to examine the effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, a clinically available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on the development of NASH. EPA treatment markedly prevented the development of hepatocyte injury, hCLS formation and liver fibrosis along with lipid accumulation. EPA treatment was also effective even after MC4R-KO mice developed NASH. Intriguingly, improvement of liver fibrosis was accompanied by the reduction of hCLS formation and plasma kallikrein-mediated transforming growth factor-β activation. Moreover, EPA treatment increased the otherwise reduced serum concentrations of adiponectin, an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Collectively, EPA treatment effectively prevents the development and progression of NASH in MC4R-KO mice along with amelioration of hepatic steatosis. This study unravels a novel anti-fibrotic mechanism of EPA, thereby suggesting a clinical implication for the treatment of NASH.

  13. SOD2 deficient erythroid cells up-regulate transferrin receptor and down-regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent M Martin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mice irradiated and reconstituted with hematopoietic cells lacking manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2 show a persistent hemolytic anemia similar to human sideroblastic anemia (SA, including characteristic intra-mitochondrial iron deposition. SA is primarily an acquired, clonal marrow disorder occurring in individuals over 60 years of age with uncertain etiology.To define early events in the pathogenesis of this murine model of SA, we compared erythroid differentiation of Sod2⁻/⁻ and normal bone marrow cells using flow cytometry and gene expression profiling of erythroblasts. The predominant transcriptional differences observed include widespread down-regulation of mitochondrial metabolic pathways and mitochondrial biogenesis. Multiple nuclear encoded subunits of complexes I-IV of the electron transport chain, ATP synthase (complex V, TCA cycle and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins were coordinately down-regulated in Sod2⁻/⁻ erythroblasts. Despite iron accumulation within mitochondria, we found increased expression of transferrin receptor, Tfrc, at both the transcript and protein level in SOD2 deficient cells, suggesting deregulation of iron delivery. Interestingly, there was decreased expression of ABCb7, the gene responsible for X-linked hereditary SA with ataxia, a component required for iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis.These results indicate that in erythroblasts, mitochondrial oxidative stress reduces expression of multiple nuclear genes encoding components of the respiratory chain, TCA cycle and mitochondrial protein synthesis. An additional target of particular relevance for SA is iron:sulfur cluster biosynthesis. By decreasing transcription of components of cluster synthesis machinery, both iron utilization and regulation of iron uptake are impacted, contributing to the sideroblastic phenotype.

  14. Atherosclerosis and cardiac function assessment in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice undergoing body weight cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, T S; Minami, E; Leboeuf, R C

    2013-06-24

    Obesity has become an epidemic in many countries and is supporting a billion dollar industry involved in promoting weight loss through diet, exercise and surgical procedures. Because of difficulties in maintaining body weight reduction, a pattern of weight cycling often occurs (so called 'yo-yo' dieting) that may result in deleterious outcomes to health. There is controversy about cardiovascular benefits of yo-yo dieting, and an animal model is needed to better understand the contributions of major diet and body weight changes on heart and vascular functions. Our purpose is to determine the effects of weight cycling on cardiac function and atherosclerosis development in a mouse model. We used low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice due to their sensitivity to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases when fed high-fat diets. Alternating ad libitum feeding of high-fat and low-fat (rodent chow) diets was used to instigate weight cycling during a 29-week period. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests were done at 22 and 24 weeks, echocardiograms at 25 weeks and atherosclerosis and plasma lipoproteins assessed at 29 weeks. Mice subjected to weight cycling showed improvements in glucose homeostasis during the weight loss cycle. Weight-cycled mice showed a reduction in the severity of atherosclerosis as compared with high-fat diet-fed mice. However, atherosclerosis still persisted in weight-cycled mice as compared with mice fed rodent chow. Cardiac function was impaired in weight-cycled mice and matched with that of mice fed only the high-fat diet. This model provides an initial structure in which to begin detailed studies of diet, calorie restriction and surgical modifications on energy balance and metabolic diseases. This model also shows differential effects of yo-yo dieting on metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Leptin rapidly activates PPARs in C2C12 muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendinelli, Paola; Piccoletti, Roberta; Maroni, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that leptin operates on the tissues, including skeletal muscle, also by modulating gene expression. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have shown that physiological doses of leptin promptly increase the binding of C2C12 cell nuclear extracts to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response elements in oligonucleotide probes and that all three PPAR isoforms participate in DNA-binding complexes. We pre-treated C2C12 cells with AACOCF 3 , a specific inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ), an enzyme that supplies ligands to PPARs, and found that it abrogates leptin-induced PPAR DNA-binding activity. Leptin treatment significantly increased cPLA 2 activity, evaluated as the release of [ 3 H]arachidonic acid from pre-labelled C2C12 cells, as well as phosphorylation. Further, using MEK1 inhibitor PD-98059 we showed that leptin activates cPLA 2 through ERK induction. These results support a direct effect of leptin on skeletal muscle cells, and suggest that the hormone may modulate muscle transcription also by precocious activation of PPARs through ERK-cPLA 2 pathway

  16. Age-related changes in acute central leptin effects on energy balance are promoted by obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostás, I; Tenk, J; Mikó, A; Füredi, N; Soós, S; Solymár, M; Lengyel, A; Székely, M; Gaszner, B; Feller, D; Pétervári, E; Balaskó, M

    2016-12-01

    Leptin is a key catabolic regulator of food intake (FI) and energy expenditure. Both aging and obesity have been shown to induce leptin-resistance. The present study aimed to analyze age-related changes in the anorexigenic and hypermetabolic responsiveness to acute intracerebroventricular leptin administration in different age-groups of normally fed male Wistar rats (adult and old rats from 3 to 24months of age, NF3 to NF24, respectively). The expressions of the long form of the leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and inhibitory SOCS3 genes were also assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The influence of high-fat diet-induced obesity (HF) on the anorexigenic leptin effects were also tested in younger and older middle-aged groups (HF6 and HF12). Leptin-induced anorexia varied with age: leptin suppressed re-feeding FI (following 48-h fasting) strongly in young adult (NF3), but not in younger or older middle-aged (NF6 or NF12) or in aging (NF18) rats. However, anorexigenic leptin effects reached statistical significance again in old NF24 rats. Leptin-induced hypermetabolism, on the other hand, showed monotonous age-related decline and disappeared by old age. Ob-Rb expression declined until 12months of age followed by a partial recovery in NF18 and NF24 groups. On the other hand, SOCS3 expression was high in NF6 and NF18 and to some extent in NF24 rats. Age-related alterations of Ob-Rb and SOCS3 expression in the ARC may partly contribute to the explanation of age-related variations in anorexigenic but not hypermetabolic leptin effects. High-fat diet-induced obesity was associated with resistance to leptin-induced anorexia in HF6, similar to that seen in NF6. However, instead of the expected leptin-resistance in HF12, a strong leptin-induced suppression of re-feeding was detected in these obese middle-aged rats. Our results suggest that acute central effects of leptin on anorexia and hypermetabolism change in disparate ways during aging, implying separate

  17. Mother and Infant Body Mass Index, Breast Milk Leptin and Their Serum Leptin Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Savino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates correlations between mother and infant Body Mass Index (BMI, their serum leptin values and breast milk leptin concentration in early infancy. Subjects and Methods: We determined serum leptin values in 58 healthy infants and leptin values in their mothers’ breast milk, using radioimmunoassay (RIA. Infant and maternal anthropometrics were measured. Results: Median leptin concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR: 2.75 in infant serum, 4.27 ng/mL (IQR: 5.62 in maternal serum and 0.89 ng/mL (IQR: 1.32 in breast milk. Median maternal BMI and weight were 24 kg/m2 (IQR: 4.41 and 64 kg (IQR: 15. Median infant BMI was 15.80 kg/cm2 (IQR: 4.02, while average weight was 5.130 kg (IQR: 1.627. Infants serum leptin values positively correlated with infants’ BMI (p = 0.001; r = 0.213 and breast milk leptin (p = 0.03; r = 0.285. Maternal serum leptin values positively correlated with maternal BMI (p = 0.000, r = 0.449 and breast milk leptin ones (p = 0.026; r = 0.322. Conclusion: Breast milk leptin and maternal BMI could influence infant serum leptin values. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the role of genetics and environment on infant leptin production and risk of obesity later in life.

  18. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B contributes to LPS-induced leptin resistance in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Beatriz de Carvalho; Rorato, Rodrigo C.; Uchoa, Ernane Torres; Marangon, Paula B.; Elias, Carol F.; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Leptin resistance is induced by the feedback inhibitors tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) and decreased Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) signaling. To investigate the participation of PTP1B and SHP-2 in LPS-induced leptin resistance, we injected repeated (6-LPS) intraperitoneal LPS doses (100 μg/kg ip) for comparison with a single (1-LPS) treatment and evaluated the expression of SHP-2, PTP1B, p-ERK1/2, and p-STAT3 in the hypothalamus of male Wistar rats. The single LPS treatment increased the expression of p-STAT3 and PTP1B but not SHP-2. The repeated LPS treatment reduced SHP-2, increased PTP1B, and did not change p-STAT3. We observed that the PTP1B expression induced by the endotoxin was highly colocalized with leptin receptor cells in the hypothalamus of LepRb-IRES-Cre-tdTomato reporter mice. The single, but not the repeated, LPS treatment decreased the food intake and body weight. Leptin had no stimulatory effect on the hypophagia, body weight loss, or pSTAT3 expression in 6-LPS rats, indicating leptin unresponsiveness. Notably, the PTP1B inhibitor (3.0 nmol/rat in 5 μl icv) restored the LPS-induced hypophagia in 6-LPS rats and restored the ability of leptin to reduce food intake and body weight as well as to phosphorylate STAT3 in the arcuate, paraventricular, and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. The present data suggest that an increased PTP1B expression in the hypothalamus underlies the development of leptin resistance during repeated exposure to LPS. Our findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms involved in leptin resistance during low-grade inflammation as seen in obesity. PMID:25352433

  19. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B contributes to LPS-induced leptin resistance in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Beatriz de Carvalho; Rorato, Rodrigo C; Uchoa, Ernane Torres; Marangon, Paula B; Elias, Carol F; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Lucila L K

    2015-01-01

    Leptin resistance is induced by the feedback inhibitors tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) and decreased Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) signaling. To investigate the participation of PTP1B and SHP-2 in LPS-induced leptin resistance, we injected repeated (6-LPS) intraperitoneal LPS doses (100 μg/kg ip) for comparison with a single (1-LPS) treatment and evaluated the expression of SHP-2, PTP1B, p-ERK1/2, and p-STAT3 in the hypothalamus of male Wistar rats. The single LPS treatment increased the expression of p-STAT3 and PTP1B but not SHP-2. The repeated LPS treatment reduced SHP-2, increased PTP1B, and did not change p-STAT3. We observed that the PTP1B expression induced by the endotoxin was highly colocalized with leptin receptor cells in the hypothalamus of LepRb-IRES-Cre-tdTomato reporter mice. The single, but not the repeated, LPS treatment decreased the food intake and body weight. Leptin had no stimulatory effect on the hypophagia, body weight loss, or pSTAT3 expression in 6-LPS rats, indicating leptin unresponsiveness. Notably, the PTP1B inhibitor (3.0 nmol/rat in 5 μl icv) restored the LPS-induced hypophagia in 6-LPS rats and restored the ability of leptin to reduce food intake and body weight as well as to phosphorylate STAT3 in the arcuate, paraventricular, and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. The present data suggest that an increased PTP1B expression in the hypothalamus underlies the development of leptin resistance during repeated exposure to LPS. Our findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms involved in leptin resistance during low-grade inflammation as seen in obesity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J Scott; Simcox, Judith A; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T; McClain, Donald A

    2015-09-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression.

  1. Growth Hormone Overexpression Disrupts Reproductive Status Through Actions on Leptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth and reproduction are closely related. Growth hormone (GH-transgenic common carp exhibit accelerated growth and delayed reproductive development, which provides an amenable model to study hormone cross talk between the growth and reproductive axes. We analyzed the energy status and reproductive development in GH-transgenic common carp by using multi-tissue RNA sequencing, real-time-PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and in vitro incubation. The expression of gys (glycogen synthase and igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein as well as blood glucose concentrations are lower in GH-transgenic carp. Agrp1 (agouti-related protein 1 and sla (somatolactin a, which are related to appetite and lipid catabolism, are significantly higher in GH-transgenic carp. Low glucose content and increased appetite indicate disrupted metabolic and energy deprivation status in GH-transgenic carp. Meanwhile, the expression of genes, such as gnrhr2 (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2, gthα (gonadotropin hormone, alpha polypeptide, fshβ (follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide, lhβ [luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide] in the pituitary, cyp19a1a (aromatase A in the gonad, and cyp19a1b (aromatase B in the hypothalamus, are decreased in GH-transgenic carp. In contrast, pituitary gnih (gonadotropin inhibitory hormone, drd1 (dopamine receptor D1, drd3 (dopamine receptor D3, and drd4 (dopamine receptor D4 exhibit increased expression, which were associated with the retarded reproductive development. Leptin receptor mRNA was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the pituitary including the pars intermedia and proximal pars distalis, suggesting a direct effect of leptin on LH. Recombinant carp Leptin protein was shown to stimulate pituitary gthα, fshβ, lhβ expression, and ovarian germinal vesicle breakdown in vitro. In addition to neuroendocrine factors, we suggest that reduced hepatic leptin signaling to the

  2. Psychiatric symptoms and leptin in obese patients who were bariatric surgery candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchien TC

    2015-08-01

    patients. Future studies should focus on further measures of leptin receptors or signaling on the basis of these interactive effects in psychiatry. Keywords: leptin, depression, anxiety, common mental disorder, obesity

  3. A synthetic fragment of leptin increase hematopoietic stem cell population and improve its engraftment ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Carolina C; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Tokuyama, Paula Yumi; Martins, Marta N C; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Buri, Marcus V; Miranda, Antonio; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have shown the important actions of cytokine leptin that regulates food intake and energy expenditure. Additionally, the ability to modulate hematopoiesis has also been demonstrated. Previous reports have shown that some synthetic sequences of leptin molecules can activate leptin receptor. Herein, decapeptides encompassing amino acids from positions 98 to 122 of the leptin molecule were constructed to evaluate their effects on hematopoiesis. Among them, the synthetic peptide Lep(110-119)-NH2 (LEP F) was the only peptide that possessed the ability to increase the percentage of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Moreover, LEP F also produced an increase of granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming units and activated leptin receptor. Furthermore, LEP F also improves the grafting of HSC in bone marrow, but did not accelerate the recovery of bone marrow after ablation with 5-fluorouracil. These results show that LEP F is a positive modulator of the in vivo expansion of HSC and could be useful in bone marrow transplantation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Value of Soluble Transferrin Receptors and sTfR/log Ferritin in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Accompanied by Acute Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Fady M; El-Hawy, Mahmoud A; Rizk, Mohamed S; El-Hefnawy, Sally M; Mahmoud, Mohamed Z

    2018-01-01

    There are many causes of anemia; the most common of these are acute and chronic infections, iron deficiency, or both. Identifying the cause is a very important step in management of anemia. So, we evaluated the usefulness of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and of the sTfR/log ferritin in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia accompanied by acute infection. This study was conducted on 131 children aged 2-11 years old from those who attended the pediatric outpatient clinics in Menoufia university hospital. Hematological indices, iron balance and sTfR were evaluated and the sTfR/log F was calculated for each examined child. From the examined children four groups were distinguished : Group I (control): included 34 healthy children with normal iron status (66.7% males, age 4.2 ± 1.2). Group II (IDA): included 38 children diagnosed as iron deficiency anemia (47.4% males, age 4.9 ± 1.6). Group III (IDA + infection): included 26 children with infectious disease (upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, pneumonia, stomatitis, and urinary tract infection) and anemia meeting criteria of IDA (50% males, age 4.2 ± 0.7). Group IV (anemia + infection): included 33 children with infectious anemia without iron deficiency (56.2% males, age 5.06 ± 1.4). It was proved that sTfR and sTfR/log Ferritin were significantly higher in children with anemia due to iron deficiency, and in those with infection + iron deficiency, versus those with infectious anemia or in healthy children. The use of sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin improves the diagnosis of IDA in pediatric patients, especially in the presence of coexisting acute infection.

  5. Ghrelin and leptin interplay in prevention of testicular damage due to cryptochidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghsr), is centrally implicated in body weight homeostasis. A novel murine model for ghrelin and its physiologic antagonist, leptin, was developed at this institution. Mice with a deletion of ghsr (ghsr -/-) or a targeted dis...

  6. Cutting edge: Leptin-induced RORγt expression in CD4+ T cells promotes Th17 responses in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiyun; Liu, Yaoyang; Shi, Fu-Dong; Zou, Hejian; Matarese, Giuseppe; La Cava, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Th17 CD4(+) cells promote inflammation and autoimmunity. In this study, we report that Th17 cell frequency is reduced in ob/ob mice (that are genetically deficient in the adipokine leptin) and that the administration of leptin to ob/ob mice restored Th17 cell numbers to values comparable to those found in wild-type animals. Leptin promoted Th17 responses in normal human CD4(+) T cells and in mice, both in vitro and in vivo, by inducing RORγt transcription. Leptin also increased Th17 responses in (NZB × NZW)F1 lupus-prone mice, whereas its neutralization in those autoimmune-prone mice inhibited Th17 responses. Because Th17 cells play an important role in the development and maintenance of inflammation and autoimmunity, these findings envision the possibility to modulate abnormal Th17 responses via leptin manipulation, and they reiterate the link between metabolism/nutrition and susceptibility to autoimmunity.

  7. Should leptin replace insulin as a lifetime monotherapy for diabetes type 1 and 2?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya P Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence accumulated during the last decade has affirmed that adipocyte leptin insufficiency in the hypothalamus is the primary etiological factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes type 1 and 2 and related metabolic morbidities. Leptin insufficiency disrupts the relay of hypothalamic regulatory information along three descending pathways to the organs in the periphery that normally participate in maintenance of glucose homeostasis on a minute-to-minute basis throughout lifetime. Reinstatement of leptin sufficiency in the hypothalamus by either systemic or central injections, or its provision selectively in the hypothalamus with the aid of gene therapy extinguished hyperglycemia and normalized blood glucose stably during the entire course of treatment in a variety of animal models of diabetes type 1 and 2. In follow-up clinical trials, twice daily leptin treatment in leptinopenic and insulinopenic type 1 diabetics and leptinopenic and hyperinsulinemic type 2 diabetics with congenital lipodystrophy or acquired lipoatrophy normalized blood glucose without any discernible adverse effects during the extended course of treatment. Taken together, these findings have amply endorsed the efficacy of leptin therapy to restore glucose homeostasis in insulin-deficient as well as hyperinsulinemic diabetic patients. Consequently, restoration of optimal hypothalmic signaling to reinstate glucose homeostasis with leptin is a highly suitable new therapeutic strategy to ameliorate diabetes type 1 and 2 for the lifetime and to replace the currently in vogue insulin monotherapy. In view of the relentless challenges posed by the worldwide epidemic of diabetes and soaring treatment costs, taken together with the well-known shortcomings of therapies based on restoring insulin signaling, it is highly critical and timely to undertake new clinical trials that ascertain appropriate dosage and route of leptin delivery to the hypothalamus capable of safely sustaining stable

  8. Hypoxia preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells prevent cardiac fibroblast activation and collagen production via leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Chen

    Full Text Available Activation of cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts constitutes a key step in cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI, due to interstitial fibrosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been shown to improve post-MI remodeling an effect that is enhanced by hypoxia preconditioning (HPC. Leptin has been shown to promote cardiac fibrosis. The expression of leptin is significantly increased in MSCs after HPC but it is unknown whether leptin contributes to MSC therapy or the fibrosis process. The objective of this study was to determine whether leptin secreted from MSCs modulates cardiac fibrosis.Cardiac fibroblast (CF activation was induced by hypoxia (0.5% O2. The effects of MSCs on fibroblast activation were analyzed by co-culturing MSCs with CFs, and detecting the expression of α-SMA, SM22α, and collagen IαI in CFs by western blot, immunofluorescence and Sirius red staining. In vivo MSCs antifibrotic effects on left ventricular remodeling were investigated using an acute MI model involving permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery.Co-cultured MSCs decreased fibroblast activation and HPC enhanced the effects. Leptin deficit MSCs from Ob/Ob mice did not decrease fibroblast activation. Consistent with this, H-MSCs significantly inhibited cardiac fibrosis after MI and mediated decreased expression of TGF-β/Smad2 and MRTF-A in CFs. These effects were again absent in leptin-deficient MSCs.Our data demonstrate that activation of cardiac fibroblast was inhibited by MSCs in a manner that was leptin-dependent. The mechanism may involve blocking TGF-β/Smad2 and MRTF-A signal pathways.

  9. Demonstration by transfection studies that mutations in the adrenocorticotropin receptor gene are one cause of the hereditary syndrome of glucocorticoid deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naville, D.; Barjhoux, L.; Jaillard, C. [Hopital Debrousse, Tours (France)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The hereditary syndrome of unresponsiveness to ACTH is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by low levels of serum cortisol and high levels of plasma ACTH. There is no cortisol response to exogenous ACTH. Recent cloning of the human ACTH receptor gene has enabled us to study this gene in patients with glucocorticoid deficiency. By using the PCR to amplify the coding sequence of the ACTH receptor gene, we identified three mutations in two unrelated patients. One mutation present in homozygous form converted the negatively charged Asp{sup 107}, located in the third transmembrane domain, to an uncharged Asn residue. The second patient was a compound heterozygote: the paternal allele contained a one-nucleotide insertion leading to a stop codon within the third extracellular loop, and the maternal allele contained a point mutation converting Cys{sup 235} to Phe, also in the third extracellular loop. Normal and mutant ACTH receptor genes were expressed in the M3 cell line, and intracellular cAMP production in response to ACTH was measured. For the mutant receptors, no response to physiological ACTH concentrations was detected, suggesting an impaired binding of ACTH to the receptors and/or an altered coupling to the adenylate cyclase effector. 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. CD8+ T Cell Response to Gammaherpesvirus Infection Mediates Inflammation and Fibrosis in Interferon Gamma Receptor-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigid M O'Flaherty

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, one of the most severe interstitial lung diseases, is a progressive fibrotic disorder of unknown etiology. However, there is growing appreciation for the role of viral infection in disease induction and/or progression. A small animal model of multi-organ fibrosis, which involves murine gammaherpesvirus (MHV68 infection of interferon gamma receptor deficient (IFNγR-/- mice, has been utilized to model the association of gammaherpesvirus infections and lung fibrosis. Notably, several MHV68 mutants which fail to induce fibrosis have been identified. Our current study aimed to better define the role of the unique MHV68 gene, M1, in development of pulmonary fibrosis. We have previously shown that the M1 gene encodes a secreted protein which possesses superantigen-like function to drive the expansion and activation of Vβ4+ CD8+ T cells. Here we show that M1-dependent fibrosis is correlated with heightened levels of inflammation in the lung. We observe an M1-dependent cellular infiltrate of innate immune cells with most striking differences at 28 days-post infection. Furthermore, in the absence of M1 protein expression we observed reduced CD8+ T cells and MHV68 epitope specific CD8+ T cells to the lungs-despite equivalent levels of viral replication between M1 null and wild type MHV68. Notably, backcrossing the IFNγR-/- onto the Balb/c background, which has previously been shown to exhibit weak MHV68-driven Vβ4+ CD8+ T cell expansion, eliminated MHV68-induced fibrosis-further implicating the activated Vβ4+ CD8+ T cell population in the induction of fibrosis. We further addressed the role that CD8+ T cells play in the induction of fibrosis by depleting CD8+ T cells, which protected the mice from fibrotic disease. Taken together these findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of Vβ4+ CD8+ T cells as mediators of fibrotic disease in IFNγR-/- mice.

  11. Visceral Adipose Tissue and Leptin Hyperproduction Are Associated With Hypogonadism in Men With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Gabriela; Cordeiro, Antonio C; Amparo, Fernanda Cassulo; Amodeo, Celso; Lindholm, Bengt; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2017-07-01

    Hypogonadism is a common endocrine disorder in men with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its pathophysiology is poorly understood. We here explore the plausible contribution of abdominal adiposity and leptin hyperproduction to testosterone deficiency in this patient population. Cross-sectional analysis with all men included the Malnutrition, Inflammation and Vascular Calcification cohort, which enrolled consecutive nondialyzed patients with CKD stages 3-5. A total of 172 men with CKD stages 3-5 nondialysis (median age 61 [45-75] years, median glomerular filtration rate 24 [9-45] mL/min/1.73 m 2 ). In them, serum levels of total testosterone, estrogen, sex hormone binding globulin, and leptin were quantified, together with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by thoracic and abdominal CT scan. None, observational study. Total testosterone, hypogonadism. The median level of total testosterone was 11.7 (7.3-18.4) nmol/L, with hypogonadism (<10 nmol/L) present in 52 (30%) patients. Testosterone-deficient patients presented with significantly higher body mass index, waist circumference, and VAT. An inverse correlation between testosterone and VAT (rho = -0.25, P = .001) or waist circumference (rho = -0.20, P = .008) was found, also after multivariate adjustment including sex hormone binding globulin and estrogen. Total testosterone was inversely correlated with serum leptin (rho = -0.22, P = .003), and the ratio of leptin/VAT, an index of leptin hyperproduction, was strongly and independently associated with the prevalence of hypogonadism in multivariable regression analyses. Visceral adiposity independently associated with lower testosterone levels among men with CKD stage 3-5 nondialysis. The observed link between hyperleptinemia and hypogonadism is in line with previous evidence on direct effects of leptin on testosterone production. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Sinead M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05 from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow.

  13. Effect Of Leptin Status On Neuroendocrine- Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The brain of each rat was harvested and processed into whole homogenate, and was used for some biochemicals assays (i.e isolation and purification of RNA, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and leptin assay). The results showed that insulin increased the secretion of leptin, which in turn, reduced ...

  14. The Effects of Leptin on Breastfeeding Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Cannon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breastfed infants have a reduced risk of becoming overweight and/or obese later in life. This protective effect has been partly attributed to leptin present in breastmilk. This study investigated 24-h variations of skim milk leptin and its relationship with breastmilk macronutrients and infant breastfeeding patterns. Exclusive breastfeeding mothers of term singletons (n = 19; age 10 ± 5 weeks collected pre- and post-feed breastmilk samples for every breastfeed over a 24-h period and test-weighed their infants to determine milk intake at every breastfeed over a 24-h period. Samples (n = 454 were analysed for leptin, protein, lactose and fat content. Skim milk leptin concentration did not change with feeding (p = 0.184. However, larger feed volumes (>105 g were associated with a decrease in post-feed leptin levels (p = 0.009. There was no relationship between the change in leptin levels and change in protein (p = 0.313 or lactose levels (p = 0.587 between pre- and post-feed milk, but there was a trend for a positive association with changes in milk fat content (p = 0.056. Leptin concentration significantly increased at night (p < 0.001 indicating a possible 24-h pattern. Leptin dose (ng was not associated with the time between feeds (p = 0.232. Further research should include analysis of whole breastmilk and other breastmilk fractions to extend these findings.

  15. Leptin: A cardiovascular perspective | Schutte | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of obesity, as well as resultant type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, is causing concern in South Africa. Following the discovery of leptin in 1994, hopes were raised that the manipulation of the leptin axis might yield successful therapy for obesity. Although hope still remains, the role of ...

  16. Weight-dependent changes of immune system in adipose tissue: Importance of leptin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspar-Bauguil, S.; Cousin, B.; Andre, M.; Nibbelink, M.; Galinier, A.; Periquet, B.; Casteilla, L.; Penicaud, L.

    2006-01-01

    Ancestral lymphoid cells reside in adipose tissues, and their numbers are highly altered in obesity. Leptin, production of which is correlated to fat mass, is strongly involved in the relationships between adipose tissues and immune system. We investigated in epididymal (EPI) and inguinal (ING) fat pads to determine whether 1) lymphocyte phenotypes were correlated to the tissue weight and 2) leptin was involved in such relationships. Immunohistological analyses revealed a tight relationship between the T and NK lymphocytes of the stromal vascular fraction and adipocytes. We identified a significant negative and positive correlation between EPI weight and the percentage of NK and total T cells respectively by cytofluorometric analyses. The NK and ancestral γδ T cell contents were directly dependent of leptin since they increased significantly in high-fat (HF) diet mice but not in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice as compared to control. By contrast, the αβ T cell content seemed independent of leptin because their percentages increased significantly with the EPI weight whatever the type of mice (control, HF, ob/ob). The present study suggests that adipose tissues present, according to their localization, different immunological mechanisms that might be involved in the regulation of adipose cells functions and proliferations

  17. Chemokine-like receptor 1 deficiency does not affect the development of insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Gruben

    Full Text Available The adipokine chemerin and its receptor, chemokine-like receptor 1 (Cmklr1, are associated with insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which covers a broad spectrum of liver diseases, ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. It is possible that chemerin and/or Cmklr1 exert their effects on these disorders through inflammation, but so far the data have been controversial. To gain further insight into this matter, we studied the effect of whole-body Cmklr1 deficiency on insulin resistance and NAFLD. In view of the primary role of macrophages in hepatic inflammation, we also transplanted bone marrow from Cmklr1 knock-out (Cmklr1-/- mice and wild type (WT mice into low-density lipoprotein receptor knock-out (Ldlr-/- mice, a mouse model for NASH. All mice were fed a high fat, high cholesterol diet containing 21% fat from milk butter and 0.2% cholesterol for 12 weeks. Insulin resistance was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test, an insulin tolerance test, and by measurement of plasma glucose and insulin levels. Liver pathology was determined by measuring hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, lipid accumulation and the NAFLD activity score (NAS. Whole-body Cmklr1 deficiency did not affect body weight gain or food intake. In addition, we observed no differences between WT and Cmklr1-/- mice for hepatic inflammatory and fibrotic gene expression, immune cell infiltration, lipid accumulation or NAS. In line with this, we detected no differences in insulin resistance. In concordance with whole-body Cmklr1 deficiency, the absence of Cmklr1 in bone marrow-derived cells in Ldlr-/- mice did not affect their insulin resistance or liver pathology. Our results indicate that Cmklr1 is not involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance or NAFLD. Thus, we recommend that the associations reported between Cmklr1 and insulin resistance or NAFLD should be interpreted with caution.

  18. Impact of Macrophage Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency on Macrophage Infiltration into Adipose Tissue and the Artery Wall in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Kimberly R.; Gruen, Marnie L.; Lee-Young, Robert S.; Puglisi, Michael J.; Wasserman, David H.; Hasty, Alyssa H.

    2008-01-01

    Hypothesis Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a receptor for saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and global deficiency of TLR4 has been shown to protect against inflammation, insulin resistance (IR), and atherosclerotic lesion formation. Because macrophages (Mθs) express TLR4 and are important in IR and atherosclerotic lesion formation due to their infiltration of white adipose tissue (WAT) and the artery wall, respectively, we hypothesized that deficiency of Mθ TLR4 could protect against these disorders. Methods Bone marrow transplantation of agouti, LDL receptor deficient (Ay/a;LDLR-/-) mice with marrow from either C57BL/6 or TLR4-/- mice was performed. Recipient mice with the presence (MθTLR4+/+) or absence (MθTLR4-/-) of Mθ TLR4 were then placed on one of four diets: 1) low fat (LF); 2) high fat (HF); 3) high fat rich in SFAs (HFSFA); and 4) the HFSFA diet supplemented with fish oil (HFSFA+FO). Results There were no differences in body composition or plasma lipids between MθTLR4+/+ and MθTLR4-/- mice on any of the diets. However, there was a decrease in some macrophage and inflammatory markers in WAT of female LF-fed MθTLR4-/- mice compared to MθTLR4+/+ mice. MθTLR4-/- mice fed LF diet also displayed decreased atherosclerotic lesion area. There were no differences in Mθ accrual in WAT or atherosclerosis between MθTLR4+/+ and MθTLR4-/- mice fed any of the high fat diets. Finally, there was no difference in insulin sensitivity between MθTLR4+/+ and MθTLR4-/- mice fed the HFSFA diet. Conclusions These data suggest that under certain dietary conditions, Mθ expression of TLR4 can be an important mediator of Mθ accumulation in both WAT and the artery wall. PMID:19052722

  19. Alterations in mouse hypothalamic adipokine gene expression and leptin signaling following chronic spinal cord injury and with advanced age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E Bigford

    Full Text Available Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI results in an accelerated trajectory of several cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors and related aging characteristics, however the molecular mechanisms that are activated have not been explored. Adipokines and leptin signaling are known to play a critical role in neuro-endocrine regulation of energy metabolism, and are now implicated in central inflammatory processes associated with CVD. Here, we examine hypothalamic adipokine gene expression and leptin signaling in response to chronic spinal cord injury and with advanced age. We demonstrate significant changes in fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF, resistin (Rstn, long-form leptin receptor (LepRb and suppressor of cytokine-3 (SOCS3 gene expression following chronic SCI and with advanced age. LepRb and Jak2/stat3 signaling is significantly decreased and the leptin signaling inhibitor SOCS3 is significantly elevated with chronic SCI and advanced age. In addition, we investigate endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and activation of the uncoupled protein response (UPR as a biological hallmark of leptin resistance. We observe the activation of the ER stress/UPR proteins IRE1, PERK, and eIF2alpha, demonstrating leptin resistance in chronic SCI and with advanced age. These findings provide evidence for adipokine-mediated inflammatory responses and leptin resistance as contributing to neuro-endocrine dysfunction and CVD risk following SCI and with advanced age. Understanding the underlying mechanisms contributing to SCI and age related CVD may provide insight that will help direct specific therapeutic interventions.

  20. Leptin potentiates Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-alpha in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jo

    2010-06-01

    In addition to regulating body weight, leptin is also recognized for its role in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leptin on Prevotella (P.) intermedia lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production in differentiated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. LPS from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 was prepared by the standard hot phenol-water method. THP-1 cells were incubated in the medium supplemented with phorbol myristate acetate to induce differentiation into macrophage-like cells. The amount of TNF-alpha and interleukin-8 secreted into the culture medium was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TNF-alpha and Ob-R mRNA expression levels were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Leptin enhanced P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production in a dose-dependent manner. Leptin modulated P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha expression predominantly at the transcriptional level. Effect of leptin on P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production was not mediated by the leptin receptor. The ability of leptin to enhance P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production may be important in the establishment of chronic lesion accompanied by osseous tissue destruction observed in inflammatory periodontal disease.

  1. The effects of leptin on REM sleep and slow wave delta in rats are reversed by food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, C M; Fitch, T E; Gershenfeld, H K

    1999-09-01

    Leptin (ob protein) is an adipose tissue derived circulating hormone that acts at specific receptors in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake. The protein is also critically involved in energy balance and metabolic status. Here the effect of leptin on sleep architecture in rats was evaluated because food consumption and metabolic status are known to influence sleep. Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically implanted with electrodes for EEG and EMG recording and diurnal sleep parameters were quantified over 9-h periods following leptin administration. Murine recombinant leptin (rMuLep) was administered systemically to rats that either had undergone 18 h of prior food deprivation or had received food ad libitum. In the normally fed rats, leptin significantly decreased the duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) by about 30% and increased the duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) by about 13%, the latter effect reflecting enhanced power in the delta frequency band. These results are consistent with studies that have linked changes in metabolic rate with effects on sleep. Leptin administration has previously been shown to alter neuroendocrine parameters that could have mediated these changes in sleep architecture. Unexpectedly, prior food deprivation negated the effect of leptin on both REMS and SWS, a result that emphasizes the significance of the apparent coupling between sleep parameters and energy status.

  2. Relationship between initial treatment effect of recombinant human growth hormone and exon 3 polymorphism of growth hormone receptor in Chinese children with growth hormone deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zhangqian; Cao, Lingfeng; Pei, Zhou; Zhi, Dijing; Zhao, Zhuhui; Xi, Li; Cheng, Ruoqian; Luo, Feihong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency distribution of exon 3 deleted (d3-GHR) genetic polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR) in growth hormone deficient (GHD) Chinese children and to explore the correlation between the growth promoting effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and exon 3 genetic polymorphism of GHR in GHD children. In this study, 111 GHD (excluded small for gestational age) children were treated with rhGH (0.20 mg/kg/week) for six months. The b...

  3. Decreased Implantation Number After In Utero Artificial Insemination Can Reflect an Impairment of Fertility in Adult Male Rats After Exogenous Leptin Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carla D B; Fernandes, Glaura S A; Favareto, Ana Paula A; Perobelli, Juliana E; Sanabria, Marciana; Kempinas, Wilma D G

    2017-02-01

    Leptin is a protein secreted by the adipocytes, which serves as a link between fat and brain. Its main action is to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure, but it is also involved in the control of different neuroendocrine systems, including gonadal axis. Although the effects of leptin deficiency on reproduction are well recognized, the effect of excess leptin on male reproductive function is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate fertility and sperm parameters of male rats exposed to exogenous leptin. A group of adult male rats received exogenous leptin intraperitoneally (30 μg/kg/day) for 42 days, and a control group received only the vehicle during the same period. After the treatment, animals were evaluated for sperm count, sperm motility, and fertility after intrauterine artificial insemination. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups related to sperm production, sperm concentration, and sperm motility. However, fertility evaluation after artificial insemination showed a quantitative decrease in the uterus plus fetuses weight, number of implantation sites, and number of live fetuses. The fertility potential showed a reduction of about 40%, whereas the preimplantation loss rate increased more than 2-fold in leptin-treated animals. In conclusion, leptin administration to nonobese male rats impairs ability of treated animals to generate offspring, since the occurrence of implantation was diminished. So leptin can impair sperm quality, affecting the reproductive capacity.

  4. Impaired LDL Receptor-Related Protein 1 Translocation Correlates with Improved Dyslipidemia and Atherosclerosis in apoE-Deficient Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordts, Philip L S M; Bartelt, Alexander; Nilsson, Stefan K

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the in vivo significance of LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) dysfunction on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis development in absence of its main ligand apoE.......Determination of the in vivo significance of LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) dysfunction on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis development in absence of its main ligand apoE....

  5. Leptin: A proliferative factor for breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldefie-Chezet, F.; Damez, M.; Latour, M. de; Konska, G.; Mishellani, F.; Fusillier, C.; Guerry, M.; Penault-Llorca, F.; Guillot, J.; Vasson, M.-P.

    2005-01-01

    Mammary adipose tissue is an important source of paracrine mitogens and anti-mitogens, including insulin-like growth factor, transforming growth factors, and cytokines (especially, TNFα and IL-1β). Nevertheless, it is also an important source of the adipocytokine, leptin. Recently, leptin was reported to stimulate the proliferation of various cell types (pancreatic β cells, prostate, colorectal, lung, etc.) as a new growth factor. It was also shown to stimulate the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines. In this study, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of leptin expression in normal tissue and benign and malignant ductal breast cell, representing the different states of the invasion process. We determined for the first time that leptin is expressed both by ductal breast tumors and by benign lesions as atypical hyperplasia. This suggests that leptin may be taken up or synthesized by all modified ductal breast cells, and may prove a proliferative factor. Moreover, leptin is unexpressed by normal tissue in the healthy breast but is exhibited by the normal tissue in near vicinity of the malignant ductal breast lesions. We also postulated that leptin may be a prognostic or diagnostic factor for ductal breast cancer. These putative hypotheses require further study

  6. Leptin-induced mTOR activation defines a specific molecular and transcriptional signature controlling CD4+ effector T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Procaccini, Claudio; De Rosa, Veronica; Galgani, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The sensing by T cells of metabolic and energetic changes in the microenvironment can determine the differentiation, maturation, and activation of these cells. Although it is known that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) gauges nutritonal and energetic signals in the extracellular milieu......, it is not known how mTOR and metabolism influence CD4+CD25-FOXP3- effector T cell (Teff) responses. In this article, we show that leptin-induced activation of mTOR, which, in turn, controls leptin production and signaling, causes a defined cellular, biochemical, and transcriptional signature that determine...... the outcome of Teff responses, both in vitro and in vivo. The blockade of leptin/leptin receptor signaling, induced by genetic means or by starvation, leads to impaired mTOR activity that inhibits the proliferation of Teffs in vivo. Notably, the transcriptional signature of Teffs in the presence of leptin...

  7. Plasma total ghrelin and leptin levels in human narcolepsy and matched healthy controls: Basal concentrations and response to sodium oxybate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donjacour, C.E.; Pardi, D.; Aziz, N.A.; Frolich, M.; Roelfsema, F.; Overeem, S.; Pijl, H.; Lammers, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Narcolepsy is caused by a selective loss of hypocretin neurons and is associated with obesity. Ghrelin and leptin interact with hypocretin neurons to influence energy homeostasis. Here, we evaluated whether human hypocretin deficiency, or the narcolepsy therapeutic agent sodium

  8. Effects of a n-3 PUFA deficient diet on the expression of retinoid nuclear receptors, neurogranin and neuromodulin in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buaud Benjamin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A lot of studies performed in rodents revealed that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA deficient diets could induce deficits of learning capacities but the mechanisms involved are not well known. Retinoic acid (RA and its nuclear receptors (RAR and RXR play a central role in the maintenance of cognitive processes and synaptic plasticity via its action on target genes that are neurogranin (RC3 and neuromodulin (GAP43. Given some interferences were described between the retinoid and fatty acid signaling pathways, we investigated the effects of a _α-linolenic acid (18: 3 n-3 deficient diet on retinoic acid nuclear receptors (RAR, and RXR, on GAP43 and RC3, and on blood and brain fatty acid composition in rats at three times of diet: 3, 9 and 18 weeks. In blood and brain of these animals, we observed a severe n-3 PUFA deficit (18:3 n-3, 20:5 n-3 and particularly 22:6 n-3 associated with an increase in the n-6 PUFA content (mainly 22:5 n-6. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis allowed us to note that retinoid signaling, GAP43 and RC3 expression were affected in the striatum of the n-3 PUFA deprived rats.

  9. Generation of Novel Traj18-Deficient Mice Lacking Vα14 Natural Killer T Cells with an Undisturbed T Cell Receptor α-Chain Repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyambayar Dashtsoodol

    Full Text Available Invariant Vα14 natural killer T (NKT cells, characterized by the expression of a single invariant T cell receptor (TCR α chain encoded by rearranged Trav11 (Vα14-Traj18 (Jα18 gene segments in mice, and TRAV10 (Vα24-TRAJ18 (Jα18 in humans, mediate adjuvant effects to activate various effector cell types in both innate and adaptive immune systems that facilitates the potent antitumor effects. It was recently reported that the Jα18-deficient mouse described by our group in 1997 harbors perturbed TCRα repertoire, which raised concerns regarding the validity of some of the experimental conclusions that have been made using this mouse line. To resolve this concern, we generated a novel Traj18-deficient mouse line by specifically targeting the Traj18 gene segment using Cre-Lox approach. Here we showed the newly generated Traj18-deficient mouse has, apart from the absence of Traj18, an undisturbed TCRα chain repertoire by using next generation sequencing and by detecting normal generation of Vα19Jα33 expressing mucosal associated invariant T cells, whose development was abrogated in the originally described Jα18-KO mice. We also demonstrated here the definitive requirement for NKT cells in the protection against tumors and their potent adjuvant effects on antigen-specific CD8 T cells.

  10. Leptin to adiponectin ratio in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrowbeygi, A; Ahmadvand, H

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess leptin/adiponectin ratio in preeclamptic patients compared with normal pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was designed. The study population consisted of 30 preeclamptic patients and 30 healthy pregnant women. Serum levels of total leptin and adiponectin were assessed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The one-way ANOVA and Student's t tests and Pearson's correlation analysis were used for statistical calculations. Levels of leptin and adiponectin were also adjusted for BMI. A p-value preeclamsia and imbalance between the adipocytokines could be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  11. NMDA receptor agonists reverse impaired psychomotor and cognitive functions associated with hippocampal Hbegf-deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keita; Omotuyi, Olaposi Idowu; Ueda, Mutsumi; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2015-12-04

    Structural and functional changes of the hippocampus are correlated with psychiatric disorders and cognitive dysfunctions. Genetic deletion of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), which is predominantly expressed in cortex and hippocampus, also causes similar psychiatric and cognitive dysfunctions, accompanying down-regulated NMDA receptor signaling. However, little is known of such dysfunctions in hippocampus-specific Hbegf cKO mice. We successfully developed hippocampus-specific cKO mice by crossbreeding floxed Hbegf and Gng7-Cre knock-in mice, as Gng7 promoter-driven Cre is highly expressed in hippocampal neurons as well as striatal medium spiny neurons. In mice lacking hippocampus Hbegf gene, there was a decreased neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus as well as down-regulation of PSD-95/NMDA-receptor-NR1/NR2B subunits and related NMDA receptor signaling. Psychiatric, social-behavioral and cognitive abnormalities were also observed in hippocampal cKO mice. Interestingly, D-cycloserine and nefiracetam, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of NMDA receptor reversed the apparent reduction in NMDA receptor signaling and most behavioral abnormalities. Furthermore, decreased SGZ neurogenesis in hippocampal cKO mice was reversed by nefiracetam. The present study demonstrates that PAMs of NMDA receptor have pharmacotherapeutic potentials to reverse down-regulated NMDA receptor signaling, neuro-socio-cognitive abnormalities and decreased neurogenesis in hippocampal cKO mice.

  12. Plasma leptin concentrations in newborns of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G A; Solenberger, T; Philpott, T; Holcomb, W L; Landt, M

    1998-04-01

    Leptin plays an important role in regulating body composition through modulation of appetite and energy expenditure. We hypothesized that leptin levels in umbilical cord blood correlate with newborn body weight and habitus. We also hypothesized that infants of diabetic mothers would demonstrate altered leptin metabolism. Venous blood was sampled at birth from the umbilical cords of 105 infants (74 infants of nondiabetic mothers, and 31 infants of diabetic mothers). Thirty-nine mothers had plasma leptin concentrations measured. Analysis was done using Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation, and Spearman's correlation. Univariate/multivariate regression was used for analysis of factors associated with leptin concentration in umbilical cord plasma. Maternal and newborn characteristics were correlated with log leptin levels in umbilical venous plasma. Leptin concentration in umbilical cord plasma correlated best with birth weight for newborns of both nondiabetic and diabetic mothers (p relationship between umbilical cord leptin level and newborn birth weight, as well as maternal DM, but not with gestational age. Similarly, there was no significant correlation with maternal plasma leptin concentration. The strong correlation of leptin concentration in umbilical cord plasma with newborn birth weight, and the lack of significant correlation with maternal leptin plasma levels, suggest that normal fetal leptin metabolism reflects fetal size and/or body habitus independent of maternal leptin metabolism. On the other hand, the higher umbilical plasma levels in infants of diabetic mothers may reflect an influence of altered fetal insulin homeostasis on fetal leptin metabolism, and suggests that maternal diabetes may influence fetal leptin metabolism.

  13. Leptin status in adolescence is associated with academic performance in high school: a cross-sectional study in a Chilean birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Castillo, Marcela; Peirano, Patricio; Algarín, Cecilia; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila; Burrows, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone associated with learning and memory via brain receptors. However, elevated plasma leptin levels may impair cognitive and memory functions. Since individual differences in memory performance affect students’ ability to learn, we aimed to study the relation between leptin status in adolescence and school performance. Design and setting We studied 568 adolescents aged 16–17 years from Santiago. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on a birth cohort conducted in Santiago (Chile). Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured serum leptin concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cut-offs from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study for 16-year-olds were used to define abnormally high leptin levels (hyperleptinaemia). Academic performance was measured using high-school grades and grade point average (GPA). Data were collected in 2009–2012; data analysis was performed in 2014. Results 15% of participants had hyperleptinaemia. They had significantly lower school grades and GPA compared with participants with normal leptin levels (eg, GPA mean difference=33.8 points). Leptin levels were negative and significantly correlated with school grades in 9th, 10th and 12th. Similarly, it was negatively correlated with high-school GPA. After controlling for health, sociodemographic and education confounders, the chances of having a performance ≥75th centile in students having hyperleptinaemia were 32% (95% CI 0.19% to 0.89%) that of students having normal serum leptin concentration. Conclusions In high school students, abnormally high levels of leptin were associated with poorer academic performance. These findings support the idea of a relationship between leptin and cognition. Further research is needed on the cognitive effects of leptin in younger populations. PMID:27797980

  14. Leptin status in adolescence is associated with academic performance in high school: a cross-sectional study in a Chilean birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Castillo, Marcela; Peirano, Patricio; Algarín, Cecilia; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila; Burrows, Raquel

    2016-10-18

    Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone associated with learning and memory via brain receptors. However, elevated plasma leptin levels may impair cognitive and memory functions. Since individual differences in memory performance affect students' ability to learn, we aimed to study the relation between leptin status in adolescence and school performance. We studied 568 adolescents aged 16-17 years from Santiago. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on a birth cohort conducted in Santiago (Chile). We measured serum leptin concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cut-offs from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study for 16-year-olds were used to define abnormally high leptin levels (hyperleptinaemia). Academic performance was measured using high-school grades and grade point average (GPA). Data were collected in 2009-2012; data analysis was performed in 2014. 15% of participants had hyperleptinaemia. They had significantly lower school grades and GPA compared with participants with normal leptin levels (eg, GPA mean difference=33.8 points). Leptin levels were negative and significantly correlated with school grades in 9th, 10th and 12th. Similarly, it was negatively correlated with high-school GPA. After controlling for health, sociodemographic and education confounders, the chances of having a performance ≥75th centile in students having hyperleptinaemia were 32% (95% CI 0.19% to 0.89%) that of students having normal serum leptin concentration. In high school students, abnormally high levels of leptin were associated with poorer academic performance. These findings support the idea of a relationship between leptin and cognition. Further research is needed on the cognitive effects of leptin in younger populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Leptin Mediate High Fat Diet Sensitization of Angiotensin II-elicited Hypertension by Upregulating the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baojian; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zhongming; Guo, Fang; Beltz, Terry G.; Thunhorst, Robert L.; Felder, Robert B.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased circulating levels of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, which can increase sympathetic nerve activity and raise blood pressure. A previous study revealed that rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) have an enhanced hypertensive response to subsequent angiotensin (Ang) II administration that is mediated at least in part by increased activity of brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (PICs). The present study tested whether leptin mediates this HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension by interacting with brain RAS and PICs mechanisms. Rats fed a HFD for 3 weeks had significant increases in white adipose tissue mass, plasma leptin levels and mRNA expression of leptin and its receptors in the lamina terminalis (LT) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Central infusion of a leptin receptor antagonist during HFD feeding abolished HFD sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension. Furthermore, central infusion of leptin mimicked the sensitizing action of HFD. Concomitant central infusions of the AT1-R antagonist irbesartan, the TNF-α synthesis inhibitor pentoxifylline, or the inhibitor of microglial activation minocycline prevented the sensitization produced by central infusion of leptin. RT-PCR analysis indicated that either HFD or leptin administration upregulated mRNA expression of several components of the RAS and PICs in the LT and PVN. The leptin antagonist and the inhibitors of AT1-R, TNF-α synthesis and microglial activation all reversed the expression of these genes. The results suggest that HFD-induced sensitization of Ang II-elicited hypertension is mediated by leptin through upregulation of central RAS and PICs. PMID:27021010

  16. Characterization of the gut microbiota in leptin deficient obese mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Krych, Lukasz; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota have been implicated as a relevant factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and its diversity might be a cause of variation in animal models of T2DM. In this study, we aimed to characterise the gut microbiota of a T2DM mouse model with a long term vision of bei...... in various disease read-outs in the B6.V-Lep(ob)/J model and considering them in both quality assurance and data evaluation for the B6.V-Lep(ob)/J model may have a reducing impact on the inter-individual variation.......Gut microbiota have been implicated as a relevant factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and its diversity might be a cause of variation in animal models of T2DM. In this study, we aimed to characterise the gut microbiota of a T2DM mouse model with a long term vision of being...

  17. Melatonin Efficacy in Obese Leptin-Deficient Mice Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Stacchiotti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyocytes are particularly sensitive to oxidative damage due to the link between mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum necessary for calcium flux and contraction. Melatonin, important indoleamine secreted by the pineal gland during darkness, also has important cardioprotective properties. We designed the present study to define morphological and ultrastructural changes in cardiomyocytes and mainly in mitochondria of an animal model of obesity (ob/ob mice, when treated orally or not with melatonin at 100 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks (from 5 up to 13 week of life. We observed that ob/ob mice mitochondria in sub-sarcolemmal and inter-myofibrillar compartments are often devoid of cristae with an abnormally large size, which are called mega-mitochondria. Moreover, in ob/ob mice the hypertrophic cardiomyocytes expressed high level of 4hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE, a marker of lipid peroxidation but scarce degree of mitofusin2, indicative of mitochondrial sufferance. Melatonin oral supplementation in ob/ob mice restores mitochondrial cristae, enhances mitofusin2 expression and minimizes 4HNE and p62/SQSTM1, an index of aberrant autophagic flux. At pericardial fat level, adipose tissue depot strictly associated with myocardium infarction, melatonin reduces adipocyte hypertrophy and inversely regulates 4HNE and adiponectin expressions. In summary, melatonin might represent a safe dietary adjuvant to hamper cardiac mitochondria remodeling and the hypoxic status that occur in pre-diabetic obese mice at 13 weeks of life.

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ deficiency in T cells accelerates chronic rejection by influencing the differentiation of CD4+ T cells and alternatively activated macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Huang

    Full Text Available In a previous study, activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ inhibited chronic cardiac rejection. However, because of the complexity of chronic rejection and the fact that PPARγ is widely expressed in immune cells, the mechanism of the PPARγ-induced protective effect was unclear.A chronic rejection model was established using B6.C-H-2bm12KhEg (H-2bm12 mice as donors, and MHC II-mismatched T-cell-specific PPARγ knockout mice or wild type (WT littermates as recipients. The allograft lesion was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. T cells infiltrates in the allograft were isolated, and cytokines and subpopulations were detected using cytokine arrays and flow cytometry. Transcription levels in the allograft were measured by RT-PCR. In vitro, the T cell subset differentiation was investigated after culture in various polarizing conditions. PPARγ-deficient regulatory T cells (Treg were cocultured with monocytes to test their ability to induce alternatively activated macrophages (AAM.T cell-specific PPARγ knockout recipients displayed reduced cardiac allograft survival and an increased degree of pathology compared with WT littermates. T cell-specific PPARγ knockout resulted in more CD4+ T cells infiltrating into the allograft and altered the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios. The polarization of AAM was also reduced by PPARγ deficiency in T cells through the action of Th2 and Treg. PPARγ-deficient T cells eliminated the pioglitazone-induced polarization of AAM and reduced allograft survival.PPARγ-deficient T cells influenced the T cell subset and AAM polarization in chronic allograft rejection. The mechanism of PPARγ activation in transplantation tolerance could yield a novel treatment without side effects.

  19. Developmental hypothyroxinemia caused by mild iodine deficiency leads to HFS-induced LTD in rat hippocampal CA1 region: involvement of AMPA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Song, Binbin; Wang, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Min, Hui; Chen, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Hypothyroidism induced by severe iodine deficiency (ID) during developmental period seriously damages the central nervous system function. In addition to developmental hypothyroidism induced by severe ID, developmental hypothyroxinemia induced by mild ID is potentially damaging for neurodevelopment and learning and memory in children. Wistar rats were treated with iodine-deficient diet or methimazole (MMZ) during pregnancy and lactation to induce developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism in the present study. Pups were weaned on postnatal day (PN) 21 and used for electrophysiological recordings on PN80. It is generally accepted that long-term depression (LTD) is induced at low-frequency stimulation (LFS) in hippocampal CA1 region. Surprisingly, we observed developmental hypothyroxinemia as well as developmental hypothyroidism led to high-frequency stimulation (HFS)-induced LTD in hippocampal CA1 region. The abnormal HFS-induced LTD suggests not only developmental hypothyroidism but also developmental hypothyroxinemia impairs learning and memory. To explore the mechanisms responsible for the HFS-induced LTD, the phosphorylation status of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) was investigated. The results showed that developmental hypothyroxinemia as well as developmental hypothyroidism decreased the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) at serine 831 and serine 845 in hippocampal CA1 region. Neither developmental hypothyroxinemia nor developmental hypothyroidism altered the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) at serine 880. Increased levels of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) were also observed in hippocampal CA1 regions of pups subjected to developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism. Taken together, our results suggest that the increased levels of PP1 caused by developmental hypothyroxinemia or hypothyroidism may account for the dephosphorylation of GluR1 at serine 831 and

  20. Firing properties of dopamine neurons in freely moving dopamine-deficient mice: Effects of dopamine receptor activation and anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Siobhan; Smith, David M.; Mizumori, Sheri J. Y.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    To examine the regulation of midbrain dopamine neurons, recordings were obtained from single neurons of freely moving, genetically engineered dopamine-deficient (DD) mice. DD mice were tested without dopamine signaling (basal state) and with endogenous dopamine signaling (after L-dopa administration). In the basal state, when dopamine concentration in DD mice is

  1. Effects of dopamine on leptin release and leptin gene (OB expression in adipocytes from obese and hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez-Aguilar C

    2013-11-01

    gene messenger ribonucleic acid expression under different doses of DA was observed in adipocytes from obese hypertensive patients. Whereas prolactin treatment elicited a significant increase of both leptin release and OB gene expression, NE reduced these parameters. Although similar effects of DA and NE were observed in adipocytes from controls, baseline values in controls were reduced to 20% of the value in adipocytes from obese hypertensive patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that DAergic deficiency contributes to metabolic disorders linked to hyperleptinemia in obese and hypertensive patients. Keywords: dopamine, leptin, cultured adipocytes, obesity, hypertension

  2. A platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor deficiency exacerbates diet-induced obesity but PAF/PAF receptor signaling does not contribute to the development of obesity-induced chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Matsui, Masakazu; Higa, Ryoko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Ikari, Akira; Miyake, Masaki; Miwa, Masao; Ishii, Satoshi; Sugatani, Junko; Shimizu, Takao

    2015-02-15

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a well-known phospholipid that mediates acute inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated whether PAF/PAF receptor signaling contributed to chronic inflammation in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of PAF receptor-knockout (PAFR-KO) mice. Body and epididymal WAT weights were higher in PAFR-KO mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) than in wild-type (WT) mice. TNF-α mRNA expression levels in epididymal WAT and the infiltration of CD11c-positive macrophages into epididymal WAT, which led to chronic inflammation, were also elevated in HFD-fed PAFR-KO mice. HFD-fed PAFR-KO mice had higher levels of fasting serum glucose than HFD-fed WT mice as well as impaired glucose tolerance. Although PAF receptor signaling up-regulated the expression of TNF-α and lipopolysaccharide induced the expression of acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2) mRNA in bone marrow-derived macrophages, no significant differences were observed in the expression of LPCAT2 mRNA and PAF levels in epididymal WAT between HFD-fed mice and normal diet-fed mice. In addition to our previous finding in which energy expenditure in PAF receptor (PAFR)-deficient mice was low due to impaired brown adipose tissue function, the present study demonstrated that PAF/PAF receptor signaling up-regulated the expression of Ucp1 mRNA, which is essential for cellular thermogenesis, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We concluded that the marked accumulation of abdominal fat due to HFD feeding led to more severe chronic inflammation in WAT, which is associated with glucose metabolism disorders, in PAFR-KO mice than in WT mice, and PAF/PAF receptor signaling may regulate energy expenditure and adiposity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Benefits of leptin therapy in HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin therapy in human recombinant form has recently been used in HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome on experimental basis in some small short-term clinical trials. It has shown its beneficial effects only in hypoleptinemic HIV-infected patients by causing definite improvement in their insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, lipid status, and truncal obesity. Leptin prevents lipotoxicity and activates insulin signaling pathways through several postulated mechanisms. Central leptin insufficiency with peripheral hyperleptinemia has come out to be a significant contributor to the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. In this article, we will review the basis of leptin therapy in HIV patients, with its promises. However, further larger clinical trials are needed to prove its long-term efficacy in the control of metabolic complications related to HIV therapy.

  4. To eat or not to eat: ontogeny of hypothalamic feeding controls and a role for leptin in modulating life-history transition in amphibian tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Melissa Cui; Hu, Caroline; Pelletier, Chris; Denver, Robert J

    2018-03-28

    Many animal life histories entail changing feeding ecology, but the molecular bases for these transitions are poorly understood. The amphibian tadpole is typically a growth and dispersal life-history stage. Tadpoles are primarily herbivorous, and they capitalize on growth opportunities to reach a minimum body size to initiate metamorphosis. During metamorphic climax, feeding declines, at which time the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remodels to accommodate the carnivorous diet of the adult frog. Here we show that anorexigenic hypothalamic feeding controls are absent in the tadpole, but develop during metamorphosis concurrent with the production of the satiety signal leptin. Before metamorphosis there is a large increase in leptin mRNA in fat tissue. Leptin receptor mRNA increased during metamorphosis in the preoptic area/hypothalamus, the key brain region involved with the control of food intake and metabolism. This corresponded with an increase in functional leptin receptor, as evidenced by induction of socs3 mRNA and phosphorylated STAT3 immunoreactivity, and suppression of feeding behaviour after injection of recombinant frog leptin. Furthermore, we found that immunoneutralization of leptin in tadpoles at metamorphic climax caused them to resume feeding. The absence of negative regulation of food intake in the tadpole allows the animal to maximize growth prior to metamorphosis. Maturation of leptin-responsive neural circuits suppresses feeding during metamorphosis to facilitate remodelling of the GI tract. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Assessment of leptin and resistin levels in non-obese multiple myeloma patients and their relation with Ig level and disease stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esheba, N.E.; Shahba, A.; El Shora, O.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for approximately 0.8% of all cancer diagnoses and 0.9% of cancer deaths. Leptin receptors were expressed on CD34 + cells. Resistin receptors were expressed on inflammatory cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines increase the expression of resistin on monocytes. Aim of work: To assess the level of leptin and resistin in non-obese multiple myeloma patients and to study their relation with Ig level and disease stage. Subjects and methods: 32 subjects were included; 16 patients diagnosed with MM and 16 healthy individuals served as control. All were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, routine laboratory investigations and leptin and resistin blood level. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis and staging for MM patients. Results: Leptin was significantly higher in MM patients compared with the control group, unlike resistin which showed no significant difference between the two groups. A significant positive relation was found between IgG level and leptin. Similarly, a significant difference in leptin level has been observed between stage I and stage II (higher in II). Conclusions: Leptin may play a role in the pathogenesis of MM and its level may be changed in different stages.

  6. Dietary xenoestrogens differentially impair 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and persistently affect leptin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phrakonkham, Pascal; Viengchareun, Say; Belloir, Christine; Lombès, Marc; Artur, Yves; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal

    2008-05-01

    Recent observations have highlighted adipogenesis alterations under exposure to several xenoestrogens at critical stages, and pointed at their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of obesity. However, it remains unclear whether these effects are mediated by classical estrogen receptor (ER) binding and subsequent transcriptional modulation. The aim of this study was to determine the (anti-)adipogenic impact of apigenin, bisphenol A, genistein and 17beta-estradiol at the onset of adipose cell maturation, and to correlate it to their estrogenic potential. In steroid-free conditions, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence of xenoestrogens for 2 days. DNA and triglyceride levels, leptin secretion and expression of Pref-1, C/E