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Sample records for leptin levels compared

  1. Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambavi Kugananthan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM (p < 0.0001, n = 287. No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content (p = 0.17, n = 287, supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89. These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.

  2. Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugananthan, Sambavi; Lai, Ching Tat; Gridneva, Zoya; Mark, Peter J; Geddes, Donna T; Kakulas, Foteini

    2016-11-08

    Human milk (HM) contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM ( p < 0.0001, n = 287). No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content ( p = 0.17, n = 287), supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89). These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.

  3. Leptin levels in infertile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, S.; Bibi, R.; Ahmed, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the leptin levels in the serum of normal, sub fertile and infertile men. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Sciences Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad and Dr. Salma and Kafeel Medical Centre, Islamabad, from April to December 2009. Methodology: Serum leptin levels hormonal concentrations (LH, FSH and testosterone) were determined by EIA in 154 males including 24 (15.58%) fertile, 19 (12.34%) polyzoospermic (PZs), 26 (16.88%) teratozoospermic (TZs), 27 (17.53%) astheno-teratozoospermic (ATZs), 18 (11.69%) oligozoospermic (OZs), 18 (11.69%) oligo-astheno-teratozoospermic (OATZs), 11 (7.14%) obstructive azoospermic (OBST-AZOOs) and 11 (7.14%) non-obstructive azoospermic (NON-OBST-AZOOs). BMI was also determined, divided into groups of greater than 24. Hormonal concentrations were compared by ANOVA and correlation was performed by using Graph pad prism version 5. Results: Significantly high levels of leptin concentrations were found in fertile (p 24 compared to fertile and infertile male patients with BMI 24. Leptin showed a significant positive correlation with LH (p < 0.01) and FSH (p < 0.002) and a significant negative correlation with testosterone (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Abnormal leptin level was significantly associated with fertility problems in males. Providing a link between leptin and reproduction factors contributing in control of testosterone and gonadotropins secretion in many aspects depending on fertility status in male subjects. BMI appears to have significant association with serum leptin levels. (author)

  4. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women.

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    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women.

  5. Serum leptin levels in female patients with niddm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Z.; Rahman, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare serum leptin levels of diabetic and non-diabetic female subjects and also assess the relationship of hyperglycemia with serum insulin, C-peptide and leptin levels. Results: Serum leptin levels of obese diabetic and non-diabetic subjects were significantly higher as compared with lean diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects (P<0.05). Leptin levels were positively correlated with serum insulin and C-peptide levels. Serum leptin increased with increase in body mass index and waist hip ratio was strongly related with insulin resistance in NIDDM. Conclusion: Leptin levels are increased in obesity and may play a role in development of insulin resistance and NIDDM. (author)

  6. Elevated circulating leptin levels in arterial hypertension: relationship to arteriovenous overflow and extraction of leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Holst, J J; Moller, S

    2000-01-01

    during catheterization with elective blood sampling from different vascular beds (artery, and renal, hepatic, iliac and cubital veins). Plasma leptin was determined by a radioimmunoassay. Patients with hypertension had significantly elevated levels of circulating leptin (12.8 ng/l, compared with 4.1 ng....../l in the controls; Pblood pressure (r=0.38-0.62, P...

  7. Leptin levels in free ranging striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) increase when food decreases: the ecological leptin hypothesis.

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    Schradin, Carsten; Raynaud, Julien; Arrivé, Mathilde; Blanc, Stéphane

    2014-09-15

    Leptin is a hormone informing the body about its fat stores, reducing appetite and foraging and as such reducing fattening of individuals. In laboratory rodents, leptin secretion is highly correlated to the amount of adipose tissue. We compared this to the alternative ecological leptin hypothesis, which based on the behavioural effects of leptin predicts that leptin levels are disassociated from adipose tissue when fattening is of evolutionary advantage to survive coming periods of low food availability. Studying a species that has to survive a dry season with low food availability, we tested the ecological leptin hypothesis, predicting low leptin levels when food availability and thus adiposity is high promoting foraging and fattening, but high leptin levels in the seasons of low food availability, reducing energetic costs due to foraging. We measured leptin levels in 154 samples of free living African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio). Striped mice gain significant body mass during the moist season to survive the following dry season with low food availability. We found a strong seasonal effect, with higher leptin levels in the dry season with low food availability, which was in contrast to the hypothesis deriving from studies on laboratory rodents, but in agreement with ecological leptin hypothesis: leptin levels remained low in the period of high food availability, allowing fattening, but increased during periods of low food availability, possibly suppressing energetically costly foraging in an environment where foraging success would have been very low. Leptin correlated significantly and negatively with testosterone levels, and high testosterone levels in the moist season could explain why leptin levels were low even though food availability was high. However, analysing samples from an experimental laboratory study where testosterone levels were increased via implants found no support for a suppressive role of testosterone on leptin. In sum, our study

  8. [Leptin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedvídková, J

    1997-12-01

    Leptin (ob-protein), a previously unknown protein signal, is secreted from adipose tissue, circulates in the blood, probably bound to a family of binding proteins, and acts on central neural networks, that regulate weight and energy homeostasis. Leptin provides a communication link between fat tissue and the brain. Ob protein appears to play a major role in the control of body fat stores through coordinated regulation of feeding behavior, metabolism, autonomic nervous system and body energy balance in rodents, primates and humans. Leptin levels have pulsative and diurnal character. In lean subjects with relatively low adipose tissue, the majority of circulating leptin is in the bound form. On other hand, in obese individuals the majority of leptin circulates in free form presumably bioactive protein, and thus obese subjects are resistant to free leptin. Leptin's resistance is often coupled with insuline resistance postreceptor type. Leptin receptor is product of db genes. Ob-protein receptor belongs to the cytokine superfamily of receptors and has several variants. Leptin-receptor gene is expressed in abundant degree in ovary, uterus, testes, less in hypothalamus, hypophysis, and little in kidney. Leptin stimulates the reproductive endocrine system and may serve as a permissive signal to the reproductive system of normal animals. Ob-gene product, leptin is regulated by feedings patterns and hormones, such as insulin and glucocorticoids. There is assumed that neuropeptide Y (NPY) and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and its receptor (MCR) are a critical components of the biological response to leptin levels. MCR in contrast to leptin receptors are coupled with G-transduction system.

  9. Leptin levels in children and adults with classic galactosaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Knerr, Ina

    2012-11-07

    Among the long-term complications of Classic Galactosaemia (Gal) is premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in female patients with subtle abnormalities of reproductive function also reported in male patients. Leptin is a circulating hormone which reflects body energy stores and which affects the neuroendocrine reproductive axis and pubertal development.We measured serum leptin in 28 children (10 girls, 18 boys; mean age 7.6 years, range 0.5-17.9 years) and in 22 adults (10 females, 12 males; mean age 23.9 years, range 18-37 years) with Gal on a strict galactose-restricted diet in comparison with control data.Leptin levels (expressed as SDS for gender and pubertal stage) were lower in Gal children than controls (mean leptin-SDS = -0.71 for girls, p < 0.05, -0.97 for boys compared with SDS = 0 for controls, p < 0.05). In an age-related analysis, leptin levels did not correlate with age in children with Gal for both sexes as it did for matched controls.As expected, females had higher leptin levels than males in either group. In adults with Gal, leptin concentrations were within normal limits for both sexes when adjusted for gender and BMI. There was a linear relationship between log-leptin and BMI in children with Gal and in controls. For Gal women, log-leptin was also associated with BMI. However, for Gal men, and hence for the entire group of adult Gal patients, this association between log-leptin and BMI was not detectable. Our findings suggest that leptin dysregulation may play a role in fertility issues in individuals with Gal from an early age.

  10. Relationship between Plasma Leptin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone shown to be related to several metabolic, inflammatory, and hemostatic factors related to chronic kidney disease. Recent animal studies have reported that infusion of recombinant leptin into normal rats for 3 weeks fosters the development of glomerulosclerosis. However, few studies have examined the association between leptin and CKD in humans. Therefore, we examined the association between plasma leptin levels and CKD in a representative sample of US adults. Methods. We examined the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age (n=5820, 53.6% women. Plasma leptin levels were categorized into quartiles (≤4.3 Fg/L, 4.4–8.7 Fg/L, 8.8–16.9 Fg/L, >16.9 Fg/L. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine. Results. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with CKD after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI, diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared to quartile 1 of leptin (referent, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval of CKD associated with quartile 4 was 3.31 (1.41 to 7.78; P-trend = 0.0135. Subgroup analyses examining the relation between leptin and CKD by gender, BMI categories, diabetes, and hypertension status also showed a consistent positive association. Conclusion. Higher plasma leptin levels are associated with CKD in a representative sample of US adults.

  11. Evaluation of Serum Leptin Level in Children With Acute Leukemia

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    Iraj Shahramian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Leptin is a multifunctional hormone plays an important role in regulating lipid, energy, homeostasis, angiogenesis, inflammation, hematopoiesis and cell cycle. This polypeptide is effective in growth and differentiation of leukemic cells through an Ob-R receptor expressed by them. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum leptin levels in patients with acute leukemia and compare it in lymphoid and myeloid groups. Patients and Methods This analytical case-control study, conducted on 60 children in age ranged from 6 months to 16 years in two case and control groups in Ali ibn Abi Talib hospital, Zahedan. They matched based on age and gender and examined after their parent’s satisfaction according to the parental consent forms. None of patients had heart disease, digestive, glandular and metabolic problems, iron deficiency anemia and chronic kidney disease. After collecting the samples, leptin levels of both groups were measured with ELISA kit. Then, the gathered data were analyzed in SPSS-20 software, using independent t-test in considering of 95% confidence interval. Results Leptin serum levels in patients with acute leukemia and controls showed significant difference (P < 0.05. Leptin serum levels in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloblastic leukemia showed significant difference (P < 0.05. Leptin serum level in relation to age and gender groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions The findings of this study showed that in patients with acute leukemia, leptin serum levels increase independently of age and gender. In addition, leptin serum levels in acute lymphoid leukemia were higher than acute myeloid leukemia in this study.

  12. Serum leptin levels in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Fayyaz, I.; Mehmood, S.; Chani, M.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity, mortality and disability worldwide. Leptin, a 16kDa product of ob gene, is an endocrine hormone produced by white adipose tissue. It is primarily involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Hyperleptinemia is one of the novel risk factors contributing in many ways to CVD. Objective: The objective of the study was to find the level of leptin in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and compare it with healthy people in our population. Methods: Our study was an analytical and cross-sectional study. Our study included 60 patients with a history of CAD and 60 healthy controls (aged 40-60 years, both sexes). Leptin levels were measured by ELISA. Results: Mean serum leptin level in patients was 11.48+-11.25 g/ml, while control group had a mean leptin level of 8.22+-8.01 g/ml (p=0.071). Conclusion: Leptin levels were higher in patients but the difference was non-significant. More studies are needed with larger sample size in our population. (author)

  13. Leptin Level in Women with Metabolic Syndrome

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    Alexander V. Dreval, PhD, ScD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the dynamics of leptin in the various types of disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism could reveal its role in the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the Fasting Leptin Level (FLL and effect of acute hyperinsulinemia during the Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT on the leptin levels in women with Insulin Resistance Syndrome (IRS. Materials and Methods: In total, 59 obese women (54.0 [48.5-60.0] yrs; BMI – 33.2 [29.0-37.2] kg/m² with IRS (12 – obesity (NGT, 18 - ITG and 30 - T2DM were observed. The IVGTT test was done only in women with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and T2DM. The leptin level was investigated during fasting conditions and again 120 min post glucose loading. Then the Hepatic glucose production Index (H-index was calculated using the IVGTT data. Results: The FLL in women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT was almost two times greater than in women with IGT and T2DM. A negative relationship was found to exist between FLL and HbA1c in T2DM (r=0.3, p8%. The leptin level significantly decreased at 120 min of IVGTT in both the IGT and T2DM groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: The FLL depended upon the degree of glucose metabolism impairment; postprandial leptin response to the glucose load was lower in the IGT group than in the T2DM subjects.

  14. Fasting and postprandial levels of ghrelin, leptin and insulin in lean, obese and anorexic subjects

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    Krauss, Hanna; Gibas-Dorna, Magdalena; Kupsz, Justyna; Piątek, Małgorzata; Piątek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ghrelin, leptin and insulin are involved in neurohormonal regulation of energetic homeostasis. Aim We investigated the correlation between nutritional status and plasma levels of leptin, ghrelin and insulin in lean, obese and anorexic subjects. Material and methods Nineteen obese and 18 anorexic adults were enrolled in the study. Seventeen adults with normal body mass index (BMI) served as controls. Blood samples were taken twice: before breakfast and 2 h after breakfast. Fasting and postprandial ghrelin, leptin and insulin were examined. The following correlations were estimated: between BMI and basal level of tested hormones, between insulin and ghrelin, and between insulin and leptin. The threshold level of significance was p ≤ 0.05 for all calculations. Results Basal insulin level was lowest in anorexic patients and greatest in obese subjects. Fasting plasma ghrelin was lower in obesity and higher in anorexia as compared with the controls. Comparing with controls, fasting leptin levels were higher in obese and lower in anorexic subjects. There was positive correlation between BMI and basal leptin level in obesity. A significant postprandial increase was noted for insulin in all studied groups. Increased leptin and decreased ghrelin levels were detected 2 h after a meal in the control group. In obese patients, postprandial leptin was lower than before food intake, and fasting leptin showed positive correlation with basal insulin level. Conclusions Basal plasma ghrelin, leptin and insulin levels differ according to nutritional status. Impaired ghrelin and leptin secretion and insulin sensitivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of eating disorders. PMID:24868288

  15. Leptin levels distribution and ethnic background in two populations from Chile: Caucasian and Mapuche groups.

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    Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.

  16. Leptin levels in different forms of Chagas' disease

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    F. Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is produced primarily by adipocytes. Although originally associated with the central regulation of satiety and energy metabolism, increasing evidence indicates that leptin may be an important mediator in cardiovascular pathophysiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate plasma leptin levels in patient with Chagas' heart disease and their relation to different forms of the disease. We studied 52 chagasic patients and 30 controls matched for age and body mass index. All subjects underwent anthropometric, leptin and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP measurements and were evaluated by echocardiography, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG, and chest X-ray. All patients had fasting blood samples taken between 8:00 and 9:00 am. Chagasic patients were divided into 3 groups: group I (indeterminate form, IF group consisted of 24 subjects with 2 positive serologic reactions for Chagas' disease and no cardiac involvement as evaluated by chest X-rays, ECG and two-dimensional echocardiography; group II (showing ECG abnormalities and normal left ventricular systolic function, ECG group consisted of 14 patients; group III consisted of 14 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF group and left ventricular dysfunction. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower (P < 0.001 in the CHF group (1.4 ± 0.8 ng/mL when compared to the IF group (5.3 ± 5.3 ng/mL, ECG group (9.7 ± 10.7 ng/mL, and control group (8.1 ± 7.8 ng/mL. NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001 in the CHF group (831.8 ± 800.1 pg/mL when compared to the IF group (53.2 ± 33.3 pg/mL, ECG group (83.3 ± 57.4 pg/mL, and control group (32 ± 22.7 pg/mL. Patients with Chagas' disease and an advanced stage of CHF have high levels of NT-ProBNP andlow plasma levels of leptin. One or more leptin-suppressing mechanisms may operate in chagasic patients.

  17. Elevated circulating leptin levels in arterial hypertension: relationship to arteriovenous overflow and extraction of leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Holst, J J; Møller, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone produced mainly in fat cells, appears to be important for the regulation of metabolism, insulin secretion/sensitivity and body weight. Recently, elevated plasma leptin levels have been reported in patients with arterial hypertension. Because a change in circulating lepti...

  18. A high-sugar/low-fiber meal compared with a low-sugar/high-fiber meal leads to higher leptin and physical activity levels in overweight Latina females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Belcher, Britni; Anderson, David; Lane, Christianne Joy; Chou, Chih-Ping; Salter-Venzon, Dawna; Davis, Jaimie N; Hsu, Ya-Wen Janice; Neuhouser, Marian L; Richey, Joyce M; McKenzie, Thomas L; McClain, Arianna; Goran, Michael I; Weigensberg, Marc J

    2009-06-01

    Acute effects of high-sugar/low-fiber meals vs low-sugar/high-fiber meals on hormones and behavior were studied in 10 overweight Latina females, age 11 to 12 years, using a crossover design. In this exploratory pilot study, participants arrived fasted at an observation laboratory on two occasions and randomly received either a high-sugar/low-fiber meal or a low-sugar/high-fiber meal at each visit. Glucose, insulin, and leptin were assayed from serum drawn at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Ad libitum snacks were provided at 120 minutes. Physical activity was measured using an observational system that provides data on time spent lying down, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity. Data were collected between March 2005 and July 2006. In the high-sugar/low-fiber condition, glucose and leptin levels decreased more slowly, glucose levels were higher at 60 minutes (111.2 mg/dL vs 95.4 mg/dL, P=0.03), and leptin levels were higher at 90 minutes (49.3 ng/mL vs 46.7 ng/mL, P=0.017) than in the low-sugar/high-fiber condition. Meals did not affect insulin or ad libitum dietary intake. Sitting, standing, lying down, and vigorous activity differed by condition, but not walking. Participants were significantly more active in the first 30 to 60 minutes after the high-sugar/low-fiber meal, but after 60 minutes there was a trend for activity to be lower after the high-sugar/low-fiber meal vs the low-sugar/high-fiber meal. High-sugar meals sustain glucose and leptin levels longer, which may play an important role in modulating levels of physical activity in this group at high risk for obesity-related disease.

  19. Serum Leptin Levels in Asthma, COPD and Bronchiectasis

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    Ercan Kurtipek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare body mass indexes (BMI and serum leptin levels of most frequently observed three chronic airway diseases; namely, Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and bronchiectasis. Material and Method: The study included a total of 216 people, 78 asthma, 67 COPD, and 37 bronchiectasis patients who were in stable period and 34 healthy individuals all aged above 18. Control group consisted of non-smokers and non-corticosteroid users. Of all the participants, the blood samples were taken in order to determine serum leptin levels and BMI were calculated, and pulmonary function tests measured at rest. Results: The BMI levels of all the groups was above >25 kg/m2. There were no statistical differences between the control and patient groups with regard to BMI (p>0.05. Comparing patient groups, the BMI of asthma patients was higher than those with COPD and bronchiectasis (29.84±6.46, 25.78±4.96, 27.64±5.19, p=0.0001, p=0.20. FEV1 results of COPD patients were lower than those with asthma and bronchiectasis (63.25±19.26, 76.73±20.35, 72.75±20.17 and p=0.0001, p=0.06. Serum leptin levels of asthma patients were higher than the COPD, bronchiectasis patients, as well as that of the control group (12.36±11.16 ng/ml, 3.35±4.71 ng/ml, 8.49±7.85 ng/ml and 5.21±6.83 ng/ml, p=0.0001, p=0.09 and p=0.0001, respectively. Serum leptin level of COPD patients was lower than control group, but it was not statistically significant (p=0.71. Serum leptin levels of the patients with bronchiectasis were higher than healthy control group members; yet , not statistical significant (p=0.34. However serum leptin levels of the patients with bronchiectasis were higher than the patient COPD groups and this was statisticaly significant (p=0.01. Istatistically significant different emerge on comparing serum leptin levels and BMI of the asthma, COPD and bronchiectasis patients in the Lineear regression analysis made (beta

  20. Association between Salivary Leptin Levels and Taste Perception in Children

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    Lénia Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI affects such relationship. Sweet and bitter taste sensitivity was assessed for 121 children aged 9-10 years and unstimulated whole saliva was collected for leptin quantification, using ELISA technique. Children females with lower sweet taste sensitivity presented higher salivary leptin levels, but this is only in the normal weight ones. For bitter taste, association between salivary leptin and caffeine threshold detection was observed only in preobese boys, with higher levels of salivary hormone in low sensitive individuals. This study is the first presenting evidences of a relationship between salivary leptin levels and taste perception, which is sex and BMI dependent. The mode of action of salivary leptin at taste receptor level should be elucidated in future studies.

  1. Changes of serum leptin and c-peptide level in children with type 1 diabetic mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Sun Junjiang; Wang Shukui; Qi Shaokang

    2001-01-01

    To deplore the relationship between leptin and c-peptide in children with type 1 diabetic mellitus (DM). The levels of serum leptin and c-peptide (C-P) in 65 type 1 DM children (including 31 before and after insulin treatment) and 30 normal controls were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results found that there was significant differences (P < 0.01) in leptin and C-P between DM children and normal controls, also in 31 DM children before and after treatment. It showed a positive correlation between leptin and C-P. The changes of the leptin/C-P ratio in DM children compared with normal controls and that before and after treatment were also significantly different. It suggested that leptin may have close relationship in the development, progress and the occurrence of complications in children with DM and also provide a new clue for their diagnosis treatment and complication occurrence

  2. Influence of dexamethasone and weight loss on the regulation of serum leptin levels in obese individuals

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    Lerario D.D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The adipocyte hormone leptin is thought to serve as a signal to the central nervous system reflecting the status of fat stores. Serum leptin levels and adipocyte leptin messenger RNA levels are clearly increased in obesity. Nevertheless, the factors regulating leptin production are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of in vivo administration of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and weight loss on serum leptin levels in two independent protocols. Twenty-five obese subjects were studied (18 women and 7 men, mean age 26.6 ± 6 years, BMI 31.1 ± 2.5 kg/m², %fat 40.3 ± 8.3 and compared at baseline to 22 healthy individuals. Serum levels of leptin, insulin, proinsulin and glucose were assessed at baseline and after ingestion of dexamethasone, 4 mg per day (2 mg, twice daily for two consecutive days. To study the effects of weight loss on serum leptin, 17 of the obese subjects were submitted to a low-calorie dietary intervention trial for 8 weeks and again blood samples were collected. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the obese group compared to the control group and a high positive correlation between leptinemia and the magnitude of fat mass was found (r = 0.88, P<0.0001. After dexamethasone, there was a significant increase in serum leptin levels (22.9 ± 12.3 vs 51.4 ± 23.3 ng/ml, P<0.05. Weight loss (86.1 ± 15.1 vs 80.6 ± 14.2 kg, P<0.05 led to a reduction in leptin levels (25.13 ± 12.8 vs 15.9 ± 9.1 ng/ml, P<0.05. We conclude that serum leptin levels are primordially dependent on fat mass magnitude. Glucocorticoids at supraphysiologic levels are potent secretagogues of leptin in obese subjects and a mild fat mass reduction leads to a disproportionate decrease in serum leptin levels. This suggests that, in addition to the changes in fat mass, complex nutritional and hormonal interactions may also play an important role in the regulation of leptin levels.

  3. An assessment of serum leptin levels in patients with chronic viral hepatitis: a prospective study

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    Katsanika Aggeliki

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of leptin in the course of liver disease due to chronic viral hepatitis (CVH remains controversial. Our aims were to investigate the relationship between serum leptin concentrations and the severity of liver disease in a cohort of subjects with HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB and C (CHC and to analyze the effect of body composition, the leptin system and insulin resistance together with viral factors on virologic response to antiviral treatment. Methods We studied 50 (36 men consecutive patients suffering from biopsy-proven CVH due to HBV (n = 25 or HCV (n = 25 infection. Thirty-two (17 men healthy volunteers served as controls. Levels of serum leptin and insulin were determined by immunoassays at baseline and at the end of the treatment. Results A significant association between serum leptin levels and the stage of hepatic fibrosis was noted; patients with cirrhosis presented higher serum leptin levels compared to those with lower fibrosis stage [CHB patients (17436 pg/ml vs 6028.5 pg/ml, p = 0.03, CHC patients (18014 pg/ml vs 4385 pg/ml, p = 0.05]. An inverse correlation between lower leptin levels and response to lamivudine monotherapy was noted in patients with CHB; those with a virologic response presented lower serum leptin levels (5334 vs 13111.5 pg/ml; p-value = 0.003 than non-responders. In genotype 1 CHC patients, insulin resistance played a significant role in the response to antiviral therapy. Conclusion Our data clearly suggest that cirrhosis due to CHB or CHC is associated with higher leptin levels. Increased serum leptin levels represent a negative prognostic factor for response to lamivudine monotherapy in patients with CHB. In CHC patients insulin resistance strongly influences the response to antiviral treatment in patients infected with genotype 1.

  4. Leptin and TNF-alpha levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their relationship to nutritional parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calikoglu, Mukadder; Sahin, Gulsah; Unlu, Ali; Ozturk, Candan; Tamer, Lülüfer; Ercan, Bahadir; Kanik, Arzu; Atik, Uğur

    2004-01-01

    -alpha and nutritional parameters in the three groups. In addition, while there was no correlation between leptin and TNF-alpha levels in the stable and control groups, a significant positive correlation was observed in patients with exacerbation. In conclusion (1) elevated TNF-alpha levels may be related to increased inflammation in patients, (2) circulating TNF-alpha levels were associated with increased leptin levels and (3) although leptin and nutritional parameters were correlated in the stable COPD patients, the correlation was weaker compared to controls, and during an exacerbation it disappeared completely. Therefore, inappropriately increased levels of leptin and TNF-alpha noted during recurrent acute exacerbations in patients with COPD may lead to changes in nutritional parameters and body weight in the course of the disease. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Serum leptin levels correlation with high blood pressure in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Z.; Shahid, K.U.; Mazahir, I.; Lakho, G.R.; Nafees, M.

    2006-01-01

    To measure serum leptin levels and compare them in lean and obese subjects and to identify correlation between serum leptin levels, heart rate and hypertension in lean and obese subjects among adult females. Seventy female subjects with different body mass indices were selected from OPD of Jinnah Medical and Dental College Hospital (OPD), Karachi. Heart rate was counted manually; blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer while serum leptin was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The outcomes hypertension and heart rate were correlated to risk factor leptin. Mean heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum leptin levels of obese people were 90+-1, 142+-2, 89+-1 and 24.13+-1.7 respectively, which were significantly higher as compared to lean subjects (p<0.05). All the parameters correlated positively and significantly with increasing BMI. There was a relationship of tachycardia and hypertension with high serum leptin levels in obesity. Serum leptin levels increase with the level of obesity. Hyper-leptinemia is associated with tachycardia and increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obesity via complex mechanisms. (author)

  6. Lipids and leptin level in natives of Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrakhimov, Erkin; Kerimkulova, Alina; Lunegova, Olga; Mirrakhimov, Aibek; Alibaeva, Nazira; Nabiev, Malik

    2014-04-01

    A possible link between obesity and impaired lipid metabolism is leptin, the 167-amino acid protein, secreted by adipocytes. The content of leptin in the body is closely associated with body mass index (BMI). Data obtained from studies on the association of leptin with dyslipidemia are contradictory. The level of leptin has not been studied in the ethnic Kyrgyz population previously. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leptin and lipid parameters in a group of ethnic Kyrgyz. The study included 322 ethnic Kyrgyz (145 males, 177 females) aged ≥30 years, living in Kyrgyzstan. Measurement of anthropometric parameters (height, weight, waist circumference [WC], hip circumference [HC]) and blood pressure (BP) was done. Laboratory tests included blood glucose (fasting) in plasma, lipid profile (total cholesterol [TC], triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol), and serum leptin. Leptin was positively correlated with BMI, WC and TG in both sexes and with TC in males. Leptin is associated with BMI, WC and TG in both sexes of Kyrgyz and with TC in Kyrgyz males.

  7. Thermogenic response and leptin levels rise after recovery of the euthyroid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, F; Ozgen, A Gökhan; Celebi, G; Pehlivan, M; Uluer, H; Yilmaz, C

    2010-04-01

    The aims of the study were to compare: a) the thermogenic responses in subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and euthyroid state; b) the relationship between thermogenic response and leptin level. Thirty women diagnosed with SH (mean age 39.9+/-4.1 yr; body mass index 23.2+/-2.5 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in the study. Thyroid function tests, leptin, and lipid profiles were measured during SH and after stable euthyroidism was recovered. Thermogenic response was measured by Water Immersion Calorimetry during SH and after the euthyroid state was attained. The mean level of thermogenic response was found to be 1.45+/-0.43 kcal/kg*h in women with SH. It changed to 1.54+/-0.77 kcal/kg*h (p=0.01) in the euthyroid state; the change was statistically significant. Mean level of leptin was found to be 7.22+/-2.6 ng/ml in SH; and 15.8+/-8.0 ng/ml in the euthyroid state. There was a positive correlation between leptin and free T(3) (r=0.460, p=0.009) levels in SH. There were positive correlations between leptin level and fat mass in SH (r=0.820, p=0.01) and in the euthyroid state (r=0.700, p=0.03). No correlations were found between thermogenic response and leptin levels in SH and in the euthyroid state. Thermogenic response and leptin levels rose after the euthyroid state was recovered.

  8. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

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    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  9. Comparative acute effects of leptin and insulin on gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis in perfused rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba-Murad, Glaucia Regina; Mario, Erica Guilhen; Bassoli, Bruna Kempfer; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; de Souza, Helenir Medri

    2005-01-01

    The acute effects of physiological levels of leptin (10 ng ml(-1)) and insulin (20 microU ml(-1)) on hepatic gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis were compared. Leptin or insulin alone decreased (p<0.05) the activation of hepatic glucose, L-lactate and urea production from L-alanine. However, the hepatic glucose production was not modified if leptin was combined with insulin. These results indicated that both, i.e. leptin and insulin, could promote a non-additive reduction in the rate of catabolism of L-alanine. However, in contrast with insulin (p<0.05), leptin did not inhibit the activation of hepatic glucose production from pyruvate or glycerol. On the other hand, activation of hepatic production of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate from octanoate was not affected by leptin or insulin. Thus, our data demonstrate that the acute effect of leptin on hepatic metabolism was partially similar to insulin (activation of glucose production from L-alanine and activation of acetoacetate or beta-hydroxybutyrate production from octanoate) and partially different from insulin (activation of glucose production from pyruvate or glycerol). Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effect of leptin level upon lipid metabolism in climacteric women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Lijing; Yan Ruming; Sun Enhua

    2005-01-01

    To observe the relationship between leptin and obesity of climacteric women with their lipid metabolism, 110 cases of climacteric women were chosen as observation group, consisting of 69 cases obese subgroup and 45 cases non-obese group, and 60 cases of normal reproduction- age women were arranged as control group. Blood levels of leptin, INS, LDL-C, TG, HDL-C, apoA1, apoB, LH, FSH, E-2, T, and P were detected and BMI was calculated. The results showed that blood levels of leptin and INS of obese subgroup were significantly higher than those of non-obese sub-group and control group(P<0.01), and that LDL-C(5.01 mmol/L), TG(2.21mmal/L) and apoB(0.89g/L) levels in obese subgroup were significantly higher than those of control group. Furthermore, an important observation was that in climacteric women group, blood leptin level was positively and significantly correlated with insulin, BMI and several atherogenic blood lipid parameters, including LDL-C, TG and apoB. Thus, a preliminary conclusion might be reached as that the high climacteric level of leptin is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism related to atherogenity, and so leptin and lipid metabolism as a whole should be paid more attention in climateric women, especially those with obesity. (authors)

  11. The Influence of Thyroid Hormones on Leptin and Resistin Levels in Hyperthyroid Female Patients

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    Al-Hindawi Sahar H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis occurs due to excess release of thyroid hormone. These hormones regulate the body’s energy balance and have effects on adipokine level. There are several reports suggesting interrelation between adipokines (resistin and leptin with thyroid dysfunction. Objectives: This study was established to investigate the effect of thyroid hormones in hyperthyroidism state on the level of some adipokines, leptin and resistin; in comparison with control. Patients and Methods: The present study included 50 Iraqi female patients with hyperthyroidism with age ranged between 30-58 years and 30 healthy controls with age ranged between 30-53 years. Serum samples were collected from study groups. The levels of thyroid hormones (TSH, T4 and T3 were determined by using automated Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA analysis system. Detection of leptin hormone and resistin hormone levels in the serum were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits. Results: The results revealed that serum leptin levels were significantly low (P<0.004 in hyperthyroid patient groups as compared to control, and there were significant negative correlations between T4 and leptin (P<0.0001; also, T3 and leptin (P<0.05. Resistin hormone level increased non-significantly (P˃0.05 than control level; and there was significant negative correlation between TSH and resistin (P<0.035. Conclusion: The study shows that there is complex interrelation between adipocytokines (leptin and resistin with thyroid gland and pituitary gland. Leptin levels were decreased in hyperthyroid patients than control and associated negatively with T4 and T3 levels, while resistin levels were increased non-significantly than control and associated negatively with TSH level. They affect each other in their physiological function in the human body.

  12. Effect of body mass index on serum leptin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.F.; Hassan, M.; Nazar, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Leptin is product of ob gene, an adipose tissue derived hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of body fat mass by regulating appetite and metabolism while balancing energy intake and energy expenditure. The objective of the study was to evaluate possible association between serum leptin levels and Body Mass Index (BMI) of gender in adult age group. Methods: Two-hundred-seventy subjects aged 20-50 years were randomly selected from general population of Abbottabad. The subjects were grouped on the basis on BMI (89 normal, 92 overweight, and 89 obese). After complete evaluation, demographic data was recorded and BMI. Non-fasting venous blood samples were drawn to measure serum leptin and serum glucose levels. The data were analysed using SPSS-15 calculating mean, percentage, independent t-test and chi-square test. Correlation and regression curve analysis were obtained, and p and r values were calculated. Results: Serum leptin levels and differences between genders were significant in all body mass indices. For normal BMI group the mean values for leptin were 2.6+-1.5 gamma g/ml in men, and 17.3+9-10.2 gamma g/ml for women. For Group-2 mean leptin levels in men were 9.9+-6.8 gamma g/ml and in women were 34.8+-13.6 gamma g/ml. For Group-3 BMI comprising obese subjects mean values for men were 21.3+-14.2 gamma g/ml and for women were 48.21+-21.2 gamma g/ml (p<0.001). Conclusion: A progressive increase in serum leptin concentration was observed with an increase in BMI. Significant difference between leptin concentrations in either gender was found in normal, overweight and obese subjects. (author)

  13. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered...

  14. High leptin levels are associated with migraine with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Claudia; Preisig, Martin; Castelao, Enrique; Glaus, Jennifer; Cunningham, Janet L; Del Zompo, Maria; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Schiöth, Helgi B; Mwinyi, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Background Migraine is a prevalent disorder characterised by recurrent headache attacks preceded or accompanied by aura in a subgroup of patients. Migraine often occurs together with major depressive disorder (MDD). Alterations of adipokine levels have been reported both in migraine and in MDD. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess the associations between serum leptin and adiponectin levels and migraine or migraine subtypes. Analyses were adjusted for a lifetime history of MDD in order to investigate the association between adipokines and migraine under consideration of depression status. Methods We included 3025 participants from the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study. The impact of leptin and adiponectin levels on a diagnosis of migraine was analysed by binary regression analyses, adjusting for variables known to influence adipokine levels. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on the presence of aura. Results Crude leptin levels were significantly higher in subjects with migraine than controls (Mann-Whitney U = 515,102, p = 6 × 10 -7 ). When performing adjusted analyses, leptin levels were found to be significantly higher in subjects with migraine (odds ratio = 1.22, p = 0.024) and migraine with aura (odds ratio = 1.34, p = 0.004). Conclusion High leptin levels might play a role in the pathogenesis of migraine and migraine with aura.

  15. Comparison of leptin protein levels in Prader-Willi syndrome and control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M G; Moore, J; Morawiecki, A; Nicolson, M

    1998-01-06

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by early childhood obesity, mental deficiency, hypogonadism, hypotonia, hypopigmentation, short stature, small hands and feet, and a characteristic face. It is the most common genetic cause of obesity and obesity is the most significant health problem for PWS patients. Ob protein (leptin), which is produced by adipose tissue, is thought to play a significant role in obesity; thus, unusually low plasma leptin levels, or relative loss of sensitivity to leptin in PWS subjects, could be an important factor in their obesity. We measured plasma leptin levels in 19 obese and 14 non-obese PWS patients [mean body mass index (BMI) 37.2 and 22.0, respectively] and compared these levels to those of 28 obese controls (mean BMI 35.5) and 16 non-obese control individuals (mean BMI 21.6). The mean plasma leptin concentration (ng/ml) for obese PWS subjects was 33.4 and 23.6 for non-obese PWS subjects. Obese control leptin was 36.2 ng/ml and non-obese control was 9.9. Among the control groups, leptin levels in females were significantly higher than those in males; the obese males and females had significantly higher leptin than their respective non-obese counterparts. These differences did not hold true for the PWS subjects. Leptin levels in obese PWS males and females were similar, and the same was true of the non-obese PWS males and females. The differences between obese and non-obese PWS subjects of both sexes were small and not significant. Comparing control groups with their PWS counterparts revealed no significant differences, with one exception: circulating plasma leptin levels in non-obese PWS males were nearly five times higher than in non-obese control males with similar BMI. This difference may reflect a more female pattern of fat distribution and hypogonadism, which are characteristic of PWS males. Leptin levels in PWS patients were not obviously correlated with the chromosome 15 finding seen in the patients.

  16. Influence of weeks of circadian misalignment on leptin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Nguyen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available June Nguyen, Kenneth P Wright JrDepartment of Integrative Physiology, Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USAAbstract: The neurobiology of circadian, wakefulness–sleep, and feeding systems interact to influence energy homeostasis. Sleep and circadian disruptions are reported to be associated with increased risk of diabetes and obesity, yet the roles of energy balance hormones in these associations are largely unknown. Therefore, in the current study we aimed to assess the influence of several weeks of circadian misalignment (sleep and wakefulness occurring at an inappropriate biological time on the anorexigenic adipocyte hormone leptin. We utilized data from a previous study designed to assess physiological and cognitive consequences of changes in day length and light exposure as may occur during space flight, including exploration class space missions and exposure to the Martian Sol (day length. We hypothesized that circadian misalignment during an exploration class spaceflight simulation would reduce leptin levels. Following a three-week ~8 hours per night home sleep schedule, 14 healthy participants lived in the laboratory for more than one month. After baseline data collection, participants were scheduled to either 24.0 or 24.6 hours of wakefulness–sleep schedules for 25 days. Changes in the phase of the circadian melatonin rhythm, sleep, and leptin levels were assessed. Half of participants analyzed exhibited circadian misalignment with an average change in phase angle from baseline of ~4 hours and these participants showed reduced leptin levels, sleep latency, stage 2 and total sleep time (7.3 to 6.6 hours and increased wakefulness after sleep onset (all P < 0.05. The control group remained synchronized and showed significant increases in sleep latency and leptin levels. Our findings indicate that weeks of circadian misalignment, such as that which occurs in circadian sleep disorders, alters leptin

  17. Analysis of changes of serum leptin, C-peptide levels and peripheral fat tissue leptin receptor expression in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Sun Junjiang; Wang Shukui; Fu Lei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the mechanism of obesity and obesity accompanied type two diabetes mellitus by investigating changes of serum leptin, C-peptide (C-P) levels and leptin receptor expression in peripheral adipose tissues. Methods: Peripheral leptin receptor density was measured via radio-ligand binding method, serum leptin and C - P levels were measured via radioimmunoassay in 91 cases (38 in obesity group, 23 in over weight, and 30 in normal controls). Results: With the increase of body mass index (BMI), the peripheral leptin receptor density of the over weight and obese cases decreased and was mash less than that of normal cases (both p<0.01, respectively). There was no statistical differences for Kd value among the three groups, suggesting no associated change between the binding ability of leptin receptor to its ligand. There was a negative correlation between BMI and leptin receptor density (r = -0.70, p < 0.01). The serum leptin and C-P levels in weight excess and obese subjects with type two DM were both increased, but significantly higher in obese group than those in weight excess group (p < 0.01). The increase of C-P was much marked than that of leptin. Serum C-P level was positively correlated with BMI. Conclusion: Changes of serum leptin, C-P levels and peripheral leptin receptor expression in cases with simple obesity and obesity accompanied with type two DM were related closely with BMI. Type 2 DM in obese subjects was related with leptin resistance and insulin resistance

  18. Kadar leptin saliva dan kejadian karies gigi anak obesitas (Salivary leptin levels and caries incidence in obese children

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    Elfrida Atzmaryanni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with obesity have a lower incidence of caries. Salivary leptin levels of obese children is higher than normal children. Leptin is protein hormone, contained in saliva. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Purpose: The article was aimed to study the correlation of salivary leptin levels with caries incidence in obese children. Review: Mouth is reflection of the health status and so many changes occur as a weight gain. Child with obesity has a low incidence of caries than normal. This condition is associated with changes in oral cavity, especially the increase in salivary leptin. Caries is a disease of hard tissues cause by the activty of microorganisms, especially Streptococcus mutans. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Leptin is a protein saliva, produced predominantly in adipose tissue and conduct active transport to saliva. Salivary leptin works in two ways: as an antimicrobial which prevents the attachment of bacteria on tooth surface or by inducing cytokine that affect the immune system in oral cavity. Conclusion: Salivary leptin is higher in obese children than in normal children. The low incidence of caries on obesity is associated with salivary leptin. Alteration in salivary composition and flow rate also decreased caries in obesity.Latar belakang: Anak yang mengalami obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah. Kadar leptin saliva anak obesitas lebih tinggi dari anak normal. Leptin merupakan salah satu protein hormon yang terdapat di saliva. Protein saliva berfungsi untuk menjaga keseimbangan ekosistem di mulut. Tujuan: Artikel ini bertujuan mempelajari hubungan antara kadar leptin di dalam saliva dengan kejadian karies anak obesitas. Tinjauan pustaka: Rongga mulut merupakan cerminan dari status kesehatan dan banyak perubahan yang terjadi seiring peningkatan berat badan seseorang. Anak Obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah jika dibandingkan

  19. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    difference especially in late puberty and adolescence, even after adjustment for BMI or percent body fat; 3) the lower levels in males may be explained at least in part by a suppressive effect of androgens; 4) reference ranges with BMI as the independent variable should be stratified according to gender......Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is thought to play a key role in the regulation of body fat mass. Beyond this function, it appears to be an integral component of various hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine feedback loops. Because childhood and puberty are periods of major metabolic and endocrine...... changes, leptin levels and various hormonal parameters were investigated in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (312 males, 401 females, age 5.8-19.9 yr). For this purpose, a specific and sensitive RIA was developed that allowed the accurate measurement of low leptin levels in young lean...

  20. The association of serum leptin levels with metabolic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Pi Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a 167-amino-acid protein released by white adipose tissue and encoded by the obese gene. It has a role as a negative regulator of appetite control through sending a satiety signal to act on receptors within the hypothalamus. At normal levels, leptin can exert its effects on weight regulation according to white fat mass, induce sodium excretion, maintain vascular tone, and repair the myocardium. Beyond these effects, elevated serum leptin levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and multiple cardiovascular diseases. In addition, hyperleptinemia had been reported to contribute to renal diseases through multiple mechanisms resulting in glomerulopathy presenting with a decreased glomerular filtration rate, increased albuminuria, and related clinical symptoms, which are pathophysiological features of chronic kidney disease. Because these cardiovascular and metabolic disorders are great challenges for physicians, understanding the related pathophysiological association with leptin might become a valuable aid in handling patients in daily clinical practice. This review will discuss the roles of leptin in the regulation of biological functions of multiple organs beyond the maintenance of feeding and metabolism.

  1. Serum Leptin and Adiponectin Levels in Obese and Nonobese Asthmatic School Children in relation to Asthma Control

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    Atqah Abdul Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of a positive correlation between asthma and obesity in children and adults. Leptin and adiponectin regulate several metabolic and inflammatory functions. This study aims to evaluate serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations in asthmatic school children to investigate their association with obesity and the degree of asthma control. Obese asthmatic (OA and nonobese asthmatic (NOA children, aged 7 to 14, were randomly enrolled in this prospective study. Data on demographic, anthropometric, serum lipids, and spirometric measures and allergy status were collected and analyzed. Serum leptin was significantly higher (25.8±11.1 versus 8.7±11.1; P<0.0001 and adiponectin levels were lower (2.5±1.2 versus 5.4±2.9; P<0.0001 in OA compared to NOA children. The uncontrolled group had higher leptin and lower adiponectin levels compared to well and partially controlled asthma. BMI was positively correlated with leptin (r=0.79; P<0.001 and negatively with adiponectin (r=-0.73; P<0.001. Mean BMI and leptin levels were observed to be higher in girls compared to boys. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher BMI and female gender had significant effect on serum leptin levels. Among asthmatic children higher serum leptin and lower adiponectin levels were significantly associated with obesity and showed no significant association with degree of asthma controls.

  2. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    increase in girls between 2.51 micrograms/L (median) at Tanner stage 1 to 6.24 micrograms/L at Tanner stage 5. In boys, leptin levels were highest at Tanner stage 2 (2.19 micrograms/L) and declined thereafter to 0.71 microgram/L at Tanner stage 5. A strong exponential relationship was observed for leptin...... levels with body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat as determined by bioelectric impedance measurements in a subgroup of subjects. This relationship was similar between boys and girls at Tanner stages 1 and 2. In boys, there was a significant decline of leptin at a given BMI with further......, but not in girls, there was an inverse correlation with testosterone concentrations (r = -0.43, P model. Since BMI proved to be the major influencing variable, reference ranges were constructed using a best-fit regression...

  3. Increased leptin levels in preeclampsia: associations with BMI, estrogen and SHBG levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acromite, Michael; Ziotopoulou, Mary; Orlova, Christine; Mantzoros, Christos

    2004-01-01

    Leptin is secreted mainly by the white adipose tissue but is also synthesized in several non-adipose tissue organs including the placenta. Serum leptin levels are increased in normal pregnancies and are higher in preeclamptic than normal pregnant women. There is, however, a lack of empirical evidence of an independent association of serum leptin levels and preeclamsia. We have studied cross-sectionally 18 3rd trimester preeclamptic women, 28 3rd trimester and 30 2nd trimester control women to confirm the reported increase of serum leptin in preeclampsia and to assess whether elevated leptin levels in preeclampsia increase the variance explained by body mass index (BMI), androgens, estrogens and/or sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Anthropometric, demographic and hormonal data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression models. Leptin is significantly increased in preeclampsia by univariate analysis, but use of multivariate analysis indicates that the elevated leptin levels are not associated with preeclampsia independently from BMI, estrogens and SHBG. This study confirms that leptin levels are higher in women with preeclampsia than in controls and demonstrates that serum leptin levels do not add to the prediction of preeclampsia after accounting for BMI, estrogen and SHBG levels of preeclamptic women.

  4. Serum leptin as an indicator of fat levels in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, M Colter; Phillips, Shannon P; Whisnant, Scott; Tyndall, James; Lashley, Marcus A; DePerno, Christopher S

    2014-10-01

    Leptin is a hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake, appetite, and metabolism. In some mammals, leptin has been shown to circulate at levels proportional to body fat, which could make it useful for nonlethal evaluation of body condition. Leptin's usefulness for estimating fat levels (i.e., body condition) of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is unknown. We quantified serum leptin concentrations in a sample of free-ranging, female deer collected in July 2008 and March 2009 from coastal North Carolina, USA. We compared leptin concentrations with kidney fat index, femur marrow fat index, and kidney fat mass. Additionally, we assessed differences in leptin concentrations between the two seasons, lactating and nonlactating females, and gestating and nongestating females. Leptin concentrations were similar between seasons but were lower in lactating and gestating females. We did not detect significant relationships between leptin and the body fat metrics, indicating that leptin may have limited value for estimating fat reserves in white-tailed deer.

  5. The influence of overweight and obesity on longitudinal trends in maternal serum leptin levels during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vinod K; Trudeau, Sheri

    2011-02-01

    Maternal obesity influences a number of metabolic factors that can affect the course of pregnancy. Among these factors, leptin plays an important role in energy metabolism and fetal development during pregnancy. Our objective was to estimate the influence of maternal overweight/obesity on variation in the maternal serum leptin profile during pregnancy. In a prospective cohort of 143 adult gravidas with singleton pregnancies presenting for general prenatal care, we measured serum leptin levels at 6-10, 10-14, 16-20, 22-26, and 32-36 weeks' gestation. The longitudinal effects of maternal prepregnancy BMI, categorized as nonoverweight (≤ 26.0 kg/m(2)) and overweight/obese (>26.0 kg/m(2)), on serum leptin concentration were analyzed using linear mixed models. Overweight/obese women had significantly higher serum leptin concentrations than their nonoverweight counterparts throughout pregnancy (P influence leptin concentrations in overweight/obese women compared to normal-weight women during pregnancy. Such factors may contribute to differences in the intrauterine environment and its influence on pregnancy outcomes in the two groups.

  6. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin as biomarkers of proteinuria in lupus nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Diaz-Rizo

    Full Text Available There are controversial results about the role of serum leptin and adiponectin levels as biomarkers of the severity of proteinuria in lupus nephritis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with severity of proteinuria secondary to lupus nephritis (LN.In a cross-sectional study, 103 women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE were evaluated for kidney involvement. We compared 30 SLE patients with LN, all of them with proteinuria, versus 73 SLE patients without renal involvement (no LN. A comprehensive set of clinical and laboratory variables was assessed, including serum levels of leptin and adiponectin by ELISA. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for potential confounders associated with proteinuria in LN.We found higher adiponectin levels in the LN group compared with the no LN group (20.4 ± 10.3 vs 15.6 ± 7.8 μg/mL; p = 0.02, whereas no differences were observed in leptin levels (33.3 ± 31.4 vs 22.5 ± 25.5 ng/mL; p = 0.07. Severity of proteinuria correlated with an increase in adiponectin levels (r = 0.31; p = 0.001, but no correlation was observed with leptin. Adiponectin levels were not related to anti-dsDNA or anti-nucleosome antibodies. In the logistic regression, adiponectin levels were associated with a high risk of proteinuria in SLE (OR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.12; p = 0.02. Instead, leptin was not associated with LN.These findings indicate that adiponectin levels are useful markers associated with proteinuria in LN. Further longitudinal studies are required to identify if these levels are predictive of renal relapse.

  7. Obesity, Serum Resistin and Leptin Levels Linked to Coronary Artery Disease

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    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Clinical studies have demonstrated that adipocytokines play an important role in developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Objective: The aim of study was to evaluate the relationship between serum resistin and leptin levels with obesity and coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the levels of serum resistin and leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP, lipid profile and cardiac enzyme tests (AST, CPK, LDH, CK-MB in 40 CAD patients compared to 40 healthy controls. Anthropometric measurements including weight and height for calculating of body mass index (BMI, and waist circumference (WC were performed for evaluation of obesity. Results: CAD patients had increased levels of leptin and CRP, (p < 0.001, cholesterol (p < 0.05, triglyceride (p < 0.01, and WC (p < 0.05 compared to healthy controls. There was no statistical difference between CAD and control subjects for resistin (p = 0.058. In a multiple regression analysis, only an association between serum leptin with BMI (β = 0.480, p < 0.05 and WC (β = 1.386, p < 0.05 was found. Conclusions: The findings suggest that leptin is a better marker of fat mass value than resistin and may be considered an independent risk factor for cardiac disorders that is largely dependent on obesity. However, further prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.

  8. Child-Pugh classification dependent alterations in serum leptin levels among cirrhotic patients: a case controlled study

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    Zeyrek Fadile

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As anorexia and hypermetabolism are common in cirrhosis, leptin levels may be increased in this disease. In this study, we investigated the relation between the severity of disease and serum leptin levels in post-hepatitis cirrhosis and the role of body composition, gender and viral aetiology of cirrhosis in this association. Methods Thirty-five cases with post-hepatitis cirrhosis and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Body composition including body mass index, body fat percentage and body fat mass were determined. Serum leptin levels were assayed. Results Leptin levels were significantly higher among cirrhotic patients independent of sex compared to controls (p = 0.001. Female patients in both groups have had higher leptin levels than males (in cirrhotics p = 0.029, in controls p = 0.02. Cirrhotic patients in each of A, B and C subgroups according to the Child- Pugh classification revealed significantly different levels compared to controls (p = 0.046, p = 0.004, p = 0.0001, respectively. Male cirrhotics in Child-Pugh Class B and C subgroups had significantly higher leptin levels compared to male controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.008. On the other hand, female patients only in Child Pugh class C subgroup have had higher levels of serum leptin compared to controls (p = 0.022. Child-Pugh classification has been found to be the sole discriminator in determination of leptin levels in cirrhotics by linear regression (beta: 0.435 p = 0.015. Conclusion Serum leptin levels increase in advanced liver disease independently of gender, body composition in posthepatitic cirrhosis. The increase is more abundant among patients that belong to C subgroup according to the Child- Pugh classification.

  9. Changes in plasma ghrelin and leptin levels in patients with peptic ulcer and gastritis following eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Chika; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Moritani, Isao; Tanaka, Junichiro; Oya, Yumi; Inoue, Hidekazu; Tameda, Masahiko; Shiraki, Katsuya; Ito, Masaaki; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Takase, Kojiro

    2016-10-04

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and eradication therapy have been known to influence gastric ghrelin and leptin secretion, which may lead to weight gain. However, the exact relationship between plasma ghrelin/leptin levels and H. pylori infection has remained controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma ghrelin and leptin levels in H. pylori-positive and -negative patients, to compare the two levels of the hormones before and after H. pylori eradication, and to examine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and active ghrelin or leptin levels, as well as that between atrophic pattern and active ghrelin or leptin levels. Seventy-two H. pylori-positive patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 46 diagnosed as having peptic ulcer and 26 as atrophic gastritis, were enrolled. Control samples were obtained from 15 healthy H. pylori-negative volunteers. The extent of atrophic change of the gastric mucosa was assessed endoscopically. Body weight was measured and blood was collected before and 12 weeks after H. pylori eradication therapy. Blood samples were taken between 8 and 10 AM after an overnight fast. Plasma ghrelin levels were significantly lower in H. pylori-positive patients than in H. pylori-negative patients. In particular, plasma active ghrelin levels were significantly lower in patients with gastritis compared with patients with peptic ulcer. Plasma ghrelin levels decreased after H. pylori eradication in both peptic ulcer and gastritis patients, while plasma leptin levels increased only in peptic ulcer patients. Plasma leptin levels and BMI were positively correlated, and active ghrelin levels and atrophic pattern were weakly negatively correlated in peptic ulcer patients. H. pylori infection and eradication therapy may affect circulating ghrelin/leptin levels. This finding suggests a relationship between gastric mucosal injury induced by H. pylori infection and changes in plasma ghrelin and leptin levels.

  10. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is thought to play a key role in the regulation of body fat mass. Beyond this function, it appears to be an integral component of various hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine feedback loops. Because childhood and puberty are periods of major metabolic and endocrine...... increase in girls between 2.51 micrograms/L (median) at Tanner stage 1 to 6.24 micrograms/L at Tanner stage 5. In boys, leptin levels were highest at Tanner stage 2 (2.19 micrograms/L) and declined thereafter to 0.71 microgram/L at Tanner stage 5. A strong exponential relationship was observed for leptin...... levels with body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat as determined by bioelectric impedance measurements in a subgroup of subjects. This relationship was similar between boys and girls at Tanner stages 1 and 2. In boys, there was a significant decline of leptin at a given BMI with further...

  11. Adrenomedullin and leptin levels in diabetic retinopathy and retinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Hamdi; Doğanay, Selim; Ozerol, Elif; Yürekli, Muhittin

    2005-01-01

    Proliferative and vascular retinal diseases are important cause of irreversible blindness. Consistent features of these diseases are endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis. Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a multifunctional vasorelaxant peptide. Leptin is a recently discovered metabolic peptide that regulates energy metabolism in human. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the possible roles of adrenomedullin and leptin in the pathophysiology of diabetic and proliferative diseases. Ten patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (57.1 years, 5 female and 5 male) and 8 patients (51 years, 5 female and 3 male) with other retinal diseases including macular hole and epiretinal membrane were included in this study. All the patients had undergone pars plana vitrectomy for complications of the diseases. Vitreous samples were collected by vitreous tap during the vitrectomy. Adrenomedullin analysis was made by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Leptin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Body mass index (BMI) [weight (kg)/height (m2)] was calculated for each group. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistics. The age, gender ratio and BMI were not substantially different between the two groups. The mean vitreous adrenomedullin levels (63.9+/-7.1 pmol/l) were significantly higher (pdiabetic retinopathy than in those without diabetes (1.83+/-0.5 ng/ml). Increased adrenomedullin and leptin levels in vitreous humor might be a possible newly associated factor in the course of vascular and proliferative retinal diseases. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Positive correlation of serum leptin with estradiol levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Mendonça H.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS usually are obese, insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic. The known association between leptin, obesity andinsulin action suggests that leptin may have a role in PCOS but this has only been addressed peripherally. This study was designed to assess the relationship between serum leptin and the anthropometric, metabolic and endocrine variables of obese (body mass index, BMI ³30 kg/m² and non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m² PCOS patients. Twenty-eight PCOS patients and 24 control women subdivided into obese and non-obese groups were evaluated. Leptin, androgens, lipids, gonadotrophins and insulin-glucose response to the oral glucose tolerance test were measured by radioimmunoassay in all participants. The assays were done all in one time. The areas under the insulin curve (AUC-I and the glycemia curve were calculated to identify patients with insulin resistance. Mean leptin levels were not significantly higher in patients with PCOS compared to the control group (21.2 ± 10.2 vs 27.3 ± 12.4 ng/ml. Leptin levels were found to be significantly higher in the obese subgroups both in patients with PCOS (26.9 ± 9.3 vs 14.1 ± 7.0 ng/ml and in the control group (37.3 ± 15.5 vs 12.9 ± 5.8 ng/ml. The leptin of the PCOS group was correlated with BMI (r = 0.74; P < 0.0001 and estradiol (r = 0.48; P < 0.008 and tended to be correlated with the AUC-I (r = 0.36; P = 0.05. Of the parameters which showed a correlation with leptin in PCOS, only estradiol and probably insulinemia (AUC-I did not show a significant correlation with BMI, suggesting that the other parameters were correlated with leptin due to their correlation with BMI. Estradiol correlated with leptin in PCOS patients regardless of their weight.

  13. Insulin and leptin levels in overweight and normal-weight Iranian adolescents: The CASPIAN-III study

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    Ehsan Bahrami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we aim to compare insulin and leptin levels in adolescents with or without excess weight and in those with or without abdominal obesity. Materials and Methods : This case-control study was conducted among 486 samples. We randomly selected 243 overweight and an equal number of normal-weight adolescents from among participants of the third survey of a national surveillance program entitled "Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non-communicable diseases study." Serum insulin and leptin were compared between two groups and their correlation was determined with other variables. Results: The mean age and body mass index (BMI of participants were 14.10 ± 2.82 years and 22.12 ± 6.49 kg/m 2 , respectively. Leptin and insulin levels were higher in overweight than in normal-weight adolescents (P < 0.05. Leptin level was higher in children with abdominal obesity than in their other counterparts (P < 0.001. Leptin level was correlated with age, fasting blood glucose, BMI, and insulin level. Conclusion: Insulin and leptin levels were higher among overweight and obese children, which may reflect insulin and leptin-resistance. Given the complications of excess weight from early life, prevention and controlling childhood obesity should be considered as a health priority.

  14. Serum Leptin Levels in Women with Immunological Recurrent Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Saeed; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh; Arefi, Soheila; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Idali, Farah; Tavangar, Banafsheh; Savadi Shiraz, Elham; Moshref Behzad, Narges; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recurrent abortion (RA) may be a consequence of aberrant expression of immunological factors during pregnancy. Although the relative importance of immunological factors in human reproduction remains controversial, substantial evidence suggests that autoantibodies contribute to reproductive failure. Production of such antibodies is under the control of cytokines; and leptin, besides its role in reproductive success, has a profound effect on directing the cytokine profile toward Th1 (cellular) pattern. Therefore, the present study was performed to assess serum leptin levels in women with immunological recurrent abortion. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 250 women who attended Avicenna Infertility Clinic with RA were screened for known causes of abortion from July to December 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Eighty-one patients with normal karyotypes and hormonal profile with normal ovaries and uterus and no signs of infection were categorized as patients with immunological (IRA, n = 39) or unexplained (URA, n = 42) recurrent abortion based on presence or absence of autoantibodies. After blood sampling, levels of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), lupus anti-coagulant antibody (LACAb), anti-phospholipid antibody (APA), anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACA), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and anti-thrombin III antibody (ATIIIAb) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). Results In IRA group, 9 (23.1%), 24 (61.5%), 25(64.1%) and 1 (2.6%) women were above the normal cut-off point for ANA, TgAbs, TPOAbs and AT-III Abs, respectively. IRA patients had normal values of LACAbs, APA and ACA. With normal level of fasting blood sugar (FBS), IRA and URA groups had similar serum leptin levels (23.7 ± 13.2 ng/ml vs. 22.7 ± 12.5 ng/ml, respectively). Serum leptin concentrations showed a positive correlation with weight

  15. The effect of hemodialysis on the levels of plasma leptin and serum neuropeptide Y in uremia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Liu Yan; Zhuang Wenqing

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the changes of plasma leptin and serum neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in uremia patients after hemodialysis and to discuss the efficient method on improving uremia malnutrition. 69 uremia patients were divided into 3 groups: Group A with 32 patients using low- flux cellulosic dialyzer, Group B with 21 patients using low-flux polysulfone dialyzer(F6), and Group C with 16 patients using high-flux polysulfone dialyzer(F60) and blood dialyzer. 18 healthy volunteers were chosen as the control group. The plasma leptin and serum NPY levels were detected by RIA in uremia patients before and after dialysis and in control group. Compared with control, all uremia patients had obviously higher leptin and NPY levels before dialysis (P<0.01); Leptin and NPY levels in group A and B did not change after dialysis. The leptin levels were significantly decreased in group C after dialysis (P<0.05), but NPY levels did not change. There was no correlation between higher levels of leptin and NPY in uremia patients. They could not be cleared by hemodialysis alone. Hemo-filtration with high flux polysulfone dialyzer could increase the clearance efficiency of leptin and improve nutritional conditions for uremia patients. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of Serum Homocysteine and Leptin Levels in Patients with Uveitis

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    Arif Emre Elbay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the serum homocysteine (Hcy and leptin levels in patients with uveitis. Materials and Methods: The 70 cases included in the study comprised 3 groups: patients with Behçet’s uveitis (BU, patients with non-Behçet’s uveitis (NBU and healthy controls. Body mass index was calculated for each subject. Serum Hcy and leptin levels were measured. Furthermore, acute-phase reactants including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count were measured. Results: Serum Hcy levels were 15.04±4.59 µmol/L in the BU group, 15.4±6.87 µmol/L in the NBU group and 13.64±4.72 µmol/L in the control group (p>0.05. The serum leptin levels of male patients in the BU group, NBU group and control group were 4.76±3.54 ng/ml, 6.33±3.74 ng/ml and 5.47±6.33 ng/ml, respectively (p>0.05. When we compared serum leptin levels in female patients and controls, the mean serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in female BU and NBU patients (24.83±17.62 ng/ml and 28.46±13.90 ng/ml, respectively than in healthy control volunteers (9.62±6.36 ng/ml, p<0.05. In addition, the ESR value differences between groups were statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: A larger case series is necessary to investigate serum Hcy and leptin concentrations in uveitis patients. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 146-151

  17. Diurnal intermittent fasting during Ramadan: the effects on leptin and ghrelin levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Alzoghaibi

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess the effect of Islamic intermittent fasting, during and outside of Ramadan, on plasma levels of leptin and ghrelin while controlling for several potential confounding variables. Eight healthy male volunteers with a mean age of 26.6±4.9 years reported to the sleep disorders center (SDC at King Saud University on four occasions: 1 adaptation; 2 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing Islamic fasting for 1 week (baseline fasting (BLF; 3 1 week before Ramadan (non-fasting baseline (BL; and 4 during the second week of Ramadan while fasting. Plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00. During BLF, there were significant reductions in plasma leptin concentrations at 22:00 and 02:00 compared with the baseline concentrations (at 22:00: 194.2±177.2 vs. 146.7±174.5; at 02:00: 203.8±189.5 vs. 168.1±178.1; p<0.05. During Ramadan, there was a significant reduction in plasma leptin levels at 22:00 (194.2±177.2 vs. 132.6±130.4, p<0.05. No significant difference in plasma ghrelin concentrations was detected during the BL, BLF, or Ramadan periods. Cosinor analyses of leptin and ghrelin plasma levels revealed no significant changes in the acrophases of the hormones during the three periods. The nocturnal reduction in plasma leptin levels during fasting may be the result of the changes in meal times during fasting.

  18. Leptin and ghrelin levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukavak Ciftci, Tansu; Kokturk, Oguz; Bukan, Neslihan; Bilgihan, Ayse

    2005-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone with well-investigated functions concerning body composition, energy homeostasis and feeding behavior in humans. The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is strongly associated with obesity, which is known to be closely associated with hyperleptinemia. More recently, ghrelin, a hormone that also influences appetite and energy homeostasis, has been discovered. The aim of this study was to investigate serum leptin and ghrelin levels in obese patients with OSAS in comparison with equally obese controls without OSAS. Thirty untreated obese patients with moderate-severe OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index: AHI > or =15) and 22 obese controls (AHI <5) were studied. To confirm the diagnosis, all patients underwent standard polysomnography in our sleep disorders center. Serum samples were taken at 08:00 h in the morning after overnight fasting. Significantly higher serum leptin levels were found in OSAS patients compared to controls (p = 0.012), but there was no significant difference in serum ghrelin levels between OSAS patients and controls. Serum leptin levels were significantly correlated with body mass index in both OSAS patients (r = 0.55, p = 0.002) and controls (r = 0.46, p = 0.028), but only in OSAS patients was the leptin level significantly correlated with AHI (r = 0.38, p = 0.036). These data support findings suggesting that leptin is a hormonal factor affected by OSAS and not determined by obesity alone. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between serum ghrelin and OSAS. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Prenatal caffeine exposure induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin mainly via placental mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yi-meng; Luo, Han-wen; Kou, Hao; Wen, Yin-xian; Shen, Lang; Pei, Ling-guo; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yuan-zhen; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    It's known that blood leptin level is reduced in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) fetus, and placental leptin is the major source of fetal blood leptin. This study aimed to investigate the decreased fetal blood leptin level by prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) and its underlying placental mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30–120 mg/kg day) from gestational day 9 to 20. The level of fetal serum leptin and the expression of placental leptin-related genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduced placental leptin's expression by treatment with caffeine (0.8–20 μM) in the BeWo cells. In vivo, PCE significantly decreased fetal serum leptin level in caffeine dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, placental mRNA expression of adenosine A2a receptor (Adora2a), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a short-type leptin receptor (Ob-Ra) and leptin was reduced in the PCE groups. In vitro, caffeine significantly decreased the mRNA expression of leptin, CREB and ADORA2A in concentration and time-dependent manners. The addition of ADORA2A agonist or adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist reversed the inhibition of leptin expression induced by caffeine. PCE induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin, which the primary mechanism is that caffeine inhibited antagonized Adora2a and AC activities to decreased cAMP synthesis, thus inhibited the expression of the transcription factor CREB and target gene leptin in the placenta. Meantime, the reduced transportation of maternal leptin by placental Ob-Ra also contributed to the reduced fetal blood leptin. Together, PCE decreased fetal blood leptin mainly via reducing the expression and transportation of leptin in the placenta. - Highlights: • Caffeine reduced fetal blood leptin level. • Caffeine inhibited placental leptin production and transport. • Caffeine down-regulated placental leptin expression via antagonizing ADORA2. • Caffeine

  20. Clinical significance of changes of serum leptin and insulin levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhaojun; Zhang Lahong; Gao Ying; Ren Xiaohua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the serum leptin, insulin levels and development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: Serum leptin and insulin levels (with RIA) were determined in 34 patients with PCOS and 30 controls. Results: The serum leptin and insulin levels in the 34 PCOS patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0. 01), and those in obese patients (n=22) were significantly higher than those in non-obese ones (n=12) too(P<0.01). Conclusion: Changes of serum leptin and insulin levels were closely related to the development of PCOS and leptin might be used as a diagnostic indicator for PCOS. (authors)

  1. Plasma resistin, adiponectin and leptin levels in relation to insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue regulates insulin sensitivity via the circulating adipo cytokines, adiponectin, resistin and leptin. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin in lean and obese subjects and determine the relationship between circulating adipocytokines and insulin resistance. We examined plasma levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin in 20 lean subjects with mean body mass index (BMI) of 24, and, 36 nondiabetic obese individuals with mean BMI 34. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-R) formula derived from fasting insulin and glucose levels. Resistin levels were not significantly different between the two groups but were significantly higher in women compared with men, 30.4±6.5 vs. 14.4±2.9 mg/l, P<0.01. Resistin did not correlate with BMI but did significantly correlate with HOMA-R, P < 0.01, and this correlation remained significant after adjustment for gender and BMI. Adiponectin levels were significantly reduced in obese compared with lean subjects, P < 0.005 and higher in women, P< 0.001. Adiponectin levels showed significant correlation with HOMA-R and this correlation remained significant after adjustment for gender and BMI. Leptin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects and women and correlated with resistin, but, didn't correlate with HOMA-R. In this small group of patients we demonstrated that insulin resistance correlated most strongly and reciprocally with adiponectin levels. Significant correlation between resistin levels and insulin resistance was also observed. Although a similar trend was apparent for leptin, the correlation with insulin resistance did not achieve statistical significance

  2. Changes of serum leptin and other related hormones levels in simple obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jinhua; Wang Yaping; Xu Yan; Gao Yufeng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To measure the serum leptin concentration in simple obese children together with other four kinds of related hormones. Methods: Serum Leptin, Ins, T 3 , T 4 and GH levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in thirty-eight obese children and thirty healthy controls. Results: The levels of serum leptin, Ins and T 3 in obese group were dramatically higher than those in control group (all P 4 concentration between simple obese children and control group (P > 0.05), Serum GH levels was significantly decreased in simple obese children (P < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between serum leptin levels and lns levels (r = 0.46, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In simple obese children there were leptin resistance and endocrine metabolic disturbances, the later might be correlated with the increasing of serum leptin levels; It is suggested that Leptin resistance might play a key role in the development of obesity

  3. Study of Serum Levels of Leptin, C-Reactive Protein and Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Hassanpour, Zahra; Pourmofatteh, Mahla

    2015-08-01

    Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and decreases appetite. However, the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of hemodialysis (HD)-related malnutrition has not been fully evaluated. The aim of study was to investigate the association between the serum leptin levels, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and nutritional status in hemodialysis patients. This analytical descriptive study included 45 hemodialysis patients and 40 healthy subjects. Biochemical parameters and serum leptin levels were measured. The nutritional status was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the calculation of the body mass index (BMI). Serum leptin (P nutritional factors in hemodialysis patients.

  4. Does tibolone affect serum leptin levels and body weight in postmenopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol, Mert; Ozsener, Serdar; Sendag, Fatih; Uretmen, Sevinç; Oztekin, Kemal; Tanyalcin, Tijen; Bilgin, Onur

    2005-07-01

    Leptin has a significant role in body weight regulation and energy balance. We examined the effect of tibolone on the body weight and serum leptin levels in postmenopausal women. Twenty women (aged 43-60 years) participated in this prospective study. All women in this study protocol received 2.5 mg/day of tibolone. Absolute and body mass index (BMI)-corrected serum leptin concentrations and BMI values were measured at baseline, after 3 months, and after 6 months of the tibolone therapy. Tibolone did not affect absolute and BMI-corrected serum leptin levels, and BMI values during the treatment. A significant linear correlation between BMI values and serum leptin levels was observed (p<0.05, r=0.67). Tibolone seems not to affect serum leptin levels, body weight and BMI values of postmenopausal women. There is a significant correlation between serum leptin levels and BMI values.

  5. The serum levels of adiponectin and leptin in mustard lung patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni Yazdi, H; Lari, S M; Attaran, D; Ayatollahi, H; Mohsenizadeh, A

    2014-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to sulfur mustard (SM), known as mustard lung, is an important late pulmonary complication of SM poisoning. Due to the possible role of systemic inflammation in mustard lung, we evaluated the serum levels of adiponectin and leptin in these patients. Thirty nonsmoker mustard lung patients in stable phase were enrolled into this study. Also, 30 COPD and 21 healthy participants were entered as control groups. Complete lung function tests were performed in the participants. The serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were measured in all groups. There were no statistically significant differences in mean adiponectin and leptin levels among the groups (p = 0.38 and p = 0.35, respectively). There was a downward trend in leptin to adiponectin ratio from lower to higher stages of global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease guidelines in mustard lung patients, which was not statistically significant (p = 0.8). Our results showed that there is no difference in mean adipokine levels in stable mustard lung patients compared with control groups. There was a foot-point in the alterations of serum adipokines regarding the severity of COPD, which needs to be documented by larger sample group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  7. Evidence that plasma leptin and insulin levels are associated with body adiposity via different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M W; Prigeon, R L; Kahn, S E; Nicolson, M; Moore, J; Morawiecki, A; Boyko, E J; Porte, D

    1997-09-01

    Like insulin, the adipocyte hormone, leptin, circulates at levels proportionate to body adiposity. Because insulin may regulate leptin secretion, we sought to determine if plasma leptin levels are coupled to body adiposity via changes in circulating insulin levels or insulin sensitivity and whether leptin secretion from adipocytes is impaired in subjects with NIDDM. We used multiple linear regression to analyze relationships between BMI (a measure of body adiposity) and fasting plasma levels of leptin and insulin in 98 nondiabetic human subjects (68 men/30 women) and 38 subjects with NIDDM (27 men/11 women). The insulin sensitivity index (Si) was also determined in a subset of nondiabetic subjects (n = 38). Fasting plasma leptin concentrations were correlated to both BMI (r = 0.66, P = 0.0001) and fasting plasma insulin levels (r = 0.65, P = 0.0001) in nondiabetic men and women (r = 0.58, P = 0.0009 for BMI; r = 0.47, P = 0.01 for insulin). While the plasma leptin level was also inversely related to Si (r = -0.35; P = 0.03), this association was dependent on BMI, whereas the association between insulin and Si was not. Conversely, the relationship between plasma leptin and BMI was independent of Si, whereas that between insulin and BMI was dependent on Si. The relationship between plasma leptin levels and BMI did not differ significantly among NIDDM subjects from that observed in nondiabetic subjects. We conclude that 1) body adiposity, sex, and the fasting insulin level are independently associated with plasma leptin level; 2) because NIDDM does not influence leptin levels, obesity associated with NIDDM is unlikely to result from impaired leptin secretion; and 3) insulin sensitivity contributes to the association between body adiposity and plasma levels of insulin, but not leptin. The mechanisms underlying the association between body adiposity and circulating levels of these two hormones, therefore, appear to be different.

  8. Elevated circulating leptin levels in arterial hypertension: relationship to arteriovenous overflow and extraction of leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Holst, J J; Møller, Søren

    2000-01-01

    concentrations in such patients could be caused by altered rates of production or disposal, or both, the aim of the present study was to identify regions of leptin overflow into the bloodstream and of leptin extraction. Patients with arterial hypertension (n=12) and normotensive controls (n=20) were studied...

  9. Serum leptin levels in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, F F; Schmitz, O; Vestergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin is an important weight regulator and during pregnancy leptin is not only synthesized in adipose tissue but also in the placenta. AIM: To examine changes in serum leptin levels in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and post delivery in relation to concomitant...... changes in maternal body weight, birth weight, glycemic control, and blood pressure. METHODS: Non-fasting serum leptin from 45 women with type 1 diabetes mellitus were studied consecutively throughout pregnancy and 3 months post partum. RESULTS: Serum leptin was positively associated with HbA1c in week 18...... of serum leptin throughout pregnancy and it changed significantly differently from the women with higher blood pressure (pserum leptin levels of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus were associated with parallel changes in maternal body weight and glycemic control...

  10. Relationship between expression of leptin receptors mRNA in breast tissue, plasma leptin level in breast cancer patients with obesity and clinical pathologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunrui; Liu Wenli; Sun Hanying; Zhou Jianfeng

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression of leptin receptors mRNA in breast tissue and plasma leptin levels in breast cancer patients with obesity and their relationship with clinical pathologic data, 124 subjects who were either obesity or had suffered from breast benign disease with obesity, or breast cancer with obesity were entered into this study. The levels of plasma leptin in all subjects were determined and leptin receptors mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-PCR in breast tissue of breast cancer patients with obesity and breast benign disease with obesity. The results showed that plasma leptin levels in breast cancer patients with obesity were significantly higher than those in breast benign disease with obesity and obesity patients alone (P<0.05). The expression of the leptin receptor long form [-Lep-R(L)-] mRNA and the leptin receptor short form [-Lep-R(S)-] mRNA in breast tissue of breast cancer patients with obesity were significantly higher than that in breast tissue of breast benign disease patients with obesity (P<0.05). The plasma leptin level had remarkable positive correlation with the expressions of the Lep-R(L) mRNA and the Lep-R(S) mRNA. The plasma leptin level and leptin receptors mRNA expression levels in patients were not correlated with the axillary node metastasis, menopause, the TNM stage or pathological type. Therefore, leptin may have a promoting effect on the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. (authors)

  11. Low leptin levels predict amenorrhea in underweight and eating disordered females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köpp, W; Blum, W F; von Prittwitz, S; Ziegler, A; Lübbert, H; Emons, G; Herzog, W; Herpertz, S; Deter, H C; Remschmidt, H; Hebebrand, J

    1997-07-01

    Evidence that leptin plays an important role in reproductive function is accumulating rapidly. We hypothesized that low leptin synthesis is associated with amenorrhea. We therefore determined serum leptin levels in 43 underweight female students, who were screened for lifetime occurrence of amenorrhea. We assessed the predictive value of leptin, body mass index (BMI), fat mass and percent body fat, respectively, for lifetime occurrence of amenorrea. Factors predicting amenorrhea were tested for their capability to predict current amenorrhea in a second cohort of 63 inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN). Furthermore, the relationships between serum leptin levels and of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and progesterone, respectively, were evaluated. Only leptin predicted lifetime occurrence of amenorrhea in the student cohort. The critical leptin level was in the range of 1.85 micrograms L-1. This level served to largely separate anorectic from bulimic patients. In patients with AN mean serum log10 leptin levels over the first 4 weeks of inpatient treatment were correlated with mean FSH, LH and estradiol levels, respectively. Evidently, a critical leptin level is needed to maintain menstruation. In affluent populations eating disorders are likely to be a major cause of a low leptin synthesis.

  12. Placental ghrelin and leptin expression and cord blood ghrelin, adiponectin, leptin, and C-peptide levels in severe maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allbrand, Marianne; Åman, Jan; Lodefalk, Maria

    2017-08-08

    The purpose of this study is to investigate placental ghrelin and leptin expression as well as cord blood ghrelin and adiponectin levels in maternal obesity and associations between placental ghrelin expression, cord blood ghrelin levels and maternal and infant variables. Placental ghrelin and leptin expression were analyzed by RT-PCR in 32 severely obese and 32 matched normal-weight women. Cord blood ghrelin, adiponectin, leptin, and C-peptide concentrations were analyzed by ELISA. Neither ghrelin nor leptin expression and neither cord blood ghrelin nor adiponectin levels differed between the groups. Placental ghrelin expression was associated with BMI at delivery in the obese women (r = 0.424, p = .016) and in the infants born to normal-weight women with their weight z-scores at six (r = -0.642, p = .010), nine (r = -0.441, p = .015), and 12 months of age (r = -0.402, p = .028). Placental ghrelin and leptin expression as well as cord blood ghrelin and adiponectin levels do not seem to be altered in severe maternal obesity. Placenta-derived ghrelin may influence the infants' postnatal weight gain, but possibly only when the mother has normal weight.

  13. The effect of four weeks restricted diet on serum soluble leptin receptor levels and adipocyte leptin receptor density in normoweight rattus norvegicus strain Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Indra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the five possible mechanisms of leptin resistance in human obesity is the defect in the leptin receptor (Ob-R. Evidence has accumulated that leptin-binding activity in human serum is related to a soluble form of the leptin receptor, and restriction of energy intake resulted a decrease in circulating leptin levels. Aim of this study is to examine the difference of serum soluble leptin receptor level and leptin receptor density in rat adipose tissue of adventitial aorta after four weeks treated with different restricted diets. Soluble leptin receptor level was measured by ELISA and leptin receptor density by using immuno-histochemistry. The soluble leptin receptor in group treated with 40% of normal daily calori diet was found significantly lower than control (p = 0.02. There were no any significant differences among group treated with 40 % of normal daily calori diet, “1 day fast-1day eat”, and ”1day fast-2 days eat” groups, and among 1 day fast-1 day eat”, ”day fast - 2 days eat” and control groups as well. On the other hand, leptin receptor density in adipose tissues was higher in restricted diet group than control. Diet of 40 % normal daily calorie for 4 weeks decreased soluble leptin receptor level, but increased adipocyte leptin receptor density of the adipose tissue of rat adventitial aorta. These changes may be resulted from an up regulation mechanism in relation with homeostatic maintenance. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:145-50 Keywords: restricted diet, leptin receptor, soluble leptin receptor, adipocyte, obesity

  14. The observation of leptin levels in pregnant women newborn and newborn's weight and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Gengbiao; Xiao Jin; Shi Xin; Chen Xuehong

    2002-01-01

    To study the relationship of leptin quantity of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, maternal blood and newborn's weight, leptin levels of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood of 59 pregnant women were detected by RIA. Results were: (1) leptin was be detected from placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood; (2) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood (P < 0.01); (3) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood for normal pregnant women and pregnancy induced hypertension (P < 0.01); (4) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of maternal blood and placenta (P < 0.01). It may be of important significance to detect eh leptin quantity of amniotic fluid and maternal blood in pregnant women for predicting the weight and growth of newborns and treat pregnancy induced hypertension

  15. Study on the relationship between serum levels of leptin thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Pingan; Zhai Chuntao; Yuan Sufen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between serum levels of leptin and thyroid functional status. Methods: Serum leptin (with RIA) and pituitary-thyroid axis hormones (with CLIA) were measured in 75 euthyroid controls, 44 hyperthyroid subjects and 27 hypothyroid subjects. Results: The levels of leptin in euthyroid controls, hyperthyroid subjects and hypothyroid subjects were (5.40 ± 3.78) ng/ml, (5.99 ± 5.24) ng/ml and (5.59 ± 4.23) ng/ml respectively with no significant differences among them. The serum leptin levels were positively correlated with serum TSH levels (r=0.27, P<0.01). Conclusion: Thyroid function has no effect on serum leptin levels and TSH levels correlates closely with those of serum leptin. (authors)

  16. Leptin Levels and Nutritional Status of Indigenous Tepehuán and Mestizo Subjects in Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo Guzmán, Dealmy; Marchat Marchau, Laurence Annie; Reyes, José L.; Loera Castañeda, Verónica; Sosa Macías, Martha; García Vivas, Jessica; Asseff, Ismael Lares

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in nutritional status and their association with circulating leptin levels in the indigenous Tepehuán people of Mezquital Durango and Mestizo populations of Durango City, Mexico. A group of 128 volunteers aged 18 through 59 years were recruited for the study: 60 indigenous Tepehuán from Mezquital and 68 Mestizo individuals from Durango City. The classification of nutritional status was through body mass index (BMI). Clinical evaluations, including anthropometry and lipid profiles, were performed to ascertain the health of the participants. Circulating leptin levels were determined in blood samples after at 08 hours of fasting. The healthy subjects were classified according to BMI: 32 Tepehuán and 30 Mestizo subjects were of normal weight (NW), and 28 Tepehuán and 38 Mestizo subjects were overweight or obese (OW/O). Both NW and OW/O Tepehuán subjects showed lower leptin concentrations than the comparable Mestizo subjects. Statistical analysis showed a negative Pearson's correlation (r = −0.5; P < 0.05) between BMI and leptin levels in NW Tepehuán subjects, but no significant correlation was found in other groups. The differences found in Tepehuán compared with Mestizo subjects might be explained by poor nutritional status, which leads to scarce adipose tissue and low levels of leptin synthesis. Leptin concentration and its relationship to BMI are associated with ethnicity. PMID:24825928

  17. Assessment of leptin and resistin levels in non-obese multiple myeloma patients and their relation with Ig level and disease stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esheba, N.E.; Shahba, A.; El Shora, O.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for approximately 0.8% of all cancer diagnoses and 0.9% of cancer deaths. Leptin receptors were expressed on CD34 + cells. Resistin receptors were expressed on inflammatory cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines increase the expression of resistin on monocytes. Aim of work: To assess the level of leptin and resistin in non-obese multiple myeloma patients and to study their relation with Ig level and disease stage. Subjects and methods: 32 subjects were included; 16 patients diagnosed with MM and 16 healthy individuals served as control. All were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, routine laboratory investigations and leptin and resistin blood level. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis and staging for MM patients. Results: Leptin was significantly higher in MM patients compared with the control group, unlike resistin which showed no significant difference between the two groups. A significant positive relation was found between IgG level and leptin. Similarly, a significant difference in leptin level has been observed between stage I and stage II (higher in II). Conclusions: Leptin may play a role in the pathogenesis of MM and its level may be changed in different stages.

  18. A cross-over trial on soy intake and serum leptin levels in women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soy consumption may affect serum leptin levels and exert its beneficial effects in this way. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of soy consumption on serum leptin levels in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Methods: In this clinical trial, 42 postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome were included. The patients followed three kinds of diets: control diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension= DASH, soy protein diet, or soy nut diet for eight weeks. Serum leptin level was measured by ELISA method. Results: No significant weight change were seen in patients during three phases of trial. There was no significant difference between the end values of serum leptin concentrations following these diets (Geometric mean ± SD: 16.9 ± 2.5 ng/ml at the end of control diet, 16.1 ± 1.6 ng/ml at the end of soy protein diet, and 15.9 ± 1.7 ng/ml at the end of soy nut diet. Percent difference compared to control for serum leptin levels showed that neither soy protein nor soy nut diets could significantly alter this variable (p = 0.32. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that neither soy protein, nor soy nut could affect weight and serum leptin levels in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

  19. Serum leptin level and its significance in chronic renal failure hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; You Yuping; Chen Weizhen; Mo Congjian

    2003-01-01

    To study serum leptin level in chronic renal failure (CRF) hemodialysis patients and the relationship between serum leptin level and residue renal function, body composition, and indices of malnutrition, 31 end-stage CRF hemodialysis patients and 38 healthy people were enrolled. Serum leptin levels were detected by radioimmunoassay. BMI, %Fat and LBM were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis device. Alb, Chol, Hgb, BUN, SCr and Ccr of the patients were also examined. Results showed that Serum leptin level in end-stage CRF hemodialysis patients was markedly higher than that in healthy controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Hyperleptinemia existed in end-stage CRF hemodialysis patients and might cause the loss of LBM. The leptin level was not correlated with residue renal function, but it could reflect the fat content. However, serum leptin did not play a significant role in protein malnutrition in end-stage CRF hemodialysis patients

  20. Gender differences in leptin levels and physiology: a role for leptin in human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, M; Van Gaal, L

    1999-01-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone known to play an important role in body-weight regulation, has been shown to be expressed differentially in men and women. These observations are potentially important for the understanding of differences between men and women in regulation of food intake, weight gain, and body fat distribution. Leptin is also involved in female fertility, especially in pubertal development. It may well be the triggering signal for the onset of puberty in girls. Although the exact mechanisms and interactions with sex steroids are not yet fully established, it is clear that leptin plays a role as an endocrine mediator in sexual development and reproduction.

  1. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Magistrelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower (p < 0.05 than that observed in raw milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower (p < 0.0001 than those of full-cream UHT and full-cream pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower (p < 0.0001 than in full-cream UHT milk. Leptin was correlated (p < 0.001 with lipid content. Leptin level of infant formulas was not different to that of skimmed milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP OF SERUM LEPTIN AND PLASMA APELIN LEVELS IN MEN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fedotova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome is seen as a  cluster of high cardiovascular risk factors. New hormone-like substances, such as adipokines leptin and apelin, produced by fat tissue, are important for the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome.Aim: To evaluate levels of plasma apelin and serum leptin in patients with metabolic syndrome.Materials and methods: We examined 122 male patients with metabolic syndrome and 30 healthy males aged from 25 to 60 years. All patients were assessed accordingly to confirm the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome, with additional measurements of serum leptin and plasma apelin.Results: Serum leptin levels were 10-fold higher and plasma apelin levels 3-fold higher in patients with metabolic syndrome (n=122, compared to the controls (n=30: 25.43 vs. 3.99 ng/mL (p<0.05 and 1.13 vs. 0.66 ng/mL (p<0.05, respectively. Serum leptin levels correlated with all parameters of the excess body weight, such as body mass (r=0.79, р<0.05, body mass index (r=0.93, р<0.05, waist circumference (r=0.61, р<0.05, hip circumference (r=0.57, р<0.05, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; r=0.4, р<0.05. Plasma apelin levels correlated with the waist circumference (r=0.27, р<0.05 and WHR (r=0.29, р<0.05. There was a significant increase of serum leptin dependent on the bodyweight category: 19.8 ng/mL in patients with obesity Grade I  (n=49 and 28.7  ng/mL in those with obesity Grade II (n=46 (р<0.05. There was a  non-significant trend towards an increase in plasma apelin depending on bodyweight. As far as abdominal obesity is concerned, in patients with WHR<1 (n=35, plasma apelin level was 0.36  ng/mL, whereas in those with WHR of ≥1 (n=87, it was 3-fold higher (1.09 ng/mL, р<0.05; the increase in serum leptin levels was non-significant. There was no association between plasma apelin and serum leptin in patients with metabolic syndrome (r=0.1, р>0.05.Conclusion: The adipokine levels in men with metabolic syndrome are

  3. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligand rosiglitazone modulates bronchoalveolar lavage levels of leptin, adiponectin, and inflammatory cytokines in lean and obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguin, Fernando; Rojas, Mauricio; Hart, C Michael

    2007-12-01

    Obese mice that lack leptin receptor (db (-) /db (-)) have been shown to have innate bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). It has been proposed that the obesity-mediated BHR may involve a combination of increased leptin and reduced systemic adiponectin levels. The aim of this study was to determine if obesity modifies the airway concentration of leptin and adiponectin and whether treatment with a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligand can reduce airway leptin and increase airway adiponectin. In this study, obese, leptin receptor-deficient (db (-) /db (-)), or lean (db ( + ) /db (-)) mice were treated with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg/day) or vehicle by gavage daily for 1 week. Bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) was subsequently performed to determine levels of leptin, adiponectin, and inflammatory cytokines. Treatment with rosiglitazone increased BAL adiponectin levels in lean (p = 0.04) and to a lesser extent in obese mice (p = 0.07). Rosiglitazone treatment lowered leptin levels in lean mice, but increased leptin levels in BAL fluid of obese mice (p < 0.01). The BAL levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were lower in the lean rosiglitazone-treated group compared with the obese vehicle-treated group and lower in the obese rosiglitazone-treated group compared with the obese vehicle-treated group. These results demonstrate that obesity is associated with alterations in adipokine and cytokine levels in the airways that can be modulated by treatment with roziglitazone.

  4. Levels of leptin and IL-6 in lungs and blood are associated with the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients and rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rui; Zhang, Wei; Song, Ya-Mei

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare leptin and interleukin (IL)-6 expression in patients and rat models with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Leptin and IL-6 levels were determined in patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD), stable COPD and in healthy controls. Rat models of COPD were developed, histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed and leptin and IL-6 levels were determined. Leptin and IL-6 levels in the serum and sputum were higher in patients with AECOPD compared with stable COPD and control patients. In rats, leptin and IL-6 were expressed in bronchial epithelial and inflammatory cells, while leptin expression was observed in alveolar cells and IL-6 expression in blood vessel cells only. Serum levels of leptin and IL-6 were significantly higher in COPD1 and COPD2 rats compared with the control rats, and were even higher in COPD1 rats than COPD2 rats. In conclusion, leptin and IL-6 levels were demonstrated to be associated with the severity of COPD.

  5. Effects of Metformin on Serum Levels of Secreted Klotho and Leptin in PCOS Women

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    Savadali Saifi Novashnag

    2016-07-01

    Patients’ weights showed some decline. Fasting plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance decreased significantly (p<0.01. Hormonal assays indicated significant decrease in leptin and insulin levels and rise in Klotho levels. BMIs did not change meaningfully. Measurements of leptin and klotho levels showed a decrease in mean leptin levels from 34.74 to 28.41 ng/l and the level of klotho increased from 4.01 to 5.43 ng/l. Conclusion: This study showed that metformin treatment can cause a rise in klotho and a decrease in leptin levels without considerable effects on the weights of women with PCOS. Probably, leptin exerts its physiological effects in low concentrations while klotho in contrast acts physiologically in higher concentrations.

  6. Plasma leptin and insulin-like growth factor I levels during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kythreotis, Prokopis; Kokkini, Ageliki; Avgeropoulou, Stavrina; Hadjioannou, Argyro; Anastasakou, Efgenia; Rasidakis, Antonis; Bakakos, Petros

    2009-04-05

    Recent studies have provided evidence for a link between leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mediates the metabolic effects of growth hormone (GH). The GH axis is believed to be suppressed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study is to find out whether acute exacerbations of COPD are followed by changes in plasma leptin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and furthermore, whether these changes are related to systemic inflammation. We measured serum leptin, IGF-I, TNF-alpha, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) levels in 52 COPD patients with acute exacerbation on admission to hospital (Day 1) and two weeks later (Day 15). 25 healthy age-matched subjects served as controls. COPD patients were also divided into two subgroups (29 with chronic bronchitis and 23 with emphysema). Serum leptin and IGF-I were measured by radioimmunoassay and TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured by ELISA. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher and serum IGF-I levels significantly lower in COPD patients on Day 1 than in healthy controls (p leptin and TNF-alpha on Day 1 (r = 0.620, p leptin levels along with decreased IGF-I levels occurred during acute exacerbations of COPD. Compared to chronic bronchitis, patients with emphysema had lower circulating IGF-I levels both at the onset of the exacerbation and two weeks later.

  7. Serum levels of leptin in Nigerian patients with sickle cell anaemia

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    Aina Ayoola O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that the pathophysiology of homozygous sickle cell anaemia (SCA results in a myriad of metabolic, nutritional, haematological and clinical effects that interact with other co-morbid factors to determine the quality of life and life expectancy of afflicted patients. Because of its critical roles in nutrition and metabolism, inflammation, haematopoiesis and cellular immunity, this study determined the plasma levels of leptin in steady and unsteady states of HbSS in Nigerian patients. Methods A total of 51 SCA patients aged 5 - 35 years with 34 (61.8% being females who were either on admission or visiting four medical centres in Lagos, Nigeria together with 22 non-SCD controls aged 5 -30 years comprising 12 (54.5% females were enrolled after obtaining their informed consent and ethical approval. Patients were further stratified into steady and unsteady cases of SCA based on clinical presentations, while blood samples collected by venipuncture from each of the study participants were analyzed haematologically for full blood count and HbF level and microscopically for malaria, while plasma leptin was assayed using ELISA method. Body composition defined by weight, fat mass and body mass index (BMI was determined using standard methods. Data obtained for cases and controls were analyzed statistically. Results Twenty - one patients had unsteady HbSS and elicited greater and significant (P P. falciparum parasitaemia (4613.7 vs. 749.6 - 1078.4 parasites/uL, pyrexia rate (58.3 vs. 25.8% when compared with steady state patients or non-SCD controls. Compared to the control, significant decreases in plasma leptin before and after controlling for body fat that was worsened by crisis were observed among the SCD patients. Unlike the non-SCD controls, leptin correlated non-significantly (P > 0.05 with all body composition indices measured in the patients except for fat mass in unsteady cases. Multivariate regression

  8. Measurement of serum leptin levels in polycystic ovary syndrome with hyperandrogenemia and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yande; Zhang Zhiping; Lu Gen; Luo Beilei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the serum leptin concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with hyperandrogenemia (HA) and its relationship with testosterone (T) level and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Serum leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 53 patients with PCOS, in which 36 cases were of the in non-obesity group and 17 cases in obese group. 30 non-obese cases and 20 obese cases without PCOS served as controls. Results: The levels of leptin in PCOS with HA in obese and non-obese group were significantly higher than those in control group (all p < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between serum leptin levels and testosterone levels in both groups (r = 0.51, p < 0.01 and r = 0.58, p < 0.01). No correlation existed between serum leptin levels and body mass index (BMI) in PCOS patients of non-obese group but there was positive correlation in obesity group (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). Conclusion: High serum leptin levels is one of the characteristic in PCOS patients. The HA in PCOS patients is related to serum leptin levels and heavyweight or obese patients have the phenomenon of leptin resistance

  9. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, Damiano; Rosi, Fabia

    2014-07-23

    In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower ( p raw milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower ( p pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower ( p milk. Leptin was correlated ( p milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT) is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  10. Assessment of leptin and resistin levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumor-Kisielewska, Anna; Kierszniewska-Stępień, Dorota; Pietras, Tadeusz; Kroczyńska-Bednarek, Jadwiga; Kurmanowska, Zofia; Antczak, Adam; Górski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common chronic lung disease in the world. The increasing severity of inflammatory processes in the respiratory tract leads to exacerbation of COPD. This process may be associated with changes in the synthesis of adipokines, the peptides that participate in immune processes. The aim of this study was to identify more sensitive and specific laboratory markers useful in diagnosing inflammatory processes in patients with COPD. The study involved 33 patients with COPD without exacerbation. During the previous year, 1 episode of exacerbation was reported in 15 patients and no exacerbations were reported in the remaining 18 patients. Serum concentrations of adipokines were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In patients with COPD, we observed a 2-fold increase in leptin levels compared with healthy controls (18.8 ±10.2 ng/ml vs. 9.06 ±4.33 ng/ml; P = 0.042). Mean resistin levels in these patients were also 2-fold higher than those in controls (8.24 ±4.18 ng/ml vs. 3.58 ±1.51 ng/ml, respectively; P = 0.027). Significant positive correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin as well as CRP and resistin levels were observed in patients with COPD (r = 0.75 and r = 0.83, respectively; P leptin levels either in patients with COPD or in healthy controls. A significant increase in leptin and resistin levels in patients with COPD may suggest that these adipokines are involved in the inflammatory process underlying the disease.

  11. Gender differences of cannabis smoking on serum leptin levels: population-based study

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    Fernanda P. Moreira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the serum leptin levels in cannabis smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based study of participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic data and the use of psychoactive substances. Leptin levels were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Results: Of the 911 participants, 6.7% were identified as cannabis smokers and had significantly lower leptin levels (p = 0.008. When stratified by gender, there was a significant decrease in leptin levels among male smokers (p = 0.039. Conclusion: Cannabis smoking was linked to leptin levels in men, suggesting that the response to biological signals may be different between men and women.

  12. Gender differences of cannabis smoking on serum leptin levels: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fernanda P; Wiener, Carolina D; Oliveira, Jacqueline F de; Souza, Luciano D M; da Silva, Ricardo A; Portela, Luis V; Lara, Diogo R; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the serum leptin levels in cannabis smokers. This was a cross-sectional population-based study of participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic data and the use of psychoactive substances. Leptin levels were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Of the 911 participants, 6.7% were identified as cannabis smokers and had significantly lower leptin levels (p = 0.008). When stratified by gender, there was a significant decrease in leptin levels among male smokers (p = 0.039). Cannabis smoking was linked to leptin levels in men, suggesting that the response to biological signals may be different between men and women.

  13. Leptin level correlates with obesity and health related quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Abhishek; Kant, Surya; Tiwari, Sunita; Agarwal, Sarita; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2015-04-01

    Leptin takes part in regulation of energy balance, neuronal functions, pain and mood. It may act as intermediary marker for various components of HRQOL in patients of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. To document the correlation among leptin levels, obesity and HRQoL in OSAS patients. A tertiary care hospital based cross-sectional study was done in 224 subjects aged 18-65 years, after taking informed consent. Subjects with previous history of smoking, Liver disease, COPD, CHD, T2 DM, asthma, cancer, end stage renal disease, heart failure, any endocrine disorder including Cushing syndrome, thyroid, on systemic steroid or any continuous medication for last 6 months, on dieting or suffering from any disability condition (other than obesity and OSAS) affecting their HRQoL were excluded from the study. All subjects underwent Polysomnography. Leptin assay was done by ELISA method. Hindi version of HRQoL tool SF-36 was used to evaluate HRQoL. SPSS 20 was used to analyse data. Three groups (AHI 15) were compared. Significant differences were observed in BMI, NC, WC, WHR and ESS. Differences were not significant in sleep architecture and Leptin level. SF-36 HRQoL, scores were observed decreased with increase in severity of disease. Leptin level was found significantly correlated with "Role limitations due to physical health problems", "Social functioning", Hypopnea and obesity indices. In these subjects Obesity indices are the most important correlates of Leptin level. Oxygen desaturation indices with exception of Hypopnea and HRQoL may not be exclusively correlated to leptin levels. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High Leptin Level Attenuates Embryo Development in Overweight/Obese Infertile Women by Inhibiting Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis in Granule Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xian-Hua; Wang, Hui; Wu, Dan-Dan; Ullah, Kamran; Yu, Tian-Tian; Ur Rahman, Tanzil; Huang, He-Feng

    2017-07-01

    Obesity appears to be associated with female reproductive dysfunction and infertility. Women with obesity undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) had poor oocyte quality, decreased embryo development, and poor pregnancy outcome. However, the mechanism linking obesity to poor reproductive outcomes is still unclear. Obesity is frequently accompanied with elevated leptin levels. Here we aimed to evaluate the effect of high leptin level in follicular fluid (FF) on the proliferation and apoptosis in granule cells and correlate these findings with poor reproductive outcomes in infertile women with overweight or obesity who underwent IVF treatment. We investigated clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates in 189 infertile women who underwent IVF. Leptin levels were quantified in peripheral blood and FF as well. In vitro cell model was used to explore the potential effect of high leptin on the proliferation and apoptosis in granulosa cells. Results showed reduced clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates in overweight/obesity women who underwent IVF compared to control with normal BMI. On the other hand, leptin levels presented significant increase in peripheral blood and FF in overweight/obese women. Leptin level in FF was negatively correlated to good quality embryo rate. Importantly, in vitro study showed that leptin inhibited cells proliferation and promoted apoptosis by upregulation of caspase-3 and downregulation of Bcl-2 in granulosa cells in a dose dependent manner. These observations suggest that leptin may acts as a local mediator to attenuate embryo development and reduce fertility in obese patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Psychobiology of purging disorder: reduction in circulating leptin levels in purging disorder in comparison with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, David C; Wolfe, Barbara E; Carroll, Devon P; Keel, Pamela K

    2010-11-01

    Purging disorder (PD), a recently recognized eating disorder syndrome, is differentiated from bulimia nervosa (BN) based on the absence of objectively large binge episodes. BN has been associated with low serum leptin levels. This study examined whether PD is also characterized by low serum leptin. Participants included women with PD (n = 20) or BN (n = 37), and non-eating disorder controls (n = 33). Blood samples for measurement of leptin and total ghrelin were obtained after overnight fast. In comparison with control values, leptin levels were significantly decreased in PD (p < .01), as well as in BN (p < .02). Plasma ghrelin levels did not differ significantly across groups. These results provide the first evidence that PD is associated with alteration in a neurobiological pathway influencing eating patterns and body weight. Further research is needed to assess whether low leptin levels in PD and BN are associated with restrained eating and weight suppression. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Study on the relationship between serum leptin level and ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Nanping; Hu Chengjing; Wang Ruishan; Yin Qiuxia; Niu Aijun; Xue Lian; Xue Shenwu; Chen Qing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the inter-relationship among serum leptin insulin resistance and blood lipids, and to explore the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (ICVD). Methods: Levels of serum leptin, insulin and blood lipids were determined with RIA in 131 patients with different types of ICVD and 36 controls. Results: The levels of serum leptin in ICVD patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). Changes of blood lipids and insulin paralleled those of leptin (cxcept with HDL-C). The serum leptin were positively correlated to cholesterol, TG and insulin levels (r=0.45, P<0.05; r=0.31, P<0.05, r=0.55, P<0.01), but negatively correlated to HDL-C (r=-0.88, P<0.05). Conclusion: The high expression of leptin in ICVD patients is associated with high lipid and insulin levels. The close relationship among them indicates that high leptin levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome as well as atheromatous cerebrovascular diseases. (authors)

  17. Smoking is Associated with Reduced Leptin and Neuropeptide Y Levels and Higher Pain Experience in Patients with Fibromyalgia

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    Maria I. Bokarewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking deregulates neuroendocrine responses to pain supporting production of neuropeptide Y (NpY by direct stimulation of nicotinic receptors or by inhibiting adipokine leptin. Present study addressed the effect of cigarette smoking on adipokines and pain parameters, in 62 women with fibromyalgia (FM pain syndrome with unknown etiology. Pain was characterized by a visual analogue scale, tender point (TP counts, pressure pain threshold, and neuroendocrine markers NpY and substance P (sP. Levels of IGF-1, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and adiponectin were measured in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Current smokers (n=18 had lower levels of leptin compared to ex-smokers (n=25, P=0.002, while the expected NpY increase was absent in FM patients. In smokers, this was transcribed in higher VAS-pain (P=0.04 and TP count (P=0.03, lower pain threshold (P=0.01, since NpY levels were directly related to the pain threshold (rho=0.414 and inversely related to TP counts (rho=-0.375. This study shows that patients with FM have no increase of NpY levels in response to smoking despite the low levels of leptin. Deregulation of the balance between leptin and neuropeptide Y may be one of the essential mechanisms of chronic pain in FM.

  18. Leptin levels are associated with fat oxidation and dietary-induced weight loss in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C; Toubro, S; Buemann, B

    2001-01-01

    To examine the relationship between fasting plasma leptin and 24-hour energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation, and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) in obese subjects before and after a major weight reduction compared with normal weight controls. To test fasting plasma leptin, substrate...... oxidations, and SPA as predictive markers of success during a standardized weight loss intervention....

  19. Leptin levels are associated with fat oxidation and dietary-induced weight loss in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C; Toubro, S; Buemann, B

    2001-01-01

    To examine the relationship between fasting plasma leptin and 24-hour energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation, and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) in obese subjects before and after a major weight reduction compared with normal weight controls. To test fasting plasma leptin, substrate ox...... oxidations, and SPA as predictive markers of success during a standardized weight loss intervention....

  20. Diurnal Intermittent Fasting during Ramadan: The Effects on Leptin and Ghrelin Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoghaibi, Mohammed A.; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Sharif, Munir M.; BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of Islamic intermittent fasting, during and outside of Ramadan, on plasma levels of leptin and ghrelin while controlling for several potential confounding variables. Eight healthy male volunteers with a mean age of 26.6±4.9 years reported to the sleep disorders center (SDC) at King Saud University on four occasions: 1) adaptation; 2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing Islamic fasting for 1 week (baseline fasting) (BLF); 3) 1 week before Ramadan (non-fasting baseline) (BL); and 4) during the second week of Ramadan while fasting. Plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00. During BLF, there were significant reductions in plasma leptin concentrations at 22:00 and 02:00 compared with the baseline concentrations (at 22:00: 194.2±177.2 vs. 146.7±174.5; at 02:00: 203.8±189.5 vs. 168.1±178.1; pfasting may be the result of the changes in meal times during fasting. PMID:24637892

  1. Diurnal intermittent fasting during Ramadan: the effects on leptin and ghrelin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoghaibi, Mohammed A; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Sharif, Munir M; BaHammam, Ahmed S

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of Islamic intermittent fasting, during and outside of Ramadan, on plasma levels of leptin and ghrelin while controlling for several potential confounding variables. Eight healthy male volunteers with a mean age of 26.6±4.9 years reported to the sleep disorders center (SDC) at King Saud University on four occasions: 1) adaptation; 2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing Islamic fasting for 1 week (baseline fasting) (BLF); 3) 1 week before Ramadan (non-fasting baseline) (BL); and 4) during the second week of Ramadan while fasting. Plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00. During BLF, there were significant reductions in plasma leptin concentrations at 22:00 and 02:00 compared with the baseline concentrations (at 22:00: 194.2±177.2 vs. 146.7±174.5; at 02:00: 203.8±189.5 vs. 168.1±178.1; pfasting may be the result of the changes in meal times during fasting.

  2. The influence of childhood protein energy malnutrition on serum ghrelin and leptin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a clinical problem caused by inadequate intake of one or more nutritional elements and remains as one of the most important health problems in developing countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of PEM on ghrelin and leptin levels and to determine the relationships of ghrelin and leptin concentrations with anthropometric measurements in malnourished children. The study group consisted of 24 infants diagnosed as PEM. They were classified into marasmic group (10), kwashiorkor group (8) and marasmic kwashiorkor group (b). Ten healthy infants were enrolled as the control group. Serum ghrelin was evaluated by enzyme linked immuno absorbent assay (ELISA) while serum leptin was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Patients with PEM established a significantly lower midarm circumference, skin fold thickness, (W/A) Z, (W/H) Z, BMI, total proteins, serum albumin, cholesterol and triglycerides compared with the age-matched control group. Markedly elevated mean serum ghrelin levels (448.7± 185.82, 293.83±155.02 and 354.1±90.1 vs 20.97± 8.61 pg/ml, p

  3. GENDER DISTINCTIONS OF MICROALBUMINURIA AND ITS RELATION TO INTRARENAL HEMODYNAMIC AND LEPTIN LEVEL IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

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    V. I. Podzolkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess an incidence of microalbuminuria (MAU depending on gender and its relation to intrarenal hemodynamic, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and leptin serum level in essential hypertension (HT. Material and methods. 149 patients (61 men and 88 women, aged 49.4±7.1 years, body mass index 32.2±3.8 kg/m2 with HT degree 2-3 were examined. Clinical characteristics in men and women were comparable. Ultrasonography of intrarenal vessels was performed in all patients. GFR was calculated by isotope nephroangioscintigraphy. Leptin serum level was determined\\ by radioimmunoassay. MAU was detected by semiquantitative test. Results were processed with SPSS-11.0 software package. Results. MAU incidence was higher among female hypertensives in contrast to males: 40% vs 26% (p=0.056. Hypertensives with MAU of both genders demonstrated higher both resistance index (RI and pulsatility index (PI. Gender differences of both RI and PI in patients with MAU were highly significant (p<0.001 at all levels of arterial visualization (renal, segmental and interlobar. Female hypertensives with MAU had lower GFR (79.1±13.2 ml/min/1.73m2 than those without MAU (89.3±17.2 ml/min/1.73m2. Male hypertensives with MAU had higher GFR than those without MAU: 126±32.5 vs 105.4±16.7 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively. Serum leptin level in females with MAU was higher than this in female patients without MAU: 103.5±38.7 vs 76.7±46.4 ng/ml (p=0.04, respectively. Leptin levels did not differ in males with or without MAU. In males MAU positively correlated with GFR (r=0.372, р=0.003, where-as in females – correlation was negative (r=-0.34, р=0.02. Besides, in females MAU correlated with serum leptin level (r=0.48, p=0.01 Conclusion. Female hypertensives with MAU demonstrate more stable elevation of RI and PI in contrast to hypertensive males with MAU. MAU level correlates with GFR in opposite ways: in males positively whereas in females — negatively.

  4. Association of Plasma Leptin Levels With Maternal Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Premature and Term Newborns

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    Shih-Ping Ho

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Neonatal serum leptin concentrations within 24 hours of birth correlated with maternal body weight and BMI, especially in premature newborns. Premature newborns had significantly lower leptin levels than full-term newborns.

  5. Association between Nitrogen Stable Isotope Ratios in Human Hair and Serum Levels of Leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Koh, Sang-Baek; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Bong, Yeon-Sik; Park, Jong-Ku

    2017-10-01

    Stable isotope ratios have been reported to be potential biomarkers of dietary intake and nutritional status. High serum levels of leptin, a hormone which regulates energy metabolism and food intake, are associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about the association between stable isotope ratios and the metabolic risk in humans. We investigated whether the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in hair are associated with serum leptin levels. Hair samples were collected from 399 healthy adults (233 men and 166 women) aged 40 to 70 years of a community-based cohort in Korea and the bulk stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) were measured for all hair samples. Serum leptin levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. δ 15 N showed positive correlations with serum leptin levels. In multivariate models, increasing δ 15 N were associated with elevated serum leptin levels (defined as ≥ the median values), whereas δ 13 C were not significantly associated with serum leptin levels. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) per 1‰ increase in δ 15 N for an elevated serum leptin level was 1.58 (1.11-2.26). In participants with high body mass index, δ 15 N showed positive associations with serum leptin levels, whereas these associations were not seen in participants with low body mass index. The nitrogen stable isotopic ratio in hair is positively associated with serum leptin levels. The hair δ 15 N could be used as a clinical marker to estimate metabolic risk.

  6. Plasma leptin and insulin-like growth factor I levels during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Rasidakis Antonis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have provided evidence for a link between leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I mediates the metabolic effects of growth hormone (GH. The GH axis is believed to be suppressed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The aim of this study is to find out whether acute exacerbations of COPD are followed by changes in plasma leptin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I levels and furthermore, whether these changes are related to systemic inflammation. Methods We measured serum leptin, IGF-I, TNF-α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin 8 (IL-8 levels in 52 COPD patients with acute exacerbation on admission to hospital (Day 1 and two weeks later (Day 15. 25 healthy age-matched subjects served as controls. COPD patients were also divided into two subgroups (29 with chronic bronchitis and 23 with emphysema. Serum leptin and IGF-I were measured by radioimmunoassay and TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured by ELISA. Results Serum leptin levels were significantly higher and serum IGF-I levels significantly lower in COPD patients on Day 1 than in healthy controls (p Conclusion Inappropriately increased circulating leptin levels along with decreased IGF-I levels occured during acute exacerbations of COPD. Compared to chronic bronchitis, patients with emphysema had lower circulating IGF-I levels both at the onset of the exacerbation and two weeks later.

  7. Insulin elevates leptin secretion and mRNA levels via cyclic AMP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes deprived of glucose

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    Tomomi Tsubai

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Insulin alone stimulates leptin secretion and elevates leptin mRNA levels via cAMP under the lack of glucose metabolism, while glucose is a significant and ambivalent effector on the insulin effects of leptin.

  8. Relationships between changes in leptin and insulin resistance levels in obese individuals following weight loss

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    Tsu-Nai Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can augment insulin resistance (IR, leading to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Leptin, ghrelin, and various fatty acids present in the cell membrane may modulate IR. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of weight loss on IR, serum leptin/ghrelin levels, and erythrocyte fatty acids, and studied the associations between changes in these variables. A total of 35 obese (body mass index ≥ 27 adults participated in a weight loss program for 3 months. IR was assessed using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The obese participants had a mean weight loss of 5.6 ± 3.8 kg followed by a 16.7% and 23.3% reduction in HOMA-IR and leptin (p  0.05 levels. After adjusting for age, gender, changes in ghrelin, and body fat, we found a significant correlation between decreases in leptin and less risk of no improvement in HOMA-IR levels [odds ratio (OR = 0.69, p = 0.039]. In conclusion, a moderate weight reduction in obese participants over a short period significantly improved IR. This weight reduction concomitantly decreased serum leptin, increased ghrelin, and elevated some erythrocyte unsaturates. Only leptin correlated independently with IR improvement upon multivariable logistic regression analysis, which indicates that leptin may play a role in the modulation of IR following weight loss.

  9. Increased tissue leptin hormone level and mast cell count in skin tags: A possible role of adipoimmune in the growth of benign skin growths

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    El Safoury Omar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags (ST are common tumors. They mainly consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Decrease in endocrine, hormone level and other factors are thought to play a role in the evolution of ST. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that acts as a major regulatory hormone for food intake and energy homeostasis. Leptin deficiency or resistance can result in profound obesity and diabetes in humans. A role of mast cell in the pathogenesis of ST is well recognized. Aims: To investigate the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of ST and to clarify whether there is a correlation between mast cell count and leptin level in ST. Methods: Forty-five skin biopsies were taken from 15 patients with ST. From each patient, a biopsy of a large ST (length >4 mm, a small ST (length <2 mm and a normal skin biopsy (as a control were taken. The samples were processed for leptin level. Skin biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue-uranyl nitrate metachromatic method for mast cell count was used. Results: There was a significant increased level of leptin in the ST compared to the normal skin. It was highly significant in small ST than in big ST (P = 0.0001 and it was highly significant in small and big ST compared to controls, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively. There was a significant increase in mast cell count in the ST, which did not correlate with the increased levels of leptin. Conclusion: This is the first report to demonstrate that tissue leptin may play a role in the pathogenesis of ST. The significant increase in the levels of leptin and mast cell count in ST may indicate a possible role of adipoimmune in the benign skin growths.

  10. Serum leptin and insulin tests in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yin; Jiang Xiaojin; Leng Xiumei

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance and the relations of leptin and insulin on obesity group. Methods: Leptin and insulin were tested with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in pre-obesity group and obesity group respectively. Results: Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly elevated in obesity group compare with the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Changing with insulin, the elevation of leptin in obesity group has been identified as an important agent of diabetes mellitus (DM)

  11. Ethnic differences in leptin and adiponectin levels between Greenlandic Inuit and Danish children

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    Thor Munch-Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In a recent study, we found that Greenlandic Inuit children had a more adverse metabolic profile than Danish children. Aerobic fitness and adiposity could only partly account for the differences. Therefore, we set out to evaluate and compare plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in Danish and Inuit children. Methods. In total, 187 Inuit and 132 Danish children (5.7–17.1 years had examinations of anthropometrics, body fat content, pubertal staging, fasting blood and aerobic fitness. Results. Plasma leptin was higher in Danish boys [3,774 (4,741–3,005] [pg/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI] compared to both northern [2,076 (2,525–1,706] (p<0.001 and southern (2,515 (3,137–2,016 (p<0.001 living Inuit boys and higher in Danish girls [6,988 (8,353–5,847] compared to southern living Inuit girls [4,910 (6,370–3,785] (p=0.021 and tended to be higher compared to northern living Inuit girls [5,131 (6,444–4,085] (p=0.052. Plasma adiponectin was higher for both Danish boys [22,359 (2,573–19,428] [ng/mL unadjusted geometric mean (95% CI] and girls [26,609 (28,994–24,420] compared to southern living Inuit boys [15,306 (18,406–12,728] and girls [18,864 (22,640–15,717] (both p<0.001, respectively. All differences remained after adjustment for body fat percentage (BF%, aerobic fitness, age and puberty. The leptin/adiponectin ratio was higher in Danish boys and tended to be higher in Danish girls compared to northern living Inuit boys and girls, respectively. These differences were eliminated after adjustment for BF%, aerobic fitness, age and puberty. Conclusions. In contrast to our hypothesis, plasma leptin was higher in Danish children despite a more healthy metabolic profile compared to Inuit children. As expected, plasma adiponectin was lowest in Inuit children with the most adverse metabolic profile.

  12. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is thought to play a key role in the regulation of body fat mass. Beyond this function, it appears to be an integral component of various hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine feedback loops. Because childhood and puberty are periods of major metabolic and endocrine...

  13. The effects of neuromuscular facilitation techniques on osteoporosis of hemiplegia limbs and serum leptin level in patients or rats with cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zhihua; Hu, Ke; Wang, Congcong; Jia, Likun; Zhang, Xiuqing; Wang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques (NFT) on osteoporosis and serum leptin level in cerebral infarction patients or rats. Forty cerebral infarction rats were randomly grouped into control, sham operation, conventional treatment (CT) group and CT+NFT group. Fifty-two stroke patients with hemiplegia were included in this study. The bone mineral densities (BMD) of proximal hemiplegia limbs and serum ALP, BALP, BGP, IL-6 and leptin levels were detected using commercial kits. In cerebral infarction rats, the BMD, BGP, BALP, ALP and leptin concentrations in the CT+NFT group was higher compared with the control and CT group, while serum IL-6 level was more reduced by CT+NFT than control and CT. In cerebral infarction patients, both CT and CT+NFT increased the BMD, ALP, BGP and leptin levels. In addition, compared with CT, the BMD, ALP, BGP and leptin levels were markedly increased by CT+NFT. C Conclusion: NFC elevated the BMD of hemiplegia limbs, serum ALP, BGP, IL-6 and leptin levels and, thus, alleviated osteoporosis in rats and patients with cerebral infarction.

  14. Leptin levels and luteinizing hormone pulsatility in normal cycling women and their relationship to daily changes in metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Rebecca M; Dominguez, Jennifer E; Mayer, Laurel; Walsh, B Timothy; Boozer, Carol; Warren, Michelle P

    2008-10-01

    To determine whether leptin and LH secretion in normal women is related to changes in metabolic rate. Academic medical center. PATIENT(S) AND DESIGN: Ten young women with normal weight and menses were studied during the early follicular phase. Leptin and LH levels were sampled every 15 minutes over a 24-hour period. Metabolic rate was frequently sampled using indirect calorimetry. Luteinizing hormone pulsatility was analyzed using a Cluster Program analysis. None. Leptin, LH, and metabolic rate levels. All subjects demonstrated a diurnal leptin curve. Luteinizing hormone pulses were increased in amplitude and slower after the leptin peak. The average (+/-SE) number of LH pulses per 6 hours slowed from 4.30 +/- 0.42 to 3.00 +/- 0.42 pulses after the leptin peak, whereas pulse amplitude increased from 1.64 +/- 0.26 to 2.51 +/- 0.42 mIU/mL after the leptin peak. The LH interpulse interval increased from 85.1 +/- 3.64 minutes to 108.8 +/- 10.26 minutes after the leptin peak. Metabolic rate began to drop approximately 4-6 hours before leptin levels peaked, going from 1.66 +/- 0.24 to 1.15 +/- 0.04 kcal/min after the leptin peak. There is a significant association between the timing of the leptin peak, the nightly slowing of LH pulses, and the fall in metabolic rate, suggesting a metabolic cycle in normal individuals.

  15. Relationship between serum leptin level and cardiovascular, nutrtional risk factors in non-diabetic hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Jong Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies showed that obesity was associated with high level of serum leptin, hyperhomocysteinemia, and insulin resistance in general population. Obesity is associated with various cardiovascular and metabolic complications. However, in end stage renal failure, it has been reported that obesity is associated with a favorable survival of patients. The purpose of this observational study was to investigate the relationship between serum leptin level increased at obesity and cardiovascular, nutritional traditional markers, and the comparison of patient’s survival for 5 years according to obesity in non-diabetic hemodialysis. A cross-sectional study was performed in obese and non-obese subjects according to body mass index. Fifteen obese patients (BMI≥25 kg/m2 and 29 non-obese patients (BMI<25 kg/m2 were studied. For each subject, blood was sampled for measurement of serum leptin, insulin resistance, C-reactive protein (CRP and nutritional parameters before hemodialysis. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship among insulin resistance, serum leptin level and nutritional parameters. In results, serum leptin level was significant positive correlated with BMI, nPCR, pre-albumin and HOMA-IR (p<0.05. Serum leptin level was significant negative correlated with tCO2 and CRP (p<0.05. Five years survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis was more favorable in obese group but did not show statistical significance (p=0.053. In conclusion, serum leptin level was associated with obesity and good nutrition status. But in view of positive correlation of HOMA-IR, serum leptin level may be associated with cardiovascular complication in non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. Therefore, we thought that serum leptin level may be a good nutritional marker and a cardiovascular risk factor. We thought that the further study for the proper leptin level will be needed and help the improvement of

  16. Response of Leptin and C-reactive Protein Serum Levels to 12 Weeks Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Obese Men

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    Sonia Ghiasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercise on leptin and C-reactive protein serum levels in obese men. The study was conducted in Urmia- Iran in 2015. Twenty-four obese men with an aged range 40-50 yrs. were enrolled into the study. Subjects were randomized to one of 2 groups exercise (n=12 and control groups (n=12. The exercise group performed aerobic exercise training up to 50-70 % heart rate reserve, three times a week for 12 weeks. Leptin and CRP serum level was measured by ELISA method before and after the 12 weeks. After 12 weeks exercise training, leptin and CRP serum level in the exercise group compared to the control group, were decreased significantly (P<0.05. To sum up, 12 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercise in the reduction of CRP and leptin concentration had a prominent role that might be effective in reducing weight and improving cardiovascular risk factors.

  17. The Response of Serum Cortisol and Leptin Levels to Academic Stress

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    Elizabeth J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students are subjected to various types of stress during the academic course and they react differently. This study is an attempt to establish a relationship between the coping abilities, serum cortisol and leptin levels in response to academic examination stress in first year medical students. Methods: Thirty four 1st year medical students between 18 to 21 yrs of age were randomly selected and their coping abilities were assessed using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Two fasting blood samples were drawn, one on the day of examination (Situation I and the second after the completion of the examination (Situation II. Serum cortisol and leptin levels were estimated using a standardized RIA Kit and the levels obtained were correlated with the psychometric data. Results: The results showed increased levels of cortisol prior to examination in the poor adjusters in comparison to the good adjusters. The levels of cortisol decreased after examination in both good and poor adjusters with the poor adjusters showing higher levels. On the other hand, leptin levels increased in good adjusters in comparison with poor adjusters in Situation I and in Situation II the good adjusters showed a marginal decrease and poor adjusters maintained the same levels of leptin. Conclusion: Cortisol and leptin respond inversely to academic stress. Cortisol levels sharply decline from stressful to post-stressful situation indicating the wane of stress.

  18. Elevated serum leptin levels are associated with good nutritional status in non-obese chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ekrem; Ahbap, Elbis; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Sakaci, Tamer; Basturk, Taner; Koc, Yener; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Ucar, Zuhal Atan; Kayalar, Arzu Ozdemir; Bayraktar, Feyza; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2015-03-01

    Leptin is a hormone and a proinflammatory cytokine secreted from adipocytes, which functions to suppress appetite in healthy persons. Serum leptin levels are significantly elevated in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) primarily due to decreased clearance by the kidneys The consequence of hyperleptinemia in ESRD is not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the association between serum leptin levels and nutrition/inflammation status in non-obese chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. 65 chronic, anuric, nonobese (body mass index (BMI) nutrition and inflammation status. Patients were classified into the 3 groups according to serum leptin levels; group 1 (low leptin, n = 9), group 2 (normal leptin, n = 31), and group 3 (high leptin, n = 25). Mean age and duration on dialysis of 65 patients (male/female: 34/31) were 51.6 ± 17.8 years and 78.0 ± 67.9 months, respectively. Serum leptin levels increased with older age, female gender, higher BMI and triceps skinfold thickness. Elevated serum leptin levels were significantly associated with good nutritional status parameters, such as higher albumin (p = 0.001), prealbumin (p = 0.033), total iron binding capacity (p = 0.045), total cholesterol (p = 0.041), and lower malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) (p = 0.002). Serum leptin levels remained a negative correlation with MIS after adjustments made for BMI. No correlation was established between leptin and inflammation parameters including ferritin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and tumor necorsis factor alpha (TNF-α). Elevated serum leptin levels seem to be associated with good nutritional status. However, there was no correlation between leptin and inflammatory status.

  19. Changes of serum leptin, adiponection and insulin levels in females with simple obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Tao; Duan Wennuo; Ma Yongxiu; Chen Yanping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum leptin, insulin and adiponectin levels and their relationship with BMI in females with simple obesity. Methods: Serum leptin, adiponectin and insulin levels were measured with RIA in 48 pre-obese females (BMI=23-24.9 kg/m 2 ), 40 females with simple obesity, (BMI≥25 kg/m 2 ) and 42 female controls (BMI 18-22.9 kg/m 2 ). Correlations among these variables were studied. Results: Serum leptin, insulin levels were significantly higher and serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower in both the pre-obese and obese females than those in controls. Serum leptin, insulin levels were positively correlated to BMI; Serum adiponectin levels were negatively correlated to BMI. Conclusion: Within normal range of BMI, the leptin-insulin feedback mechanism provided satisfactory self-regulation. However, with excessive BMI, this dynamic equilibrium would be disrupted. The defective equilibrium, together with the abnormal low adiponectin level, would predispose to the development of diabetes mellitus. (authors)

  20. Thyroid stimulating hormone and leptin levels and severe growth retardation among beta- thalassaemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayer, D.; Salahcheh, M.; Jazayeri, S.M.H.; Kaydani, G.A.; Kadkhodaei Elyaderani, M.K.; Shaneh, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It has been proposed that thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) influences leptin secretion from adipocytes. We evaluated the association between TSH and leptin levels in thalassaemic patients with growth retardation. Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 30 major thalassaemic patients and 24 normal subjects (range: 12 - 20 y). Both Leptin and TSH were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The anthropomorphic data were collected based on standard methods. Independent sample t-test and Pearson's correlation were used to analyze data. Results: Patients had severe growth retardation. Mean concentration of leptin in thalassaemic mean value of serum TSH concentration of lepton in thalassaemic patients was significantly lower than normal subjects (2.26 +- 2,61 vs 13.14 +- 15.95 ng/ml). The mean value os serum TSH concentration in beta- thalassaemic patients was higher than normal subjects. But the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.146). There was no marked relationship between TSH and leptin concentration in thalassaemic patients (r= -0.022, P =0.909) and in control group (r =0.289, P=0.214). Conclusion: In beta - thalassaemic patients and normal group leptin secretion is a not affected by TSH concentration. (author)

  1. Relationship between leptin levels and suppressed CD4 counts in HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fadhli, Mariam; Saraya, Mohammad; Qasem, Jafar; Azizieh, Fawaz; Shahab, Shahab; Raghupathy, Raj

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between serum leptin levels and suppression of CD4 count in HIV-infected individuals with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Thirty seropositive HIV male patients selected from the Infectious Disease Hospital were classified into two groups according to their immunological and virological response to HAART. The first group included 15 male patients with low viral load and low CD4 counts; the second included 15 male patients with low viral load and high CD4 counts. Morning serum leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α levels of HIV patients were measured and correlated with fasting serum insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), HIV viral load and CD4 count. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in patients with high CD4 counts than in patients with low CD4 counts (mean serum leptin level 47.3 vs. 10.9 ng/ml, respectively; p counts (r = 0.697; p count and correlated with fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR, thereby indicating that HAART treatment could lead to decreased levels of leptin in HIV patients, which might lead to impaired immunological recovery. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Circulating leptin levels are associated with physical activity or physical fitness in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Haruka; Kawakami, Ryoko; Tabata, Izumi; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the link between circulating leptin levels and physical activity and/or physical fitness in apparently healthy Japanese. A total of 85 men and 111 women who were not taking any medication were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Circulating leptin levels, physical activity measured by tri-axial accelerometers and peak oxygen uptake were evaluated. We also assessed anthropometric data, blood pressure, blood examinations and energy intake. Circulating leptin levels were 3.2 ± 2.3 ng/mL in men and 5.9 ± 3.8 ng/mL in women. Circulating leptin levels were significantly and positively correlated with body weight, body mass index, abdominal circumference, insulin and the homeostasis model assessment index, and significantly and negatively correlated with peak oxygen uptake in both sexes. Stepwise multiple regression showed that peak oxygen uptake in men and physical activity evaluated by Σ[metabolic equivalents h per week(METs h/w)]. in women were determinant factors for circulating leptin levels after adjusting for confounding factors.

  3. The Effects of Reduction Mammaplasty on Serum Leptin Levels and Insulin Resistance

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    Hakan Uzun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The reduction mammaplasty has been a well-executed and known procedure in which considerable amount of fatty tissue is removed from the body. The authors aimed to show the effects of the reduction mammaplasty on serum leptin levels and insulin resistance. Methods. 42 obese female patients who had gigantomastia were operated on. We recorded patients’ demographic and preoperative data, including age, weight, height, and body mass index. Fasting serum leptin, glucose, and insulin levels were noted. Homeostasis model assessment scores were calculated. At the postoperative 8th week, patients were reevaluated in terms of above parameters assessing the presence of any difference. Results. Serum leptin levels were decreased postoperatively and the decrease was statistically significant. We were able to show a decrease in homeostasis model assessment score, which indicated an increase in insulin sensitivity, and this change was statistically significant. A significant correlation between body mass index and leptin change was found postoperatively. Conclusion. Reduction mammaplasty is not solely an aesthetic procedure but it decreases serum leptin levels and increases insulin sensitivity, which may help obese women to reduce their cardiovascular risk.

  4. Study of Blood Leptin Levels before and After Treatment with Metformin in Diabetes Type Ii Patients

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    R Didehdar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leptin is a fat tissue hormone that has 176 amino acids with a molecular weight of 16 KD . Leptin has effects on the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues resulting in decreased food absorption and increased energy consumption that finally reduces the body weight and BMI. The aim of this research was to investigate the blood levels of leptin before and after treatment with Metformin in type II diabetic patients. Methods: 25 type II diabetic patients without any previous drug treatment history were investigated. This study was a clinical trail before and after treatment with Metformin. Results: There was no particular difference in BMI, average body weight, fat mass and free fat mass before and after treatment. Similarly, the difference in concentration levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, tri-glycerides and LDL-cholesterol before and after treatment was not statistically significant. Also, there was no difference in the average concentration of leptin and insulin before and after treatment Conclusion: This result showed that although metformin decreased glucose and lipid levels during the treatment period, (1 month it did not have an effect on leptin, Insulin and other related factors during treatment.;

  5. Inverse association of leptin levels with renal cell carcinoma: results from a case-control study.

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    Spyridopoulos, Themistoklis N; Petridou, Eleni Th; Dessypris, Nick; Terzidis, Agapios; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Chrousos, George P

    2009-01-01

    Leptin is primarily produced in adipose tissue and appears to play a modulatory role between metabolism and immunity. Given that obesity, a state of chronic inflammation, is an established risk factor for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), we investigated the association between plasma leptin levels and RCC risk. This case-control study included 70 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed RCC and 280 age-, gender- and district of residence-matched controls. Anthropometric data, socio-demographic variables, medical history, lifestyle habits and dietary data were derived from a personal interview. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined using standard commercial kits. Adjusted odds ratios for RCC risk were derived through multiple logistic regression analyses. Leptin levels were inversely associated with RCC risk (OR: 0.53, CI: 0.28- 0.99, p = 0.05), even after controlling for potential confounding factors, such as Body Mass Index (BMI), recent weight change, history of diabetes mellitus and other obesity related hormones, notably adiponectin. The precise mechanism linking obesity with RCC remains unclear; however, the inverse association of leptin with RCC might be attributed, at least in part, to hormonal cross-talk with complex neuron-endocrine and immune circuits. These findings, if confirmed in prospective and interventional studies, might further elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  6. Exercise addiction in men is associated with lower fat-adjusted leptin levels.

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    Lichtenstein, Mia B; Andries, Alin; Hansen, Stinus; Frystyk, Jan; Støving, René K

    2015-03-01

    To test a hypothesized association between resting leptin levels (adjusted for body fat percentage) and symptoms of primary exercise addiction. Cross-sectional design. Habitual amateur exercisers participating in running, fitness, weight training, and biking. Twenty men with exercise addiction as defined by the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI scores 24-30) and 20 men in an exercise control group (EAI scores 6-16) matched on body mass index. Plasma leptin and sex hormones were measured in blood samples collected under fasting and resting conditions. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Eating disorder symptoms were identified by the Eating Disorder Inventory 2. The exercise addiction group had significantly (P addiction group had significantly (P addiction is associated with low levels of body fat-adjusted leptin levels. Hypoleptinemia could be involved in the pathogenesis of exercise addiction. However, further studies are needed to explore the potential causal relationship.

  7. The influence of chronic and subacute exposure to lead on the levels of prolactin, leptin, osteopontin, and follistatin in humans.

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    Dobrakowski, M; Kasperczyk, A; Czuba, Z P; Machoń-Grecka, A; Szlacheta, Z; Kasperczyk, S

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the levels of prolactin, leptin, osteopontin, and follistatin in workers chronically and subacutely exposed to lead compounds. The examined population consisted of three groups. The first group was composed of 56 male workers who were chronically exposed to lead for 13.38 ± 10.38 years. The second group served as a control group and consisted of 24 male administrative workers, while the third group included 32 male workers exposed to lead for 40 ± 3 days. The levels of leptin, osteopontin, and prolactin were significantly lower in the group of workers chronically exposed to lead than in the control group by 42%, 26%, and 41%, respectively. The levels of follistatin did not differ between those groups. The levels of all measured hormones did not change after a short-term exposure to lead compared to baseline. Chronic lead exposure is associated with significantly decreased level of prolactin, leptin, and osteopontin. Lead-induced changes in the levels of these hormones may disturb many functions of the human body, including the immune response, metabolism, reproduction, and bone turnover.

  8. Correlations of serum levels of leptin and other related factor (NPY, ADP) in female children with simple obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Hua; Wei Chunlei; Qian Mingzhu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum levels of leptin, NPY and ADP in female children with simple obesity. Methods: Serum levels of leptin, NPY and ADP were measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 32 female children with simple obesity and 35 controls. Results: The serum levels of leptin, NPY were significantly higher in the obese children than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum levels of ADP were significantly lower (P<0.01). Serum leptin levels were significantly positively correlated (r=0.6014, P<0.01) with NPY levels but were negatively correlated (r=-0.4786, P<0.01) with adiponectin (ADP) levels. Conclusion: Determination of serum leptin, NPY and ADP levels is of help for judgement of degree of obesity as wen as outcome prediction in female children. (authors)

  9. The Impact of LEP G-2548A and LEPR Gln223Arg Polymorphisms on Adiposity, Leptin, and Leptin-Receptor Serum Levels in a Mexican Mestizo Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria-Avila, Efraín; Gomez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Ruiz-Quezada, Sandra-Luz; Castro-Albarran, Jorge; Sánchez-López, Lizeth; Martín-Marquez, Beatriz Teresita; Navarro-Hernández, Rosa-Elena

    2015-01-01

    The polymorphisms in leptin (LEP G-2548A) and leptin-receptor (LEPR Gln223Arg) seem to influence obesity and lipid metabolism among others. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on adiposity, leptin (sLeptin), and leptin-receptor (sLeptin-receptor) serum concentrations as well as inflammation markers. We included 382 adults originally from Western Mexico. They were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Obese individuals showed higher sLeptin (58.2 ± 31.35 ng/mL) but lower sLeptin-receptor (12.6 ± 3.74 ng/mL) levels than normal weight ones (17.6 ± 14.62 ng/mL, 17.4 ± 4.62 ng/mL, resp.), P < 0.001. Obese subjects carriers of Arg/Arg genotype had more (P = 0.016) sLeptin-receptor (14.7 ± 4.96 ng/mL) and less (P = 0.004) sLeptin (44.0 ± 28.12 ng/mL) levels than Gln/Gln genotype (11.0 ± 2.92 ng/mL, 80.3 ± 33.24 ng/mL, resp.). Body fat mass was lower (P from 0.003 to 0.045) for A/A (36.5% ± 6.80) or Arg/Arg (36.8% ± 6.82) genotypes with respect to G/G (41.3% ± 5.52) and G/A (41.6% ± 5.61) or Gln/Gln (43.7% ± 4.74) and Gln/Arg (41.0% ± 5.52) genotypes carriers. Our results suggest that LEP -2548A and LEPR 223Arg could be genetic markers of less body fat mass accumulation in obese subjects from Western Mexico. PMID:26064921

  10. Study on changes of serum leptin, IGF-I and IL-2 levels in elderly subjects with osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zihan; Luo Nanping; Niu Aijun; Qi Falian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, IGF-I and IL-2 levels in elderly subjects with osteoporosis. Methods: Serum leptin, IGF-I, IL-2 levels (with RIA), total cholesterol contents (with biochemical method) and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined in 65 aged patients with osteoporosis. Results: The serum leptin levels in subjects with osteoporosis were significantly higher than controls (P<0.01). The serum IGF-I and IL-2 levels in subjects with osteoporosis were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.05, P<0.01). The BMD was positively correlated with the IGF-I levels and negatively correlated with leptin level. Conclusion: Derangement of leptin and IGF-I, IL-2 metabolism is one of the major causes of decreased bone mass and bone formation elderly subjects with osteoporosis. Measurement of serum levels of these parameters is of diagnostic help. (authors)

  11. Study on the relationship between serum levels of leptin and microangiopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Huiling; Guo Dongmei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between serum levels of leptin and microangiopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Fasting serum leptin (with RIA), insulin (with RIA) and fasting blood glucose (with oxidase method) levels were measured in 30 controls, 30 diabetic patients without microangiopathy and 30 patients with diabetic microangiopathy. Correlations between levels of serum leptin and other parameters were analyzed. Results: The levels of serum leptin in controls, diabetic patients without microangiopathy and patients with diabetic microangiopathy were (7.20 ± 2.11) μg/L, (7.95 ± 3.78) μg/L and (19.26 ± 4.37) μg/L respectively. The patients with diabetic microangiopathy had higher serum leptin levels than those in the diabetic patients without microangiopathy (t=2.18, P<0.05) and controls (t = 2.71, P<0.01), while the serum leptin levels in diabetic patients without microangiopathy were not significantly different from those in controls. The serum leptin levels were positively correlated with BMI and FINS (r=0.29, P<0.05; r=0.34, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum leptin levels were elevated in patients with diabetic microangiopathy and were closely related with the development of diabetic microangiopathy. (authors)

  12. Serum Leptin Levels in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Its Relationship with Metabolic and Hormonal Profile in Pakistani Females

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    Mukhtiar Baig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the levels of serum leptin in PCOS females and to correlate it with metabolic and hormonal parameters. Sixty-two PCOS and ninety normal cycling (NC females with matched age and body mass index (BMI were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Serum leptin, FSH, LH, E2, free testosterone, progesterone, thyroid profile, and FBG levels were measured. The mean leptin levels in PCOS and NC were not significantly different (45.56 ng/mL ± 1.49 vs 41.78 ± 1.31 ng/mL, P>0.05; however, leptin levels showed a strong correlation with BMI in PCOS and NC group (r=0.77, P<0.0001; r=0.82, P<0.0001, resp.. High E2 levels in NC had a significant correlation with leptin whereas FBG correlated with leptin in PCOS (r=0.51, P=0.005. TSH had a substantial correlation (r=0.49, P<0.005; r=0.69, P<0.005 in PCOS and NC, respectively. There was no significant difference found in circulating leptin concentration between PCOS and NC subjects. Leptin levels in PCOS were related with metabolic impairments manifested by disturbance in FBG levels and impairment of reproductive functions in terms of reduced E2 secretion.

  13. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III

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    Keiko Asao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles.

  14. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E

    2016-02-25

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%-12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles.

  15. Serum leptin and corticosterone levels after exposure to noise stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandralekha, G; Jeganathan, R; Viswanathan; Charan, J C

    2005-01-01

    Even though extensive studies have been conducted on the effect of noise exposure on hearing apparatus / auditory system, information on the effect of noise on the other body functions is sparse. The present study examined the effect of exposure of albino rats to acute and chronic noise stress on two important interlaced endocrine levels. In acute experiments the animals were exposed to 120 dB noise for a duration of 1, 2, 3 hrs. In chronic experiments the animals were exposed to noise for one hour daily for 30, 60 and 90 days. Plasma corticosterone and leptin levels were measured in these animals. There was significant elevation in the levels of corticosterone and leptin after exposure to noise stress. The elevation in corticosterone level after noise stress is in agreement with earlier reports. So noise acts like a stressor and elevates the secretion of the corticosterone, the stress hormone and leptin, the product of the ob gene there is an elevation in leptin levels after noise stress.

  16. [Evaluation of leptin levels in plasma and their reliance on other hormonal factors affecting tissue fat levels in people with various levels of endogenous cotisol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaczyk, Maciej G

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of leptin (LEP) shed new light on mechanisms regulating body fat mass (BFM). In this aspect, interactions between LEP and glucocorticoids at hypothalamic level may be of great importance. Factors that influence plasma LEP levels have not been fully recognized and available data on LEP levels are often inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate absolute and BFM-corrected plasma LEP levels and their diurnal variation, as well as to assess the relationship between LEP levels, body fat distribution, and hormones influencing body fat in subjects with various levels of endogenous cortisol and different nutritional status. Group I was composed of 14 women aged 14-58 yrs, BMI of 23.9-37.1 kg/m2, with hypercortisolism due to ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CUS). 17 women with visceral obesity (OTY) and normal or disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, i.e. impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM), aged 24 do 50 yrs, BMI 30.0-46.1 kg/m2, were included in group II. Group III consisted of 14 women with Addison's disease (AD), aged 18 do 63 yrs, BMI 15.4-31.6 kg/m2. The control group IV (KON) included 17 healthy women with normal BMI. BMI, WHR, body composition, and body fat distribution (DEXA method) were assessed in all subjects. Basal plasma levels of LEP, beta-endorphin (B-EP), cortisol (F), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured with RIA test kits. Plasma adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) levels, serum levels of insulin (IRI) and growth hormone (GH) were measured with IRMA test kits. Blood glucose (G) concentration was determined with an enzymatic method. Adiposity-corrected LEP levels were expressed as LEP/BFM and LEP/%BF indices. Fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) was also calculated. Higher BFM and %BF values were found in the OTY group as compared with CUS KON and AD groups. BFM distribution did not differ in KON and AD groups whereas CUS subjects exhibited a higher accumulation of fat in the trunk

  17. Turmeric Supplementation Improves Serum Glucose Indices and Leptin Levels in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navekar, Roya; Rafraf, Maryam; Ghaffari, Aida; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Khoshbaten, Manouchehr

    2017-01-01

    Insulin and leptin resistance are important risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There is limited evidence regarding the effects of turmeric on NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of turmeric supplementation on glycemic status and serum leptin levels in patients with NAFLD. This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 46 patients with NAFLD (21males and 25 females) aged 20-60 years old and body mass index (BMI) between 24.9 and 40 kg/m2. The turmeric group (n = 23) was given six turmeric capsules daily for 12 weeks. Each capsule contained 500 mg turmeric powder (6×500 mg). The placebo group (n = 23) was given six placebo capsules daily for the same period. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and physical activity levels were collected at the baseline and at the end of the study. Daily dietary intakes also were obtained throughout the study. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test and analysis of covariance. Turmeric consumption decreased serum levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin (by 1.22, 17.69, 19.48 and 21.33% respectively, p Turmeric supplementation improved glucose indexes and serum leptin levels and may be useful in the control of NAFLD complications.

  18. Peripheral blood leptin and resistin levels as clinical activity biomarkers in Mexican Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos Rivera-Bahena, Carolina; Xibillé-Friedmann, Daniel-Xavier; González-Christen, Judith; Carrillo-Vázquez, Sandra Miriam; Montiel-Hernández, José Luis

    To evaluate the association between the clinical activity of RA patients and serum adipocytokines (Leptin, Adiponectin and Resistin) and inflammatory cytokines. All RA patients fulfilled ACR 1987 criteria and were treated with DMARDs. Adipocytokine and inflammatory cytokine levels were evaluated using ELISA. 121 patients were included in the study. Stratifying according to DAS28 (low, moderate and high activity), there were significant differences for Leptin, Resistin, IL-6 and IL-17, however, no differences were seen for Adiponectin, TNFα or IL-1β. Clinical activity positively correlated with Leptin, Resistin, IL-17 and IL-6 levels, but not with Adiponectin, TNFα or IL-1β. Adiponectin levels negatively correlated with TNFα and positively correlated with IL-1β. IL-1β positively correlated with IL-6 and negatively correlated with TNFα and IL-17. Circulating Leptin, Resistin, IL-6 and IL-17 levels positively correlate with RA clinical activity in a manner independent of the subject's BMI. Complex relationships between inflammatory cytokines were observed in RA patients suggesting that other metabolic or inflammatory factors could be involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  19. Association Between Coffee Consumption and Circulating Levels of Adiponectin and Leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Beom; Yu, Sung Hoon; Kim, Na Yeon; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Sung Rae; Oh, Seung Joon; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jung Eun

    2017-11-01

    Coffee has been proposed to have benefits for chronic diseases; however, the relevant mechanism remains to be elucidated. We conducted a cross-sectional study and evaluated the levels of adiponectin and leptin in relation to coffee consumption. We included a total of 4406 individuals (men = 2587 and women = 1819) for adiponectin analysis and 2922 individuals (men = 1731 and women = 1191) for leptin analysis. Participants answered number of cups of coffee per week and types of coffee they consumed and their serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that increasing coffee consumption was associated with increased levels of adiponectin among women; geometric means of adiponectin were 8.0 (95% CI: 7.2-8.9 μg/mL) among women who regularly consumed 15 or greater cups/week, but 7.5 (95% CI: 6.8-8.4 μg/mL) among women who did not consume coffee (P for trend = .009). Leptin levels were inversely associated with coffee consumption among both men and women (P for trend = .04 for men and 0.04 for women); geometric means of 15 or greater cups of coffee per week were 2.6 (95% CI: 2.4-2.8 ng/mL) among men and 5.1 (95% CI: 4.5-5.8 ng/mL) among women, but for noncoffee drinkers, geometric means were 3.0 (95% CI: 2.7-3.3 ng/mL) for men and 5.8 (95% CI: 5.1-6.6 ng/mL) for women. Coffee consumption was associated with higher circulating levels of adiponectin and lower circulating levels of leptin. Our study may suggest that improvement in adipocyte function contributes to the beneficial metabolic effects of coffee consumption.

  20. Leptin and adiponectin levels in girls with central precocious puberty before and during GnRH agonist treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Yoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa treatment on the energy metabolism in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP are controversial. We focused the changes and related factors of serum levels of leptin and adiponectin in girls with CPP before and during GnRHa treatment.MethodsThirty girls with idiopathic CPP were enrolled in the study. Their auxological data and fasting blood were collected at the baseline and after six months of GnRHa treatment.ResultsAfter treatment, height (P<0.001, weight (P<0.001, and serum leptin levels (P=0.033 were significantly increased, whereas body mass index (BMI, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, serum adiponectin levels, and adiponectin/leptin ratio exhibited no significant changes. A Pearson correlation analysis showed that height, weight, BMI, and their standard deviation scores (SDSs, but not basal LH, FSH, and estradiol, were significantly correlated with serum leptin levels before and after GnRHa treatment. After a multiple linear regression analysis, only BMI was associated with serum leptin levels. Moreover, leptin SDSs adjusted for BMI were not significantly different before and after GnRHa. The Δ leptin levels (r2=0.207, P=0.012, but not with Δ leptin SDS (r2=0.019, P=0.556, during GnRHa treatment were positively correlated with Δ BMI.ConclusionThese results suggest that GnRHa treatment in girls with CPP does not affect serum levels of leptin and adiponectin and insulin resistance. Serum leptin levels were depend on the changes in BMI during GnRHa treatment.

  1. Serum leptin levels in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in relation to metabolic control and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Anil, M; Blum, W F

    1998-01-01

    compared with normative data that were derived from a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents. Serum from children with newly diagnosed diabetes had significantly lower levels of leptin (mean 1.28+/-1.60 ng/ml, range 0.14-6.13 ng/ml) compared with healthy children (n=710) (mean 2.2 ng/ml, range 0...

  2. Low plasma leptin level at admission predicts delirium in critically ill patients: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicheng; Lei, Xiaobao; Ai, Chenmu; Li, Tao; Chen, Zhongqing

    2017-07-01

    The pathophysiology of delirium remains poorly understood. Low leptin level has been associated with features leading to delirium such as dysregulated immune functions and loss of neuroprotective effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between plasma leptin level at intensive care unit (ICU) entry and subsequent occurrence of delirium in critically ill patients. This single-center prospective cohort study in China allocated 336 critically ill patients admitted to ICU between 05/2015 and 05/2016 into a delirium group (n=102) and non-delirium group (n=234) based on whether delirium occurred during their stay at the ICU. Patients were examined at least twice daily and delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Blood samples were obtained after ICU entry. Plasma leptin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Delirium occurred in 30.4% (102/336) of patients. Patients who developed delirium showed significantly lower leptin level at ICU entry than those who did not (6.1±3.2 vs. 9.2±5.9ng/mL; Pdelirium (OR, 0.865; 95%CI, 0.802-0.934; Pdelirium included increasing age (OR, 1.050; 95%CI, 1.020-1.080; P=0.001) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) score (OR, 1.148; 95%CI, 1.092-1.208; Pdelirium had a prolonged duration of ICU stay and higher mortality. Low plasma leptin level at ICU entry was associated with the occurrence of delirium in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum Leptin and Adiponectin Levels in Breast Cancer Before and After Post Mastectomy Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosseir, N.M.; Abdel -Messeih, Ph.L.; Mohamed, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Leptin and adiponectin are cytokines synthesized in adipose tissue and have been implicated as a link between obesity and breast cancer. Therefore, in this study we analyzed and compared: serum leptin, adiponectin, lipid profile including cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and body mass index (BMI) in breast cancer patients before and after Post Mastectomy Radio- therapy (PMRT).Serum leptin and adiponectin significantly increased and decreased respectively in patients after PMRT compared to the controls. BMI statistically decreased after radiotherapy while LDL-c increased in breast cancer patients; in both patients groups. HDL-c was statistically decreased but triglycerides showed significant increase in breast cancer patients. These results denoted that dyslipidemia may be associated with breast cancer risk and the evaluation of leptin and adiponectin can be used for follow up of patients under radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer

  4. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum leptin and E2 levels in females children with simple obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Hua; Qian Mingzhu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum leptin and E 2 levels in females children with simple obesity. Methods: Serum levels of leptin and E 2 were detected with RIA in 32 females children with simple obesity and 35 controls. Results: In the children with simple obesity the serum leptin and E 2 levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 2 levels is of help for judgement of severity of obesity as well as outcome prediction in female children. (authors)

  5. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children: Nutritional Status and Associations with Serum Leptin, Ghrelin, and IGF-1 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Gulin; Ozkan, Tanju Basarir; Ozgur, Taner; Altay, Derya; Cavun, Sinan; Goral, Guher

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, malignancy and lymphoma, and extra-gastrointestinal conditions. H. pylori infection is negatively associated with children's growth. Chronic inflammation of the stomach that results in the loss of appetite and, dysregulation of neuroendocrine hormones such as leptin, and ghrelin are the probable reasons of this negative association. The objective of this study is to determine the serum levels of leptin, ghrelin, and IGF-1 in H. pylori-infected children and their relations with growth. A hundred and sixty-one school children aged between 6 and 14 years were selected randomly from five primary schools representing a cross section of population. Demographic and sociocultural characteristics, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Serum H. pylori IgG, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, and ghrelin levels were measured in all children. The children were grouped according to the nutritional status and Helicobacter pylori seropositivity. Nutritional indices were compared among groups in association with serum leptin, ghrelin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. H. pylori IgG positivity was found in 34.2%, and 14.9% of children were malnourished. H. pylori seropositivity was significantly higher in older ages (10.32 ± 2.26 vs 9.53 ± 2.36 years, p = .036), and body weight and height Z scores were significantly lower in H. pylori-seropositive children (-0.33 ± 1.08 vs 0.04 ± 1.26, p = .044 and 0.13 ± 0.92 vs 0.23 ± 0.91, p = .018 respectively). H. pylori seropositivity was found to be an independent risk factor for shorter body height (p = .01). Serum leptin, ghrelin, and IGF-1 levels were not associated with H. pylori IgG seropositivity (0.35 vs 0.55 ng/mL, p = .3; 3267.4 ± 753.0 vs 2808.3 ± 911.4 pg/mL, p = .06; 470 ± 176 vs 521 ± 179 ng/mL, p = .32, respectively). Children infected with H. pylori are prone to short stature. This effect seems to be

  6. Evaluation Of Low Level Laser Therapy On Body Constitution And Leptin Hormone By Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric fat distribution with excessive fat accumulation in particular areas often affects a person's self-image, self esteem, and overall quality of life. Purpose of the study: to investigate the efficacy of the low level laser therapy (LLLT) on body constitution and leptin hormone by radioimmunoassay. Methods: Twenty women were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 30- 40 years. They were divided into two groups of equal number. Procedures: -Group A (Overweight group): included 10 women with BMI ≥ 25- 29.9-Group B (Obese group): included 10 women with BMI ≥ 30.both groups received LLLT, for 30 minutes, 2 times per week for 8 weeks as a total period of treatment. BMI, WC, HC, WHR, serum Leptin, cholesterol and triglyceride level were measured before and after finishing the study. Results: There was significant improvement in anthropometric measurements( on both abdomen and thigh fats) of both groups treated with low level laser therapy, decrease in serum leptin level in over weight group and increase in triglyceride serum level in both groups within normal level Conclusion: low level laser therapy is effective as a noninvasive and safe method of body contouring .

  7. Elevated serum leptin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction; correlation with coronary angiographic and echocardiographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khafaji Hadi AR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the relationship between serial serum leptin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI who received thrombolysis and the degree of coronary atherosclerosis, coronary reperfusion, echocardiographic findings, and clinical outcome. 51 consecutive patients presenting with AMI were studied. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, body mass index (BMI and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Serial serum leptin levels at the time of admission and subsequently at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 60 hours afterwards were obtained. Coronary angiography was performed in 34 patients; the relation between serum leptin levels and evidence of coronary reperfusion as well as the extent of coronary atherosclerosis according to the coronary artery surgery study classification (CASS were evaluated. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed in all patients. 36 matched patients were enrolled as control group who had serum leptin level 9.4 ± 6.5 ng/ml. Results The patients mean age was 50.5 ± 10.6 years. There were 47 males and 3 females. 37.1% were diabetics, 23.5% were hypertensive, 21.6% were dyslipidemic and 22.7% were obese (BMI ≥ 30. Leptin concentrations (ng/ml increased and peaked at the 4th sample (36 hrs after admission (mean ± SD sample (1 =9.55 ± 7.4, sample (2 =12.9 ± 8.4, sample (3 =13.8 ± 10.4, sample (4 =18.9 ± 18.1, sample (5 =11.4 ± 6.5, sample (6 =10.8 ± 8.9 ng/ml. There was a significant correlation between serum leptin and BMI (r = 0.342; p = 0.03. Leptin levels correlated significantly to creatine kinase level on the second day (r = 0.43, p ≤ 0.01. Significant correlation of mean serum leptin with the ejection fraction (P p = 0.8. There was a trend for an increase in the mean serum leptin levels with increasing number of diseased vessels. There was no correlation between serum leptin levels and outcome neither during the

  8. Traditional versus agricultural lifestyle among Shuar women of the Ecuadorian Amazon: effects on leptin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgärde, Folke; Widén, Iréne; Gebb, Miriam; Ahrén, Bo

    2004-10-01

    Leptin is a key biological marker related to energy balance and development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Its levels are increased in populations with a high degree of the metabolic syndrome. Life history of evolution has, however, largely taken place under the ecological context of hunting and gathering. In this study, we explored whether the first steps of transition to sedentary agriculture involve a change of body composition, plasma leptin concentration, and markers of the metabolic syndrome. A total of 59 healthy Shuar Amerindian women living in 5 isolated communities in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rain forest were examined. Women (n = 33) from the largest and oldest community, Yuwientsa, who are more dependent on agriculture had higher fat mass (11.7 +/- 3.3 v 14.5 +/- 4.0 kg; P = .023) but the same body mass index (24.1 +/- 2.7 v 23.1 +/- 2.8 kg/m2; not significant [NS]) and lean body mass (41.0 +/- 5.0 v 40.2 +/- 6.2 kg; NS) than women (n = 26) from the 4 traditional hunter/gather settlements. Furthermore, women from Yuwientsia had higher leptin (5.5 +/- 3.1 v 4.1 +/- 2.7 ng/mL; P = .021) and plasma insulin levels (49.8 +/- 37.4 v 35.5 +/- 12.7 pmol/L; P = .013). Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values (8.8 +/- 4.8 v 6.1 +/- 2.2; P = .004) and plasma triglyceride levels (2.3 +/- 1.0 v 1.7 +/- 0.6 mmol/L; P = .025) as markers of the metabolic syndrome were also increased in the Yuwientsa population. Mean plasma glucagon concentrations were not different between the groups. We conclude that body fat and levels of insulin and leptin are higher in the population more dependent on agriculture for living. In fact, the leptin concentrations from the 4 hunter/gather communities are the lowest mean value ever reported from a population of healthy females. As there are no genetic or biologic differences between the Shuar Indians from the 5 communities, we hypothesize that behavioral responses to a changing environment may be the key to the development of

  9. [Assay of adiponectin, leptin, true insulin and ghrelin levels in preterm human milk, and its relationship with infants growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Luyan; Li, Ming; Yu, Xinting; Sun, Xiujing; Wang, Danhua

    2014-07-01

    To understand adiponectin, leptin, insulin and ghrelin levels in preterm colostrum and mature milk and their influence on the growth and development of the premature infant. The study subjects were divided into two groups: preterm group and control group. Specimens of colostrum and mature milk on 42nd day after delivery were collected, the general situation of maternal and infants growth parameters at birth and at postnatal 42 days were recorded. Leptin, adiponectin, insulin and ghrelin levels in colustrum and mature milk were determined and compared. A total of 128 mother-infant pairs were involved. There were 128 specimens of colostrums (80 from preterm group, 48 from control group) and 94 specimens of mature milk(50 from premature group, 44 from control group). The levels of colostrum, mature milk adiponectin, leptin, and insulin were not significantly different between the 2 groups; ghrelin levels in colostrum and mature milk of premature group were significantly lower than those in control group (P = 0.038), adiponectin and leptin levels in colostrum were higher than those of the mature milk (P milk (P 34 weeks group). True insulin level of mature milk in 34 weeks group was higher than that of > 34 weeks group (29.3 vs. 21.6 mU/L, P = 0.045); true insulin level in colostrums in ≤ 34 weeks group was lower than that in mature milk (21.7 vs. 29.3 mU/L, P = 0.000). Adiponectin levels in colostrum and 42 days weight gain were negatively correlated (r = -0.362, P = 0.025) . Insulin level in mature milk had a negative correlation with birth weight (r = -0.319, P = 0.029) . Ghrelin levels in colostrum and birth weight, length, head circumference, head circumference on 42(nd) day were positively correlated (r = 0.271,0.261,0.360, P hormones in milk might participate in the regulation of suitable growth after birth. Premature birth affects hormone levels in breast milk. Breast feeding is very important in preterm infants.

  10. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suqing; Li Yusheng; Wang Lin; Chu Kaiqiu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar contents in pregnant women with gestational glucose metabolism disturbances. Methods: Fasting and 3h after oral 50g glucose serum levels of leptin were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances (gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational impaired glucose tolerance) and 34 controls. Also, fasting serum insulin levels (with CLIA) and blood sugar contents 1h after oral 50 glucose (with glucose oxidase method) were determined in all these subjects. Results: 1. Serum levels of leptin in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 14.9 ± 4.3 μg/L (vs controls 9.8 ± 1.7 μg/L, P<0.01). 2. The serum levels of insulin and 1 h post - 50g glucose blood sugar contents in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 12.9±4.3mU/L and 11.0±1.4mmol/L respectively, which were both significantly positively correlated with the serum leptin levels (r=0.835, r=0.758 respectively) (vs levels in controls: 8.45±3.0mU/L and 7.84±1.3mmol/L). Conclusion: Elevation of fasting serum levels of leptin was demonstrated in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances and the level of leptin was positively correlated with that of insulin and blood sugar. (authors)

  11. Changes in bone density and bone markers in rhythmic gymnasts and ballet dancers: implications for puberty and leptin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, María Teresa; de la Piedra, Concepción; Barrios, Vicente; Garrido, Guadalupe; Argente, Jesús

    2004-10-01

    Our aim was to compare physical activity and biochemical markers with bone mineral acquisition in rhythmic gymnasts and ballet dancers. Weight, height, body mass index, nutritional intake, bone age and menstrual histories were analyzed in nine rhythmic gymnasts, twelve ballet dancers and fourteen controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, hip and radius. Bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) and amino-terminal propeptide of procollagen I (PNIP) in serum and urinary alpha-isomer of the carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (alpha-CTX) were measured. Bone age was delayed 2 years and mean age at menarche was 15+/-0.9 years in rhythmic gymnasts and 13.7+/-1 years in ballet dancers, compared with 12.5+/-1 years in controls. Trocanteric and femoral neck BMD was significantly higher in rhythmic gymnasts compared with ballet dancers and controls. Right forearm (non-loaded zone) BMD was significantly decreased in rhythmic gymnasts and ballet dancers compared with controls. All subjects had normal bAP and PNIP levels, but the alpha-CTX/creatinine (Cr) ratio was increased in rhythmic gymnasts (Prhythmic gymnasts and ballet dancers. Rhythmic gymnasts had a positive correlation between right forearm BMD and leptin levels (r=0.85, Prhythmic gymnasts could be partially explained by an increase in bone resorption. Serum leptin levels could be implicated in the pubertal delay and be a good marker of bone mass in these subjects.

  12. Metformin and pioglitazone are effective in reducing the levels of leptin and omentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Lipatenkova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи Esteghamati A, Noshad S, Rabizadeh S, Ghavami M, Zandieh A, Nakhjavani M. Comparative effects of metformin and pioglitazone on omentin and leptin concentrations in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes: A randomized clinical trial. Regul Pept. 2013 Jan 14;182C:1-6.

  13. Leptin, NPY, Melatonin and Zinc Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: The Relation to Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-06-01

    Since zinc mediates the effects of many hormones or is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors, zinc deficiency leads to various functional impairments in the hormone balance. And also thyroid hormones have important activity on metabolism and feeding. NPY and leptin are affective on food intake and regulation of appetite. The present study is conducted to determine how zinc supplementation and deficiency affect thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4), melatonin, leptin, and NPY levels in thyroid dysfunction in rats. The experiment groups in the study were formed as follows: Control (C); Hypothyroidism (PTU); Hypothyroidism+Zinc (PTU+Zn); Hypothyroidism+Zinc deficient; Hyperthyroidism (H); Hyperthyroidism+Zinc (H+Zn); and Hyperthyroidism+Zinc deficient. Thyroid hormone parameters (FT 3 , FT 4 , TT 3 , and TT 4 ) were found to be reduced in hypothyroidism groups and elevated in the hyperthyroidism groups. Melatonin values increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels both increased in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. Zinc supplementation, particularly when thyroid function is impaired, has been demonstrated to markedly prevent these changes.

  14. Serum APOE, leptin, CFH and HTRA1 levels in Pakistani age related macular degeneration patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Ambreen, Fareeha

    2017-06-01

    To determine the association between serum levels of apolipoprotein E, leptin, complimentary factor H and high temperature requirement A-1 in patients with age-related macular degeneration. This case-control study was conducted at the Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan, from May to October 2013, and comprised patients with age-related macular degeneration and matching controls. The confirmation of age-related macular degeneration was carried out through slit lamp examination, fundoscopy and ocular coherence tomography. The selected subjects were not suffering with any other systemic or ophthalmic complication(s). Serum apolipoprotein E, leptin, complimentary factor H and high temperature requirement A-1 were estimated in serum samples of all subjects. SPSS 18 was used for data analysis. Of the 190 participants, 90(47.4%) were patients with age-related macular degeneration and 100(52.6%) were controls. Significantly elevated serum apolipoprotein E (page-related macular degeneration patients.

  15. Correlation of the leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finucane, F; Luan, J; Wareham, N

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity is the dominant cause of insulin resistance. In adult humans it is characterised by a combination of adipocyte hypertrophy and, to a lesser extent, adipocyte hyperplasia. As hypertrophic adipocytes secrete more leptin and less adiponectin, the plasma leptin......:adiponectin ratio (LAR) has been proposed as a potentially useful measure of insulin resistance and vascular risk. We sought to assess the usefulness of the LAR as a measure of insulin resistance in non-diabetic white adults. METHODS: Leptin and adiponectin levels were measured in 2,097 non-diabetic individuals...... from the Ely and European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Risk (RISC) study cohorts. LAR was compared with fasting insulin and HOMA-derived insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) in all individuals and with the insulin sensitivity index...

  16. Leptin and psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    obese and normal body weight controls, and negatively corre- lated with weight loss due to food restriction. Reports of studies of leptin in patients with anorexia nervosa are limited. In starved female anorectics at very low body weights, leptin levels are reduced significantly.15,16 Leptin in-. Fig. 2. A schematic representation ...

  17. Exercise Addiction in Men Is Associated With Lower Fat-Adjusted Leptin Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia B; Andries, Alin; Hansen, Stinus

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test a hypothesized association between resting leptin levels (adjusted for body fat percentage) and symptoms of primary exercise addiction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Habitual amateur exercisers participating in running, fitness, weight training, and biking. PARTICIPA......OBJECTIVE: To test a hypothesized association between resting leptin levels (adjusted for body fat percentage) and symptoms of primary exercise addiction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Habitual amateur exercisers participating in running, fitness, weight training, and biking....... PARTICIPANTS: Twenty men with exercise addiction as defined by the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI scores 24-30) and 20 men in an exercise control group (EAI scores 6-16) matched on body mass index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasma leptin and sex hormones were measured in blood samples collected under fasting...... and resting conditions. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Eating disorder symptoms were identified by the Eating Disorder Inventory 2. RESULTS: The exercise addiction group had significantly (P

  18. [The Relationship of Serum Leptin Level and Metabolism in Elderly People with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Zhang, Xue-mei; Hu, Xiu-ying; Zhang, Yan-ling

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of serum leptin and to energy consumption and metabolization in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We included 92 outpatients with stable COPD in West China Hospital of Sichuan University as trail group (COPD group) and 80 healthy elderly people in community as control group. All patients and healthy control received the measurements of body mass index (BMI), fat mass, resting energy expenditure (REE), lung function, serum leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The concentrations of serum leptin, BMI and lung function were lower in COPD group than those in control group (P leptin between two groups were not difference after the adjusted results of BMI and fat mass.. There was no difference of REE and TNF-α concentrations in these two groups. The serum leptin had positive correlation with BMI and fat mass, but there were no correlation between of TNF-α and serum leptin. In elderly people with stable COPD, the decline on the serum leptin is related to the decrease of BMI and fat mass, but barely related to the level of TNF-α.

  19. Correlation of insulin resistance with serum C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yangqiang; Wang Zuobing; Yu Hui

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between serum C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin (APN), leptin (Leptin) levels, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) disease susceptibility. Methods: The plasma leptin and insulin (FINS) levels in the DM patients were determined by RIA, and the serum ANP levels were determined by ELSIA. The CRP, conventional serum fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were determine by automatic biochemistry analyzer. The insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, FPG x FINS/22.5) was calculated. The result was analyzed with normal healthy control group. Results: The serum CRP and leptin, HOMA-IR levels in T2DM group were significantly higher than that of in control group (P< 0.01), and the serum ANP was significantly lower than in control group (P<0.01). The HOMA-IR in T2DM was positively correlated with serum CRP (r= 0.36, P<0.05) and leptin(r= 0.39, P<0.05), and was negatively correlated with serum APN (r=0.32, P<0.05). Conclusion: The high serum CRP and leptin and low APN levels hyperlipidaemia might be factors for diabetes, and their metabolic disorders may be closely related with insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. (authors)

  20. Clinical significance of determination of plasma leptin, NPY and serum Hcy levels in patients with chronic renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhifeng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between progress of disease and blood levels of leptin, NPY, Hcy in patients with chronic renal diseases. Methods: Plasma leptin, NPY (with RIA) and serum Hcy (with CLIA) were determined in (1) 32 patients with chronic pyelonephritis (2) 28 patients with dibetic nephropathy (3) 30 patients with chronic renal failure and (4) 30 controls. Results: Blood levels of leptin, NPY and Hcy were slightly higher in patients with chronic pyelonephritis than those in controls but without significance (P>0.05). In patients with diabetic nephropathy, the plasma leptin and serum Hcy levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). In patients with chronic renal failure,the blood levels of NPY (P<0.05) and leptin, Hcy (P<0.01) were all significantly higher than those in controls. Conclusion: Blood levels of these three parameters especially leptin and Hcy, were increased in patients with chronic renal diseases and the increase was most significant in advanced cases. (authors)

  1. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J Scott; Simcox, Judith A; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T; McClain, Donald A

    2015-09-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression.

  2. Coffee but not green tea consumption is associated with prevalence and severity of hepatic steatosis: the impact on leptin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imatoh, T; Kamimura, S; Miyazaki, M

    2015-09-01

    Most of the studies that have investigated the association between coffee consumption and hepatic steatosis have been experimental and small-scale clinical studies. As a result, epidemiological studies are scarce. To clear the association, we conducted a cross-sectional study and investigated the effects of coffee consumption with those of green tea consumption. We analyzed 1024 Japanese male workers. The diagnosis of hepatic steatosis was based on ultrasonography. We divided coffee and green tea consumption into the following three categories: non-drinker; 1-2 cups/day and ⩾3 cups/day. To investigate the association between hepatic steatosis and coffee or green tea consumption, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) and adjusted the means of leptin levels on each severity of hepatic steatosis. A total of 265 of our subjects (25.9%) were diagnosed with hepatic steatosis. The ORs of the group of subjects who drank >3 cups of coffee/day was significantly lower compared with that of the noncoffee drinker group (OR 0.59, 95% confidence intervals 0.38-0.90, P=0.03). Although there was a significant difference between coffee consumption and leptin level only in the asymptomatic group, we found a decreasing trend in the asymptomatic and moderate-severe hepatic steatosis group. We did not find the same relationships in green tea consumption. Although we did not find an association between hepatic steatosis and green tea consumption, coffee may have beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis. In addition, we produced one possible hypothesis that coffee consumption negatively associates with leptin levels in hepatic steatosis.

  3. Peripheral Signals of Food Intake in Response to Low Leptin Levels Induced by Centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M. M.; Wade, Charles E.; Stein, T. P.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The focus of the study was to examine leptin and other peripheral signals of energy balance, following hypergravity. The study was conducted in two experiments. In experiment 1 rats were centrifuged at either 1.5, 2, or remained at 1 G. During days 8 to 14 of experiment 1, mean body mass of the 1.5 and 2 G groups was significantly (pcentrifuged at either 1.25, 1.5, or remained at 1 G. During days 8 to 14, body mass and food intake were similar between the 1, 1.25, and 1.5 G groups. Epididymal fat was reduced from controls in the 1.25 (14%) and 1.5 (19%) G groups. Leptin was reduced from controls in the 1.25 (45%) and 1.5 (46%) G groups. No differences were found in urinary epinephrine. Urinary norepinephrine levels were significantly higher than controls in each centrifuge group. During hypergravity exposure, food intake is the result of a complex relationship between multiple pathways, which abates the importance of leptin as a primary signal.

  4. Effects of ghrelin, leptin and melatonin on the levels of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activity and viability of the HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bułdak, Rafał Jakub; Pilc-Gumuła, Katarzyna; Bułdak, Łukasz; Witkowska, Daria; Kukla, Michał; Polaniak, Renata; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including colon cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active substances, such as leptin and ghrelin. Recent research has suggested that adipose-derived hormones may be associated with mechanisms linked to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Furthermore, previous studies have demonstrated that pineal gland-derived melatonin possesses important oncostatic and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to determine the effects of the adipokines ghrelin and leptin, and the melatonin on intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase. The effects of these compounds were also determined on the viability of HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro. The pro-oxidant and growth inhibitory effects of melatonin resulted in an accumulation of ROS and decreased antioxidant capacity in melatonin-treated cells. Ghrelin administration alone caused a significant decrease in the levels of ROS, due to an increased activity of CAT in the HCT 116 cells. In addition, the present study observed increased lipid peroxidation following melatonin treatment, and decreased levels of malondialdehyde following ghrelin or leptin treatment. In conclusion, ghrelin, leptin and melatonin have various influences on the antioxidant capacity of HCT 116 cells. Compared with the adipokines, treatment with melatonin increased ROS levels and decreased cellular viability.

  5. Leptin as well as Free Leptin Receptor Is Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Young Women

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    Nasser M. Rizk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Leptin has two forms in the circulation: free and bound forms. The soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R circulates in the blood and can bind to leptin. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of the leptin and the sOB-R in PCOS and its relation to adiposity, insulin resistance, and androgens. Methods. A cross-sectional study included 78 female students aged 17–25 years. Fasting serum leptin and sOB-R concentrations were measured. The anthropometric variables and the hormonal profile such as insulin, female and male sex hormones, and prolactin were assessed. Results. In PCOS, leptin level (ng/ml and free leptin index (FLI increased significantly while sOB-R (ng/ml significantly decreased compared to control subjects. In age-matched subjects, obese PCOS had increased leptin level in ng/ml (median level with interquartile levels of 45.67 (41.98–48.04 and decreased sOB-R in ng/ml 11.47 (7.59–16.44 compared to lean PCOS 16.97 (10.60–45.55 for leptin and 16.62 (11.61–17.96 for sOB-R with p values 0.013 and 0.042, respectively. However, body mass index (BMI is significantly correlated with leptin and s-OBR, while no significant correlations with parameters of insulin resistance were detected. Conclusion. PCOS is associated with hyperleptinemia and increased free leptin index. Decreased sOB-R could be a compensatory mechanism for the defective action of leptin.

  6. The Role of Obesity, Different Fat Compartments and Sleep Apnea Severity in Circulating Leptin Levels: The Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnardottir, Erna S.; Maislin, Greg; Jackson, Nick; Schwab, Richard J.; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Teff, Karen; Juliusson, Sigurdur; Pack, Allan I.; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether sleep apnea severity has an independent relationship with leptin levels in blood after adjusting for different measures of obesity and whether the relationship between OSA severity and leptin levels differs depending on obesity level. Methods Cross-sectional study of 452 untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients (377 males and 75 females), in the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort (ISAC), age 54.3±10.6 (mean±SD), BMI 32.7±5.3 kg/m2 and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 40.2 ± 16.1 events/hour. A sleep study and magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat volume were performed as well as fasting serum morning leptin levels measured. Results Leptin levels were more highly correlated with body mass index (BMI), total abdominal and subcutaneous fat volume than visceral fat volume per se. No relationship was found between sleep apnea severity and leptin levels, assessed within three BMI groups (BMI35 kg/m2). In a multiple linear regression model, adjusted for gender, BMI explained 38.7% of the variance in leptin levels, gender explained 21.2% but OSA severity did not have a significant role and no interaction was found between OSA severity and BMI on leptin levels. However, hypertension had a significant effect on the interaction between OSA severity and obesity (p=0.04). In post-hoc analysis for nonhypertensive OSA subjects (n=249), the association between leptin levels and OSA severity explained a minor but significant variance (3.2%) in leptin levels. This relationship was greatest for nonobese nonhypertensive subjects (significant interaction with obesity level). No relationship of OSA severity and leptin levels was found for hypertensive subjects (n=199). Conclusion Obesity and gender are the dominant determinants of leptin levels. OSA severity is not related to leptin levels except to a minor degree in nonhypertensive nonobese OSA subjects. PMID:22964793

  7. Cloning, tissue distribution and effects of fasting on mRNA expression levels of leptin and ghrelin in red-bellied piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkoff, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the appetite regulating peptides leptin and ghrelin were isolated in red-bellied piranha (Characiforme, Serrasalmidae) and their mRNA tissue and brain distributions examined. When compared to other fish, the sequences obtained for all peptides were most similar to that of other Characiforme fish and Siluriformes. All peptides were widely expressed within the brain and in several peripheral tissues, including gastrointestinal tract. In order to better understand the role of these peptides in the regulation of feeding of red-bellied piranha, the mRNA expression levels of leptin and ghrelin were examined in both brain and intestine, in fed and 7-day fasted fish. No significant differences in expression were seen in whole brain for either peptide. Within the intestine, there was a decrease in leptin mRNA expression and an increase in ghrelin mRNA expression in fasted fish, compared to fed fish. The results suggest that leptin and ghrelin might play a major role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis of red-bellied piranha and this role might be more prominent in the intestine than in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Leptin level and oxidative stress contribute to obesity-induced low testosterone in murine testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Zhai, Lingling; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Shuang; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of obesity on the function of reproductive organs in male mice and the possible mechanism of male secondary hypogonadism (SH) in obesity. Ninety-six mice were randomly assigned to three groups: the control group, diet-induced obesity group, and diet-induced obesity resistant group for 8 weeks and 19 weeks. The effects of short- and long-term high-fat diet on the reproductive organs were determined by measuring sperm count and motility, relative testis weight, testosterone level, pathological changes and apoptosis of Leydig cells. Oxidative stress was evaluated by determining malondialdehyde, H2O2, NO levels, and GSH in testis tissues. CAT, SOD, GSH-Px and Nrf2 mRNA were measured by real-time PCR. Short- and long-term high-fat diet decreased sperm count and motility, relative testis weight, testosterone level; decreased CAT, SOD, GSH-Px and Nrf2 mRNA expression; increased MDA, H2O2, NO and leptin levels; inhibited the activity of CAT and GSH-Px enzymes. Pathological injury and apoptosis of Leydig cells were found in testis tissue. Pathological damage of Leydig cells, oxidative stress in testis tissue, and high level of leptin may provide some evidence to clarify the mechanisms of male SH in obesity.

  9. Leptin Level and Oxidative Stress Contribute to Obesity-Induced Low Testosterone in Murine Testicular Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the effects of obesity on the function of reproductive organs in male mice and the possible mechanism of male secondary hypogonadism (SH in obesity. Methods. Ninety-six mice were randomly assigned to three groups: the control group, diet-induced obesity group, and diet-induced obesity resistant group for 8 weeks and 19 weeks. The effects of short- and long-term high-fat diet on the reproductive organs were determined by measuring sperm count and motility, relative testis weight, testosterone level, pathological changes and apoptosis of Leydig cells. Oxidative stress was evaluated by determining malondialdehyde, H2O2, NO levels, and GSH in testis tissues. CAT, SOD, GSH-Px and Nrf2 mRNA were measured by real-time PCR. Results. Short- and long-term high-fat diet decreased sperm count and motility, relative testis weight, testosterone level; decreased CAT, SOD, GSH-Px and Nrf2 mRNA expression; increased MDA, H2O2, NO and leptin levels; inhibited the activity of CAT and GSH-Px enzymes. Pathological injury and apoptosis of Leydig cells were found in testis tissue. Conclusions. Pathological damage of Leydig cells, oxidative stress in testis tissue, and high level of leptin may provide some evidence to clarify the mechanisms of male SH in obesity.

  10. [Leptin correlates with distribution of fatty tissue and plasma levels of insulin, testosterone and tumor necrosis factor alpha in perimenopausal women with increased testosterone level and central location of body fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, Tomasz; Krzysiek, Józef; Janczak-Saif, Agnieszka; Sztefko, Krystyna

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of the influence of testosterone and fat tissue distribution on the serum leptin levels in perimenopausal women. 93 perimenopausal women without HRT (age: 51.0 +/- 8.8 yrs, FSH: 68.0 +/- 49.4 IU/l, estradiol: 38.3 +/- 37.0 ng/1) were divided into group A - 63 women with serum testosterone level or = 0.6 ng/ml. Each group was later divided according to WHR into subgroup I (AI and BI) (WHR or = 0.8). Basic fasting serum levels of LH, FSH, PRL, estradiol, insulin, hGH, IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, leptin, testosterone, DHEAS TNF-alpha and SHBG were measured by RIA kits. Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, as well as triglycerides plasma levels were measured. Statistical evaluation was carried out by ANOVA and linear regression. BMI, WHR and plasma DHEAS level were higher in group B vs. group A. The lowest hGH, HDL-cholesterol and the highest TNF-alpha levels were found in group BII. The relations leptin/BMI and leptin/body mass were found in each group. The inverse relation between leptin and IGFBP-1 was found in groups A and B. In group A the inverse relations leptin/HDL-cholesterol and leptin/ DHEAS were observed. In group B the direct leptin/testosterone and inverse leptin/IGF-I relations were found. In group AI the inverse leptin/DHEAS relation remained, while in group AII inverse leptin/HDL-cholesterol relation remained and reverse leptin/IGFBP-1 relation was significant. The direct leptin/testosterone, leptin/WHR and inverse leptin/TNF-alpha links were observed in group BII. The serum leptin level was linked to WHR, serum testosterone, insulin, TNF-alpha levels only in groups of perimenopausal women with such cardiovascular risk factors as high WHR, overweight, high serum TNF-alpha and testosterone levels.

  11. The effect of combined exercise training on plasma Leptin levels and hormonal factors in overweight men

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    saeed Emamdost

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a period of combined exercise training on the plasma leptin level and hormonal factors in overweight men.   Materials and Methods: The subjects of this research consisted of thirty males (22-42 years old, BMI ≥29 who randomly were divided into experimental (n=15 and control groups(n=15. The experimental group performed for 8 weeks aerobic and resistance training, 3 sessions per week and each session included 10-12 station strength training at 75-70% of One Repetition Maximum (1RM for the first 4 weeks and at 75-80% of 1RM for the second 4 weeks. At the end, 10 minutes aerobic runing training at 70-75% of MHR in the first 4 weeks and 13 minute at 75-80% of MHR in the second 4 weeks were conducted.   Results: Leptin, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and insulin significantly decreased after the training ((P<0.05. However, There were no significant differences in the serum levels of cortisol and testosteron after 8 weeks concurrent training. The ratio of testosteron to cortisol (T/C in the experimental group showed a slight increase.   Conclusion: Generally, it appears that decrease of leptin due to a period of combined exercise training is more associated with reduce of body fat, weight and BMI than the change of testosteron or cortisol. In contrast to most researches, it seems that combined exercise training is more effective.

  12. Relationship between serum leptin levels, ATPase activity of erythrocyte membrance and development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with DM2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible mechanism of development of nephrosis affected by changes of serum leptin levels and alteration of activities of Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ Mg 2+ -ATPase of erythrocyte membrane in patients with type 2 diabetes(DM2). Methods: Serum leptin levels (with RIA) and erythrocyte membrane Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ Mg 2+ -ATPase activitities (with Reinila method) were determined in 40 DM2 patients without nephropathy, 32 DM2 patients with nephropathy and 35 controls. Results Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the diabetics as a whole than those in controls (P + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ Mg 2+ -ATPase activities were significantly lower (P<0.01). Among the diabetic patients, the serum leptin levels in patients without nephrosis (P<0.05), but the RBC membrance ATPase activities were significantly lower(P<0.05). Conclusion: Development of type 2 diabetes nephrosis might be correlated with the high serum leptin level and decreased ATPase activities of erythrocite membrane. (authors)

  13. Correlations of serum levels of TG with leptin and other related factors (L-1, NPY adiponectin) in patients with hyperlipidaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Donghong; Yu Ping; Wei Jingjun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes and correlations of serum levels of triglyeride (TG), leptin, L -1, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and adiponectin in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Methods: Serum levels of TG, leptin, L-1, NPY and adiponectin in 54 patients with HTG and 55 controls were measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results: The serum levels of TG, Leptin, L -1 and NPY in patients with HTG [ (3.46 ± 1.14) mmol/L, (10.56 ±3.79) μg/L, (0.40 ± 0.18) μg/L, (115.89 ± 24.56) μg/L, respectively] were significantly higher than those in controls [ (1.26 ± 0.30) mmol/L, (5.66 ± 2.01) μg/L, (0.22 ± 0.09) μg/L, (95.21 ± 16.85) μg/L, respectively] P < 0.01 in all. But serum levels of adiponectin in patients with HTG (8.98 ± 3.51μg/L) was significantly lower than those in controls [(13.21 ± 9.46) μg/L, P < 0.01]. There were significantly positive correlations between serum TG levels and serum levels of leptin (r = 0.576, P < 0.05). There were also significantly positive correlations between serum leptin levels and serum levels of L-1 and NPY (r = 0.582; r = 0.479, respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusion: There was close relationship between increase in serum TG level and changes of serum levels of leptin, L-1, NPY, adiponectin. Neural-endocrine-immune system participated in fatty metabolism and could result in HTG. (authors)

  14. Impact of enteral supplements enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and/or omega-6 fatty acids, arginine and ribonucleic acid compounds on leptin levels and nutritional status in active Crohn's disease treated with prednisolone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Aneta Aleksandra; Nielsen, Jens Nederby; Grønbaek, Henning

    2007-01-01

    cholesterol increased significantly within both groups at week 5 compared to inclusion. Leptin levels correlated with BMI in both groups at inclusion and in group 2 at week 9. In group 1, triglyceride levels remained unchanged, while levels in group 2 increased significantly at week 5 compared to inclusion...

  15. Longitudinal changes in the physical activity of adolescents with anorexia nervosa and their influence on body composition and leptin serum levels after recovery.

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    Elzbieta Kostrzewa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN are often observed to have high levels of physical activity, which do not necessarily diminish after a successful therapy. Previous studies have shown that body fat tissue recovery in these patients is associated with a disproportional restoration of the adipocyte hormone, leptin. Therefore, we wondered whether the individual variation in physical activity in AN patients prior to treatment may be related to body fat percentage and plasma leptin level outcome. METHOD: Body fat percentage, leptin serum, and physical activity levels (accelerometer were measured in adolescents with an (n=37, age 13 to 17.5 years at initial assessment, at the end of study participation (median 12 months, and at one-year follow-up. RESULTS: Accelerometer data were used to split the patients in two groups: those with low (n=26 and those with high levels of physical activity (HLPA, n=11. These groups did not differ in terms of age, IQ, presence of menses, BMI and season of admission. The HLPA group was characterized by a longer total duration of illness. Physical activity levels during therapy decreased for the group with initially HLPA and increased for the group with low levels of physical activity (to comparable levels. Physical activity remained stable after one year. The increase in body fat percentage and leptin levels were dependent on the recovery status; however, recovered patients with initially HLPA had significantly higher fat mass during the follow-up. DISCUSSION: HLPA, an important modulator of AN progression in adolescents, can be successfully diminished by therapeutic intervention. Among recovered patients, those with initially HLPA had higher fat mass levels than those with low levels of physical activity. This finding suggests that HLPA are an important modulator of the body composition recovery mechanism.

  16. Decreased serum level of soluble-leptin-receptor in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Bagheri, K; Ebadi, P; Naeimi, S

    2012-09-01

    There is some evidence suggesting that leptin and its negative regulator, soluble-leptinreceptor (SLR) may be able to influence inflammatory and autoimmune processes. In this study, several variables including socio-demographics, health-related habits, depression score, serum molecules and blood parameters besides the SLR level were evaluated in patients with SLE (SLE-patients) and healthy controls. The patients had significantly lower SLR level and higher depression score than the controls and both of these variables have a significant association with the occurrence of disease in logistic regression model. Moreover, the results of Pearson correlation analysis showed that patients' SLR level was negatively correlated with their weights and BDI scores. For the first time, this study indicated a lower level of SLR in SLE-patients and suggested that lower concentrations of SLR in these patients may be implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  17. Levels of adiponectin and leptin at onset of type 1 diabetes have changed over time in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safai, Narges; Eising, Stefanie; Hougaard, David Michael

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin and leptin are proteins secreted by the adipose tissue and have an influence on insulin sensitivity and on inflammatory markers. Altered levels could play a part in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. We determined adiponectin and leptin levels over a nine-year period...... in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in relation to the increasing incidence of T1D, and studied the impact of patient status, age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Data were derived from a population-based registry of diabetic children (DanDiabKids) from 1997 to 2005. Children with newly...... taken within the first 2 days after initiation of insulin treatment. There has been a change in leptin and adiponectin levels in children with or without T1D from 1997 to 2005. This is not explained by changes in BMI and may reflect changes in other factors like diet or physical activity....

  18. Leptin, obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Marcelo Lima de Gusmao; Haynes, William Geoffrey

    2004-03-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Leptin levels are increased in obesity and leptin exhibits cardiovascular actions that may contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. We review the sympathetic, renal and vascular actions of leptin and their relevance to cardiovascular disease. Leptin possesses cardio-renal actions potentially contributing to obesity-related hypertension including generalized sympathoactivation. However, given that leptin resistance occurs in obesity, it has been difficult to link hyperleptinemia with hypertension. One possibility is that leptin resistance is confined to the metabolic effects of leptin, with preservation of its sympathoexcitatory actions. Other mechanisms may contribute to the pressor effects of leptin. For instance, angiotensin II induces leptin generation. Leptin also potentiates the pressor effect of insulin. Therefore, interactions between angiotensin II and insulin with leptin could have deleterious cardiovascular effects in obesity. Additionally, leptin appears to stimulate vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertophy. These actions may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy. The potential actions of leptin in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular complications of obesity are diverse, despite evidence of leptin resistance to its metabolic actions. However, most information about cardiovascular actions of leptin derives from in-vitro and animal studies. Future research in humans is widely awaited.

  19. Long-term changes in leptin, chemerin and ghrelin levels following different bariatric surgery procedures: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Ximena; Auguet, Teresa; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Berlanga, Alba; Orellana-Gavaldà, Josep Maria; Hernández, Mercè; Sabench, Fàtima; Porras, Jose Antonio; Llutart, Jordi; Martinez, Salomé; Aguilar, Carmen; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2013-11-01

    Different studies have evaluated changes in adipo/cytokine levels after bariatric surgery and have given conflicting results. The adipo/cytokines, leptin and chemerin, and the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin, have been shown to play a role in the regulation of metabolism and appetite. The aims of our study were to test the levels of these molecules after bariatric surgery and to compare the results between Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. We analysed circulating levels of chemerin, ghrelin and leptin in 30 morbidly obese women (body mass index of >40 kg/m2). Subjects were studied at three time points: baseline (before the surgery started), and after 6 and 12 months. After surgery, chemerin (baseline, 95.03 ± 23.79; after 12 months, 76.80 ± 21.51; p = 0.034) and leptin levels (baseline, 248.17 ± 89.16; after 12 months, 63.85 ± 33.48; p surgery in terms of weight reduction, general metabolic state or adipo/cytokine levels after surgery. Our study demonstrates a marked decrease in fasting leptin and chemerin levels, and an increase in ghrelin levels, after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss, independently of the type of surgery performed. Further studies are needed on the interrelation between the changes in the circulating levels of these molecules and the efficacy of the bariatric surgery procedures to induce the beneficial metabolic changes and to sustain body weight loss.

  20. The effect of opium addiction on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in male subjects: a case control study from Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Study (KERCADRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Najafipour, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Serum adiponectin and leptin levels have been shown to be related to obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Opium addiction has a positive association with endocrine system disorders. The relationship between adipokines and opium addiction is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to determine serum adiponectin and leptin levels in opium addicted subjects. 176 men, 88 opium addicts and 88 non- addicts were randomly selected from subjects who participated in Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study (KERCADRS); a population-based study. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured using ELISA and compared between two groups. We adjusted the effect of some confounding factors such as the patients' demographic, clinical and medical history in multivariate analysis model. The serum level of adiponectin in opium addicts was significantly lower than control group (6.5±3.6 vs. 9.8±8.1 µg/ml, Popium addicts, p = 0.80). In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, body mass index, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, triglyceride and high and low density lipoproteins, the negative association between opium addiction and decreased adiponectin level was still present (β = -0.144, P value = 0.005). The results showed that opium addiction reduces serum adiponectin level. Since adiponectin has been shown to have anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic effects, its reduction may account for increase in the risk of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and CVD amongst opium addicted patients.

  1. Effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients

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    El-Shazly AN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Nabih El-Shazly,1 Soha Abd El-Hady Ibrahim,1 Ghada Mohamed El-Mashad,2 Jehan H Sabry,3 Nashwa Said Sherbini11Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shibin Al Kawm, 3Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, Egypt Introduction: Zinc is an essential trace element for human nutrition, and its deficiency is associated with anorexia, poor food efficiency, growth retardation, and impaired neurological and immune systems. The zinc-deficiency rate is particularly high in many disease states, such as with end-stage renal disease patients undertaking hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index (BMI and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: This was a prospective clinical trial study in which 60 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into two groups: group I received 50–100 mg zinc sulfate (equivalent to 11–22 mg elemental zinc according to age, sex, and nutritional status of the child; and group II received placebo (cornstarch twice daily for 90 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum zinc and leptin levels were determined by colorimetric test with 5-Br-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, at days 0 and 90 of the study. Results: Zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase in mean serum zinc level and BMI. Serum leptin decreased significantly after supplementation in children under hemodialysis. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum zinc and leptin levels as a result of zinc supplementation. Conclusion: There was an increase in serum zinc level and BMI and decreased serum leptin after zinc supplementation in children under hemodialysis. Keywords: serum zinc, serum leptin

  2. Metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants: Management factors predicting leptin levels and the glucose-to-insulin ratio and their associations with health parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Screening for metabolic-related health problems can enhance animal welfare, so the purpose of this study was to conduct the first metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants and use epidemiological methods to determine how factors in the captive environment were associated with metabolic hormone concentrations. In addition, we examined relationships between metabolic status and several fitness parameters: foot health, musculoskeletal health, reproductive cyclicity, and body condition. Two blood samples were collected 2 weeks apart from 87 Asian (Elephas maximus and 105 African (Loxodonta africana elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for analysis of serum leptin, insulin, glucose and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I. In females, mean (± SD leptin concentrations and the G:I were lower (P0.05. As mean leptin concentration increased there was an increase in the odds of a female being non-cycling (P = 0.0083. The G:I was associated inversely with body condition (P = 0.0002; as the G:I increased there was a decreased risk of BCS = 4 or 5 as compared to the ideal, or BCS = 3. Neither leptin nor G:I were predictive of foot or musculoskeletal health scores. Factors related to walking and feeding practices were most influential in predicting metabolic status, whereas social and housing factors showed smaller, but significant effects. The metabolic health benefits of walking were detected if the time spent in staff-directed walking was 7 hours or more per week. The most protective feeding practices included implementing a random rather than predictable feeding schedule and limiting the number of methods presentation methods. Results indicate that leptin levels and G:I can be used as predictors of both ovarian cycle function and body condition, and are affected by zoo management in elephants.

  3. Comparitive Study of Serum Leptin Levels in Diabetic Obese Patients and Non-Diabetic Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    M Afkhami-Ardakani; J Mohiti-Ardakani; H Sedghi

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Leptin was first discovered from the "Ob Gene" by Friedwan and co-workers in 1994. It is a small peptide with 167 amino acids and molecular weight of 16 Kd . It is secreted by adipose tissues. Leptin has two type of receptors in Hypothalamus and other tissues including muscles, liver and intestines. Leptin inhibits neuropeptide Y resulting in decreased appetite and on the other hand increases the basic metabolic rate of the body resulting in homeostasis of body energy. Insulin v...

  4. Leptin to adiponectin ratio in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrowbeygi, A; Ahmadvand, H

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess leptin/adiponectin ratio in preeclamptic patients compared with normal pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was designed. The study population consisted of 30 preeclamptic patients and 30 healthy pregnant women. Serum levels of total leptin and adiponectin were assessed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The one-way ANOVA and Student's t tests and Pearson's correlation analysis were used for statistical calculations. Levels of leptin and adiponectin were also adjusted for BMI. A p-value preeclamsia and imbalance between the adipocytokines could be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  5. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with children nephrotic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with children nephrotic syndrome. Methods: Plasma leptin (with RIA) serum IL-6, IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 31 patients with children nephrotic syndrome both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment,the plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels were significantly higher than those in controls(P <0.01). After treatment for 3 months, the levels in patients though dropped markedly remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Plasma leptin levels were positively correlated with IL-6, IL-18 levels (r=0.6138, 0.5784, P<0.01). Conclusion: Changes of plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels after treatment might be of prognostic importance in patients with children nephrotic syndrome. (authors)

  6. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of plasma leptin and serum NPY levels after hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zhengping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serum NPY levels after hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. Methods: Plasma leptin and serum NPY levels were measured with RIA both before and after hemodialysis in 31 patients with chronic renal failure as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before hemodialysis,plasma leptin and serum NPY levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). After hemodialysis for 1 week the levels, though dropped markedly, still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: The levels of leptin and NPY were significantly increased in patients with chronic renal failare. Hemodialysis could increase, the clearance rate of leptin and NPY and partially correct the levels with important clinical value. (authors)

  7. Clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serum T, E2, FSH, LH, PRL levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wen; Wang Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serum T, E 2 , FSH, LH, PRL levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS). Methods: Plasma leptin (with RIA), serum T, E 2 , FSH, LH, PRL (with ECLIA) levels were detected in 31 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) as well as in 35 controls. Results: The plasma leptin and serum T, LH, PRL levels in the patients with PCOS were significantly higher than those in controls (P 2 , FSH levels were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05). Plasma leptin levels were positively correlated with those of serum T, LH, PRL (r=0.5784, 0.5411, 0.6082, P<0.01). Conclusion: Development of PCOS was closely related to the plasma leptin and serum T, LH, PRL levels. (authors)

  8. Plasma leptin and insulin-like growth factor I levels during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kythreotis, Prokopis; Kokkini, Ageliki; Avgeropoulou, Stavrina; Hadjioannou, Argyro; Anastasakou, Efgenia; Rasidakis, Antonis; Bakakos, Petros

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies have provided evidence for a link between leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mediates the metabolic effects of growth hormone (GH). The GH axis is believed to be suppressed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study is to find out whether acute exacerbations of COPD are followed by changes in plasma leptin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and furthermore, whether the...

  9. Abalation of Ghrelin receptor in leptin-deficient mice has paradoxical effects on glucose homeostasis compared to Ghrelin-abalated Leptin-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is produced predominantly in stomach and is known to be the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Ghrelin is a GH stimulator and an orexigenic hormone. In contrast, leptin is an anorexic hormone, and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are obese and diabetic. To study...

  10. Exercise-Associated Amenorrhea: Are Altered Leptin Levels an Early Warning Sign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Michelle P.; Ramos, Russalind H.; Bronson, Emily M.

    2002-01-01

    Although the exact cause of the female athlete triad (amenorrhea, disordered eating, and osteoporosis) is unknown, recent research implicates leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes. Leptin may be an important indicator of nutritional status and may play a role in reproductive function. Physicians who develop a plan for early recognition and…

  11. Ethnic variation in adiponectin and leptin levels and their association with adiposity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Andrew; Razak, Fahad; Blankenberg, Stefan; Vuksan, Vlad; Davis, A Darlene; Miller, Ruby; Teo, Koon; Gerstein, Hertzel; Sharma, Arya M; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S

    2010-07-01

    To investigate ethnic differences in adiponectin and leptin concentration and to determine whether these adipokines and a high-glycemic index diet account for ethnic variation in insulin resistance. In 1,176 South Asian, Chinese, Aboriginal, and European Canadians, fasting blood samples were drawn, and clinical history and dietary habits including glycemic index/glycemic load were recorded using standardized questionnaires. Insulin resistance was defined using homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher in Europeans (adjusted mean 12.94 [95% CI 2.27-13.64]) and Aboriginal people (11.87 [11.19-12.59]) than in South Asians (9.35 [8.82-9.92]) and Chinese (8.52 [8.03-9.03]) (overall P < 0.001). Serum leptin was significantly higher in South Asians (11.82 [10.72-13.04]) and Aboriginal people (11.13 [10.13-12.23]) than in Europeans (9.21 [8.38-10.12]) and Chinese (8.25 [7.48-9.10]). BMI and waist circumference were inversely associated with adiponectin in every group except the South Asians (P < 0.001 for interaction). Adiponectin was inversely and leptin was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0.001). The increase in HOMA-IR for each given decrease in adiponectin was larger among South Asians (P = 0.01) and Aboriginal people (P < 0.001) than among Europeans. A high glycemic index was associated with a larger decrease in adiponectin among South Asians (P = 0.03) and Aboriginal people (P < 0.001) and a larger increase in HOMA-IR among South Asians (P < 0.05) relative to that in other groups. South Asians have the least favorable adipokine profile and, like the Aboriginal people, display a greater increase in insulin resistance with decreasing levels of adiponectin. Differences in adipokines and responses to glycemic foods parallel the ethnic differences in insulin resistance.

  12. Reversal of the sex difference in serum leptin levels upon cross-sex hormone administration in transsexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, J.M.; Asscheman, H.; Seidell, J C; Frölich, M.; Meinders, Arend E; Gooren, Louis J G

    1997-01-01

    Women have higher circulating leptin levels than men. This sex difference is not simply explained by differences in the amount of body fat and is possibly influenced by their different sex steroid milieus. This prompted us to study prospectively the effects of cross-sex steroid hormones on serum

  13. Relationship between changes of serum leptin levels and degree of glomerulosclerosis in rats after 5/6 nephrectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Licai; Zhang Daoyou; Zhu Xinjian; Wang Yuwei; Gao Chaoqing; Xu Haihong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between changes of serum leptin levels and glomerulosclerosis index, TGF-β 1 expression at glomerulus as well as degree of ECM proliferation in rats after 5/6 nephrectomy. Methods: Eight rats underwent two-stage 5/6 nephrectomy to establish a progressive glomeruloselerosis model. Six weeks after the second operation, the rats were sacrificed, the renal tissue was examined with routine pathological sections for study of glomerulosclerosis as well as with immunohistochemical studies for TGF-β 1 , collagen IV and fibronectin expressions. Six rats underwent sham operation served as controls. Serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and leptin levels were measured in all these animals. Results: The serum levels of leptin were significantly higher in rats after 5/6 nephrectomy than the rats with sham operations (14.88 ± 1.46ng/ml vs 10.84 ± 2.67ng/ml, P < 0. 01 ). Serum levels of leptin were positively correlated with the glomeruloselerosis index and collagen IV, fibronectin expressions ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: Hyperleptinemia may be one of the causative factors of development of glomerulosclerosis. (authors)

  14. Variations in leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin levels induced by aerobic exercise in young trained and untrained male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Algul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the impacts of acute aerobic exercise on circulating levels of hormones associated with energy metabolism, namely leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin, in trained and untrained male subjects and to determine whether the timing of the exercise (i.e. morning or night amplified these impacts. Thirty trained (19.2±0.7 years and 30 untrained (19.5±0.6 years male subjects performed two aerobic running exercises (3 days between tests to 64-76% of the subjects’ maximal heart rate for about 30 min. Pre- and post-exercise venous blood samples were taken and analysed for leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Paired samples and independent samples t-tests were used to analyse data. Irisin levels increased in all the subjects (p<0.001. In both groups, nesfatin-1 levels increased significantly after the night-time exercise (p<0.05. Importantly, leptin and nesfatin-1 levels varied among the trained and untrained groups: Both leptin and nesfatin-1 levels increased in 4 (13% and 12 (40% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercises, and they increased in 9 (30% and 10 (33% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. They decreased in 5 (16% and 7 (23% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercise and in 6 (20% and 3 (10% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. Exercise may result in increased energy consumption by altering irisin levels. However, due to variations among individuals, increasing leptin and nesfatin-1 levels by reducing food intake may not be applicable.

  15. The clinical value of measurement of serum leptin, α1-acid glycoprotein and alphal-antitrypsine levels in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xingrong; Deng Zihui; Xue Hui; Yan Guangtao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the early diagnostic value of measurement of changes of serum leptin, α 1 -acid glycoprotein (AAG) and alphal-antitrypsine (α 1 AT)levels in patients with lung cancer. Methods: Serum leptin (with RIA)and serum AAG and α 1 AT (with ELISA) levels were determined in 89 patients with lung cancer and 60 controls. Results: The serum levels of leptin, AAG and α 1 AT in patients with lung cancer were significantly higher than those in the controls. No correlations among the investigated serum parameters were demonstrated. Conclusion: Serum leptin, AAG and α 1 AT levels are higher in patients with lung cancer. They may play inde-pendent roles in the development of lung cancer. Detection of the serum concentrations of leptin, AAG and α 1 AT is valuable for early diagnosis of lung cancer. (authors)

  16. Reduced leptin level is independently of fat mass changes and hunger scores from high-intensity intermittent plus strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daniela S; Gonçalves Panissa, Valéria L; Mello Antunes, Barbara; Poleto de Oliveira, Flaviane; Bernardes Malta, Raoni; Santos Caldeira, Renan; Zapaterra Campos, Eduardo; Duarte Pimentel, Gustavo; Franchini, Emerson; Santos Lira, Fábio

    2017-05-09

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) plus strength training on body composition, hormone related to energetic balance (leptin), and hunger scores in physically active non-obese men. Sixteen men were allocated in two different groups, training group (n=10) performed a combined HIIT (5 km, 1 min of effort interspersed by 1 min of rest in passive recovery) followed by strength exercise session (three sets, with load of 8-12 repetition maximum) twice a week, during 8 weeks, while control group (n=6) did not suffer any intervention. Hunger scores, leptin concentrations and body composition were assessed. Body composition, fasting leptin and hunger score were compared through two-way analysis (group and period) with repeated measures in the second factor while leptin and hunger scores in exercise session pre- and post-8weeks through two-way analysis (period and time of measurement) with repeated measures in the second factor. The fasting leptin decreased pre- to post-8week in training group (7.7 ± 4.9 to 2.9 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p = 0.012). For leptin response to exercise session there was main effect of training period, with higher values pre- (6.5 ± 3.9 ng/ml) than post-training (2.6 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p < 0.001). For hunger scores there was effect of time of measurement (p <0.001), decreasing after breakfast and increasing over the experiment. Combined HIIT plus strength training were able to promote alterations in a hormone related to energy balance independent of body composition and hunger index alterations in physically active non-obese men.

  17. Serum leptin levels in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in relation to metabolic control and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Anil, M; Blum, W F

    1998-01-01

    . It is unclear at present whether this insulin action is a direct or an indirect effect. To investigate whether leptin concentrations in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (IDDM) were related to metabolic status, body weight, body mass index and insulin treatment, we have measured leptin...... concentrations in serum from 13 newly diagnosed IDDM patients before the beginning of insulin treatment (8 girls, 5 boys, aged 4.7-17.5 years) and in 134 patients with IDDM during treatment (64 girls, 70 boys, aged 2.6-20.1 years) using a specific radioimmunoassay. The data from patients with diabetes were...... compared with normative data that were derived from a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents. Serum from children with newly diagnosed diabetes had significantly lower levels of leptin (mean 1.28+/-1.60 ng/ml, range 0.14-6.13 ng/ml) compared with healthy children (n=710) (mean 2.2 ng/ml, range 0...

  18. Serum leptin levels in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in relation to metabolic control and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Anil, M; Blum, W F

    1998-01-01

    . It is unclear at present whether this insulin action is a direct or an indirect effect. To investigate whether leptin concentrations in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (IDDM) were related to metabolic status, body weight, body mass index and insulin treatment, we have measured leptin...... compared with normative data that were derived from a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents. Serum from children with newly diagnosed diabetes had significantly lower levels of leptin (mean 1.28+/-1.60 ng/ml, range 0.14-6.13 ng/ml) compared with healthy children (n=710) (mean 2.2 ng/ml, range 0...... concentrations in serum from 13 newly diagnosed IDDM patients before the beginning of insulin treatment (8 girls, 5 boys, aged 4.7-17.5 years) and in 134 patients with IDDM during treatment (64 girls, 70 boys, aged 2.6-20.1 years) using a specific radioimmunoassay. The data from patients with diabetes were...

  19. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n=10 each: control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1 to 4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4, living and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4, and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4. Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined. Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3-4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P<0.05 to P<0.01, and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P<0.05 to P<0.01 in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions.

  20. Metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants: Management factors predicting leptin levels and the glucose-to-insulin ratio and their associations with health parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Brown, Janine L

    2017-01-01

    Screening for metabolic-related health problems can enhance animal welfare, so the purpose of this study was to conduct the first metabolic health assessment of zoo elephants and use epidemiological methods to determine how factors in the captive environment were associated with metabolic hormone concentrations. In addition, we examined relationships between metabolic status and several fitness parameters: foot health, musculoskeletal health, reproductive cyclicity, and body condition. Two blood samples were collected 2 weeks apart from 87 Asian (Elephas maximus) and 105 African (Loxodonta africana) elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums for analysis of serum leptin, insulin, glucose and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I). In females, mean (± SD) leptin concentrations and the G:I were lower (Pelephants, respectively. For males, mean leptin and the G:I were 4.99 ± 3.61 ng/ml and 253 ± 181 units for Asian, and 3.72 ± 2.00 ng/ml and 326 ± 231 units for African elephants, respectively, with no differences between species (P>0.05). As mean leptin concentration increased there was an increase in the odds of a female being non-cycling (P = 0.0083). The G:I was associated inversely with body condition (P = 0.0002); as the G:I increased there was a decreased risk of BCS = 4 or 5 as compared to the ideal, or BCS = 3. Neither leptin nor G:I were predictive of foot or musculoskeletal health scores. Factors related to walking and feeding practices were most influential in predicting metabolic status, whereas social and housing factors showed smaller, but significant effects. The metabolic health benefits of walking were detected if the time spent in staff-directed walking was 7 hours or more per week. The most protective feeding practices included implementing a random rather than predictable feeding schedule and limiting the number of methods presentation methods. Results indicate that leptin levels and G:I can be used as predictors

  1. The photo biological effect of low level laser therapy on serum level of leptin, cholesterol and triglycerides in overweight and obese females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.S.; Tawfik, M.S.; Youssef, S.S.; Serry, Z.M.; Aboel magd, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    The use of low level laser for body contouring and weight reduction depends on the photochemical non thermal effect of laser light on the adipose tissue. LLLT was reported to liquefy or release stored fat in adipocytes by the opening of specialized yet not identified cell membrane-associated pores after a brief treatment The concentration of leptin in adipose tissue and serum closely parallel the mass of adipose tissue and adipocyte size and triglycerides content. Thus, leptin increases in obesity and falls with weight loss. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the low level laser therapy (LLLT) on leptin hormone, Cholesterol and triglyceride in both overweight and obese females. Twenty women were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 30-40 years. They were divided into two equal groups. Group A (Overweight group): included 10 females with BMI between 25 and 29.9 Kg/m2 -Group B (Obese group): included 10 females with BMI . 30. Both groups received LLL to the abdomen using laser scanner for uniform distribution of the beam above and below the umbilicus. Duration of treatment was 30 minutes, 2 times per week for 8 weeks as a total period of treatment. Serum level of leptin was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). As regards serum cholesterol and triglyceride they were determined by enzymatic colorimetric test. Biochemical assessments were done before and after treatment. Results of the present study showed that in the overweight group laser treatment resulted in highly significant reduction in leptin serum level accompanied by highly significant increase in serum triglycerides level. Meanwhile, the increase in cholesterol level was insignificant. As regards the obese group, alteration in serum leptin level caused by laser treatment was not significant. In this group the increase in triglycerides and cholesterol serum levels after treatment were highly significant

  2. Seminal plasma leptin and spermatozoon apoptosis in patients with varicocele and leucocytospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Lv, Y; Hu, K; Feng, T; Jin, Y; Wang, Y; Huang, Y; Chen, B

    2015-08-01

    Excessive apoptotic spermatozoon death is associated with male infertility. Leptin regulates apoptosis in several cell types. We prospectively investigated if seminal plasma leptin mediates spermatozoon apoptosis in 74 varicocele (VC) patients and 70 leucocytospermia patients. Spermatozoa from 40 normospermic men were used as controls. Routine semen analysis, spermatozoon apoptosis rate, seminal plasma leptin, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were measured. In VC and leucocytospermia patients, seminal plasma leptin levels and spermatozoon apoptosis rates were significantly higher compared with controls. In the VC group, seminal plasma ROS levels were significantly higher compared with controls; there were no significant differences in TNF-α levels. In the leucocytospermia group, both ROS and TNF-α levels were significantly higher compared with controls. In both the VC and leucocytospermia groups, there was a significant positive correlation between the spermatozoon apoptosis rate and leptin levels and ROS and leptin levels. There was a significant correlation between leptin and TNF-α levels in the leucocytospermia group. Seminal plasma leptin levels correlate significantly with spermatozoon apoptosis rate, and leptin may be a spermatozoon pro-apoptotic factors. The generation of ROS is a possible mechanism. Leptin may induce apoptosis via TNF-α in leucocytospermia patients. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Serum leptin concentrations, leptin mRNA expression, and food intake during the estrous cycle in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fungfuang, Wirasak; Nakada, Tomoaki; Nakao, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    :00) of the 4-day estrous cycle in female rats. Serum leptin levels were measured by ELISA, and leptin mRNA expression levels were analyzed using real-time PCR on diestrous- and proestrous-stage rats. Our results revealed that during the sexual cycle, food intake was significantly higher in the dark phase......The aim of this study was to investigate food intake, serum leptin levels, and leptin mRNA expression during the sexual cycle in rats. Female Wistar-Imamichi rats aged 8-10 weeks were used in this experiment. Food intake was measured during the light and dark phases (light on at 07:00 and off at 19...... compared with the light phase. Food intake in proestrous females was significantly lower in the light and dark phases compared with the other groups. Serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in both phases in proestrous rats compared with diestrous rats. There was a significant increase...

  4. The significance of serum leptin level in patients with early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Fatih; Yalcin, Bulent; Sahin, Suleyman; Akbulut, Hakan; Utkan, Gungor; Demirkazik, Ahmet; Icli, Fikri

    2017-01-01

    The serum leptin level (SLL) has been shown to increase in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, available data regarding the relation between SLL and tumor subtypes, survival, cachexia, and tumor respectability in NSCLC are still under debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate SLL in NSCLC patients with and without cachexia. A total of 71 patients with early stage NSCLC were enrolled in this prospective study. SLL was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationship between SLL and clinicopathological factors including histopathological subtypes, weight loss, overall survival, and tumor resectability were evaluated. Of the 71 patients, 57 (81%) were male with a mean age of 63.3 ± 8.2 years. The rates of histological subtypes of NSCLC were as follows: Squamous cell carcinoma 60.5%, adenocarcinoma 32%, and others 7.2%. Mean SLL was 12.9 ± 38.4 pmol/mL. There was no distinctive difference between SLL, weight loss, and survival. However, when stratifying the groups according to the lung cancer histological subtypes, mean SLL was significantly higher in patients with adenocarcinoma than those with squamous cell subtype (26.9 ± 6.2 pmol/mL vs. 5.1 ± 9.1 pmol/mL, P = 0.004). SLL might be beneficial as a useful biomarker in preclinical setting of NSCLC to guide detecting the lung cancer subtypes as well as monitoring the patients.

  5. Evaluation of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin levels in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuguz, P; Kacar, S D; Asik, G; Ozuguz, U; Karatas, S

    2016-02-09

    The research evaluating adipokines are very few in patients with acne vulgaris. The hypothesis that hyperinsulinemic and high glycemic index diet plays a role in the pathogenesis of acne is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate adipokines such as leptin (L), adiponectin (A), ghrelin and A levels, and A/L rates that indicate insulin resistance in nonobese patients with severe acne vulgaris. Thirty patients who are nonobese with moderate acne vulgaris, aged 18 to 25 years, and 15 age-sex compatible controls were included in our study. The acne lesions were assessed using the Global Acne Grading Scale (GAGS). All participants were evaluated for the parameters that may affect the metabolism of serum L, A, and ghrelin levels in blood, and their body mass index were calculated. The significance level was determined as p ≤ 0.05. Of the 30 patients, 17 were women and 13 were men. The mean age was 20.60 years and the mean duration of the disease were 2.8 years. All of patients had moderate acne vulgaris (GAGS 19-30). Of the 15 controls, 11 were women and 4 were men. The mean age was 21.20 years. There were not a statistically significant difference in L, ghrelin, A levels, and A/L ratio between the two groups. Adipokines may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. L, A, ghrelin, and insulin resistance may not participate in the responsible mechanisms in nonobese patients with moderate acne vulgaris. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Leptin promotes systemic lupus erythematosus by increasing autoantibody production and inhibiting immune regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Elaine V; Liu, Aijing; Matarese, Giuseppe; La Cava, Antonio

    2016-09-20

    Leptin is an adipocytokine that plays a key role in the modulation of immune responses and the development and maintenance of inflammation. Circulating levels of leptin are elevated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, but it is not clear whether this association can reflect a direct influence of leptin on the propathogenic events that lead to SLE. To investigate this possibility, we compared the extent of susceptibility to SLE and lupus manifestations between leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and H2-matched leptin-sufficient (wild-type, WT) mice that had been treated with the lupus-inducing agent pristane. Leptin deficiency protected ob/ob mice from the development of autoantibodies and renal disease and increased the frequency of immunoregulatory T cells (Tregs) compared with leptin-sufficient WT mice. The role of leptin in the development of SLE was confirmed in the New Zealand Black (NZB) × New Zealand White (NZW)F1 (NZB/W) mouse model of spontaneous SLE, where elevated leptin levels correlated with disease manifestations and the administration of leptin accelerated development of autoantibodies and renal disease. Conversely, leptin antagonism delayed disease progression and increased survival of severely nephritic NZB/W mice. At the cellular level, leptin promoted effector T-cell responses and facilitated the presentation of self-antigens to T cells, whereas it inhibited the activity of regulatory CD4 T cells. The understanding of the role of leptin in modulating autoimmune responses in SLE can open possibilities of leptin-targeted therapeutic intervention in the disease.

  7. Differences in leptin, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels between religious fasting and normal fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telci Çaklılı, Özge; İşbilen, Banu; Yavuz, Gülcan; Tülü, Selcan; Mesçi, Banu; Oğuz, Aytekin

    2017-08-23

    Background/aim: Leptin, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) affect hunger, satiety feelings, and food intake. We hypothesized that during Ramadan, if the brain knows that the body will be hungry until sunset, there may be differences between leptin, ghrelin, and GLP-1 levels in Ramadan and non-Ramadan fasting. Materials and methods: This study had two phases. In the first phase, the participants were asked to skip the dawn meal of Ramadan (suhur), so that 12 h of fasting could be achieved. Participants ceased food intake at midnight, and at noon blood was drawn. Eight participants were selected as a subgroup. These participants gave blood three times a day to detect hormonal changes during Ramadan. Six months later, in the second phase, blood samples were obtained at noon from participants after 12 h of fasting. Results: Analysis was conducted on 30 patients [19 males (63.3%) and 11 females (36.7%)]. There was a significant difference in leptin, ghrelin, and GLP-1 levels between Ramadan fasting and non-Ramadan fasting (P = 0.04, P = 0.02, and P gastrointestinal systems may behave differently in religious fasting than in nonreligious fasting.

  8. Monitoring leptin activity using the chicken leptin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Gideon; Yosefi, Sera; Ronin, Ana; Einat, Paz; Rosenblum, Charles I; Denver, Robert J; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2008-05-01

    We report on the construction of a leptin bioassay based on the activation of chicken leptin receptor in cultured cells. A human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cell line, stably transfected with the full-length cDNA of chicken leptin receptor together with a STAT3-responsive reporter gene specifically responded to recombinant human and Xenopus leptins. The observed higher sensitivity of chicken leptin receptor to the former is in agreement with the degree of sequence similarity among these species (about 60 and 38% identical amino acids between humans and chickens, and between humans and Xenopus respectively). The specific activation of signal transduction through the chicken leptin receptor, shown here for the first time, suggests that the transition of Gln269 (implicated in the Gln-to-Pro Zucker fatty mutation in rats) to Glu in chickens does not impair its activity. Analysis of leptin-like activity in human serum samples of obese and lean subjects coincided well with leptin levels determined by RIA. Serum samples of pre- and post partum cows showed a tight correlation with the degree of adiposity. However, specific activation of the chicken leptin receptor in this assay was not observed with serum samples from broiler or layer chickens (representing fat and lean phenotypes respectively) or with those from turkey. Similar leptin receptor activation profiles were observed with cells transfected with human leptin receptor. Further work is needed to determine whether the lack of leptin-like activity in the chicken serum samples is due to a lack of leptin in this species or simply to a serum level of leptin that is below the detection threshold.

  9. Plasma levels of leptin, omentin, collagenous repeat-containing sequence of 26-kDa protein (CORS-26 and adiponectin before and after oral glucose uptake in slim adults

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    Schäffler Andreas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipose tissue secreted proteins are collectively named adipocytokines and include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, collagenous repeat-containing sequence of 26-kDa protein (CORS-26 and omentin. Several of these adipocytokines influence insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism and therefore systemic levels may be affected by oral glucose uptake. Whereas contradictory results have been published for leptin and adiponectin, resistin has not been extensively investigated and no reports on omentin and CORS-26 do exist. Methods Therefore the plasma levels of these proteins before and 120 min after an oral glucose load were analyzed in 20 highly-insulin sensitive, young adults by ELISA or immunoblot. Results Circulating leptin was reduced 2 h after glucose uptake whereas adiponectin and resistin levels are not changed. Distribution of adiponectin and CORS-26 isoforms were similar before and after glucose ingestion. Omentin is highly abundant in plasma and immunoblot analysis revealed no alterations when plasma levels before and 2 h after glucose intake were compared. Conclusion Taken together our data indicate that only leptin is reduced by glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive probands whereas adiponectin and resistin are not altered. CORS-26 was demonstrated for the first time to circulate as high molecular weight form in plasma and like omentin was not influenced by oral glucose load. Omentin was shown to enhance insulin-stimulated glucose uptake but systemic levels are not correlated to postprandial blood glucose.

  10. Serum Leptin Measured in Early Pregnancy Is Higher in Women With Preeclampsia Compared With Normotensive Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Brandie; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, plays an important role in reproduction and angiogenesis. Studies examining leptin in preeclampsia are inconsistent, possibly because of small sample sizes and variability in sampling and outcome. We conducted a nested case-control study to examine associations...... between serum leptin (measured: 9-26 weeks gestation) and preeclampsia among 430 primiparous preeclamptic women and 316 primiparous normotensive controls from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Median (interquartile range) leptin concentrations were calculated. Associations between leptin and preeclampsia...... (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg), term preeclampsia (preeclampsia and delivery ≥37 weeks gestation), or preterm preeclampsia (preeclampsia and delivery

  11. Effect of 8 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Levels of Adiponectin and Leptin in Overweight Nurses

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    Sahar Avazpor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High intensity interval training (HIIT is a novel training method which has received most attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT on plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in overweight nurses.Materials and Methods: 27 nurses (mean age 25.81±60 years, height 158.01±67 cm and weight 69.41±25 kg were voluntarily selected and randomly assigned to three groups (each group 9 subjects: 1. HIIT (type 1 including 8 seconds of sprint running and 12 seconds of active recovery 2. HIIT (type 2 including 40-m shuttle run with maximum speed 3. Control group. HIIT (type 1 was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week, each session 6-9 min. With more than 90% HRmax. HIIT (type 2 was applied for eight weeks, three sessions per week with more than 90% HRmax. The control group did not participate in any training protocol.Results: The data were analyzed by the dependent t test and ANOVA. The results showed that the HIIT (type 1 and (type 2 had significant effects on plasma leptin decrease and plasma adiponectin concentration increase in nurses. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyze the intergroup data at p˂0.05.Conclusion: The results showed a significant difference in the variables (leptin and adiponectin among HIIT (type 1, HIIT (type 2 and control.

  12. Comparison of the Blood Level OF Leptin in Umbilical Cord of Newborns of Mothers With Gestational Diabetes and Normal Mothers and Its Relationship With Growth Indices of Newborns

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    Aramesh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes is defined as an abnormal increase in blood glucose levels and is the most common disease that can complicate pregnancy. Leptin, a hormone produced mainly in adipose tissue, plays an important role in preventing fat accumulation in tissues such as skeletal muscle and myocardium and can be used to evaluate changes in lipid levels effectively. Leptin cannot cross the placental barrier, and its level in the umbilical cord is of fetal origin. Objectives Due to the lack of similar studies in Ahvaz, we aimed to determine the relationship between umbilical blood levels of this hormone with growth indices of newborns with normal mothers and mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Materials and Methods After delivery and using the aseptic method, 5 mL of blood from the umbilical vein was taken immediately by staffs to separate serum and was then stored at −20°C. Serum level of leptin was measured using the Elisa method in two groups: “case” and “control.” All information collected in the questionnaires was analyzed using SPSS-19 software as well as other statistical methods. Results Serum leptin levels in the cord blood of mothers with GDM were significantly higher than in normal mothers. There was a significant relationship between serum leptin levels and birth weight in infants with diabetic mothers. In this study, no significant correlation was observed between cord leptin levels and other growth indices. Conclusions Changes in neonatal leptin levels can reflect changes in the body fat tissue and neonatal birth weight and could be effective in predicting weight gain in newborns with mothers who have gestational diabetes and may reduce birth trauma or future complications.

  13. The relationships of leptin, adiponectin levels and paraoxonase activity with metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in females treated with psychiatric drugs

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    Aliye Ozenoglu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate serum leptin, adiponectin and paraoxonase1 levels in adult females receiving pharmacotherapy for various psychiatric disorders. METHODS: The study group consisted of 32 obese females (mean age 40.53 ± 11.00 years, mean body mass index 35.44 ± 5.33 kg/m² who were receiving treatment for psychiatric disorders, and the control group included 22 obese females (mean age 35.95 ± 9.16 years, mean body mass index 30.78 ± 3.33 kg/m² who were free of psychiatric disorders. Analyses were performed using a bioelectrical impedance device. Fasting blood samples were obtained for complete blood count and various biochemical tests, including determination of leptin, adiponectin and paraoxonase1 activity. RESULTS: Body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage, fasting blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assesment of insulin resistance, alanine transaminase, aspartate tarnsaminase, and leptin levels were significantly higher in the study group than in controls. Although body weight was positively correlated with leptin levels in both groups, body weight was negatively correlated with adiponectin levels in the control group and positively correlated with adiponectin levels in the study group. In the study group, body mass index and hip circumference correlated positively with leptin levels, hip circumference correlated positively with adiponectin levels, and waist to hip ratio correlated positively with paraoxonase levels. In the control group, body mass index as well as waist and hip circumferences were positively correlated with leptin levels. Weight, body mass index, and hip circumference were also negatively correlated with the adiponectin/leptin ratio in the control group. CONCLUSION: This study indicates a higher risk for obesity-related disorders, particularly metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, in patients treated with

  14. Involvement of leptin in hypophagia induced by the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Sugimoto, Yumi; Ujikawa, Masanori

    2006-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that a serotonin (5-HT) precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) increases serum leptin levels in mice. It was reported that administration of 5-HTP elicits hypophagia in rodents and humans. In the present study, we examined involvement of leptin in 5-HTP-elicited decreases in the milk intake of fasted mice. Serum leptin levels increased with increases in milk intake in mice, while 5-HTP strongly decreased milk intake in fasted mice compared to that in the control group. Serum leptin levels in fasted mice treated with 5-HTP were similar to those control mice after milk intake. As leptin is a powerful anorectic signal, 5-HTP-induced anorexia may be mediated by facilitation of leptin secretion.

  15. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Godínez-Martínez, Estela; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Montiel-Ojeda, Diana; Tolentino, Maricruz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI). Objective: To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26–28 to three months postpartum (n = 168 mother–child dyads). An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497). Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011). Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722). Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents with leptin

  16. Leptin differentially regulates chondrogenesis in mouse vertebral and tibial growth plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Jiang, Kaibiao; Chen, Bin; Wang, Hantao; Li, Xinfeng; Liu, Zude

    2017-05-31

    Leptin plays an important role in mediating chondrogenesis of limb growth plate. Previous studies suggest that bone structures and development of spine and limb are different. The expression of Ob-Rb, the gene that encodes leptin receptors, is vertebral and appendicular region-specific, suggesting the regulation of leptin on VGP and TGP chondrogenesis may be very different. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential regulation of leptin on the chondrogenesis of vertebral growth plate (VGP) and tibial growth plate (TGP). We compared the VGP and TGP from wild type (C57BL/6) and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. We then generated primary cultures of TGP and VGP chondrocytes. By treating the primary cells with different concentrations of leptin in vitro, we analyzed proliferation and apoptosis of the primary chondrocytes from TGP and VGP. We further measured expression of chondrogenic-related genes in these cells that had been incubated with different doses of leptin. Leptin-deficient mice of 8-week-old had shorter tibial and longer vertebral lengths than the wide type mice. Disturbed columnar structure was observed for TGP but not for VGP. In primary chondrocyte cultures, leptin inhibited VGP chondrocyte proliferation but promoted their apoptosis. Collagen IIA and aggrecan mRNA, and the protein levels of proliferation- and chondrogenesis-related markers, including PCNA, Sox9, and Smad4, were downregulated by leptin in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, leptin stimulated the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of TGP chondrocytes at physiological levels (i.e., 10 and 50 ng/mL) but not at high levels (i.e., 100 and 1000 ng/mL). Leptin exerts a stimulatory effect on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of the long bone growth plate but an inhibitory effect on the spine growth plate. The ongoing study will shed light on the regulatory mechanisms of leptin in bone development and metabolism.

  17. TNF-alpha, leptin, and lymphocyte function in human aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    2000-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased inflammatory activity and concomitant decreased T cell mediated immune responses. Leptin may provide a link between inflammation and T cell function in aging. The aim of the study was to investigate if plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were...... associated with leptin, circulating interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R), and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) induced IL-2 production in whole blood in elderly humans. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and sIL-2R were higher in elderly humans (N=42) compared to a young control group (N=37) whereas...... there was no difference with regard to IL-2 production. Furthermore, there were no age-related differences in serum levels of leptin, However, women had higher levels than men. In the elderly people, serum levels of leptin were correlated with TNF-alpha in univariate regression analysis and in a multiple linear...

  18. The study of breast milk IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels as possible reasons of high weight gain in breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Igor Ya; Shilina, Natalia M; Gmoshinskaya, Maria V; Ivanushkina, Tatiana A

    2014-01-01

    Excessive consumption of protein that leads to increased blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is an important risk factor for high growth velocity and obesity in formula-fed infants. However, it is not clear whether these factors can explain the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants. To study the possible links between the growth velocity in breast-fed infants and the levels of protein, IGF-1 and other hormones, which regulate energy homeostasis, in mothers' breast milk. We studied 103 mother-infant pairs. Their daily breast milk intake and level of IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, protein and fat in breast milk were measured at 1, 2 and 3 months of lactation. The infant group was divided into three subgroups of low, normal and high weight gain tertiles. The breast milk consumed by the infants with high weight gain contained higher levels of IGF-1 than that consumed by those with low weight gain at all periods studied (p = 0.032 at 3 months of lactation), and ghrelin levels were higher at 1 and 2 months and leptin levels at 2 and 3 months of lactation (p milk IGF-1 level and infant weight gain (r = 0.294, p = 0.043). Total daily breast milk, fat and hormone intake was also higher in the high weight gain group compared to the low weight gain group. One of the reasons for the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants may be the enhanced levels of the studied hormones in breast milk.

  19. Androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism is associated with serum testosterone levels, obesity and serum leptin in men with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanworth, R D; Kapoor, D; Channer, K S; Jones, T H

    2008-12-01

    To determine the relationships between androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism length (AR CAG), sex hormones and clinical variables in men with type 2 diabetes (DM2). Men with DM2 are known to have a high prevalence of low testosterone levels. Studies suggest that testosterone replacement therapy may improve insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control in men with DM2 and reduces central obesity and serum leptin. AR CAG is known to correlate negatively with AR sensitivity and positively with body fat, insulin levels, and leptin in healthy men. Cross-sectional study set in a district general hospital diabetes centre. Sex hormones, AR CAG and symptoms of hypogonadism were assessed in 233 men with DM2. Associations were sought between these variables and others such as obesity, leptin, glycaemic control, and blood pressure. Testosterone was negatively associated and AR CAG positively associated with obesity and leptin. The associations of AR CAG with leptin and obesity were independent of testosterone, estradiol, gonadotropins, and age. AR CAG was also independently associated with total, bioavailable and free testosterone, LH, waist circumference, body mass index, leptin, and systolic blood pressure. There was no association of AR CAG with sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, HbA(1C) or the symptoms of hypogonadism. The association of longer AR CAG with obesity and leptin suggests that shorter AR CAG may have an influence in maintaining healthy anthropomorphics and metabolism in men with DM2. Testosterone and LH levels are higher in men with longer AR CAG, probably reflecting reduced negative feedback through a less sensitive receptor.

  20. Common genetic variation in the SERPINF1 locus determines overall adiposity, obesity-related insulin resistance, and circulating leptin levels.

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    Anja Böhm

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF belongs to the serpin family of peptidase inhibitors (serpin F1 and is among the most abundant glycoproteins secreted by adipocytes. In vitro and mouse in vivo data revealed PEDF as a candidate mediator of obesity-induced insulin resistance. Therefore, we assessed whether common genetic variation within the SERPINF1 locus contributes to adipose tissue-related prediabetic phenotypes in humans. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A population of 1,974 White European individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes was characterized by an oral glucose tolerance test with glucose and insulin measurements (1,409 leptin measurements and genotyped for five tagging SNPs covering 100% of common genetic variation (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.05 in the SERPINF1 locus. In addition, a subgroup of 486 subjects underwent a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp and a subgroup of 340 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and spectroscopy (MRS. RESULTS: After adjustment for gender and age and Bonferroni correction for the number of SNPs tested, SNP rs12603825 revealed significant association with MRI-derived total adipose tissue mass (p = 0.0094 and fasting leptin concentrations (p = 0.0035 as well as nominal associations with bioelectrical impedance-derived percentage of body fat (p = 0.0182 and clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (p = 0.0251. The association with insulin sensitivity was completely abolished by additional adjustment for body fat (p = 0.8. Moreover, the fat mass-increasing allele of SNP rs12603825 was significantly associated with elevated fasting PEDF concentrations (p = 0.0436, and the PEDF levels were robustly and positively associated with all body fat parameters measured and with fasting leptin concentrations (p<0.0001, all. CONCLUSION: In humans at increased risk for type 2 diabetes, a functional common genetic variant in the gene locus encoding PEDF contributes to overall body adiposity

  1. Functional evolution of leptin of Ochotona curzoniae in adaptive thermogenesis driven by cold environmental stress.

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    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can accelerate the directional selection and evolutionary rate of specific stress-response proteins to bring about new or altered functions, enhancing an organism's fitness to challenging environments. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, an endemic and keystone species on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is a high hypoxia and low temperature tolerant mammal with high resting metabolic rate and non-shivering thermogenesis to cope in this harsh plateau environment. Leptin is a key hormone related to how these animals regulate energy homeostasis. Previous molecular evolutionary analysis helped to generate the hypothesis that adaptive evolution of plateau pika leptin may be driven by cold stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis, recombinant pika leptin was first purified. The thermogenic characteristics of C57BL/6J mice injected with pika leptin under warm (23±1°C and cold (5±1°C acclimation is investigated. Expression levels of genes regulating adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and the hypothalamus are compared between pika leptin and human leptin treatment, suggesting that pika leptin has adaptively and functionally evolved. Our results show that pika leptin regulates energy homeostasis via reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure under both warm and cold conditions. Compared with human leptin, pika leptin demonstrates a superior induced capacity for adaptive thermogenesis, which is reflected in a more enhanced β-oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis and heat production. Moreover, leptin treatment combined with cold stimulation has a significant synergistic effect on adaptive thermogenesis, more so than is observed with a single cold exposure or single leptin treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the hypothesis that cold stress has driven the functional evolution of plateau pika leptin as an ecological adaptation to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  2. Lipid profile and levels of homocysteine, leptin, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein in hyperthyroid patients before and after treatment

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    Emine Sütken

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was carried out to determine whether thyroid hormones affect lipid profile and levels of erithrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, serum total homocysteine (t-hcy, leptin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP in patients with hyperthyroidism.Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 23 hyperthroid subjects (3 men / 20 women, mean age 41.8 ± 2.4 years. Serum levels of homocysteine, leptin, fibrinogen, CRP, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and ESR were measured and body mass index (BMI were calculated before and after treatment of hyperthyroidism.Results: Pretreatment t-hcy, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C levels and BMI of patients were significantly lower than those of the post-treatment (p<0.001, for each variable. However, fibrinogen and ESR decreased after the treatment (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. There were no differences in leptin and CRP levels between pre- and post-treatment periods. Pre and post treatment TC and LDL-C levels were negatively correlated with free triiodothyronine (fT3 levels (r=-0.588, p<0.01; r=-0.534, p<0.01; r=-0.543, p<0.01 and r =-0.653, p<0.01, respectively. Pre-treatment HDL-C was inversely correlated with TSH (r=-0.423, p<0.05. Pre-post- treatment LDL-C was negatively correlated with free thyroxine (fT4 levels (r=-0.536, p<0.001 and r=- 0.422, p<0.05 respectively. Pre-treatment TC was inversely correlated with fT4 (r=-0.590, p<0.01.Conclusion: Hyperthyroidism is associated with high plasma fibrinogen and ESR levels. Elevated plasma fibrinogen and ESR levels may be a possible explanation for the high cardiovascular morbidity among hyperthyroidic subjects. These changes may reflect low-grade inflammation or disturbances in coagulation in hyperthyroidism.

  3. Impact of diisobutyl phthalate and other PPAR agonists on steroidogenesis and plasma insulin and leptin levels in fetal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Wortziger, Rasmus Henrik Sorgenfryd

    2008-01-01

    fetal testosterone production and masculinization of rats. Additionally, we wished to examine whether these chemicals affected fetal plasma levels of insulin and leptin, which play important roles in the developmental programming of the metabolic system. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed from gestation....... DiBP and rosiglitazone additionally reduced fetal plasma insulin levels. In mates, DiBP reduced anogenital testosterone production and testicular expression of Insl-3 and genes related to steroidogenesis. distance, PPAR alpha mRNA levels were reduced by DiBP at GD 19 in testis and liver. In females......, DiBP increased anogenital distance and increased ovarian aromatase mRNA levels. This study reveals new targets for phthalates and parabens in fetal male and female rats and contributes to the increasing concern about adverse effects of human exposure to these compounds. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd...

  4. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control

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    Ai-Fen Yan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. By intraperitoneal (IP injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, cholecystokinin (CCK, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH and proopiomelanocortin (POMC in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model.

  5. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels, phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes gene product (PED/PEA-15) and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio in women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Silvia; Valentino, Rossella; Di Somma, Carolina; Orio, Francesco; Pivonello, Claudia; Passaretti, Federica; Brancato, Valentina; Formisano, Pietro; Colao, Annamaria; Beguinot, Francesco; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2011-11-23

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is frequently associated with hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D is endowed with pleiotropic effects, including insulin resistance (IR) and apoptotic pathway. Disruption of the complex mechanism that regulated ovarian apoptosis has been reported in PCOS. Phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes gene product (PED/PEA-15), an anti-apoptotic protein involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is overexpressed in PCOS women, independently of obesity. Leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (L/A) is a biomarker of IR and low-grade inflammation in PCOS. The aim of the study was to investigate the levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), and L/A, in association with PED/PEA-15 protein abundance, in both lean and overweight/obese (o/o) women with PCOS. PED/PEA-15 protein abundance and circulating levels of 25(OH)D, L/A, sex hormone-binding globulin, and testosterone were evaluated in 90 untreated PCOS patients (25 ± 4 yrs; range 18-34) and 40 healthy controls age and BMI comparable, from the same geographical area. FAI (free androgen index) and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HoMA-IR) index were calculated. In o/o PCOS, 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower, and L/A values were significantly higher than in lean PCOS (p involvement in the ovarian imbalance between pro-and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, with high L/A and insulin and low 25(OH)D levels as the main determinants of PED/PEA-15 protein variability. Further studies, involving also different apoptotic pathways or inflammatory cytokines and granulosa cells are mandatory to better define the possible bidirectional relationships between 25(OH)D, PED/PEA-15 protein abundance, leptin and adiponectin in PCOS pathogenesis.

  6. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels, phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes gene product (PED/PEA-15 and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio in women with PCOS

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    Savastano Silvia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is frequently associated with hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D is endowed with pleiotropic effects, including insulin resistance (IR and apoptotic pathway. Disruption of the complex mechanism that regulated ovarian apoptosis has been reported in PCOS. Phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes gene product (PED/PEA-15, an anti-apoptotic protein involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, is overexpressed in PCOS women, independently of obesity. Leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (L/A is a biomarker of IR and low-grade inflammation in PCOS. The aim of the study was to investigate the levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD, and L/A, in association with PED/PEA-15 protein abundance, in both lean and overweight/obese (o/o women with PCOS. Patients and Methods PED/PEA-15 protein abundance and circulating levels of 25(OHD, L/A, sex hormone-binding globulin, and testosterone were evaluated in 90 untreated PCOS patients (25 ± 4 yrs; range 18-34 and 40 healthy controls age and BMI comparable, from the same geographical area. FAI (free androgen index and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HoMA-IR index were calculated. Results In o/o PCOS, 25(OHD levels were significantly lower, and L/A values were significantly higher than in lean PCOS (p Conclusions Lower 25(OHD and higher L/A were associated to PED/PEA-15 protein abundance in PCOS, suggesting their involvement in the ovarian imbalance between pro-and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, with high L/A and insulin and low 25(OHD levels as the main determinants of PED/PEA-15 protein variability. Further studies, involving also different apoptotic pathways or inflammatory cytokines and granulosa cells are mandatory to better define the possible bidirectional relationships between 25(OHD, PED/PEA-15 protein abundance, leptin and adiponectin in PCOS pathogenesis.

  7. Impact of diisobutyl phthalate and other PPAR agonists on steroidogenesis and plasma insulin and leptin levels in fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boberg, Julie; Metzdorff, Stine; Wortziger, Rasmus; Axelstad, Marta; Brokken, Leon; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Dalgaard, Majken; Nellemann, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can induce malformations and impairment of reproductive function in experimental animals and may have similar effects in humans. Recently, the environmental obesogen hypothesis was proposed, suggesting that environmental chemicals contribute to the development of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects could be related to chemical interaction with nuclear receptors such as the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). As several testosterone-reducing drugs are PPAR activators, we aimed to examine whether four PPAR agonists were able to affect fetal testosterone production and masculinization of rats. Additionally, we wished to examine whether these chemicals affected fetal plasma levels of insulin and leptin, which play important roles in the developmental programming of the metabolic system. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed from gestation day (GD) 7-21 to diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), butylparaben, perfluorooctanoate, or rosiglitazone (600, 100, 20, or 1 mg/kg bw/day, respectively). Endocrine endpoints were studied in offspring at GD 19 or 21. DiBP, butylparaben and rosiglitazone reduced plasma leptin levels in male and female offspring. DiBP and rosiglitazone additionally reduced fetal plasma insulin levels. In males, DiBP reduced anogenital distance, testosterone production and testicular expression of Insl-3 and genes related to steroidogenesis. PPARα mRNA levels were reduced by DiBP at GD 19 in testis and liver. In females, DiBP increased anogenital distance and increased ovarian aromatase mRNA levels. This study reveals new targets for phthalates and parabens in fetal male and female rats and contributes to the increasing concern about adverse effects of human exposure to these compounds

  8. A prospective study on changes in blood levels of cholecystokinin-8 and leptin in patients with refractory epilepsy treated with the ketogenic diet.

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    Lambrechts, Danielle A J E; Brandt-Wouters, Evelyn; Verschuure, Pauline; Vles, Hans S H; Majoie, Marian J M

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the changes in serum CCK-8 and leptin levels in patients with refractory epilepsy treated with the ketogenic diet (KD). In this prospective study, patients aged between one and 40 years with refractory epilepsy were included. CCK-8 and leptin were measured in serum at baseline and after three and 12 months of treatment with the KD using an enzyme-linked Immunoabsorbant Assay. Seizure frequency and responsiveness were calculated. Fifty-four patients were included; 26 patients (48%) were still on the KD at 12 months. After three and 12 months, respectively, 39% and 26% were responders. CCK-8 values were statistically significantly increased at three months (p=0.005) and 12 months (p=0.012). In responders, at three months follow-up, this increase of CCK-8 was significant (p=0.020), whereas in the non-responders it was not (p=0.34). Leptin values were decreased at three and 12 months, the decrease at three months being statistically significant in post-pubertal men (p=0.028) and post-pubertal women (p=0.007). In responders to the KD, serum CCK-8 increased statistically significantly during treatment at three months. Serum leptin decreased statistically significantly at three months in men and in post-pubertal women. It is plausible that the increase of CCK-8 and the decrease of leptin contribute to the anti-convulsive effect of the KD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Leptin Induces an Inflammatory Phenotype in Lean Wistar Rats

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    Monique Allman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study addressed the hypothesis that leptin promotes leukocyte trafficking into adipose tissue. Accordingly, male Wistar rats were treated with saline or recombinant rat leptin (1 mg/kg via the tail vein. Leukocyte trafficking in mesenteric venules was quantified by intravital microscopy. Treatment with leptin resulted in a 3- and 5-fold increases in rolling and firm adhesion, respectively. Compared to vehicle controls, leptin enhanced mRNA levels of IL-6 (8-fold and MCP-1 (5-fold in mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT. Similar increases in these markers were observed in mesenteric venules and in liver. Finally, the direct effect of leptin was assessed in C3A hepatocytes treated with leptin for 24 hours (7.8 ng/mL–125 ng/mL. Consistent with observations in vivo, production of ICAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-6 by hepatocytes was increased significantly. These findings support the hypothesis that leptin directly initiates inflammation in the local environment of mesenteric adipose tissue as well as systemically.

  10. Leptin deficiency in mice counteracts imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation while leptin stimulation induces inflammation in human keratinocytes.

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    Stjernholm, Theresa; Ommen, Pernille; Langkilde, Ane; Johansen, Claus; Iversen, Lars; Rosada, Cecilia; Stenderup, Karin

    2017-04-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine secreted mostly by adipose tissue. Serum leptin levels are elevated in obese individuals and correlate positively with body mass index (BMI). Interestingly, serum leptin levels are also elevated in patients with psoriasis and correlate positively with disease severity. Psoriasis is associated with obesity; patients with psoriasis have a higher incidence of obesity, and obese individuals have a higher risk of developing psoriasis. Additionally, obese patients with psoriasis experience a more severe degree of psoriasis. In this study, we hypothesised that leptin may link psoriasis and obesity and plays an aggravating role in psoriasis. To investigate leptin's role in psoriasis, we applied the widely accepted imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation mouse model on leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice and evaluated psoriasis severity. Moreover, we stimulated human keratinocytes with leptin and investigated the effect on proliferation and expression of pro-inflammatory proteins. In ob/ob mice, clinical signs of erythema, infiltration and scales in dorsal skin and inflammation in ear skin, as measured by ear thickness, were attenuated and compared with wt mice. Moreover, IL-17A and IL-22 mRNA expression levels, as well as increased epidermal thickness, were significantly less induced. In vitro, the effect of leptin stimulation on human keratinocytes demonstrated increased proliferation and induced secretion of several pro-inflammatory proteins; two hallmarks of psoriasis. In conclusion, leptin deficiency attenuated IMQ-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation in a mouse model, and leptin stimulation induced a pro-inflammatory phenotype in human keratinocytes, thus, supporting an aggravating role of leptin in psoriasis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The effect of aerobic training on serum adiponectin and leptin levels and inflammatory markers of coronary heart disease in obese men.

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    Akbarpour, M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic training on the serum levels of adiponectin and leptin and on inflammatory markers of coronary heart disease in obese men. Sixteen non-athlete obese men were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups. The experimental group underwent aerobic training consisting of three sessions per week for 12 weeks, while the control group did not participate in the training programme during the study period. Five millilitres of venous blood was taken from each participant at the beginning of the study, during week six and at the end of week 12 to measure the levels of leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α. The findings showed that aerobic training led to decreases in the levels of CRP (P = 0.002), IL-6 (P = 0.001) and leptin (P = 0.003) and an increase in the level of adiponectin (P = 0.002) in the experimental group relative to the control group. In addition, the level of TNF-α decreased in the experimental group after the 12-week aerobic training period, although this change was not statistically significant. According to the results of this study, regular aerobic exercise decreases the potential risk of coronary heart disease by improving the plasma levels of IL-6, adiponectin, leptin and CRP. Additionally, aerobic exercise can be used as effective non-pharmacological treatment to prevent diseases.

  12. Some metabolic and anthropometric variables in obes children by measuring serum insulin, and leptin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour Eldin, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess serum leptin level in obese children to study its correlation with some metabolic variables as serum insulin and serum glucose. The study was conducted on 30 obese children of age from 9-14 years with body mass index (BMI) > 27.8 Kg/m 2 . All children were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, anthropometric measurements and laboratory investigations including fasting serum leptin, insulin and blood glucose. Serum leptin was significantly higher in obese children (102.3± 56.2 ng/ml) compared to non-obese ones (48.15±26.1 ng/ml). The relation between serum leptin and anthropometric measurements and laboratory investigations including fasting serum insulin and blood glucose. Serum leptin was significantly higher in obese children (102.3± 56.2 ng/ml)compared to non-obese ones (48.15±26.1 ng/ml). The relation between serum leptin and anthropometric variables was positively correlated with BMI r s = 0.68, (p s = 0.59.(p<0.01). It is concluded that serum leptin is increased in obesity and its concentration effects the size of the body. Moreover, the relation of leptin and insulin suggests a positive role of leptin in insulin resistance, which are common metabolic disorders associated with obesity

  13. Effect of green tea on plasma leptin and ghrelin levels: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

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    Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Nobakht M Gh, B Fatemeh; Hariri, Mitra

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of green tea on serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and Google scholar databases up to December 2016. The searches included RCTs conducted in human adults, and studies on the effect of green tea and green tea extract on serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations as outcome variables. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) and standard errors (SEs) of changes in serum ghrelin and leptin levels were calculated. The random effects model was used to derive the summary mean estimates with their corresponding SEs. Eleven RCTs were eligible to be included in the systematic review and the meta-analysis. Our analysis indicated that green tea did not significantly affect leptin and ghrelin concentrations in comparison to placebo (WMD = 1.28 ng/mL, 95% confidence interval: -0.49 to 3.05; P = 0.156, and WMD = 21.49 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval: -40.86 to 83.84; P = 0.499, respectively). However, green tea was associated with an increase in leptin concentration in studies that lasted for more than 12 wk and an increase in ghrelin in women and non-Asians. Green tea or green tea extract might not be able to change circulatory leptin and ghrelin levels, especially with short-term interventions. More RCTs with longer duration of treatment and higher doses are necessary to assess green tea's effect on fat mass and obesity hormones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between serum leptin and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in US adults: Results from NHANESIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest an important role for leptin in respiratory immune responses and pathogenesis of inflammatory respiratory diseases. There has been an interest to explore if leptin plays any role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective We conducted the population-based study to evaluate the relationship between serum leptin and COPD in NHANES III (3rd U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants). Participants and Design 6,415 adults who had fasting serum leptin and underwent spirometry measurement constituted our study group. Main Outcome Measures Serum leptin levels were compared (i) between subjects with normal lung function and those with COPD and (ii) among COPD subjects with different severities. Results Among male participants, 2,257 were controls and 680 had COPD. Compared to controls, COPD subjects were older (62 vs. 43 yrs), had higher prevalence of smokers (78% vs. 58%), lower BMI (26.3 vs. 26.9), and higher serum leptin levels (6.6 vs. 5.9). For female participants, 2,918 were controls and 560 had COPD. Those with COPD were older (60 vs. 43 yrs) and lower BMI (26.9 vs. 27.7). No differences in serum leptin levels were observed. The independent predictors of COPD in both genders were age, BMI, and smoking, but not serum leptin. There were no differences in serum leptin among COPD subjects with different severities. Conclusions We did not find any significant difference in the levels of serum leptin in subjects with COPD. Our data provide indirect evidence against a major role for serum leptin in the pathogenesis of COPD in humans. PMID:25118115

  15. Baseline adiponectin and leptin levels in predicting an increased risk of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heng; Lin, Jin; Chen, Weiqian; Xu, Guanhua; Sun, Chuanyin

    2016-12-01

    To determine the pathogenic role of adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by investigating whether serum levels of these adipokines correlated with disease activity in RA patients. Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched for studies published until 5 November 2015 reporting serum levels of leptin and adiponectin and measures of disease activity including DAS scores and radiographic progression scores (such as total change in SHS scores and number of erosions). Secondary outcomes included pain scores, functional status and health questionnaires. Only randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, or two-armed prospective or retrospective studies were included. A χ 2 -based test of homogeneity was performed using Cochran's Q statistic and I 2 . A total of 917 predominantly female participants (average age range, 39-56 years) from six prospective cohort studies were included for assessment. A fixed-effects analysis was applied for leptin levels due to lack of heterogeneity among the studies (Q = 4.4364; I 2  =   32.38). A random-effects analysis was applied to serum levels of adiponectin because of significant heterogeneity between studies (Q = 4.444, I 2  =   77.50%). Serum leptin levels were higher in RA patients with high disease activity (pooled SMD: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.24-0.82); however, serum adiponectin levels did not correlate with RA disease activity (pooled OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 0.77-2.47). The meta-analysis provides an additional factor to determine high disease activity index in RA, that is, serum leptin levels, which can be of benefit when choosing treatment strategies.

  16. Higher TNF-α, IGF-1, and Leptin Levels are Found in Tasters than Non-Tasters.

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    Wang, Rui; van Keeken, Nika M A; Siddiqui, Sana; Dijksman, Lea M; Maudsley, Stuart; Derval, Diana; van Dam, P Sytze; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Taste perception is controlled by taste cells that are present in the tongue that produce and secrete various metabolic hormones. Recent studies have demonstrated that taste receptors in tongue, gut, and pancreas are associated with local hormone secretion. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a link between taste sensitivity and levels of circulating metabolic hormones in humans and whether taste sensitivity is potentially related to peripheral metabolic regulation. Thirty-one subjects were recruited and separated into tasters and non-tasters based on their phenol thiocarbamide (PTC) bitter taste test results. Fasting plasma and saliva were collected and levels of hormones and cytokines were assayed. We observed significant differences in both hormone levels and hormone-body mass index (BMI) correlation between tasters and non-tasters. Tasters had higher plasma levels of leptin (p = 0.05), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (p = 0.04), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (p = 0.03). There was also a trend toward increased IGF-1 levels in the saliva of tasters (p = 0.06). We found a positive correlation between plasma levels of glucose and BMI (R = 0.4999, p = 0.04) exclusively in non-tasters. In contrast, plasma C-peptide levels were found to be positively correlated to BMI (R = 0.5563, p = 0.03) in tasters. Saliva TNF-α levels were negatively correlated with BMI in tasters (R = -0.5908, p = 0.03). Our findings demonstrate that there are differences in circulating levels of leptin, TNF-α, and IGF-1 between tasters and non-tasters. These findings indicate that in addition to the regulation of food consumption, taste perception also appears to be tightly linked to circulating metabolic hormone levels. People with different taste sensitivity may respond differently to the nutrient stimulation. Further work investigating the link between taste perception and peripheral metabolic control could potentially

  17. Studies on leptin utilizing to obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Minghui

    2001-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone synthesized and secreted by lipid cells. It is a product encoded and expressed by the obese gene. Administration of recombinant leptin decreases food intake, increases energy expenditure and promotes weight loss. Most studies indicate that leptin is a main regulating factor of catabolism and anabolism of adipose tissue. The circulating leptin level is a sensitive index which indicates the confusion of the rate of lipid metabolism such as hyperlipemia, lipo-liver and so on. The human leptin radioimmunoassay has been developed to quantitate human leptin in plasma or serum, and to further investigate the relationship between serum leptin concentration and body fat, gender, age, sexual hormones, endocrine of insulin, etc. Especially, serum leptin concentrations are correlated with body-mass-index (BMI), suggesting that most obese persons are resistant to leptin; Those who are relatively deficient of leptin may become the good candidates of leptin treatment in the future. The discovery and application of leptin make the study of obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes and other correlation diseases enter a new stage

  18. The effects of caffeine ingestion before passive heat loading on serum leptin levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Lee, Jeong-Beom

    2013-11-01

    We assessed the effects of ingesting caffeine before passive heat loading (PHL) on serum leptin and sweating response, which are both physiological responses associated with energy expenditure. The subjects were nine male university students (age, 24.1 ± 3.5 years; height, 173.4 ± 7.6 cm; weight, 69.2 ± 5.7 kg; maximal oxygen consumption, 48.6 ± 4.7 ml [Symbol: see text] kg⁻¹ [Symbol: see text] min⁻¹). This study used a within-subject, random, crossover design. Tests were performed twice at the same time (2-5 p.m.) at a 1-week interval following 3 mg[Symbol: see text]kg(-1) caffeine ingestion (Caff-I) or not (No-Caff). PHL included a half bath in hot water (42 ± 0.5 °C for 30 min) in a thermoneutral climate chamber (25 ± 0.5 °C, 60 ± 3 % relative humidity, caffeine before PHL is more energy efficient than that of a single PHL.

  19. Higher TNF-α, IGF-1 and leptin levels are found in tasters than non-tasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eWang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Taste perception is controlled by taste cells that are present in the tongue and produce and secrete various metabolic hormones. Recent studies have demonstrated that taste receptors in tongue, gut and the pancreas are associated with local hormone secretion. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a link between taste sensitivity and levels of circulating metabolic hormones in human and whether taste sensitivity is potentially related to peripheral metabolic regulation. 31 subjects were recruited and separated into tasters and non-tasters based on their phenol thiocarbamide (PTC bitter taste test results. Fasting plasma and saliva were collected and levels of hormones and cytokines were assayed. We observed significant differences in both hormone levels and hormone-body mass index (BMI correlation between tasters and non-tasters. Tasters had higher plasma levels of leptin (p=0.05, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α (p=0.04, and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (p=0.03. There was also a trend towards increased IGF-1 levels in the saliva of tasters (p=0.06. We found a positive correlation between plasma levels of glucose and BMI (R=0.4999, p=0.04 exclusively in non-tasters, not in tasters. In contrast, plasma C-peptide levels were found to be positively correlated to BMI (R=0.5563, p=0.03 in tasters. Saliva TNF-α levels were negatively correlated with BMI in tasters (R= -0.5908, p=0.03. Our findings demonstrate that there are differences in circulating levels of leptin, TNF-α and IGF-1 between tasters and non-tasters. These findings indicate that in addition to regulate eating behaviours, taste perception could also affect energy metabolism by controlling hormone secretion. People with different taste sensitivity may respond differently to the nutrient stimulation. Further work investigating the link between taste perception and peripheral metabolic control could potentially lead to the development of novel therapies for obese

  20. The levels of serum leptin and plasma neuropeptide Y in patients with various kinds of kidney diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Hongying; Liang Kun; Luo Nanping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum levels of leptin (LEP) and plasma levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in patients with various kinds of kidney disease. Methods: The serum concentrations of LEP and plasma concentrations of NPY were measured with radioimmunoassay in 176 patients with different kinds of kidney disease and 35 controls. Results: The serum level of LEP were significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy, chronic renal insufficiency, patients on dialysis both before and after the procedure than those in controls (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.01 vs control). The level of plasma NPY were significantly higher in patients with chronic renal insufficiency, and patients on dialysis before and after the procedure than those in controls (P<0.01, P<0.01 vs control). The concentration of LEP and NPY dropped significantly after the procedure in patients on hemodialysis (P<0.05, P<0.05). The serum level of LEP were positively correlated with the level of plasma NPY in patients with chronic renal insufficiency and patients on hemodialysis (r=0.68, t=3.62, P<0.01, r=0.58, t=4.02, P<0.01). Conclusion: The level of LEP and NPY were significantly increased in patients with chronic renal disease and chronic renal failure. Hemodialysis could increase the clearance rate of LEP and NPY and improve the clinical nutritional status of the patients. (authors)

  1. The Effect of 12-Week Exercise with Omega-3 Supplement Consumption on Serum Level Changes of Adiponectin, Leptin, and Insulin in Girls

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    F. Piroozan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Adiponectin and leptin are peptide hormones regulating the energy balance. Therefore, the present study aims to identify the possible mechanisms of the effect of omega-3 and aerobic exercise on the balance of these two hormones. Materials & Methods: 60 healthy young women with the average age of 23.4±1.8 and the average weight of 60.45±5.85 were randomly selected and divided into training, omega 3-training, omega-3 and control groups. A basketball training program was performed including specialized training 3 times a week for 90 minutes. During the 12 weeks of training, omega-3+exercise and omega -3 groups were fed a number of oral capsules of omega-3 every night. Blood samples were taken from the brachial vein. To analyze the data and determine the relationship, one way ANOVA and Tukey test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used. Results: Significant differences in serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin secretion in exercise, omega-3 and exercise+omega-3 groups were observed. However, there was a significant correlation between changes in serum levels of adiponectin, and leptin and insulin secretion was not observed in any of the groups. Conclusion: It seems that omega-3 fatty acid intake with exercise enhances fat metabolism and is helpful to regulate the secretion of adiponectin and leptin hormone.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 129-136

  2. Diet-induced obese mice retain endogenous leptin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaway, Nickki; Mahbod, Parinaz; Rivero, Belen; Norman, Lee Ann; Gertler, Arieh; D'Alessio, David A; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2015-06-02

    Obesity is characterized by hyperleptinemia and decreased response to exogenous leptin. This has been widely attributed to the development of leptin resistance, a state of impaired leptin signaling proposed to contribute to the development and persistence of obesity. To directly determine endogenous leptin activity in obesity, we treated lean and obese mice with a leptin receptor antagonist. The antagonist increased feeding and body weight (BW) in lean mice, but not in obese models of leptin, leptin receptor, or melanocortin-4 receptor deficiency. In contrast, the antagonist increased feeding and BW comparably in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, an increase associated with decreased hypothalamic expression of Socs3, a primary target of leptin. These findings demonstrate that hyperleptinemic DIO mice retain leptin suppression of feeding comparable to lean mice and counter the view that resistance to endogenous leptin contributes to the persistence of DIO in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma leptin concentrations in newborns of diabetic and nondiabetic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G A; Solenberger, T; Philpott, T; Holcomb, W L; Landt, M

    1998-04-01

    Leptin plays an important role in regulating body composition through modulation of appetite and energy expenditure. We hypothesized that leptin levels in umbilical cord blood correlate with newborn body weight and habitus. We also hypothesized that infants of diabetic mothers would demonstrate altered leptin metabolism. Venous blood was sampled at birth from the umbilical cords of 105 infants (74 infants of nondiabetic mothers, and 31 infants of diabetic mothers). Thirty-nine mothers had plasma leptin concentrations measured. Analysis was done using Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation, and Spearman's correlation. Univariate/multivariate regression was used for analysis of factors associated with leptin concentration in umbilical cord plasma. Maternal and newborn characteristics were correlated with log leptin levels in umbilical venous plasma. Leptin concentration in umbilical cord plasma correlated best with birth weight for newborns of both nondiabetic and diabetic mothers (p relationship between umbilical cord leptin level and newborn birth weight, as well as maternal DM, but not with gestational age. Similarly, there was no significant correlation with maternal plasma leptin concentration. The strong correlation of leptin concentration in umbilical cord plasma with newborn birth weight, and the lack of significant correlation with maternal leptin plasma levels, suggest that normal fetal leptin metabolism reflects fetal size and/or body habitus independent of maternal leptin metabolism. On the other hand, the higher umbilical plasma levels in infants of diabetic mothers may reflect an influence of altered fetal insulin homeostasis on fetal leptin metabolism, and suggests that maternal diabetes may influence fetal leptin metabolism.

  4. Energy budget, behavior and leptin in striped hamsters subjected to food restriction and refeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Food restriction induces a loss of body mass that is often followed by rapid regaining of the lost weight when the restriction ends, consequently increasing a risk of development of obesity. To determine the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlining the regaining, striped hamsters were restricted to 85% of initial food intake for 4 weeks and refed ad libitum for another 4 weeks. Changes in body mass, energy budget, activity, body composition and serum leptin level were measured. Body mass, body fat mass and serum leptin level significantly decreased in food-restricted hamsters, and increased when the restriction ended, showing a short "compensatory growth" rather than over-weight or obesity compared with ad libitum controls. During restriction, the time spent on activity increased significantly, which was opposite to the changes in serum leptin level. Food intake increased shortly during refeeding, which perhaps contributed to the rapid regaining of body mass. No correlation was observed between serum leptin and energy intake, while negative correlations were found in hamsters that were refed for 7 and 28 days. Exogenous leptin significantly decreased the time spent on activity during food restriction and attenuated the increase in food intake during refeeding. This suggests that low leptin in restricted animals may function as a starvation signal to induce an increase in activity behavior, and high leptin likely serves as a satiety signal to prevent activity during refeeding. Leptin may play a crucial role in controlling food intake when the restriction ends, and consequently preventing overweight.

  5. Serum leptin concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes

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    Malecha-Jedraszek Arleta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing importance of early type 2 diabetes (DM2 and obesity detection, it is useful to reevaluate leptin role in these conditions. Our study aimed at investigating circulating leptin concentrations in a group of patients with DM2, and at assessing in detail whether leptin concentrations correlate with selected biochemical, clinical parameters and markers of systemic inflammation in patients with DM2 and in healthy volunteers. In our work, we analysed samples and data drawn from 71 patients aged 61.4 ± 11.7 years, who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, as well as from a healthy control group (HC consisting of 51 healthy subjects with a mean age of 57.8 ± 13.7 years. Therein, the concentration of leptin in the DM2 patients was significantly higher than in the HC (p < 0.01, with median value of 16.59 (IQR 8.58-33.39 ng/ml in the DM2, vs median value of 6.66 (IQR 4.52-21.40 ng/ml in the HC. In the analysis of variance, higher leptin concentrations were revealed in the DM2 group as compared to the HC, and this figure remained significant after adjusting for gender and age (p < 0.001. Moreover, it was independent of HOMA-IR (p = 0.003. However, the differences in leptin levels between the groups disappeared when additional adjustments for anthropometric parameters (BMI, waist circumference were applied (p = 0.088. Beyond the aforementioned, significant positive correlations were found in the DM 2 group between leptin level and CRP (r=0.256; p < 0.05 and IL-6 (r = 0.345; p < 0.01. Among the selected variables, only gender and BMI were included in the predictive model explaining the variability of leptin, and, in total, were responsible for 72.6% of the original variation of the studied adipocytokine. The results of this study have led to conclusion that leptin may participate in the complex pathogenesis of DM2 and be a predictor of the development of this disease. As higher concentrations of leptin coexist with obesity, and this

  6. Leptin and TNF-alpha promoter methylation levels measured by MSP could predict the response to a low-calorie diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Paul; Campion, Javier; Milagro, Fermin I; Goyenechea, Estibaliz; Steemburgo, Thais; Javierre, Biola M; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2011-09-01

    Obesity-associated adipose tissue enlargement is characterized by an enhanced proinflammatory status and an elevated secretion of adipokines such as leptin and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Among the different mechanisms that could underlie the interindividual differences in obesity, epigenetic regulation of gene expression has emerged as a potentially important determinant. Therefore, 27 obese women (age, 32-50 years; baseline body mass index, 34.4 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) were prescribed an 8-week low-calorie diet, and epigenetic marks were assessed. Baseline and endpoint anthropometric parameters were measured, and blood samples were drawn. Genomic DNA and RNA from adipose tissue biopsies were isolated before and after the dietary intervention. Leptin and TNF-alpha promoter methylation were measured by MSP after bisulfite treatment, and gene expression was also analyzed. Obese women with a successful weight loss (≥5% of initial body weight, n=21) improved the lipid profile and fat mass percentage (-12%, p<0.05). Both systolic (-5%, p<0.05) and diastolic (-8%, p<0.01) blood pressures significantly decreased. At baseline, women with better response to the dietary intervention showed lower promoter methylation levels of leptin (-47%, p<0.05) and TNF-alpha (-39%, p=0.071) than the non-responder group (n=6), while no differences were found between responder and non-responder group in leptin and TNF-alpha gene expression analysis. These data suggest that leptin and TNF-alpha methylation levels could be used as epigenetic biomarkers concerning the response to a low-calorie diet. Indeed, methylation profile could help to predict the susceptibility to weight loss as well as some comorbidities such as hypertension or type 2 diabetes.

  7. Serum leptin and its relationship with metabolic variables in Arabs with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shoumer, Kamal A.; Doi, Suhail A.; Vasanthy, Bagavathy A.; Al-Asousi, Adnan A.

    2008-01-01

    Most studies on serum leptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus have focused on white populations. We studied serum leptin concentrations and parameters related to glycemic control and the association between leptin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors in Arab patients with type 2 diabetes and in Arab control subjects. Ninety-two patients (65 females and 27 males) with type 2 diabetes and 69 matched normal and control subjects (48 females and 21 males) were included. Anthropometric measures (including body mass index (BMI) and waist: hip ratio) were assessed in all subjects. After an overnight fast, blood was collected for serum leptin assay. Other metabolic parameters include glucose, insulin, C-peptide, intact proinsulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), lipids and hemoglobin A 1c (HbA) were determined. Fasting serum leptin levels, IGF-1 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were similar in patients with type 2 diabetes and control subjects. When obese subjects (BMI>-30kg/m2) were analyzed separately, serum levels of leptin were significantly lower in patients compared to controls. In contrast, patients had higher fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, intact proinsulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA, and a larger waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio than controls. Serum leptin correlated positively with BM, negatively with waist-to-hip ratio, and demonstrated no relationship to other parameters. Patients with type 2 diabetes in an Arab ethnic population showed evidence of an unfavorable metabolic profile despite having leptin levels similar to controls. Obesity influences serum leptin levels more significantly in type 2 diabetes, in which leptin levels tends to be low. (author)

  8. Serum ghrelin and adiponectin levels are increased but serum leptin level is unchanged in low weight Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzum, Ayse Kubat; Aydin, Munevver Mertsoylu; Tutuncu, Yildiz; Omer, Beyhan; Kiyan, Esen; Alagol, Faruk

    2014-04-01

    Weight loss and muscle wasting are common features reported in COPD patients and they are all related with systemic inflammation. In this study, the relationship between pulmonary functions and inflammatory and metabolic parameters in low weight COPD patients were investigated. Fifty male COPD patients were grouped according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Group 1: Mild-moderate COPD patients (n=18; with a mean age of 66.4 ± 9.2 yrs; body mass index (BMI):19.7 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)), group 2: Severe-very severe COPD patients (n=32; with a mean age of 65.9 ± 10.0 yrs; BMI:19.3 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)), group 3: Control group composed of healthy nonsmoking males (n=17; with a mean age of 50.2 ± 8.4 yrs; BMI:21.85 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)). Anthropometric parameters, serum levels of adiponectin (ApN), ghrelin, leptin, hsCRP, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α and pulmonary functions were compared. Adiponectin concentration was higher in group 1 (43.3 ± 28.6 ng/mL; pCOPD groups (1281.0 ± 1173.7 and 1840.0 ± 403.6 pg/mL; pleptin, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-8. Interleukin-6 and hsCRP levels were higher in group 1 than in the control group. ApN was negatively correlated with BMI and FEV1. In all groups, FEV1 showed positive correlation with BMI, skinfold thicknesses, insulin and triglyceride; negative correlation with age, pack/years, HDL-Chol and ApN. Increased SHBG with decreased insulin level and HOMA-IR may indicate increased insulin sensitivity in COPD groups. The anti-inflammatory effect of ApN and ghrelin is more evident in severe-very severe COPD patients. Copyright © 2013 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of enteral supplements enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and/or omega-6 fatty acids, arginine and ribonucleic acid compounds on leptin levels and nutritional status in active Crohn's disease treated with prednisolone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.A.; Nielsen, J.N.; Grønbæk, Henning

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) often develop malnutrition due to disease activity. We aimed to assess the effect of two different enteral supplements of Impact(R) Powder (IP; Novartis, Switzerland) on leptin levels and nutritional status in active CD patients during prednisolone...... treatment and tapering. METHODS: Thirty-one CD patients were randomized to IP Extra (group 1) or IP Standard (group 2). Leptin levels, nutritional, clinical and biochemical markers were studied at inclusion, after 5 and after 9 weeks of the study. RESULTS: Leptin levels, body mass index (BMI) and total...... to improve nutritional status in CD patients....

  10. Preadipocyte Factor-1 Levels Are Higher in Women with Hypothalamic Amenorrhea and Are Associated with Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mineral Density through a Mechanism Independent of Leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronis, Konstantinos N.; Kilim, Holly; Chamberland, John P.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford

    2011-01-01

    Context: Preadipocyte factor 1 (pref-1) is increased in anorexia nervosa and is associated negatively with bone mineral density (BMD). No previous studies exist on pref-1 in women with exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), which similar to anorexia nervosa, is an energy-deficiency state associated with hypoleptinemia. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate whether pref-1 levels are also elevated and associated with low BMD and to assess whether leptin regulates pref-1 levels in women with HA. Design: Study 1 was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of metreleptin administration in women with HA. Study 2 was an open-label study of metreleptin administration in low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses in healthy women volunteers. Setting and Patients: At Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 20 women with HA and leptin levels higher than 5 ng/ml and nine healthy control women participated in study 1, and five healthy women participated in study 2. Intervention: For study 1, 20 HA subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 mg/kg metreleptin (n = 11) or placebo (n = 9). For study 2, five healthy subjects received 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg metreleptin in both fed and fasting conditions for 1 and 3 d, respectively. Main Outcome Measures: Circulating pref-1 and leptin levels were measured. Results: Pref-1 was significantly higher in HA subjects vs. controls (P = 0.035) and negatively associated with BMD (ρ = −0.38; P < 0.01) and bone mineral content (ρ = −0.32; P < 0.05). Metreleptin administration did not alter pref-1 levels in any study reported herein. Conclusions: Pref-1 is higher in HA subjects than controls. Metreleptin administration at low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses does not affect pref-1 levels, suggesting that hypoleptinemia is not responsible for higher pref-1 levels and that leptin does not regulate pref-1. PMID:21795455

  11. Leptin increases prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Fontana, Constanza M; Maselli, María E; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael F; Di Milta Mónaco, Nicolás A; Uvilla Recupero, Ana L; López Laur, José D

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that adipose tissue and adipocytokines might affect the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Leptin would have a stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells by inducing promotion and progression, whereas adiponectin would have a protective effect. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between body composition, leptin, and adiponectin levels with the prevalence and aggressiveness of PCa in men of Mendoza, Argentina. Seventy volunteers between 50 and 80 years (35 healthy men as control group and 35 with PCa) were selected. The PCa group was subclassified according to the Gleason Score (GS). Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatic biopsy were performed; PSA, testosterone, leptin, and adiponectin levels were determined; and a nutritional interview including anthropometric measurements and a food frequency questionnaire was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, ANOVA I, and Bonferroni (p Body mass index and percentage of body fat mass were not statistically different between PCa and control groups. However, body fat mass was higher in subjects with more aggressive tumors (p = 0.032). No differences were observed regarding leptin levels between the groups. Nevertheless, leptin levels were higher in subjects with high GS (p consumption and nutrient intake did not differ in the studied groups. In conclusion, body composition and leptin are related to the PCa aggressiveness but not with its prevalence.

  12. Bone density and amenorrhea in ballet dancers are related to a decreased resting metabolic rate and lower leptin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Becky A; Warren, Michelle P; Dominguez, Jennifer E; Wang, Jack; Heymsfield, Steven B; Pierson, Richard N

    2002-06-01

    Osteopenia, which is correlated with amenorrhea and poor nutritional habits, has been well documented in elite ballet dancers. Estrogen replacement therapy and recovery from amenorrhea have not been associated with normalization of bone density. Thus, the osteopenia may be related to changes brought about by chronic dieting or other factors, such as a hypometabolic state induced by poor nutrition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of chronic dieting and resting metabolic rate (RMR) to amenorrhea and bone density. RMR, bone density, eating disorder assessments, leptin levels, and complete menstrual and medical histories were determined in 21 elite ballet dancers and in 27 nondancers (age, 20-30 yr). No significant correlations were found between high EAT26 scores, a measure of disordered eating, and RMR, bone densities, body weight, body fat, or fat-free mass. However, when RMR was adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM), a significant positive correlation was found between RMR/FFM and bone density in both the arms (P ballet dancers, but not in the normal controls. The dancers also demonstrated significantly higher EAT scores (22.9 +/- 10.3 vs. 4.1 +/- 2.4; P nutritional habits in ballet dancers, causing significant depression of RMR, particularly for those with a history of amenorrhea.

  13. Short-term administration of the GLP-1 analog liraglutide decreases circulating leptin and increases GIP levels and these changes are associated with alterations in CNS responses to food cues: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Olivia M; Tsoukas, Michael A; Triantafyllou, Georgios; Dincer, Fadime; Filippaios, Andreas; Ko, Byung-Joon; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-07-01

    GLP-1 agonists, including liraglutide, have emerged as effective therapies for type 2 diabetes (DM) and obesity. Here, we attempted to delineate how liraglutide, at doses approved for DM, may impact circulating hormones influencing energy homeostasis in diabetics. Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial of 20 patients with type 2 diabetes, we examined the effects of liraglutide as compared to placebo on fasting levels of circulating hormones important to energy homeostasis, including leptin, ghrelin, PYY, and GIP. After 17days (0.6mg for 7days, 1.2mg for 7days and 1.8mg for 3days) of treatment, we also studied changes in fMRI responses to food cues. By design, to avoid any confounding by weight changes, subjects were studied for 17days, i.e. before body weight changed. Participants on liraglutide had significantly increased GLP-1 levels (pfood cues reveal that increased GIP levels were associated with deactivation of the attention- and reward-related insula. Decreases in leptin levels were associated with activations in the reward-related midbrain, precuneus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and sensorimotor-related motor cortex and with deactivations in the attention-related parietal cortex and the cognitive control-related thalamus and pre-SMA. We demonstrate herein short-term changes to circulating levels of GIP and leptin in response to GLP-1 agonist liraglutide therapy. These findings suggest that liraglutide may alter the circulating levels of hormones important in energy homeostasis that, in turn, influence CNS perception of food cues. This could possibly lead to compensatory changes in energy homeostasis that could over time limit the efficacy of liraglutide to decrease body weight. These novel findings, which, pointing to the potential advantages of combination therapies, may have therapeutic implications, will need to be confirmed by larger and longer-term trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Leptin as an important link between obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in men with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmen, Nergis; Helvaci, Aysen; Gunaldi, Meral; Sasani, Hadi; Yildirmak, Sembol Turkmen

    2016-01-01

    The levels of leptin, a major regulator of lipid metabolism, may increase in obesity, and contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome. Leptin is produced by adipose tissue and is a peptide hormone, which has strong association with obesity, elevated cardiovascular risk, and morbidity. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationships between leptin levels, obesity, and cardiovascular risk factors in men with acute myocardial infarction. Twenty-four obese and twenty-three nonobese male patients, who had experienced their first myocardial infarction, were included in the study. Their leptin levels, biochemical parameters, and anthropometric measures were obtained. Mean leptin levels were significantly higher in the obese group compared to the nonobese group (2.53ng/mL versus 1.23ng/mL; pobesity and diastolic blood pressure in male patients with myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunoreactivities of PPARγ2, leptin and leptin receptor in oviduct of Chinese brown frog during breeding period and pre-hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Weng, J; Huang, S; Shen, Y; Sheng, X; Han, Y; Xu, M; Weng, Q

    2014-09-09

    The Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) is a special amphibian with one unique physiological phenomenon, which is that its oviduct expands prior to hibernation, instead of during the breeding period. In this study, we investigate the localization and expression level of PPARγ2, leptin and leptin receptor proteins in oviduct of Rana dybowskii during  breeding period and pre-hibernation. There were significant variations in oviductal weight and size, with values much lower in the breeding period than in pre-hibernation. PPARγ2 was observed in stromal and epithelial cells in both periods. Leptin was immunolocalized in epithelial cells in both periods, whereas leptin receptor was detected only in stromal cells. Consistently, the protein levels of PPARγ2, leptin and leptin receptor were higher in pre-hibernation as compared to the breeding period. These results suggested that oviduct was the target organ of leptin, which may play an important paracrine role in regulating the oviductal hypertrophy during pre-hibernation.

  16. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance index, leptin and thyroid hormone levels in the general population of Merida (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Valery, Lenin; Uzcátegui, Lilia; Gómez Pérez, Roald; Marquina, David; Baptista, Trino

    2015-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular events, but scarce information exists about its frequency in Venezuela. In this cross-sectional study, we quantified the prevalence of the MetSyn in a probabilistic, stratified sample of 274 subjects aged > or =18 years from the Libertador district in Merida, Venezuela. Secondary outcomes were the measurement of thyroid hormones (free T4 and TSH), leptin levels, and insulin resistance index (HOMA2-IR). The frequency of MetSyn (percentage +/- 95% confidence interval) according to several diagnostic criteria was as follows: National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP, original): 27.4% (22.1-32.7); modified NCEP: 31.8% (26.3-37.3); International Diabetes Federation: 40.9% (35.1-46.7); Latin American Diabetes Association: 27% (21.7-32.3), and Venezuelan criteria: 31.8% (26.3-37.3). The MetSyn was more frequent in males than in females with most diagnostic criteria. The estimated prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 2.9% either according to the patients' self reports or to fasting glucose level found to be above 126 mg/dL. Abnormal HOMA2-IR index, free T4 and TSH (above the 95th percentile) were detected in 4.5%, 4.4% and 5.1% of the sample, respectively. Free T4 and TSH levels below the 5th percentile were detected in 4.4% and 4.7% of subjects respectively. These values are presented for comparisons with forthcoming studies in specific clinical populations. While studies are being conducted about the different definitions of the MetSyn in Venezuela, we recommend analyzing and publishing local research data with all the available criteria so as to allow comparisons with the results already reported in the literature.

  17. Acute effects of a single warm-water bath on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in healthy men: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodozono, Megumi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Ninomiya, Koji; Miyata, Ryuji; Ogata, Atsuko; Etoh, Seiji; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2012-09-01

    To preliminarily assess the acute effects of a single warm -water bath (WWB) on serum adipokine activity, we measured serum adiponectin, leptin and other metabolic profiles before, immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB in seven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 39.7 ± 6.0 years; mean body mass index, 21.6 ± 1.8 kg/m2). The subjects were immersed in tap water at 41°C for 10 minutes. Two weeks later, the same subjects underwent a single WWB with a bath additive that included inorganic salts and carbon dioxide (WWB with ISCO2) by the same protocol as for the first WWB. Leptin levels significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water and ISCO2 (both P hemoglobin and hematocrit significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water or ISCO2 (all P < 0.05), but they all returned to the baseline levels 30 minutes after bathing under both conditions. The sublingual temperature rose significantly after 10 minutes of WWB with tap water (0.96 ± 0.16°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01) and after the same duration of WWB with ISCO2 (1.24 ± 0.34°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a single WWB at 41°C for 10 minutes may modulate leptin and adiponectin profiles in healthy men.

  18. Effect of different types of blood purification treatment (HD and HDF) on the serum PTH, leptin and Hcy levels in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yongliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of different type of blood purification treatment (hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration) on the serum PTH, Leptin and Hcy levels in patients with chronic renal failure(CRF). Methods: Serum levels of PTH(with ECLIA), Leptin(with RIA) and Hcy(with biochemistry) were measured in 30 patients treated with hemodialysis(HD) and 30 patients treated with hemodiafiltration(HDF) both before and after treatment. Results: The concentration of PTH decreased significantly from 60.8±32.5pmol/L to 28.2±17.2pmol/L in patients treated with HDF(P 0.05). Yet the concentration of Hcy also decreased significantly from 31.5μ10.5μmol/L to 20.4±8.5μmol/L(P<0.01) in patients treated HD. Conclusion: HDF can eliminate serum PTH, leptin and Hcy better than HD does. (authors)

  19. Behavioral changes induced by cocaine in mice are modified by a hyperlipidic diet or recombinant leptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Erhardt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine if the acute behavioral effects of cocaine acutely administered intraperitoneally (ip at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg on white male CF1 mice, 90 days of age, would be influenced by leptin acutely administered ip (at doses of 5, 10 and 20 µg/kg or by endogenous leptin production enhanced by a high-fat diet. The acute behavioral effects of cocaine were evaluated in open-field, elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests. Results were compared between a group of 80 mice consuming a balanced diet and a high-fat diet, and a group of 80 mice fed a commercially available rodent chow formula (Ralston Purina but receiving recombinant leptin (rLeptin or saline ip. Both the high-fat-fed and rLeptin-treated mice showed decreased locomotion in the open-field test, spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze and showed less immobility time in the forced swimming test (F(1,68 = 7.834, P = 0.007. There was an interaction between diets and cocaine/saline treatments in locomotion (F(3,34 = 3.751, P = 0.020 and exploration (F(3,34 = 3.581, P = 0.024. These results suggest that anxiolytic effects and increased general activity were induced by leptin in cocaine-treated mice and that low leptin levels are associated with behavioral depression. Chronic changes in diet composition producing high leptin levels or rLeptin treatment may result in an altered response to cocaine in ethologic tests that measure degrees of anxiety and depression, which could be attributed to an antagonistic effect of leptin.

  20. Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Leptin Levels in Lymphoproliferative Diseases - Relation to the Bone Marrow Fat and Infiltration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaja, A.; Churý, Z.; Pecen, Ladislav; Fraňková, H.; Jandáková, H.; Hejlová, N.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2000), s. 307-312 ISSN 0028-2685 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : leptin * bone marrow fat * bone marrow infiltration * lymphoproliferative disease Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.579, year: 2000

  1. Plasma total ghrelin and leptin levels in human narcolepsy and matched healthy controls: Basal concentrations and response to sodium oxybate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donjacour, C.E.; Pardi, D.; Aziz, N.A.; Frolich, M.; Roelfsema, F.; Overeem, S.; Pijl, H.; Lammers, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Narcolepsy is caused by a selective loss of hypocretin neurons and is associated with obesity. Ghrelin and leptin interact with hypocretin neurons to influence energy homeostasis. Here, we evaluated whether human hypocretin deficiency, or the narcolepsy therapeutic agent sodium

  2. The role of adiposity in the relationship between serum leptin and severe major depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubani, Chinedu C; Zhang, Jian

    2015-08-30

    To assess the role that adiposity plays in the association between leptin and major depressive episode (MDE), we analyzed the data of 1046 men and 1359 women aged 20-39 years, who completed an interview and had blood collected as a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1991 and 1994. Waist-hip ratio (WHR) was used as an indicator of adiposity. MDE was assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. For normal-WHR women, the prevalence of MDE was reversely associated with leptin levels, 13.7(4.4)%, 12.2(4.0)% and 2.3(1.8)% respectively for lower, interquartile, and upper quartile. For abnormal-WHR women, the prevalence of MDE was positively associated with leptin, 6.1(2.3)%, 9.1(2.4)% and 20.0 (3.8) respectively for the three leptin levels. Compared to women with lower quartile of leptin, the odds ratio of MDE for women with upper quartile was 0.09 (0.01-0.98) for normal-WHR women but 4.35 (1.55-12.2) for abnormal-WHR women. No moderating effects were observed among men. Using BMI in place of WHR revealed similar findings. The association between MDE and leptin is moderated by adiposity. High leptin levels are associated with low odds of MDE among women with normal adiposity but high odds among women with abnormal adiposity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differences in zinc status and the leptin axis in anorexic and recovered adolescents and young adults: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D. Zepf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from animal studies suggests that leptin metabolism is associated with zinc (Zn status. However, research investigating this relationship in adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa (AN is scarce; the present study aims to fill that gap.Serum concentrations of leptin, the soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R and the free leptin index (FLI were obtained in healthy control subjects (n=19, acutely ill individuals (n=14 and recovered patients with AN (n=15. Serum Zn concentrations noted in previous research data were also incorporated for all groups.Leptin, FLI and Zn concentrations were higher in recovered subjects with AN when compared with acutely ill AN patients. Remitted patients showed higher sOB-R concentrations but no difference in FLI compared with the control group. Leptin and FLI were lower in the acutely ill patients compared with the control subjects, who showed no differences in Zn concentrations. Zn concentrations were not correlated with leptin, sOB-R or FLI concentrations in any of the three investigated subgroups.The present investigation does not entirely support an association between Zn, Leptin and FLI concentrations in subjects with AN, possibly due to limited statistical power. Further research and replication of the present findings related to the interaction between leptin and Zn is warranted. However, with respect to serum leptin levels the data of the present investigation indicate that acutely ill and remitted patients with AN differ as regards serum leptin concentrations and FLI, which is in line with previous research.

  4. Serum Leptin and Corticosterone Levels After Exposure to Noise Stress in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chandralekha, G; Jeganathan, R; Viswanathan,; Charan, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Even though extensive studies have been conducted on the effect of noise exposure on hearing apparatus / auditory system, information on the effect of noise on the other body functions is sparse. The present study examined the effect of exposure of albino rats to acute and chronic noise stress on two important interlaced endocrine levels. In acute experiments the animals were exposed to 120 dB noise for a duration of 1, 2, 3 hrs. In chronic experiments the animals were exposed to noise for on...

  5. Relationship and significance of serum leptin with blood insulin and lipid in 6-13 years old obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Chunyong; Wang Chunlan; Zhang Linong

    2005-01-01

    To explore relationship and significance of Serum Leptin with BMI, Insulin, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) in obese children aged 6-13 years. Serum Leptin of school-age children 118 (64 male, 54 female; normal non-obese 56 and obese 62) were deter- mined and compared with BMI, Insulin, TG and TC. The results showed that: (1) Each index of obese children was remarkably higher than that of non-obese children (P 0.05). (3) Leptin was poritinely corelation with BMI, insulin, TG and TC(P=0.001). Leptin level in serum may varied according to sex, BMI or blood lipid level. It is of great significance in prevention and treatment of obesity to use drug which may improve Leptin receptor effect. (authors)

  6. The impact of leptin on perinatal development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleau, Jeanette C; Sullivan, Elinor L

    2014-11-01

    Leptin has long been associated with metabolism as it is a critical regulator of both food intake and energy expenditure, but recently, leptin dysregulation has been proposed as a mechanism of psychopathology. This review discusses the evidence supporting a role for leptin in mental health disorders and describes potential mechanisms that may underlie this association. Leptin plays a critical role in pregnancy and in fetal growth and development. Leptin's role and profile during development is examined in available human studies, and the validity of applying studies conducted in animal models to the human population are discussed. Rodents experience a postnatal leptin surge, which does not occur in humans or larger animal models. This suggests that further research using large mammal models, which have a leptin profile across pregnancy and development similar to humans, are of high importance. Maternal obesity and hyperleptinemia correlate with increased leptin levels in the umbilical cord, placenta, and fetus. Leptin levels are thought to impact fetal brain development; likely by activating proinflammatory cytokines that are known to impact many of the neurotransmitter systems that regulate behavior. Leptin is likely involved in behavioral regulation as leptin receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and leptin influences cortisol release, the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway, serotonin synthesis, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In humans, both high and low levels of leptin are reported to be associated with psychopathology. This inconsistency is likely due to differences in the metabolic state of the study populations. Leptin resistance, which occurs in the obese state, may explain how both high and low levels of leptin are associated with psychopathology, as well as the comorbidity of obesity with numerous mental illnesses. Leptin resistance is likely to influence disorders such as depression and anxiety where high leptin levels have been correlated

  7. Circulating leptin concentrations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Yuan, Cheng; Zhang, Jingying; Yu, Rongbin; Huang, Mao; Adcock, Ian M; Yao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Weight loss is a clinically important risk factor indicating a poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Leptin is an important regulator of food intake and energy expenditure. To conduct a meta-analysis to determine whether the level of leptin is related to the disease status of COPD. Studies published before December 2012 were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Database. Observational studies comparing circulating leptin levels between COPD patients and healthy controls were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed using Stata 12.0 software. Ten articles were included in the meta-analysis. Circulating leptin levels were correlated with the body mass index (BMI) as well as percent fat mass in stable COPD patients. The correlation coefficient tended to be weaker during exacerbation. A positive correlation between leptin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels was found in COPD exacerbations, while it disappeared in patients with stable disease. Most studies indicated that circulating leptin levels in stable COPD patients were not significantly different from those in healthy controls when adjusted for gender and BMI, whilst leptin levels tended to elevate in exacerbation groups. The normal regulatory mechanism of leptin is maintained in stable COPD patients despite weight loss. The additional correlation between leptin and TNF-α during exacerbations may support the closer association of leptin with changes in nutritional parameters and suggests its valuable role in the evaluation of systemic inflammatory responses in COPD patients during exacerbation, which merits further study. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The detection of serum leptin in peri-menopausal woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Tao; Ma Yongxiu; He Juan

    2001-01-01

    Serum leptin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E 2 ) were measured by RIA in 138 peri-menopausal women in order to clear the relations between them. The results showed that serum levels of all the four circulating hormones are all changed significantly in all subgroups. Compared with the women of childbearing age group, it changed with P < 0.05; P < 0.01 respectively. All the changes indicate: As a circulating hormone, leptin plays an important role in woman's normal physiology developing process along ages

  9. Leptin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa are reduced in the acute stage and elevated upon short-term weight restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebebrand, J; Blum, W F; Barth, N

    1997-01-01

    Circulating leptin concentrations are known to be low in acute anorexia nervosa (AN), which is characterized by low weight, amenorrhea and specific psychopathological features. In this study plasma leptin concentrations were determined during inpatient treatment of 23 adolescent females...

  10. Gut microbiota composition in male rat models under different nutritional status and physical activity and its association with serum leptin and ghrelin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel; Seoane, Luisa María; Murri, Mora; Pardo, María; Gomez-Zumaquero, Juan Miguel; Cardona, Fernando; Casanueva, Felipe; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Several evidences indicate that gut microbiota is involved in the control of host energy metabolism. To evaluate the differences in the composition of gut microbiota in rat models under different nutritional status and physical activity and to identify their associations with serum leptin and ghrelin levels. In a case control study, forty male rats were randomly assigned to one of these four experimental groups: ABA group with food restriction and free access to exercise; control ABA group with food restriction and no access to exercise; exercise group with free access to exercise and feed ad libitum and ad libitum group without access to exercise and feed ad libitum. The fecal bacteria composition was investigated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time qPCR. In restricted eaters, we have found a significant increase in the number of Proteobacteria, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Enterococcus, Prevotella and M. smithii and a significant decrease in the quantities of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, B. coccoides-E. rectale group, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium with respect to unrestricted eaters. Moreover, a significant increase in the number of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and B. coccoides-E. rectale group was observed in exercise group with respect to the rest of groups. We also found a significant positive correlation between the quantity of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and serum leptin levels, and a significant and negative correlation among the number of Clostridium, Bacteroides and Prevotella and serum leptin levels in all experimental groups. Furthermore, serum ghrelin levels were negatively correlated with the quantity of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and B. coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group and positively correlated with the number of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Nutritional status and physical activity alter gut microbiota composition affecting the diversity and similarity. This study highlights the associations

  11. Leptin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa are reduced in the acute stage and elevated upon short-term weight restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebebrand, J; Blum, W F; Barth, N

    1997-01-01

    Circulating leptin concentrations are known to be low in acute anorexia nervosa (AN), which is characterized by low weight, amenorrhea and specific psychopathological features. In this study plasma leptin concentrations were determined during inpatient treatment of 23 adolescent females with AN u......Circulating leptin concentrations are known to be low in acute anorexia nervosa (AN), which is characterized by low weight, amenorrhea and specific psychopathological features. In this study plasma leptin concentrations were determined during inpatient treatment of 23 adolescent females...

  12. Role of leptin in farm animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mácajová, M; Lamosová, D; Zeman, M

    2004-05-01

    The discovery of hormone leptin has led to better understanding of the energy balance control. In addition to its effects on food intake and energy expenditure, leptin has now been implicated as a mediator of diverse physiological functions. Recently, leptin has been cloned in several domestic species. The sequence similarity suggests a common function or mechanism of this peptide hormone across species. Leptin receptors are expressed in most of tissues, which is consistent with the multiplicity of leptin functions. The main goal of this review was to summarize knowledge about effect of leptin on physiology of farm animals. Experiments point to a stimulatory action of leptin on growth hormone (GH) secretion, normal growth and development of the brain. Surprisingly, leptin is synthesized at a high rate in placenta and may function as a growth factor for fetus, signalling the nutritional status from the mother to her offspring. Maturation of reproductive system can be stimulated by leptin administration. Morphological and hormonal changes, consistent with a major role of leptin in the reproductive system, have also been described, including the stimulation of the release of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. Leptin has a substantial effect on food intake and feeding behaviour in animals. Administration of leptin reduces food intake. Its level decrease within hours after initiation of fasting. Leptin also serves as a mediator of the adaptation to fasting, and this role may be the primary function for which was the molecule evolved.

  13. Correlation between maternal and cord blood leptin and fetal growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-05

    Sep 5, 2007 ... IL -2 and growth hormone. The long form of the leptin receptor functions similarly to cytokine ... regulation of leptin synthesis and the risk for obesity in the offspring. In species such as the human and sheep, ..... Hormonal regulation of leptin levels in the fetus and neonate might be different from the endocrine ...

  14. Influence of age on leptin induced skeletal muscle signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe Grau, Amelia; Larsen, Steen; Guerra, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Age associated fat mass accumulation could be due to dysregulation of leptin signaling in skeletal muscle. Thus, we investigated total protein expression and phosphorylation levels of the long isoform of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), and leptin signaling through Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal...... skeletal muscle of different age....

  15. Analysis of the variation levels of APN, insulin, sensitive C-reactive protein and leptin in the serum of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxing; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Qi Shaokang; Tao Xiaojun

    2005-01-01

    To study the mechanism of pancreatic 13 cell dysfunction and tissue resistance to insulin, and to provide basis for early diagnosis and therapy of the disease, the levels of APN, insulin, sensitive C-reactive protein and leptin in the serum of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were determined. Altogether 184 untreatea type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, 30 normal people as the control group, and another 75 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who have been treated for a year were enrolled in this study. The serum levels of the above indexes were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay. The results showed that there were obvious differences in the levels of insulin, leptin, C-reacting protein and insulin antibody between the normal control group and the group of the untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (P<0.01), especially there was significant difference in the level of APN(P<0. 001). Among the 75 type 2 diabetes meltitus patients who have received a year's treatment, all the indexes except for APN and insulin antibody were decreased statistically, while the APN level was increased significantly (P<0.01) than that before the treatment. The determination of markers of type 2 diabetes mellitus is of great significance for its early diagnosis, therapy, prognosis and mechanism research. (authors)

  16. The Effects of Leptin on Breastfeeding Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Cannon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breastfed infants have a reduced risk of becoming overweight and/or obese later in life. This protective effect has been partly attributed to leptin present in breastmilk. This study investigated 24-h variations of skim milk leptin and its relationship with breastmilk macronutrients and infant breastfeeding patterns. Exclusive breastfeeding mothers of term singletons (n = 19; age 10 ± 5 weeks collected pre- and post-feed breastmilk samples for every breastfeed over a 24-h period and test-weighed their infants to determine milk intake at every breastfeed over a 24-h period. Samples (n = 454 were analysed for leptin, protein, lactose and fat content. Skim milk leptin concentration did not change with feeding (p = 0.184. However, larger feed volumes (>105 g were associated with a decrease in post-feed leptin levels (p = 0.009. There was no relationship between the change in leptin levels and change in protein (p = 0.313 or lactose levels (p = 0.587 between pre- and post-feed milk, but there was a trend for a positive association with changes in milk fat content (p = 0.056. Leptin concentration significantly increased at night (p < 0.001 indicating a possible 24-h pattern. Leptin dose (ng was not associated with the time between feeds (p = 0.232. Further research should include analysis of whole breastmilk and other breastmilk fractions to extend these findings.

  17. Increased plasma leptin attenuates adaptive metabolism in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Richard A; Foskolos, Andreas; Giesy, Sarah L; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Krumm, Christopher S; Butler, W Ronald; Quirk, Susan M; Waldron, Matthew R; Boisclair, Yves R

    2016-05-01

    Mammals meet the increased nutritional demands of lactation through a combination of increased feed intake and a collection of adaptations known as adaptive metabolism (e.g., glucose sparing via insulin resistance, mobilization of endogenous reserves, and increased metabolic efficiency via reduced thyroid hormones). In the modern dairy cow, adaptive metabolism predominates over increased feed intake at the onset of lactation and develops concurrently with a reduction in plasma leptin. To address the role of leptin in the adaptive metabolism of early lactation, we asked which adaptations could be countered by a constant 96-h intravenous infusion of human leptin (hLeptin) starting on day 8 of lactation. Compared to saline infusion (Control), hLeptin did not alter energy intake or milk energy output but caused a modest increase in body weight loss. hLeptin reduced plasma glucose by 9% and hepatic glycogen content by 73%, and these effects were associated with a 17% increase in glucose disposal during an insulin tolerance test. hLeptin attenuated the accumulation of triglyceride in the liver by 28% in the absence of effects on plasma levels of the anti-lipolytic hormone insulin or plasma levels of free fatty acids, a marker of lipid mobilization from adipose tissue. Finally, hLeptin increased the plasma concentrations of T4 and T3 by nearly 50% without affecting other neurally regulated hormones (i.e., cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH)). Overall these data implicate the periparturient reduction in plasma leptin as one of the signals promoting conservation of glucose and energy at the onset of lactation in the energy-deficient dairy cow. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Role of leptin during childhood growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, J N; Rogol, A D

    1999-12-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob/ob gene in rodents, regulates energy balance and fertility. Two genetic models, the ob/ob mouse (deletion of leptin protein) and the db/db mouse (deletion of leptin receptor) have markedly augmented research in obesity. Human obesity is more closely linked to leptin resistance than to the absence of leptin. Serum leptin concentrations reflect the size of the subcutaneous fat depot better than total fat mass or abdominal visceral fat. At the initiation of puberty there is a divergence in circulating leptin concentrations between boys and girls. In boys, leptin concentrations increase and then markedly decrease to prepubertal concentration levels. In girls there are only increasing concentrations. The authors believe these patterns are relevant to the markedly different alterations in the regional distribution of body fat that occurs in boys and girls at puberty.

  19. Increased leptin/leptin receptor pathway affects systemic and airway inflammation in COPD former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Andreina; Alessi, Marinella; Soresi, Simona; Bonanno, Anna; Riccobono, Loredana; Montalbano, Angela Marina; Albano, Giusy Daniela; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Profita, Mirella

    2011-01-01

    Leptin, a hormone produced mainly by adipose tissue, regulates food intake and energy expenditure. It is involved in inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to the infection. The leptin receptor is expressed in the lung and in the neutrophils. We measured the levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and soluble form of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in sputum and plasma from 27 smoker and former smoker patients with stable COPD using ELISA methods. Further we analyzed leptin and its receptor expression in sputum cells from 16 COPD patients using immunocytochemistry. In plasma of COPD patients, leptin was inversely correlated with TNF-α and positively correlated with the patient weight, whereas the levels of sICAM-1 were positively correlated with TNF-α. In sputum of COPD patients leptin levels were correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vitality capacity. Additionally, increased levels of sputum leptin and TNF-α were observed in COPD former smokers rather than smokers. Further the expression of leptin receptor in sputum neutrophils was significantly higher in COPD former smokers than in smokers, and the expression of leptin and its receptor was positively correlated in neutrophils of COPD former smokers. Our findings suggest a role of leptin in the local and systemic inflammation of COPD and, taking into account the involvement of neutrophils in this inflammatory disease, describe a novel aspect of the leptin/leptin receptor pathway in the regulation of host defense after smoking cessation.

  20. Relationship Between the Serum Leptin and Children with Malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jixun

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the serum leptin and the children with malnutrition, the serum leptin levels in 50 malnourished children and 50 normal children were determined by RIA. The results showed that the serum leptin levels in children with malnutrition were significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). The serum leptin levels in children with malnutrition were positively correlated with body mass index values (r= 0.650, P<0.05), and positively correlated with serum albumin values (r= 0.740,P<0.05). The serum leptin levels in female children were higher than that in men children. The leptin may involve in the regulation of the body nutritional status of children. The serum leptin level may be correlated with the degree of child malnutrition and may be used as a laboratory indicator for the diagnosis of child malnutrition. (authors)

  1. Wen-Dan Decoction Improves Negative Emotions in Sleep-Deprived Rats by Regulating Orexin-A and Leptin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengzhi Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Dan Decoction (WDD, a formula of traditional Chinese medicine, has been clinically used for treating insomnia for approximately 800 years. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of WDD remain unclear. Orexin-A plays a key role in the sleep-wake cycle, while leptin function is opposite to orexin-A. Thus, orexin-A and leptin may be important factors in sleep disorders. In this study, 48 rats were divided into control, model, WDD-treated, and diazepam-treated groups. The model of insomnia was produced by sleep deprivation (SD for 14 days. The expressions of orexin-A, leptin, and their receptors in blood serum, prefrontal cortex, and hypothalamus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, and real time PCR. Open field tests showed that SD increased both crossing movement (Cm and rearing-movement (Rm times. Orexin-A and leptin levels in blood serum increased after SD but decreased in brain compared to the control group. mRNA expressions of orexin receptor 1 and leptin receptor after SD were decreased in the prefrontal cortex but were increased in hypothalamus. WDD treatment normalized the behavior and upregulated orexin-A, leptin, orexin receptor 1 and leptin receptor in brain. The findings suggest that WDD treatment may regulate SD-induced negative emotions by regulating orexin-A and leptin expression.

  2. Leptin, its receptor and aromatase expression in deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helder F; Zendron, Carolina; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Aiceles, Verônica; Oliveira, Marco Aurélio P; Manaia, Jorge Henrique M; Babinski, Márcio A; Ramos, Cristiane F

    2015-08-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the leptin levels in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) and the protein expression in three different peritoneal ectopic implants in patients who underwent surgery for deep infiltrating endometriosis. All patients had been treated at the Department of Gynecology of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro. The study group consisted of 15 patients who underwent surgery for adnexal masses and infertility, while the control group consisted of ten women who underwent surgery for tubal ligation. Peritoneal fluid and samples tissues were collected during surgery. Serum samples were obtained before anesthesia. In this study, the leptin levels in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) were evaluated by ELISA. The protein expression of leptin and its receptors (ObR) and aromatase enzyme were evaluated by Western blot analysis of the intestine, uterosacral ligament and vaginal septum in the ectopic implants. The t-test and one-way ANOVA with Holm-Sìdak post-test were used, and p endometriosis = 19.2 ng/mL ± 1.84, p endometriosis = 7.71 ng/mL ± 0.59, p = 0.18). Comparing women with and without ovarian implants, the leptin levels in both the serum and PF were significantly higher in women without ovarian implants (serum: with ovarian implant = 15.85 ± 1.99; without ovarian implant = 23.14 ± 2.60; ng/mL, p = 0.04; PF: with ovarian implant = 4.28 ± 1.30; without ovarian implant = 11.18 ± 2.98;ng/mL, p = 0.048). The leptin, ObR and aromatase protein expression levels were increased in lesions in the vaginal septum and were decreased in the intestine lesions. This study reports several interesting associations between the leptin levels in serum, peritoneal fluid, and tissue samples and the localization of the ectopic endometrium. Although this study does not provide a clear picture of the role of leptin in the development and progression of peritoneal implants

  3. Association of leptin and insulin resistance in PCOS: A case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namavar Jahromi, Bahia; Dabaghmanesh, Mohammad Hassan; Parsanezhad, Mohammad Ebrahim; Fatehpoor, Faranak

    2017-07-01

    Endocrine abnormalities related to polycystic ovary Syndrome (PCOS) are important problems. To compare serum leptin levels between infertile women with and without PCOS. To rank sensitivity of six indirect methods for detection of insulin resistance (IR) and to evaluate the association between leptin and IR in PCOS group. This Case-controlled study performed on 189 infertile women referred to Shiraz Mother and Child Hospital during 2012-2015. Ninety-nine PCOS cases according to Rotterdam criteria were compared to 90 cases without PCOS. Serum leptin, body mass index (BMI), several hormones, and their correlation coefficients with leptin were compared. IR in PCOS women was measured by indirect methods, including fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin (FI), glucose/insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and MacAuley index. Association between IR and leptin was evaluated. Independent sample t-test and Pearson's test were used. Infertile women with PCOS had higher BMI (26.47±3.62 vs. 24.82±5.18 kg/m 2 ) and serum leptin levels (41.79±187.89 vs. 19.38±12.57 ng/mL). Leptin showed significant association with weight and BMI in both groups (pPCOS group. HOMA-IR showed the highest rate of IR followed by FI and QUICKI methods. The mean leptin levels had positive association with IR assessed by HOMA-IR (pPCOS infertile women. HOMA-IR followed by FI and QUICKI is the most sensitive test for detection of IR.

  4. Leptin Resistance: A Possible Interface Between Obesity and Pulmonary-Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman Khan, Abdul; Awan, Fazli Rabbi

    2016-01-01

    Under normal physiological conditions, leptin regulates body weight by creating a balance between food intake and energy expenditure. However, in obesity, serum leptin levels increase and become defective to retain energy balance. Elevated serum leptin levels are regarded as an established marker of obesity. It is also reported that obese asthmatic patients have maximum serum leptin levels compared to other groups such as non-obese asthmatics, and normal obese and non obese subjects without asthma. In addition to having an appetite suppressing effect, leptin also regulates certain acute-phase protein expressions including α-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) in the liver. A1AT is a protease inhibitor that counterbalances the activity of the neutrophil elastase (NE) enzyme. A1AT reductions in obese-leptin resistant subjects lead to increased NE activity. The overactivity of NE degrades lung tissue proteins, which may lead to pulmonary disorders including asthma. On the basis of prior studies, it could be hypothesized that, in obese asthmatic patients, the highest degree of leptin failure/resistance might lead to the creation of an imbalance between NE and its inhibitor A1AT. To ascertain this, large scale prospective studies are warranted to assess the comparative serum leptin and A1AT levels and NE activity in asthmatic non-obese and obese patients, simultaneously. Such studies might help to devise novel interventional therapies for the treatment of pulmonary-related problems including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and other lung defects in susceptible obese subjects in the future.

  5. Lateral hypothalamic serotonin is not stimulated during central leptin hypophagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Mônica Marques; da Silva, Thaís Girão; Watanabe, Regina Lúcia Harumi; de Andrade, Iracema Senna; Estadella, Debora; Nascimento, Cláudia Maria Oller; Oyama, Lila Missae; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi

    2013-06-10

    Whether leptin targets the hypothalamic serotonergic system to inhibit food intake is not established. We examined the effect of a short-term i.c.v. leptin treatment on serotonin microdialysate levels in rat lateral hypothalamus. Adipose tissue gene expression was also evaluated. Male rats received four daily injections of leptin (5 μg) or vehicle (with pair-feeding to leptin-induced intake) and a fifth injection during collection of LH microdialysates. We found that serotonin and 5-HIAA levels were not affected by the leptin pre-treatment, as basal levels were similar between the leptin and the pair-fed group. These levels remained unaltered after the acute leptin injection. For gene expression studies, rats were pre-treated with five daily injections of either leptin (5 μg) or vehicle (with either pair-feeding or ad libitum intake). mRNA levels of resistin, adiponectin, lipoprotein lipase, and PPAR-gamma were unaltered by either leptin or pair-feeding. Leptin gene expression was significantly reduced by leptin but not by pair-feeding, in both the retroperitoneal (-74%) and the epididymal (-99%) depots while no differences were observed in the subcutaneous depot. The observations confirmed the absence of an acute stimulatory effect of central leptin on serotonin release in the lateral hypothalamus and showed that the pre-treatment with leptin failed to modify this pattern. This indicates that components of the serotonergic system are probably not directly affected by leptin. Additionally, the central effect of leptin was able to downregulate its own adipose tissue gene expression in a depot-specific manner while other adipokine genes were not affected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Leptin in bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, B S; Dash, S; Jacka, F; Dodd, S; Carvalho, A F; Köhler, C A; Steiner, J; da Graça Cantarelli, M; Nardin, P; Gonçalves, C-A; Berk, M

    2016-05-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a psychiatric disorder associated with increased rates of obesity and inflammation. Leptin is an adipokine that is mainly produced by the white adipose tissue in response to insulin. It stimulates the immune system, increasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. There is currently uncertainty regarding possible alterations in peripheral leptin levels across the mood states in BD. This study comprises a between-group meta-analysis comparing serum and plasma leptin levels in people with BD in mania, depression or euthymia and healthy controls. We conducted a systematic search for all possibly eligible-English and non-English peer-reviewed articles. We calculated the effect size (ES) utilizing Hedges' adjusted g using random effects. Eleven studies were included in the meta-analyses, providing data on 1118 participants. Serum and plasma leptin levels were not altered in subjects with BD when compared to healthy controls in mania (g=-0.99, 95% CI -2.43 to 0.43, P=0.171), in depression (g=0.17, 95% CI -0.45 to 0.79, P=0.584), or in euthymia (g=0.03, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.46, P=0.882). However, we did observe a stronger association between leptin levels and both age and BMI in patients with BD in euthymia compared to healthy controls, such that the greater the age of the individuals, the greater the difference in leptin levels between BD and controls; and the higher the BMI, the greater the difference in leptin levels between BD and controls. Our meta-analysis provides evidence that leptin levels are not altered in BD across the mood spectrum compared to healthy controls. The disproportionate increase of leptin levels with increase in BMI in BD speaks in favour of a potential inflammatory role of white adipose tissue in BD and a disproportionate increase of leptin levels with increase in age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between serum leptin and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in US adults: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies suggest an important role for leptin in respiratory immune responses and pathogenesis of inflammatory respiratory diseases. There has been an interest to explore whether leptin plays any role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a population-based study to evaluate the relationship between serum leptin and COPD in the third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants. Our study group was constituted by 6415 adults who had fasting serum leptin and underwent spirometry measurement. Serum leptin levels were compared (1) between subjects with normal lung function and those with COPD and (2) among COPD subjects with different severities. Among male participants, 2257 were controls, and 680 had COPD. Compared with controls, COPD subjects were older (62 vs 43 years) and had higher prevalence of smokers (78% vs 58%), lower body mass index (BMI) (26.3 vs 26.9), and higher serum leptin levels (6.6 vs 5.9). For female participants, 2918 were controls, and 560 had COPD. Those with COPD were older (60 vs 43 years) and had lower BMI (26.9 vs 27.7). No differences in serum leptin levels were observed. The independent predictors of COPD in both sexes were age, BMI, and smoking, but not serum leptin. There were no differences in serum leptin among COPD subjects with different severities. We did not find any significant difference in the levels of serum leptin in subjects with COPD. Our data provide indirect evidence against a major role for serum leptin in the pathogenesis of COPD in humans.

  8. Taurine ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by reducing insulin resistance and leptin level in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Da Hee; Kim, Jung Yeon; Lee, Bong Gn; You, Jeong Soon; Chang, Kyung Ja; Chung, Hyunju; Yoo, Myung Chul; Yang, Hyung-In; Kang, Ja-Heon; Hwang, Yoo Chul; Ahn, Kue Jeong; Chung, Ho-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether taurine supplementation improves metabolic disturbances and diabetic complications in an animal model for type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether taurine has therapeutic effects on glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and diabetic complications in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term duration of diabetes. Fourteen 50-week-old OLETF rats with chronic diabetes were fed a diet supplemented with taurine (2%) or a non-supplemented control diet for 12 weeks. Taurine reduced blood glucose levels over 12 weeks, and improved OGTT outcomes at 6 weeks after taurine supplementation, in OLETF rats. Taurine significantly reduced insulin resistance but did not improve β-cell function or islet mass. After 12 weeks, taurine significantly decreased serum levels of lipids such as triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Taurine significantly reduced serum leptin, but not adiponectin levels. However, taurine had no therapeutic effect on damaged tissues. Taurine ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, at least in part, by improving insulin sensitivity and leptin modulation in OLETF rats with long-term diabetes. Additional study is needed to investigate whether taurine has the same beneficial effects in human diabetic patients. PMID:23114424

  9. Leptin, Adiponectin, and Obesity among Caucasian and Asian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Conroy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic differences in adipose tissue distribution may contribute to different chronic disease risks across ethnic groups, and adipokines may mediate the risk. In a cross-sectional study, we examined ethnic differences in adipokines and inflammatory markers as related to body mass index (BMI among 183 premenopausal women with Caucasian and Asian ancestry. General linear models were used to estimate adjusted mean levels of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Asian women had significantly lower serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and CRP than Caucasian participants (P≤.01 across all levels of BMI. Among overweight and obese women, Asians showed a stronger association of CRP with leptin (β=1.34 versus β=0.64 and with adiponectin (β=−0.95 versus β=−0.75 than Caucasians. Compared to Caucasians of similar BMI, Asians may experience a higher chronic disease risk due to lower levels of adiponectin despite their lower levels of leptin.

  10. Leptin Is Required for Glucose Homeostasis after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokadem, Mohamad; Zechner, Juliet F; Uchida, Aki; Aguirre, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Leptin, the protein product of the ob gene, increases energy expenditure and reduces food intake, thereby promoting weight reduction. Leptin also regulates glucose homeostasis and hepatic insulin sensitivity via hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin neurons in mice. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induces weight loss that is substantial and sustained despite reducing plasma leptin levels. In addition, patients who fail to undergo diabetes remission after RYGB are hypoletinemic compared to those who do and to lean controls. We have previously demonstrated that the beneficial effects of RYGB in mice require the melanocortin-4 receptor, a downstream effector of leptin action. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that leptin is required for sustained weight reduction and improved glucose homeostasis observed after RYGB. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed RYGB or sham operations on leptin-deficient ob/ob mice maintained on regular chow. To investigate whether leptin is involved in post-RYGB weight maintenance, we challenged post-surgical mice with high fat diet. RYGB reduced total body weight, fat and lean mass and caused reduction in calorie intake in ob/ob mice. However, it failed to improve glucose tolerance, glucose-stimulated plasma insulin, insulin tolerance, and fasting plasma insulin. High fat diet eliminated the reduction in calorie intake observed after RYGB in ob/ob mice and promoted weight regain, although not to the same extent as in sham-operated mice. We conclude that leptin is required for the effects of RYGB on glucose homeostasis but not body weight or composition in mice. Our data also suggest that leptin may play a role in post-RYGB weight maintenance.

  11. Leptin Is Required for Glucose Homeostasis after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mokadem

    Full Text Available Leptin, the protein product of the ob gene, increases energy expenditure and reduces food intake, thereby promoting weight reduction. Leptin also regulates glucose homeostasis and hepatic insulin sensitivity via hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin neurons in mice. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB induces weight loss that is substantial and sustained despite reducing plasma leptin levels. In addition, patients who fail to undergo diabetes remission after RYGB are hypoletinemic compared to those who do and to lean controls. We have previously demonstrated that the beneficial effects of RYGB in mice require the melanocortin-4 receptor, a downstream effector of leptin action. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that leptin is required for sustained weight reduction and improved glucose homeostasis observed after RYGB.To investigate this hypothesis, we performed RYGB or sham operations on leptin-deficient ob/ob mice maintained on regular chow. To investigate whether leptin is involved in post-RYGB weight maintenance, we challenged post-surgical mice with high fat diet.RYGB reduced total body weight, fat and lean mass and caused reduction in calorie intake in ob/ob mice. However, it failed to improve glucose tolerance, glucose-stimulated plasma insulin, insulin tolerance, and fasting plasma insulin. High fat diet eliminated the reduction in calorie intake observed after RYGB in ob/ob mice and promoted weight regain, although not to the same extent as in sham-operated mice. We conclude that leptin is required for the effects of RYGB on glucose homeostasis but not body weight or composition in mice. Our data also suggest that leptin may play a role in post-RYGB weight maintenance.

  12. Leptin status in adolescence is associated with academic performance in high school: a cross-sectional study in a Chilean birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Castillo, Marcela; Peirano, Patricio; Algarín, Cecilia; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila; Burrows, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone associated with learning and memory via brain receptors. However, elevated plasma leptin levels may impair cognitive and memory functions. Since individual differences in memory performance affect students’ ability to learn, we aimed to study the relation between leptin status in adolescence and school performance. Design and setting We studied 568 adolescents aged 16–17 years from Santiago. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on a birth cohort conducted in Santiago (Chile). Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured serum leptin concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cut-offs from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study for 16-year-olds were used to define abnormally high leptin levels (hyperleptinaemia). Academic performance was measured using high-school grades and grade point average (GPA). Data were collected in 2009–2012; data analysis was performed in 2014. Results 15% of participants had hyperleptinaemia. They had significantly lower school grades and GPA compared with participants with normal leptin levels (eg, GPA mean difference=33.8 points). Leptin levels were negative and significantly correlated with school grades in 9th, 10th and 12th. Similarly, it was negatively correlated with high-school GPA. After controlling for health, sociodemographic and education confounders, the chances of having a performance ≥75th centile in students having hyperleptinaemia were 32% (95% CI 0.19% to 0.89%) that of students having normal serum leptin concentration. Conclusions In high school students, abnormally high levels of leptin were associated with poorer academic performance. These findings support the idea of a relationship between leptin and cognition. Further research is needed on the cognitive effects of leptin in younger populations. PMID:27797980

  13. Leptin status in adolescence is associated with academic performance in high school: a cross-sectional study in a Chilean birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Castillo, Marcela; Peirano, Patricio; Algarín, Cecilia; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila; Burrows, Raquel

    2016-10-18

    Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone associated with learning and memory via brain receptors. However, elevated plasma leptin levels may impair cognitive and memory functions. Since individual differences in memory performance affect students' ability to learn, we aimed to study the relation between leptin status in adolescence and school performance. We studied 568 adolescents aged 16-17 years from Santiago. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on a birth cohort conducted in Santiago (Chile). We measured serum leptin concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cut-offs from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study for 16-year-olds were used to define abnormally high leptin levels (hyperleptinaemia). Academic performance was measured using high-school grades and grade point average (GPA). Data were collected in 2009-2012; data analysis was performed in 2014. 15% of participants had hyperleptinaemia. They had significantly lower school grades and GPA compared with participants with normal leptin levels (eg, GPA mean difference=33.8 points). Leptin levels were negative and significantly correlated with school grades in 9th, 10th and 12th. Similarly, it was negatively correlated with high-school GPA. After controlling for health, sociodemographic and education confounders, the chances of having a performance ≥75th centile in students having hyperleptinaemia were 32% (95% CI 0.19% to 0.89%) that of students having normal serum leptin concentration. In high school students, abnormally high levels of leptin were associated with poorer academic performance. These findings support the idea of a relationship between leptin and cognition. Further research is needed on the cognitive effects of leptin in younger populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Racil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS, with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p˂0.05 body mass (BM, BMI Z-score, and percentage of body fat (%BF. Only the HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC (p=0.017. The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was significant (p=0.019, ES=0.48 and p=0.010, ES=0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively. The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP (p<0.05, ES=0.53 and ES=0.46, HIIT and MIIT, respectively followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p<0.05 in both training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p=0.021, ES=0.67 and p=0.011, ES=0.73 and in RPE (p=0.001, ES=0.76 and p=0.017, ES=0.57 in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p<0.001 and VO2max (p<0.01 in the HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p<0.01 in the HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  15. The association of short-term memory and cognitive impairment with ghrelin, leptin, and cortisol levels in non-diabetic and diabetic elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yu Ming; Wang, Li Jun; Mao, Hong Xian; Lou, Xue Yong; Zhu, Yi Jun

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed short-term memory and biochemical indicators with the levels of ghrelin, leptin, and cortisol between cognitive impairment and normal older adults with or without diabetes. We enrolled 286 older adults (aged 65-85 years) with or without diabetes from the local community. Short-term memory was assessed using pictures of common objects; cognitive functioning was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The physiological indexes assessed were plasma levels of fasting ghrelin and leptin, ghrelin level at 2_h after breakfast, 24-h urinary cortisol value, body mass index, and plasma cortisol levels at 8:00 a.m., 4:00 p.m., and 12:00 p.m. In both non-diabetic and diabetic subjects, short-term memory was significantly lower in the impaired cognition group (5.99 ± 2.90 in non-diabetic subjects and 4.71 ± 2.14 in diabetic subjects) than in the normal cognition group (8.14 ± 2.23 in non-diabetic subjects and 7.82 ± 3.37 in diabetic subjects). Baseline ghrelin level was significantly lower in the impaired cognition group (9.07 ± 1.13 ng/mL in non-diabetic subjects and 7.76 ± 1.34 ng/mL in diabetic subjects) than in the normal cognition group (10.94 ± 1.53 ng/mL in non-diabetic subjects and 9.93 ± 1.76 ng/mL in diabetic subjects); plasma cortisol levels at 8:00 a.m., 4:00 p.m., and 12:00 p.m. were significantly higher in the impaired cognition group than in the normal cognition group, while no significant difference was observed in plasma levels of fasting leptin between different groups. Fasting plasma ghrelin and cortisol levels may be markers of cognitive decline and memory loss. It is possible that adjusting their levels may have a therapeutic effect, and this should be investigated in future studies.

  16. Inhibiting Endogenous Cortisol Blunts the Meal-Entrained Rise in Serum Leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laferrère, Blandine; Abraham, Cynthia; Awad, Marianne; Jean-Baptiste, Stephanie; Hart, Allison B.; Garcia-Lorda, Pilar; Kokkoris, Peter; Russell, Colleen D.

    2010-01-01

    Context Administration of glucocorticoids increases serum leptin levels in lean and obese individuals. A morning meal produces an increase in insulin, a cortisol peak, and an increase in leptin; these changes do not occur during fasting. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether inhibiting endogenous cortisol secretion with metyrapone decreases 24-h serum leptin levels and to determine whether a meal-related midmorning surge in cortisol is a prerequisite for the meal-entrained nocturnal rise in leptin. Design This was a randomized, cross-over study. Setting The study was performed at the General Clinical Research Center. Participants Lean males were studied. Intervention In study 1, seven lean men were studied for 24 h while their endogenous cortisol secretions were manipulated as follows: 1) CONTROL; 2) cortisol suppression by metyrapone (MET); and 3) MET and oral hydrocortisone (at 0900 h) (MET + CORT). Subjects were all fed a eucaloric diet (two meals at 1100 and 1700 h). In study 2, six men were studied without pharmacological intervention for 24 h on two occasions: once under a complete fast (FAST) and once in a feeding condition (one meal at 1100 h; FED). Main Outcome Measure The main outcome measure was serum leptin. Results MET significantly suppressed serum cortisol at 0800 h, midmorning, and over the 24-h period. As a result of cortisol suppression, 24-h serum leptin levels were decreased vs. control values despite similar insulin responses to meals. Administering a single dose of hydrocortisone to MET subjects potently stimulated serum leptin compared with the effect of MET alone. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that endogenous cortisol secretion is necessary for the maintenance of serum leptin levels over 24 h in lean, normally fed males. PMID:16537679

  17. Phocid seal leptin: tertiary structure and hydrophobic receptor binding site preservation during distinct leptin gene evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Hammond

    Full Text Available The cytokine hormone leptin is a key signalling molecule in many pathways that control physiological functions. Although leptin demonstrates structural conservation in mammals, there is evidence of positive selection in primates, lagomorphs and chiropterans. We previously reported that the leptin genes of the grey and harbour seals (phocids have significantly diverged from other mammals. Therefore we further investigated the diversification of leptin in phocids, other marine mammals and terrestrial taxa by sequencing the leptin genes of representative species. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that leptin diversification was pronounced within the phocid seals with a high dN/dS ratio of 2.8, indicating positive selection. We found significant evidence of positive selection along the branch leading to the phocids, within the phocid clade, but not over the dataset as a whole. Structural predictions indicate that the individual residues under selection are away from the leptin receptor (LEPR binding site. Predictions of the surface electrostatic potential indicate that phocid seal leptin is notably different to other mammalian leptins, including the otariids. Cloning the grey seal leptin binding domain of LEPR confirmed that this was structurally conserved. These data, viewed in toto, support a hypothesis that phocid leptin divergence is unlikely to have arisen by random mutation. Based upon these phylogenetic and structural assessments, and considering the comparative physiology and varying life histories among species, we postulate that the unique phocid diving behaviour has produced this selection pressure. The Phocidae includes some of the deepest diving species, yet have the least modified lung structure to cope with pressure and volume changes experienced at depth. Therefore, greater surfactant production is required to facilitate rapid lung re-inflation upon surfacing, while maintaining patent airways. We suggest that this additional

  18. Influence of etanercept on leptin and ghrelin secretion in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska-Paszek, Izabela; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta; Siwiec, Andrzej; Gruenpeter, Anna; Dul, Lechosław; Irzyniec, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    Objective To assess possible changes in leptin and ghrelin secretion due to etanercept in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods 50 patients with JIA and 16 age-matched controls were enrolled into this prospective, cross-sectional study. Serum leptin, total and acyl ghrelin were measured in addition to white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts. Results 25 patients received etanercept and 25 conventional therapies (including methotrexate) for JIA. There was no difference between treatment and control groups in leptin or ghrelin levels and no evidence of a relationship between leptin and ghrelin in patients with JIA. In all children with JIA there was a correlation between leptin and body mass index (BMI). However, compared with children in the conventional treatment group, children in the etanercept group showed a positive correlation between total ghrelin and BMI and those with a low BMI showed a negative correlation between acyl ghrelin and BMI. Conclusion No differences in leptin and ghrelin concentrations were found when patients with JIA and controls were compared or when patients who received etanercept were compared with those who received conventional treatment for JIA.

  19. Leptin promoter variant G2548A is associated with serum leptin and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leptin is a protein hormone synthesized by adipocytes and is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. We hypothesized that any change in the promoter sequence can affect the expression of the gene and hence leptin protein levels in the serum. The aim of the current study was to investigate the ...

  20. Comparative measurement of ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, EGF and IGF-1 in breast milk of mothers with overweight/obese and normal-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Rooki, H; Vakili, R; Hashemy, S-I; Mirhafez, S R; Shakeri, M-T; Kashanifar, R; Pourbafarani, R; Mirzaei, H; Dahri, M; Mazidi, M; Ferns, G; Safarian, M

    2015-05-01

    Obese infants are more susceptible to develop adulthood obesity and its related comorbidities. Previous studies have shown the presence of hormones and growth factors in maternal breast milk that may influence infant adiposity. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in concentrations of three hormones and two growth factors in the breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants. In this cross-sectional study, 40 mothers with overweight or obese infants (weight for length percentile >97) and 40 age-matched mothers with normal-weight infant (-10 milk concentrations of ghrelin and adiponectin, leptin, epithelial growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The mean breast milk concentration of ghrelin was higher in mothers with normal-weight infants, 137.50 pg/ml, than in mothers with obese infants, 132.00 pg/ml (P=0.001). This was also true regarding the concentration of EGF in mothers with (0/04 ng/ml) and without (0/038 ng/ml) normal-weight infants (P=0.01). No significant differences were observed in concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and IGF-1 between two groups (P > 0.05). There was also a significant positive correlation between EGF and ghrelin in both groups. This study revealed that there was a correlation between ghrelin and EGF level in breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants, suggesting a possible regulatory effect of these two hormones on weight in infants.

  1. Leptin im Knochenstoffwechsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vock L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin ist ein in Adipozyten exprimiertes Hormon mit vielfältigen Funktionen im gesamten Organismus. Verschiedene Studien legen eine positive Wirkung von Leptin auf den Knochenstoffwechsel nahe. In vitro führte die Inkubation von Knochenmarkstromazellen mit Leptin zu deren Differenzierung zu Osteoblasten und Mineralisation der Matrix. Bei ovarektomierten Ratten konnte durch Leptin der Knochenverlust vermindert werden. Überraschenderweise zeigten andere Studien eine zentrale inhibitorische Wirkung von Leptin auf Osteoblasten bei Nagern. Diese einander scheinbar widersprechenden Ergebnisse zeigen, daß die molekularen Mechanismen, mit welchen Leptin auf den Knochenstoffwechsel wirkt, noch nicht ausreichend verstanden werden. In klinischen Studien findet sich eine protektive Wirkung von Fettmasse und "body mass index" (BMI auf die Knochendichte (postmenopausaler Frauen überwiegend bestätigt. Damit im Einklang, konnten erhöhte Leptinspiegel gefunden werden. Ob Leptin nun direkt in den Knochenstoffwechsel eingreift oder bloß indirekt etwa über eine erhöhte mechanische Belastung, läßt sich aus klinischen Studien allein nicht beantworten. Hingegen dürfte Leptin im Knochenstoffwechsel von Männern keine oder nur eine untergeordnete Rolle spielen. Die Situation bei Kindern und Jugendlichen ist noch unklar, wobei eine positive Wirkung von Leptin in fetalem Knochen relativ sicher ist. Leptin könnte jedoch auch im Wachstum und der Knochenreifung bei Kindern und Jugendlichen eine Rolle spielen.

  2. Dietary components in the development of leptin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R; Scarpace, Philip J; Harris, Ruth B S; Banks, William A

    2013-03-01

    Classically, leptin resistance has been associated with increased body fat and circulating leptin levels, and the condition is believed to contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of obesity. Although a great deal is known about the central nervous system mechanisms mediating leptin resistance, considerably less is known about the role of diet in establishing and maintaining this altered hormonal state. An exciting new finding has recently been published demonstrating the existence of leptin resistance in normal-weight rats with lean leptin levels by feeding them a high-concentration-fructose diet. This finding has opened the possibility that specific macronutrients may be capable of inducing leptin resistance, independently of the amount of body fat or circulating leptin present in the treated animals. This review describes several lines of research that have recently emerged indicating that specific types of dietary sugars and fats are capable of inducing leptin resistance in experimental rodent models. The results further show that diet-induced leptin resistance is capable of increasing energy intake and elevating body weight gain under appropriate dietary challenges. It appears that biological mechanisms on multiple levels may underlie the dietary induction of leptin resistance, including alterations in the leptin blood-to-brain transport system, in peripheral glucose metabolism, and in central leptin receptor signaling pathways. What is clear from the findings reviewed here is that diet-induced leptin resistance can occur in the absence of elevated circulating leptin levels and body weight, rendering it a potential cause and/or predisposing factor to excess body weight gain and obesity.

  3. Dietary Components in the Development of Leptin Resistance123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R.; Scarpace, Philip J.; Harris, Ruth B. S.; Banks, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, leptin resistance has been associated with increased body fat and circulating leptin levels, and the condition is believed to contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of obesity. Although a great deal is known about the central nervous system mechanisms mediating leptin resistance, considerably less is known about the role of diet in establishing and maintaining this altered hormonal state. An exciting new finding has recently been published demonstrating the existence of leptin resistance in normal-weight rats with lean leptin levels by feeding them a high-concentration-fructose diet. This finding has opened the possibility that specific macronutrients may be capable of inducing leptin resistance, independently of the amount of body fat or circulating leptin present in the treated animals. This review describes several lines of research that have recently emerged indicating that specific types of dietary sugars and fats are capable of inducing leptin resistance in experimental rodent models. The results further show that diet-induced leptin resistance is capable of increasing energy intake and elevating body weight gain under appropriate dietary challenges. It appears that biological mechanisms on multiple levels may underlie the dietary induction of leptin resistance, including alterations in the leptin blood-to-brain transport system, in peripheral glucose metabolism, and in central leptin receptor signaling pathways. What is clear from the findings reviewed here is that diet-induced leptin resistance can occur in the absence of elevated circulating leptin levels and body weight, rendering it a potential cause and/or predisposing factor to excess body weight gain and obesity. PMID:23493533

  4. Behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of injected leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Haque, Zeba; Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin is viewed as an important target for developing novel therapeutics for obesity, depression/anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. The present study therefore concerns behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of systemically injected leptin. Pharmacological doses (100 and 500 μg/kg) of leptin injected systemically decreased 24h cumulative food intake and body weight in freely feeding rats and improved acquisition and retention of memory in Morris water maze test. Potential anxiety reducing, hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of the peptide hormone were determined in a separate experiment. Animals injected with 100 or 500 μg/kg leptin were tested for anxiety in an elevated plus maze test 1h later. A significant increase in the number of entries and time passed in open arm of the elevated plus maze in leptin injected animals suggested pronounced anxiety reducing effect. Moreover, circulating levels of leptin correlated significantly with anxiety reducing effects of the peptide hormone. Serum serotonin increased and ghrelin decreased in leptin injected animals and correlated, positively and negatively respectively, with circulating leptin. Corticosterone increased at low dose and levels were normal at higher dose. Serotonin metabolism in the hypothalamus and hippocampus decreased only at higher dose of leptin. The results support a role of leptin in the treatment of obesity, anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. It is suggested that hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of leptin can alter treatment efficacy in particularly comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum leptin levels in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in relation to metabolic control and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Anil, M; Blum, W F

    1998-01-01

    The ob protein, termed leptin, is produced by adipocytes and is thought to act as an afferent satiety signal regulating weight through suppressing appetite and stimulating energy expenditure in humans and/or rodents. Insulin has been found to be a potent stimulator of leptin expression in rodents....... It is unclear at present whether this insulin action is a direct or an indirect effect. To investigate whether leptin concentrations in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (IDDM) were related to metabolic status, body weight, body mass index and insulin treatment, we have measured leptin...

  6. Leptin-induced basal Akt phosphorylation and its implication in exercise-mediated improvement of insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xianjie; Niu, Sen

    2018-01-29

    Physical exercise is an efficient therapeutical tool in the management of insulin resistance (IR) and related metabolic diseases. Leptin, the well-known obesity hormone and the absence of which leads to IR, showed controversial effects on IR as research continues. Thus, in this study, a detailed investigation of the effect of leptin on exercise-mediated improvement of insulin sensitivity and its underlying mechanism was carried out. Using a rat model of chronic or acute swimming exercise training, we found that serum leptin increased 1 h after either acute exercise or the last session of chronic exercise, when impaired insulin action was observed in previous reports. However, chronic exercise reducd basal serum leptin levels and promoted insulin sensitivity compared with sedentary controls or rats subjected to one bout of aerobic exercise. Our animal results indicated the potential linkage between leptin and insulin sensitivity, which is further investigated in the skeletal muscle L6 cells. Leptin treatment in L6 cells promoted the basal levels of insulin signaling as well as glucose uptake, while blocking JAK2 signaling with either pharmacological intervention (JAK2 inhibitor AG490) or genetic manipulation (siRNA knockdown) decreased the basal levels of insulin signaling. Furthermore, leptin treatment inhibited insulin-stimulated insulin signaling and glucose uptake, while blocking JAK2 signaling restored leptin-attenuated insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our results demonstrated that reduced serum leptin, at least in part, contributes to exercise-mediated improvement of insulin sensitivity, indicating JAK2 as a potent therapeutical target of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of BDNF, leptin, and catecholamines in reward learning in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Philipp; Grob, Simona; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Eckert, Anne; Lang, Undine; Hasler, Gregor

    2014-12-07

    A relationship between bulimia nervosa and reward-related behavior is supported by several lines of evidence. The dopaminergic dysfunctions in the processing of reward-related stimuli have been shown to be modulated by the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hormone leptin. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, a reward learning task was applied to study the behavior of 20 female subjects with remitted bulimia nervosa and 27 female healthy controls under placebo and catecholamine depletion with alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT). The plasma levels of BDNF and leptin were measured twice during the placebo and the AMPT condition, immediately before and 1 hour after a standardized breakfast. AMPT-induced differences in plasma BDNF levels were positively correlated with the AMPT-induced differences in reward learning in the whole sample (P=.05). Across conditions, plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor levels were higher in remitted bulimia nervosa subjects compared with controls (diagnosis effect; P=.001). Plasma BDNF and leptin levels were higher in the morning before compared with after a standardized breakfast across groups and conditions (time effect; Pbulimia nervosa and controls. A role of leptin in reward learning is not supported by this study. However, leptin levels were sensitive to a depletion of catecholamine stores in both remitted bulimia nervosa and controls. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  8. Relationship between osteoporosis and adipose tissue leptin and osteoprotegerin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobeha, Pavol; Ukropec, Jozef; Skyba, Peter; Ukropcova, Barbara; Joppa, Pavol; Kurdiova, Timea; Javorsky, Martin; Klimes, Iwar; Tkac, Ivan; Gasperikova, Daniela; Tkacova, Ruzena

    2011-05-01

    The role of fat-bone interactions in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate expressions of leptin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in the adipose tissue, and their relationships to osteoporosis in patients with COPD. In 39 patients with stable COPD, bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition was assessed by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. Serum leptin was determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and bone turnover markers osteocalcin and β-crosslaps by the electrochemiluminiscence immunoassays. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were analyzed using real-time PCR. Twenty-one patients without, and 18 with osteoporosis were enrolled (35 men; age 62.2 ± 7.3years). Compared to patients without osteoporosis, those with the disease had significantly lower serum levels and adipose tissue expressions of leptin, in association with increased serum β-crosslaps (p=0.028, p=0.034, p=0.022, respectively). Log adipose tissue leptin was inversely related to serum β-crosslaps (p=0.015), and directly to serum leptin (pleptin and OPG expressions predicted femoral T-score independently of age, gender and pulmonary function (pleptin and OPG expressions. Our results suggest that adipose tissue leptin and OPG expressions are related to osteoporosis in patients with COPD, and appear to act as mediators between fat mass and BMD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum leptin levels in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in relation to metabolic control and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiess, W; Anil, M; Blum, W F

    1998-01-01

    The ob protein, termed leptin, is produced by adipocytes and is thought to act as an afferent satiety signal regulating weight through suppressing appetite and stimulating energy expenditure in humans and/or rodents. Insulin has been found to be a potent stimulator of leptin expression in rodents...

  10. [Obesity and leptin association in three Chilean aboriginal populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, F; Santos, J L; Albala, C; Calvillán, M; Carrasco, E

    2000-01-01

    Although there is a clear relationship between body mass index and leptin levels, few authors have addressed the possible influence of ethnic factors on these levels. To measure serum leptin in three different Chilean aboriginal populations. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 345 rural mapuche individuals, 247 rural aymara subjects and 162 urban mapuche subjects. A body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 was used as cutoff point to classify study subjects. Among the three ethnic groups, women had serum leptin levels three times higher than men. In all three ethnic groups, there was a significant association between leptin levels, body mass index and gender (r2 = 0.32 and 0.5 p mapuche, r2 = 0.32 and 0.5 p mapuche populations). No differences in leptin levels were observed for the interaction between age and insulin. The increments per quartile in leptin levels were lower among mapuche than aymara individuals. Rural mapuche individuals have a high frequency of obesity. However their leptin levels are lower than those of aymara or urban mapuche populations. The higher leptin levels observed in urban mapuche subjects could be due to environmental influences.

  11. PI3K is an upstream regulator of the PDE3B pathway of leptin signaling that may not involve activation of Akt in the rat hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Abhiram; Koshinaka, Keiichi; Sahu, Maitrayee

    2012-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the obese gene, regulates energy homeostasis by acting primarily at the level of the hypothalamus. Leptin action through its receptor involves various pathways including the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B)-cAMP signaling in the CNS and peripheral tissues. In the hypothalamus, leptin stimulates STAT3 activation, and induces PI3K and PDE3B activities, among others. We have previously demonstrated that PDE3B activation in the hypothalamus is critical for transducing anorectic and body weight reducing effects of leptin. Similarly, PI3K has been implicated toplay a critical role in leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. Whereas in insulin signaling pathway, PI3K is known to be an upstream regulator of PDE3B in non-neuronal tissues, it is still unknown whether this is also the case for leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. To address this possibility, the effect of wortmannin, a specific PI3K inhibitor, was examined on the leptin-induced PDE3B activity in the hypothalamus of male rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of leptin (4 μg) significantly increased PDE3B activity by 2-fold in the hypothalamus as expected. However, prior administration of wortmannin completely reversed the stimulatory effect of leptin on PDE3B activity in the hypothalamus. To demonstrate whether leptin stimulates p-Akt levels and there by a possible upstream regulator of PDE3B, we examined the effects of icv leptin on p-Akt levels in the hypothalamus and compared that with the known stimulatory effect of insulin on p-Akt. We observed that insulin increased p-Akt levels but leptin failed to do so although it increased p-STAT3 levels in the rat hypothalamus. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the biochemical finding in that leptin failed but insulin increased the number of p-Akt positive cells in various hypothalamic nuclei. Altogether these results implicate PI3K but not Akt

  12. Serum adiponectin levels are inversely associated with overall and central fat distribution but are not directly regulated by acute fasting or leptin administration in humans: cross-sectional and interventional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrila, Alina; Chan, Jean L; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Kontogianni, Meropi; Miller, Lisa C; Orlova, Christine; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2003-10-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted protein that circulates in high concentrations in the serum and acts to increase insulin sensitivity. Previous studies have shown that serum adiponectin is inversely associated with fat mass and insulin resistance in humans and that acute fasting decreases adipose tissue adiponectin mRNA expression in rodents. Whether acute energy deprivation, body fat distribution, or serum hormone levels are associated with circulating adiponectin in humans remains largely unknown. To identify predictors of serum adiponectin levels, we evaluated the association of adiponectin with several anthropometric, metabolic, and hormonal variables in a cross-sectional study of 121 women without a known history of diabetes. We also performed interventional studies to assess whether fasting for 48 h and/or leptin administration regulates serum adiponectin in healthy men and women. Our cross-sectional study shows that, in addition to overall obesity, central fat distribution is an independent negative predictor of serum adiponectin and suggests that adiponectin may represent a link between central obesity and insulin resistance. In addition, estradiol is negatively and independently associated with adiponectin, whereas there is no association between serum adiponectin and leptin, cortisol, or free testosterone levels. Our interventional studies demonstrate that neither fasting for 48 h, resulting in a low leptin state, nor leptin administration at physiological or pharmacological doses alters serum adiponectin levels. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the physiology of adiponectin in humans and its role in the pathogenesis of insulin-resistant states.

  13. Predictors of Subclinical Inflammatory Obesity: Plasma Levels of Leptin, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and CD14 Expression of CD16+ Monocytes

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    Fernanda Leite

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Predictors of subclinical inflammatory obesity (SIO can be important tools for early therapeutic interventions in obesity-related comorbidities. Waist circumference (WC and BMI have different SIO sensitivity. We aimed to i identify SIO predictors and ii investigate whether CD16+ monocytes are associated with BMI- (generally or WC-defined (centrally obesity. Methods: Anthropometric and metabolic/endocrine (namely catecholamines, adrenaline and noradrenaline parameters were evaluated, and CD16+ monocytes were studied by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood from 63 blood donors, and compared and correlated to each other. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify variables that best predict SIO. Results: CD16+ monocyte counts were similar in BMI and WC groups. CD16+ monocytes from centrally obese (CO showed a more inflammatory pattern, as compared to non-CO subjects. WC was sensitive to lipidemia and, in CO subjects, lipidemia was associated with a more inflammatory phenotype of CD16+ monocytes. These differences were not noticed between BMI groups. Adrenaline was correlated with CD16+ monocyte expansion with a lower inflammatory pattern. Leptin, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, and CD14 expression of CD16+ monocytes were found to be CO predictors. Conclusions: WC-, but not BMI-defined obesity, was associated with a more inflammatory pattern of CD16+ monocytes, without monocyte expansion, suggesting that a monocyte maturation process rather than an independent arise of CD16+ monocytes occurs in CO. Thus, in a population with low cardiovascular risk, leptin, VLDL-C, and CD14 expression of CD16+ monocytes predict CO, constituting a putative tool for screening of SIO.

  14. BLOOD METABOLIC HORMONES AND LEPTIN IN GROWING LAMBS

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    Zvonko Antunović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the concentration of blood metabolic hormones and leptin levels in growing lambs. The research was carried out on Tsigai lambs in two periods (suckling and fattening during the winter feeding season. Lambs were suckling and ate a food mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum, while during the fattening period they were fed only with the above mentioned mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum. Their blood was analyzed on 35th and 75th day of age. Concentrations of minsulin, leptin and thyroid hormones were determined in the blood serum of lambs during both periods. In the blood of fattening lambs significantly higher (P0.05 insulin concentrations (1.05 and 0.54 μU/mL, were determined, compared to suckling lambs. A significant strong positive correlation between serum leptin and insulin (r = 0.85, P0.05. The concentration of thyroid hormones did not significantly differ depending on the period of measurement. These changes indicate that the measurement concentrations of metabolic hormones and leptin in blood are very important in order to understand the changes of metabolism and nutrient supply in growing lambs.

  15. Leptin Dysregulation Is Specifically Associated With Major Depression With Atypical Features: Evidence for a Mechanism Connecting Obesity and Depression.

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    Milaneschi, Yuri; Lamers, Femke; Bot, Mariska; Drent, Madeleine L; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2017-05-01

    Obesity-related dysregulation of leptin signaling (e.g., hyperleptinemia due to central functional resistance) may affect mood. However, evidence for leptin dysregulation in major depressive disorder (MDD) is conflicting. Inconclusive findings may be attributable to heterogeneity of MDD, aggregating biologically different subtypes. We examined the relationship of leptin with MDD, its common subtypes (typical and atypical), and clinical features. The sample consisted of participants (aged 18 to 65 years) from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety with current (n = 1062) or remitted (n = 711) MDD and healthy control subjects (n = 497). Diagnoses of MDD and subtypes were based on DSM-IV symptoms. Additional symptoms were measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Blood levels of leptin and adiposity indexes (body mass index and waist circumference) were assessed. As compared to control subjects, higher leptin was associated with the atypical MDD subtype both for remitted (n = 144, odds ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.03, p = .003) and current (n = 270, odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.51-2.93, p = 5.3e-8) cases. This association was stronger for increasing adiposity levels (leptin by body mass index interaction, p depressed patients, higher leptin was associated with key symptoms identifying the atypical subtype, such as hyperphagia, increased weight, and leaden paralysis. Leptin dysregulation (resistance) may represent an underlying mechanism connecting obesity and MDD with atypical features. Development of treatment effectively targeting leptin resistance may benefit patients with atypical depression characterized by obesity-related metabolic alterations. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Leptin, adiponectin, leptin to adiponectin ratio and insulin resistance in depressive women.

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    Zeman, Miroslav; Jirak, Roman; Jachymova, Marie; Vecka, Marek; Tvrzicka, Eva; Zak, Ales

    2009-01-01

    Depressive disorder (DD) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). It was suggested, that metabolic syndrome (MetS), cluster of metabolic and hormonal changes, such as insulin resistence (IR), abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension and elevated fasting glycaemia, could stand behind the connection. Recent findings have shown, that adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin might play a role in both depression and MetS. The aim of this pilot study was to observe the plasma concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and indices of IR in women with depressive disorder. The plasma leptin, adiponectin, parameters of lipid and glucose homeostasis and indices of IR were investigated in a group of 38 women with DD. The results were compared with those of 38 healthy women of the control group, matched for age. Depressive women differed significantly from the controls in higher concentrations of plasma leptin (p DM2 or CVD.

  17. Leptin: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Alzheimer's Disease

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    Tezapsidis, Nikolaos; Johnston, Jane M.; Smith, Mark A.; Ashford, J. Wesson; Casadesus, Gemma; Robakis, Nikolaos K.; Wolozin, Benjamin; Perry, George; Zhu, Xiongwei; Greco, Steven J.; Sarkar, Sraboni

    2009-01-01

    Adipocyte-derived leptin appears to regulate a number of features defining Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the molecular and physiological level. One activity of leptin is the control of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK). In addition to maintaining lipid levels, AMPK regulates glycogen synthase kinase-3, which modulates tau phosphorylation. Leptin has been shown to reduce the amount of extracellular amyloid-β, both in cell culture and animal models of AD, as well as reduce tau phosphorylation in neuron...

  18. Hyperleptinemia is required for the development of leptin resistance.

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    Zachary A Knight

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptin regulates body weight by signaling to the brain the availability of energy stored as fat. This negative feedback loop becomes disrupted in most obese individuals, resulting in a state known as leptin resistance. The physiological causes of leptin resistance remain poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that hyperleptinemia is required for the development of leptin resistance in diet-induced obese mice. We show that mice whose plasma leptin has been clamped to lean levels develop obesity in response to a high-fat diet, and the magnitude of this obesity is indistinguishable from wild-type controls. Yet these obese animals with constant low levels of plasma leptin remain highly sensitive to exogenous leptin even after long-term exposure to a high fat diet. This shows that dietary fats alone are insufficient to block the response to leptin. The data also suggest that hyperleptinemia itself can contribute to leptin resistance by downregulating cellular response to leptin as has been shown for other hormones.

  19. Increased leptin/leptin receptor pathway affects systemic and airway inflammation in COPD former smokers

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    Bruno A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Andreina Bruno1, Marinella Alessi2, Simona Soresi2, Anna Bonanno1, Loredana Riccobono1, Angela Marina Montalbano1, Giusy Daniela Albano1, Mark Gjomarkaj1, Mirella Profita11Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, Italian National Research Council, Palermo, Italy; 2Dipartimento Biomedico di Biomedicina Interna e Specialistica, University Palermo, ItalyBackground: Leptin, a hormone produced mainly by adipose tissue, regulates food intake and energy expenditure. It is involved in inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and its deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to the infection. The leptin receptor is expressed in the lung and in the neutrophils.Methods: We measured the levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a and soluble form of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 in sputum and plasma from 27 smoker and former smoker patients with stable COPD using ELISA methods. Further we analyzed leptin and its receptor expression in sputum cells from 16 COPD patients using immunocytochemistry.Results: In plasma of COPD patients, leptin was inversely correlated with TNF-a and positively correlated with the patient weight, whereas the levels of sICAM-1 were positively correlated with TNF-a. In sputum of COPD patients leptin levels were correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vitality capacity. Additionally, increased levels of sputum leptin and TNF-a were observed in COPD former smokers rather than smokers. Further the expression of leptin receptor in sputum neutrophils was significantly higher in COPD former smokers than in smokers, and the expression of leptin and its receptor was positively correlated in neutrophils of COPD former smokers.Conclusion: Our findings suggest a role of leptin in the local and systemic inflammation of COPD and, taking into account the involvement of neutrophils in this inflammatory disease, describe a novel aspect of the leptin/leptin

  20. The changes of serum leptin and insulin contents in elderly male patients with obesity-related hypertension

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    Zhan Hao; Huang Daijuan; Yuan Bin; He Yong; Zhang Yongxue

    2004-01-01

    To study the contents of serum leptin and insulin in elderly male patients with obesity-related hypertension, the levels of serum leptin and insulin in 21 normotensive cases and 41 hypertensive cases of them were determined by RIA. The results showed that the levels of serum leptin and insulin between hypertensives and normotensives in the non-obese groups were not significantly different (P>0.05). Compared with normotensives, the levels of serum leptin and insulin of hypertensives in the obese groups remarkably increased 1.8μg/L and 2.7 mIU/L respectively (P<0.01). The levels of serum leptin and insulin in the patients with obesity - related hypertension were markedly higher than those in the patients with non-obesity-related hypertension and elevated 2.7μg/L and 4.7mIU/L (P<0.01) respectively. Insulin-sensitivity index (ISI) successively decreased in the groups of HBPOb, NBPOb, HBPNOb and NBPNOb (relative ISI 0.50, 0.68, 0.92, 1 respectively). It is concluded that leptin-resistance and insulin-resistance exist in male elderly patients with obesity-related hypertension

  1. Leptin Signaling in AgRP Neurons Modulates Puberty Onset and Adult Fertility in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Olivia K; Inglis, Megan A; Anderson, Greg M

    2017-04-05

    The hormone leptin indirectly communicates metabolic information to brain neurons that control reproduction, using GABAergic circuitry. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons in the arcuate nucleus are GABAergic, express leptin receptors (LepR), and are known to influence reproduction. This study tested whether leptin actions on AgRP neurons are required and sufficient for puberty onset and subsequent fertility. First, Agrp- Cre and Lepr- flox mice were used to target deletion of LepR to AgRP neurons. AgRP-LepR knock-out female mice exhibited mild obesity and adiposity as described previously, as well as a significant delay in the pubertal onset of estrous cycles compared with control animals. No significant differences in male puberty onset or adult fecundity in either sex were observed. Next, mice with a floxed polyadenylation signal causing premature transcriptional termination of the Lepr gene were crossed with AgRP-Cre mice to generate mice with AgRP neuron-specific rescue of LepR. Lepr-null control males and females were morbidly obese and exhibited delayed puberty onset, no evidence of estrous cycles, and minimal fecundity. Remarkably, AgRP-LepR rescue partially or fully restored all of these reproductive attributes to levels similar to those of LepR-intact controls despite minimal rescue of metabolic function. These results indicate that leptin signaling in AgRP neurons is sufficient for puberty onset and normal adult fecundity in both sexes when leptin signaling is absent in all other cells and that in females, the absence of AgRP neuron leptin signaling delays puberty. These actions appear to be independent of leptin's metabolic effects. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sexual maturation and fertility are dispensable at the individual level but critical for species survival. Conditions such as nutritional imbalance may therefore suppress puberty onset and fertility in an individual. In societies characterized by widespread obesity, the sensitivity of reproduction to

  2. Leptin Increases Striatal Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding in Leptin-Deficient Obese (ob/ob) Mice

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    Pfaffly, J.; Michaelides, M.; Wang, G-J.; Pessin, J.E.; Volkow, N.D.; Thanos, P.K.

    2010-06-01

    Peripheral and central leptin administration have been shown to mediate central dopamine (DA) signaling. Leptin-receptor deficient rodents show decreased DA D2 receptor (D2R) binding in striatum and unique DA profiles compared to controls. Leptin-deficient mice show increased DA activity in reward-related brain regions. The objective of this study was to examine whether basal D2R-binding differences contribute to the phenotypic behaviors of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, and whether D2R binding is altered in response to peripheral leptin treatment in these mice. Leptin decreased body weight, food intake, and plasma insulin concentration in ob/ob mice but not in wild-type mice. Basal striatal D2R binding (measured with autoradiography [{sup 3}H] spiperone) did not differ between ob/ob and wild-type mice but the response to leptin did. In wild-type mice, leptin decreased striatal D2R binding, whereas, in ob/ob mice, leptin increased D2R binding. Our findings provide further evidence that leptin modulates D2R expression in striatum and that these effects are genotype/phenotype dependent.

  3. [Circulating leptin and the trophological status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

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    Beloborodova, E I; Akimova, L A; Asanova, A V; Burkovskaia, V A; Kritskaia, N G

    2010-01-01

    To study the specific features of the nutritional status of patients with persistent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in relation to the hormone-regulating function of energy exchange in terms of leptin and to concurrently evaluate the functional status of fat and protein digestion and absorption and to measure body fat percentage. To assess the influence of these factors on the regulation of the serum concentration of leptin and its potential role in the development of trophological insufficiency in patients. In 93 patients with COPD (Stages I, II, and III in 22, 36, and 35 patients, respectively, the nutritional status was evaluated by somatometric methods. The concentration of leptin was measured by enzyme immunoassay using a test system (DSL, USA). Absorption was estimated by biochemical studies and by using radionuclides. Body fat content was determined, by measuring bioelectric impedance with an OmRon BF-302 apparatus (Japan). Protein and fat absorption was decreased in patients with moderate and mainly severe COPD as compared with that in the control group and correlated with body weight deficit and lower body fat percentage. Decreased leptin levels were detected in Stages II-III COPD and correlated with the degree of the disease and reduced protein (r = 0.68 +/- 0.02) and fat (r = 0.64 +/- 0.18) absorption. Protein and fat absorption impairments correlating with body weight deficit in patients with COPD underline the significant role of this mechanism in the development of trophological insufficiency. In COPD patients with trophological insufficiency, the lower circulating leptin levels that correlate with impaired absorption of fatty acids and protein characterize the pathogenetic role of secondary malabsorption syndrome in leptin-mediated impairments of energy exchange mechanisms. Functional insufficiency of the hormone-regulating mechanism responsible for energy exchange in terms of leptin in patients with Stages II-III COPD gives warning of

  4. Significance of Serum Leptin Assessment in Chronic Renal Patients on Dialysis

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    Salem, E.S; Tawfik, M.S; ELaseily, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    The number of patients suffering from renal failure indicating dialysis has been increasing worldwide. Leptin hormone plays an important role in the development of malnutrition in these patients. Bone produces different hormones, such as osteocalcin (OC), which influences energy expenditure in humans. Disturbances in mineral metabolism and bone disease are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are increasing evidences suggesting that these disorders in mineral and bone metabolism are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular calcification, morbidity, and mortality, especially among those who undergo maintenance renal dialysis. The present study was carried out to evaluate the importance of serum leptin assessment in renal dialysis patients. Serum leptin level was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using recombinant human leptin (Leptin- Human Ria-CT). Immunoradiometric assay kit (host IRMA) was used for in-vitro quantitative measurement of human intact OC. Serum creatinine level was determined by colorimetric method. This study included 60 patients (twenty suffering from CKD, thirty on dialysis and ten healthy controls). Serum leptin, OC and creatinine were found to be higher in patients of both groups compared to that of controls. Maximum increase was observed in patients on dialysis. From these results it is possible to conclude that, although patients with chronic renal disease exhibited significant increase in serum leptin, yet sudden additional increase can be related to serious pathology that can end in renal failure. The present study also highlighted the importance of OC as a marker of disturbed mineral-bone metabolism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and those receiving dialysis that could lead to the atherosclerosis, extravascular calcification, morbidity and mortality. KeywoRdSLeptin, osteocalcin, Radioimmunoassay (RIA), Chronic kidney disease, Renal dialysis, Creatinine.

  5. Relationship between Serum Leptin, Ghrelin and Dietary Macronutrients in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Bahram Pourghassem Gargari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrinopathy in women. It may involve an impairment in physiologic regulation of leptin and ghrelin. There is limited, controversial data on the relation of dietary components with leptin and ghrelin in PCOS, so the current study has been conducted to explore the effects of different macronutrients on serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in PCOS and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, we randomly choose 30 PCOS patients and 30 healthy age and body mass index (BMI matched controls. Intake of macronutrients [protein, total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, carbohydrate, dietary fiber] and energy were assessed using 3-day, 24-hour food recall and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ. Fasting hormonal status was measured for each participant. Results: PCOS women had higher levels of serum leptin, insulin, testosterone, and luteinizing hormone (LH, whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG was lower compared to healthy women. There was no significant difference in mean ghrelin concentrations between the groups. Among PCOS women, independent of BMI and total energy intake, we observed an inverse association between leptin concentration and total dietary fat (β=-0.16, P<0.05 and saturated fatty acid (SFA intake (β=-0.58, P<0.05. This relationship was not seen in the healthy subjects. There was no significant association between ghrelin and macronutrients in PCOS and healthy participants. Conclusion: Certain habitual dietary components such as fat and SFA may decrease serum leptin, whereas ghrelin is not influenced by these in PCOS women. More studies are needed to better clarify the effects of dietary macronutrients on serum leptin and ghrelin.

  6. The relationship between umbilical and maternal blood leptin and it's effect in fetal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Linqi; Guo Sheng; Yu Xin; Feng Xing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation of leptin between maternal serum and cord blood and to know relationship between leptin and fetal growth, and the origin of leptin. Methods: The concentration of leptin in 55 cases of maternal serum and cord arterial and venous blood were measured by ELISA assay. According to the neonatal weight and gestational age, three groups were divided into small gestational age (SGA), appropriate gestational age (AGA) and large gestational age (LGA). The nutrition status of neonatal was evaluated by index of Pondernal. The comparision was made in these groups. Results: The concentration of leptin in the cord artery, venous and maternal serum among 55 cases was 16.58 ± 8.13 ng/ml, 12.05 ± 9.87 ng/ml, 13.24 ± 10.58 ng/ml respectively; The concentration of maternal serum leptin was higher than that of cord artery. The concentration of maternal serum leptin was higher than that of venous serum leptin slightly. There was significant difference between cord artery and venous in different gestational age groups. Serum leptin levels of cord artery and venous were well correlated with the one of the weight and gestational age of neonatal. Maternal serum leptin level was not correlated with birth weight, placental weight and gestational age. Conclusions: The leptin from placenta is concerned with the adjustment of fetal growth. Cord leptin can reflect the status of fetal growth. Cord venous leptin indicate that the leptin be from placenta. Cord artery leptin demonstrates a part of placenta leptin, which acts on the fetus and then induces the fetal fat tissue to produce leptin. The maternal leptin does not adjust fetal weight directly. It only adjusts fat content itself and energy metabolism. (authors)

  7. Does leptin play a cytokine-like role within the airways of COPD patients?

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    Bruno, A; Chanez, P; Chiappara, G; Siena, L; Giammanco, S; Gjomarkaj, M; Bonsignore, G; Bousquet, J; Vignola, A M

    2005-09-01

    The leptin-leptin receptor system might be up-regulated in the airways of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In bronchial biopsies obtained from normal subjects and smokers, with and without COPD, the present study examined leptin and leptin-receptor expression and their co-localisation in airway and inflammatory cells. Combining immunohistochemistry with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labelling techniques, apoptosis in airway and inflammatory cells and in leptin and leptin-receptor expressing cells was investigated. In the epithelial cells both leptin and leptin-receptor expression was higher in normal subjects than in smokers and COPD subjects. By contrast, in the sub-mucosa, leptin was over-expressed in COPD when compared with normal subjects and smokers. Leptin and its receptor were co-localised, mainly with activated T cells (CD45R0) and CD8+ T lymphocytes. In smokers, apoptosis was found in some inflammatory cells, whereas in COPD inflammatory cells, leptin and leptin-receptor positive cells were not apoptotic. Leptin expression was related to COPD severity and assessed using the Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification. In conclusion, the present study shows an increased leptin expression in bronchial mucosa of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, associated with airway inflammation and airflow obstruction.

  8. Leptin reverses hyperglycemia and hyperphagia in insulin deficient diabetic rats by pituitary-independent central nervous system actions.

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    Alexandre A da Silva

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis has been postulated to play a major role in mediating the antidiabetic effects of leptin. We tested if the pituitary is essential for the chronic central nervous system mediated actions of leptin on metabolic and cardiovascular function in insulin-dependent diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Male 12-week-old hypophysectomized Sprague-Dawley rats (Hypo, n = 5 were instrumented with telemetry probes for determination of mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR 24-hrs/day and an intracerebroventricular (ICV cannula was placed into the brain lateral ventricle for continuous leptin infusion. In additional groups of Hypo and control rats (n = 5/group, diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, IP. Hypo rats were lighter, had lower MAP and HR (83±4 and 317±2 vs 105±4 mmHg and 339±4 bpm, with similar caloric intake per kilogram of body weight and fasting plasma glucose levels (84±4 vs 80±4 mg/dl compared to controls. Chronic ICV leptin infusion (7 days, 0.62 μg/hr in non-diabetic rats reduced caloric intake and body weight (-10% in Hypo and control rats and markedly increased HR in control rats (~25 bpm while causing only modest HR increases in Hypo rats (8 bpm. In diabetic Hypo and control rats, leptin infusion reduced caloric intake, body weight and glucose levels (323±74 to 99±20 and 374±27 to 108±10 mg/dl, respectively; however, the effects of leptin on HR were abolished in Hypo rats. These results indicate that hypophysectomy attenuates leptin's effect on HR regulation without altering leptin's ability to suppress appetite or normalize glucose levels in diabetes.

  9. Leptin Reduces Pathology and Improves Memory in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Steven J.; Bryan, Kathryn J.; Sarkar, Sraboni; Zhu, Xiongwei; Smith, Mark A.; Ashford, J. Wesson; Johnston, Jane M.; Tezapsidis, Nikolaos; Casadesus, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported anti-amyloidogenic effects of leptin using in vitro and in vivo models and, more recently, demonstrated the ability of leptin to reduce tau phosphorylation in neuronal cells. The present study examined the efficacy of leptin in ameliorating the Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-like pathology in 6-month old CRND8 transgenic mice (TgCRND8) following 8 weeks of treatment. Leptin-treated transgenic mice showed significantly reduced levels of amyloid-β (Aβ)1-40 in both brain extracts (52% reduction, p=0.047) and serum (55% reduction, p=0.049), as detected by ELISA, and significant reduction in amyloid burden (47% reduction, p=0.041) in the hippocampus, as detected by immunocytochemistry. The decrease in the levels of Aβ in the brain correlated with a decrease in the levels of C99 C-terminal fragments of the amyloid-β protein precursor, consistent with a role for β-secretase in mediating the effect of leptin. In addition, leptin-treated TgCRND8 mice had significantly lower levels of phosphorylated tau, as detected by AT8 and anti-tau-Ser396 antibodies. Importantly, after 4 or 8 weeks of treatment, there was no significant increase in the levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cortisol in the plasma of leptin-treated TgCRND8 animals compared to saline-treated controls, indicating no inflammatory reaction. These biochemical and pathological changes were correlated with behavioral improvements, as early as after 4 weeks of treatment, as recorded by a novel object recognition test and particularly the contextual and cued fear conditioning test after 8 weeks of treatment. Leptin-treated TgCRND8 animals significantly outperformed saline-treated littermates in these behavioral tests. These findings solidly demonstrate the potential for leptin as a disease modifying therapeutic in transgenic animals of AD, driving optimism for its safety and efficacy in humans. PMID:20308782

  10. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on serum leptin concentration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Hariri, Mitra

    2017-12-07

    There are controversies regarding the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on serum leptin. To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of CLA on serum leptin concentrations. Databases such as Ovid, PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and ISI databases up to January 2017 were searched. The searches included RCTs conducted among human adults, and studies on the effect of conjugated linoleic acid on serum leptin concentrations as outcome variables. The mean difference and standard deviation of leptin changes in the intervention and control groups were used as effect size measures for the meta-analysis. Eleven trials with thirteen effect sizes were pooled in this meta-analysis. CLA supplementations could not reduce serum leptin levels significantly (-0.12 (ng/ml); 95% CI: -1.29, 1.05; P=0.837). However, the impact of CLA supplementation differed by sex and BMI status. Compared with the control group, CLA administration reduced serum leptin levels significantly in trials conducted among male (-0.86 (ng/ml); 95% CI: -1.11, -0.62; Peffects of conjugated linoleic acid. The protocol was registered as PROSPERO (No. CRD42017059165). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Milk Leptin Surge and Biological Rhythms of Leptin and Other Regulatory Proteins in Breastmilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozhenko, Yuriy; Asnani-Kishnani, Madhu; Rodríguez, Ana M; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of chronic diseases are linked to perinatal nutrition, and prevention may be associated to naturally occurring components of breast milk. One key hormone in breast milk is leptin, related with the protection from obesity in the adulthood, thus knowing its changes through the day or lactation is crucial. We aimed to investigate the daily rhythms in the milk levels of leptin, together with other two related hormones, ghrelin and adiponectin, during lactation (days 5, 10 and 15) in rat dams, and the relation with morphometric parameters (dams and pups). Summarizing the main results, the existence of biological rhythms, but not daily and maybe circasemidian, was confirmed for the three hormones at the earliest period of lactation. The correlations performed generally showed a possible dependence of milk hormone levels on plasma levels at the early phase of lactation, while with the progression of lactation this dependence may fade and the hormone levels are suggested to be more dependent on mammary gland production/maturation. There was also a correlation between milk leptin and adiponectin levels, especially in the first half of lactation, suggesting a possible parallel regulation. Interestingly, we describe a milk leptin surge around the mid of lactation (at day 10) which may be related with pup's growth (males and females) and with the well-known (in the literature) plasma leptin surge in pups. All this knowledge may be crucial for future applications in the development of formula milk and in relation with the role of leptin surge during lactation.

  12. Leptin and Pathological Indexes in Women with Breast Cancer

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    B Noori Alavicheh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and one of the factors threatening the health of women worldwide. Leptin is a 16 kD glycoprotein hormone produced predominantly by white adipose tissue. Leptin binds to receptors in the hypothalamus and plays a key role in regulation of metabolism. Both leptin and leptin receptor have recently been implicated in processes and progress leading to breast cancer initiation. The aim of this study was to identify if there is association between leptin and pathological indexes in patients with breast cancer Methods: 45women with breast cancer were enrolled. Serum leptin levels of patients were measured by the ELISA method. Pathological information such as stage of the breast cancer, Hormonal receptor (ER, PR and Her2 status in these patients were determined. Result: Results revealed that the patients who were in stage one and two, the mean serum leptin level was (34.18±21.22 ng/ml And patients who were in stage three and four, the mean serum leptin level was (32.21±21/93 ng/ml. Also the mean serum leptin levels in patients whose receptor status of ER, PR and HER2 positive were (35.90±23.55, 35.74±23.91and 37.02±24.25ng/ml, respectively. The Patients whose receptor status of ER, PR and HER2 negative were 26.64±13.13, 28.17±14.26and31.32±19.9ng/ml respectively. No significant association was found between leptin leveland stage of the breast cancer, hormonal receptor (ER, PR and Her2 status in Patients with Breast cancer(p>0.05. Conclusions: In this study, no association was found between serum leptin level and pathological indices in women with Breast cancer in Yasuj, Iran.

  13. Gender differences in the adipose secretome system in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a pivotal role of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Marie-Kathrin; Rutten, Erica P A; Vernooy, Juanita H J; Spruit, Martijn A; Dentener, Mieke A; van der Kallen, Carla; vanGreevenbroek, Marleen M J; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2011-07-01

    COPD is characterized by a multi-component character involving a state of low-grade systemic inflammation and an increased prevalence of cardiovascular co-morbidity. The role of circulating leptin and other adipokines in the involvement of the systemic inflammation in COPD is only studied scarcely. To investigate gender related differences in the adipokine metabolism in relation to systemic inflammatory biomarkers in clinically stable subjects with COPD. In total, 91 clinically stable COPD patients and 35 healthy control subjects, matched for body mass index (BMI) with the COPD subjects, were included. Lung function measurement and body composition were performed in patients with COPD. In the total group, plasma concentration of the adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) and systemic inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and its soluble receptors 55 and 75 (sTNFα-R55, R75) were analyzed. The COPD group was characterized by increased levels of CRP, IL-6 and leptin. Plasma adiponectin and resistin concentrations were not different between the COPD and the control group. Within the COPD group, there was a significant interaction between gender and BMI on the leptin/fat mass ratio. In COPD women, a significant correlation between leptin and CRP was present. In men with clinically stable COPD, leptin, adiponectin and resistin appear to be physiologically regulated, while in women, leptin metabolism is altered. Leptin secretion is increased in COPD women when compared to healthy women and compared to COPD men, and to a greater extent in overweight women with COPD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Leptin administration favors muscle mass accretion by decreasing FoxO3a and increasing PGC-1alpha in ob/ob mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neira Sáinz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Absence of leptin has been associated with reduced skeletal muscle mass in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of leptin on the catabolic and anabolic pathways regulating muscle mass. Gastrocnemius, extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscle mass as well as fiber size were significantly lower in ob/ob mice compared to wild type littermates, being significantly increased by leptin administration (P<0.001. This effect was associated with an inactivation of the muscle atrophy-related transcription factor forkhead box class O3 (FoxO3a (P<0.05, and with a decrease in the protein expression levels of the E3 ubiquitin-ligases muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx (P<0.05 and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1 (P<0.05. Moreover, leptin increased (P<0.01 protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha, a regulator of muscle fiber type, and decreased (P<0.05 myostatin protein, a negative regulator of muscle growth. Leptin administration also activated (P<0.01 the regulators of cell cycle progression proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and cyclin D1, and increased (P<0.01 myofibrillar protein troponin T. The present study provides evidence that leptin treatment may increase muscle mass of ob/ob mice by inhibiting myofibrillar protein degradation as well as enhancing muscle cell proliferation.

  15. Associations of plasma leptin to clinical manifestations in reproductive aged female patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdrakis, Vasilios G; Papageorgiou, Charalambos; Markianos, Manolis

    2017-09-01

    Preclinical studies suggest the implication of the adipocyte hormone leptin in anxiety and fear processes. We explored for potential differences regarding plasma leptin, cortisol and the ratio leptin/Body Mass Index (BMI) between 27 medication-free female patients with Panic Disorder (PD) and 42 age-matched female controls, and for potential associations between plasma leptin and psychometric evaluations including number of panic attacks during last week, Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Cortisol levels showed no differences between patients and controls, or correlations to leptin or to any clinical features. Both groups demonstrated a strong positive correlation between leptin and BMI and similar leptin and leptin/BMI, despite patients' lower BMI. However, patients -but not controls- demonstrated significant negative correlations of leptin to the 'somatization', 'anxiety', and 'phobic anxiety' SCL-90-R subscales. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation of leptin and of leptin/BMI ratio to the number of panic attacks during last week, while higher CGI-S was associated with lower leptin/BMI ratio. Our results, limited to PD female patients, suggest that lower leptin serum levels are significantly associated with greater severity of psychopathological manifestations, including number of panic attacks, symptoms of somatization, anxiety and phobic anxiety and overall clinical presentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of chronic leptin administration on nitric oxide production and immune responsiveness of greenfinches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Mare; Sild, Elin; Hõrak, Peeter; Björklund, Mats

    2011-04-01

    Leptin and nitric oxide (NO) are both important messengers in intra- and intercellular communication systems in vertebrates. Several studies have demonstrated an involvement of both substances in the immune response. Here we tested the effects of chronic leptin and anti-leptin treatments on the NO production and phytohaemagglutinin- (PHA) induced cutaneous inflammatory response in a wild passerine, the greenfinch (Carduelis chloris). Plasma leptin levels of individual birds were consistent in time but could be still temporarily increased by administration of recombinant chicken leptin. Increase of plasma leptin was also induced by administration of anti-leptin, which can be most likely explained by increased endogenous leptin production due to disruption of signalling pathways. Contrary to previous findings in mammals, leptin administration reduced systemic NO production. Leptin increased cutaneous swelling response to PHA. This immune-enhancing effect was observable despite the similar plasma leptin levels of leptin-treated and control birds at the time of measurement of immune responses, i.e., 9 days after start of the treatments. This provides evidence for a delayed or long-term potentiation of the cells and cytokines involved. The effects of leptin administration on NO production and immune responsiveness were age-dependent, which indicates the complexity of underlying regulatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Leptin, insulin like growth factor-1 and thyroid profile in a studied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several mechanisms have been suggested for obesity in Down syndrome. Aim of the study: Assessment of serum levels of leptin, insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (FT4) in a prepubertal Egyptian sample of children with DS compared to their age and sex ...

  18. Correlation of leptin and sex hormones with endocrine changes in healthy Saudi women of different body weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Harithy, Rowyda N.; Al-Doghaither, H.; Abualnaja, K.

    2006-01-01

    A relationship between estrogen and leptin has been described during the follicular phase described during the follicular phase of both spontaneous menstrual cycles stimulated with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which suggest that leptin has either a direct effect on or is regulated by gonadal steroids in the human ovary. To examine the changes in plasma leptin levels during the menstrual cycle, we studied the association between plasma leptin and reproductive hormones in young, healthy Saudi women. Sixty-five young women between 19 to 39 years of age, with a normal menstrual cycle, were grouped into 33 over weight and obese females of BMI>25kg/m, and 32 lean females of BMI<25 Kg/m. Anthropometrics measurements were made at the time of the collection. Samples were analyzed for leptin, progesterone, estradiol (E), FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH), cortisol, and testosterone concentrations. Overweight and obese women, compared with lean, tended to have a significantly higher plasma leptin (11.38+-4.06 vs. 6.22+-2.87ng/mL; P=0.05). In overweight and obese subjects, circulating leptin, concentrations showed a direct correlation with BMI (r=0.53; P=0.0002), hip circumference (r=0.32; P=0.005), waist-hip ratio (r=0.37; P=0.042), weight (r=0.41; P=0.021), and E, on day 3 (r=0.35; P=0.048). In all correlation analyses, leptin levels did not correlate with cortisol or testosterone. In lean subjects, a bivariate correlation analysis showed that plasma leptin concentrations were directly correlated to hip circumference (r=0.43; P=0.012). Moreover, a direct correlation was found with progesterone on day 10 (r=0.43; P=0.014) and E on day 24 (r=0.47; P=0.007). There is a link between plasma leptin and progesterone concentrations during the menstrual cycle, and the variation in circulating estrdiol concentrations may have an influence on circulating leptin in female subjects. (author)

  19. HOMA, BMI, and Serum Leptin Levels Variations during Antiviral Treatment Suggest Virus-Related Insulin Resistance in Noncirrhotic, Nonobese, and Nondiabetic Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Alessandro; Malfatti, Federica; Andraghetti, Gabriella; Marenco, Simona; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Labanca, Sara; Cordera, Renzo; Testa, Roberto; Picciotto, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and viral load decay in nondiabetic and noncirrhotic genotype 1 chronic HCV patients during peginterferon and ribavirin treatment and the possible influence of BMI and leptin as metabolic confounders. Methods. 75 consecutive noncirrhotic, nonobese, and nondiabetic patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C treated with peginterferon alpha 2a plus ribavirin were evaluated. HOMA-IR, serum leptin, and BMI were measured in all patients at baseline and at weeks 12 and 48, whereas viral load was measured at the same time points and then 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. HOMA-IR was significantly associated with both BMI and leptin at baseline. During peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment, there was a significant reduction of HOMA-IR at weeks 12 and 48 from baseline (P = 0.033 and 0.048, resp.) in patients who achieved an early viral load decay (EVR), a trend not observed in patients who not achieved EVR. No variations during treatment were observed regarding BMI and leptin irrespective of EVR. Conclusion. The early reduction of HOMA-IR but not of BMI and leptin during antiviral treatment in noncirrhotic, chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients who achieved EVR suggests a viral genesis of insulin resistance in patients with nonmetabolic phenotype.

  20. HOMA, BMI, and Serum Leptin Levels Variations during Antiviral Treatment Suggest Virus-Related Insulin Resistance in Noncirrhotic, Nonobese, and Nondiabetic Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grasso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and viral load decay in nondiabetic and noncirrhotic genotype 1 chronic HCV patients during peginterferon and ribavirin treatment and the possible influence of BMI and leptin as metabolic confounders. Methods. 75 consecutive noncirrhotic, nonobese, and nondiabetic patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C treated with peginterferon alpha 2a plus ribavirin were evaluated. HOMA-IR, serum leptin, and BMI were measured in all patients at baseline and at weeks 12 and 48, whereas viral load was measured at the same time points and then 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. HOMA-IR was significantly associated with both BMI and leptin at baseline. During peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment, there was a significant reduction of HOMA-IR at weeks 12 and 48 from baseline (P=0.033 and 0.048, resp. in patients who achieved an early viral load decay (EVR, a trend not observed in patients who not achieved EVR. No variations during treatment were observed regarding BMI and leptin irrespective of EVR. Conclusion. The early reduction of HOMA-IR but not of BMI and leptin during antiviral treatment in noncirrhotic, chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients who achieved EVR suggests a viral genesis of insulin resistance in patients with nonmetabolic phenotype.

  1. Effect of Raised Body Fat on Vitamin D, Leptin and Bone Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S. S.; Alam, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate leptin, vitamin D and bone mineral density levels in individuals with high fat mass, and to assess any correlation. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and Aga Khan University, Karachi, from August 2012 to July 2014, and comprised healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18-60 years. Body fat percentage was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis and the participants were classified as: Group A (15-21.9); Group B (22-27.9); and Group C (>28). Bone mineral density was calculated by ultrasound bone densitometer (T-score between +1 and -1 considered normal). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to determine the levels of vitamin D and leptin. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 132 male subjects participated in this study, with each of the 3 groups having 44(33.3 percent). Despite all groups having low Vitamin D, a marked decrease was observed in group C compared to groups A and B (p <0.018). Bone mineral density T-score was <-1; total calcium was within normal range in all three groups. Serum leptin was raised in Group C compared to group A and B (p=0.03). Body fat percentage was negatively associated with vitamin D (p=0.004; r = -0.351), while it was positively correlated with leptin (p =0.038; r = 0.256). Conclusion: Excess of body fat percentage led to decreased vitamin D and raised leptin. However, bone mineral density and calcium levels were within normal range, suggesting that other factors might have played a role in maintaining bone mass in obese individuals, such as leptin. (author)

  2. Adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in preeclampsia in Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adiponectin and Leptin are closely related adipokines that are associated with the oxidative stresses and endothelial dysfunction and proposed to participate in preeclampsia (PE) pathogenesis. This study is to determine changes in serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in PE women in order to speculate a ...

  3. Mapping of leptin and its syntenic genes to chicken chromosome 1p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroussi, Eyal; Pitel, Frédérique; Leroux, Sophie; Morisson, Mireille; Bornelöv, Susanne; Miyara, Shoval; Yosefi, Sara; Cogburn, Larry A; Burt, David W; Anderson, Leif; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2017-08-09

    Misidentification of the chicken leptin gene has hampered research of leptin signaling in this species for almost two decades. Recently, the genuine leptin gene with a GC-rich (~70%) repetitive-sequence content was identified in the chicken genome but without indicating its genomic position. This suggests that such GC-rich sequences are difficult to sequence and therefore substantial regions are missing from the current chicken genome assembly. A radiation hybrid panel of chicken-hamster Wg3hCl2 cells was used to map the genome location of the chicken leptin gene. Contrary to our expectations, based on comparative genome mapping and sequence characteristics, the chicken leptin was not located on a microchromosome, which are known to contain GC-rich and repetitive regions, but at the distal tip of the largest chromosome (1p). Following conserved synteny with other vertebrates, we also mapped five additional genes to this genomic region (ARF5, SND1, LRRC4, RBM28, and FLNC), bridging the genomic gap in the current Galgal5 build for this chromosome region. All of the short scaffolds containing these genes were found to consist of GC-rich (54 to 65%) sequences comparing to the average GC-content of 40% on chromosome 1. In this syntenic group, the RNA-binding protein 28 (RBM28) was in closest proximity to leptin. We deduced the full-length of the RBM28 cDNA sequence and profiled its expression patterns detecting a negative correlation (R = - 0.7) between the expression of leptin and of RBM28 across tissues that expressed at least one of the genes above the average level. This observation suggested a local regulatory interaction between these genes. In adipose tissues, we observed a significant increase in RBM28 mRNA expression in breeds with lean phenotypes. Mapping chicken leptin together with a cluster of five syntenic genes provided the final proof for its identification as the true chicken ortholog. The high GC-content observed for the chicken leptin syntenic group

  4. Genetic variants of estrogen beta and leptin receptors may cause gynecomastia in adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Erdal; Edgunlu, Tuba; Korkmaz, Huseyin Anil; Cakir, Esra Deniz Papatya; Demir, Korcan; Cetin, Esin Sakalli; Celik, Sevim Karakas

    2014-05-15

    Gynecomastia is a benign breast enlargement in males that affects approximately one-third of adolescents. The exact mechanism is not fully understood; however, it has been proposed that estrogen receptors and aromatase enzyme activity may play important roles in the pathogenesis of gynecomastia. While many studies have reported that aromatase enzyme (CYP19) gene polymorphism is associated with gynecomastia, only one study has shown a relationship between estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta gene polymorphism and gynecomastia. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between CYP19 (rs2414096), ER alpha (rs2234693), ER beta (rs4986938), leptin (rs7799039), and leptin receptor (rs1137101) gene polymorphisms and gynecomastia. This study included 107 male adolescents with gynecomastia and 97 controls. Total serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels were measured, and DNA was extracted from whole blood using the PCR-RFLP technique. The polymorphic distributions of CYP19, ER alpha, ER beta, leptin and leptin receptor genes were compared. The median E2 level was 12.41 (5.00-65.40) pg/ml in the control group and 16.86 (2.58-78.47) pg/ml in the study group (pgynecomastia and leptin receptor rs1137101 (p=0.002) and ER beta receptor rs4986938 gene polymorphisms (p=0.002). According to our results, increased E2 level and ER beta gene rs4986938 polymorphism might explain why some adolescents have gynecomastia. Leptin receptor gene rs1137101 polymorphism might affect susceptibility to gynecomastia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The association between depression and leptin is mediated by adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alanna A; Ahmed, Yusuf; Stoyanova, Neli; Hooper, William Craig; De Staerke, Christine; Gibbons, Gary; Quyyumi, Arshed; Vaccarino, Viola

    2012-06-01

    Animal models suggest that impaired leptin production, or leptin resistance despite increased leptin levels, may contribute to depression. The link between leptin and depression could be mediated by obesity, which is more common in depression and increases leptin production. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) to 537 participants (mean [standard deviation (SD)] age = 51 [9] years; female, 61%) enrolled in the Morehouse and Emory Team up to Eliminate Health Disparities (META-Health) study. Leptin levels were examined as continuous log-transformed values. Participants with moderate to severe depression had higher levels of leptin (median [interquartile range] 37.7 [17.6-64.9] ng/mL) than those with mild depression (22.9 [7.0-57.9] ng/mL) or minimal to no depression (19.8 ng/mL [7.8-39.1], p = .003). Participants with moderate to severe depression had higher body mass index (BMI) than those with mild or minimal depression (mean [SD] = 33 [8] versus 31 [9] versus 29 [7] kg/m(2), p = .001). After multivariate adjustment for age, sex, race, smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, blood pressure, lipids, and C-reactive protein, the BDI-II score remained a significant predictor of leptin levels (β = 0.093, p = .01). Further adjustment for BMI eliminated the association between the BDI-II score and leptin (β = 0.03, p = .3). Adjusting for waist circumference in place of BMI revealed similar findings. The association between depression and leptin seems to be mediated by increased adiposity in depressed individuals.

  6. Circulating leptin and thyroid dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Belsing, Tina; Brabant, Georg; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    the fields of nutrition, metabolism and endocrinology. Leptin is accepted as an adipose signal, and even though the underlying mechanisms are not fully clarified, leptin, in addition to the thyroid hormones, is believed to be involved in regulation during the switch from the fed to the starved state...... relationship between leptin and thyroid hormones, there might also be a peripheral relationship although this effect is not clear. Both thyroid hormones and leptin might be involved in the adaptive thermogenesis through mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and heat production because both thyroxine...... hormone involvement in thermogenesis and regulation of uncoupling proteins. In this review, we have focused on leptin in relation to thyroid pathophysiology....

  7. Role of leptin in the pathogenesis of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Fachin Cormanique

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a small polypeptide codified by the Obese Gene (OB, deeply related with the body fat mass and energetic balance. Due to its diverse biological effects and downstream signal transducers, multiple classifications have been attributed to leptin, as hormone, cytokine, adypokine, growth factor, and developmental factor, among others. This scenario gives us an idea of the size of the potential biological effects generated by this molecule. The concentration of leptin in the body is determined by the amount of adipose tissue; therefore, hyperleptinemia is a common finding in obese individuals. In addition, high levels of circulating leptin may confer a poor prognosis for any pathological condition. Although leptin history has been reported for more than 20 years, its relationship with cancer has gained notoriety in the past ten years, where studies focused on discussing the issue of obesity as a strong risk factor for cancer developing. Further, growing evidences have pointed leptin as a pivotal mediator of immune response, which aggravates the scenario of cancer occurrence in the presence of obesity. Therefore, leptin can present at least two faces in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, acting by immune and non-immune mechanisms. In this paper we review the dynamic of the leptin axis in breast cancer and further discuss its role in disease, immunopathogenesis and prognosis.

  8. Leptin as a Potential Regulator of FGF21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Asrih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21, a potent metabolic regulator, has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal models of insulin resistance. Several studies have focused on identifying mediators of FGF21 effects. However, the identification of factors involved in FGF21 regulation is far from complete. As leptin is a potent metabolic modulator as well, we aimed at characterizing whether leptin may regulate FGF21. Methods: We investigated a potential regulation of FGF21 by leptin in vivo in Wistar rats and in vitro using human derived hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. This model was chosen as the liver is considered the main FGF21 expression site. Results: We found that leptin injections increased plasma FGF21 levels in adult Wistar rats. This was confirmed in vitro, as leptin increased FGF21 expression in HepG2 cells. We also showed that the leptin effect on FGF21 expression was mediated by STAT3 activation in HepG2 cells. Conclusion: New findings regarding a leptin-STAT3-FGF21 axis were provided in this study, although investigating the exact mechanisms linking leptin and FGF21 are still needed. These results are of great interest in the context of identifying potential new clinical approaches to treat metabolic diseases associated with insulin resistance, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  9. Leptin receptor in peripheral adipose tissues of obese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Sun Junjiang; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Fu Lei; Han Liu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between leptin receptor and obesity by studying the leptin receptor density B max and dissociation constant K d in peripheral adipose tissue in subjects with different body weight mass (BMI). Methods: Leptin receptor density B max and K d were assayed via radioligand method in 71 cases, including 32 classified as obese, 19 over-weight and 20 normal control. Results: With the escalating of BMI, the leptin receptor density significantly decreased in obese and over-weight group compared with that in normal control (both P d values were of no differences among all three groups suggesting no correlation between the binding ability of leptin to its receptor and BMI. A negative correlation between BMI and B max (r=-0.76, P<0.01) displayed after all. Conclusion: Leptin receptor density correlates with the BMI in obese cases and it suggests that the down-regulation of leptin receptor may contribute to the occurrence of leptin resistance and obesity after-wards

  10. Leptin, visfatin, insulin resistance, and body composition change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Suzan; Ayaz, Lokman; Tamer, Lulufer; Ulubas, Bahar

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to compare endocrine parameters such as leptin, visfatin, insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition change, the pulmonary functions test (PFT) and arterial blood gases (ABG) parameters of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and in healthy controls. Fifty-five patients with COPD and without malnutrition and 25 healthy controls were included in our study. The serum leptin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and insulin resistance, body fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were measured in the groups. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) was calculated and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), PFT and ABG analyses were performed in all of the cases. No difference in BMI between the COPD group and controls was determined. Serum leptin and visfatin levels, FFM and 6MWT distance were significantly lower in the patients with COPD (p leptin levels and BMI (r = 0.333, p = 0.027), and with FM (r = 0.365, p = 0.029). Serum visfatin level was correlated with the percentage of forced expiratory volume in the first second in the patients with COPD (r = 0.371, p = 0.013). HOMA-IR (Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and serum TNF-alpha levels in the patients with COPD were found to be significantly higher than controls (p = 0.001, p COPD. Evaluating the patients not only with the pulmonary function and also systemically, contributes to minimizing the mortality and morbidity.

  11. Leptin controls hair follicle cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Reiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kabashima-Kubo, Rieko; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nishio, Daisuke; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2014-04-01

    Leptin is a cytokine well known for its ability to control body weight and energy metabolism. Several lines of evidence have recently revealed that leptin also plays an important role in wound healing and immune modulation in skin. Sumikawa et al. Exp Dermatol 2014 evaluated the effect of leptin on hair follicle cycling using mutant and wild-type mice. They report that leptin is produced in dermal papilla cells in hair follicles and that leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice show an abnormality in hair follicle cycling. Moreover, leptin injection induced the transition into the growth stage of the hair cycle (anagen). On this basis, it now deserves exploration whether leptin-mediated signalling is a key stimulus for anagen induction and whether this may be targeted to manage human hair disorders with defect in the control of hair follicle cycling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Leptin: a cardiovascular perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Leptin: a cardiovascular perspective. 72. 2012 Volume 17 No 2. JEMDSA. Introduction. Within the realms of noncommunicable disease development in South Africa, obesity is a disease that causes concern. This especially holds true for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Disheartened.

  13. Leptin: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezapsidis, Nikolaos; Johnston, Jane M.; Smith, Mark A.; Ashford, J. Wesson; Casadesus, Gemma; Robakis, Nikolaos K.; Wolozin, Benjamin; Perry, George; Zhu, Xiongwei; Greco, Steven J.; Sarkar, Sraboni

    2010-01-01

    Adipocyte-derived leptin appears to regulate a number of features defining Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the molecular and physiological level. One activity of leptin is the control of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK). In addition to maintaining lipid levels, AMPK regulates glycogen synthase kinase-3, which modulates tau phosphorylation. Leptin has been shown to reduce the amount of extracellular amyloid-β, both in cell culture and animal models of AD, as well as reduce tau phosphorylation in neuronal cells. Importantly, chronic administration of leptin resulted in a significant improvement in the cognitive performance of transgenic animal models of AD. In humans, weight loss often precedes the onset of dementia in AD and the level of circulating leptin is inversely proportional to the severity of dementia among AD patients. It is speculated that a deficiency in leptin levels or function may contribute to systemic and central nervous system abnormalities leading to AD, suggesting that a leptin replacement therapy may be beneficial for AD. This may be an attractive alternative to the drugs that are currently under development. PMID:19387109

  14. The association between leptin and depressive symptoms is modulated by abdominal adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaneschi, Yuri; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio; Canepa, Marco; Gravenstein, Kristofer S; Egan, Josephine M; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Guralnik, Jack M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence for a role of leptin in depression is limited and conflicting. Inconclusive findings may be explained by the complex effect of obesity on leptin signaling. In particular, both hyperleptinemia due to leptin resistance in obese persons as well as low leptin in lean persons can imply that low leptin biological signaling is associated with an increased risk of significant depressive symptoms. We tested whether the relationship between leptin and depressive symptoms is modulated by abdominal adiposity in two population-based studies. Methods Data were from 851 participants (65–94 years) of the InCHIANTI Study and 1,064 (26–93 years) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Plasma concentrations of leptin, waist circumference and depressive symptoms via the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) were assessed. In longitudinal InCHIANTI analyses onset of depressed mood (CES-D≥20) was evaluated over a 9-year follow-up. Results In pooled cross-sectional analyses the interaction between leptin and waist circumference was significantly associated with CES-D scores ((log)leptin-by-waist interaction p=0.01). Also in longitudinal analyses, the (log)leptin-by-waist interaction term significantly (p=0.04) predicted depressed mood onset over time; depressed mood risk was especially increased for high levels of both leptin and waist circumference. Conclusions The present findings suggest that low leptin signaling rather than low leptin concentration is a risk factor for depression. Future studies should develop proxy measures of leptin signaling by combining information on abdominal adiposity and leptin level to be used for clinical and research applications. PMID:24636496

  15. Role of leptin in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Antonio; Sánchez-Jiménez, Flora; Maymó, Julieta; Dueñas, José L; Varone, Cecilia; Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive function is dependent on energy resources. The role of weight, body composition, fat distribution and the effect of diet have been largely investigated in experimental female animals as well as in women. Any alteration in diet and/or weight may induce abnormalities in timing of sexual maturation and fertility. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in the fine coordination of energy balance and reproduction are largely unknown. The brain and hypothalamic structures receive endocrine and/or metabolic signals providing information on the nutritional status and the degree of fat stores. Adipose tissue acts both as a store of energy and as an active endocrine organ, secreting a large number of biologically important molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines have been shown to be involved in regulation of the reproductive functions. The first adipokine described was leptin. Extensive research over the last 10 years has shown that leptin is not only an adipose tissue-derived messenger of the amount of energy stores to the brain, but also a crucial hormone/cytokine for a number of diverse physiological processes, such as inflammation, angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, immune function, and most importantly, reproduction. Leptin plays an integral role in the normal physiology of the reproductive system with complex interactions at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. In addition, leptin is also produced by placenta, where it plays an important autocrine function. Observational studies have demonstrated that states of leptin excess, deficiency, or resistance can be associated with abnormal reproductive function. This review focuses on the leptin action in female reproduction.

  16. Children's psychosocial stress and emotional eating: A role for leptin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Ruige, Johannes; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-05-01

    Psychosocial stress can be a health threat by stimulating unhealthier eating behaviors. We aim to test the role of the hormone leptin in the association between stress and diet/emotional eating as detected in primary school children. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 308 Belgian children (5-12y) in 2010-2012, the association of fasting serum leptin with reported stress (negative events and emotional problems), measured stress by salivary cortisol (overall cortisol output and awakening response), emotional eating and food consumption frequency was examined. Analyses were split by sex. Mediation and moderation by leptin change were tested. One stress marker (overall cortisol output) was significantly correlated with high leptin levels, but only in girls and cross-sectionally. Only in boys, leptin was associated with low emotional eating. Leptin was not a significant predictor of unhealthy food consumption. Leptin change was not a mediator but an enhancing moderator in the link between stress (high cortisol output and emotional problems) and emotional eating in girls: high reports of emotional eating in 2012 were present in the case of combined high 2-year leptin increase and high stress at baseline. Stress (represented by emotional problems and high daily cortisol) seems to lead to hyperleptinemia in girls; and the combination of high stress and hyperleptinemia might make girls more vulnerable to stress-induced eating. No functional data on leptin sensitivity were present, but results might suggest that stress induces lower sensitivity to the anorexigenic leptin activity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:471-480). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Leptin hormone in obese and non-obese stable and exacerbated cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Elsayed Mahmoud

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin hormone level (ng/ml was significantly higher in obese COPD cases than in controls and non-obese cases and during exacerbation than in stability which indicates that leptin plays a role in the systemic inflammatory process. Serum leptin hormone level positively correlated with BMI (kg/m2.

  18. TNF-alpha, leptin, and lymphocyte function in human aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    2000-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased inflammatory activity and concomitant decreased T cell mediated immune responses. Leptin may provide a link between inflammation and T cell function in aging. The aim of the study was to investigate if plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were...... there was no difference with regard to IL-2 production. Furthermore, there were no age-related differences in serum levels of leptin, However, women had higher levels than men. In the elderly people, serum levels of leptin were correlated with TNF-alpha in univariate regression analysis and in a multiple linear...... regression analysis adjusting for the effect of gender and body mass index. Furthermore, TNF-alpha, but not leptin, was positively correlated to sIL-2R and negatively correlated to IL-2 production. In conclusion, increased plasma levels of TNF-alpha in aging is associated with poor IL-2 production ex vivo...

  19. Molecular cloning, characterization and evolutionary analysis of leptin gene in Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Hai-feng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an important hormone possessing diverse physiological roles in mammals and teleosts. However, it has been characterized only in a few amphibian species, and its evolutions are still under debate. Here, the full length of the leptin (Adlep cDNA of Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus, an early diverging amphibian species, is characterized and according to the results of the primary sequence analysis, tertiary structure reconstruction and phylogenetic analysis is confirmed to be an ortholog of mammalian leptin. An intron was identified between the coding exons of A. davidianus leptin, which indicated that the leptin is present in the salamander genome and contains a conserved gene structure in vertebrates. Adlep is widely distributed but expression levels vary among different tissues, with highest expression levels in the muscle. Additionally, the leptin receptor and other genes were mapped to three known leptin signaling pathways, suggesting that the leptin signaling pathways are present in A. davidianus. Phylogenetic topology of leptins are consistent with the generally accepted evolutionary relationships of vertebrates, and multiple leptin members found in teleosts seem to be obtained through a Cluopeocephala-specific gene duplication event. Our results will lay a foundation for further investigations into the physiological roles of leptin in A. davidianus.

  20. Association of maternal and umbilical cord blood leptin concentrations and abnormal color Doppler indices of umbilical artery with fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Zareaan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR is a condition with heterogeneous pathophysiology which characterized by fetal weight less than the tenth percentile for gestational age. Several factors have impact on maternal, placental and fetal due to growth restriction. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between levels of leptin in the cord, and serum leptin of mothers also abnormal color Doppler indices of umbilical artery with fetal growth restriction. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran, 2015-2016. We recruited 40 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (Group I and 40 pregnant women with normal fetal growth (Group II with matched age. Maternal serum and umbilical artery leptin levels were determined with Enzyme-Linked immunosorben method. Also, color Doppler ultrasound of umbilical artery was performed. Results: Mean maternal and fetal leptin levels were lower in the FGR group compared to the normal group (36.58±(20.99 and 7.42 ±(4.08vs. 47.32±(22.50 and 30.49±(14.50 respectively. Also, mean fetal leptin level was lower in the group with abnormal color Doppler sonographic indices compared to the normal group (7. 40 ±(4.10vs 27.06±(15.80, respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that maternal and fetal leptin levels are correlated with FGR originating from damaged placental function; also fetal leptin level can indicate changes in color Doppler sonographic indices.

  1. [Preliminary investigation of effect of serum leptin on nutritional state of COPD patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Wang, Z; Liu, C

    2000-05-01

    To explore the significance of serum leptin and TNF-alpha in malnutrition of COPD. Serum leptin and TNF-alpha concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Body mass index (BMI), percent normal body weight (NW%), triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF), subscapular skin-fold thickness (SSF), mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), serum albumin (ALB) and total lymphocytes count (LYM) were determined in 31 patients with COPD and in 11 healthy controls. The correlation between leptin and nutritional parameters was analysed. (1) Serum leptin concentrations (3.0 +/- 2.5) micrograms/L in 42 subjects were significantly correlated with BMI, NW%, TSF, SSF and MAC (P leptin concentrations were significantly correlated with BMI in both malnourished patients with COPD and non-malnourished patients (P leptin level was significantly lower in malnourished group (1.3 +/- 1.0) micrograms/L than in non-malnourished group (4.5 +/- 2.6) micrograms/L, (P leptin level and BMI between non-malnourished group and healthy group were not significant. (3) Serum TNF-alpha level was significantly higher in COPD group (1.8 +/- 0.3) micrograms/L than in healthy group (1.0 +/- 0.5) microgram/L (P leptin levels didn't significantly correlate with TNF-alpha levels in COPD patients. Serum leptin levels correlate with nutritional parameters in COPD patients and leptin may contribute to the malnutrition in COPD patients.

  2. Effects of sex steroid hormones and menopause on serum leptin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, C; Tommaselli, G A; Nappi, C

    2002-12-01

    Leptin is a protein secreted by adipocytes; its circulating levels are correlated to fat mass and it acts on the hypothalamic centers regulating body weight. Leptin may also play an important role in regulating reproductive function. Indeed, ob/ob mice, lacking leptin due to a genetic mutation, are obese and infertile; administration of recombinant leptin to these animals reduces body weight and restores fertility. A sexual dimorphism in serum leptin levels has also been observed, with higher concentrations in women. Studies in vitro seem to indicate that estrogens stimulate leptin secretion, while in vivo studies are extremely discordant. In humans, several studies showed increased, unmodified and decreased leptin levels after the menopause. Furthermore, hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) after the menopause was reported to result in unmodified, increased or decreased leptin levels. It is likely that the effects of postmenopausal hypoestrogenism on leptin levels are masked by the postmenopausal changes in body composition. Indeed, after menopause, there is an increase in body weight, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass with a centralization of fat distribution. Administration of HRT may stop these changes and even restore a premenopausal pattern, leading then to decreased leptin levels.

  3. Leptin effects on the regenerative capacity of human periodontal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Keser, Sema; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Jäger, Andreas; Jepsen, Søren; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Bourauel, Christoph; Eick, Sigrun; Deschner, James

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is increasing throughout the globe and characterized by excess adipose tissue, which represents a complex endocrine organ. Adipose tissue secrets bioactive molecules called adipokines, which act at endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine levels. Obesity has recently been shown to be associated with periodontitis, a disease characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium, and also with compromised periodontal healing. Although the underlying mechanisms for these associations are not clear yet, increased levels of proinflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, as found in obese individuals, might be a critical pathomechanistic link. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of leptin on the regenerative capacity of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and also to study the local leptin production by these cells. Leptin caused a significant downregulation of growth (TGFβ1, and VEGFA) and transcription (RUNX2) factors as well as matrix molecules (collagen, and periostin) and inhibited SMAD signaling under regenerative conditions. Moreover, the local expression of leptin and its full-length receptor was significantly downregulated by inflammatory, microbial, and biomechanical signals. This study demonstrates that the hormone leptin negatively interferes with the regenerative capacity of PDL cells, suggesting leptin as a pathomechanistic link between obesity and compromised periodontal healing.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Students’ Media Competences Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the results of survey of university students’ media literacy competence (on the base of a classification of indicators of media literacy competence of the audience as an effective tool for comparative analysis of the levels of development of media competence of students of the control and experimental groups: the level of media competence of students who have a one-year training course in the framework of media literacy education courses four times higher than in similar indicators in the control group. Analysis of the results of this survey confirmed the general trend of media contacts of student audience – its orientation to entertainment genres of audiovisual media, visually appealing; positive, active, unmarried, childless, educated, highly qualified characters (primarily – male characters aged 19 to 35 years. These heroes are characteristic optimism, independence, intelligence, emotion. They have an excellent command of the life situation and have a positive impact on the development progress of the plot of a media text.

  5. Milk Leptin Surge and Biological Rhythms of Leptin and Other Regulatory Proteins in Breastmilk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Nozhenko

    Full Text Available A significant number of chronic diseases are linked to perinatal nutrition, and prevention may be associated to naturally occurring components of breast milk. One key hormone in breast milk is leptin, related with the protection from obesity in the adulthood, thus knowing its changes through the day or lactation is crucial. We aimed to investigate the daily rhythms in the milk levels of leptin, together with other two related hormones, ghrelin and adiponectin, during lactation (days 5, 10 and 15 in rat dams, and the relation with morphometric parameters (dams and pups. Summarizing the main results, the existence of biological rhythms, but not daily and maybe circasemidian, was confirmed for the three hormones at the earliest period of lactation. The correlations performed generally showed a possible dependence of milk hormone levels on plasma levels at the early phase of lactation, while with the progression of lactation this dependence may fade and the hormone levels are suggested to be more dependent on mammary gland production/maturation. There was also a correlation between milk leptin and adiponectin levels, especially in the first half of lactation, suggesting a possible parallel regulation. Interestingly, we describe a milk leptin surge around the mid of lactation (at day 10 which may be related with pup's growth (males and females and with the well-known (in the literature plasma leptin surge in pups. All this knowledge may be crucial for future applications in the development of formula milk and in relation with the role of leptin surge during lactation.

  6. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    filtration rate seemed to have a limited influence on the plasma leptin concentration in nondiabetic uremic subjects matched by body fat mass to controls. The plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass, and the leptin level might, therefore, be useful as an indicator of the fat......Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular.......4 (3.1-59.5) ng/ml versus 5.4 (1.6-47.5) ng/ml (median and range in parentheses; p

  7. Human breast milk and adipokines--A potential role for the soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) in the regulation of infant energy intake and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, F D; Rao, P; Moore, J; Stewart, R; Ladino, Yuli Martinez; Hartmann, B T

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of different adipokines in human breast milk are thought to be able to affect energy intake of the infant. Leptin is a hormone synthesized by adipose tissue and the human placenta and favors satiety. The availability of leptin in breast milk is influenced by epithelial cells of the mammary gland that are known to be able to produce leptin, as well as leptin from maternal circulation that is transported to the breast milk, and which can thus in turn reach neonatal blood after absorption. Research so far as mainly focused on leptin concentrations in breast milk. However, evidence suggests that in addition to leptin concentrations levels of the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), the main high-affinity binding protein for leptin in humans, are necessary in order to calculate the free leptin index (FLI) and to assess function of the leptin axis. FLI is calculated from the ratio of leptin to the sOb-R, and serves as the main parameter for assessing function of the leptin axis throughout maturation and development. Here we propose that assessing sOb-R levels in addition to leptin concentrations in breast milk could serve as a valuable tool to investigate effects of the leptin axis in breast milk because sOb-R concentrations can impact available leptin levels, and which in turn can have significant implications for infant energy intake and related development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced pulmonary leptin expression in patients with severe COPD and asymptomatic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooy, J H J; Drummen, N E A; van Suylen, R J; Cloots, R H E; Möller, G M; Bracke, K R; Zuyderduyn, S; Dentener, M A; Brusselle, G G; Hiemstra, P S; Wouters, E F M

    2009-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by an abnormal inflammatory reaction of the lungs involving activation of epithelial cells. Leptin is a pleiotropic cytokine important in the regulation of immune responses via its functional receptor Ob-Rb. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that severe COPD is associated with increased leptin expression in epithelial cells. Immunohistochemistry for leptin was performed on peripheral lung specimens from 20 patients with COPD (GOLD stage 4), 14 asymptomatic ex-smokers and 13 never smokers. Leptin and Ob-Rb mRNA expression were determined by rtPCR in cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells and primary type II pneumocytes. NCI-H292 and A549 cell lines were used to study functional activation of leptin signalling. Leptin immunoreactivity in lung tissue was observed in bronchial epithelial cells, type II pneumocytes, macrophages (tissue/alveolar) and interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates. rtPCR analysis confirmed pulmonary leptin and Ob-Rb mRNA expression in primary bronchial epithelial cells and pneumocytes. Leptin-expressing bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages were markedly higher in patients with severe COPD and ex-smokers than in never smokers (pleptin and Ob-Rb (pLeptin induced phosphorylation of STAT3 in both NCI-H292 and A549 cells. Leptin expression is increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages of ex-smokers with or without severe COPD compared with never smokers. A functional leptin signalling pathway is present in lung epithelial cells.

  9. The clinical meanings of leptin RIA in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baoqing; Chen Yongsheng; Zhao Yuexia; Wang Yihai

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between chronic renal failure and serum leptin levels in patients with chronic renal failure. Methods: Serum leptin levels (with RIA) were determined in 134 patients (male, 73, female 61) with chronic renal failure and 40 controls. Results: The serum levels of leptin in the chronic renal failure group were significantly higher than those in the controls (t=2.39, P<0.01). There were no significant differences among the leptin levels in patients with different stages of renal failure. Conclusion: There were hyper-leptinemia and leptin resistance in patients with chronic renal failure. The increase of leptin levels is thought to be harmful in patients with chronic renal failure, however, the precise mechanism remains to be studied further. (authors)

  10. Influence of the metabolic syndrome on leptin and leptin receptor in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Paul A; Healy, Laura; Lysaght, Joanne; Boyle, Terry; Reynolds, John V; Kennedy, M John; Pidgeon, Graham; Connolly, Elizabeth M

    2011-08-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic syndrome (MetS) are recognized risk factors for breast cancer. The molecular basis for this association remains largely unknown. Adipokines, in particular leptin and adiponectin, are thought to form part of the mechanism linking obesity with cancer through their altered expression/production either systemically (endocrine pathway) or locally (paracrine/autocrine pathway). Using quantitative PCR, mRNA expression of adiponectin (AdipoQ) and leptin (Ob) in mammary adipose tissue (MAT), intratumoral leptin and associated ligand receptors (ObR, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2) was examined in 77 patients with complete anthropomorphic and serological data. Expression of Ob in MAT, and ObR in matched tumor tissue was significantly higher in patients with MetS compared to obese only or normal weight cancer patients (P < 0.005). There was no difference in intratumoral leptin adiponectin or its ligand receptors in the same groups. Individual features of MetS correlated with Ob and ObR expression, but not obesity markers (BMI, waist circumference). mRNA expression of leptin (Ob) and ObR, in adipose tissue and matched tumor samples, respectively, appear to be associated with obesity status in breast cancer. Increasing insulin resistance is a predominant feature of this higher Ob/ObR expression observed. These novel data indicate that the MetS may be an amenable risk factor for breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Leptin Influence in Craving and Relapse of Alcoholics and Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-Nemer, Aline S.; Toffolo, Mayla C. F.; da Silva, Claudio Jeronimo; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Silva-Fonseca, Vilma A.

    2013-01-01

    Leptin inhibits signaling of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, suggesting its role in regulating stress and its possible involvement in the neurobiology of reward system. The aim of this study was to review of the literature on the influence of leptin in the craving for alcohol and tobacco and whether there is already evidence that leptin may be a biomarker to indicate risk for craving and relapse. The review used as data bases Medline, LILACS and SciElo in the period between 2000 and 2012. Keywords were leptin, substance use disorders, craving and withdrawal, in Portuguese and English. Only 12 articles were met the inclusion criteria, relating leptin with craving in alcoholics (n = 10) and smokers (n = 2). No studies were found in the LILACS database. Leptin levels increase during abstinence and this may be related to a reduction of dopaminergic action in mesolimbic system, resulting in a greater intensity of craving and maintenance of addictive behavior. Although there are few studies, the most recent results indicate the usefulness of leptin as a marker of risk for relapse among smokers and alcoholics in abstinence. PMID:23671541

  12. Maternal leptin and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin is produced mainly by adipocytes. Levels are increased in women with obesity and during pregnancy. Increased levels are also associated with pregnancy complications such as, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: We studied what component of body composition correlated best with maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy and, whether maternal leptin correlated better with visceral fat rather than fat distributed elsewhere. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Women were recruited in the first trimester. Maternal adiposity was measured using body mass index and advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maternal leptin was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. RESULTS: Of the 100 subjects studied, the mean leptin concentration was 37.7 ng\\/ml (range: 2.1-132.8). Leptin levels did not correlate with gestational age in the first trimester, maternal age, parity or birth weight. Serum leptin correlated positively with maternal weight and body mass index, and with the different parameters of body composition. On multiple regression analysis, serum leptin correlated with visceral fat but not fat distributed elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Visceral fat is the main determinant of circulating maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy. This raises the possibility that maternal leptin in early pregnancy may be a marker for the development of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes mellitus.

  13. Serum leptin is correlated to high turnover in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipmair, Gunter; Böhler, Nikolaus; Maschek, Wilma; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Pichler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Clinical data have suggested that obesity protects against osteoporosis. Leptin, mainly secreted by white adipose tissue, might be involved by mediating an effect on bone metabolism. This study was conducted to investigate a possible relationship of leptin and bone turn-over in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We measured bone mineral density (BMD), serum leptin levels and markers of bone metabolism, including osteocalcin and cross-laps in 44 patients with osteoporosis. The main group consisted of 32 postmenopausal women. Mean serum leptin was 13.1 microg/L and showed no statistically significant difference to the levels measured in a collective of normal persons adjusted for age and BMI. When related to serum cross-laps as markers of bone resorption, a positive correlation (pturnover serum bone markers, at least in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  14. Leptin in milk and plasma of dairy asses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fantuz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Milk and plasma leptin levels have been studied in dairy asses machine milked according to two different routines: 20 pregnant, pluriparous asses, were divided into two groups subjected, every 28 d for 150 d, to two consecutive milkings carried out at different intervals, i.e. 20 vs. 4 hours interval, respectively for group A and group B. During the study, the declining total milk obtained by machine milking was unaffected by the different milking strategies; body condition score of asses as well did not vary between the groups. Different milking intervals did not significantly influence skimmed milk leptin content neither plasma leptin level. Moreover, we did not find significant variation in plasma leptin neither correlation with BCS, indicating that in donkey pregnancy inhibits the cross talk between hypothalamus and adipose tissue.

  15. Leptin concentrations do not predict weight gain: the Mexico City Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, S M; Mykkänen, L A; Gonzalez, C C; Stern, M P

    1998-07-01

    Leptin, a hormone which is produced by adipose tissue, has been shown to inhibit food intake and increase energy expenditure. In humans, leptin levels are correlated with body fat. In addition, leptin levels decline in subjects who lose weight. Yet few data exist on whether leptin levels predict weight change, except for a recent report suggesting that low leptin levels predict weight gain in very obese middle-aged Pima Indians. We have examined the association between baseline leptin levels and subsequent weight gain over 3.25 y in 180 non-diabetic participants in the Mexico City Diabetes Study. At baseline, the correlation between leptin levels and body mass index (BMI) was 0.712 in men and 0.691 in women (both P BMI (+/- 2 kg/m2) at baseline. Baseline BMI was 25.3 kg/m2 in men and 27.2 kg/m2 in women. Baseline leptin levels (ng/ml) did not predict weight gain in either men (weight gainers: 4.3; weight stable: 5.8; and weight losers: 5.2) or women (weight gainers: 17.4; weight stable: 17.7; and weight losers: 17.4). We conclude that baseline leptin levels did not predict weight change in moderately obese individuals.

  16. ROLE OF LEPTIN ON CYTOCHROME P-450 AND SOME LIVER MICROSOMAL ENZYMES ACTIVITIES IN THE OBESE AND LEAN MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEBEISHY, M.I.A.; MAZEN, G.M.A.; SHAHIN, M.I

    2008-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone that is secreted by adipocytes and regulates body weight through its effect on satiety and energy metabolism. The obese mouse is deficient in this protein and is characterized by obesity and other metabolic disorders. This study investigated the alterations of several hepatic cytochrome P 4 -5 0 (CYP), conjugation and antioxidant enzymes in lean and obese mice and the role of leptin in the modulation of these enzymes. Lean and obese male mice were injected with leptin (100 μg / rat) for 15 days. The obtained results revealed that administration of leptin to lean mice caused a significant elevation in the level of blood glucose, serum insulin, 6α, 6β, 16α- hydroxylation of testosterone, the activity of CYP 1 A 1 , CYP 4 A and GSH reductase in liver microsomes while serum corticosterone and the activity of total GSH were significantly decreased when compared to lean control mice. Moreover, obese mice treated with leptin recorded significant reduction in body weight, blood glucose concentration, serum levels of insulin and corticosterone, 7α and 16α- hydroxylation of testosterone, the activity of CYP 1A 1, CYP 2 B 1 and CYP 4 A and GST in liver microsomes. On the other hand, 6α, 6β-hydroxylation of testosterone, the activity of CYP 2 E 1 and GSH reductase in liver microsome were significantly increased when compared to obese control mice. The mechanism for the observed alterations may be due to direct leptin effects or via indirect alterations in insulin, corticosterone and/or growth hormone

  17. Acute insulin-induced elevations of circulating leptin and feeding inhibition in lean but not obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kimberly A; Boozer, Carol N; Vasselli, Joseph R

    2005-08-01

    Insulin has been shown to stimulate leptin mRNA expression acutely in rat adipose tissue, but its short-term effects on circulating leptin levels, and subsequent feeding behavior, have not been well described. We used 11-mo-old female selectively bred obesity-resistant (OR) and obesity-prone (OP) Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on laboratory chow to investigate this question. At testing, body weights and basal leptin levels of the OP rats were significantly elevated compared with the OR rats. In the 3-h fasted state, injection of 2.0 U insulin/kg ip resulted in significant elevations of plasma leptin at 4 h postinjection in both OP and OR groups (hour 4, +2.50 and +5.98 ng/ml, respectively). In separate feeding tests with the same groups, intake of laboratory chow pellets was significantly inhibited during hours 2-4 after 2.0 U/kg of insulin in the OR (-80.1%, P < 0.05), but not in the OP group, compared with intake after saline injections. In feeding tests with palatable moderately high-fat pellets after 2.0 and 3.0 U insulin/kg ip, significant decreases between hours 2 and 4 in intake were seen in the OR group only (-41.0 and -68.3%, respectively). Thus feeding inhibition coincides with insulin-induced elevations of plasma leptin in lean but not obese Sprague-Dawley rats. Our data suggest that elevations of leptin within the physiological range may contribute to short-term inhibition of food intake in rats and that this process may be stimulated by feeding-related insulin release.

  18. Effect of vanadium on insulin and leptin in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Yuen, V G; McNeill, J H

    2001-02-01

    Vanadium exhibits a variety of insulin-mimetic actions in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism(s) of the effect of vanadium on leptin in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a model of Type 2 diabetes, is unclear. Since insulin is a stimulator of leptin production and secretion and vanadium is an insulin-mimetic or insulin-enhancing agent, we studied how vanadium affected plasma leptin levels in vivo and the relationship between plasma insulin, leptin and body fat in ZDF rats. Zucker lean and ZDF rats at 9-week old were chronically treated with bis(ethylmaltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BEOV), an organic vanadium compound, by oral gavage daily for 3 weeks. At termination, the total body fat was weighed and blood was collected for insulin, leptin and glucose assay. BEOV treatment (0.1 mmol/kg/day) significantly decreased plasma glucose levels in ZDF rats and did not change food intake and body fat content either in lean or ZDF rats. Following 3-week treatment, plasma insulin and leptin levels in BEOV treated ZDF rats were significantly higher, 1.5 and 0.5 fold than untreated rats, respectively. The correlation coefficients in ZDF rats showed that plasma leptin levels were correlated to plasma insulin levels, but not to body fat. These data indicate that plasma leptin levels parallel plasma insulin levels, and the effects of vanadium on leptin appear to be mediated by insulin in ZDF rats.

  19. Association of leptin with hemodialysis-related muscle cramps: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chung-Ying; Chen, Yung-Liang; Chen, Chiou-Shya; Yang, Chwei-Shiun; Peng, Sheng-Jeng

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of muscle cramp in hemodialysis patients is not well understood. Leptin, a middle molecule uremic toxin, is able to affect neuronal activity. This study aimed to determine the association between leptin and hemodialysis-related muscle cramps. A total of 79 hemodialysis patients were enrolled. The episodes of hemodialysis-related muscle cramps were recorded over a 28-day period. Serum levels of leptin were measured on the 15th day, a mid-week dialysis session. Frequent hemodialysis-related cramps were associated with old age and elevated serum leptin levels. The risk of frequent hemodialysis-related cramps increased with increasing tertiles of leptin concentration. This relationship remained significant after adjustment for age, mean ultrafiltration ratio, gender, body mass index, insulin, resistin, c-reactive protein, albumin, peripheral arterial disease, electrolytes, and beta(2)-microglobulin. Leptin levels are associated with frequent hemodialysis-related cramps. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  20. Serum Leptin Concentrations during the Menstrual Cycle in Iranian Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Einollahi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nLeptin, a circulating 16-kd polypeptide consisting of 167 amino acids, appears to be involved in the body weight homeostasis. Moreover leptin plays an important role for the reproductive system, early embryogenesis, and fat metabolism during pregnancy and puberty. Significant correlations have been found between leptin and sexual hormones, which is a cytokine and has hormonal properties. The aim of this study was to determine serum leptin levels during the menstrual cycle, and the association between serum leptin and reproductive hormones in young, healthy Iranian women. 42 healthy women volunteered for the study. They all had regular menstrual cycles, with cycle length varying between 26 and 32 days. None of them used oral contraceptives. All were of normal weight, with body mass index ( BMI < 25 Kg/m2. Fasting blood samples were collected during the follicular phase, mid cycle and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. FSH and LH were measured with coated tube immunoradiometric assay. Estrogen and progesterone were measured using antibody -coated tubes. Serum Leptin concentration were measured by Leptin (sandwich ELISA. In menstruating women, serum leptin increased from 13.15+/-1.60 ng/ml in the early follicular phase to 16.57+/-1.68 ng/ml (P<0.01 at the luteal phase. Serum leptin concentration negatively correlated with LH and progesterone (P<0.05. Mean serum leptin levels correlated with body mass index (BMI (r =0.78, P<0.001.

  1. Downregulation of leptin and resistin expression in blood following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Claire; Hindle, A Katharine; Fu, Sidney; Brody, Fredrick

    2011-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) resolves rapidly after bariatric surgery, even before substantial weight is lost. However, the molecular pathways underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Microarray data has shown that numerous genes are differentially expressed in blood after bariatric surgery, including resistin and leptin. Resistin and leptin are circulating hormones derived from adipose tissue, which are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. This study examined expression of these genes before and after bariatric surgery in diabetic and nondiabetic obese patients. The study included 16 obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery, either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or adjustable gastric banding. Eight patients had T2D. Preoperative blood samples were collected in PAXgene tubes to stabilize mRNA. Postoperative samples were collected 3 months after surgery. Total RNA was isolated and cDNA was synthesized. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to quantify mRNA. Results were analyzed using Student's t test with a P<0.05 considered significant. Postoperatively, five diabetic patients had discontinued hypoglycemic medications and one showed improved glycemic control. Both leptin and resistin mRNA levels were elevated in the diabetic group but decreased after surgery to levels near those of the nondiabetic group. Greater downregulation of resistin and leptin expression occurred in patients who lost more excess body weight (EBW), while patients who lost less than 10% EBW had a mean increase in expression of the two genes. Downregulation of both genes was more pronounced after RYGB compared to gastric banding. Downregulation of resistin and leptin gene expression after bariatric surgery may play a role in normalizing obesity-associated insulin resistance. Interestingly, downregulation is greater after RYGB and in patients who lose a greater proportion of EBW. Targeted therapies for obesity and diabetes may be developed by understanding the pathways by which these

  2. Neonatal exposure to leptin augments diet-induced obesity in leptin-deficient Ob/Ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Shigeo; Itoh, Hiroaki; Sagawa, Norimasa; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Nakao, Kazuwa; Kawamura, Makoto; Mogami, Haruta; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Shingo

    2008-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence has revealed that undernutrition in utero is closely associated with obesity and related detrimental metabolic sequelae in adulthood. Recently, using a wild-type (wt) mouse model in which offspring were exposed to intrauterine undernutrition (UN offspring), we reported that the premature leptin surge during neonatal growth promotes lifelong changes in energy regulating circuitry in the hypothalamus, thus playing an important role in the development of pronounced obesity on a high-fat diet (HFD) in adulthood. Here, we further evaluate the essential involvement of leptin in the developmental origins of obesity using leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. We assessed the progression of obesity on an HFD in adult leptin-deficient ob/ob male mice that were exposed to intrauterine undernutrition by maternal food restriction (ob/ob UN offspring) or to leptin treatment during the neonatal period; this treatment is comparable to the premature leptin surge observed in the wt-UN offspring. On an HFD, the body weight of the male ob/ob UN offspring paralleled that of the ob/ob offspring exposed to normal intrauterine nutrition (ob/ob NN offspring). In contrast, early exposure to leptin in the ob/ob NN offspring during early neonatal growth reproduced the development of pronounced obesity on an HFD in adulthood. The presence of leptin and associated energy regulation are indispensable in the acceleration of obesity on an HFD caused by undernutrition in utero. The premature leptin surge plays an essential role in the developmental origins of obesity as a programming signal during the early neonatal period.

  3. The role of leptin in human lipid and glucose metabolism: the effects of acute recombinant human leptin infusion in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    Obese and lean humans treated with leptin have not experienced convincing weight-loss results compared with the dramatic weight losses observed in obese rodents.......Obese and lean humans treated with leptin have not experienced convincing weight-loss results compared with the dramatic weight losses observed in obese rodents....

  4. Leptin promoter variant G2548A is associated with serum leptin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured by standard methods and levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDLC, LDLC, and leptin were determined. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment ...

  5. Leptin signaling molecular actions and drug target in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang N

    2014-11-01

    leptin and Ob-R in cancer cells compared to normal cells, makes leptin an ideal drug target for the prevention and treatment of HCC, especially in obese patients. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, leptin, leptin antagonist, leptin signaling, tumor angiogenesis, drug target

  6. Circulating leptin and thyroid dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Belsing, Tina; Brabant, Georg; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    the fields of nutrition, metabolism and endocrinology. Leptin is accepted as an adipose signal, and even though the underlying mechanisms are not fully clarified, leptin, in addition to the thyroid hormones, is believed to be involved in regulation during the switch from the fed to the starved state....... It is not clear whether leptin and the melanocortin pathways interact with the thyroid axis under physiological conditions other than during starvation or in response to severe illness, both states in which the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis may be severely suppressed. In addition to the suggested central...... relationship between leptin and thyroid hormones, there might also be a peripheral relationship although this effect is not clear. Both thyroid hormones and leptin might be involved in the adaptive thermogenesis through mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and heat production because both thyroxine...

  7. Leptin and adiponectin DNA methylation levels in adipose tissues and blood cells are associated with BMI, waist girth and LDL-cholesterol levels in severely obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Andrée-Anne; Légaré, Cécilia; Biron, Simon; Lescelleur, Odette; Biertho, Laurent; Marceau, Simon; Tchernof, André; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Hivert, Marie-France; Bouchard, Luigi

    2015-05-01

    Leptin (LEP) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) genes encode adipokines that are mainly secreted by adipose tissues, involved in energy balance and suspected to play a role in the pathways linking adiposity to impaired glucose and insulin homeostasis. We have thus hypothesized that LEP and ADIPOQ DNA methylation changes might be involved in obesity development and its related complications. The objective of this study was to assess whether LEP and ADIPOQ DNA methylation levels measured in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissues (VAT) are associated with anthropometric measures and metabolic profile in severely obese men and women. These analyses were repeated with DNA methylation profiles from blood cells obtained from the same individuals to determine whether they showed similarities. Paired SAT, VAT and blood samples were obtained from 73 severely obese patients undergoing a bioliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. LEP and ADIPOQ DNA methylation and mRNA levels were quantified using bisulfite-pyrosequencing and qRT-PCR respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficients were computed to determine the associations between LEP and ADIPOQ DNA methylation levels, anthropometric measures and metabolic profile. DNA methylation levels at the ADIPOQ gene locus in SAT was positively associated with BMI and waist girth whereas LEP DNA methylation levels in blood cells were negatively associated with body mass index (BMI). Fasting LDL-C levels were found to be positively correlated with DNA methylation levels at LEP-CpG11 and -CpG17 in blood and SAT and with ADIPOQ DNA methylation levels in SAT (CpGE1 and CpGE3) and VAT (CpGE1). These results confirm that LEP and ADIPOQ epigenetic profiles are associated with obesity. We also report associations between LDL-C levels and both LEP and ADIPOQ DNA methylation levels suggesting that LDL-C might regulate their epigenetic profiles in adipose tissues. Furthermore, similar correlations were observed between LDL-C and LEP blood

  8. Fasting leptin and glucose in normal weight, over weight and obese men and women diabetes patients with and without clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen; Sheikh, Shehnaz; Fawad, Asher; Haleem, Muhammad A

    2017-06-01

    A large number of diabetes patients suffer from major depression and are at high risk of mortality. In view of a role of leptin in diabetes, depression and energy homeostasis, the present study concerns circulating levels of leptin in different BMI groups of un-depressed and depressed diabetes patients. Six hundred thirty male and female patients with a primary diagnosis of diabetes were grouped according to BMI and with or without clinical symptoms of depression. Age matched healthy, normal weight male and female volunteers without clinical symptoms of depression or diabetes were taken as controls. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast of 12 h. Serum was stored for the determination of leptin and glucose. We found that there were more female than male diabetes patients with comorbid depression. Fasting leptin was higher in normal weight non-diabetes women than men; but comparable in normal weight men and women diabetes patients. Fasting glucose levels were higher in diabetes than non diabetes groups; values were comparable in men and women. Depression was associated with a decrease and increase in leptin respectively in normal-overweight and obese men and women diabetes patients. Glucose levels were also higher in obese depressed than un-depressed diabetes patients. The results suggested that the female gender is at greater risk to comorbid diabetes with depression. Adipo-insular axis plays an important role in diabetes, associated depression and in the greater risk of the female gender to comorbid diabetes with depression.

  9. The molecular mechanism of leptin secretion and expression induced by aristolochic acid in kidney fibroblast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chieh Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin is a peptide hormone playing pivotal role in regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Growing evidence has suggested the pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic properties of leptin. In addition, patients with renal fibrosis have higher level of plasma leptin, which was due to the increased leptin production. Aristolochic acid (AA is a botanical toxin characterized to associate with the development of renal fibrosis including tubulointerstitial fibrosis. However, whether leptin is upregulated to participate in AA-induced kidney fibrosis remain completely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, leptin expression was increased by sublethal dose of AA in kidney fibroblast NRK49f determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. Data from real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that leptin was upregulated by AA at transcriptional level. DNA binding activity of CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (C/EBP α, one of the transcription factors for leptin gene, was enhanced in DNA affinity precipitation assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Knockdown of C/EBP α expression by small interfering RNA markedly reduced AA-induced leptin expression. Moreover, AA promoted Akt interaction with p-PDK1, and increased phosphorylated activation of Akt. Akt knockdown, and inhibition of Akt signaling by LY294002 and mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduced leptin expression. Furthermore, treatment of LY294002 or rapamycin significantly suppressed AA-induced C/EBP α DNA-binding activity. These results suggest that Akt and C/EBP α activation were involved in AA-regulated leptin expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate the first that AA could induce secretion and expression of fibrogenic leptin in kidney fibroblasts, which reveal potential involvement of leptin in the progression of kidney fibrosis in aristolochic acid nephropathy.

  10. Clinical value of combined determining leptin, T and E2 in male teenager obesity patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Zhenlian; Lv Tongqin; Wu Qiuhua

    2006-01-01

    To study clinical significance of combined detection of leptin, T and E 2 for teenager obesity patients, levels of leptin, T and E 2 in male teenagers obesity patients and male adult obesity patients were determined by RIA. The result showed that in all obesity patients, the levels of leptin and E 2 were much higher than those in normal controls and T was lower than that in normal controls. After treatment, leptin and E 2 were decreased and T was increased significantly in teenager obesity patients, but only leptin was decreased in adult obesity patients. All results indicate that combined detection of leptin, T and E 2 could find endocrine and metabolism disorder of obese teenagers at early stage, instituting prevention and treatment without delay.(authors)

  11. Association of serum leptin with serum C-reactive protein in hemodialysis patients

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    Rastegari Ebrahim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent investigations have shown that leptin is cleared principally by the kidney. Objectives: To examine whether and how in patients on hemodialysis the level of C-reactive protein level correlate with serum leptin. Patients and Methods: The total patients were 36. The mean patients’ age were 46 (16 years. The median length of the time patients were on hemodialysis were 19 months. Results: The mean serum C-reactive protein was 8.7 (6.6 mg/l (median: 8 mg/l. The mean serum leptin was 9.4 (14 ng/ml (median: 5.75 ng/ml. In this study we found a significant inverse correlation of serum leptin with serum C-reactive protein (r= -0.57, p= 0.041 was seen. Conclusion: Our data supports, the positive effect of leptin on nutrition and support the theory of protective effects (reverse epidemiology of leptin in hemodialysis patients.

  12. Beneficial Effect of Leptin on Spatial Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohsen Ghasemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which may be accompanied by cognitive impairments. The expression of the obesity gene (ob is decreased in insulin-deficient diabetic animals and increased after the administration of insulin or leptin. Plasma leptin levels are reduced in the streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, the deleterious effects of diabetes on memory may be due to the reduction of leptin. Aims: Investigate the effect of subcutaneous injection of leptin on spatial learning and memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The rats were divided into three groups: 1- control, 2- diabetic, and 3- diabetic-leptin. Diabetes was induced in groups 2 and 3 by STZ injection (55 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p. The animals received leptin (0.1 mg/kg or saline subcutaneously (s.c for 10 days before behavioral studies. Then, they were examined in the Morris water maze over 3 blocks after 3 days of the last injection of leptin. Results: The travelled path length and time spent to reach the platform significantly increased in the diabetic group (p<0.001 and decreased with leptin treatment (p<0.01 & p<0.001 respectively; also, a significant increase in path length and time was observed between the diabetic-leptin group and the diabetic group (p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively in the probe test. Conclusion: Leptin can exert positive effects on memory impairments in diabetic rats.

  13. The leptin system and its expression at different nutritional and pregnant stages in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixian Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an essential hormone for the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in vertebrate animals. To better understand the physiological roles of leptin in nutrient regulation in paternal ovoviviparous fish (family Syngnathidae, the present study cloned the full-length of leptin-a and leptin receptor (lepr genes in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus. Results showed that there was a 576-bp intron between two exons in leptin-a gene but no leptin-b gene in seahorse. Although the primary amino acid sequence conservation of seahorse leptin-a was very low, the 3-D structure modeling of seahorse leptin-a revealed strong conservation of tertiary structure with other vertebrates. Seahorse leptin-a mRNA was highly expressed in brain, whereas lepr mRNA was mainly expressed in ovary and gill. Interestingly, both leptin-a and lepr mRNA were expressed in the brood pouch of male seahorse, suggesting the leptin system plays a role during the male pregnancy. Physiological experiments showed that the expression of hepatic leptin-a and lepr mRNA in unfed seahorses was significantly higher than that in those fed 100%, as well as 60%, of their food during the fasting stage, showing that seahorse might initiate the leptin system to regulate its energy metabolism while starving. Moreover, the expression of leptin-a in the brood pouch of pregnant seahorse was significantly upregulated compared with non-pregnant seahorse, whereas the expression of lepr was downregulated, suggesting that the leptin system might be involved in the male pregnancy. In conclusion, the leptin system plays a role in the energy metabolism and food intake, and might provide new insights into molecular regulation of male pregnancy in seahorse.

  14. Leptin receptor (Ob-R) mRNA expression and serum leptin concentration in patients with colorectal and metastatic colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkasap, N.; Ozkurt, M.; Erkasap, S.; Yasar, F.; Uzuner, K.; Ihtiyar, E.; Uslu, S.; Kara, M.; Bolluk, O.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin on the progression of colorectal carcinoma to metastatic disease by analyzing the serum leptin concentration and Ob-R gene expression in colon cancer tissues. Tissue samples were obtained from 31 patients who underwent surgical resection for colon (18 cases) and metastatic colon (13 cases) cancer. Serum leptin concentration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Ob-R mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for both groups. ELISA data were analyzed by the Student t-test and RT-PCR data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. RT-PCR results demonstrated that mRNA expression of Ob-R in human metastatic colorectal cancer was higher than in local colorectal cancer tissues. On the other hand, mean serum leptin concentration was significantly higher in local colorectal cancer patients compared to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The results of the present study suggest a role for leptin in the progression of colon cancer to metastatic disease without weight loss. In other words, significantly increased Ob-R mRNA expression and decreased serum leptin concentration in patients with metastatic colon cancer indicate that sensitization to leptin activity may be a major indicator of metastasis to the colon tissue and the determination of leptin concentration and leptin gene expression may be used to aid the diagnosis

  15. Leptin and NGF in saliva of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Castillo, Candela; Ceron, Jose J; Martinez-Subiela, Silvia; Tecles, Fernando; López-Jornet, Pia

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to measure salivary levels of leptin and nerve growth factor (NGF) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and to compare with healthy subjects. In addition, markers previously evaluated in diabetes, including insulin, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and markers of inflammation interleukin ([IL]-1b, IL-6, IL-8, Tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]), were also measured in saliva to evaluate possible relationship of these markers with the new analytes evaluated in the study. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected by passive drooling from a total of 65 individuals (34 controls and 31 with T2D) and used for leptin, NGF, HGF, MCP-1, insulin, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α determination. Salivary leptin was 2.1 higher in T2D than in healthy controls (P<.001), while no statistically significant differences were detected between the two groups in salivary concentrations of NGF. Salivary IL-6, TNF-α, insulin, and MCP-1 were higher in DM in comparison with controls (P<.05 in all cases). Leptin showed positive significant correlations with MCP-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and insulin, while NGF positively correlated with HGF, MCP-1, IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNF-α. This pilot study indicates that salivary leptin is increased in patients with T2D being positively correlated with insulin and pro-inflammatory cytokines and should be further explored as a non-invasive biomarker of T2D. In addition, salivary NGF was positively correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and further studies should be performed to evaluate whether it could be useful to detect diabetic neuropathy in T2D patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Interleukin-17A increases leptin production in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Minsoo

    2012-03-01

    Lineage commitment of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) to adipocytes or osteoblasts has been suggested as a model system to study the relationship between type II diabetes and abnormal bone metabolism. Leptin and IL-17A inhibit adipogenesis whereas they promote osteogenesis in MSCs. Due to pathophysiologic roles of IL-17A in human metabolic diseases and bone metabolism, it was evaluated whether IL-17A-dependent inverse regulation on adipogenesis and osteogenesis was related to endogenous leptin production in hBM-MSCs. In the analysis of adiponectin and leptin secretion profiles of hBM-MSCs in response to various combinations of differentiation inducing factors, it was found that dexamethasone, a common molecule used for both adipogenesis and osteogenesis, increased leptin production in hBM-MSCs. Importantly, the level of leptin production during osteogenesis in hBM-MSCs was higher than that during adipogenesis, implicating a significant leptin production in extra-adipose tissues. IL-17A increased leptin production in hBM-MSCs and also under the condition of osteogenesis. In spite of direct inhibition on adipogenesis, IL-17A up-regulated leptin production in hBM-MSC-derived adipocytes. Anti-leptin antibody treatment partially antagonized the IL-17A dependent inhibition of adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs, suggesting a role of leptin in mediating the inverse regulation of IL-17A on osteogenesis and adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs. Therefore, the IL-17A-induced leptin production may provide a key clue to understand a molecular mechanism on the lineage commitment of hBM-MSCs into adipocytes or osteoblasts. In addition, leptin production in extra-adipose tissues like MSCs and osteoblasts should be considered in future studies on leptin-associated human diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Leptin as a critical regulator of hepatocellular carcinoma development through modulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanou Nikolaos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous epidemiological studies have documented that obesity is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological actions regulated by leptin, the obesity biomarker molecule, and its receptors in HCC and the correlation between leptin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT, a known mediator of cellular immortalization. Methods We investigated the relationship between leptin, leptin receptors and hTERT mRNA expression in HCC and healthy liver tissue samples. In HepG2 cells, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to study signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3 and myc/mad/max transcription factors downstream of leptin which could be responsible for hTERT regulation. Flow cytometry was used for evaluation of cell cycle modifications and MMP1, 9 and 13 expression after treatment of HepG2 cells with leptin. Blocking of leptin's expression was achieved using siRNA against leptin and transfection with liposomes. Results We showed, for the first time, that leptin's expression is highly correlated with hTERT expression levels in HCC liver tissues. We also demonstrated in HepG2 cells that leptin-induced up-regulation of hTERT and TA was mediated through binding of STAT3 and Myc/Max/Mad network proteins on hTERT promoter. We also found that leptin could affect hepatocellular carcinoma progression and invasion through its interaction with cytokines and matrix mettaloproteinases (MMPs in the tumorigenic microenvironment. Furthermore, we showed that histone modification contributes to leptin's gene regulation in HCC. Conclusions We propose that leptin is a key regulator of the malignant properties of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through modulation of hTERT, a critical player of oncogenesis.

  18. Reference values for serum leptin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Louise Hedley, Paula; Esmann Fonvig, Cilius; Stjernholm, Theresa; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-11-01

    Adipokines are biologically active, low-molecular weight peptides, which play a major role in metabolic homeostasis in humans. Leptin has gained increasing attention in pediatrics as a biomarker for various metabolic pathologies. Yet, its usefulness is hampered by the relative lack of reference values from pediatric settings. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate serum concentrations of leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and free leptin index (FLI) in healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-18 years and subsequently to establish reference intervals across sex and age groups. A total of 1193 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (730 girls, 463 boys) aged 6-18 years (median 11.9) were examined by trained medical staff. Serum leptin and sOB-R concentrations in venous fasting blood samples were quantitated by immunoassay. Percentile curves of leptin, sOB-R, and free leptin index were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Significant age and sex-dependent differences in circulating leptin levels were found. In boys, the median leptin concentration for all ages combined was 3.35 μg/L (95%-interval: 0.71-22.47) and in girls, it was 9.89 ng/L (95%-interval: 2.06-41.49). For SOB-R, no sex-specific difference was found, and the median sOB-R concentration was 8.24 μg/L (IQR: 3.58-23.74; range: < 1.56-744.15). We demonstrated an age-dependent correlation with both serum leptin concentration and free leptin index with a gradual and significant increase in girls throughout childhood and adolescence and a significantly higher leptin concentration and free leptin index bell-shaped peak in early adolescence in boys.

  19. Leptin as a critical regulator of hepatocellular carcinoma development through modulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanou, Nikolaos; Papanikolaou, Vassilis; Furukawa, Yoichi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tsezou, Aspasia

    2010-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have documented that obesity is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the biological actions regulated by leptin, the obesity biomarker molecule, and its receptors in HCC and the correlation between leptin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a known mediator of cellular immortalization. We investigated the relationship between leptin, leptin receptors and hTERT mRNA expression in HCC and healthy liver tissue samples. In HepG2 cells, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to study signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and myc/mad/max transcription factors downstream of leptin which could be responsible for hTERT regulation. Flow cytometry was used for evaluation of cell cycle modifications and MMP1, 9 and 13 expression after treatment of HepG2 cells with leptin. Blocking of leptin's expression was achieved using siRNA against leptin and transfection with liposomes. We showed, for the first time, that leptin's expression is highly correlated with hTERT expression levels in HCC liver tissues. We also demonstrated in HepG2 cells that leptin-induced up-regulation of hTERT and TA was mediated through binding of STAT3 and Myc/Max/Mad network proteins on hTERT promoter. We also found that leptin could affect hepatocellular carcinoma progression and invasion through its interaction with cytokines and matrix mettaloproteinases (MMPs) in the tumorigenic microenvironment. Furthermore, we showed that histone modification contributes to leptin's gene regulation in HCC. We propose that leptin is a key regulator of the malignant properties of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through modulation of hTERT, a critical player of oncogenesis

  20. Effects of TNF-alpha and leptin on weight loss in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyeong-Cheol; Chung, Jin Hong; Lee, Kwan Ho

    2007-12-01

    Weight loss is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the mechanisms of this weight loss are still unclear. Sixty male patients with stable COPD and 45 healthy male controls participated in this study. The COPD patients were divided into two groups, that is, the emphysema and chronic bronchitis groups, by the transfer coefficient of carbon monoxide. The body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), plasma leptin levels and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured in all the study participants. The difference and correlation of these parameters were investigated between the two groups. Emphysematous patients were characterized by a lower body mass index (BMI) and fat-mass (FM) compared with the chronic bronchitis patients (p leptin levels, as corrected for the FM, were not different between the COPD patients and healthy controls (78.3 +/- 30.9 pg/mL/kg vs. 70.9 +/- 17.3 pg/mL/kg, respectively), and the plasma leptin levels, as adjusted for the FM, were also not different between the two groups of COPD patients. In the chronic bronchitis patients, the plasma leptin concentration was correlated with the BMI (r = 0.866, p COPD patients than those in the controls, but there was no statistical difference (10.7 +/- 18.6 pg/mL vs. 7.2 x 3.5 pg/mL, respectively, p0.05). The leptin concentration was well correlated with the BMI and %FM in the patients with chronic bronchitis and the leptin concentration was only correlated with the %FM (r = 0.450, p = 0.027) in emphysema patients. There was no correlation between the plasma leptin concentration, as adjusted for the fat mass, and the activity of the TNF-alpha system. The interaction of leptin and the activity of the TNF-alpha system in the pathogenesis of tissue depletion may not play an important role in chronic stable COPD patients.

  1. Studies on the relationship between leptin secretion and several pregnancy-related hormones during pregnancy in the golden hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Yang Liguo; Gen Watanabe; Kazuyoshi Taya

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationships between leptin secretion and several pregnancy related hormones, the body weight as well as food intaken in the golden hamster during pregnancy and early lactation. Methods: 100 golden hamsters were mated and divided into 16 groups. Blood specimens were taken at 11:00 daily and were determined for plasma leptin, growth hormone (GH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone estradiol and inhibin with RIA. Relationships between leptin level and food intake as well as material body weight were also noted. Results: A plasma leptin peak level occurred on day 12 of the pregnancy. Leptin levels were significantly correlated with levels of gonadal hormones but not with pituitary hormones. Food intake and material total body weight (including the fetus) bore no significant correlationship with plasma leptin throughout the whole pregnancy stage. However, if the fetus weight was subtracted, the net maternal body weight would be significantly correlated with the leptin concentration. Conclusion: These results suggest that leptin-resistance may exits in the golden hamster during pregnancy. Some pregnancy-related hormones, especially gonadal hormones, have regulatory effect on the secretion of leptin. Positive correlation between leptin and net maternal body weight suggests that leptin is still a signal of the body weight to the central nerves system during pregnancy

  2. Fatty acid-binding protein 2 Ala54Thr genotype is associated with insulin resistance and leptin levels changes after a high monounsaturated fat diet in obese non-diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Gonzalez Sagrado, M; Conde, R

    2013-06-01

    It has been found that the expression of fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) mRNA is under dietary control. This polymorphism was associated with high insulin resistance, and fasting insulin concentrations. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Thr54 polymorphism in the FABP2 gene on metabolic response, weight loss and serum adipokine levels secondary to a high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet. A sample of 122 obese patients was analyzed in a prospective way. The hypocaloric diet had 1342 kcal, 46.6% of carbohydrates, 34.1% of lipids and 19.2% of proteins, with a 67.5% of monounsaturated fats, and lasted 3 months. Fifty-five patients (45.1%) had the genotype Ala54/Ala54 (wild group) and 67 (64.9%) patients a mutant genotype, Ala54/Thr54 (54 patients, 44.3%) or Thr54/Thr54 (13 patients, 10.7%). In wild group, body mass index (-1.5±1.2 kg/m2), weight (-4.1±3.6 kg), fat mass (-3.6±3.3 kg), waist circumference (-4.9±2.9 cm), insulin (-1.7±3.6 mUI/l), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-0.6±1.8 units) and leptin levels decreased (-7.6±7.1 ng/ml). In mutant group, anthropometric parameters improved, without changes in biochemical parameters. Carriers of Thr54 allele have a different response than wild type obese, with a lack of decrease of insulin levels, leptin levels and HOMA-IR.

  3. A High-Fructose-High-Coconut Oil Diet Induces Dysregulating Expressions of Hippocampal Leptin and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase, and Spatial Memory Deficits in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Shen, Chu-Fu; Hsu, Tsui-Han; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-06-16

    We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group ( n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups. However, hippocampal leptin expression and leptin receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower, while SCD1 mRNA was significantly higher in rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet than in rats fed the other experimental diets. In addition, the coconut oil group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant on the probe test in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet for 20 weeks were prone to develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These metabolic consequences may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory impairment, accompanied by a lower central leptin level, and a higher SCD1 gene expression in the brain.

  4. Leptin, cortisol and distinct concurrent training sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, G; Dantas, E; Biehl, C; de Castro e Silva, H; Montano, M A E; de Mello, D B

    2012-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of distinct concurrent training sequences on serum leptin and cortisol levels, 10 subjects (27.1±4.8 years, body mass index 25.38±0.09) were submitted to a control session, concurrent training 1 and concurrent training 2. Samples of leptin and cortisol were collected. Concurrent training 1 consisted of indoor cycling followed by strength training and concurrent training 2 of strength training followed by indoor cycling. No exercises were performed at the control session. Blood was collected once again to verify the same variables. Shapiro-Wilk, 2-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests were used. There was a reduction in leptin levels after concurrent training 1 (Δ%= - 16.04; p=0.05) and concurrent training 2 (Δ%= - 8.54; p=0.02). Cortisol decreased after concurrent training 1 (Δ%= - 26.32; p=0.02) and concurrent training 2 (Δ%= - 33.57; p=0.05). There was a high and significant correlation between blood variables only in CS (lep PRE X cort PRE and cort POST: r= - 0.80 and r= - 0.81; lep POST X cort PRE and cort POST: r= - 0.62 and r= - 0.62). Concurrent training promoted a reduction in leptin and cortisol levels irrespective of sequence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Leptin, not adiponectin, predicts hypertension in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla Lundegaard; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    of hypertension have been directly compared. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin and new-onset hypertension in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS). METHODS: In a prospective study design, we examined new-onset hypertension in 620...... women and 300 men who were normotensive in the third CCHS examination, which was performed in 1991-1994. RESULTS: Between the third and the fourth CCHS examination, which was performed in 2001-2003, 254 had developed hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mm Hg, or diastolic...... ratio of 1.02 (0.84-1.24; P = 0.83) for 1 s.d. higher level of log-transformed adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: In the CCHS, leptin, but not adiponectin, was a significant independent predictor of new-onset hypertension....

  6. Leptin potentiates GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing rodent hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien eGuimond

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that leptin is not only a hormone regulating energy homeostasis but also a neurotrophic factor impacting a number of brain regions, including the hippocampus. Although leptin promotes the development of GABAergic transmission in the hypothalamus, little is known about its action on the GABAergic system in the hippocampus. Here we show that leptin modulates GABAergic transmission onto developing CA3 pyramidal cells of newborn rats. Specifically, leptin induces a long-lasting potentiation (LLP-GABAA of miniature GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic current (GABAA-PSC frequency. Leptin also increases the amplitude of evoked GABAA-PSCs in a subset of neurons along with a decrease in the coefficient of variation and no change in the paired-pulse ratio, pointing to an increased recruitment of functional synapses. Adding pharmacological blockers to the recording pipette showed that the leptin-induced LLP-GABAA requires postsynaptic calcium released from internal stores, as well as postsynaptic MAPK/ERK kinases 1 and/or 2 (MEK1/2, phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K and calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase (CaMKK. Finally, study of CA3 pyramidal cells in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice revealed a reduction in the basal frequency of miniature GABAA-PSCs compared to wild type littermates. In addition, presynaptic GAD65 immunostaining was reduced in the CA3 stratum pyramidale of mutant animals, both results converging to suggest a decreased number of functional GABAergic synapses in ob/ob mice. Overall, these results show that leptin potentiates and promotes the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing hippocampus likely via an increase in the number of functional synapses, and provide insights into the intracellular pathways mediating this effect. This study further extends the scope of leptin’s neurotrophic action to a key regulator of hippocampal development and function, namely GABAergic transmission.

  7. Leptin as regulator of pulmonary immune responses: involvement in respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooy, Juanita H J; Ubags, Niki D J; Brusselle, Guy G; Tavernier, Jan; Suratt, Benjamin T; Joos, Guy F; Wouters, Emiel F M; Bracke, Ken R

    2013-08-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone, recognized as a critical mediator of the balance between food intake and energy expenditure by signalling through its functional receptor (Ob-Rb) in the hypothalamus. Structurally, leptin belongs to the long-chain helical cytokine family, and is now known to have pleiotropic functions in both innate and adaptive immunity. The presence of the functional leptin receptor in the lung together with evidence of increased airspace leptin levels arising during pulmonary inflammation, suggests an important role for leptin in lung development, respiratory immune responses and eventually pathogenesis of inflammatory respiratory diseases. The purpose of this article is to review our current understanding of leptin and its functional role on the different resident cell types of the lung in health as well as in the context of three major respiratory conditions being chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and pneumonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. HER2 induces expression of leptin in human breast epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aree Moon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A close association between the obesity hormone leptin andbreast cancer progression has been suggested. The presentstudy investigated the molecular mechanism for enhancedleptin expression in breast cancer cells and its functionalsignificance in breast cancer aggressiveness. We examinedwhether leptin expression level is affected by the oncoproteinhuman epidermal growth factor receptor2 (HER2, which isoverexpressed in ∼30% of breast tumors. Here, we report, forthe first time, that HER2 induces transcriptional activation ofleptin in MCF10A human breast epithelial cells. We alsoshowed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalingwas involved in leptin expression induced by HER2. Weshowed a crucial role of leptin in the invasiveness ofHER2-MCF10A cells using an siRNA molecule targeting leptin.Taken together, the results indicate a molecular link betweenHER2 and leptin, providing supporting evidence that leptinrepresents a target for breast cancer therapy.

  9. Effects of Acute Exercise and Chronic Exercise on the Liver Leptin-AMPK-ACC Signaling Pathway in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejie Yi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effects of acute and chronic exercise on glucose and lipid metabolism in liver of rats with type 2 diabetes caused by a high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ. Methods. Animals were classified into control (CON, diabetes (DC, diabetic chronic exercise (DCE, and diabetic acute exercise (DAE groups. Results. Compared to CON, the leptin levels in serum and liver and ACC phosphorylation were significantly higher in DC, but the levels of liver leptin receptor, AMPKα1/2, AMPKα1, and ACC proteins expression and phosphorylation were significantly lower in DC. In addition, the levels of liver glycogen reduced significantly, and the levels of TG and FFA increased significantly in DC compared to CON. Compared to DC, the levels of liver AMPKα1/2, AMPKα2, AMPKα1, and ACC phosphorylation significantly increased in DCE and DAE. However, significant increase of the level of liver leptin receptor and glycogen as well as significant decrease of the level of TG and FFA were observed only in DEC. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that both acute and chronic exercise indirectly activated the leptin-AMPK-ACC signaling pathway and increased insulin sensitivity in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats. However, only chronic and long-term exercise improved glucose and lipid metabolism of the liver.

  10. [Relationship between leptin and body mass and metabolic syndrome in an adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria do Carmo; Lima Faleiro, Luís; Fonseca, Aidil

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the relationship between leptin and obesity expressed as body mass index (BMI) and certain components of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in an adult population. The study included 103 subjects, 42 men and 61 women, aged over 30 years, clinically defined as non-diabetic but with personal or family history of cardiovascular disease. All subjects underwent fasting blood measurements of leptin, insulin, glucose, glucose after ingestion of 75g glucose, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, and insulin resistance (IR) and BMI were calculated. BMI as an index of overall adiposity was strongly associated with serum leptin. BMI rose as serum leptin levels increased from the first to the third tertile; the correlation between leptin and BMI was strong, r=0.524 in men and r=0.603 in women, with high statistical significance (pcorrelations between leptin and IR, and leptin and insulinemia, were strong in both sexes. With regard to MS components, increased serum levels of the study variables were observed as leptin concentrations rose from the first to the third tertile (with the exception of HDL cholesterol, which decreased). Elevated serum leptin, particularly in obese individuals, should be taken as a warning sign of energy imbalance, poor diet, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, or changes in other metabolic risk factors that are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Leptin increases skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase and postprandial lipid metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, William T; Stob, Nicole R; Ammon, Stefen; Levin, Nancy; Eckel, Robert H

    2011-03-01

    The ability of leptin to preserve lean tissue during weight loss may be in part due to differences in nutrient partitioning. Because lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a key role in partitioning lipid nutrients, this study was conducted to test the hypothesis that leptin would modify the tissue-specific regulation of LPL and result in increased lipid oxidation and decreased storage. The effects of daily intraperitoneal leptin injections (2 mg/kg body weight) over 2 weeks on LPL activity and postprandial lipid metabolism were tested in both wild-type (WT), leptin-deficient ob/ob obese mice and mice pair fed to the leptin-treated mice. On the experimental day, mice were given food by gavage, blood was drawn periodically, and adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were harvested for measurements of LPL activity at 240 minutes. After 2 weeks of leptin administration, skeletal muscle LPL (SMLPL) activity was increased in leptin-treated compared with pair-fed (P = .012) and WT (P = .002) mice. There was no effect of leptin or pair feeding on postprandial adipose tissue LPL activity. In ob/ob mice, leptin treatment normalized the decrease in postprandial free fatty acid concentration (P = .066). Leptin had no effect on either the area under the triglyceride (TG) excursion or the integrated area under the TG excursion in WT mice. In ob/ob mice, however, the TG excursion was lower in the leptin-treated than the pair-fed mice by area under the TG excursion (P = .012) and was lower than in the WT mice by integrated area under the TG excursion (P = .027). As expected, 2 weeks of leptin treatment decreased body weight in both the WT and ob/ob mice (-2.6% and -10.4%, respectively). Leptin treatment increased SMLPL, an effect that may have contributed to the leptin-induced weight loss. The leptin-induced decreased postprandial TG excursion in ob/ob mice suggests that leptin acts to augment clearance of postprandial TG-rich lipoprotein lipid and that this increase may in part be secondary

  12. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva

    2003-01-01

    .001). An inverse relation between BMD adjusted for body weight and serum leptin emerged in both the control group (r = -0.186; P multiple linear regression, fat mass, lean body mass, and occupational physical activity were positively associated...

  13. Leptin responses to bovine interferon- α and insulin in cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... IFN- α injection produced a rapid increase in glucose and insulin levels but leptin levels did not show any alteration after the injection. ... Insulin levels rapidly increased in the blood and consequently a significant decrease in blood glucose level was recorded.

  14. Circulating leptin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, N; Nakamura, H; Abe, S; Hino, T; Saito, H; Yuki, H; Kato, S; Tomoike, H

    1999-04-01

    Unexplained weight loss is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Since leptin, an obesity gene product, is known to play important roles in the control of body weight and energy expenditure, we investigated serum leptin levels, along with circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R55 and -R75) levels, in 31 patients with COPD and 15 age-matched healthy controls. The body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%fat) were significantly lower in the COPD patients than in the healthy controls (BMI = 18.1 +/- 2.7 kg/m2 versus 22.8 +/- 2.2 kg/m2 [mean +/- SD]; p leptin levels were significantly lower in the COPD patients than in the healthy controls (1.14 +/- 1.17 ng/ml versus 2.47 +/- 2.01 ng/ml; p COPD patients than in the healthy controls. Importantly, circulating leptin levels (log transformed) did correlate well with BMI and %fat, but not with TNF-alpha or with sTNF-R levels in the COPD patients. These data suggest that circulating leptin is independent of the TNF-alpha system and is regulated physiologically even in the presence of cachexia in patients with COPD.

  15. Serum adipocytokine levels in patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Uslu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Adipose tissue, besides its main function as an energy storage depot, is currently considered an endocrine organ that secretes several self-produced cytokines. Leptin and resistin play an important role in energy homeostasis, glucose, lipid metabolism and regulation of body weight. The aim of the current study was to determine the concentration of leptin and resistin in pre-operational and post-operational periods of patients diagnosed as colorectal cancer.Materials and methods: The body mass index (BMI and values of leptin and resistin in blood at diagnosis were measured in 12 colorectal cancer patients in pre- and post-operational periods and in 12 age- and sex-matched controls. Serum leptin and resistin concentrations were measured by ELISA method.Results: Decreased leptin (1.95±0.62 ng/ml and resistin (4.32±1.83 ng/ml levels were found in pre-operational group compared with the control group (leptin: 6.12±0.82 ng/ml; resistin: 10.75±1.46 ng/ml (p0.05.Conclusion: We conclude that serum concentration of leptin and resistin may have a role in patients with colorectal cancers. Further studies are needed to investigate the possible prognostic value of leptin and resistin in clinical practice of patients with colorectal cancers.

  16. The role of leptin in gastric cancer: Clinicopathologic features and molecular mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ho Soon, E-mail: hschoi96@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sun Young [Department of Internal Medicine, Healthcare Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Ki; Lee, Young Yiul; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Hahm, Joon Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Seung Sam [Pathology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Leptin and Ob-R are expressed in gastric adenoma and early and advanced cancer. • Leptin is more likely associated with differentiated gastric cancer or cardia cancer. • Leptin proliferates gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. - Abstract: Obesity is associated with certain types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, it is still unclear whether obesity-related cytokine, leptin, is implicated in gastric cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of leptin in gastric cancer. The expression of leptin and its receptor, Ob-R, was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and was compared in patients with gastric adenoma (n = 38), early gastric cancer (EGC) (n = 38), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) (n = 38), as a function of their clinicopathological characteristics. Gastric cancer cell lines were studied to investigate the effects of leptin on the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways using MTT assays, immunoblotting, and inhibition studies. Leptin was expressed in gastric adenomas (42.1%), EGCs (47.4%), and AGCs (43.4%). Ob-R expression tended to increase from gastric adenoma (2%), through EGC (8%), to AGC (18%). Leptin induced the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating STAT3 and ERK1/2 and up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Blocking Ob-R with pharmacological inhibitors and by RNAi decreased both the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 and the leptin-induced expression of VEGF. Leptin plays a role in gastric cancer by stimulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways.

  17. The role of leptin in gastric cancer: Clinicopathologic features and molecular mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Choi, Ho Soon; Yang, Sun Young; Park, Hyun Ki; Lee, Young Yiul; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Hahm, Joon Soo; Paik, Seung Sam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Leptin and Ob-R are expressed in gastric adenoma and early and advanced cancer. • Leptin is more likely associated with differentiated gastric cancer or cardia cancer. • Leptin proliferates gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. - Abstract: Obesity is associated with certain types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, it is still unclear whether obesity-related cytokine, leptin, is implicated in gastric cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of leptin in gastric cancer. The expression of leptin and its receptor, Ob-R, was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and was compared in patients with gastric adenoma (n = 38), early gastric cancer (EGC) (n = 38), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) (n = 38), as a function of their clinicopathological characteristics. Gastric cancer cell lines were studied to investigate the effects of leptin on the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways using MTT assays, immunoblotting, and inhibition studies. Leptin was expressed in gastric adenomas (42.1%), EGCs (47.4%), and AGCs (43.4%). Ob-R expression tended to increase from gastric adenoma (2%), through EGC (8%), to AGC (18%). Leptin induced the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating STAT3 and ERK1/2 and up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Blocking Ob-R with pharmacological inhibitors and by RNAi decreased both the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 and the leptin-induced expression of VEGF. Leptin plays a role in gastric cancer by stimulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways

  18. The cerebrospinal fluid/serum leptin ratio during pharmacological therapy for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Adriane Maria; Radominski, Rosana Bento; Suplicy, Henrique de Lacerda; De Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Niclewicz, Patricia Artigas; Boguszewski, Cesar Luiz

    2002-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum leptin ratio during pharmacological therapy for obesity with centrally and peripherally acting drugs. Thirty-one obese women (mean age, 32.3 +/- 10 yr; body mass index, 38.2 +/- 5.2 kg/m(2); body fat, 43.3 +/- 5.4%) were studied before and 2 months after a weight loss program consisting of a balanced diet (1200 kcal/d) plus drug therapy. The patients were randomly assigned into three study groups: group I, fenproporex 25 mg/d (n = 10); group II, sibutramine 10 mg/d (n = 10); and group III, orlistat 120 mg tid (n = 11). Body fat, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and serum and CSF concentrations of leptin were examined at baseline and 2 months after therapy. At baseline, clinical and biochemical characteristics of the groups were similar. All of the women lost weight, approximately 7.0% of their initial body weight, and the reduction was not different among the groups. Serum leptin fell significantly after 2 months in all groups, and the decline was proportional to the reduction in body fat, because leptin levels adjusted for body fat did not change after treatment. CSF leptin levels showed a significant decrease after 2 months in all groups, and this decline was higher on group III compared with group I (P = 0.006). After therapy, the CSF/serum leptin ratio did not change in group I (1.57 +/- 0.3 to 1.72 +/- 0.62%) and group II (1.78 +/- 1.01 to 1.69 +/- 1.27%), whereas it declined significantly in group III (1.65 +/- 0.43 to 1.09 +/- 0.47%; P obese women treated during 2 months with orlistat, whereas this ratio did not change in this period of time in obese women treated with fenproporex and sibutramine.

  19. Modeling the impact of growth and leptin deficits on the neuronal regulation of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrekera, Baiba; Roghair, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The risk of hypertension is increased by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth. In the search for modifiable etiologies for this life-threatening cardiovascular morbidity, a number of pathways have been investigated, including excessive glucocorticoid exposure, nutritional deficiency and aberration in sex hormone levels. As a neurotrophic hormone that is intimately involved in the cardiovascular regulation and whose levels are influenced by glucocorticoids, nutritional status and sex hormones, leptin has emerged as a putative etiologic and thus a therapeutic agent. As a product of maternal and late fetal adipocytes and the placenta, circulating leptin typically surges late in gestation and declines after delivery until the infant consumes sufficient leptin-containing breast milk or accrues sufficient leptin-secreting adipose tissue to reestablish the circulating levels. The leptin deficiency seen in IUGR infants is a multifactorial manifestation of placental insufficiency, exaggerated glucocorticoid exposure and fetal adipose deficit. The preterm infant suffers from the same cascade of events, including separation from the placenta, antenatal steroid exposure and persistently underdeveloped adipose depots. Preterm infants remain leptin deficient beyond term gestation, rendering them susceptible to neurodevelopmental impairment and subsequent cardiovascular dysregulation. This pathologic pathway is efficiently modeled by placing neonatal mice into atypically large litters, thereby recapitulating the perinatal growth restriction-adult hypertension phenotype. In this model, neonatal leptin supplementation restores the physiologic leptin surge, attenuates the leptin-triggered sympathetic activation in adulthood and prevents leptin- or stress-evoked hypertension. Further pathway interrogation and clinical translation are needed to fully test the therapeutic potential of perinatal leptin supplementation. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Suvarthi [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Kumar, Ashutosh [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Seth, Ratanesh Kumar [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Tokar, Erik J. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Kadiiska, Maria B. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Mason, Ronald P. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh, E-mail: schatt@mailbox.sc.edu [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-α levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ► BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ► BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ► Increased leptin mediates

  1. Light Modulates Leptin and Ghrelin in Sleep-Restricted Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana G. Figueiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic sleep restrictions cause a reduction in leptin and an increase in ghrelin, both of which are associated with hunger. Given that light/dark patterns are closely tied to sleep/wake patterns, we compared, in a within-subjects study, the impact of morning light exposures (60 lux of 633-nm [red], 532-nm [green], or 475-nm [blue] lights to dim light exposures on leptin and ghrelin concentrations after subjects experienced 5 consecutive days of both an 8-hour (baseline and a 5-hour sleep-restricted schedule. In morning dim light, 5-hour sleep restriction significantly reduced leptin concentrations compared to the baseline, 8-hour sleep/dim-light condition (1,32 = 2.9; =0.007. Compared to the 5-hour sleep/dim-light condition, the red, green, and blue morning light exposures significantly increased leptin concentrations (1,32 = 5.7; <0.0001, 1,32 = 3.6; =0.001, and 1,32 = 3.0; =0.005, resp.. Morning red light and green light exposures significantly decreased ghrelin concentrations (1,32 = 3.3; <0.003 and 1,32 = 2.2; =0.04, resp., but morning blue light exposures did not. This study is the first to demonstrate that morning light can modulate leptin and ghrelin concentrations, which could have an impact on reducing hunger that accompanies sleep deprivation.

  2. The Beneficial Effects of Leptin on REM Sleep Deprivation-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Fu; Su, Chun-Lin; Chang, Chih-Hua; Chen, Yu-Wen; Gean, Po-Wu

    2013-01-01

    Leptin, a 167 amino acid peptide, is synthesized predominantly in the adipose tissues and plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Recent studies indicate that leptin receptor is expressed with high levels in many brain regions that may regulate synaptic plasticity. Here we show that deprivation of rapid eye movement…

  3. Positive association of plasma leptin with sleep quality in obese type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Tomoe; Morioka, Tomoaki; Yoda, Koichiro; Toi, Norikazu; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Maruo, Saori; Yamazaki, Yuko; Kurajoh, Masafumi; Motoyama, Koka; Yamada, Shinsuke; Shoji, Tetsuo; Emoto, Masanori; Inaba, Masaaki

    2018-02-26

    Poor sleep quality is associated with obesity and diabetes. The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, was recently shown to underlie the link between abnormal sleep and obesity. We aimed to investigate the association between leptin and sleep quality in type 2 diabetes patients. In the present cross-sectional study, we studied 182 type 2 diabetes patients, among whom 113 were diagnosed with obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 ). Fasting plasma leptin levels were measured, and sleep architecture was assessed using single-channel electroencephalography. Using unadjusted analyses, the obese type 2 diabetes patients, but not their non-obese counterparts, showed a positive correlation between plasma leptin levels and a parameter for deep sleep assessed by delta power during the first sleep cycle. Multivariate analysis showed that plasma leptin levels were positively associated with delta power, but not with the total sleep time, after adjusting for potential confounders including age, body mass index and the apnea-hypopnea index, in the obesity group. However, neither delta power nor total sleep time was associated with leptin in the non-obesity group. Plasma leptin levels are independently associated with sleep quality in obese, but not in non-obese, type 2 diabetes patients. The present study indicates a favorable relationship between leptin and sleep quality in obese type 2 diabetes patients. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Is fasting leptin associated with insulin resistance among nondiabetic individuals? The Miami Community Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donahue, R P; Prineas, R J; Donahue, R D

    1999-01-01

    Whether serum leptin levels are associated with insulin resistance independent of the effects of hyperinsulinemia and adiposity is an important unanswered question. We examined the relationship between the rate of insulin-mediated glucose uptake and serum leptin concentrations among nondiabetic m...

  5. Metabolic Risk Susceptibility in Men Is Partially Related to Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lena Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High adiponectin/leptin ratio may be protective from metabolic risks imparted by high triglyceride, low HDL, and insulin resistance. Methods. This cross-sectional study examines plasma adipokine levels in 428 adult men who were subgrouped according to low (<6.5 μg/mLand high (≥6.5 μg/mLadiponectin levels or a low or high ratio of adiponectin/leptin. Results. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower plasma triglyceride and higher HDL cholesterol than those with low ratio. Similarly, those with high adiponectin/leptin ratio had lower TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and HOMA2-IR than those with low ratio. In contrast, levels of adiponectin or the ratio of adiponectin/leptin did not associate with systolic blood pressure. But the ratio of adiponectin/leptin decreased progressively with the increase in the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. Adipokine levels may reflect adipose tissue triglyceride storage capacity and insulin sensitivity. Leptin is an index of fat mass, and adiponectin is a biomarker of triglyceride metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Men with high adiponectin/leptin ratios have better triglyceride profile and insulin sensitivity than men with a low ratio regardless of waist girth.

  6. Is fasting leptin associated with insulin resistance among nondiabetic individuals? The Miami Community Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donahue, R P; Prineas, R J; Donahue, R D

    1999-01-01

    Whether serum leptin levels are associated with insulin resistance independent of the effects of hyperinsulinemia and adiposity is an important unanswered question. We examined the relationship between the rate of insulin-mediated glucose uptake and serum leptin concentrations among nondiabetic men...

  7. Leptin as local inflammatory marker in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, R; Vernooy, J H J; Schols, A M W J; Dentener, M A; Wouters, E F M

    2005-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the lung is a characteristic finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Leptin is a pleiotropic cytokine thought to play a role in host response to inflammation. As recent studies have shown that leptin receptors are present in the lung, this study aimed to determine if leptin is detectable in induced sputum of COPD patients and if there is a relationship between leptin and other inflammatory markers in sputum. Sputum was induced in 14 male patients with moderate COPD (FEV1: 56 (15) % pred.). Leptin, total tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed in induced sputum supernatant by ELISA. Leptin was also determined in EDTA plasma. Leptin was detectable in induced sputum of 10 COPD patients. A significant relationship was found between sputum leptin and CRP (r = 0.943, P leptin and sputum leptin were inversely correlated (r = -0.643, P leptin is detectable in induced sputum of patients with moderate COPD and is related to other inflammatory markers. The observed correlations between leptin and inflammatory markers in sputum may indicate that leptin is involved in the local inflammatory response in COPD.

  8. Leptin but not ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces phosphotyrosine phosphatase-1B expression in human neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y): putative explanation of CNTF efficacy in leptin-resistant state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benomar, Yacir; Berthou, Flavien; Vacher, Claire-Marie; Bailleux, Virginie; Gertler, Arieh; Djiane, Jean; Taouis, Mohammed

    2009-03-01

    Growing evidences suggest that obesity is associated with hypothalamic leptin resistance, leading to the alteration of food intake control. Alternative treatment using ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been suggested because CNTF exerts a leptin-like effect, even in leptin-resistant states, but the mechanisms by which CNTF maintains this effect are not yet understood. Both leptin and CNTF act in the hypothalamus through similar signaling pathways including janus kinase-2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 pathway. To explore the differences and interactions between leptin and CNTF signaling pathways, differentiated human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to either leptin or CNTF and then challenged for each cytokine. Leptin pretreatment completely abolished leptin-dependent STAT-3 and ERK 1/2 phosphorylations without affecting CNTF action. The lack of cross-desensitization between leptin and CNTF signaling pathways occurred despite the induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in response to both cytokines. Interestingly, leptin as well as insulin induced the expression of phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-1B, whereas CNTF treatment did not affect its expression. In addition, acute leptin treatment but not CNTF induced PTP-1B expression in mouse hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Furthermore, the overexpression of human PTP-1B in SH-SY5Y cells completely abolished leptin- and insulin-dependent janus kinase-2, STAT-3, and ERK 1/2 phosphorylations, but CNTF action was not altered. Collectively, our results suggest that PTP-1B constitutes a key divergent element between leptin/insulin and CNTF signaling pathways at the neuronal level, which may constitute a possible mechanism that explains the efficacy of CNTF in leptin-resistant states.

  9. Circulating leptin and body composition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, S; Karadag, F; Karul, A B; Gurgey, O; Gurel, S; Guney, E; Cildag, O

    2005-10-01

    Nutritional depletion and weight loss are two features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with COPD is a common clinical observation. Mechanisms of weight loss are still unclear in COPD. Excessive energy expenditure partly due to increased work of breathing was shown, but other mechanisms have been searched for. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that plays an important role in energy homeostasis and regulates body weight through control of appetite and energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of circulating leptin levels and measures of body composition in COPD patients. Thirty male COPD outpatients (mean age 66.3 +/- 8.4) and 20 controls (mean age 65.9 +/- 10.8) were included in the study. After standard spirometry and body composition measurements, serum leptin concentration was measured by ELISA assay. COPD patients were grouped according to BMI. Mean BMI was 19.01 +/- 2.26 kg/m2 in group 1 (COPD patients with low BMI), 26.85 +/- 4.51 in group 2 COPD (COPD patients with normal/high BMI) and 27.64 +/- 2.75 kg/m2 in healthy controls (group 3). Mean serum leptin concentration was 1.41 +/- 1.86 ng/ml in group 1, 2.60 +/- 1.38 ng/ml in group 2 and 2.82 +/- 1.46 ng/ml in group 3 (p = 0.002). Leptin correlated to not only BMI but also body weight, waist circumference, triceps and biceps skinfold thickness and body fat percent (p leptin in COPD. Instead, leptin remains regulated in COPD and further decreased in patients with low BMI, probably as a compensatory mechanism to preserve body fat content, which should be evaluated in further studies.

  10. Serum leptin concentration during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandão C.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained during the past five years have indicated that there are important age- and gender-based differences in the regulation and action of leptin in humans. To study the physiological changes of leptin during puberty in both sexes, and its relationship with body composition and sexual maturation, we measured leptin concentrations in 175 healthy adolescents (80 girls, 95 boys, 10-18 years of age, representing all pubertal stages. We excluded individuals with a body mass index (BMI below the 5thor above the 95th percentile relative to age. Serum concentrations of leptin were determined by a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorimetric assay, developed in our laboratory. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pubertal stage was assigned by physical examination, according to Tanner criteria for breast development in females and genital development in males. Leptin concentration in girls (N = 80 presented a positive linear correlation with age (r = 0.35, P = 0.0012, BMI (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001. In boys (N = 95 there was a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001, but a significant negative linear correlation with Tanner stage (r = -0.45, P < 0.0001 and age (r = -0.40, P < 0.0001. The regression equation revealed that %fat mass and BMI are the best parameters to be used to estimate leptin levels in both sexes. Thus, the normal reference ranges for circulating leptin during adolescence should be constructed according to BMI or %fat mass to assure a correct evaluation.

  11. Pineal melatonin is a circadian time-giver for leptin rhythm in Syrian hamsters

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    Ibtissam eChakir

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland may affect central and peripheral timing, in addition to its well-known involvement in the control of seasonal physiology. The Syrian hamster is a photoperiodic species, which displays gonadal atrophy and increased adiposity when adapted to short (winter-like photoperiods. Here we investigated whether pineal melatonin secreted at night can impact daily rhythmicity of metabolic hormones and glucose in that seasonal species. For that purpose, daily variations of plasma leptin, cortisol, insulin and glucose were analyzed in pinealectomized hamsters, as compared to sham-operated controls kept under very long (16h light/08h dark or short photoperiods (08h light/16h dark. Daily rhythms of leptin under both long and short photoperiods were blunted by pinealectomy. Furthermore, the phase of cortisol rhythm under a short photoperiod was advanced by 5.6 h after pinealectomy. Neither plasma insulin, nor blood glucose displays robust daily rhythmicity, even in sham-operated hamsters. Pinealectomy, however, totally reversed the decreased levels of insulin under short days and the photoperiodic variations in mean levels of blood glucose (i.e., reduction and increase in long and short days, respectively. Together, these findings in Syrian hamsters show that circulating melatonin at night drives the daily rhythmicity of plasma leptin, participates in the phase control of cortisol rhythm and modulates glucose homeostasis according to photoperiod-dependent metabolic state.

  12. Leptin differentially regulate STAT3 activation in ob/ob mouse adipose mesenchymal stem cells

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    Zhou Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice exhibit adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as elevated adipose tissue and systemic inflammation. Multipotent stem cells isolated from adult adipose tissue can differentiate into adipocytes ex vivo and thereby contribute toward increased adipocyte cell numbers, obesity, and inflamm ation. Currently, information is lacking regarding regulation of adipose stem cell numbers as well as leptin-induced inflammation and its signaling pathway in ob/ob mice. Methods Using leptin deficient ob/ob mice, we investigated whether leptin injection into ob/ob mice increases adipose stem cell numbers and adipose tissue inflammatory marker MCP-1 mRNA and secretion levels. We also determined leptin mediated signaling pathways in the adipose stem cells. Results We report here that adipose stem cell number is significantly increased following leptin injection in ob/ob mice and with treatment of isolated stem cells with leptin in vitro. Leptin also up-regulated MCP-1 secretion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further showed that increased MCP-1 mRNA levels were due to increased phosphorylation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 Ser727 but not STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation, suggesting differential regulation of MCP-1 gene expression under basal and leptin-stimulated conditions in adipose stem cells. Conclusions Taken together, these studies demonstrate that leptin increases adipose stem cell number and differentially activates STAT3 protein resulting in up-regulation of MCP-1 gene expression. Further studies of mechanisms mediating adipose stem cell hyperplasia and leptin signaling in obesity are warranted and may help identify novel anti-obesity target strategies.

  13. Integral Role of PTP1B in Adiponectin-Mediated Inhibition of Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in Breast Carcinogenesis

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    LaTonia Taliaferro-Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular effects of obesity are mediated by alterations in the levels of adipocytokines. High leptin level associated with obese state is a major cause of breast cancer progression and metastasis, whereas adiponectin is considered a “guardian angel adipocytokine” for its protective role against various obesity-related pathogenesis including breast cancer. In the present study, investigating the role of adiponectin as a potential inhibitor of leptin, we show that adiponectin treatment inhibits leptin-induced clonogenicity and anchorage-independent growth. Leptin-stimulated migration and invasion of breast cancer cells is also effectively inhibited by adiponectin. Analyses of the underlying molecular mechanisms reveal that adiponectin suppresses activation of two canonical signaling molecules of leptin signaling axis: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt. Pretreatment of breast cancer cells with adiponectin protects against leptin-induced activation of ERK and Akt. Adiponectin increases expression and activity of the physiological inhibitor of leptin signaling, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, which is found to be integral to leptin-antagonist function of adiponectin. Inhibition of PTP1B blocks adiponectin-mediated inhibition of leptin-induced breast cancer growth. Our in vivo studies show that adenovirus-mediated adiponectin treatment substantially reduces leptin-induced mammary tumorigenesis in nude mice. Exploring therapeutic strategies, we demonstrate that treatment of breast cancer cells with rosiglitazone results in increased adiponectin expression and inhibition of migration and invasion. Rosiglitazone treatment also inhibits leptin-induced growth of breast cancer cells. Taken together, these data show that adiponectin treatment can inhibit the oncogenic