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Sample records for lepraria lobificans nyl

  1. ANTHRAQUINONE FROM THALLUS OF LICHEN Ramalina javanica Nyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyanto Suyanto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of 1,3,8- trihydroxy-2(1'-pentanol-6-methoxy anthraquinone from acetone extract of lichen thallus of Ramalina javanica Nyl. was carried out. Its structure was determined based on spectroscopic evidences.   Keywords: Ramalina javanica Nyl., anthraquinone

  2. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil

    2016-08-01

    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of the Nyl River floodplain Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catchment land-use and water resource developments may threaten the ecological integrity of the Nyl River floodplain, a world-renowned conservation area. The effect of developments on the water supply regime to the floodplain can be predicted by hydrological modelling, but assessing their ecological consequences ...

  4. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of the Nyl River floodplain Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nyl River floodplain is a seasonal wetland of great conservation importance in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Water resource developments in the upstream catchments are changing the quantity and timing of water delivery to the floodplain, and this is expected to have an ecological impact. Hydrological and hydraulic ...

  5. Valgusepüüdja Nikolai Nyländeri elu ja looming / Ülle Lillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillak, Ülle

    2002-01-01

    Fotograaf Nikolai Nyländer sündis 23. juunil 1902 Tallinnas, suri 16. aprillil (?) 1981 Californias. Tema tuntuim foto "Memento mori" sai kuldmedalid Londoni Kuningliku Fotograafide Seltsi näitusel 1927, Pariisi maailmanäitusel 1937 ja Berliinis 1938. N. Nyländeri sõprusest Walter Zappiga

  6. Wood decay by Chlorociboria aeruginascens (Nyl.) Kanouse (Helotiales, Leotiaceae) and associated basidiomycete fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana L. Richter; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2015-01-01

    Two isolates of Chlorociboria aeruginascens (Nyl.) Kanouse incubated axenically on aspen wood blocks resulted in 18% and 32% mass loss after 134 wks (2 yrs 8 mo). Aspen wood decayed by C. aeruginascens contained cavities in the S2 layer of the secondary cell wall, similar to Type I soft rot attack, as well as erosion troughs and...

  7. Synthèse et Etude pharmacologique de la 4-phényl-l, 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benzodiazépin-2-one, 4-phényl-1,5-benzodiazépin-2-thiol synthesized in our laboratory showed that these products are not toxic at therapeutic doses and possess sedative, muscle relaxant, anxiolytic effects, but do not present any hypnotic, or catalepsy ...

  8. Hydrologic and hydraulic modelling of the Nyl River floodplain Part 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-01-01

    Jan 1, 2007 ... The ecological functioning of the Nyl River floodplain in the Limpopo Province of South Africa depends on water supplied by catchments which are experiencing continuing water resource development. Hydrological and hydraulic models have been produced to assist in future planning by simulating the ...

  9. Hydrologic and hydraulic modelling of the Nyl River floodplain Part 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological functioning of the Nyl River floodplain in the Limpopo Province of South Africa depends on water supplied by catchments which are experiencing continuing water resource development. Hydrological and hydraulic models have been produced to assist in future planning by simulating the effects of ...

  10. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of nylon hydrolase (NylC) from Arthrobacter sp. KI72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Keisuke; Yasuhira, Kengo; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kato, Dai-ichiro; Takeo, Masahiro; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Negoro, Seiji; Shibata, Naoki

    2013-10-01

    Nylon hydrolase (NylC) encoded by Arthrobacter plasmid pOAD2 (NylCp2) was expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, anion-exchange column chromatography and gel-filtration chromatography. NylCp2 was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as a precipitant in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M NaCl and 25% glycerol. Diffraction data were collected from the native crystal to a resolution of 1.60 Å. The obtained crystal was spindle shaped and belonged to the C-centred orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a=70.84, b=144.90, c=129.05 Å. A rotation and translation search gave one clear solution containing two molecules per asymmetric unit.

  11. 40 CFR 721.7620 - Alkyl(heterocyclicyl) phe-nyl-azohetero monocyclic polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-azohetero monocyclic polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative (generic name). 721.7620 Section 721... Alkyl(heterocyclicyl) phe-nyl-azohetero monocyclic polyone, ((alkylimidazolyl) methyl) derivative...) derivative (PMN P-86-136) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described...

  12. New γ -Lactone Carboxylic Acids from the Lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl. Hale, Parmeliaceae

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    Bui Linh Chi Huynh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From the lichen Parmotrema praesorediosum (Nyl. Hale, Parmeliaceae, collected in Vietnam, five new (1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and one known (4 g -lactonic acids were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, as well as high resolution-electrospray ionization (HR-ESI-MS analysis. The absolute configuration of new compounds was determined by ultraviolet circular dichroism spectroscopy. Compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HeLa (human epithelial carcinoma, NCI-H460 (human lung cancer and MCF-7 (human breast cancer cell lines at the concentration of 100 µg/mL. Among six compounds, 1 possessed medium activity against MCF-7 cell line with the inhibition of 52.5%. Meanwhile, the rest showed no cytotoxic activity against three surveyed cancer cell lines.

  13. Uptake and biotransformation of arsenate in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrak, Tanja; Slejkovec, Zdenka; Jeran, Zvonka; Jacimovic, Radojko; Kastelec, Damijana

    2008-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of arsenate, As(V), as a function of time and concentration were examined in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. Lichen thalli were exposed to As(V) in the form of a solution. Exponential uptake of As(V) from 4 μg mL -1 As(V) solution was accompanied by constant arsenite, As(III), excretion back into the solution. Arsenate taken up into the lichens from 0, 0.1, 1, 10 μg mL -1 As(V) solutions was partially transformed into As(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and (mono)methylarsonic acid (MA). 48 h after exposure, the main arsenic compound in the lichens was DMA in 0.1, As(III) in 1 and As(V) in 10 μg mL -1 treatment. The proportion of methylated arsenic compounds decreased with increasing arsenate concentration in the exposure solution. These results suggest that at least two types of As(V) detoxification exist in lichens; arsenite excretion and methylation. - Lichens are able to metabolize the inorganic arsenic taken up

  14. Uptake and biotransformation of arsenate in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrak, Tanja [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Slejkovec, Zdenka [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: zdenka.slejkovec@ijs.si; Jeran, Zvonka; Jacimovic, Radojko [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kastelec, Damijana [Agronomy Department, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-01-15

    The uptake and metabolism of arsenate, As(V), as a function of time and concentration were examined in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. Lichen thalli were exposed to As(V) in the form of a solution. Exponential uptake of As(V) from 4 {mu}g mL{sup -1} As(V) solution was accompanied by constant arsenite, As(III), excretion back into the solution. Arsenate taken up into the lichens from 0, 0.1, 1, 10 {mu}g mL{sup -1} As(V) solutions was partially transformed into As(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and (mono)methylarsonic acid (MA). 48 h after exposure, the main arsenic compound in the lichens was DMA in 0.1, As(III) in 1 and As(V) in 10 {mu}g mL{sup -1} treatment. The proportion of methylated arsenic compounds decreased with increasing arsenate concentration in the exposure solution. These results suggest that at least two types of As(V) detoxification exist in lichens; arsenite excretion and methylation. - Lichens are able to metabolize the inorganic arsenic taken up.

  15. Intoxication par la paraphényléne-diamine (takaout au Maroc: à propos de 24 cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Derkaoui

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La paraphénylène-diamine (PPD est une amine aromatique dérivée de l’aniline, utilisée depuis 1863 par les femmes dans un but cosmétique comme teinture capillaire noire ou adjuvant de henné dans plusieurs pays d’Afrique et de Moyen Orient. Le but de notre travail était de décrire les caractéristiques cliniques, paracliniques et évolutives de nos patients et de les comparer avec les données de la littérature. Il s’agissait d’une étude rétrospective portant sur les cas admis en réanimation (2003-2010. Les critères d’inclusion étaient d’ordre clinique, paraclinique, thérapeutique et évolutif. Durant la période de l’étude 24 patients ont été inclus provenant de la région de Fés-Boulmane. L’intoxication à la (PPD représentait 26% de l’ensemble des intoxications admises au cours de la même période. L âge moyen était de 23,6 plus or minus 11 ,6 ans. Il existait une prédominance féminine avec un sex-ratio de 4,7. L’intoxication était volontaire dans 82,6 %, accidentelle dans 8,6 %, et criminelle dans 4,3%. Le syndrome de rhabdomyolyse caractéristique de cette intoxication était retrouvé chez 60% de nos patients, l’atteinte respiratoire chez 56,5%, l’atteinte cardiaque était présente dans 30% des cas et 17,4% des patients avaient présentés une insuffisance rénale. La prise en charge thérapeutique se basait sur l’apport volémique massif, alcalinisation des urines ainsi que l’administration de corticoïdes et de diurétiques. Le recours à une trachéotomie de sauvetage était nécessaire chez 7 patients. Trois de nos patients avaient bénéficié d’une épuration extra rénale. L’évolution était fatale chez 47,8% des cas. La PPD représente ainsi la principale cause de mortalité toxique dans notre contexte. L’intoxication à la PPD, représente la première cause de rhabdomyolyse toxique dans notre contexte. Elle est responsable d’une mortalité très élevée. Ce qui

  16. Utilisation de polyparaphénylènes dégradés thermiquement comme matériaux anodiques de générateurs électrochimiques secondaires à ions lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.; Naji, A.; Buisson, J. P.; Billaud, D.

    1998-06-01

    Carbons derived from the pyrolysis of polyparaphenylene at 700 circC under various conditions (hydrogen gas, argon gas and vacuum) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The affinity of these materials for lithium was tested by electrochemical measurements. The reversible capacity depends on the pyrolysis atmosphere. The best performances were obtained with carbons of pyrolyzed PPP under hydrogen gas (x=760mAh/g). Des matériaux carbonés, dérivés de la pyrolyse du polyparaphénylène à 700 circC sous différentes atmosphères (hydrogène, argon et vide), ont été caractérisés par diffraction des rayons X, spectroscopies Raman et infra-rouge. L'affinité de ces matériaux pour le lithium a été testée par électrochimie. La capacité réversible dépend des conditions de pyrolyse, les meilleures performances étant obtenues avec le PPP traité sous hydrogène (x=760mAh/g).

  17. Byssoloma subdiscordans (Nyl. P. James на Дальнем Востоке России

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    I. A. Galanina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available В данной работе Byssoloma subdiscordans (Nyl. P. James впервые приводится для юга Дальнего Востока России. Дано анатомо-морфологическое описание вида на основе изучения собранных образцов. Описание соответствует описанию вида, сделанному ранее в работах R. Santesson (1952, R. Lücking (2008. Вид найден на юге о-ва Сахалин и в Хабаровском крае. Образцы Byssoloma subdiscordans собраны в сообществах с повышенной влажностью. Отмечено, что в умеренном поясе на Дальнем Востоке вид встречается так же, как и в Европе, главным образом, на тонких веточках хвойных деревьев.

  18. Constituents of Ramalina capitata (Ach.) Nyl. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnzević, Ivana; Jovanović, Olga; Zlatanović, Ivana; Stojanović, Igor; Petrović, Goran; Stojanović, Gordana

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of the ether, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of Ramalina capitata by GC-FID and GC-MS for the first time. The main identified components in the ether, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts were everninic acid (24.7, 33.7 and 22.2%), orcinol (25.8, 16.7 and 11.9%), orcinol monomethyl ether (11.6, 7.6 and 4.8%), 3-methylorsellinic acid (10.2, 7.1 and 9.0%) and usnic acid (4.4, 8.2 and 25.8%), respectively. Considerable amount (10.4%) of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,5,6-trimethylbenzoic acid was detected in ethyl acetate extract. Additionally, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid and their esters were observed in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts in the range of 4.1-0.1%, while their amount was below 0.05% in the ether extract. According to the results reported here R. capitata predominantly biosynthesises derivatives of orcinol and, in much lesser extent, derivatives of β-orcinol.

  19. Three new species of Lepraria (Ascomycota, Stereocaulaceae) containing fatty acids and atranorin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavíková; Bayerová, Štěpánka; Orange, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 6 (2006), s. 503-513 ISSN 0024-2829 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6005307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : chemotaxonomy * sterile lichens * Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.880, year: 2006

  20. New species of the Lepraria neglecta group (Stereocaulaceae, Ascomycota) from Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavíková; Bayerová, Štěpánka; Fehrer, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2007), s. 319-327 ISSN 0024-2829 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6005307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : chemotaxonomy * sterile lichens * phylogenetic analysis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.887, year: 2007

  1. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of the Nyl River floodplain Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-01-01

    Jan 1, 2007 ... and savannah vegetation. Average monthly evaporation rates were used in the hydraulic study. These were obtained using actual evaporation measurements by Blight. (2002b) on the floodplain and application of the energy balance method. Measurements were taken over seven isolated days between ...

  2. Intoxication par la paraphényléne-diamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    9 mars 2011 ... Le marché marocain s´est approprié depuis 1970, d´un produit minéral à base de PPD qui a détrôné la Takaout commune beldia non seulement .... forme pure devient inquiétante, justifiant le recours à un large programme de prévention pour informer le public et les autorités du danger de la. PPD.

  3. Antifungal activity of Parmotrema tinctorum (Delise ex Nyl.) hale and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lichens are composite organisms comprising of a photobiont and a mycobiont. Studies have shown that extracts and secondary metabolites from lichens exhibit various bioactivities. The present study evaluates antifungal potential of crude methanolic extract of two corticolous Parmotrema species viz. Parmotrema tinctorum ...

  4. Dicty_cDB: SFK327 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2001. 6. 1 Translated Amino Acid sequence likfihthiiyihqk*igksnlkklviakiqtklskiiikfslfknhqmilkrkqfld*q nyl*...nlkklviakiqtklskiiikfslfknhqmilkrkqfld*q nyl*rlvkvinyqhf*DQLDHFFDKISKPKTDKIVRNFID

  5. The spatial and temporal characterisation of flooding within the floodplain wetland of the Nyl River, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rowberry, Matthew David; McCarthy, T.S.; Thompson, M.; Nomnganga, A.; Moyo, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2011), s. 445-451 ISSN 0378-4738 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : landsat * remote sensing * flood dynamics Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2011 http://www.ajol.info/index.php/wsa/article/view/71421

  6. A Multivariate Analysis of Metal Concentrations in Two Fish Species of the Nyl River System, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, R; Gerber, R; Greenfield, R

    2017-06-01

    Increased toxicity due to high metal concentrations may hinder the ecological integrity of aquatic ecosystems in sustaining life. The non-biodegradable nature of metals may result in bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. Due to ecological and social aspects it is imperative for monitoring schemes to identify possible impacts to the systems integrity. This paper discusses accumulation patterns of seven metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr and Zn) in tissues of two fish species, namely Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis mossambicus at two selected sites, the first located upstream of Modimolle (NRS1), and the second located downstream of the town (NRS2). Gills, liver, muscle and skin tissues were analysed for metal concentrations using standard microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. Statistical results indicated higher concentrations of metals at NRS2 in comparison to NRS1, indicating that Modimolle plays a potential role in introducing metals into the aquatic system.

  7. Contribution to the knowledge of the lichen biota of Bolivia. 8

    OpenAIRE

    Flakus Adam; Oset Magdalena; Rykaczewski Max; Schiefelbein Ulf; Kukwa Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents new records of 135 lichen taxa in Bolivia. Two species, Myriotrema laeviusculum (Nyl.) Hale and Graphis tenoriensis Chaves & Lücking, are new for the Southern Hemisphere; two, Cladonia uncialis (L.) Weber ex F. H. Wigg. and Thelocarpon laureri (Flot.) Nyl., are new for South America; and 27 species are new for Bolivia: Acanthotrema brasilianum (Hale) Frisch, Bulbothrix laevigatula (Nyl.) Hale, B. leprieurii Aubel, Canoparmelia salacinifera (Hale) Hale, Catolechia wahlenber...

  8. The lichen genus Pertusaria in Poland I. P. multipuncta and P. ophthalmiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Oset

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of study on two morphologically very similar lichens in Poland, P. multipuncta (Turner Nyl. and P. ophthalmiza (Nyl. Nyl. (Pertusariales, Ascomycota. Previously, specimens were determined using only thallus characters and spot test reaction, with no data on lichen substances. This led to several misidentifications. After the revision of all available material of P. multipuncta from Poland it appeared to be reported correctly only from one locality in Gorce Mts. Most of other specimens belong to P. ophthalmiza, which has not been recorded in Polish lichenological literature until 2008.

  9. Study on polarities of methylphenylpolysiloxanes in gas chromatography; Estudio sobre las polaridades de metilfenilpolisiloxanos en cromatografia de gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pias Barbeira, J. B.; Gasco Sanchez, L.

    1975-07-01

    When studying the correlations between molecular structure and retention parameters in alcohols, alcohol benzoyl derivatives and carbonyl 2,4-dinitrophe nyl hydrazones some anomalies probably due to polarities of methylphenylpolysiloxane stationary phases have been observed. (Author) 31 refs.

  10. Study on polarities of methylphenylpolysiloxanes in gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pias Barbeira, J. B.; Gasco Sanchez, L.

    1975-01-01

    When studying the correlations between molecular structure and retention parameters in alcohols, alcohol benzoyl derivatives and carbonyl 2,4-dinitrophe nyl hydrazones some anomalies probably due to polarities of methylphenylpolysiloxane stationary phases have been observed. (Author) 31 refs

  11. Contribution to the knowledge of the lichen biota of Bolivia. 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flakus Adam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new records of 135 lichen taxa in Bolivia. Two species, Myriotrema laeviusculum (Nyl. Hale and Graphis tenoriensis Chaves & Lücking, are new for the Southern Hemisphere; two, Cladonia uncialis (L. Weber ex F. H. Wigg. and Thelocarpon laureri (Flot. Nyl., are new for South America; and 27 species are new for Bolivia: Acanthotrema brasilianum (Hale Frisch, Bulbothrix laevigatula (Nyl. Hale, B. leprieurii Aubel, Canoparmelia salacinifera (Hale Hale, Catolechia wahlenbergii (Flot. ex Ach. Körb., Chapsa alborosella (Nyl. Frisch, Coccocarpia dissecta Swinscow & Krog, Graphis apertoinspersa Rivas Plata & Lücking, G. cinerea Fée, G. globosa (Fée Spreng., G. haleana R. C. Harris, G. marginata Raddi, G. pilarensis Cáceres & Lücking, G. striatula (Ach. Spreng., Hemithecium oryzaeforme (Fée Staiger, Hypotrachyna protochlorina Sipman, Elix & T. H. Nash, H. sinuosella Elix, T. H. Nash & Sipman, H. tariensis Elix, Parmeliella isidiopannosa Jørg., Parmotrema conferendum Hale, P. enteroxanthum Hale, P. laciniellum (Ferraro & Elix Blanco et al., P. pilosum (Stizenb. Krog & Swinscow, P. recipiendum (Nyl. Hale, P. ruptum (Lynge Hale ex DePriest & Hale, Pyxine pungens Zahlbr. and Xanthoparmelia substenophylloides Hale. Notes on distribution are provided for the species. Bulbothrix goebelii (Zenker Hale is excluded from the list of Bolivian lichens; the record is referred to B. laevigatula.

  12. New and rare findings of lignicolous lichen species for the Southern Siberia from the Baikal nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Urbanavichene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on field trips between 2009–2014, rare and noteworthy lichens from the Baikal Nature Reserve (Baikal nature reserve, Khamar-Daban ridge are described. These are mostly lignicolous lichens growing on wood and bark of Abies sibirica and Pinus sibirica, such as Absconditella lignicola, Strangospora moriformis, Trapeliopsis gelatinosa, T. viridescens. Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa is new for Siberia, Lepraria jackii – new for South Siberia.

  13. Den vitalistiske strømning i dansk litteratur omkring år 1900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Anders Ehlers

    nylæsninger deres værker i spil med århundredskiftets billedkunst og musik, repræsenteret af J.F. Willumsen og Carl Nielsen. Den livsdyrkende kunst i Danmark sættes desuden ind i sin internationale idéhistoriske sammenhæng. Her er de tyske filosoffer Arthur Schopenhauer og Friedrich Nietzsche i fokus....

  14. Delayed Memory Effects after Intense Stress in Special Forces Candidates: Exploring Path Processes between Cortisol Secretion and Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    impair memory retrieval regardless of the time of the day (De Quervain et al. 1998, 2000; Oei et al. 2007; Buchanan and Tranel 2008; Smeets 2011). The...physiological research methods in health psychology. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. pp 37–74. Oei NYL, Elzinga BM, Wolf OT, De Ruiter MB, Damoiseaux

  15. Use of diatom indices to categorise impacts on and recovery of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trophic status of the Ramsar-accredited Nyl River floodplain, which is stressed by sewage treatment effluents, and its ability to restore normal conditions, were assessed in 2014–2015 using diatoms as biological indicators. The Trophic diatom Index, Specific Pollution Sensitivity Index and the Generic diatom Index were ...

  16. The spatial and temporal characterisation of flooding within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inundated area of a wetland is characterised by annual and interannual variability. This paper presents remotely-sensed imagery in order to better understand the spatial and temporal patterns of flooding within the floodplain wetland of the Nyl River, Limpopo Province. A detailed understanding of the hydrological ...

  17. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Abstract. The present study was conducted to screen antimicrobia viz., Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) M. Choisy (Par. (Nyl.) Trevis (Physciaceae) and Dirinaria consimilis two fruticose macrolichens viz., Ramalina pacifica hossei H. Magn & G. Awasthi (Ramalinaceae) growing were identified on the basis of morphological, ...

  18. Gêneros dos liquens saxícolas, corticícolas e terrícolas do Morro Santana, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil Genera of saxicolous, corticicolous and terricolous lichens of Morro Santana, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fleig

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available São caracterizados 77 gêneros de liquens do Morro Santana, Porto Alegre, RS, por meio de chaves analíticas, breves descrições e ilustrações; Anisomeridium Müll. Arg., Baeomyces Pers., Chrysothrix Mont, Laurera Reichemb., Maronea Massal., Pseudopyrenula Müll. Arg. e Ramalea Nyl. são acrescidos à flora liqüênica conhecida do Rio Grande do Sul.There are caracterized 77 genera of lichens from Morro San tana, Porto Alegre, R S, with analytical keys, short descriptions and illustrations; Anisomeridium MuB. Arg , Baeomyces Pers., Chrysotkrix Mont., Laurera Reichemb., Maronea Massal., Pseudopyrenula Mull. Arg. and Ramalea Nyl. are added to the know flora of Rio Grande do Sul State.

  19. Distribution of some lichenicolous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of lichenicolous fungi collected in 129 localities in Poland in the years 1968 and 1970-2003 are reported in the paper. They are as follows: Athelia arachnoidea (Berk. Jülich, Tremella cladoniae Diederich et M.S. Chrst., T. hypogymniae Diederich et M.S. Chris., T. lichecola Diederich, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis D. Hawksw., Polycoccum superficiale D. Hawksw. et Miądlikowska, Nectria lecanodes Ces., Pronectria erythrinella (Nyl. Lowen, Cortocifraga fuckelii (Rehm D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., C. peltigerae (Nyl. D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., Libertiella malmedyensis Speg. et Roum., Lichenoconium erodens M.S. Christ. et D. Hawksw., L. lecanorae (Jaap D. Hawksw., L. pyxidatae (Oudem. Petrak et Sydow, Vouauxiella lichenicola (Lindsay Petrak et Sydow, Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw., Illosporium carneum Fr., Karsteniomyces peltigerae (P. Karst. D. Hawksw. and Taeniolella beschiana Diederich.

  20. Le resvératrol. Partie 1 : à l’officine. Partie 2 : alternative naturelle d’avenir pour le traitement du cancer et les maladies neurodégénératives

    OpenAIRE

    Commeau, Alexandra; De Matteis, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Pour faire échos à ce que l’on connait et surtout, pour faire oublier ce nom un peu difficile à prononcer, on présentera le resvératrol comme étant la molécule majoritairement responsable d’un phénomène connu sous le nom de « French Paradox ».De la famille des stilbènes, le resvératrol peut également être appelé 3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbène dans la nomenclature de chimie organique ou 5-[2-(4-hydroxyphényl)-éthényl] benzène-1,3-diol dans la nomenclature IUPAC.C’est à la molécule de configuration ...

  1. Additions To The Lichen Biota Of SE Siberia: Records From The Stanovoye Nagor’e Highlands (Trans-Baikal Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chesnokov Sergey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports 120 species of lichens and one lichenicolous fungus from the Stanovoye Nagor’e Highlands in southeastern Siberia, including 64 species new for the area. Some of the newly recorded species are extremely rare in Russia [e.g., Bryonora curvescens (Mudd Poelt, Gyalideopsis alnicola Noble & Vězda and Pilophorus strumaticus Nyl. ex Cromb.]. The distribution and habitat preferences of several rare species are briefly discussed.

  2. CONTRIBUCION AL CONOCIMIENTO DEL GENERO CLADONIA (CLADONIACEAE-LIQUENES DE ARGENTINA Y REGIONES LIMITROFES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia I. Ferraro

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Cladonia subradiata (Vain. Sandst. se reporta como nueva para la Argentina y Paraguay, C.turgidior (Nyl. Ahti para la Argentina, y C.peziziform, es (With. Laundon para Paraguay. Cladonia ramulosa (With. Laundon y C.humilis (With. Laundon se reportan por primera vez para el norte de Argentina. Cinco especies de Cladonia son reconocidas ahora en la provincia de Corrientes. Se presenta una clave e ilustraciones.

  3. Synthesis and mesomorphic behaviour of lithocholic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    It was further purified by Soxhlet extraction and recrystallized from acetone and dried under vacuum (yield 56%, m.p. 163°C). 3-(3-Carboxy propio- nyl) lithocholic acid, (II), was prepared in a similar man- ner as (I), except that lithocholic acid was used in place of. LAMe (yield 59⋅3%, m.p. 228°C). 3-acetyl lithocholic.

  4. Microfungi in the soil beneath common oak and their effect on Armillaria occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microfungal assemblages in a soil beneath 30- and 50·year-old oaks and their 2-year-old stumps were studied using the soil dilution plate method. A total of 98 culturable microfungi were isolated. Compared to the living oaks before felling and the control living oaks, the density of Mortierella macrocystis, Penicillium jonczewskii, Pseudogymnoascus roseus Sporothrix schenckii, Tolypoccladiumum inflatum and Umbelopsis vinacea sigificantly inacased in the soil beneath slumps in the 32- and 52-year-old stands. Density of Aspergillus kanagawaensis, Monodictys lepraria, P. daleae and sterile dematiaceous hyphomycetes increased significantly in the 32-year-old stand and Chrysosporium merdarium in the 52·year-old stand. These fungi are known 'stimulants' of Armillaria rhizomorph formation. It is suggested that the increase in density of Armillaria rhizomorph 'stimulants' in a soil beneath oak stumps may increase the possibility of colonization of stumps by Armillaria.

  5. Assessment of trace metals using lichen transplant from automobile mechanic workshop in Ile-Ife metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiwe, Anthony I; Adesanwo, Adeyemi T J; Olowoyo, Joshua O; Raimi, Idris O

    2014-04-01

    The level of air pollution around the automobile mechanic workshops has been generally overlooked. This study, examined the level of trace metals in automobile mechanic workshops and the suitability of using transplanted lichen thalli of Lepraria incana for measuring air pollution in such areas. Samples of the lichen thalli were transplanted into seven different sites and were attached to the bark of trees at each site. The samples were harvested from the sites after 3-month exposure. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn, and S content were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that there was a significant difference in the trace metals concentrations across the sites (p trend in the concentration of these heavy metals suggests that activities in these workshops might become a major source of certain heavy metals in the environment and if the pollution activities persist, it might become worrisome over time.

  6. Two closely related species of Caloplaca (Teloschistaceae, Lichenes from the Namib Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kärnefelt

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical and reproductive adaptations of two closely related lichen species.  Caloplaca elegantissima (Nyl. Zahlbr. and C. namibensis Karnef., sp. nov., occurring in the outer Namib fog desert, are discussed. Both species belong to the cmstose forms, frequently found in the remarkably rich lichen communities, which largely depend on fog precipitation for their water supply. Both species are endemic to the Namib Desert. They are mainly distributed in South West Africa/Namibia but also extend into south-western Angola. The asexual isidiate species.  C. namibensis Karnef., is described as new.

  7. Notes on the genus Punctelia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Søchting, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Punctelia jeckeri (Roum.) Kalb was previously known as P. ulophylla (Ach.) van Herk & Aptroot. The taxon was described by Acharius (1810) as Parmelia caperata var. ulophylla. It was long overlooked or reduced to synonomy, i.a. with Parmelia subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog (e.g. Hale 1965). Krog (1982), wh...... name at species level, proposed the combination Punctelia jeckeri, and lectotypified the name. As a preparatory work to a forthcoming revision of the Danish lichen checklist (Søchting & Alstrup 2007) it was decided to examine the Danish material of the genus Punctelia....

  8. A Contribution to the Lichen Family Graphidaceae (Ostropales, Ascomycota of Bolivia. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiefelbein Ulf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microlichens of the family Graphidaceae are important components of the lowland and montane tropical forests in Bolivia. In this paper we present new records for 51 taxa of the family in Bolivia. Leiorreuma lyellii (Sm. Staiger is reported as new for the Southern Hemisphere, while Diploschistes caesioplumbeus (Nyl. Vain., Graphis daintreensis (A. W. Archer A. W. Archer, G. duplicatoinspersa Lücking, G. emersa Müll. Arg., G. hossei Vain., G. immersella Müll. Arg. and G. subchrysocarpa Lücking are new for South America. Thirty taxa are reported for the first time from Bolivia. Notes on distribution are provided for most species.

  9. Natural and artificial radionuclides in lichens as air pollution monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeran, A.; Jacimovic, R.; Prosenc, A.; Batic, F.

    1996-01-01

    In 1992 a national biomonitoring programme was initiated covering the whole territory of Slovenia to measure the levels of some natural ( 210 Pb, 40 K, U, Th) and artificial ( l37 Cs, 134 Cs) radionuclides in the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes L. (Nyl.) in order to obtain information on their levels in the environment. 210 Pb, 40 K, 134,137 Cs were determined by direct counting of dry samples using gamma spectrometry, while U and Th were determined by the k 0 -standardisation method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results are presented as geographical isocontours of radionuclide activity on a national scale. (author)

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cherrah, Y. Vol 3, No 4 (2009) - Articles Évaluation de l'activité anxiolytique de la 4-phenyl-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one. Abstract PDF · Vol 4, No 1 (2010) - Articles Synthèse et évaluation de l'activité pharmacologique de la 4-phényl-1,5- benzodiazépin-2-one et ses dérivés. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African ...

  11. Influence of biological soil crusts at different successional stages in the implantation of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Sotres, F.; Miralles, I.; Canton-Castilla, Y.; Domingo, F.; Leiros, M. C.; Trasar-Cepeda, C.

    2012-04-01

    involved in C (invertase, CM-cellulase, β-glucosidase), N (urease, BAA-protease, casein-protease) and P (phosphomonoesterase) cycles in BSCs at different successional stages (cyanobacteria represents the first successional stage, lichen Diploschistes diacapsis in an intermediate state and lichen Lepraria crassissima, with the greatest successional state). Our results show that BSCs at lower successional stage enriched the surface geological substrate in hydrolase enzymes to a lesser extent than mature BSCs (Lepraria crassissima), which show the highest values in all enzymatic activities. In contrast, the specific enzyme activities (activity values expressed per unit of carbon) were higher in the BSCs at lower successional stage, decreasing in the direction: cyanobacteria > Diploschistes diacapsis-lichen > Lepraria crassissima-lichen. These results suggest a different role of BSCs depending on their successional stage with regard to the implantation of biogeochemical cycles during the surface substrate colonization. Our conclusions are highly relevant to improve the knowledge of biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid areas. Keywords: Biological Soil Crusts, arid ecosystems, hydrolytic enzymes, biochemical activity

  12. Fungal farmers or algal escorts: lichen adaptation from the algal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Deduke, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Domestication of algae by lichen-forming fungi describes the symbiotic relationship between the photosynthetic (green alga or cyanobacterium; photobiont) and fungal (mycobiont) partnership in lichen associations (Goward 1992). The algal domestication implies that the mycobiont cultivates the alga as a monoculture within its thallus, analogous to a farmer cultivating a food crop. However, the initial photobiont 'selection' by the mycobiont may be predetermined by the habitat rather than by the farmer. When the mycobiont selects a photobiont from the available photobionts within a habitat, the mycobiont may influence photobiont growth and reproduction (Ahmadjian & Jacobs 1981) only after the interaction has been initiated. The theory of ecological guilds (Rikkinen et al. 2002) proposes that habitat limits the variety of photobionts available to the fungal partner. While some studies provide evidence to support the theory of ecological guilds in cyanobacterial lichens (Rikkinen et al. 2002), other studies propose models to explain variation in symbiont combinations in green algal lichens (Ohmura et al. 2006; Piercey-Normore 2006; Yahr et al. 2006) hypothesizing the existence of such guilds. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Peksa & Škaloud (2011) test the theory of ecological guilds and suggest a relationship between algal habitat requirements and lichen adaptation in green algal lichens of the genus Lepraria. The environmental parameters examined in this study, exposure to rainfall, altitude and substratum type, are integral to lichen biology. Lichens have a poikilohydric nature, relying on the availability of atmospheric moisture for metabolic processes. Having no known active mechanism to preserve metabolic thallus moisture in times of drought, one would expect a strong influence of the environment on symbiont adaptation to specific habitats. Adaptation to changes in substrata and its properties would be expected with the intimate contact between crustose

  13. Raman spectroscopy detection of biomolecules in biocrusts from differing environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, I.; Jorge-Villar, S. E.; van Wesemael, B.; Lázaro, R.

    2017-01-01

    Lichens and cyanobacteria colonize inhospitable places covering a wide climate range due to their different survival strategies, such as the synthesis of protective biomolecules. The effect of ecological factors on the synthesis of biomolecules has not been widely analysed. This study aimed to assess the effects of four factors (species, microclimate, seasonality and hydration state) and their interactions on the biomolecule frequency detected by Raman Spectroscopy. We included cyanobacterial biocrusts, and the lichens Diploschistes diacapsis, Squamarina lentigera, and Lepraria isidiata; two contrasted microclimates (typical and marginal), two contrasted seasons (hot and dry vs cool and wet) and two hydration states (dry and wet). ;Species; was the most influential factor in the identity and frequency of the main biomolecules. Microclimatic differences in the range of the local specific habitats only influenced the biomolecules in cyanobacteria. There was a quadruple interaction among the factors, the effects being different mainly depending on the species. At D. diacapsis, the production of their main biomolecules depended on microclimate, although it also depended on seasonality. Nevertheless, in L. isidiata and S. lentigera microclimatic differences did not significantly affect the production of biomolecules. In the lichen species, the microhabitats exposed to relatively larger incident radiation did not show significantly larger relative frequency of photoprotective biomolecules. No clear connection between higher production of oxalates and drier microhabitats was found, suggesting that the synthesis of oxalates is not related to water reserve strategy. The pros and cons of monitor biomolecules in biocrust by Raman spectrometry were also discussed.

  14. Do photobionts influence the ecology of lichens? A case study of environmental preferences in symbiotic green alga Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peksa, Ondřej; Skaloud, Pavel

    2011-09-01

    The distribution patterns of symbiotic algae are thought to be conferred mainly by their hosts, however, they may originate in algal environmental requirements as well. In lichens, predominantly terrestrial associations of fungi with algae or cyanobacteria, the ecological preferences of photobionts have not been directly studied so far. Here, we examine the putative environmental requirements in lichenized alga Asterochloris, and search for the existence of ecological guilds in Asterochloris-associating lichens. Therefore, the presence of phylogenetic signal in several environmental traits was tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated set of internal transcribed spacer rDNA and actin type I intron sequences from photobionts associated with lichens of the genera Lepraria and Stereocaulon (Stereocaulaceae, Ascomycota) revealed 13 moderately to well-resolved clades. Photobionts from particular algal clades were found to be associated with taxonomically different, but ecologically similar lichens. The rain and sun exposure were the most significant environmental factor, clearly distinguishing the Asterochloris lineages. The photobionts from ombrophobic and ombrophilic lichens were clustered in completely distinct clades. Moreover, two photobiont taxa were obviously differentiated based on their substrate and climatic preferences. Our study, thus reveals that the photobiont, generally the subsidiary member of the symbiotic lichen association, could exhibit clear preferences for environmental factors. These algal preferences may limit the ecological niches available to lichens and lead to the existence of specific lichen guilds. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Les adhésifs à photopolymérisation radicalaire employés pour le collage structural du verre en conservation-restauration.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillioz, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Nous avons étudié la compatibilité des adhésifs photopolymérisables avec le collage du verre en conservation-restauration en nous focalisant sur leur résistance mécanique. Quatre adhésifs photopolymérisables à voie radicalaire ont été sélectionnés – Conloc® 665 (EGO®), Loctite® 350 (Henkel®), NOA® 61 (Norland Optical Adhesives®) et Verifix® LV740 (Bohle®) – en employant à titre de comparaison la résine époxyde de référence pour le collage structural du verre – Hxtal® Nyl-1 (Hxtal Adhesive®). ...

  16. Management of Cosmetic Embarrassment Caused by Malassezia spp. with Fruticose Lichen Cladia Using Phylogenetic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During anti-Malassezia screening of plants by CLSI broth microdilution method, Cladia aggregata (Swartz Nyl. (family Cladoniaceae, a fruticose lichen from Sikkim (northeast Himalayan region, has been found effective at minimum inhibitory concentrations (mg/mL of 2.72, 0.63, and 1.28 against yeast-like fungi namely, M. furfur, M. globosa and M. sympodialis, respectively. These test pathogens are responsible for pityriasis versicolor (PV and seborrheic dermatitis (SD in humans. We tried to establish the reason for variable MICs against various Malassezia spp. using bioinformatical tools, thereby reducing the cost of the experimentation. This is the first report on anti-Malassezia activity of C. aggregata and thus can serve as a potential source for the development of cosmaceuticals.

  17. Plant reactions as indicators of air pollution in the vicinity of a copper smelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several higher plant species and epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L. Nyl. were examined in the vicinity of a copper smelter. The investigations included field experiments. Ecological surveys of some biotests and bioreactions using exposure of higher plants and transplanted lichens were critically appraised. Such basic processes of plants as photosynthesis and respiration, as well as the quantitative composition of chlorophyll pigments were used as biotests. The results indicate that the photosynthesis intensity is the most useful measure for the estimation of the effect of both heavy metal and SO2 pollutants. The degrees of chlorophyll degradation were in keeping with visual symptoms of injuries. For the ecological monitoring the measurement of respiration intensity, especially in lichens is not recommended. All applied biotests are presented in maps illustrating the degree of degradation of the area examined.

  18. The use of the barbell cluster ANOVA design for the assessment of environmental pollution: a case study, Wigierski National Park, NE Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Pasławski, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of chemical variability in natural ecosystems of Wigierski National Park (NE Poland) derived from the calculation of geochemical baselines using a barbell cluster ANOVA design. This method enabled us to obtain statistically valid information with a minimum number of samples collected. Results of summary statistics are presented for elemental concentrations in the soil horizons-O (Ol + Ofh), -A and -B, 1- and 2-year old Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) needles, pine bark and Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. (lichen) thalli, as well as pH and TOC. The scope of this study also encompassed S and C stable isotope determinations and SEM examinations on Scots pine needles. The variability for S and trace metals in soils and plant bioindicators is primarily governed by parent material lithology and to a lesser extent by anthropogenic factors. This fact enabled us to study concentrations that are close to regional background levels.

  19. Management of Cosmetic Embarrassment Caused by Malassezia spp. with Fruticose Lichen Cladia Using Phylogenetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anand; Mishra, Rohit K.; Tiwari, Amit K.; Kumar, Awadhesh; Bajaj, A. K.; Dikshit, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    During anti-Malassezia screening of plants by CLSI broth microdilution method, Cladia aggregata (Swartz) Nyl. (family Cladoniaceae), a fruticose lichen from Sikkim (northeast Himalayan region), has been found effective at minimum inhibitory concentrations (mg/mL) of 2.72, 0.63, and 1.28 against yeast-like fungi namely, M. furfur, M. globosa and M. sympodialis, respectively. These test pathogens are responsible for pityriasis versicolor (PV) and seborrheic dermatitis (SD) in humans. We tried to establish the reason for variable MICs against various Malassezia spp. using bioinformatical tools, thereby reducing the cost of the experimentation. This is the first report on anti-Malassezia activity of C. aggregata and thus can serve as a potential source for the development of cosmaceuticals. PMID:24069589

  20. Basic Research on Remote Sensing of Fissile Materials utilizing Gamma-rays and Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    avoirdupois) 4.448 222 newton (N) Energy /Work/Power electron volt (eV) 1.602 177 × 10 –19 joule (J) erg 1 × 10 –7 joule (J) kiloton (kt...Astronomy Ohio University Athens, OFT 45701 1.1 Objectives Task 1: Complete measurements of “B(d,ny)’2C(Year 1) Task 2: Identify possible self-collimated...Din, T.W. Bonner, “The 15.1 MeV gamma-ray excitation functions of the reactions ‘°B(3He,py15.1)‘2C, 11B(d,nyl 5.1)12C, and 13C(3He,aylS.1)’2”, Nuclear

  1. A preliminary elemental characterization study of lichens as potential biomonitor for atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Quirit, Leni L.; Hernandez, Karen N.; Balansay, Lorena S.; Gruezo, William

    2008-01-01

    Lichen is a bio indicator which lacks roots and therefore gets nutrients directly from precipitation, atmospheric gases and dry deposition of airborne particles. A survey of lichens, in four Metro Manila sites and 2 sites near and around coal fired power plants, found the lichen Pyxine cocoes (Sw.) Nyl as most abundant and ubiquitous in all the six sites. Elemental analysis by XRF (x-ray fluorescence), mainly in two traffic impacted Metro Manila sites and the Batangas Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant (BCFTPP) site, was used to assess the potential of this species as a bio monitor for atmospheric pollution. Results indicate the the sensitivity of the species to S, Zn, Cu and Pb which were all found to have higher levels in the traffic impacted Metro Manila sites compared to the BCFTPP site. Co and Br were found higher in BCFTPP compared to the MM sites, indicating sea spray as the probable source of Br in the sea adjacent coal plant site. Except for Al, crustal elements in the lichen samples were relatively well correlated. S, Cl, K, Cr, Mn, Ti, Fe and Co lichen levels found in this study were significantly higher compared to lichen levels found in studies in other countries. (author)

  2. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.

  3. Synthesis and biodistribution of [sup 18]F-labeled fleroxacin. [Fluoroquinolone antibiotic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livni, E.; Babich, J.; Alpert, N.M. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States). Radiology Dept.) (and others)

    1993-01-01

    [[sup 18]F]Fleroxacin (6,8-difluoro-1,4-dihydro-1-(2-[[sup 18]F] fluoroethyl)-4-oxo-7-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid) was synthesized from its methylsulfonyl ester precursor. 6,7,8-Trifluoro-4-hydroxy-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (Ro 19-7423) was alkylated with 2-bromoethanol to produce 6,7,8-trifluoro-1,4-dihydro-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid ethyl ester in 76% yield which was then condensed with 1-methyl-piperazine to produce 6,8-difluoro-1,4-dihydro-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-7-(4-methyl-1-piperazi nyl)4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid ethyl ester in 67% yield. This product was reacted with methanesulfonyl chloride to produce the mesylate precursor of fleroxacin in 66% yield. Nucleophilic substitution of the mesylate with [sup 18]F[sup -] in the presence of Kryptofix 2.2.2 followed by basic hydrolysis produced [[sup 18]F]fleroxacin with a radiochemical yield of 5-8% (EOS) within 90 min. The pattern of biodistribution of [[sup 18]F]fleroxacin was similar to the [sup 14]C-labeled drug. (Author).

  4. Influence of a chinese traditional medicine recipes for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation on levels of serum with interleukin-6 and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism in female rats after ovariectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhixi; Liu Qingsi; Wei Hewei; Zhuang Hong; Chen Jinyan; Li Zhiqiang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of a Chinese traditional medicine recipe for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation (CRRK) in female rats on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism after ovariectomy. Methods: Ninety female SD rats were divided into 6 groups: control, model (ovariectomy only) treated with nyl-estriol, treated with CRRK (high, moderate and low doses). CRRK (Gu Kang) was administered at the three dose levels for 90 days. Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the serum levels of estradiol (E 2 ), IL-6, calcitonin (CT) and BGP. The weight and histo-morphology of the uterus of the rats sacrificed after 90 days of treatment was also studied. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-6 in the model group were significantly higher (P 2 and CT, BGP were significantly lower (P 2 and BGP were significantly higher (P < 0.05-0.001). The weight of uterus was also increased (P < 0.05). The composite recipe proved to have definite effects on normalizing the uterine histomorphology. Conclusion: The results had showed that the composite recipe had good effects on prevention and therapy of osteoporosis after ovariectomy in rats

  5. Operating microscopes: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluç, Kutluay; Kujoth, Gregory C; Başkaya, Mustafa K

    2009-09-01

    The operating microscope is a fixture of modern surgical facilities, and it is a critically important factor in the success of many of the most complex and difficult surgical interventions used in medicine today. The rise of this key surgical tool reflects advances in understanding the principles of optics and vision that have occurred over centuries. The development of reading spectacles in the late 13th century led to the construction of early compound microscopes in the 16th and 17th centuries by Lippershey, Janssen, Galileo, Hooke, and others. Perhaps surprisingly, Leeuwenhoek's simple microscopes of this era offered improved performance over his contemporaries' designs. The intervening years saw improvements that reduced the spherical and chromatic aberrations present in compound microscopes. By the late 19th century, Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe ushered the compound microscope into the beginnings of the modern era of commercial design and production. The introduction of the microscope into the operating room by Nylén in 1921 initiated a revolution in surgical practice that gained momentum throughout the 1950s with multiple refinements, the introduction of the Zeiss OPMI series, and Kurze's application of the microscope to neurosurgery in 1957. Many of the refinements of the last 50 years have greatly improved the handling and practical operation of the surgical microscope, considerations which are equally important to its optical performance. Today's sophisticated operating microscopes allow for advanced real-time angiographic and tumor imaging. In this paper the authors discuss what might be found in the operating rooms of tomorrow.

  6. Unraveling the degradation of artificial amide bonds in nylon oligomer hydrolase: from induced-fit to acylation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Takeshi; Boero, Mauro; Kamiya, Katsumasa; Ando, Hiroyuki; Negoro, Seiji; Nakano, Masayoshi; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2015-02-14

    To elucidate how the nylon oligomer hydrolase (NylB) acquires its peculiar degradation activity towards non-biological amide bonds, we inspected the underlying enzymatic processes going from the induced-fit upon substrate binding to acylation. Specifically we investigated the mutational effects of two mutants, Y170F and D181G, indicated in former experiments as crucial systems because of their specific amino acid residues. Therefore, by adopting first-principles molecular dynamics complemented with metadynamics we provide a detailed insight into the underlying acylation mechanism. Our results show that while in the wild type (WT) the Tyr170 residue points the NH group towards the proton-acceptor site of an artificial amide bond, hence ready to react, in the Y170F this does not occur. The reason is ascribed to the absence of Tyr170 in the mutant, which is replaced by phenylalanine, which is unable to form hydrogen bond with the amide bond; thus, resulting in an increase in the activation barrier of more than 10 kcal mol(-1). Nonetheless, despite the lack of hydrogen bonding between the Y170F and the substrate, the highest free energy barrier for the induced-fit is similar to that of WT. This seems to suggest that in the induced-fit process, kinetics is little affected by the mutation. On the basis of additional structural homology analyses on the enzymes of the same family, we suggest that natural selection is responsible for the development of the peculiar hydrolytic activity of Arthrobacter sp. KI72.

  7. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloof, J.E.

    1993-09-27

    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG).

  8. [Analysis on dental uncooperative behaviors of the first-visit children in clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chan; Zou, Hongmei; Zou, Jing

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the uncooperative behaviors of first-visit-dental children and correlative factors that include children's temperament, severe of dental caries and so on in order to help dentists to make personal dentistry therapy plan for each child to prevent and deal with children's uncooperative behaviors. From the pediatric dentistry clinic, 195 first-visit-dental children (aged 3-7 years) from Dec. 2007 to Dec. 2008 were randomly selected to accept dental examination and accepted corresponding treatment according to personal therapy plans. Children's clinic behavior was valued during treatment. The parents were asked to complete NYLS temperament parents scale questionnaires for 3-7 years old children. Among the 195 children, there were 114(58.46%) had dental fear and anxiety(DFA) and 66 (33.85%) had dental behavior management problem (DBMP). As the children's age increased, the incidence of DBMP decreased. There were no statistical relationship between genders and children's DFA/DBMP. The children's severity of dental caries was related to their dental behavior, the more serious the caries, the more incident the DFA/DBMP of children. There were no statistically significant differences for the DFA/DBMP of temperament type children. But the score of sensory threshold was higher in DFA children, while physiological rhythmicity was lower in DBMP, the differences were significant. In order to reduce the incidence of DFA/DBMP, we should pay more attention to children with serious caries, and provide them individual behavior management for different ages and temperament.

  9. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloof, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG)

  10. Influence of biocrusts coverage on microbial communities from underlying arid lands soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita-Maeso, Manuel; Miralles*, Isabel; van Wesemael, Bas; Lázaro, Roberto; Ortega, Raúl; García-Salcedo, José Antonio; Soriano**, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    In regions where the water availability limits the plant cover, biological soil crusts are especially essential in the development of an almost continuous living skin mediating the inputs and outputs across the soil surface boundary. However, the entire area is not covered equally and microbial communities from underlying soils might be influenced by biocrust type and the percentage of biocrust coverage. To clarify this question, we have collected underlying soils from biocrusts samples dominated by i) incipient colonization by cyanobacteria, ii) cyanobacteria, biocrusts formed by the lichens: iii) Diploschistes diacapsis and Squamarina lentigera and iv) Lepraria issidiata from Tabernas desert (southeast of Spain) so as to determine the differences in the microbial communities from these underlying soils at two extremes of its spatial distribution range: one with a high percentage of biocrust coverage and fewer degradation and other with a huge degradation and less percentage of biocrust coverage. DNA from these samples was isolated by using a commercial kit and it was taken as template for metagenomic analysis. We conducted a sequencing of the amplicons V4-V5 of the 16S rRNA gene with Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) Illumina MiSeq platform and a relative quantity of bacteria and fungi were accomplished by quantitative qPCR of rRNA 16S and ITS1-5.8S, respectively. The high biocrust coverage position revealed the highest number of bacteria per gram of soil (1.64E+09 in L. issidiata, in 1.89E+09 D. diacapsis and S. lentigera, 1.63E+09 in cyanobacteria and 2.08E+09 in incipient colonization by cyanobacteria) whereas the less favourable position according to the percentage of biocrust coverage showed fewer amount (1.16E+09 in L. issidiata, 6.98E+08 in D. diacapsis and S. lentigera, 1.46E+09 in cyanobacteria and 7.92E+08 in incipient cyanobacteria biocrust). Similarly, the amount of fungi per gram of soil presented identical correlation ranging from the favourable

  11. Les polymères auto-renforcés à cristaux liquides Self-Reinforcing Liquid-Crystal Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorbon M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les polymères auto-renforcés à cristaux liquides (PARCL sont des matériaux dont les molécules, des polymères organiques, sont susceptibles de s'auto-orienter les unes par rapport aux autres. Cette propriété leur confère des caractéristiques mécaniques proches de celles des acier: pour des poids plus faibles sans qu'il soit nécessaire d'avoir recours à des fibres renforçantes. Il existe deux types de PARCL: ceux pouvant s'orienter en solution, qualifiés de lyotropiques, et ceux pouvant s'orienter à l'état fondu, appelés thermotropiques. Des fibres en poly (p-phénylène térephtalamide PPT, PARCL de type lyotropique, sont disponibles commercialement et connaissent déjà de nombreuses applications. Les PARCL thermotropiques n'existent pas encore sur le marché mais sont porteurs de nombreux espoirs car ils sont susceptibles d'être moulés et donc de prendre les formes les plus diverses, ce qui n'est pas le cas de ceux de type lyotropique. Self-reinforcing liquid-crystal polymers are materials in which the molecules, i. e. organic polymers, are capable of orienting themselves in relation to one another. This property gives them mechanical characteristics close to those of steels yet of much less weight without having to use reinforcing fibers. There are two types of self-reinforcing liquid-crystal polymers: (i those capable of orienting themselves in solution, called Iyotropic, and (ii those capable of orienting themselves in a molten state, called thermotropic. Poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide fibers, self-reinforcing liquid-crystal polymers of the Iyotropic type, are commercially available and have already found numerous applications. Thermotropic self-reinforcing liquid-crystal polymers are not yet on the market but seem to be very promising because they are capable of being molded and hence of taking on a wide variety of shapes, which is not the case of those of the lyotropic type.

  12. Radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory, and antimicrobial potential of a cultured Himalayan lichen Cetrelia olivetorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savale, Swapnil Anil; Pol, Chaitrali Satish; Khare, Roshni; Verma, Neeraj; Gaikwad, Subhash; Mandal, Bapi; Behera, Bhaskar C

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are source of natural bioactive compounds which are traditionally used to cure a variety of ailments. The objective of this study is to assess free radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory (PEPI), and antimicrobial potential of a high altitude lichen species Cetrelia olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb (Parmeliaceae). Lichen C. olivetorum has been cultured in vitro, and optimized culture conditions were implemented in bioreactor to obtain high quantity of biomass for the study of radical scavenging, PEPI, and antimicrobial activities. Radical scavenging activity of methanol extract of Cetrelia olivetorum (MECO) was tested at 100 µg/mL, PEPI activity at 25 and 50 µg/mL, and antimicrobial activity at 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL conc. All the biological activities of natural thallus extract and its derived culture extract were evaluated spectrophotometrically. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 3% glucose and 100 ppb indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supported biomass growth at flask level and yielded 5.095 g biomass in bioreactor. MECO of both the cultured and the natural lichen exhibited half inhibiting concentration (IC50) for radical scavenging activities in the range of 50-60 µg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of standard antioxidants was found to be in the range of 12-29 µg/mL. The IC50 value of lichen extract for PEPI activity was 144-288 µg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of standard prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor, Z-pro-prolinal, was 57.73 µg/mL. As far as the antimicrobial activity of MECO is concerned, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of lichen extracts against tested microorganisms was obtained in the range of 50-104 µg/mL and found to be more effective than commercially available standard erythromycin. Murashige and Skoog medium containing IBA was found to be suitable for maximum biomass production of C. olivetorum under bioreactor conditions. The cultured lichen biomass extract also showed

  13. Resistência de genótipos de batata ao pulgão Potato genotypes resistance to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Lara

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resistência (e antibiose de genótipos de batata, comerciais e em fase de melhoramento, ao pulgão Myzus persicae, em ensaios efetuados com plantas em vasos, sem chance de escolha, em Jaboticabal (SP. Foram efetuados seis experimentos, utilizando-se um total de 16 genótipos, a saber: 'Achat', 'Apuã', 'Aracy', 'Aracy Ruiva', 'Bintje', 'Ibitu Açu', 'Itararé', 'N 140-201', 'NYL 235-4', '288.719-13', '288.764-26', '288.776-3', '288.776-6', '288.794-19', '288.801-6' e '288.814-7'. Em cada experimento foram utilizadas combinações variadas dos mesmos. Nos dois primeiros experimentos as plantas foram infestadas com 30 pulgões adultos por planta, distribuídos em três folhas, com três avaliações realizadas em semanas subseqüentes à infestação, contando-se o número de indivíduos por planta. O terceiro experimento foi conduzido aprisionando-se duas fêmeas adultas no interior de pequenas gaiolas fixadas na face abaxial dos folíolos, em número de dez por planta, avaliando-se a reprodução do pulgão após sete dias, em dois plantios. No quarto experimento efetuou-se a infestação da planta com 15 pulgões, avaliando-se o crescimento da população na planta toda durante três semanas consecutivas. No quinto experimento foi avaliada a descendência de uma única fêmea adulta por folíolo e no sexto experimento avaliou-se o peso dos pulgões aos sete dias de vida. Os tricomas glandulares presentes nos folíolos e a funcionalidade dos mesmos também foram avaliados. A cultivar 'Ibitu Açu' apresentou elevado grau de antibiose a M. persicae; os genótipos '288.776-3' e '288.794-19' também apresentaram esse tipo de resistência, em grau moderado; '288.719-13' e '288.764-26' foram resistentes ao pulgão, provavelmente devido à presença de tricomas glandulares funcionais, dos tipos A e B, em seus folíolos (antixenose; entre os mais suscetíveis destacaram-se 'Bintje' e '288.801-6'.Potato genotypes and clones were evaluated

  14. ”Hvad angår det mig som jurist?” - refleksion over jurastuderendes møde med nye fagligheder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Victoria Johansen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jurastuderende på danske universiteter bliver i stigende grad introduceret for tværfaglig undervisning, som giver dem mulighed for at kunne reflektere over deres fag udefra. Mange jurastuderende møder dog disse kurser med en stærk monofaglig forståelse opnået gennem deres hidtidige jurastudium. Deres læreproces i løbet af kurserne er derfor afhængig af undervisers håndtering af denne allerede etablerede jurafaglige identitet. Med udgangspunkt i Steen Becks sammentænkning af læringsteoretikerne Jean Piaget og Lev Vygotsky argumenterer denne artikel for, at tværfaglig undervisning på jurastudiet indebærer mere end blot at lære ny teori og nye metoder; den forudsætter også aflæring af de faglige forståelser, som særligt skygger for at kunne inddrage andre discipliner end den juridiske. Artiklen beskriver denne balance mellem aflæring og nylæring gennem en refleksion over min undervisning på et obligatorisk bachelorfag samt et kursusfag på kandidatuddannelsen ved Det Juridiske Fakultet, Københavns Universitet. Disse kurser har forskellige betingelser i forhold til den undervisningstid, der kan allokeres til de studerendes arbejde med nye metodiske tilgange. Ud over disse organisatoriske forskelle har det dog også vist sig, at undervisers anvendelse af de første undervisningsgange kan være afgørende for de studerendes læreproces, samt at metakommunikation om aktiviteterne bør være meget tydelig. Law students at Danish universities are increasingly being introduced to interdisciplinary teaching that allows them to reflect on their subjects from an outside perspective. Many law students, however, approach these courses with a strong mono professional understanding obtained through their law studies. Consequently, their learning process during these courses is dependent on the teacher's handling of this already established legal professional identity. Based on Steen Beck's fusion of educational theorists Jean Piaget and

  15. Severe-Use Polymers Les polymères utilisés dans des conditions extrêmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy P. E.

    2006-11-01

    mettre en forme des polymères stables. Ces types de polymères comprennent des aromatiques polyphénylènes, les polyesters, des polyamides, des polyimides, de nombreux matériaux de base hétérocycliques, à structure échelleet minérale. On discute dans cet article des synthèses et des propriétés de certains de ces polymères. Les applications géothermiques se font dans le domaine des joints en élastomère qui exigent une résistance à la réduction et à l'hydrolyse. Les formulations les plus réussies sont l'EPDM et les élastomères fluorés, le premier étant supérieur et étant utilisé maintenant dans ce domaine. Les utilisations sous-marines de longue durée des élastomères exigent une résistance à l'imprégnation et à l'absorption de l'eau, à l'hydrolyse et à la lixiviation des constituants du caoutchouc. La solubilité et le taux d'imprégnation augmentent fortement avec la température, ces effets pouvant être utilisés pour évaluer la longévité. Des laminés double couche d'élastomères différents ont une imprégnation qui dépend de la direction et qui ne correspond pas aux moyennes calculées et acceptées.

  16. Methodological study of air quality using lichens as ecological bio-indicators, chemical element bio-accumulators and oxidative stress bio-markers; Etude methodologique de la qualite de l'air en Lorraine-Nord par les lichens: contribution en tant que bioindicateurs ecologiques, bioaccumulateurs d'elements chimiques et biomarqueurs du stress oxydant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signoret, J.

    2002-11-15

    The objective of this thesis was to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of the atmospheric pollutions on lichens in experimental conditions of field (Lorraine region, France). Techniques of sampling areas analysis for epiphytic lichens were little developed in bio-indication. Without a precise method and a solid validation of the choices of the surface of sampling, survey analysis continue to be subjective and comparative studies and hypotheses testing are rough. To examine this problem, we tested an operational technique of sampling and spatial analysis, based on digitized and geo-referenced data, which makes more objective the lichen covering and frequency assessment. We present a simple example to demonstrate how our investigations will allow to do the link between survey and air quality diagnosis, with perspectives on i) stratified random sampling techniques of lichen communities based on the image interpretation, ii) multi-scale sampling techniques to estimate the efficiency of the sampling grid classically used in bio-monitoring and iii) GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and geostatistical techniques to study floristic and ecological variations at every sampling point. The transplantation is a field technique used for the study air pollution effects and chemical elements accumulation on the lichen symbiosis. Precipitation is known to play an important role in the uptake and release of chemical elements by lichen thalli, but few information was available on their roles in the lichen resistance exposed to photo-oxidizing pollutants. We used this technique to study the effects of gas pollutants and airborne chemical elements on the lichen physiology exposed or not at precipitation. To analyze these interactions, the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. was transplanted to 5 locations of the Moselle valley with different levels of air pollution for 14, 34 and 68 days (summer 2001). In each of these sites, 6 transplantation designs, covered or

  17. Pharmacological characterization of the bradykinin B2 receptor: inter-species variability and dissociation between binding and functional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, J L; Luccarini, J M; Fouchet, C; Defrêne, E; Loillier, B; Robert, C; Bélichard, P; Cremers, B; Pruneau, D

    1999-03-01

    1. The present study addresses the differences in binding profiles and functional properties of the human and rat bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor using various kinin receptor peptide derivatives as well as the non-peptide receptor antagonists WIN 64338 (phosphonium, [[4-[[2-[[bis(cyclohexylamino)methylene]amino]-3-(2-naphtalenyl)1- oxopropyl]amino]-phenyl]-methyl]tributyl, chloride, monohydro-chloride), and FR173657 (E)-3-(6-acetamido-3-pyridyl)-N-[-N-[2,4-dichloro-3-[(2-methyl-8-quinoli nyl)oxymethyl]-phenyl]N-methylamino carbonyl methyl] acrylamide. 2. [3H]-BK bound with a similar affinity to membranes of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) expressing the cloned human (hB2-CHO) or rat (rB2-CHO) B2 receptor, human embryonic intestine cells (INT407) expressing the native B2 receptor, human umbilical vein (HUV) and rat uterus (RU). WIN 64338 and FR173657 bound with a 3.8-6.6 fold and 7.0-16.3 fold higher affinity the rat than the human B2 receptor, respectively. The affinity values of BK derivatives as well as non-peptide antagonists were reduced by 6-23 fold in physiological HBSS compared to low ionic strength TES binding buffer. 3. BK (0.01-3000 nM) increased inositol triphosphates (IP3) levels in hB2-CHO, rB2-CHO and INT407 cells. The B2 receptor antagonist, Hoe 140 (D-Arg0-[ Hyp3, Thi5, D-Tic7, Oic8]-BK) at 10(-7) M, significantly shifted to the right the IP3 response curves to BK giving apparent pKB values of 8.56, 9.79 and 8.84 for hB2-CHO, rB2-CHO and INT407 cells, respectively. 4. In human isolated umbilical vein, Hoe 140, D-Arg0-[Hyp3, D-Phe7, Leu8]-BK and NPC 567 had a lower potency in functional assays (pKB 8.18, 5.77 and 5.60, respectively) than expected from their affinity in binding studies (pKi 10.52, 8.64 and 8.27, respectively). 5. FR173657 behaved as a high affinity ligand with pKi values of 8.59 and 9.81 and potent competitive antagonist with pKB values of 7.80 and 8.17 in HUV and RU, respectively. FR173657 bound with a similar affinity the cloned

  18. Biotechnologie : marchés et engagement des sociétés pétrolières Biotechnology: Markets and Commitments of Oil Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torck B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'intérêt pour les biotechnologies s'est accru à la suite du développement, après 1975, de techniques basées sur le génie génétique (rDNA, fusion. Bien que les prévisions soient difficiles dans ce domaine nouveau et en pleine expansion, le marché mondial des biotechnologies pourrait atteindre en l'an 2000, 150 milliards de dollars, dont 40 à 60 % pour les secteurs de la santé, de l'agriculture et de l'alimentation. D'autres secteurs sont également concernés, tels que l'environnement, l'énergie, la bioingénierie (bioréacteurs, enzymes immobilisées, membranes, chromatographie. . . et la chimie. D'un point de vue économique, les biotechnologies sont mieux adaptées à la production de substances à haute valeur ajoutée qu'à celle de produits de gros tonnage. Les produits qui connaissent un développement important sont les enzymes, les amino-acides, les biopolymères. . . Pour les produits de plus gros tonnage, les voies biotechnologiques se heurtent aux réalités économiques, en particulier aux prix comparatifs du pétrole et des céréales ou du sucre. Des procédés, non rentables pour l'instant, ont récemment été mis au point pour des produits tels que l'acrylamide, l'oxyde de propylène, l'hydroquinone, le nylon, le polyphénylène, les diacides. Les Etats-Unis conservent le leadership. Le Japon est sur le point de les rejoindre, tandis que le modèle européen se caractérise par les difficultés de transfert vers l'industrie. Les grandes firmes chimiques, telles que Rhône Poulenc et Impérial Chemical Industries (ICI ont déjà un long passé dans les biotechnologies mais d'autres telles que Monsanto, Du Pont, Mitsubishi. . . , s'y sont engagées récemment. Une analyse de brevets fait apparaître que les sociétés pétrolières s'y intéressent également, pour l'instant de manière moins importante. Leurs préoccupations restent traditionnelles : les polysaccharides, les enzymes immobilisées pour l

  19. General Aviation Citizen Science Pilot Study to Help Tackle Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, R.

    2017-12-01

    Aerial remote sensing conducted by volunteer pilots acting as citizen scientists is providing high-quality data to help understand reasons behind outbreaks of toxic algal blooms in nation's waterways and coastlines. The toxic water can be detrimental to national economy, human health, clean drinking water, fishing industry, and water sports. We will show how general aviation pilots around the country are contributing to this NASA citizen science initiative.