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Sample records for lepidoptera tortricidae egg

  1. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  2. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, W.D., E-mail: weliton.silva@usp.b [Department of Entomology and Acarology, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology and Insect Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, ' Luiz de Queiroz' College of Agriculture, Padua Dias Avenue, 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba (Brazil); Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T. [Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Centenario Avenue 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD{sub 90} and LD{sub 99} were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  3. Rapid assessment of the sex of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs and larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrbová, Iva; Neven, L. G.; Bárcenas, N. M.; Gund, N. A.; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 4 (2009), s. 249-261 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1860 Grant - others:International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 58-5352-4-F004; International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 12055/R; Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food(DE) 05OE023/2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * molecular markers * period gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2009

  4. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Wearing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10–15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host–plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management.

  5. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10-15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS) was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host-plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management.

  6. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs on lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2014-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is a quarantined pest in most countries. Its establishment in California and potential spread to other parts of the state and beyond make it urgent to develop effective postharvest treatments to control the pest on fresh commodities. Fumigation with cylindered phosphine at low temperature has emerged to be a practical methyl bromide alternative treatment for postharvest pest control on fresh commodities. However, its use to control E. postvittana eggs on sensitive commodities such as lettuce is problematic. E. postvittana eggs are tolerant of phosphine and long phosphine treatment also injures lettuce. In the current study, E. postvittana eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigations to develop an effective treatment at a low storage temperature of 2 degrees C. In addition, soda lime as a CO2 absorbent was tested to determine its effects in reducing and preventing injuries to lettuce associated with phosphine fumigations. Three-day fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 achieved 100% mortality of E. postvittana eggs in small-scale laboratory tests. In the presence of the CO2 absorbent, a 3-d large-scale fumigation of lettuce with 1,700 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 resulted in a relative egg mortality of 99.96% without any negative effect on lettuce quality. The 3-d fumigation treatment without the CO2 absorbent, however, resulted in significant injuries to lettuce and consequential quality reductions. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation has the potential to control E. postvittana eggs and the CO2 absorbent has the potential to prevent injuries and quality reductions of lettuce associated with long-term oxygenated phosphine fumigation.

  7. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of the invasive Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development in European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early and late stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 Gy or left untr...

  8. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  9. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  10. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Modeling codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae phenology and predicting egg hatch in apple orchards of the Maule Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barros-Parada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in the Maule Region to characterize the phenology of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L. The Predictive Extension Timing Estimator (PETE and a logistic phenological model were validated with eight data sets of cumulative moth catches in sex pheromone (PH and kairomone-baited traps and the cumulative occurrence of fruit injuries from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards during the 2009-2011 seasons. Second, the start of egg hatch was predicted from the first sustained male and female moth catches (biofix in traps baited with pear ester (PE, PE+acetic acid (AA, PE+PH, and PH alone. Both phenological models fit data well except that the logistic provided a better fit than the PETE model of the phenology of egg hatch of the codling moth in the first generation, with a difference of 11 d between models in the prediction of 50% egg hatch. No significant difference was found between biofix dates established for males using either PH or PE+PH lures or for the biofix date based on female catches with PE+AA or PH+PE. The biofix established with the sustained female catch occurred nearly 11 d later than the male-based biofix. The use of a female biofix provided on average a 4-d improvement in the prediction of first egg hatch compared with the traditional use of a male biofix, but this difference was not significant. The use of PE+AA lures increased the proportion of cases when a female-based biofix could be established compared with the use of the PH+PE lure.

  12. The Tortricidae described by J. C. Fabricius (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baixeras, Joaquin; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The identity and nomenclature of the 88 species of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) described by J. C. Fabricius are reviewed. Type material deposited in the Natural History Museum Denmark is illustrated. Lectotypes for Tinea compositella (Fabricius, 1775), Pyralis rivellana (Fabricius, 1775) and P...

  13. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  14. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs; Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastori, Patrik L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: plpastori@yahoo.com.br; Monteiro, Lino B. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Fitotecnia e Fitossanitarismo]. E-mail: lbmonteiro@terra.com.br; Botton, Marcos [EMBRAPA, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Uva e Vinho]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br; Pratissoli, Dirceu [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal). E-mail: pratissoli@cca.ufes.br

    2007-11-15

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  15. Within-tree distribution of Ecdytolopha torticornis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae oviposition on macadamia nuts

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    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical distribution of eggs of the macadamia nutborer Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae and its preference of oviposition sites within and between macadamia cultivars were studied in Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica, in 1992 (N = 6 939. E. torticornis eggs were found throughout the foliar parts of the tree, but fewer eggs were laid in the crown top than in the mid or lower crown. Differences in the horizontal distribution of the eggs were not significant, albeit more eggs were found in the outer positions. The numbers of eggs found within the crowns of different clones were similar, implying that the nutborer has no preference for a particular cultivar.Se determinó la distribución vertical de los huevos del barrenador de la nuez de macadamia Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y los sitios de preferencia de oviposición en los árboles y entre clones de macadamia. Se detectó la presencia de huevos de E. torticornis en todo el árbol, sin embargo, se encontró un menor número de huevos en la parte alta de la corona que en la parte media e inferior. La diferencia en la distribución horizontal de los huevos fue no significativa, a pesar de encontrarse un mayor número de huevos en las posiciones externas. El número de huevos entre clones fue similar, sugiriendo que la polilla del barrenador no tiene preferencias de oviposición entre clones.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Acleris fimbriana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Liang; Wu, Yu-Peng; Su, Tian-Juan; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-05-01

    The yellow tortrix, Acleris fimbriana belongs to Tortricidae in Lepidoptera. We described the complete mitogenome of A. fimbriana, which is typical circular duplex molecules and 15,933 bp in length containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an A + T-rich region with macro-repeat sequences. All the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN) which lacks the DHU arm. The A. fimbriana mitochondrial genome has the same gene order with other lepidopterans.

  17. Costs of insecticide resistance in Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Joanna K; Scott, Ian M; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2012-06-01

    The obvious benefits associated with insecticide resistance for pest species may come at a cost to other life-history traits. In this study, we compared the larval and pupal developmental times, pupal mass wing surface area and wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in insecticide resistant and control strains of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), collected from apple (Malus spp.) orchards in central Canada. Resistant strains had significantly longer larval developmental times and lower pupal masses compared with the susceptible strain. Although the forewings of resistant moths were smaller in resistant than control strain, no difference in wing FA was detected. Longer developmental times could increase exposure time to natural enemies, and reduced adult size could affect longevity and total reproductive output.

  18. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits in many countries, including the United States. The distribution of this pest is concentrated in areas receiving higher than lower rainfall. It prefers sites where stone fruits and apple...

  19. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  20. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  1. Development of Sparganothis sulfureana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Cranberry Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Erin E.; Guédot, Christelle

    2018-01-01

    Sparganothis fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a serious pest of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton), a native North American fruit cultivated in northern regions of the United States and southeastern Canada. This study assessed antibiosis in several cranberry cultivars commonly grown in Wisconsin. Five cultivars previously shown to host different levels of populations of S. sulfureana in commercial cranberry were assessed in this study to evaluate the performance of S. sulfureana amongst these cultivars. We measured growth and time to developmental stages of newly emerged larvae to adulthood on selected cranberry cultivars in the laboratory. There was no difference in the rates of survival to pupation and to adult emergence among any of the cultivars tested. Mid-instar larvae that fed on the cultivar ‘Ben Lear’ were heavier than those feeding on ‘GH-1’, ‘Stevens’, or ‘HyRed’, and larvae that fed on ‘Mullica Queen’ were heavier than those feeding on ‘HyRed’. However, there were no significant differences in pupal weights or in the number of days from neonate to adult emergence among varieties. Therefore, this study did not provide evidence of antibiosis among the cultivars tested, and found that larval weight was not correlated with other measurements of performance. PMID:29301287

  2. Effects of orchard host plants on the oviposition preference of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Recently, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), has emerged as a major problem on apples (Malus spp.) grown in the mid-Atlantic and midwestern United States, despite its historically important and frequent occurrence as a peach (Prunus spp.) pest. It is possible that host-driven biological phenomena may be contributing to changes in G. molesta population dynamics resulting in outbreaks in apple. Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oviposition behavior, in an effort to clarify the host association status of eastern U.S. populations and also to gain insight into how pest modeling and management efforts may be altered to take into account various host-associated effects. G. molesta adults exhibited ovipositional preference for nonbearing peach trees over nonbearing apple trees in close-range choice tests conducted in the field, regardless of the larval host origin. A significant preference for peach shoots over apple shoots was observed on six of 12 sampling dates with a wild G. molesta population at the interface of adjacent peach and apple blocks. Numbers of eggs found on apple fruit were higher after peach fruit were harvested and apple fruit began to approach maturity (during the flight period for third and fourth brood adults). Possible implications for population modeling and integrated management of G. molesta are discussed.

  3. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  4. Efeito de dietas artificiais para a alimentação de adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, em laboratório Effect of artificial diets for the adults of Bonagota cranaodes feeding (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lazzerini da Fonseca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae submetidos a tratamentos com água, solução de mel a 10%, solução de mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja e sem alimento foram mantidos em gaiolas de PVC transparente para avaliar a fecundidade, longevidade e viabilidade de ovos em laboratório a 25±1°C e 70±10% de UR. Maior longevidade de fêmeas e machos e número de ovos/fêmea foram obtidos nos substratos compostos de mel a 10% (17,75 dias, 17,35 dias e 14,07 ovos/postura e mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja (18,25 dias, 18,20 dias e 12,71 ovos/postura. A viabilidade dos ovos e a duração do período embrionário foram semelhantes em todos os tratamentos. O substrato alimentar mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja, apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao substrato composto de apenas mel a 10% sobre a longevidade, fertilidade e viabilidade dos ovos. Entretanto, devido ao menor custo, a dieta a base de mel apresenta melhor potencial de utilização para manutenção da criação do inseto em laboratório.Adults of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae were maintained in cages of transparent PVC without food, with water, and fed with honey solution at 10% and with honey solution at 10% + 25% of beer only with water and without feeding to evaluate their fecundity, longevity and viability of eggs in growth to (25±1°C and 70±10% of RU. The longevity of females and males was longer and number of eggs/female were obtained in the mean substratum composed of honey at 10% (17,75 days, 17,35 days and 14,07 eggs/posture and honey at 10% + 25% of beer (18,25 days, 18,20 days and 12,71 eggs/posture. The viability of the eggs and the duration of the embryonic period was similar in all the treatments. The mean with honey at 10% + 25% of beer, presented effects similar to the mean composed with honey at 10% regarding to the longevity, fertility and viability of eggs of B. cranaodes. However, due to the lower cost, the diet based only in honey represents

  5. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Arthur, Valter; Blackburn, Carl M.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2013-08-01

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that 10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time.

  6. First record Cydia alazon (Diakonoff, 1976) from La Palma Islands (Canary Islands, Spain) with taxonomic and ecological notes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 136 (2006), s. 371-378 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Tortricidae * Cydia alazon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  7. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  8. Pheromone-based disruption of Eucosma sonomana and Rhyacionia zozana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Sylvia R. Mori

    2006-01-01

    Two aerial applications of microencapsulated pheromone were conducted on five 20.2 ha plots to disrupt western pine shoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott) and ponderosa pine tip moth (Rhyacionia zowna (Kearfott): Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) orientation to pheromones and oviposition in ponderosa pine plantations in 2002 and 2004...

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  10. Controle químico da Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae na cultura do pessegueiro Chemical control of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach orchards

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    Cristiano João Arioli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa oriental Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae é a principal praga da cultura do pessegueiro no Brasil. O controle do inseto depende basicamente do emprego de inseticidas de alta toxicidade e baixa seletividade aos inimigos naturais. Este trabalho avaliou os inseticidas etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 e 150mL 100L-1, benzoato de emamectina (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 e 15g 100L-1 + óleo mineral (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC, 40 e 60mL 100L-1 e spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 e 25mL 100L-1 para o controle da G. molesta na cultura do pessegueiro. No experimento de laboratório, somente o etofemprox apresentou baixa mortalidade (±50% de lagartas. Em pomar comercial, todos os inseticidas e doses testadas reduziram o nível de injúria nos ponteiros em nível superior a 80%. Os inseticidas avaliados apresentam características desejáveis para uso no manejo integrado da G. molesta, destacando-se a baixa toxicidade e reduzida dose de aplicação, o que minimiza os riscos ao homem e ambiente.Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is the most important peach pest in Brazil. Pest management is based on chemical control using insecticides with high toxicity and low selectivity to natural enemies. Etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 and 150mL 100L-1, emamectin benzoato (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 and 15g 100L-1 associated to mineral oil (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC 40 and 60mL 100L-1, spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 and 25mL 100L-1 and fosmet (Imidan 500 PM, 200g 100L-1 were evaluated in laboratory and field conditions to G. molesta control. In laboratory, only etofemprox resulted in low mortality (± 50% in residual bioassay. In commercial peach orchards, all insecticides reduced pest damage (> 80%. All insecticides shows characteristics for use in the integrated management of G. molesta including low toxicity and reduced application dose.

  11. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

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    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ya-jun; Shi, Bao-cai; Kang, Zong-jiang; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Shu-jun

    2012-03-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) currently is one of the economically most destructive pest species of stone and pome fruits worldwide. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,776 bp long, with an A + T content of 81.24%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A + T-rich region. All gene are arranged as hypothesized ancestral gene order of insects except for trnM, which was shuffled from 3' downstream of trnQ to 5' upstream of trnI. cox1 gene uses unusual CGA start codon, as that in all other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genome. The secondary structures for the two rRNA genes were predicted. All helices typically present in insect mitochondrial rRNA genes are generated. A microsatellite sequence was inserted into the region of H2347 in rrnL in G. molesta and two other sequenced tortricid mitochondrial genomes, indicating that the insertion event in this helix might occurred anciently in family Tortricidae. All of the 22 typical animal tRNA genes have a typical cloverleaf structure except for trnS2, in which the D-stem pairings in the DHU arm are absent. An intergenic sequence is present between trnQ and nad2 as well as in other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, which was presumed to be a remnant of trnM gene and its boundary sequences after the duplication of trnM to the upstream of trnI in Lepidoptera. The A + T-rich region is 836 bp, containing six repeat sequences of "TTATTATTATTATTAAATA(G)TTT."

  13. Operational considerations for augmentation of Trichogramma exiguum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for suppression of Rhyacionia frustrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Pinus taeda plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Michael M; Orr, David B

    2008-04-01

    Studies were performed to assess the operational feasibility of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) augmentation for suppression of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in commercial loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., plantations. Single inundative releases containing two cohorts of encapsulated T. exiguum at a potential rate of 224,200 +/- 27,600 females per ha per cohort were made into two 4-ha plots during the second R. frustrana generation in 2000. Augmentation failed to increase parasitism rates above those occurring naturally; yet, 10% fewer shoots were attacked by R. frustrana, but not below acceptable levels. Quality control data suggest that low emergence levels and intense predation by ants upon developing T. exiguum lowered actual release rates to 13,000 +/- 900 females per ha per cohort. The effect of capsule distribution and microclimate on the discovery of capsules by predators (indicated by some E. kuehniella egg removal), parasitoid predation (percentage of eggs removed or destroyed), and subsequent parasitoid emergence was investigated. Uniformly distributed capsules experienced significantly higher predation levels than clustered capsules, and capsules exposed to field conditions for 5 d experienced higher predation than those exposed for 3 d, independently of distribution. Discovery of capsules by predators was unaffected by distribution or exposure period. Microhabitat significantly impacted average maximum daily temperature, the number of consecutive hours per day at or above 35 degrees C, and parasitoid emergence percentages. Parasitoid emergence declined significantly in response to increasing number of consecutive hours per day above 35 degrees C. Microclimate did not impact capsule discovery by predators or predation levels. Augmentation of T. exiguum for suppression of R. frustrana damage may not be practical within P. taeda plantations.

  14. Biologia e exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae sobre ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Biology and thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

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    Regina da Silva Borba

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia de Trichogramma em laboratório, visando a sua utilização em programas de manejo integrado para o controle de Bonagota cranaodes na cultura da macieira. A biologia de Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja e de duas linhagens (L3 e L4 de Trichogramma pretiosum foi realizada sobre ovos de B. cranaodes. Além disso, suas exigências térmicas e o número anual de gerações também foram determinados. A linhagem L3 apresentou maior parasitismo (52,3%, no entanto, a viabilidade foi semelhante entre as linhagens estudadas, com ciclo evolutivo de 8,7 dias, longevidade de fêmeas de 10,65 dias, temperatura base de 11,35°C e constante térmica de 128,70GD. O número de gerações anuais dessa linhagem em laboratório foi de 47,22 e de 13,59 gerações para as condições da região de Vacaria - RS. O baixo parasitismo de T. bruni e da linhagem L4 de T. pretiosum pode estar ligado à camada de secreção existente sobre as posturas da praga. Embora este parasitismo seja considerado baixo, a utilização destas linhagens não pode ser descartada dentro do sistema de Produção Integrada da Maçã, devendo novos estudos serem realizados em condições de campo.This work was aimed at studyng the biology of Trichogramma in laboratory, in search of its use in integrated management programs to control Bonagota cranaodes in culture of the apple. The biology of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja and of two lineages (L3 and L4 of Trichogramma pretiosum on eggs of B. cranaodes was done such their thermal demands and annual number of generations. The line L3 presented more parasitism (52.3%, however, the feseability was similar among the lineages studied; with biological cycle of 8.7 days; the longevity of females was 10.65 days; low threshold temperature of 11.35°C and thermal requirement of 128.70 GD, the number of annual generations this line in laboratory was 47.22 and 13.59 for Vacaria-RS climate conditions. The low

  15. Toxicity and residual activity of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide to codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G; Long, John W

    2004-08-01

    A series of studies were conducted to examine the residual activity and toxicity of the ecdysone agonists tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in North Carolina apple systems. Methoxyfenozide exhibited greater activity than tebufenozide against codling moth eggs in dose-response bioassays, with a 4.5- and 5.3-fold lower LC50 value to eggs laid on fruit treated before or after oviposition, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs were 57- and 12-fold less sensitive to methoxyfenozide than were codling moth eggs on fruit treated before and after oviposition, respectively. Methoxyfenozide was effective in reducing larval entries of both codling moth and oriental fruit moth in field residual activity bioassays, exhibiting activity for at least 28 d after application. Residue breakdown on fruit was approximately 80% at 28 d after treatment for both methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, with the most rapid residue decline (60%) occurring during the first 14 d after application. Two applications of methoxyfenozide applied at 14-d intervals provided better canopy coverage and higher residue levels than one application. Spray volume (683 versus 2,057 liters/ha) did not affect the efficacy of methoxyfenozide. Leaf and fruit expansion during the season was measured to determine potential plant-growth dilution effects on residual activity. There was very little increase in leaf area after mid May, but increase in fruit surface area over the season was described by a second order polynomial regression. Implications for codling moth and oriental fruit moth management programs are discussed.

  16. Labeling Feral Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Populations With Rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Wayne; Eveleigh, Eldon; Silk, Peter; Forbes, Glen

    2016-04-01

    Rubidium (Rb) is a trace element that occurs naturally in low concentrations and is easily absorbed by plants, making it a useful tool for labeling insect defoliators, such as spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens). Balsam fir trees (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) injected with either 8 or 16 g per tree of rubidium chloride (RbCl) showed quick uptake and distribution throughout the crown, with no negative effects on tree shoot growth or spruce budworm survival and development. Adult spruce budworm that fed as larvae on trees injected with RbCl were clearly labeled, with significantly higher Rb concentrations than the background levels found in adults that fed as larvae on control trees. Rb concentrations in feral spruce budworm adults for both the 8 g (9 µg/g) and 16 g (25 µg/g) per tree treatments were at least five times lower than those in laboratory-reared adults on 1,000 µg/g RbCl diet (125 µg/g); survival, development, pupal weight, sex ratio, and mating status of spruce budworm were not adversely affected by Rb treatment. Egg masses laid by feral females that fed as larvae on Rb-labeled trees were also labeled with Rb. Injecting trees with RbCl is a viable technique for labeling feral spruce budworm populations to help distinguish local populations from immigrants to better evaluate the success of early intervention strategies such as mating disruption. © Crown copyright 2016.

  17. Effects of orchard host plants (apple and peach) on development of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2007-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apple, Malus domestica Borkh., and peach, Prunus persica L.) on the development of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Oriental fruit moth larvae developed faster on peach than on apple, both on fruit as well as on growing terminal shoots. On fruit, these differences were shown to cause significant changes in both the rate (approximately 20-60 degree-days earlier emergence on peach than on apple) and patterns of adult emergence among several cultivars of peaches and apples. Slopes of female emergence plots varied by host in 2003, with emergence occurring over a longer period on peach cultivars than on apple cultivars (with one exception). Slopes of male emergence curves did not differ by cultivar in 2003. These host-driven effects could impact the efficacy of traditional pest management approaches and probably complicate efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in mixed cultivar orchards. Such developmental effects may help to explain previously observed differences in patterns of pheromone trap captures in peach versus apple orchards. Host-associated effects should be incorporated into future models to develop more realistic predictive tools and thus improve integrated pest management efforts.

  18. Whole-farm mating disruption to manage Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in diversified New Jersey orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollerup, Kris E; Rucker, Ann; Shearer, Peter W

    2012-10-01

    Fruit orchards in New Jersey are usually isolated from neighboring farms and diversified, often containing separate plantings of peach (Prunus spp.) and apple (Malus spp.). These crops can suffer significant damage from oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). This study evaluated the effect of managing G. molesta by using sex pheromone-based mating disruption applied to both peaches and apples (whole-farm mating disruption) rather than treating either crop alone. In year 1 of the experiment, G. molesta mating disruption applied to the adjacent peach and apple blocks provided better control than treating peaches or apples alone. During year 2, treating these adjacent blocks or only treating apples controlled G. molesta equally well. G. molesta populations were so low at the end of year 2 that mating disruption was not applied against this pest during year 3. This allowed us to determine whether applying mating disruption for two consecutive years controlled G. molesta well enough that it eliminated the need mating disruption for three consecutive years. The mean cumulative number of G. molesta captured in plots where both peaches and apples had been treated did not exceed two moths per trap in the third year of this experiment. In contrast, G. molesta capture rebounded during August in peaches and apples that had not been treated with mating disruption the previous 2 yr. Implications for managing G. molesta by using mating disruption as a "whole-farm" tactic as well applying it for two consecutive years and not a third year are discussed.

  19. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Kumar, Sunil; Yee, Wee L; Wakie, Tewodros

    2018-02-17

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits that cause significant economic damage. Larvae, which enter the host plant through shoot tips, damage shoots, and ripe fruits. Native to Asia, this pest now occurs in many fruit-growing countries, including the United States and Canada. Though the pest was previously reported from many states within the United States, its current distribution and the environmental variables that influence its distribution are not properly identified. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify the environmental factors associated with G. molesta current distribution, 2) predict the current distribution of G. molesta in Washington State (WA) using Maxent and Climex models, 3) identify those areas within WA best suited for establishment of pest free zones, areas of low pest prevalence, and pest free production areas, and 4) identify regions most at risk for further expansion of G. molesta populations as a function of climate change. The current models predicted a small portion of central WA is suitable to support G. molesta, which is consistent with observed distributions. However, climate change models predict that more areas will become suitable for the pest. These results indicate that action should be taken to monitor and reduce current populations of G. molesta to stem its potential expansion into the major commercial tree fruit production areas in the state.

  20. Differentiating Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, Myriam; Bouvier, Floriane; Maugin, Sandrine; Lecomte, Alain; Lavigne, Claire

    2015-02-01

    Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are two important lepidopteran pests that may co-occur in apple orchards and are difficult to differentiate in the larval stage. We investigate the possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with partial least squares analysis to distinguish the larvae of the two species. We further assess whether wild individuals can be differentiated using laboratory strains of the two species for model calibration. The NIRS spectra of C. molesta and C. pomonella differed most in the wavelengths between 1,142 and 1,338 nm. Using these wavelengths, partial least squares analysis allowed the differentiation of C. molesta and C. pomonella at the larval stage with very low error, but only as long as both the calibration and prediction sets for individuals had the same origin (either both from the laboratory or both from the field). Errors that appeared when using laboratory individuals for calibration were owing to the divergence of the C. pomonella laboratory strain, most likely following evolution during rearing. Thus, NIRS appears to be a promising tool for the easy and rapid identification of individuals in the field, provided that it is calibrated based on a subset of field individuals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  2. Yield-based economic thresholds for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in juice grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2013-04-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial juice grape (Vitis labrusca L.) vineyards to develop an economic injury level (EIL) for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and to determine patterns of cluster injury. Infestation of grape clusters by P. viteana was measured biweekly from bloom until harvest, and fruit was sampled immediately before harvest to determine the yield and level of fruit injury by this pest. Comparison of fruit infestation at each sampling date to that found just before harvest revealed stronger relationships over time, and by early August at least 50% of the variation in preharvest infestation was accounted for by previous infestation. Grape yield declined with increasing infestation by P. viteana, allowing calculation of the EIL at which the value of yield lost to infestation equaled the cost of insecticide applications to prevent the infestation. Using two scenarios of pest control programs based on pyrethroid or diamide insecticides, the EILs were calculated to be 9.9 and 17.7% of clusters damaged, respectively. For use in juice grape vineyard integrated pest management programs, we propose using 5 and 10% damaged clusters at harvest as action thresholds for further testing in field trials to evaluate sampling plans and the use of thresholds to guide vineyard pest management decision-making under different insecticide scenarios.

  3. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. Mating behaviors of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as influenced by sex pheromone in electrostatic powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Stelinski, L L; Gut, L J

    2010-12-01

    Entostat is an electrostatically charged wax powder that can adhere strongly to insect cuticle, making it an ideal carrier to deliver pheromone for pheromone-based confusion techniques. We investigated the attractiveness of Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males treated with pheromone-laden Entostat powder to naive conspecifics as well as mating behaviors of males after such treatment in a laboratory flight tunnel. Male moths exposed to Entostat containing 1% E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) acquired and retained the largest amount of the powder and became more attractive as point sources to naive moths compared with those treated with powder containing 5 or 10% codlemone. All Entostat-exposed males remained as attractive as a 0.1-mg codlemone lure for up to 24 h in flight tunnel investigations. Male moth orientation to normally attractive sources of codlemone was completely disrupted directly after treatment with Entostat powder. Males' ability to orient to 0.1-mg lures recovered progressively over a 6-d postexposure interval; however, their responses never reached the levels observed with untreated control moths. Entostat-exposed moths retained detectable amounts of codlemone up to 4 d. Our laboratory flight tunnel results suggest that the mode of action of Entostat powder as an autodissemination control tactic may be due to creating both attractive false point sources after exposure to the powder as well as directly inhibiting contaminated males' capability to orient to pheromone.

  5. Effect of varying dispenser point source density on mating disruption of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lame, Frédérique M; Epstein, David; Gut, Larry J; Goldfarb, Heidi; Miller, James R

    2010-08-01

    Hand-applied dispensers are successfully used in mating disruption programs, but cost of labor to apply these dispensers limits their adoption. Creating hand-applied dispensers that release larger amounts of pheromone and that can be applied at lower densities per hectare could reduce the cost of mating disruption and increase its use. The effect of reducing the number of point sources per hectare while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant on the success of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) mating disruption was investigated with Confuse-OFM, paraffin disk, and Isomate-M Rosso dispensers. For all dispensers, as point source density decreased, numbers of moths captured increased, percentage of orientation disruption to traps decreased, and variability in these measures increased. Decreasing point source density, even while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant is not a viable option for reducing the cost of G. molesta mating disruption with hand-applied dispensers. Puffers (aerosol dispensers) are applied at 2.5-5 dispensers per ha for G. molesta control. However, hand-applied dispensers fail when clumped at such low numbers of release sites. Potential explanations for the success of Puffers and the failure of hand-applied dispensers at very low point source densities are presented. The utility of paraffin disk dispensers as experimental devices also is discussed.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Major Detoxification Gene Families and Insecticide Targets in Grapholita Molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqiong; Chai, Yanping; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Zhiguo; Gao, Ling-Ling; Ma, Ruiyan

    2017-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important pest of most stone and pome fruits and causes serious damage to the fruit industry worldwide. This insect pest has been primarily controlled through the application of insecticides; as a result, G. molesta has developed resistance to many different types of insecticides. To identify detoxification genes, we have, de novo, sequenced the transcriptome of G. molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and yielded 58,970 unigenes of which 26,985 unigenes matched to known proteins. In total, 2,040 simple sequence repeats have been identified. The comprehensive transcriptome data set has permitted us to identify members of important gene families related to detoxification in G. molesta, including 77 unigenes of putative cytochrome P450s, 28 of glutathione S-transferases, 46 of Carboxylesterases, and 31 of insecticide targets. Orthologs of some of these unigenes have shown to play a pivotal role in insecticide resistance in other insect species and those unigenes likely have similar functions in G. molesta. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. Worldwide host plants of the highly polyphagous, invasive Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockerhoff, E G; Suckling, D M; Ecroyd, C E; Wagstaff, S J; Raabe, M C; Dowell, R V; Wearings, C H

    2011-10-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a highly successful biological invader. It was accidentally introduced to several countries including New Zealand, Hawaii, England, and California. Light brown apple moth attacks a wide range of crop plants and other woody and herbaceous plants, but a more comprehensive analysis of its host range is needed for risk assessments, to evaluate the likely economic and environmental impacts, and to enable targeting of particular plant species for detection surveys and treatments. We reviewed and synthesized the host range and host selection behavior of light brown apple moth by using information from Australia and invaded countries. The host range of light brown apple moth is determined by the behavior of both adult females and larvae. Females use visual, chemical and physical cues to choose host plants. Larvae are capable of limited active dispersal by walking and longer range dispersal by ballooning on silken strands; therefore, larvae also may need to select host plants. We review larval performance indicators across a range of plants. Based on our review, there are at least 545 plant species in 363 genera from 121 families that have been reported as hosts of light brown apple moth. Some plants were reported only once and need verification. Nevertheless, many host plant species and their wide phylogenetic range (from ferns to higher dicotyledons) indicates that light brown apple moth is one of the most polyphagous insects known. This information and our categorization of frequency of host use are valuable for incursion response and pest management activities.

  8. Susceptibility of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae to selected reduced-risk insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    To determine their baseline susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and acetamiprid, oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), neonates were placed on diet cubes containing a range of concentrations of each insecticide. Mortality was assessed after 96 h. Two populations-a long-term laboratory colony from Rutgers University and a colony established in 2007 from a southwestern Illinois (Calhoun County) field population-were tested. We used probit and logit analyses to compare the responses of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on 'Gala' apples (Malus spp.) with those of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L., diet. We also compared the responses of Calhoun colony neonates with those of Rutgers colony neonates (all from parents reared on apples). LC50s (ppm in diet) for Calhoun colony progeny of adults reared on apples were 0.08, 0.06, 0.41, and 0.30, respectively, for chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, acetamiprid, and spinosad. Parental food source (apples versus lima bean diet) did not consistently influence the concentration-mortality relationships for neonates. Based on LC50s and toxicity ratio tests, Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to spinetoram and acetamiprid than were Rutgers colony neonates. Similarly, LC90s and toxicity ratio tests indicated that Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole as well. However, toxicity ratios (Calhoun/Rutgers) were low in all instances, and the highest ratio was 1.73 at LC90 for chlorantraniliprole. Overall, the two colonies responded similarly to these insecticides. Results reported here provide baseline data for future monitoring of resistance development.

  9. Tools for resistance monitoring in oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and first assessment in Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, M; Monteiro, L B; Maugin, S; Olivares, J; Malfitano Carvalho, S; Sauphanor, B

    2011-04-01

    In southern Brazilian apple (Malus spp.) orchards, predominantly organophosphates are used to control the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but control failures often occur. Therefore the susceptibility of three C. molesta Brazilian populations was investigated to five insecticides of different groups and modes of action, in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain mass reared in southern France for >10 yr. At the same time, comparative biochemical and genetic analysis were performed, assessing the activities of the detoxification enzymatic systems and sequencing a gene of insecticide molecular target to find out markers associated with resistance. The three Brazilian populations were significantly resistant to chlorpyrifos ethyl compared with the reference strain. One of the field populations that had been frequently exposed to deltamethrin treatments showed significant decreasing susceptibility to this compound, whereas none of the three populations had loss of susceptibility to tebufenozide and thiacloprid compared with the reference strain. All three populations had slight but significant increases of glutathione transferase and carboxylesterases activities and significant decrease of specific acetylcholinesterase activities compared with the reference. Only the most resistant population to chlorpyriphos exhibited a significantly higher mixed function oxidase activity than the reference. The acetylcholinesterase of females was significantly less inhibited by carbaryl in the Brazilian populations than in the reference strain (1.7-2.5-fold), and this difference was not expressed in the male moth. However, no mutation in the MACE locus was detected. These biological and molecular characterizations of adaptive response to insecticides in C. molesta provide tools for early detection of insecticide resistance in field populations of this pest.

  10. Potencial inseticida de óleos de origem vegetal sobre Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

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    J.F. Colpo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Em decorrência do estudo das interações químicas entre insetos e herbívoros, e do avanço da pesquisa fitoquímica, é conhecida ampla variedade de produtos naturais com potencial inseticida. Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, mariposa-oriental, é uma das principais pragas do pessegueiro, danificando brotações e frutos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a mortalidade, atratividade e deterrência de óleos vegetais em G. molesta. Ovos e pupas de insetos provindos de criação artificial foram imersos nos óleos essenciais de Elionurus muticus (Spreng. Kuntze e Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor nas concentrações de 0,25%, 0,5%, 1% e 0,5%, 1%, 5%. Os testes de atratividade foram realizados em olfatômetro do tipo "Y". A deterrência à oviposição foi testada em gaiolas sem escolha e de dupla escolha. O óleo de E. muticus aplicado em ovos de G. molesta nas três concentrações causou mortalidades maiores que 30%, diferindo significativamente dos controles (p<0,05. A mortalidade causada pelo óleo de citronela foi em torno de 70%, significativamente superior ao controle (p<0,01. O óleo de citronela aplicado a 1% em pupas causou mortalidade de 99,8%. No teste com o olfatômetro, não houve atratividade dos adultos para nenhum dos óleos. A média de ovos no substrato com o tratamento (0,33±0,33, foi significativamente menor que no controle (7,3±0,88 (p<0,01, indicando deterrência à oviposição.

  11. Assessment of SPLAT formulations to control Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a Brazilian apple orchard

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    Cristiano João Arioli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption is a technique that uses synthetic copies of sex pheromones to control insect pests. We aimed to control Oriental fruit moth (OFM Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae with formulations of SPLAT Grafo (SG and SPLAT Grafo Attract and Kill (SGAK in small (1 ha apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards. Our experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard with 'Gala' trees (spacing 1.5 x 4.5 m in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. We evaluated the effect of four treatments on G. molesta population densities: a SG at 1 kg ha-1 (300 point sources of 3.3 g each, b SGAK at 1 kg ha-1 (1000 point sources of 1 g each, c insecticides as recommended by Integrated Apple Production (IAP, and d untreated control (no treatment. Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT treatments were applied on 1 August 2004 and reapplied after 120 d (1 December 2004. The treatment effect was evaluated by weekly counts of males captured in Delta traps baited with commercial synthetic sex pheromone lures (eight traps per treatment. We assessed fruit damage caused by G. molesta in eight replicates of 200 fruits each on 26 October, 30 November 2004, and 5 and 31 January 2005. Applying 1 kg ha-1 of SG and SGAK in August and December 2004 significantly reduced the number of male moths caught in Delta traps. Damage to fruits at harvest, however, did not differ significantly from the control. This indicates a decline in the efficacy of mating disruption when SG and SGAK are used to protect small areas (1 ha under high Oriental fruit moth pressure.

  12. Seasonal and cultivar-associated variation in oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults and feeding behavior of neonate larvae in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-04-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) has become a pest of tree fruits since its introduction to the United States in the early twentieth century. Oriental fruit moth has historically been a major pest problem in peach production, and outbreaks in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the eastern United States were rare until the late 1990s. Recent outbreaks in Mid-Atlantic apple orchards have lead researchers to investigate host-associated effects on oriental fruit moth biology, behavior, and population dynamics. Studies were designed to assess cultivar level effects in apples on oviposition and larval feeding behavior of oriental fruit moth. In a mixed cultivar apple orchard, total oriental fruit moth oviposition and oviposition site preferences varied between cultivars. These preferences also varied over time, when sampling was repeated at various times of the growing season. Although most adult female oriental fruit moth preferentially oviposited in the calyx and stem areas of apple fruit, noticeable numbers of eggs also were laid on the sides of fruit, contradicting some previous reports. Oriental fruit moth females exhibited a strong ovipositional preference for fruit that were previously damaged by oriental fruit moth or codling moth, Cydia ponmonella (L.). The majority of newly hatched oriental fruit moth larvae were observed to spend oriental fruit moth.

  13. Confusão sexual para o controle de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, em pomares de macieira, em Fraiburgo (SC, Brasil Mating disruption for the control of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Lino B. Monteiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae foi avaliado pela técnica de confusão sexual em macieira no município de Fraiburgo (SC. A formulação do feromônio sintético utilizada foi da marca Quant G.m. (400 mg do acetato de (Z/E - 8 - dodecenila 14% p/v, com 500 difusores por hectare, distribuídos em um pomar de macieira comercial 'Fuji' de 2,52 ha. O tratamento com confusão sexual foi comparado com a testemunha convencional. O monitoramento para moscas-das-frutas, Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae; mariposa oriental, Grapholita molesta e lagarta enroladeira, Bonagota cranaodes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae foi realizado para decidir se haveria necessidade de pulverização de inseticidas. Não houve capturas de G. molesta na armadilha do Tipo Delta, instalada no tratamento com confusão sexual até 93 dias após a liberação do feromônio. Nesse período, realizaram-se duas pulverizações para moscas-das-frutas e lagarta-enroladeira no tratamento com confusão sexual e oito pulverizações no tratamento convencional. Os danos causados por G. molesta em ambos os tratamentos não ultrapassaram 0,5%, mesmo com a redução de 77% dos inseticidas no tratamento com confusão sexual. Verifica-se, portanto, que a técnica de confusão sexual é eficiente para o controle de G. molesta.The control of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae was assessed by using the mating disruption technique in an apple orchard in Fraiburgo, SC. Quant G.m. synthetic pheromone formulation (400 mg of (Z/E - 8 - dodecenyl acetate 14% p/v was used, with 500 dispensers per hectare, distributed over a 2.52 hectare 'Fuji' commercial orchard. The mating disruption treatment was compared with a chemical control treatment. The action threshold was determined by monitoring fruit flies Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae, G. molesta and leafroller Bonagota cranaodes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. G. molesta was caught in the Delta traps

  14. Danos de Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em seis cultivares de pessegueiro em Araucária, Paraná Damages of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in six peach orchards cultivars in Aracuária, Paraná

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    Alex Sandro Poltronieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se a ocorrência e os danos de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pomar comercial de pessegueiros com seis cultivares de ciclos de maturação de frutos precoce ('São Pedro', médio ('Chimarrita', 'Ouro', 'Coral' e 'Marli' e tardio ('BR II', no município de Araucária-PR. Foram sorteadas cinco plantas por cultivar para serem avaliados os danos em brotações e frutos. Os danos foram acumulados e avaliados em três fases: pré-raleio, endurecimento do caroço e colheita. Os resultados mostraram que houve um nível diferenciado no ataque de G. molesta em brotações e frutos, entre as cultivares. As avaliações de danos em brotações mostraram que, até a fase de colheita, a cultivar Ouro foi a mais atacada, sendo superada pela 'Chimarrita' quando se inclui os danos ocorridos na fase pós-colheita. Em frutos, a 'Marli' apresentou o maior número de pêssegos danificados entre as seis cultivares avaliadas.This paper deals with the occurrence and damage of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a commercial peach orchard with six cultivars of different fruit ripening cycles: precocious ('São Pedro ', medium ('Chimarrita ', 'Ouro ', 'Coral ' and 'Marli ' and late ('BR II ', in Araucaria, State of Paraná, Brazil. Five plants of each cultivar were selected for evaluating the damages in shoots and fruits. The damages were accumulated and evaluated in three phases: previous thinning, stone hardening and harvesting. The results were as follows: the cultivar "Ouro" was the most damaged one up to the harvesting phase, although 'Chimarrita' surpassed 'Ouro' when the damages observed in the post-harvesting phase were included. Among the six cultivars, 'Marli' was the one presenting the highest number of damaged fruits.

  15. Resurgence of minor pests following the implementation of mating disruption against Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Sherry vineyards (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, A.; López, M. Á.; Lara, M.; Maistrello, L.; Molejón, A.; Ocete, R.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the mating disruption technique against the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Sherry vineyards (Andalusia, South-western Spain) reduced the number of chemical treatments required to manage this serious pest. In order to verify the long term consequences of this type of management on the minor pests of vineyards, a study was carried out over nine years to compare the population leve...

  16. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Jaryd A; Timm, Alicia E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB) was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle) of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick), Cydia pomonella (L.) and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick). Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  17. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.

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    Jaryd A Ridgeway

    Full Text Available Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick, Cydia pomonella (L. and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick. Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  18. A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller, 1852 is reported for the first time from Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens reared from larvae collected on native Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean desert. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, previously known only from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, is recorded for the first time from continental South America. Larvae of the latter were collected in northern Chile feeding on Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.Uma nova espécie de Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae dos valles litorais do norte do Chile, e o primeiro registro continental de E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae é registrado pela primeira vez para o Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. é descrita e ilustrada com base em espécimes criados de larvas colectadas em Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae nos vales litorais do deserto do norte do Chile. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, conhecida previamente das Ilhas Galápados, Equador, é registrada pela primeira vez para SulAmérica continental. Suas larvas foram coletadas em Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.

  19. Pathogenicity, morphology, and characterization of a Nosema fumiferanae isolate (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) from the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Julie V; Huang, Wei-Fone; Solter, Leellen F; Mills, Nicholas J

    2016-02-01

    We recently discovered infections by a microsporidium closely related to Nosema fumiferanae in field populations of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the San Francisco region of California. E. postvittana originates from Australia and was first detected in California in 2006; therefore, our aim was to identify and determine the origin of the Nosema isolate. We characterized the pathogenicity, transmission pathways, and ultrastructure of this new Nosema isolate. In addition, we sequenced fragments of commonly used genetic markers (ITS, SSU, and RPB1), and examined the phylogenetic relationships between the Nosema isolate and other microsporidian species commonly found in lepidopteran hosts. The pathogenicity of the Nosema isolate was investigated by infecting second instar larvae of E. postvittana. Larval and pupal survivorship were reduced by 7% and 13% respectively, and pupation occurred 1-2d later in infected individuals than in healthy individuals. Emerging infected females died 5d earlier than healthy females, and daily fecundity was 22% lower. Hatch rate also was 22% lower for eggs oviposited by infected females. Vertical transmission was confirmed; spores were present in 68% of egg masses and 100% of the surviving larvae from infected females. Ultrastructure images, together with sequences from selected genetic markers, confirmed the Nosema isolate to be a member of the Nosema fumiferanae species complex (Nosema fumiferanae postvittana subsp. n.). The association of this pathogen with E. postvittana contributes further to the biotic resistance that E. postvittana has experienced since its introduction to California. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tarsal morphology and attachment ability of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) to smooth surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bitar, Loris; Voigt, Dagmar; Zebitz, Claus P W; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2009-11-01

    Despite several studies on the attachment ability of different insect taxa, little is known about this phenomenon in adult Lepidoptera. In this study we combined morphological and experimental analyses of tarsal adhesive devices and the attachment ability of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) to smooth surfaces. Pretarsi of C. pomonella attach to smooth substrates by means of their smooth, flexible and well developed arolia. Using the centrifugal force measurement technique, friction forces of males and females were assessed on hydrophobic and hydrophilic glass surfaces. Adults of both sexes generated similar forces in spite of the noticeable difference in their body masses. That is why males showed significantly higher safety factors (attachment force divided by body weight) compared to those of females. Hydrophobicity of the substrate had no considerable effect on friction forces. For females, friction forces (sliding parallel to the substrate plane) were compared with adhesive forces (pulling off perpendicularly from the substrate plane) measured on Plexiglas surfaces. It can be concluded that the attachment system of C. pomonella is rather robust against physico-chemical properties of the substrate and is able to achieve a very good attachment on vertical and horizontal substrata.

  1. A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller, 1852 is reported for the first time from Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens reared from larvae collected on native Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean desert. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, previously known only from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, is recorded for the first time from continental South America. Larvae of the latter were collected in northern Chile feeding on Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.

  2. Selection and Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Eubacteriales: Bacillaceae) Strains for Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzetti, J; Ricietto, A P S; Fazion, F A P; Meneguim, A M; Neves, P M O J; Vilas-Boas, L A; Rodrigues, R B; Vilas-Bôas, G T

    2017-02-01

    The citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is responsible for major losses to the citrus industry because it causes rot and drop of fruits. The current study aimed to select and characterize Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner, 1911) strains toxic to E. aurantiana. For this purpose, 47 B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated in selective bioassays using first instar larvae of E. aurantiana. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) of the most toxic strains was estimated, and the strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical, and molecular methods. Of the 47 strains tested, 10 caused mortality above 85% and showed mean lethal concentrations between 1.05E+7 and 1.54E+8 spores mL -1 . The lowest LC 50 values were obtained for the HD-1 standard strain and the BR145, BR83, BR52, and BR09 strains. The protein profile showed the presence of Cry proteins of 60, 65, 70, 80, and 130 kDa. The molecular characterization showed the presence of cry1, cry2, cry3, and cry11 genes. The morphological analysis identified three different crystalline inclusions: bipyramidal, round, and cuboidal. The cry1 and cry2 genes were the most frequent among the B. thuringiensis strains evaluated and encode Cry proteins toxic to insects of the order Lepidoptera, which agree with the toxicity results obtained by the selective bioassays against E. aurantiana. The results showed four different B. thuringiensis strains toxic to E. aurantiana at the same level as the HD-1 standard strain, and these strains have biotechnological potential for E. aurantiana control through the production of transgenic plants or the formulation of biopesticides.

  3. Evaluation of cytochrome P450 activity in field populations of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) resistant to azinphosmethyl, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichón, L B; Soleño, J; Anguiano, O L; Garrido, S A S; Montagna, C M

    2013-04-01

    The Río Negro and Neuquén Valley is the most important apple and pear growing region in Argentina. Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), the main fruit-tree pest is being controlled by azinphosmethyl (AzMe), acetamiprid (Acet), and thiacloprid (Thia) among other insecticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of neonate larvae of codling moth to these three insecticides and on the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in their toxicity. All field populations presented significantly lower mortality to a discriminating concentration (DC) of Acet and AzMe. In addition, 13 of the 14 populations showed significantly lower mortality to DC of Thia. Most of the field populations (71%) showed significantly higher 7-ethoxycoumarine O-deethylase activity compared with the laboratory-susceptible strain. While positive significant correlation (gamma = 0.59) was found between Thia and AzMe mortalities at the DC level, no significant correlations were detected between Acet and Thia (gamma = 0.35) or Acet and AzMe (gamma = 0.12). However, Acet and Thia mortalities were significantly correlated to the percentage of individuals exhibiting 7-ethoxy-coumarine O-deethylase activity activities higher than the mean upper 95% confidence limit of the susceptible strain (gamma = -0.52 and gamma = -0.63, respectively).

  4. Leaf extrafloral nectaries enhance biological control of a key economic pest, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in peach (Rosales: Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Clarissa R; Brown, Mark W; Bottrell, Dale G

    2007-04-01

    Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in many plant species produce sugary secretions that commonly attract ants. This research determined the impact of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) EFNs on the biological control of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a key economic pest in peach orchards, and studied interactions of EFNs and ants. Studies (2002-2005) in peach orchards of the mid-Atlantic United States showed that 'Lovell' peach trees with EFNs supported more parasitic Hymenoptera in the spring and increased the parasitism of G. molesta larvae later in the season than those trees without EFNs. Ant exclusion experiments revealed that trees with EFNs harbored fewer G. molesta larvae when ants were permitted access to the tree canopies. Furthermore, the trees with EFNs had approximately 90% less fruit injury by G. molesta, indicating that EFNs have a protective role for the fruit as well. The results show that the combined actions of ants and parasitic Hymenoptera confer an EFN-mediated protective effect spanning the whole fruit growing season. When EFNs are present, naturally occurring biological control agents can reduce damage by G. molesta in peach orchards without insecticide inputs. The EFNs are an important host-plant characteristic that should be retained in future peach cultivar selections as a means of enhancing biological control.

  5. Comparative survival rates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae on shoots and fruit of apple and peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), survival. G. molesta larval survival in the orchard was comparable between apple (Malus spp.) and peach (Prunus spp.) shoots, indicating that both host species can harbor large larval populations during the early season. G. molesta larvae used multiple shoots for feeding and development on peaches but usually only damaged single shoots in apple. Survival differences were present between peach and apple fruit, but this survival was affected by fruit maturity level. Generally, larval survival higher was in ripening peach fruit than in green, immature apple fruit. Larval survival varied among several apple cultivars, indicating that cultivar-level variability needs to be considered. These host-associated effects may impact efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in commercial orchards where multiple host plant species, or different cultivars of the same species are often grown in proximity. Thus, host-associated dynamics should be included into future population models that underlie management programs.

  6. Sublethal exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces reduces the attractiveness and responsiveness in adult oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Michael D; Barrett, Bruce A

    2007-02-01

    The chemical communication (female attractiveness and male responsiveness) of adult oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), exposed to surfaces treated with the ecdysteroid agonist methoxyfenozide for 48 h were investigated in two laboratory wind tunnel assays. The recapture assay examined the ability of treated males to orient to a single cage of treated females, and the data gathered were mean percentage of males recaptured per treatment. The male sexual behavior assay examined some specific orientation behaviors (associated with sexual excitability) of treated males when they were given a choice of two competing pheromone sources (cages of treated females), and the data gathered were mean time males spent in upwind plume orientations and at source contact (female cage) per treatment. Data from the recapture assay suggests that exposure to methoxyfenozide impacts male responsiveness more than female attractiveness. In contrast, data from the sexual behavior assay strongly revealed that exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces does negatively impact both the ability of calling females to attract males and of aroused males to display sustained upwind flight behavior and time spent at the female cages.

  7. Toxicity of thiamethoxam and mixtures of chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, esfenvalerate, or thiamethoxam to neonates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2012-08-01

    To assess the toxicity ofthiamethoxam and three mixtures of insecticides to oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), we added the insecticides to diet and fed it to neonates of two laboratory colonies; mortality was assessed after 96 h. Thiamethoxam was much less toxic than insecticides previously tested. Five of six analyses of the joint action of chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, esfenvalerate, or thiamethoxam indicated that toxicity was not independent and not correlated. For chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, mortality was slightly lower than expected at low concentrations and greater than expected at high concentrations. For chlorantraniliprole plus esfenvalerate, mortality was less than expected at nearly all concentrations, suggesting antagonism despite the two compounds' different modes of action. For chlorantraniliprole plus thiamethoxam, observed mortality exceeded expected mortality at low concentrations, but this trend did not continue at higher concentrations. Although the null hypothesis of independent and uncorrelated toxicity was rejected for chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid and chlorantraniliprole plus thiamethoxam in three of four analyses, differences between observed and expected mortality were minor and inconsistent over the range of concentrations tested. We do not expect these mixtures to exhibit significant synergism or antagonism in the field. Apparent antagonism between chlorantraniliprole and esfenvalerate is particularly relevant because these insecticides (or chlorantraniliprole plus a different pyrethroid) may be used together in apples or peaches for control of oriental fruit moth and hemipteran pests. The effectiveness of each insecticide against oriental fruit moth might be reduced in such applications.

  8. Control of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) in peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth; Negrisoli, Aldomario Santo; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Dolinski, Claudia; Bernardi, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is considered a major pest in temperate fruit trees, such as peach and apple. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are regarded as viable for pest management control due to their efficiency against tortricid in these trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of native EPNs from Rio Grande do Sul state against pre-pupae of G. molesta under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, pre-pupae of G. molesta were placed in corrugated cardboard sheets inside glass tubes and exposed to 17 different EPNs strains at concentrations of 6, 12, 24, 48 and 60 IJs/cm(2) and maintained at 25 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase of 16 h. Insect mortality was recorded 72 h after inoculation of EPNs. Steinernema rarum RS69 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora RS33 were the most virulent strains and selected for field application (LC95 of 70.5 and 53.8 IJs/cm(2), respectively). Both strains were highly efficient under field conditions when applied in aqueous suspension directed to larvae on peach tree trunk, causing mortality of 94 and 97.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting the emergence of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on a degree-day scale in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P; Hilton, Richard; Brunner, Jay F; Bentley, Walt J; Alston, Diane G; Barrett, Bruce; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Hull, Larry A; Walgenbach, James F; Coates, William W; Smith, Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut production in North America. Management programs are based on preventing larval entry into the fruit or nut and are typically timed by heat-driven models that are synchronized to field populations by first capture of overwintering moths in pheromone traps. Unfortunately, trap capture is affected by a range of environmental parameters as well as by the use of mating disruption, which makes detecting first flight difficult, thus complicating implementation of management programs. The present goal was to evaluate data collected from a broad range of locations across North America to see whether average first spring emergence times could be predicted. Average emergence time on a degree-day scale from 1 January was predictable using latitude and elevation. Sites at elevations of <400 m fit a simple quadratic equation using latitude, but, when higher elevations were included, a multiple regression using elevation was required. The present models can be used to simplify management programs for codling moth in areas where heat-driven models that require extensive trapping to synchronize with emergence are currently used. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Field Experiment of a Three-Chemical Controlled-Release Dispensers to Attract Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Benjamin D; Landolt, Peter J

    2018-03-13

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were shown to be attracted to a three-chemical kairomonal lure consisting of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractiveness of C. pomonella to this combination of attractants, and to decrease material costs associated with the controlled-release of these chemicals. The lure was most effective when pear ester was released from a separate dispenser than when combined acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide. We found that acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide can be combined into one device without decreasing C. pomonella trap catches and that there is minimal pear release rate before trap catch is negatively affected. A sachet-based controlled-release system of pear ester, acetic acid, n-butyl sulfide is a cost-effective alternative to a vial and septa controlled-release system and allows for easier quantification of ideal release rates. A reduction in material costs associated with management are important in promoting the adoption of attract-and-kill and mass-trapping paradigms for C. pomonella management. These findings also have important consequences in interpreting studies that use different loads of pear ester, and emphasize the need to better understand the release rates of attractants.

  11. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds.

  12. Synthesis and field evaluation of synthetic blends of the sex pheromone of Crocidosema aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Andres; Altesor, Paula; Liberati, Paola; Rossini, Carmen, E-mail: agonzal@fq.edu.uy [Laboratorio de Ecologia Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Alves, Leticia; Ramos, Juan; Carrera, Ignacio; Gonzalez, David; Seoane, Gustavo; Gamenara, Daniela [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Silva, Horacio; Castiglioni, Enrique [Departamento de Proteccion Vegetal, Facultad de Agronomia, EEMAC, Universidad de la Republica, Paysandu (Uruguay)

    2012-11-15

    Crocidosema (= Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a bud borer that feeds on soybean and forage legumes. Its economic importance is restricted to South America, where it can alternate throughout the year between forage and grain legumes. The sex pheromone of C. aporema females is composed of a 15:1 mixture of (7Z,9Z)-dodeca-7,9-dien-1-ol and (7Z,9Z)- dodeca-7,9-dienyl acetate. Aiming at the development of a monitoring tool, it was synthesized both components of the pheromone and evaluated male captures in pheromone traps baited with different blends of synthetic pheromone, in an experimental soybean field in Uruguay. The conjugated dienes were obtained from 2-pentyn-1-ol and 1,7-heptanediol, by oxidation of the former, Wittig coupling and Zn-catalyzed reduction of the triple bond. The 1:1 mixture was the most efficient in capturing males. The pheromone traps were attractive for up to 40 days, even with small septum loads (0.1 mg) and low population levels. (author)

  13. Developmental and reproductive responses of the spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) parasitoid Tranosema rostrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehausen, M Lukas; Régnière, Jacques; Martel, Véronique; Smith, Sandy M

    2017-04-01

    The temperature-dependent development and survival of immatures, as well as adult longevity and potential fecundity of the endoparasitoid Tranosema rostrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) parasitizing spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions at several constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 30°C. Maximum likelihood modeling approaches were used to estimate thermal responses in development, survival, and longevity. A model describing the effect of temperature on potential fecundity of the parasitoid was also developed taking oogenesis and oosorption into account. In-host and pupal development rates of the parasitoid increased with temperature up to 25°C, and decreased thereafter. Immature survival was highest below 20°C, and rapidly decreased at higher temperatures. Adult longevity decreased exponentially with increasing temperature for both males and females. Highest potential fecundity was reached at 10°C. Considering survival and potential fecundity, the parasitoid seems best adapted to cool temperatures below 20°C. Simulations of the life-history traits under variable temperature regimes indicate that temperature fluctuations decrease survival and increase realised fecundity compared to constant temperatures. The temperature-dependent fecundity model developed can be applied to other non-host-feeding synovigenic parasitoids. The equations and parameter estimates provided in this paper can be used to build comprehensive models predicting the seasonal phenology of this parasitoid and spruce budworm parasitism under changing climatic conditions. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control.

  15. Population genetic structure of economically important Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) in South Africa: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, A E; Geertsema, H; Warnich, L

    2010-08-01

    Comparative studies of the population genetic structures of agricultural pests can elucidate the factors by which their population levels are affected, which is useful for designing pest management programs. This approach was used to provide insight into the six Tortricidae of major economic importance in South Africa. The population genetic structure of the carnation worm E. acerbella and the false codling moth T. leucotreta, analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, is presented here for the first time. These results were compared with those obtained previously for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, the litchi moth Cryptophlebia peltastica and the macadamia nut borer T. batrachopa. Locally adapted populations were detected over local geographic areas for all species. No significant differences were found among population genetic structures as result of population history (whether native or introduced) although host range (whether oligophagous or polyphagous) had a small but significant effect. It is concluded that factors such as dispersal ability and agricultural practices have the most important effects on genetically structuring populations of the economically important Tortricidae in South Africa.

  16. Comparative fitness of irradiated light brown apple moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in a wind tunnel, hedgerow, and vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Mitchell, Vanessa J; Sullivan, Thomas E S; Sullivan, Nicola J; Simmons, Gregory S; Barrington, Anne M; El-Sayed, Ashraf M

    2011-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the target of the sterile insect technique, but reduced moth fitness from irradiation lowers the effective overflooding ratio of sterile to wild moths. New measures of insect quality are being sought to improve field performance of irradiated insects, thus improving the cost effectiveness of this technique. Male pupae were irradiated at intervals between 0 and 300 Gy, and adult flight success was assessed in a wind tunnel equipped with flight track recording software. A dose response was evident with reduced successful search behaviors at higher irradiation doses. Irradiation at 250 Gy reduced arrival success to 49% of untreated controls, during 2-min assays. Mark-release-recapture of males irradiated at 250 Gy indicated reduced male moth recapture in hedgerows (75% of control values of 7.22% +/- 1.20 [SEM] males recaptured) and in vineyards (78% of control values 10.5% +/- 1.66% [SEM] recaptured). Males dispersed similar distances in both habitats, and overflooding ratios dropped off rapidly from the release point in both landscapes. Transects of traps with central releases proved to be an efficient method for measuring the quality of released males. Relative field performance of moths was greater than suggested by wind tunnel performance, which could be due to time differences between the two assays, two-minute wind tunnel tests compared with days in the field treatments. Release strategies involving ground releases should consider the effect of limited postrelease dispersal. Aerial release could solve this problem and warrants investigation.

  17. Sprayable microencapsulated sex pheromone formulation for mating disruption of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Australian peach and pear orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'Ichev, A L; Stelinski, L L; Williams, D G; Gut, L J

    2006-12-01

    Areawide mating disruption treatments have been effective in controlling infestation of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Australian pome and stone fruit orchards. Although successful, the areawide mating disruption program has been an expensive approach by using hand-applied Isomate dispensers. Sprayable microencapsulated (MEC) pheromone formulations that can be applied with standard spray equipment could substantially reduce the cost of application. Field trials conducted during two consecutive seasons (2002-2004) demonstrated that monthly applications of MEC-OFM phase V (3M Canada, London, Ontario, Canada) at a rate of 125 ml/ha (37.1 g [AI]/ha) in replicated 2-ha blocks of both peaches and pears reduced oriental fruit moth shoot tip and fruit damage as effectively as a single application of Isomate OFM Rosso hand-applied dispensers (500 dispensers per ha) and as or more effectively than standard broad-spectrum insecticide sprays. Fruit protection was achieved despite high oriental fruit moth population densities in both crops as measured by moth catches in terpinyl acetate food and pheromone traps. Similar numbers of oriental fruit moths were captured among all treatments in food traps but captures of males in pheromone traps were disrupted (96-99%) in pheromone-treated blocks relative to controls. The results of this study suggest that microencapsulated formulations of pheromone could be effectively used in areawide mating disruption programs for oriental fruit moth in Australia as a cost-saving alternative to reservoir-style dispensers requiring labor-intensive hand application.

  18. Spatially Targeted Applications of Reduced-Risk Insecticides for Economical Control of Grape Berry Moth, Paralobesia viteana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith S; Roubos, Craig R; Teixeira, Luis A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2016-07-19

    The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key economic pest of vineyards in eastern North America, and prevention of fruit infestation is particularly challenging along vineyard borders that are adjacent to wooded areas containing wild grape (Vitis spp.). For three years, infestation and damage in vineyards where reduced-risk insecticides were applied to borders at timings based on a degree day model (Integrated Pest Management program) were compared to that in vineyards where broad-spectrum insecticides were applied across the whole vineyard (Standard program). Infestation at vineyard borders immediately prior to harvest was consistently lower in IPM vineyards than in Standard program vineyards, and in two of the years this was also true at veraison (fruit coloring). Grape berry moth infestation was similar between treatments at vineyard interiors throughout the study, despite no insecticide applications to the interiors of the IPM program vineyards. Populations of two other key vineyard pests, the eastern grape leafhopper, Erythroneura comes (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), and Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), were not significantly different between programs, and natural enemy captures on yellow sticky traps were also similar. The per hectare cost of insecticides applied in the IPM program was consistently lower than for the Standard program, with a significant difference in the third year of this study. We demonstrate how spatially selective applications of reduced-risk insecticides can provide improved control of grape berry moth at lower cost than standard broad-spectrum insecticide-based programs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Reduced-risk insecticides for control of grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and conservation of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-06-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape (Vitis spp.) farms to evaluate insect management programs for control of the grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and conservation of natural enemies. At each farm, one vineyard received only reduced-risk insecticides for control of second and third generation P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received conventional insecticides. Both vineyards received a conventional insecticide application for control of first generation P. viteana and other insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between programs in the total number of adult male moths trapped in vineyards, and oviposition by P. viteana was similar between the two programs in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation, both programs had a similar percentage of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In eight of the nine berry samples, survival of larvae was significantly lower in berries collected from vineyards managed under the reduced-risk insecticide program compared with the conventional program. Parasitism of P. citeana larvae in these samples was not consistently different between the two insecticide programs over 3 yr, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two programs throughout the study. Our results indicate that integrated pest management programs incorporating reduced-risk insecticides for control of P. viteana can obtain similar or greater control of P. viteana compared with programs based solely on conventional insecticides, but they may not lead to measurable long-term increases in parasitism of P. viteana.

  20. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Myers, Clayton T; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  1. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Oviposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007 and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, ten apple cultivars viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  2. Putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits express differentially through the life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jessica A; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Orchardists in Washington State are concerned about the possibility of codling moth field populations developing resistance to these two insecticides. In an effort to help mitigate this issue, we initiated a project to identify and characterize codling moth nAChR subunits expressed in heads. This study had two main goals; (i) identify transcripts from a codling moth head transcriptome that encode for nAChR subunits, and (ii) determine nAChR subunit expression profiles in various life stages of codling moth. From a codling moth head transcriptome, 24 transcripts encoding for 12 putative nAChR subunit classes were identified and verified by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequence determination. Characterization of the deduced protein sequences encoded by putative nAChR transcripts revealed that they share the distinguishing features of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily with 9 α-type subunits and 3 β-type subunits identified. Phylogenetic analysis comparing these protein sequences to those of other insect nAChR subunits supports the identification of these proteins as nAChR subunits. Stage expression studies determined that there is clear differential expression of many of these subunits throughout the codling moth life cycle. The information from this study will be used in the future to monitor for potential target-site resistance mechanisms to neonicotinoids and spinosads in tolerant codling moth populations. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Comparison of three dispenser distribution patterns for pheromone mating disruption of Paralobesia viteana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Rufus; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luis A F; Loeb, Greg; Hesler, Steve; Weigle, Tim; Muza, Andy; Timer, Jody; Saunders, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Over two growing seasons, Isomate GBM-Plus tube-type dispensers releasing the major pheromone component of grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were evaluated in vineyards (Vitis spp.) in Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania. Dispensers were deployed in three different density-arrangement treatments: 124 dispensers per ha, 494 dispensers per ha, and a combined treatment with 124 dispensers per ha in the vineyard interior and 988 dispensers per ha at the vineyard border, equivalent to an overall density of 494 dispensers per ha. Moth captures and cluster infestation levels were compared at the perimeter and interior of vineyards receiving these different pheromone treatments and in vineyards receiving no pheromone. Orientation of male moths to pheromone-baited traps positioned at the perimeter and interior of vineyards was reduced as a result of mating disruption treatments compared with the nontreated control. These findings were consistent over both years of the study. Disruption of male moth captures in traps varied from 93 to 100% in treated vineyards, with the 494 dispensers per ha application rates providing significantly higher level of disruption than the 124 dispensers per ha rate, but only in 2007. Measurements of percentage of cluster infestation indicated much higher infestation at perimeters than in the interior of the vineyards in all three regions, but in both sample positions there was no significant effect of dispenser density on cluster infestation levels in either year. The contrasting results of high disruption of moth orientation to traps in vineyards that also had low levels of crop protection from this pheromone treatment are discussed in the context of strategies to improve mating disruption of this tortricid pest.

  4. Potential of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (Ascomycetes, hypocreales in the control of Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae and its compatibility with chemical insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA. Anhalt

    Full Text Available Several insects are harmful to apples grown in Brazil, especially the leafroller Bonagota salubricola (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, usually controlled with chemical insecticides. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of Metarhizium anisopliae strains in the control of the apple leafroller, by assessing their virulence to B. salubricola larvae in bioassays with suspensions of 2 x 10(5 to 2 x 10(9 conidia/mL as well as their relationship with protease expression. The most effective strain underwent a compatibility test with chemical insecticides. The M. anisopliae E6 strain showed a good performance, with up to 88% mortality and a LT50 of 1.66 days. The virulence was positively correlated with a higher enzymatic activity. The E6 strain was compatible with tebufenozide, evidencing its potential to control B. salubricola.

  5. Efficacy and release rate of reservoir pheromone dispensers for simultaneous mating disruption of codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, L L; Il'ichev, A L; Gut, L J

    2009-02-01

    Five formulations of controlled release, polyethylene tube dispensers of pheromone were evaluated during three field seasons for disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Evaluations were conducted in replicated 4-ha plots of commercial apple in Michigan. Disruption of both C. pomonella and G. molesta male orientation to pheromone traps in plots treated with a dual-species formulation (Isomate CM/OFM TT), simultaneously releasing the pheromone components of both C. pomonella and G. molesta, was equivalent to that obtained by treating plots with separate formulations for each species (Isomate C Plus or Isomate C TT for C. pomonella and Isomate M Rosso for G. molesta) through mid-season. However, disruption efficacy of the dual-species formulation was significantly lower near the end of the season for G. molesta compared with the Isomate M Rosso formulation because of depletion of active ingredients and coincided with a slight increase in fruit injury. Effective disruption of C. pomonella and G. molesta also was obtained with a multispecies formulation (Isomate CM/OFM/LR) that releases the main pheromone components of C. pomonella, G. molesta, and several leafroller species. Each formulation type releasing (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) also was found to release the E,Z- and Z,E-isomers of codlemone. Our data provide further evidence that simultaneous disruption of C. pomonella and G. molesta with dispensers releasing both species' pheromone components is possible; however, the controlled release formulations tested here require modification or postponed deployment coupled with early season control by other means to achieve season-long efficacy. Simultaneous disruption of several species with a single formulation will be economically advantageous in regions where control of multiple pests is needed given the need for hand application of this

  6. Assessment of sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide on oriental fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2005-06-01

    Sublethal effects of the insect growth regulator methoxyfenozide were examined in oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in laboratory and field studies. In laboratory studies, oriental fruit moth larvae reared on diet amended with 0.1 ppm methoxyfenozide developed at the same rate as larvae reared on untreated diet, and paired moths reared as larvae from the same treated or untreated diets exhibited similar fecundity and fertility. Population growth differences over multiple generations were used to examine sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide on population dynamics in the field. Multiple single-tree cages were placed over apple (Malus spp.) trees treated with two applications of methoxyfenozide (70 g [AI] /ha) and nontreated trees. Cages were infested at a single time point with virgin male and female oriental fruit moth adults, and population growth was evaluated by egg counts, shoot infestation, fruit damage, and larval counts over a 12-wk period. Significantly fewer eggs, larvae, and damaged fruit were found on methoxyfenozide-treated compared with nontreated trees in 2001. Observed population differences may have been a result of direct mortality to eggs and larvae of the first generation rather than sublethal effects. In 2002, no differences were observed between treatments, but a heavy rain event shortly after the early infestation impacted the experiment. A late moth release treatment was tested in 2002 to examine the effects of residual methoxyfenozide 55 d after initial application. Significantly fewer eggs were found in the methoxyfenozide treatment compared with the control, but no differences existed among treatments in shoot infestation, percentage of damaged fruit, or larval populations. It was concluded direct mortality of eggs and larvae exposed to methoxyfenozide rather than sublethal effects were most important in reduction of subsequent generations.

  7. DNA diagnostics to identify internal feeders (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of pome fruits of quarantine importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenas, N M; Unruh, T R; Neven, L G

    2005-04-01

    A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is presented for differentiating among the North American internal apple-feeding pests codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); lesser appleworm, Grapholita prunivora (Walsh); and cherry fruitworm, Grapholita packardi Zeller. An approximately 470-bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced in three to six specimens of each species. Consistent and diagnostic differences were observed among the species in two regions of COI from which forward and reverse primers were designed to amplify a 112-116-bp segment of the gene. The primer sets were used to selectively amplify DNA from specimens of diverse geographic origin for each corresponding target species. Protocols were adapted for conventional and quantitative PCR, the latter being substantially faster. The method was validated as a decision-making tool for quarantine identifications for Mexico by representatives of their phytosanitary agency (Sanidad Vegetal). The method can facilitate identification of intercepted internal feeding Lepidoptera in apple and pear for many other importing nations.

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi; Arthur, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ±5 deg C and 70 ±5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  10. Biological aspects of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick, 1909) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificial diets with different protein sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredi-Coimbra, Silvana; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Loeck, Alci Enimar; Foresti, Josemar

    2005-01-01

    Biology aspects of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick fed on artificial diets with different protein sources were studied: D1-white bean, wheat germ, soybean protein and casein; D2-common bean and yeast and D3-common bean, yeast and wheat germ, evaluating the duration and viability of all developmental stages (egg, larval, prepupa and pupa) and of the total cycle (egg-adult), sex ratio, pupa weight, fecundity, longevity and life table of fertility. Tests were conducted in the laboratory at 25 ± 1 deg C, 65 ±10% RH and 14h of photophase. Duration of the egg stage was 6.6 days on all diets. The longest duration of larval and prepupal stages on D1 and pupal stages on D2, resulting in a longer duration of the total cycle on these two diets (30,9 and 30,8 days). The total viability was higher than 62% on all diets, and there was no statistical difference among the treatments. The number of instars was four or five on all treatments. The lowest fecundity was observed in D1. Based on the fertility life table, D3 was the most suitable diet for rearing A. sphaleropa, due to the lowest development time (T), the highest finite increasing rate (l), and total viability exceeding 75%. (author)

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) fertility and reproductive behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2002-01-01

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to examine the effects of gamma radiation on fertility and reproductive behaviour. Data accumulated during these studies showed that egg production and hatch decreased with increasing radiation dose. Females were more sensitive to radiation treatment than were males. A dose of 150 Gy caused 100% sterility in females and significantly reduced fecundity, and a dose of 350 Gy reduced male fertility to less than 1%. Radiation dosages up to 400 Gy had no adverse effect on male longevity or competitiveness in cages using laboratory reared moths. However, males exposed to a dose of 350 or 400 Gy mated fewer times than unirradiated males. (author)

  12. The effects of strawberry cropping practices on the strawberry tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its natural enemies, and the presence of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig; Kristensen, Kristian; Enkegaard, Annie; Jensen, Nauja Lisa; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Cropping practice can affect pests and natural enemies. A three-year study of the strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana (Lienig and Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its parasitoid Copidosoma aretas Walker (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and its entomopathogenic fungi was conducted in seven pairs of organic and conventional farms to test the hypothesis that farming practice (organic versus conventional) will affect the level of pest infestation and will affect the natural enemies. In addition, the number of years with strawberries on the farm, field age, and other factors that may affect pests and their natural enemies were considered. Farms were characterized by their cropping practices, cropping history, and other parameters. Field-collected larvae were laboratory reared to assess mortality from parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi. In 2010, a survey of nematodes was made to assess the response of an unrelated taxonomic group to cropping practice. 2,743 larvae were collected. Of those, 2,584 were identified as A. comariana. 579 A. comariana were parasitized by C. aretas and 64 A. comariana were parasitized by other parasitoid species. Finally, 28% of the larvae and pupae of A. comariana died from unknown causes. Only two of the field-collected A. comariana larvae were infected by entomopathogenic fungi; one was infected by Isaria sp. and the other by Beauvaria sp. The density of A. comariana was on average four times lower in organic farms, which was significantly lower than in conventional farms. A. comariana was more dominant on conventional farms than on organic farms. The effect of crop age (One, two, or three years) on A. comariana infestation was significant, with higher infestations in older fields. Crop age had no effect on A. comariana infestation in a comparison of first- and second-year fields in 2010. Cropping practice did not lead to significant differences in the level of total parasitism or in C. aretas parasitism; however, C. aretas contributed

  13. The Effects of Strawberry Cropping Practices on the Strawberry Tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), Its Natural Enemies, and the Presence of Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig; Kristensen, Kristian; Enkegaard, Annie; Jensen, Nauja Lisa; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Cropping practice can affect pests and natural enemies. A three-year study of the strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana (Lienig and Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its parasitoid Copidosoma aretas Walker (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and its entomopathogenic fungi was conducted in seven pairs of organic and conventional farms to test the hypothesis that farming practice (organic versus conventional) will affect the level of pest infestation and will affect the natural enemies. In addition, the number of years with strawberries on the farm, field age, and other factors that may affect pests and their natural enemies were considered. Farms were characterized by their cropping practices, cropping history, and other parameters. Field-collected larvae were laboratory reared to assess mortality from parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi. In 2010, a survey of nematodes was made to assess the response of an unrelated taxonomic group to cropping practice. 2,743 larvae were collected. Of those, 2,584 were identified as A. comariana. 579 A. comariana were parasitized by C. aretas and 64 A. comariana were parasitized by other parasitoid species. Finally, 28% of the larvae and pupae of A. comariana died from unknown causes. Only two of the field-collected A. comariana larvae were infected by entomopathogenic fungi; one was infected by Isaria sp. and the other by Beauvaria sp. The density of A. comariana was on average four times lower in organic farms, which was significantly lower than in conventional farms. A. comariana was more dominant on conventional farms than on organic farms. The effect of crop age (One, two, or three years) on A. comariana infestation was significant, with higher infestations in older fields. Crop age had no effect on A. comariana infestation in a comparison of first- and second-year fields in 2010. Cropping practice did not lead to significant differences in the level of total parasitism or in C. aretas parasitism; however, C. aretas contributed

  14. Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) phenology and management with methoxyfenozide in North Carolina apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Stinner, Ronald E; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2004-08-01

    The phenology of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), on apple (Malus spp.) in North Carolina was studied using pheromone traps and egg sampling in abandoned and commercial orchards in 2000 and 2001, with subsequent development of an oviposition degree-day model and management studies in relation to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), phenology. Oriental fruit moth eggs were found in greater numbers on leaves early and on fruit later in the growing season, on the top versus the bottom of the leaf surface, and on the calyx area versus the side or stem end of the fruit. A degree-day (DD) model to predict oriental fruit moth oviposition was developed based on temperature accumulations from peak moth trap capture of the first (overwintering) generation, by using 7.2 and 32.2 degrees C as the temperature limits. The model predicted four ovipositing generations of oriental fruit moth with the second beginning 507 DD after peak moth catch. Using predictions of the oriental fruit moth and codling moth degree-day oviposition models, an experiment was conducted to determine the level of second generation oriental fruit moth control with methoxyfenozide applied under different scenarios for first generation codling moth. Methoxyfenozide was equally effective in managing codling moth and oriental fruit moth for all treatment timings.

  15. Relevamiento y evaluación de parasitoides de huevo para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y Grapholita molesta (Lepidotera: Tortricideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E. TORTOSA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el mes de octubre hasta el mes de abril de los años 2005-2006 y 2006-2007 realizamos la búsqueda e identificación de parasitoides de huevo de Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepi - doptera: Tortricidae en tres sitios de Mendoza, Argentina. Trichogramma cacoe - ciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae fue colectado en huevos de las dos especies plagas, en todos los sitios del relevamiento, durante los dos ciclos de colecta. Se encontró Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogram - matidae solo en un sitio en el mes de diciembre de 2005. En los años 2008 y 2009 T. cacoeciae fue criado, liberado y evaluada su eficiencia en el control de C. pomonella y G. molesta a través del daño en los frutos. Realizamos dos ensayos de evaluación a campo en dos cultivos de peral orgánicos, en uno de ellos el daño promedio en frutos por C. pomonella y G. molesta fue de 5,07% ± 0,82 (testigo sin liberación 15,60% ± 4,73 y en el otro ensayo el daño promedio de ambas plagas fue de 1,92% ± 0,50 (testigo sin liberación 11,34 % ± 1,13. En ambos casos existi - eron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre tratamiento y testigo.

  16. Ionizing irradiation quarantine treatment against oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J

    2004-06-01

    Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), is a pest of many rosaceous temperate fruits, including pomes, Malus spp., and stone fruits, Prunus spp., in much of the world. However, some areas are free of the pest, and shipments of fruit hosts from infested to noninfested areas may be regulated. Current quarantine treatments for oriental fruit moth include methyl bromide fumigation and cold storage for several weeks. Methyl bromide use is being restricted because it is a stratospheric ozone-depleting substance, and alternatives are sought. Cold is not tolerated by many hosts of oriental fruit moth. The objective of this research was to develop irradiation quarantine treatments against the pest under ambient and hypoxic storage conditions because some hosts of oriental fruit moth are stored in hypoxic atmospheres, and hypoxia is known to lessen the effects of irradiation. In ambient atmospheres, no adults emerged from 58,779 fifth instars (the most radiotolerant stage present in fruit) irradiated with a target dose of 200 Gy (195-232 Gy measured). In atmospheres flushed with nitrogen, 5.3% of adults emerged from 44,050 fifth instars irradiated with a target dose of 200 Gy (194-230 Gy measured), but they died at a faster rate than control adults and without laying eggs. A dose of 232 Gy (the maximum recorded when 200 Gy was targeted) is recommended to disinfest any fruit of oriental fruit moth under ambient and hypoxic atmospheres.

  17. The effect of parasitism on the population dynamics of the macadamia nutborer Gymnandrosoma aurantianum (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological control on crop infesting insects represent an useful method in modern agriculture. A search for parasitoids of the macadamia nutborer was carried out during a three year study, and their effect on the population fluctuation of the borer was determined. An egg parasitoid belonging to the family Trichogrammatidae and four larval parasitoids, Microgastrine I, Microgastrine II, Ascogaster sp. (Hymeoptera: Braconidae and Pristomerus sp. (Hymeoptera: Ichneumonidae were recovered. Parasitism percentage by Microgastrine I was 15% in 1991, 16% in 1992 and 4% in 1993; Microgastrine II was not collected in 1991, but accounted for a 4.3% of parasitism in 1992 and 3.7% in 1993; Ascogaster sp. was registered since 1992 with 3% parasitism (29% in 1993. We found an inverse relationship between total parasitism and the mean of damaged nuts. Parasitoids play an important role in the reduction of the G. aurantianum population. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1245-1252. Epub 2009 December 01.Durante tres años se realizó una búsqueda de los enemigos naturales del barrenador de la nuez de macadamia y se determinó el efecto sobre su población. Se registró un parasitoide de huevo perteneciente a la familia Trichogrammatidae y cuatro parasitoides de larva, Microgastrine I, Microgastrine II, y Ascogaster sp. (Hym: Braconidae y Pristomerus (Hym: Ichneumonidae. El porcentaje de parasitismo por Microgastrine I fue del 15% en 1991, 16% en 1992 y 4% en 1993; Microgastrine II no se registró en 1991, pero alcanzó un 4.3% de parasitismo en 1992 y un 3.7% en 1993; Ascogaster sp. se registró a partir de 1992 con un 3% de parasitismo y con un 29% en 1993. Se encontró una relación inversa entre el parasitismo total y el promedio de nueces dañadas. Los resultados indican que los parasitoides juegan un papel importante en la disminución de la población de G. aurantianum.

  18. A new cecidogenous species of Eugnosta Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae) in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert: Life-history description and phylogenetic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Héctor A; Pollo, Pietro; Basilio, Daniel S; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2015-02-20

    Eugnosta Hübner, 1825 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Cochylini, Cochylina) is reported for the first time in Chile. Male and female adults, the pupa, the last-instar larva, and galls of Eugnosta azapaensis Vargas & Moreira, sp. n., are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley in the northern Atacama Desert. The larvae induce fusiform galls on shoots of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). An assessment of phylogenetic relationships of E. azapaensis with two congeneric species based on mitochondrial DNA is provided.

  19. Control of Cydia pomonella L. and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in pome-fruit orchards with Ecodian sex pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, G; Baldessari, M; Maines, R; Trona, F; Reggiori, F; Angeli, G

    2007-01-01

    A mating disruption approach using high densities of pheromone dispensers, has been recently proposed for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck.), (Lepidoptera Tortricidae), control. Ecodian Star dispensers, made of low-cost biodegradable material and easy to apply, were formulated with 10 mg of codlemone (E8,E10-12OH) and 10 mg of grapamone (Z8-12OH) and placed at a rate of 1,400-2,000 dispensers/ha. The pheromone release rates from new and field aged dispensers were evaluated by hexane extraction of the residual attractant (indirectly) and gas-chromatographic analysis. The release rate of field-aged dispensers decreased over time with a good linearity; they released a significant amount of synthetic sex pheromones over the entire season. Dispensers elicited close-range approaches of codling moth males in wind tunnel irrespective of their age. Field trials carried out from 2003 to 2004 confirmed the efficacy of Ecodian Star dispensers for codling moth and oriental fruit moth control, regardless the size of the treated area. Our results demonstrate that Ecodian dispensers achieved a good level of activity and longevity over the season. The potential of this strategy for the control of the moths is discussed.

  20. Comparison of a sprayable pheromone formulation and two hand-applied pheromone dispensers foruse in the integrated control of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, R M; Pree, D J; Barszcz, E S; Carter, N J

    2004-04-01

    The efficacy of integrated programs using a sprayable pheromone formulation or one of two hand-applied pheromone dispensers, and a conventional oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) control program, was compared using 4-5-ha blocks of peach orchard at three Niagara Peninsula farms during 2000-2002. In the integrated programs, chlorpyrifos and mating disruption with 3M Sprayable Pheromone, Isomate OFM Rosso, or Rak 5 hand-applied dispensers were used to control first-generation larvae, and mating disruption alone was used to control second- and third-generation larvae. In the conventional program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae, and pyrethroid insecticides were used to control larvae of the later generations. All programs were effective at maintaining fruit infestation by G. molesta below the industry tolerance level of 1%. An integrated program using sprayable pheromone required the use of more supplementary insecticide applications to control second- and third-generation larvae than a program using hand-applied dispensers. The elimination of insecticide sprays from integrated program blocks did not result in an increase in damage by plant bugs, Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) or by the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

  1. Liberación y establecimiento de Mastrus ridens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E. TORTOSA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proveniente de California, EE.UU. e incorrectamente identificado como Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst, el parasitoide Mastrus ridens Horstmann (Hyme - noptera: Ichneumonidae fue introducido en Argentina en 2005 para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Desde 2005 hasta 2009 se liberaron en total 185.268 individuos adultos de M. ridens en 58 sitios, en cultivos de peral, membrillero, nogal y manzanos en la provincia de Mendoza. Muestreos realizados en 2005 y 2007 mostraron el pasaje invernal como prepupa y una dispersión de 2.000 metros aproxi - madamente desde el sitio de liberación. El establecimiento de M. ridens fue estimado entre los años 2006 y 2009 a través de la determinación del parasitoidismo, cuyo rango varió entre 0 y 45,3%. El promedio de parasitoidismo entre 2005 y 2009 fue 9,89%, muy superior al parasitoidismo observado en especies nativas (0,25%.

  2. TRPA5, an Ankyrin Subfamily Insect TRP Channel, is Expressed in Antennae of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Multiple Splice Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto Maria; Bengtsson, Jonas Martin; Montagné, Nicolas; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Salvagnin, Umberto; Bassoli, Angela; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are an ancient family of cation channels, working as metabotropic triggers, which respond to physical and chemical environmental cues. Perception of chemical signals mediate reproductive behaviors and is therefore an important target for sustainable management tactics against the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, olfactory behavior strongly depends on diel periodicity and correlation of chemical with physical cues, like temperature, and physical cues thus essentially contribute to the generation of behavioral response. From an antennal transcriptome generated by next generation sequencing, we characterized five candidate TRPs in the codling moth. The coding DNA sequence of one of these was extended to full length, and phylogenetic investigation revealed it to be orthologous of the TRPA5 genes, reported in several insect genomes as members of the insect TRPA group with unknown function but closely related to the thermal sensor pyrexia Reverse transcription PCR revealed the existence of five alternate splice forms of CpTRPA5. Identification of a novel TRPA and its splice forms in codling moth antennae open for investigation of their possible sensory roles and implications in behavioral responses related to olfaction. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  3. Novel nanoscale pheromone dispenser for more accurate evaluation of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attract-and-kill strategies in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnobai De Jorge, Bruna; Bisotto-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Pereira, Cláudio Nunes; Sant'Ana, Josué

    2017-09-01

    Nanotechnology has recently allowed the production of formulations for controlled release of active ingredients. In the present study, the electrospinning technique was used to produce nanoscale dispensers for attract-and-kill strategies. Non-woven nanofibres containing insecticide (cypermethrin) and (E)-8,(Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-8-dodecanol (0.87 mg L -1 ), the main components of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) (Busck) pheromone, were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Male electroantennographic (EAG) responses and mortality (tarsal-contact and attract-and-kill behavioural cages) bioassays were performed for nanofibres (with and without insecticide) exposed for different periods (21, 42, 63 and 84 days) in controlled and non-exposed conditions. There were no significant differences in G. molesta male EAG responses based on the time of exposure within treatments. Nanofibres with pheromone only and with pheromone plus insecticide elicited equal EAG responses. Mortality in tarsal-contact bioassays was greater than 87% after exposure for 84 days. In the attract-and-kill bioassays, mortality ranged from 28.4 to 56.6%, although no difference was observed on insect mortalities over time (24, 48 and 72 h). Incorporation of cypermethrin in nanofibres did not interfere with G. molesta attractiveness. Both aspects of the strategy, the attractant and killing effects, were recorded using innovative nanofibres, and long-term effects suggest a controlled release of pheromone and insecticide. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Novel microsatellite markers for the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and effects of null alleles on population genetics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W; Cao, L-J; Wang, Y-Z; Li, B-Y; Wei, S-J

    2017-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important economic pest of stone and pome fruits worldwide. We sequenced the OFM genome using next-generation sequencing and characterized the microsatellite distribution. In total, 56,674 microsatellites were identified, with 11,584 loci suitable for primer design. Twenty-seven polymorphic microsatellites, including 24 loci with trinucleotide repeat and three with pentanucleotide repeat, were validated in 95 individuals from four natural populations. The allele numbers ranged from 4 to 40, with an average value of 13.7 per locus. A high frequency of null alleles was observed in most loci developed for the OFM. Three marker panels, all of the loci, nine loci with the lowest null allele frequencies, and nine loci with the highest null allele frequencies, were established for population genetics analyses. The null allele influenced estimations of genetic diversity parameters but not the OFM's genetic structure. Both a STRUCTURE analysis and a discriminant analysis of principal components, using the three marker panels, divided the four natural populations into three groups. However, more individuals were incorrectly assigned by the STRUCTURE analysis when the marker panel with the highest null allele frequency was used compared with the other two panels. Our study provides empirical research on the effects of null alleles on population genetics analyses. The microsatellites developed will be valuable markers for genetic studies of the OFM.

  5. Expression of the double-stranded RNA of the soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) ribosomal protein P0 gene enhances the resistance of transgenic soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanli; Li, Yang; Zang, Zhenyuan; Li, Na; Ran, Ruixue; Cao, Yingxue; Li, Tianyu; Zhou, Quan; Li, Wenbin

    2017-12-01

    The soybean pod borer [SPB; Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)] is the most important soybean pest in northeastern Asia. Silencing genes using plant-mediated RNA-interference is a promising strategy for controlling SPB infestations. The ribosomal protein P0 is important for protein translation and DNA repair in the SPB. Thus, transferring P0 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into plants may help prevent SPB-induced damage. We investigated the effects of SpbP0 dsRNA injections and SpbP0 dsRNA-expressing transgenic soybean plants on the SPB. Larval mortality rates were greater for SpbP0 dsRNA-injected larvae (96%) than for the control larvae (31%) at 14 days after injections. Transgenic T 2 soybean plants expressing SpbP0 dsRNA sustained less damage from SPB larvae than control plants. In addition, the expression level of the SpbP0 gene decreased and the mortality rate increased when SPB larvae were fed on T 3 transgenic soybean pods. Moreover, the surviving larvae were deformed and exhibited inhibited growth. Silencing SpbP0 expression is lethal to the SPB. Transgenic soybean plants expressing SpbP0 dsRNA are more resistant to the SPB than wild-type plants. Thus, SpbP0 dsRNA-expressing transgenic plants may be useful for controlling insect pests. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    de plus de 4 mois l'abondance des populations mâles naturelles de T. leucotreta ainsi que les taux d'attaques sur les capsules vertes et les niveaux .... une meilleure couverture de la diffusion, les diffuseurs ont été répartis de façon ... bouteille a été changée toutes les quatre (04) semaines. Observations parasitaires et ...

  7. Description of a new genus of Euliina with unique coupling adaptations of the male and female (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Tortricinae: Cochylini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Rita, Jose V Pérez; Baixeras, Joaquin

    2017-01-31

    Ancoruncus langeri, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from the Neotropics (Bolivia). It is assigned to the tribe Cochylini (subtribe Euliina) in the family Tortricidae. Ancoruncus langeri is characterized by an unusual, strongly developed uncus, distally expanded into an anchor-like, bilobed apical process and a complex gnathos in male genitalia, as well as an unusual configuration of the anterior lobes of the papillae anales, and tergum 8 with the anterior area bearing a double pocket in the female genitalia. The hypothetical dorsal coupling mechanism of the male and female genitalia is discussed.

  8. Temporal Patterns in the Abundance and Species Composition of Spiders on Host Plants of the Invasive Moth Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Brian N; Mills, Nicholas J; Daane, Kent M

    2017-06-01

    Generalist predators such as spiders may help mitigate the spread and impact of exotic herbivores. The lack of prey specificity and long generation times of spiders may allow them to persist when pests are scarce, and to limit the growth of pest populations before they reach damaging levels. We examined whether resident spiders are likely to play a role in maintaining populations of the invasive light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), below outbreak levels in California. We surveyed the spider community on two E. postvittana host plants, the ornamental Australian tea tree, Leptospermum laevigatum, and the weed French broom, Genista monspessulana, to characterize spider and larval E. postvittana abundance and spider species composition throughout the year. Spider densities and species composition showed slight seasonal changes. Spiders were present during periods of high and low E. postvittana abundance. Anyphaenid hunting spiders, Anyphaena aperta Banks in Australian tea tree and Anyphaena pacifica Banks in French broom, dominated spider species composition at four of five sampled sites, and underwent only slight seasonal variation in abundance. Adult A. aperta were rare at all times of the year, suggesting that high mortality among juvenile A. aperta limits the potential of this species as a predator of E. postvittana. Nevertheless, the continued presence of spiders throughout the year indicates that the resident spider community is likely to play a key role in reducing E. postvittana populations in California. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Susceptibility of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to two pyrethroids and a proposed diagnostic dose of esfenvalerate for field detection of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    Laboratory colonies of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were reared on 'Gala' apples (Malus pumila Mill.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) diet. Neonates were placed on wheat germ diet containing a range of concentrations of esfenvalerate or lambda-cyhalothrin; mortality was assessed after 96 h. For a long-term laboratory colony, LC50 values of esfenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin were 0.35 and 0.12 ppm, respectively, for progeny of insects reared on apples. For a colony established from Calhoun Co., IL, in 2007, LC50 values of esfenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin were 0.37 and 0.10 ppm, respectively, for progeny of insects reared on apples. LC50 values of these insecticides did not differ significantly for either colony when progeny of insects reared on lima bean diet were tested. We observed no consistent evidence of pyrethroid resistance in the Calhoun colony after laboratory culture for 21-23 generations. We described the dose-response relationship for esfenvalerate applied topically in 1 microl of acetone to male moths from the long-term laboratory colony and estimated the LD99 to be 0.022 microg per moth. Application of 0.022 microg of esfenvalerate per moth to approximately 600 male moths from two putatively susceptible populations resulted in mean survivorship approximately equal to the expected level of 1.0%. Application of the same dose to 374 field-captured moths from two Calhoun Co. orchards with histories of pyrethroid use resulted in mean survivorship of 9.4 and 82%. We propose that 0.022 microg of esfenvalerate in 1 microl of acetone can be used as a diagnostic dose for monitoring pyrethroid resistance in oriental ruit moth in the field.

  10. Determination of the Baseline Susceptibility of European Populations of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to Chlorantraniliprole and the Role of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Dolors; Rodríguez, Marcela A; Depalo, Laura; Avilla, Jesús

    2018-04-02

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest on pome fruit and walnut orchards worldwide. Its resistance to available insecticides has been widely reported. Chlorantraniliprole is an anthranilic diamide that was introduced in European countries in 2008-2009 and acts by activating the insect's ryanodine receptors. The aims of this study were to determine the baseline susceptibility of European populations of C. pomonella to chlorantraniliprole, to establish the discriminant concentrations (DC) to check the possible development of resistance, and to know the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) in the possible susceptibility decrease of field populations to the insecticide. Ten field populations from Spain along with others were used to calculate the baseline response of larvae to chlorantraniliprole incorporated into the diet. A pooled probit line was calculated, and three DC were established: 0.3 mg a.i./kg (close to the LC50), 1.0 mg a.i./kg (close to the LC90), and 10 mg a.i./kg diets (threefold the LC99). The DC were used to test the susceptibility of 27 field populations from France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Spain. The corrected mortality observed in all cases ranged within the expected interval, even with Spanish populations that showed between 12.1 and 100.0% of individuals with high P450 activity. However, the mortality caused by the DC0.3 decreased as the mean P450 activity increased. Field populations resistant to other insecticides were susceptible to chlorantraniliprole. The determined baseline codling moth susceptibility is a valuable reference for tracking possible future alterations in the efficacy of the insecticide.

  11. Effects of exposure to pheromone and insecticide constituents of an attracticide formulation on reproductive behavior of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, Maya L; McLaughlin, John R; Czokajlo, Darek

    2005-04-01

    The effect of exposure to both the pheromone and insecticide constituents of an attracticide formulation on subsequent pheromonal response of male oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was tested in several wind tunnel bioassays. Male response to the attracticide formulation was significantly reduced in all behavioral categories, including source contact 1 h after sublethal exposure (both by voluntary contact in the wind tunnel and forced application in the laboratory) to the attracticide formulation containing inert ingredients, pheromone, and insecticide. Sublethal exposure to the attracticide formulation in the laboratory (forced application) 24 h before the bioassay resulted in a significantly lower proportion of males subsequently responding to attracticide droplets in the wind tunnel. However, voluntary contact of male moths with the toxic formulation in the wind tunnel had no effect on subsequent response 24 h later. Exposure of males to different constituents of the attracticide formulation demonstrated that both pheromone and insecticide exerted effects on subsequent male pheromonal response. Exposure to the formulation containing the inert ingredients plus the pheromone (no insecticide) significantly reduced male behavioral responses to an attracticide droplet in the wind tunnel 1 h but not 24 h after exposure, compared with males treated with inert ingredients alone. Response to attracticide droplets was further reduced by exposure to the entire attracticide formulation containing inert ingredients, pheromone and insecticide at both 1 and 24 h postexposure. Similarly, males exposed to inert ingredients plus pheromone were less likely to orient to female-produced plumes 1 h but not 24 h after exposure than males treated with inert ingredients alone. Response to female-produced plumes was further reduced at 1 h but not at 24 h after exposure to the entire attracticide formulation. Mating success of males was

  12. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs.

  13. Aspectos biológicos de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick 1909 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em dietas artificiais com diferentes fontes proteicas Biological aspects of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick, 1909 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in artificial diets with different protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Manfredi-Coimbra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se aspectos da biologia de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick em dietas artificiais com diferentes fontes proteicas: D1-feijão branco, germe de trigo, proteína de soja e caseína; D2-feijão carioca e levedura de cerveja e D3-feijão carioca, levedura de cerveja e germe de trigo, avaliando-se a duração e viabilidade e todas as fases de desenvolvimento desse inseto (ovo, lagarta, pré-pupa e pupa e do ciclo total (ovo-adulto, razão sexual, peso de pupas, fecundidade, longevidade e tabela de vida de fertilidade. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório a 25±1°C, 65±10% UR e fotofase de 14 horas. A duração da fase de ovo foi de 6,6 dias nas três dietas. A maior duração das fases lagarta e pré-pupa foi em D1 e de pupa em D2, resultando em maior duração do ciclo total nestas duas dietas (30,9 e 30,8 dias. A viabilidade total foi superior a 62% em todas as dietas, independente da fonte proteica. O número de ínstares foi de quatro a cinco nas três dietas. A menor fecundidade foi observada em D1. Através da tabela de vida de fertilidade, a dieta D3 foi a mais adequada para criação de A. sphaleropa por ter proporcionado menor duração de desenvolvimento (T, maior razão finita de aumento (l e viabilidade total superior a 75%.Biology aspects of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick fed on artificial diets with different protein sources were studied: D1-white bean, wheat germ, soybean protein and casein; D2-common bean and yeast and D3-common bean, yeast and wheat germ, evaluating the duration and viability of all developmental stages (egg, larval, prepupa and pupa and of the total cycle (egg-adult, sex ratio, pupa weight, fecundity, longevity and life table of fertility. Tests were conducted in the laboratory at 25±1°C, 65±10% RH and 14h of photophase. Duration of the egg stage was 6.6 days on all diets. The longest duration of larval and prepupal stages on D1 and pupal stages on D2, resulting in a longer duration of the

  14. Foliar application of microdoses of sucrose to reduce codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage to apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Ingrid; Lombarkia, Nadia; Joy-Ondet, Sophie; Romet, Lionel; Brahim, Imene; Meradi, Rahma; Nasri, Ardjouna; Auger, Jacques; Derridj, Sylvie

    2016-10-01

    The effects of foliar applications of microdoses of sucrose to reduce the damage by the codling moth have been reported from nine trials carried in France and Algeria from 2009 to 2014. The activity of sucrose alone was assessed by comparison with an untreated control and some treatments with the Cydia pomonella granulovirus or a chemical insecticide. The addition of sucrose to these different treatments was also investigated. The application of sucrose at 0.01% reduced the means of infested fruits with a value of Abbott's efficacy of 41.0 ± 10.0%. This involved the induction of resistance by antixenosis to insect egg laying. Indeed, it seems that acceptance of egg laying on leaves treated with sucrose was reduced. The addition of sucrose to thiacloprid improved its efficacy (59.5% ± 12.8) by 18.4%. However, the sucrose had no added value when associated with C. pomonella granulovirus treatments. Foliar applications of microdoses of sucrose every 20 days in commercial orchards can partially protect against the codling moth. Its addition to thiacloprid increases the efficacy in integrated control strategies, contrary to C. pomonella granulovirus treatments. This work opens a route for the development of new biocontrol strategies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

      Being the first of a series dealing with the entomofauna of the Madeira and Selvagens Islands, this catalogue is a list of all Lepidoptera recorded from this region of Macaronesia, with references to the relevant literature. The checklist includes 37 families, 211 genera and 331 species. 31...... species are recorded from Madeira for the first time, and exact data and locality are given for these in the notes. 32 species, which had previously been recorded from Madeira, are removed from the list of Lepidoptera found in the Madeira Islands being misidentifications, doubtful and unconfirmed records......, undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species...

  16. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna), in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have...... established so far in Europe, of which 30 alone are Pyraloidea. In addition, 88 European species in 25 families have expanded their range within Europe and around 23% of these are of Mediterranean or Balkan origin, invading the north and west. Although a number of these alien species have been in Europe...... for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries...

  17. Conspecific mimics and low host plant availability reduce egg laying by Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition response of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae to variation in host plant availability, Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and to presence of conspecific eggs and larvae was determined through choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Freeze dried, painted eggs and larvae were used as mimics for testing presence of conspecific effects. Females laid more eggs on intact P. suberosa shoots without conspecifics than on those with H. erato phyllis egg and first instar mimics in both simultaneous and sequential choice trials. Oviposition response to variation in host plant availability was determined through no-choice trials, under host plant densities varying from 0.3 to 8.3 plants per female. Number of eggs laid per plant decreased exponentially with an increase in plant availability. On the contrary, daily oviposition rates (eggs /female/day increased with an increase in plant number, and levelled off when the number of plants available for oviposition was greater than potential fecundity of females. Thus, it is inferred from the results that females assess egg and larval load and prefer to lay eggs on shoots free from conspecifics. It is also inferred that they are able to recognize plant abundance and are unwilling to lay more than one egg per shoot even when host availability is scarce, as judged by reduction in daily oviposition rates under low host plant number. The consequences of laying isolated eggs on P. suberosa shoots are discussed from the viewpoint of intraspecific competition in the larval stage of H. erato phyllis.

  18. Insecticide toxicity to the borer Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): developmental and egg-laying effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R S; Arcanjo, L P; Soares, J R S; Ferreira, D O; Serrão, J E; Martins, J C; Costa, Á H; Picanço, M C

    2018-04-01

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the major pests of solanaceous plants in South America. It is considered a great threat by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization due to the serious economic damage that it causes on tomato farms; therefore, controlling this pest is a challenging task in South America. Controlling N. elegantalis at the egg stage is the best way to prevent it from damaging crops; however, thorough studies about the effectiveness of chemicals on the different life stages of this insect pest are lacking. In this study, the effects of different chemical classes were evaluated on N. elegantalis adults, female oviposition behavior, larvae, eggs, and embryonic development. None of the tested insecticides demonstrated toxicity to the adults; however, the results showed that cartap hydrochloride affects oviposition behavior. Moreover, methomyl and cartap hydrochloride exhibited high toxicity against the eggs and larvae, with higher than 80% of mortality. These insecticides interrupted larval hatching and caused alterations in the chorion layer. Flubendiamide and deltamethrin demonstrated toxicity on N. elegantalis larvae; however, lufenuron, indoxacarb, methoxyfenozide, and chlorantraniliprole demonstrated low toxicity on both eggs and larvae, with lower than 70% of mortality. Fruit treated with cartap hydrochloride had a deterrent effect. The ovicidal activity revealed by methomyl and cartap hydrochloride might provide new approaches regarding insecticide effects on eggs. Methomyl, cartap hydrochloride, flubendiamide, and deltamethrin demonstrated toxicity on larvae. The evaluation of the chorion of the eggshell in this study has clarified the toxic effect of methomyl and cartap hydrochloride on eggs.

  19. Ooencyrtus marcelloi sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae) on passion vines (Malpighiales: Passifloraceae) in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrieri, E.; Huigens, M.E.; Estrada, C.; Woelke, J.B.; Rijk, de M.; Fatouros, N.E.; Aiello, A.; Noyes, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    A new species belonging to the genus Ooencyrtus Ashmead is described. Ooencyrtus marcelloi sp. nov. has been reared from eggs of Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) collected in Panama on Passiflora spp. The new species is compared with its closest Ooencyrtus species, i.e. O. caligo

  20. Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae: morphology of egg and last instar larvae Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae: morfologia do ovo e da larva de último ínstar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Poletto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to knowledge of the immature instars of Neotropical Lepidoptera, this study details the morphology of the egg and last instar larvae of Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae, emphasising the structures of the corium and the chaetotaxy. There is also a report of the occurrence of entomopathogenic action of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow Samson fungi on the larva.Este estudo objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento dos estágios imaturos dos lepidópteros neotropicais. Nele é feito o detalhamento da morfologia das fases de ovo e de larva de Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae, dando ênfase ao estudo das estruturas do córion e da quetotaxia da larva de último ínstar. Além disso é relatada a ocorrência da ação entomopatogênica do fungo Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow Samson sobre suas larvas.

  1. The North American Trichogramma (Hymenoptera) : Trichogrammatidae parasitizing certain tortricidae (Lepidoptera) on apple and pear, with ITS2 DNA characterizations and description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, J.D.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Platner, G.R.; Stouthamer, R.

    2002-01-01

    Eleven species of Trichogramma are reported parasitizing tortricid eggs on apple and pear in North America. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), were the primary pest species encountered. Species of the Trichogramma minutum complex were the

  2. Egg Hatch and Survival and Development of Beet Webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Larvae at Different Combinations of Temperature and Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jihong; Cheng, Yunxia; Sappington, Thomas W; Jiang, Xingfu; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Lizhi

    2016-08-01

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatch, survival of first-fifth instars, survival of the full larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were investigated at combinations of four temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) and five relative humidities (RH; 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). We found that greatest egg hatch rate, survival rates of the first and second instars, and survival rate of the complete larval stage occurred at 22°C and 60-80% RH; the lowest values for these parameters were observed at 30°C and 20% RH. Survival of first instars was significantly affected by the interaction of temperature and relative humidity. However, survival of third and fourth instars was neither affected by temperature nor relative humidity, and that of fifth instars was significantly affected only by relative humidity level. The survival curve for larvae was well described by a type III Weibull distribution. Duration of larval stage decreased as temperature increased, but was not affected by relative humidity. We therefore conclude that eggs and early instars are the most critical stages for survival to the pupal stage, and 22-26°C and 60-80% RH are the optimum conditions for their survival and development. These findings confirm that temperature and relative humidity are the critical environmental factors affecting the population growth of L. sticticalis, with temperature being more important. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Identity and relative importance of egg predators of rice leaffolders (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, de J.; Huis, van A.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Heong, K.L.; Rabbinge, R.

    2000-01-01

    Field andlaboratory studies on predation of rice leaffolder eggs (i.e., Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) and Marasmia patnalis Bradley) were conducted to identify major predator species. Direct observations of predation on field-exposed eggs showed that in two seasons Metioche vittaticollis (Stål)

  4. Relationship between behavior and physiology in an invasive pest species: oviposition site selection and temperature-dependent development of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter-Hausmann, Claudia; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-04-01

    Oviposition site selection is crucial for the reproductive success of a herbivore insect species with relatively sedentary larvae. The optimal oviposition theory, i.e., the preference-performance hypothesis, has thus far mainly been tested with a focus on nutritional quality of the host. This study investigates whether female oriental fruit moth Grapholita (Cydia) molesta choose a microhabitat for oviposition characterized by a temperature range within which their offspring perform best. Thermal preferences of females during oviposition were assessed in a circular temperature gradient arena. Offspring performance and survival were assessed under different constant temperature conditions. Females preferred oviposition sites of approximately 30 degrees C over lower and higher temperatures. At this temperature, egg, larval, and pupal development was significantly faster than at 22 and 25 degrees C, and larval development was also faster than at 33 degrees C. At 30 degrees C and at the lower temperatures tested, survival of eggs and larvae was significantly higher than at 33 degrees C, whereas development was precluded at 35 degrees C. Furthermore, female pupal weight attained at 30 and 33 degrees C exceeded that reached at the lower temperatures tested. Considering the potentially reduced predation risk caused by the shorter developmental time of eggs and larvae, the laboratory data suggest that this species maximizes its fitness by selecting a thermally optimal environment for its offspring, supporting the optimal oviposition theory. Conversely, it is known that the codling moth (C. pomonella) lacks a mechanism to avoid temperatures lethal to progeny development, which may reflect the differences in geographic ranges of these tortricids.

  5. Interactions between extrafloral nectaries, ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and other natural enemies affect biological control of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on peach (Rosales: Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Clarissa R; Bottrell, Dale G; Brown, Mark W

    2011-02-01

    Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) are reported to benefit some plants when ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) use their secretions and fend off herbivores, but in some cases resulting competitive interactions may reduce biological control of specific herbivores. This research examined the interactions between ants and other natural enemies associated with the EFNs of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batcsh] and the implications for biological control of a key pest, the oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck)]. Studies using sentinel G. molesta placed on peach trees ('Lovell' cultivar) with EFNs present and absent revealed that several natural enemy groups associated with the EFNs contribute to reductions in G. molesta eggs, larvae, and pupae in peach orchards. Ants on trees with EFNs antagonized the G. molesta egg parasitoid Trichogramma minutum (Riley), but the ants were crucial in reducing G. molesta in both the larval and pupal stages. Overall, individual trees with EFNs experienced higher ant and other (nonant) natural enemy densities and subsequent pest reductions, as compared with trees without EFNs. However, the implications of EFN-natural enemy-pest interactions to orchard-level biological control will likely depend on local G. molesta population dynamics. © 2011 Entomological Society of America

  6. Oviposition preference and larval performance of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) infected berries of Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Z M; Raman, Anantanarayanan; Wheatley, Warwick M; Cook, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we tested the behavior of gravid Epiphyas postvittana in selecting the most-appropriate site for oviposition thus benefitting offspring performance. Our hypothesis was built on Jaenike's preference-performance hypothesis (also referred to as the "mother-knows-the-best" hypothesis). To test this, we used the interacting Epiphyas postvittana, its host Vitis vinifera, and the pathogenic microbe Botrytis cinerea system. Populations of E. postvittana and B. cinerea often exist concurrently on V. vinifera in Australasia and their interaction and mutual influence are currently being explored, although the suggestion presently is that the relationship between E. postvittana and B. cinerea is mutualistic. We tested the effect of volatiles from B. cinerea-infected berries and uninfected (control) berries of V. vinifera on the oviposition behavior of E. postvittana. We also characterized the effects of B. cinerea infection on the berries of V. vinifera on the growth and development of E. postvittana. Contrary to the preference-performance hypothesis, oviposition choices made by gravid E. postvittana did not result in the best offspring survival, development, and performance. The preference for oviposition by E. postvittana was strongly influenced by the olfactory and tactile cues. She laid fewer eggs on B. cinerea-infected berries compared to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae of E. postvittana showed no preference to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae fed on B. cinerea-infected berries of V. vinifera showing greater survival rate, shorter time to pupation, greater pupal mass, and on becoming adults they laid more numbers of eggs than the larvae that were enabled to feed on uninfected berries. The larvae of E. postvittana transport the conidia of B. cinerea and transmit grey-mould disease to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Biological studies on Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgala, Maria B. Riquelme, E-mail: mbriquelme@cnia.inta.gov.a [Universidade Nacional de Lujan, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Zoologia Agricola; Botto, Eduardo N., E-mail: enbotto@cnia.inta.gov.a [Instituto de Microbiologia y Zoologia Agricola (IMYZA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, is one of the most important tomato pests in South America. In Argentina, management strategies include only chemical control. In this work, the parasitoid wasp Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja was evaluated as a potential natural enemy against this pest. Biological and population parameters were estimated by developing a life table under laboratory conditions at 25 {+-} 1 degree C, 14:10 photo period and 60 {+-} 10% RH. Three cohorts of 26-30 T. bactrae females each were placed with one of the three following treatments: 1 - Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) eggs on a piece of cardboard; 2 - S. cerealella eggs on a piece of tomato leaf, and 3- T. absoluta eggs on a piece on tomato leaf. The following parameters were estimated for each cohort: survival (egg to adult), longevity, fecundity and oviposition period of females, sex proportion of the F1, net rate of reproduction (Ro), mean generation time (T) and intrinsic rate of population increase (rm). Survival of the T. bactrae immature was higher than 90% on both, S. cerealella and T. absoluta eggs. The female survival curves corresponded to type III and showed no significant differences among treatments. The three cohorts did not show significant differences between sex ratio, female longevity, oviposition period, fecundity and the population parameters studied. These results indicate that T. bactrae would be a potential biological control agent of T. absoluta. (author)

  8. Selection of Trichogramma strains and determination of number of parasitoids to be released to control Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae); Selecao de linhagens de Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) e determinacao do numero de parasitoides a ser liberado para o controle de Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rosa Maria da Silva; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: rmsmolina@ig.com.br, e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br

    2006-12-15

    In order to select Trichogramma strains to control G. aurantianum, the biological characteristics of 13 Trichogramma species/strains were evaluated. After selection, the ideal number of T. pretiosum (G18 strain) to be released per G. aurantianum egg was determined in greenhouse tests. The selection test for species/strains was carried out in an incubator adjusted to 25 +- 1 deg C, RH 70 +- 10%, and a 14 h photo phase. The ideal number of parasitoids was estimated in cages covered with a piece of voile-type fabric. The cycle duration for the 13 Trichogramma species/strains varied from 10.2 to 11.9 days. The Atp strain (T. atopovirilia) showed greater parasitism capacity, with an average of 23.3 parasitized eggs and 77.5% parasitism in 24 hours. The G18 strain (T. pretiosum) came next, with an average of 16.8 parasitized eggs and 56.1% parasitism during the same time interval. The emergency, longevity of males, and sex ratio for the 13 species/strains were similar. The number of adults emerged per egg was 1.8 for strains G11 (T. pretiosum) and Br10 (T. bruni), which were different from the G3 strain (T. pretiosum) only, with 1.3 adults per egg. With regard to female longevity, distinct values were observed only between T. pretiosum strains Tp and L2, with 6.3 and 9.3 days, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions, the estimated ratio of 36 T. pretiosum parasitoids per G. aurantianum egg allowed the highest percentage of parasitism (89%). Therefore, Trichogramma spp. has a potential to control G. aurantianum, as long as a large number of parasitoids is released per unit area. (author)

  9. Herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species parasitizing Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Germano L D; de Paulo, Paula D; Zanuncio, José C; Tavares, Wagner De S; Alvarenga, Anarelly C; Dourado, Luan R; Bispo, Edilson P R; Soares, Marcus A

    2017-01-02

    Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. Parasitism by these natural enemies was allowed for 48 h and the cardboards were sprayed with the herbicide nicosulfuron at 1.50 L.ha -1 , along with the control (only distilled water). Nicosulfuron reduced the emergence rate of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 females, but increased that of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Smith, 1984 and T. annulata females. Conversely, this herbicide increased the emergence rate of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead, 1904, T. bruni, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 and Trichogramma soaresi Nagaraja, 1983 males and decreased those of T. acacioi, Trichogramma atopovilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum males. In addition, nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of T. galloi, Trichogramma bennetti Nagaraja and Nagarkatti, 1973 and T. pretiosum and increased that of T. acacioi, T. bruni, T. annulata, Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983, T. soaresi and T. brasiliensis. The herbicide nicosulfuron was "harmless" (class 1, <30% reduction) for females and the sex ratio of all Trichogrammatidae species based on the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) classification. The possible hormesis effect of nicosulfuron on Trichogrammatidae species and on the bacterium Wolbachia sp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) was also discussed.

  10. Functional response of Telenomus remus Nixon(Hymenoptera, Scelionidae to Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae eggs: effect of female age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana R. Carneiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional response of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae to Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae eggs: effect of female age. Functional response of 24-h and 48-h-old Telenomus remus adults was studied on Spodoptera frugiperda eggs. The study was carried out in climatic chamber regulated at 25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% RH and 12:12h (L: D. Females of T. remus were honey fed and individualized in glass vials along with 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250 or 300 eggs of S. frugiperda for 24 h. Complete randomized design with ten replications was adopted. The parameters evaluated to construct the functional response curve were daily average parasitism, searching rate and oviposition time. It was observed that the higher the egg density, the higher the parasitism for 24-h and 48-h-old females although there was a tendency of parasitism stabilization at 150-egg density. The results showed a type II functional response curve for both 24-h and 48-h-old female.

  11. Revision of Cryptaspasma Walsingham 1900 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diakonoff, A.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Cryptaspasma comprises moths of moderate or rather large size, mostly of a "dark and earthy appearance", as Edward Meyrick once characterized them. These insects usually are of different shades of purplebrown to bronze-brown, with suffused blackish spots or retination. Although distributed

  12. A unique tortricid moth, Cydia alazon (Diakonoff, 1976), associated with the endemic pine (Pinus canariensis) in the Canary Islands, Spain (Tortricidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaroš, Josef; Spitzer, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 129 (2005), s. 45-47 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Tortricidae * Cydia alazon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  13. Novaluron Causes Reduced Egg Hatch After Treating Adult Codling Moths, Cydia pomenella: Support for Transovarial Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hoon S.; Wise, John C.; Gökçe, Avhan; Whalon, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of apples throughout the United States. Reliance on broad spectrum organophosphates has been declining with the slated cancellation and has shifted towards narrow spectrum insecticides. Novaluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, has primarily been used for its ovicidal and larvacidal activities. However, recent studies have demonstrated a transovarial effect after exposure to adults. The effects of novaluron were studied to determine if reduced egg hatch occurs after exposure of different sexes to this compound. Effects of this compound through horizontal transfer were also compared with a topical application to C. pomonella eggs. Results from independent exposure of different sexes to novaluron were different than the control for all three exposure types; male only, female only, and both treated. The horizontal transfer experiment yielded no significant difference while the topical application of novaluron on eggs showed significantly lower egg hatch. Although novaluron has no direct toxicity to adults, the results of this study demonstrate that the delayed lethal activity of this compound reduces hatching of eggs laid by treated adults. Along with the direct ovicidal and larvicidal properties of novaluron, the delayed lethal activity provides an important contribution to the overall control seen in the field. PMID:22239717

  14. O estágio de ovo dos Heliconiini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil The egg stage of Heliconiini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dell'Erba

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se da microscopia de luz e de varredura, são descritos e ilustrados os ovos dos seguintes Heliconiini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil: Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, 1907, Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779, Dione moneta moneta Hübner, 1825, Dryadula phaetusa (Linnaeus, 1758, Dryas iulia alcionea (Cramer, 1779, Philaethria wernickei (Röber, 1906, Eueides isabella dianasa (Hübner, 1806, Eueides aliphera aliphera (Godart, 1819, Heliconius ethilla narcaea Godart, 1819, Heliconius besckei Ménétriés, 1857 e Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775. Com base em diferenças morfológicas genéricas e ultraestruturais, associadas aos padrões de uso das plantas hospedeiras, elaborou-se uma chave dicotômica para a identificação das espécies.Based upon light and scanning electron microscopy, the external morphology of the egg stage is described and illustrated for the following Heliconiini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: Agraulis vanillae maculosa (Stichel, 1907, Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779, Dione moneta moneta Hübner, 1825, Dryadula phaetusa (Linnaeus, 1758, Dryas iulia alcionea (Cramer, 1779, Philaethria wernickei (Röber, 1906, Eueides isabella dianasa (Hübner, 1806, Eueides aliphera aliphera (Godart, 1819, Heliconius ethilla narcaea Godart, 1819, Heliconius besckei Ménétriés, 1857, and Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775. A dichotomic key is provided for their identification, based upon differences at the levels of generic and ultrastructural morphology, and variation in host-plant use.

  15. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2009 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2010-01-01

    ; Coleophoridae 118; Tortricidae 383 and of Pyralidae 196; this results in a total of 1560 species of Microlepidoptera (families Micropterigidae-Pyralidae) found in Denmark. The total amount of Macrolepidoptera mentioned from Denmark is now 962, bringing the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total of 2522 species....

  16. Fund af småsommerfugle fra Danmark i 2010 (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Otto; Falck, Per; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    ; Tortricidae 384; Epermeniidae 7; Pterophoridae 46 and Pyralidae 197; this results in a total of 1574 species of Microlepidoptera (families Micropterigidae-Pyralidae) found in Denmark. The total amount of Macrolepidoptera mentioned from Denmark is now 965, bringing the number of Danish Lepidoptera to a total...

  17. Incidência natural e biologia de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Natural incidence and biology of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae in eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina L. Cañete

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner is an egg parasitoid of the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and has recently been collected from eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner on soybeans. In order to evaluate the suitability of A. gemmatalis eggs as hosts of T. atopovirilia, field surveys were conducted in 1999 and 2000 on corn and soybeans, and a colony of the parasitoid was established in laboratory. At 25 ºC, development from oviposition to emergence lasted nine days and a sex-ratio of 0.58 (females:males was obtained. Females lived significantly longer (11.4 days when kept in ovipositional activity, than in the absence of host eggs (6.6 days. Total fecundity averaged 104.5 parasitized eggs, resulting in the emergence of 138.3 descendents. Mean daily fecundity was highest (30 eggs/female on the first day. Oviposition continued until one day before the death of the females, however 70% of the eggs were laid during the first four days after emergence. A female-biased progeny was produced during the first three days of oviposition, whereas further ovipositions were male-biased. Females lived significantly longer when exposed to host eggs in comparison to females deprived of eggs. The results show that eggs of A. gemmatalis are suitable for the development of T. atopovirilia, and this parasitoid should be considered in future programs of biological control of the velvetbean caterpillar.

  18. Effects of gamma radiation from Cobalt 60 on eggs and adults of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver, 1819) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) in laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Z.A.; Rego, A.M.; Oliveira, M.L. de; Ferreira, D. (Pernambuco Univ., Recife (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear)

    1983-11-01

    Lethal and sterilizing dosages from Cobalt-60 radiations were determined for Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver, 1819) eggs and adults. Eggs at the age of 0 to 24 hours were irradiated with dosages of 0,1,2; 4,6,8,10 and 12 krad; it was observed that 10 krad killed all embryos although this was not observed in 96 hours old eggs. A new group was irradiated with dosages of 0,60,80,100,120 and 140 krad, and complete lethal dosage was determined as 140 krad. Mating of irradiated with non irradiated insects resulted in 100% infertile eggs when either the males or females had received the dosage of 100 krad. Immediate lethality of S. cerealella adults was not observed with the dosages of 300 to 320 krad but all insects died after two days (L sup(D) 100//sub 2/).

  19. Apple and sugar feeding in adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella: effects on longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenninger, Erik J; Landolt, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Attraction of adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to sweet baits has been well documented. However, beneficial effects of sugar feeding on moth fitness have not been demonstrated. Longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility were examined for female/male pairs of moths maintained with the following food regimens: water, sucrose water, honey water, apple juice, apple flesh, or starved, i.e., no food or water provided. Longevity and total fecundity were enhanced in all treatments relative to the starved treatment moths. Sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice treatments yielded the highest longevity, but total fecundity was highest for moths maintained on honey water or apple juice. Total egg fertility did not differ among treatments. However, egg fertility declined more gradually over the female lifespan for the three aqueous solution diets of sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice. Similarly, fecundity per day declined more gradually over time for honey water and apple juice treatments. Performance of moths maintained with apple flesh was generally intermediate between that of moths with water and the three aqueous solution treatments. This suggests that moths benefit from feeding on ripe apple flesh, although apple may be more difficult to ingest or its nutrients less concentrated compared to aqueous solutions. The results presented here may explain attraction of adult moths to sweet baits as well as to odors from ripe fruit, which may be a natural source of food in the fall.

  20. The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: egg and damage distribution and parasitism A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: distribuição de ovos e de danos e parasitismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (Wals. has been a limiting factor in growing avocados over the last years in many Brazilian states. This is a result of the lack of safe and feasible management practices to minimize the fruit borer damage. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the pest biology and ecology as well as on the role of natural enemies to define strategies to control the pest. Samples were taken biweekly and consisted of 20 fruits collected randomly (10 from the upper half and 10 from the lower half of the plant in ten plants, cv. Margarida, in a commercial avocado grove in Arapongas and Cambé regions, PR, from October/2001 to September/2002. Laboratory determinations of the percentage of damaged fruit per plant region, location and number of bored fruit sites, and the number and location of the fruit borer eggs, including parasitized ones, were performed. The results showed that S. catenifer preferred to oviposit and attack fruits located on the upper half of the trees. The majority of the eggs were laid on the fruit pedicel whereas the damage was mainly located on the lower half of the fruits. Trichogrammatids were the most constant and abundant parasitoids found in both localities throughout the study period.A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae, continua sendo fator limitante para o cultivo do abacate em vários estados do Brasil, nos últimos anos. Isso se deve a falta de métodos seguros e viáveis para reduzir os prejuízos causados pela praga. Com o intuito de obter informações sobre a sua bioecologia e ação de inimigos naturais, para auxiliar na elaboração de estratégias de controle, realizaram-se coletas quinzenais de 20 frutos ao acaso (10 da metade superior e 10 da metade inferior em 10 plantas, em pomar comercial, cv. Margarida, nos municípios de Arapongas e Cambé, PR, durante os meses de outubro/2001 a setembro/2002. Em laboratório determinaram-se a porcentagem

  1. Parasitism and super parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs; Parasitismo e superparasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marciene D.; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Entomologia; Santos, Maria C.F. dos; Beserra, Eduardo B. [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Almeida, Raul P. de [EMBRAPA Algodao, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    The parasitoid Trichogramma has been used worldwide as biological control agent due to its wide geographic distribution, high specialization and efficacy against many lepidopteran pests. Biological and behavioral traits of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley parasitizing Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) eggs were studied aiming to a better understanding of the Results from parasitism and super parasitism. The variables investigated were: host acceptance and contact time by T. pretiosum on parasitized host, percentage of parasitoid emergence, number of deformed individuals produced, egg-adult period, sex ratio, offspring female body size and longevity, and number of S. cerealella eggs parasitized/female. Parasitism rejection was observed on parasitized host eggs after 24, 72 and 120h of parasitism. The rejection was higher for eggs parasitized after 72h and 120h of parasitism as compared to the eggs after 24h of parasitism. T. pretiosum contact time on eggs after 24h of parasitism was greater than on 72 and 120h. The offspring produced from hosts from which a single parasitoid emerged were larger, exhibited no deformities and greater capacity of parasitism, different from those produced from eggs where two parasitoids emerged. Offspring longevity, however, was similar for females emerged from hosts from which one or two adults emerged. In Conclusion, T. pretiosum was able to recognize previously parasitized eggs and the super parasitism reduced the parasitoid.reproductive success. (author)

  2. Tri-trophic movement of carotenoid pigments from host plant to the parasitoid of a caterpillar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect parasitoids normally produce white-colored eggs. Habrobracon gelechiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of various caterpillars that lays yellow eggs when its larvae developed on leaf-fed Choristoneura rosaceana and Epiphyas postvittana (both Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) ...

  3. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera from the Fiji Islands, part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razowski Józef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-seven species are discussed. One new genus (Daedaluncus gen. n. and 15 new species (Adoxophyes vitilevu sp. n., Adoxophyes niuwudi sp. n., Atriscripta strigana sp. n., Helictophanes saccifera sp. n., Loboschiza oxybela sp. n., Epinotia prepuncus sp. n., Daedaluncus fijiensis sp. n., Coenobiodes vitiae sp. n., Tritopterna rakiraki sp. n., Spilosoma oligospina sp. n., Strepsicrates rotundata sp. n., Eccoptocera platamon sp. n., Herpystis sunia sp. n., Herpystis spinoa sp. n., Cryptophlebia ferrugulla sp. n. are described and illustrated.

  4. Population growth parameters of three Neotropical mirid predators (Hemiptera: Miridae) at five temperatures on tobacco with Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs as food

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, V.H.P.; Calixto, A.M.; Montes, F.C.; van Lenteren, J.C.

    2018-01-01

    Three Neotropical predators Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho), En­gy­ta­tus varians (Distant) and Macrolophus basicornis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Miri­dae) are considered in Brazil as potential biological control agents of Tuta abso­luta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and other tomato pests. This study eva­lu­ated the effect of five constant temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28 and 32°C, all ±1°C) on the reproduction, population growth and longevity of these pre­datory mirids. Adults freshly emerge...

  5. A new species of Telenomus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) egg parasitoid of Parides ascanius (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), a threatened species from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Gilberto De Souza Soares; Loiácono, Marta Susana; Margaría, Cecilia Beatriz; Monteiro, Ricardo Ferreira

    2015-07-17

    Telenomus parides Loiácono et Margaría sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on specimens reared from the eggs of Parides ascanius (Cramer). Parides ascanius is a threatened papilionid, which is endemic to the restingas of the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The new Telenomus species is gregarious endoparasitoid and belongs to the Telenomus californicus species complex.

  6. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on Bt and non-BtCotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA R. RODRIGUES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818 and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781 on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpalTM (non-Bt and DP90BTMBt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive, showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution.

  7. Changes in diapause related gene expression pattern during early embryonic development in HCl-treated eggs of bivoltine silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirigineedi Sasibhushan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of differential expression of diapause related genes (five metabolic, five heat shock protein and one translational regulatory in HCl-treated (non-diapause and untreated (diapause eggs of B. mori during early embryogenesis (up to 48h following oviposition revealed the up-regulation of sorbitol dehydrogenase upon HCl treatment, indicating increased glycogen synthesis for further embryonic development but, down-regulation of phosphofructo kinase gene expression after 18h of oviposition indicating an arrest of glycerol and sorbitol conversion. The expression of poly A binding protein gene expression was higher upon HCl treatment, revealing the initiation of translation. The expression levels of other genes analyzed did not vary significantly, except for Hsp90 and Hsp40, which were up-regulated on acid treatment until 18h. Thus, Sorbitoldehydrogenase and phosphofructo kinasegenes have a crucial role in diapause termination as evidenced by HCl treatment, while the other genes did not have major roles.

  8. Influência da competição intra-específica entre fêmeas e da ausência de hospedeiro no parasitismo de Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae sobre ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Influence of females intraspecific competition and lack of host on Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae parasitism on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana R. Carneiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A competição intraespecífica e a ausência de hospedeiros podem comprometer o sucesso de programas de controle biológico. Assim, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes densidades de fêmeas (1, 3, 6 e 9 fêmeas/ 100 ovos e da ausência de hospedeiro no parasitismo de Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. Observou-se aumento no parasitismo de ovos de S. frugiperda por T. remus a partir da densidade 3 fêmeas/ 100 ovos tanto em condições de laboratório (18% quanto em campo (32%, embora o parasitismo causado por densidades maiores que 1 fêmea/100 ovos não foi significativamente diferente. Todavia, isso não causou superparasitismo. Por outro lado, o número de fêmeas produzidas na progênie diminuiu (39% com a maior densidade de fêmeas sob condições de laboratório. Contudo, não verificou-se diferença significativa sob condições de campo. Mesmo após 9 dias de ausência de hospedeiro não houve redução nos índices de parasitismo, permanecendo em torno de 95 ovos parasitados/fêmea/dia. Todavia, no décimo dia pode-se observar redução (40% no número médio de ovos parasitados. Desse modo, a liberação de três fêmeas por 100 ovos é adequada para se obter elevados níveis de parasitismo.Intraspecific competition and lack of host can affect the success of biological control programs. Thus, this work aimed at evaluating the effect of different densities of females (1, 3, 6, and 9 females/100 eggs and the absence of host in the parasitism of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae eggs. It was observed an increase in egg parasitism of S. frugiperda by T. remus beyond a density of 3 females/ 100 eggs under laboratory (18% and field (32% conditions, although the parasitism caused by densities greater than 1 female/100 eggs was not significantly different. However

  9. Ao38, a new cell line from eggs of the black witch moth, Ascalapha odorata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is permissive for AcMNPV infection and produces high levels of recombinant proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Sheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect cell line is a critical component in the production of recombinant proteins in the baculovirus expression system and new cell lines hold the promise of increasing both quantity and quality of protein production. Results Seventy cell lines were established by single-cell cloning from a primary culture of cells derived from eggs of the black witch moth (Ascalapha odorata; Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. Among 8 rapidly growing lines, cell line 38 (Ao38 was selected for further analysis, based on susceptibility to AcMNPV infection and production of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP from a baculovirus expression vector. In comparisons with low-passage High Five (BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells, infected Ao38 cells produced β-galactosidase and SEAP at levels higher (153% and 150%, respectively than those measured from High Five cells. Analysis of N-glycans of SEAP produced in Ao38 cells revealed two N-glycosylation sites and glycosylation patterns similar to those reported for High Five and Sf9 cells. Glycopeptide isoforms consisted of pauci- or oligomannose, with and without fucose on N-acetylglucosamine(s linked to asparagine residues. Estimates of Ao38 cell volume suggest that Ao38 cells are approximately 2.5× larger than Sf9 cells but only approximately 74% of the size of High Five cells. Ao38 cells were highly susceptible to AcMNPV infection, similar to infectivity of Sf9 cells. Production of infectious AcMNPV budded virions from Ao38 cells peaked at approximately 4.5 × 107 IU/ml, exceeding that from High Five cells while lower than that from Sf9 cells. Ao38 cells grew rapidly in stationary culture with a population doubling time of 20.2 hr, and Ao38 cells were readily adapted to serum-free medium (Sf-900III and to a suspension culture system. Analysis of Ao38 and a parental Ascalapha odorata cell line indicated that these lines were free of the alphanodavirus that was recently identified as an adventitious agent in High Five cell

  10. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  11. Primer registro de Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae en perales y álamos en la Patagonia First record of Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae on pear trees and poplars in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Dapoto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La región del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén es la zona más importante de producción de frutas de pepita de la Argentina. La principal plaga de estos cultivos es Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae. Los cambios implementados en las estrategias de control, principalmente la generalización del uso de la Técnica de Confusión Sexual, han causado en los últimos años cambios en la biodiversidad en esos cultivos. Durante la temporada 2008/09, en un establecimiento frutícola de producción orgánica en Vista Alegre (Neuquén, fue detectada Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, produciendo graves daños en frutos y hojas de perales y sobre el follaje de Populus spp. Se cita por primera vez H. indecisa para la Patagonia y el primer hallazgo de esta especie sobre Populus spp. y Pyrus communis L.The Alto Valle of Río Negro and Neuquén is the main production zone of pomme fruits from Argentina. The main pest is Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Changes operated in control strategies in the last years have brought changes in the biodiversity of fruit orchards. During the season 2008/09, Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was detected in a fruit establishment of Vista Alegre (Neuquén under organic production causing serious damages on fruits and leaves of pear trees and in the leaves of Populus spp. Hypercompe indecisa is reported for the first time in Patagonia and is the first record of this species on Populus spp.and Pyrus communis L.

  12. REGISTRO DE ESPÉCIES DE Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE EM OVOS DE Erinnyis ello LINNAEUS (LEPIDOPTERA: SPHINGIDAE, EM MATO GROSSO DO SUL RECORD OF Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE SPECIES ON Erinnyis ello LINNAEUS (LEPIDOPTERA: SPHINGIDAE EGGS IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Marcelino Duarte

    2010-08-01

    ="font-size: x-small;">Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae is one of the main cassava crop pests and, among its natural enemies, the egg parasitoid Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae is the most important. This research records the occurrence of Trichogramma manicobai, Trichogramma marandobai, and Trichogramma pretiosum on E. ello eggs found in cassava crops, in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.

    KEY-WORDS: Biological control; cassava hornworm; agriculture.

  13. sur Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité d'extraits de feuilles de neem Azadirachta indica (Sapindale) sur Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae), Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) et Lipaphis erysimi (Hemiptera : Aphididae) du chou Brassica oleracea (Brassicaceae) da.

  14. Effects of adult feeding on the reproduction and longevity of Noctuidae, Crambidae, Tortricidae and Elachistidae species; Efeito da alimentacao da fase adulta na reproducao e longevidade de especies de Noctuidae, Crambidae, Tortricidae e Elachistidae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milano, Patricia; Berti Filho, Evoneo; Parra, Jose R. P.; Consoli, Fernando L., E-mail: patmilano@gmail.co, E-mail: eberti@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: fconsoli@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia; Oda, Melissa L., E-mail: melissa.oda@gmail.co [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais

    2010-04-15

    This research evaluates the effect of the adult diet on the reproduction of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Heliothis virescens (Fabr.), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Noctuidae), Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) (Crambidae), Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Tortricidae) and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Elachistidae). Adults of all species were fed either water or a 10% honey solution. The egg viability for the 1{sup st} and 2{sup n}d egg masses, adult fecundity, longevity, number of mating and the ovigeny index (OI) (degree of ovarian maturation) were evaluated. Fecundity of A. gemmatalis and H. virescens was drastically reduced when females were fed only on water. Egg viability from both 1{sup st} and 2{sup nd} egg masses was variable between treatments. Females of A. gemmatalis, H. virescens and S. frugiperda, and males of some species had a reduced longevity when fed only on water. The number of matings was higher for A. gemmatalis and D. saccharalis when fed on water only. The OI was < 1.0 for all species evaluated indicating that all females may develop new oocytes as they age. Based on the OI and the reduced fecundity of A. gemmatalis and H. virescens, one observes that adult feeding is important for the reproduction of both species, and the IO is not a good parameter to indicate such condition. Spodoptera frugiperda, G. aurantianum, D. saccharalis and S. catenifer do not require any source of carbohydrates as adults to sustain their reproduction. (author)

  15. Distribution of 32P in laboratory colonies of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) after feeding on labeled Heliothis zeal (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs: an explanation of discrepancies encountered in field predation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuessly, G.S.; Sterling, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Factors responsible for low recovery rates of radioactive Solenopsis invicta Buren following placement of 32 P-labeled Heliothis zea (Boddie) eggs on cotton in field predation tests were investigated using laboratory colonies of the ants. S. invicta workers became radioactive while handling labeled eggs by rupturing the egg chorion or by picking up labeled substances present on the surface of eggs. Foragers that removed the eggs from the plants picked up significantly more of the label than did workers that were sampled from the colonies between 12 and 72 h after egg introduction. Percentage of workers that became labeled over time was much lower with the solid live food than in other studies that used powdered food sources. Problems in finding labeled ants in the field may have been associated with low mean levels of 32 P per ant, together with difficulty in locating and isolating labeled ants from the population. Results indicate that egg predation rates estimated from counts per minute per predator have high variability, and suggest fairly large errors in estimates of eggs consumed per ant. Use of recovery rates of labeled predators to improve estimation of predation rates is discussed

  16. Distribution of /sup 32/P in laboratory colonies of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) after feeding on labeled Heliothis zeal (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs: an explanation of discrepancies encountered in field predation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuessly, G.S.; Sterling, W.L.

    1986-12-01

    Factors responsible for low recovery rates of radioactive Solenopsis invicta Buren following placement of /sup 32/P-labeled Heliothis zea (Boddie) eggs on cotton in field predation tests were investigated using laboratory colonies of the ants. S. invicta workers became radioactive while handling labeled eggs by rupturing the egg chorion or by picking up labeled substances present on the surface of eggs. Foragers that removed the eggs from the plants picked up significantly more of the label than did workers that were sampled from the colonies between 12 and 72 h after egg introduction. Percentage of workers that became labeled over time was much lower with the solid live food than in other studies that used powdered food sources. Problems in finding labeled ants in the field may have been associated with low mean levels of /sup 32/P per ant, together with difficulty in locating and isolating labeled ants from the population. Results indicate that egg predation rates estimated from counts per minute per predator have high variability, and suggest fairly large errors in estimates of eggs consumed per ant. Use of recovery rates of labeled predators to improve estimation of predation rates is discussed.

  17. Anholts sommerfugle (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Bygebjerg, Rune; Meedom, Peter

    2008-01-01

      The Lepidoptera fauna of the Danish island of Anholt is surveyed, and 1160 species are recorded. Anholt is situated in Kattegat 44 km from Denmark and 47 km from Sweden. The history and environment of the island are briefly discussed, with special focus on the flora, and earlier studies...... of the Lepidopterera fauna of Anholt are dealt with. The present study is in first hand based on material collected by the late Ebbe Schmidt Nielsen and the authors, partly in the 1970's and partly in more recent years. The material do not permit a general comparison between the status of the Lepidoptera fauna...

  18. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Egg Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Egg Allergy What's in this ... it's worth it. What Happens With an Egg Allergy? Eggs aren't bad. But when you're ...

  19. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini? A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Area de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Cle...

  20. Reproductive behaviour of Crocidosema (=Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): temporal pattern of female calling and mating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altesor, Paula; Arcia, Maria P.; Rossini, Carmen; Gonzalez, Andres; Horas, Vanusa R; Zarbin, Paulo H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham) is a major pest of legumes in the southern cone of Latin America. The mating behaviour of two allopatric populations (Uruguay and Brazil) of C. aporema kept in captivity was studied by observing the posture of calling females, the temporal pattern of pheromone emission and mating, and the response of males to calling females in olfactometer tests. Female calling and mating was observed during the scotophase, from the fi rst to the seventh night after adult emergence. Male response was evaluated at night using a single calling female in a Y-shaped olfactometer. Females adopted a characteristic calling posture, extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen. Most females started calling during the second scotophase, and all females called from the third, between the fifth and seventh hours after the onset of the scotophase. Most of the couples mated once throughout the experiment, between the third and sixth night and during the middle of the dark phase. Males preferentially chose the female arm in olfactometer tests, considering both the fi rst arm chosen and the number of visits during the observation period. Our results describe for the fi rst time the temporal pattern associated to the reproductive behaviour of C. aporema. We also provide evidence that this tortricid is monoandrous, and that pheromones are used in intersexual communication for mate finding. Our data will be used to optimize the collection of female sex pheromones for chemical characterization in order to develop a monitoring tool for this pest. (author)

  1. A new species of Clepsis Guenee, 1845 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Sky Islands of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clepsis sangreyana, new species, is described and illustrated from the “sky islands” (i.e., Chiricahua, Huachuca, and Santa Rita mountains) of southeastern Arizona, U.S.A. Superficially, it is most similar to Argyrotaenia dorsalana (Dyar, 1903), but it is assigned unambiguously to Clepsis Guenée on ...

  2. Susceptibility, Oviposition Preference, and Biology of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Prunus Spp. Rootstock Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, D; Lazzari, J C; Andreazza, F; Mayer, N A; Botton, M; Nava, D E

    2017-08-01

    Studying the susceptibility of peach trees to Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major steps in the development of pest-resistant peach varieties. This work evaluated the susceptibility of 55 genotypes of the "Prunus Rootstock Collection" ("Coleção Porta-enxerto de Prunus") of Embrapa Temperate Climate (Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) to the natural infestation of G. molesta, assessed the oviposition preference of G. molesta in choice and no-choice bioassays, and estimated the biological parameters and the fertility life table on different Prunus spp. genotypes in the laboratory. Genotypes Prunus kansuensis (Rehder), I-67-52-9, and I-67-52-4 were the most susceptible to G. molesta infestation in the field (>60% of branches infested), while 'Sharpe' (Prunus angustifolia x Prunus spp.) and Prunus sellowii (Koehne) were the least infested (0% of branches infested). In choice and no-choice bioassays, G. molesta preferred to oviposit on P. kansuensis when compared with Sharpe. The Sharpe genotype also showed an antibiosis effect, resulting in negative effects on the fertility life table parameters when compared with the genotypes P. kansuensis and 'Capdeboscq.' The results found in the present study can provide information to initiate a long-term breeding program moving desired G. molesta resistance traits from the rootstock into the Prunus spp. cultivars. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Integrated control of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in peach orchards using insecticide and mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, R M; Pree, D J; Carter, N J

    2001-04-01

    The efficacy of an integrated and a conventional oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), control program was compared using 4-ha blocks of peach at three Niagara Peninsula farms during 1997-1999. In the integrated program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae and mating disruption using Isomate M100 pheromone dispensers was used to control the second and third generations. In the conventional program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae and pyrethroids were used to control larvae of the later generations. The average release rate of pheromone was 23.7-26.4 mg/ha/h over a period of 86-91 d. The pheromone treatment reduced the capture of moths in pheromone-baited traps on average by 98%, suggesting a high level of disruption. The integrated program provided control of oriental fruit moth similar to the control provided by a conventional program. The mean percentage of peach shoots infested with first- and second-generation larvae, and fruit infested with third-generation larvae was not significantly greater in the integrated-program blocks during the 3-yr study. The elimination of insecticide sprays from the integrated-program blocks did not result in an increase in damage caused by plant bugs. The incidence of damage caused by other pests was negligible in both the integrated and conventional blocks.

  4. Susceptibility of male oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations from New Jersey apple orchards to azinphosmethyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, K A; Shearer, P W

    2001-02-01

    Toxicological responses to azinphosmethyl of male Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), from five commercial orchards in which control failures had occurred were examined for azinphosmethyl resistance and for potential resistance mechanisms by using topical pheromone trap bioassay and compared with a reference population that had no history of control failure and had received little selection pressure. The 1998 field survey indicated moderate level of resistance to azinphosmethyl (2.7-4.1-fold); slopes of regressions lines (2.47-2.76) indicate genetically heterogeneous populations. An approximate twofold decline was observed between the fourth flight of 1998 and the first flight of 1999, suggesting the presence of unstable resistance in moths collected from these study sites. The 1999 field surveys indicated lower levels of tolerance to azinphosmethyl. The resistance ratios ranged from 1.17 to 1.86 during the first flight of 1999 and 1.24-2.64 during the fourth flight of 1999. Steep slopes of the concentration-response lines during 1999 season indicated the presence of genetically homogeneous populations with some exceptions. A 1.5-2.0-fold increase was observed between the first and fourth flights of 1999, indicating that resistance can build up during the growing season. S,S,S,-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), but not piperonyl butoxide, significantly enhanced the toxicity of azinphosmethyl, suggesting that enhanced metabolism by esterases is involved in the tolerance of azinphosmethyl in moths collected from these study sties.

  5. Management of insecticide resistance in Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations from Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Pree, David J; van Lier, Jennifer L; Walker, Gerald M

    2003-08-01

    The development of resistance in the Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (azinphos-methyl and phosmet) is a serious threat to the tender fruit industry in Ontario (50% crop losses in 1994). Resistance to carbamate insecticides and increased survival of field-collected moths at diagnostic concentrations of pyrethroids were widespread. As a result, four different treatment regimes were tested to manage resistance in G molesta, and the changes in resistance frequencies under each treatment regime were monitored from 1996 to 1999. The data indicated that the levels of resistance were significantly influenced by the various treatment regimes. The seasonal pattern of resistance was similar for all treatment regimes, in that resistance peaked in mid-season and declined in the late season. Levels of resistance in G molesta to OPs decreased from 55% to 14% and that to pyrethroids declined from 30% to 10% from 1996 to 1999 under a treatment regime consisting of endosulfan-organophosphate-pyrethroid rotation. Similarly, under a treatment regime implemented in commercial orchards (organophosphate-pyrethroid rotation), resistance to OP insecticides declined from 50% to 12% and resistance to pyrethroids evolved to around 16%. The overall data indicated that resistance was unstable; a strategy based on rotation of insecticides by class for each generation of G molesta was successful in managing resistance to both OP and pyrethroid insecticides. The rotational strategy has been widely adopted by growers and is applied to ca 85% of the acreage.

  6. Response of female Cydia molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to plant derived volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, S; Natale, D; Mattiacci, L; Hern, A; Pasqualini, E; Dorn, S

    2003-08-01

    Peach shoot volatiles were attractive to mated female oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck), in a dual choice arena. No preference was observed between leaf odours from the principle host plant, peach, and the secondary host plant, apple. Twenty-two compounds were identified in headspace volatiles of peach shoots using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Green leaf volatiles accounted for more than 50% of the total emitted volatiles. A bioassay-assisted fractionation using different sorbent polymers indicated an attractant effect of compounds with a chain length of 6-8 carbon atoms. The major compounds of this fraction were tested either singly or in combinations for behavioural response of females. Significant bioactivity was found for a three-component mixture of (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and benzaldehyde in a 4:1:1 ratio. This synthetic mixture elicited a similar attractant effect as the full natural blend from peach shoots as well as the bioactive fraction.

  7. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  8. Different emergence phenology of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on six varieties of grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

    2014-06-01

    The phenology of insect emergence affects reproductive success and is especially critical in short-lived species. An increasing number of studies have documented the effects of thermal and other climatic variations and of unpredictable habitats on the timing of adult insect emergence within and between populations and years. Numerous interacting factors may affect the phenology of adult emergence. Host-plant quality and availability is a key factor that has been largely neglected in studies of the phenology of phytophagous insects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of host plant characteristics on the rate of larval growth and the pattern of emergence in a wild population of Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth), a significant pest in European vineyards. The phenology of emergence differed significantly among the six tested varieties of grapes. The percentage of bunches harboring pupae was similar among the different grape varieties, and the total number of pupae collected was similar to the number of emerging adults per bunch. Among the six varieties of grapes, 0-25 pupae were produced on each bunch. Each of the grape varieties had a single wave of emergence, in which males emerged before females, but their emergence phenology differed significantly in Chardonnay, Chasselas, and Pinot grapes. Both genders had extended durations of emergence in Merlot grapes. Together, the present results show that the characteristics of the grape host plant affect the emergence phenology of L. botrana.

  9. Cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-02-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape farms to evaluate cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens). At each farm, wild grapevines were cut in the woods adjacent to one vineyard for control of P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received no such cutting. Both vineyards received a standard broad-spectrum insecticide program for control of P. viteana and other vineyard insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between treatments in the total number of male moths trapped in both woods and vineyards. Egglaying by P. viteana was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation by P. viteana, no differences were observed between programs in the percent of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In all but one sample, survival of P. viteana larvae was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments, parasitism of P. viteana larvae within vineyards was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments on all sample dates, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two treatments throughout the study. The opportunities and benefits of cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control in grape integrated pest management programs in eastern North America are discussed.

  10. Tillage Reduces Survival of Grape Berry Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), via Burial Rather Than Mechanical Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, Jason M; Isaacs, Rufus; Grieshop, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is a key pest of vineyards in eastern North America that overwinters as pupae in leaf litter on the vineyard floor. This presents an opportunity for tillage to disturb and bury the pupae, providing a potential nonchemical approach to control of this pest. Using a Lilleston-style rotary cultivator, we determined the distribution of pupae within the soil profile after single tillage passes, measured the type and severity of damage inflicted on pupae, and investigated how these effects on pupae influenced their survival. Survivorship of pupae recovered from the vineyard immediately after tillage and held until emergence was not significantly different from those recovered from an untilled control area, indicating little effect of mechanical damage on this pest. However, a single pass of the tillage implement buried three-quarters of pupae under at least 1 cm of soil. A laboratory experiment to recreate these conditions resulted in significant increase in mortality when pupae were buried in more than 1 cm of sand. We conclude that 1) interference with adult emergence of diapausing pupae via burial is the primary mechanism by which tillage controls grape berry moth, and 2) efforts to optimize the impact of tillage on grape berry moth populations should focus on maximizing the number of pupae buried. We discuss the potential integration of tillage into different vineyard management systems to enhance pest management. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. DNA Barcoding reveals sexual dimorphism in Isotrias penedana Trematerra, 2013 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, Chlidanotinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Martin Francis Vanner; Ferreira, Sónia

    2017-01-20

    Isotrias penedana Trematerra, 2013 was described from north Portugal based on males alone. Unidentified females were associated with the males using DNA barcoding, revealing sexual dimorphism in the species. Males and females differ in forewing shape, markings, and size, with females significantly smaller than males. The female is described and illustrated for the first time. We also document the species' occurrence in northern Spain.

  12. Geographic variation in diapause induction: The grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody Timer; Patrick C. Tobin; Michael C. Saunders

    2010-01-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of...

  13. Characterization of EST-based SSR loci in the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.M.T. Brunet; D. Doucet; B.R. Sturtevant; F.A.H. Sperling

    2013-01-01

    After identifying 114 microsatellite loci from Choristoneura fumiferana expressed sequence tags, 87 loci were assayed in a panel of 11 wild-caught individuals, giving 29 polymorphic loci. Further analysis of 20 of these loci on 31 individuals collected from a single population in northern Minnesota identified 14 in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  14. Descriptions of two new species of Rhopalovalva Kuznetzov, 1964 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihuan; Bai, Xia; Li, Houhun

    2017-02-09

    Two new species of Rhopalovalva Kuznetzov are described from China: R. macrocuculla Zhang and Li, sp. nov., and R. connata Zhang and Li, sp. nov. Photographs of the adults and genitalia are provided. We report the first occurrence of the absence of an uncus in the male genitalia of a Rhopalovalva species. A key to the Chinese species is provided based on the characters of the male genitalia. We also comment on the generic characters of Rhopalovalva.

  15. Male larval nutrition in Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): an important factor in reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Johanne; Bouchard, André

    1995-12-01

    This study examines how Choristoneura rosaceana male quality, as determined by larval diet, age and mating history, affects the reproductive success of both sexes. While the size of the spermatophore produced at first mating increased linearly with male age, the frequency of mating was significantly higher for middle-aged males (2-4 days old) than younger (0-2 days old) or older (6-8 days old) individuals, when both sexes were fed on artificial diet. However, the duration of copulation was longer in couples with older than younger males. The observed age-related changes in spermatophore size had no significant effect on female longevity, fecundity or fertility, suggesting no direct relationship between male investment and spermatophore size under these experimental conditions. Different larval food sources (artificial diet, maple and hazelnut) did not affect the proportion of 2-day-old virgin males that mated; however, the proportion that remated was significantly higher for males reared on high-quality food (maple and artificial diet) than those on hazelnut, a poorer food source. There was a 5-fold decline in spermatophore size between the first and second matings on all diets, but female reproductive output was reduced by only 25%. In contrast, while the first spermatophore produced by males on hazelnut was 1.5 times smaller than those produced on maple and artificial diet, the fecundity of their mates was 40% less than those mated with high-quality virgin males. These results provide additional support to the idea that spermatophore size is not a valuable indicator of male quality. Most tethered females placed in the field during the first flight period mated with virgin males (based on the size of the spermatophore), suggesting that female choice exists in this species. These results are discussed in relation to the incidence of polyandry in naturally occurring populations of Choristoneura and the potential use of size and/or chemical cues by females to assess male quality.

  16. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Age and multiple mating effects on reproductive success of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana M. de Morais

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive success of the oriental peach moth was evaluated in four experiments: 1 assessment of the mating duration, fecundity, fertility and longevity of females paired with virgin and immediately mated males; 2 mating duration, spermatophore size, fecundity, fertility and longevity in females paired with virgin and up to four times mated males; 3 receptivity of females to additional copulations after mating with virgin or mated males, and the effects of this behavior in female fecundity, fertility and longevity; 4 influence of insects age in the reproductive output. Males (33% could copulate immediately after a previous copula. They were fertile until the fourth mating, but only in the first copula they transferred the longest (1.43 ± 0.10 mm and widest (0.83 ± 0.11 mm spermatophore, presenting the fastest mating duration (34.8 ± 2.62 min. A high proportion of females copulated by non-virgin males (84% was receptive to other copulas, in comparison to those copulated by virgin males (32.4%. However, the fecundity, fertility, and longevity were similar among females that copulate once or more. The age was the most important factor affecting reproductive variables, where one and three day old insects had a significant higher fecundity, fertility and presented a shorter mating duration in comparison with older individuals. Results pointed out that the reproductive capacity of Grapholita molesta changes a little with respect to the analyzed factors, highlighting the elevated biotic potential of the species.

  18. The importance of correct labelling of types: an example in Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) and its rectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarvik, Leif; Prins, Willy DE

    2017-11-14

    Taxonomy is the basic discipline in biology. The taxonomist defines each taxon and provides a unique name for it. Of the systematic categories, the species level is crucial. When a species is described and named, great care should be taken to ensure that all information related to the name is correct. Information on ecology, biology, distribution, etc. is linked to the name, and may be added and repeated in subsequent literature. Great confusion may arise from ambiguous descriptions and/or mislabelled figures. Therefore editors should take special care to ensure that taxonomic papers containing descriptions of new taxa receive careful refereeing and editing. Here we present a case where descriptions of new species became misleading when the labels of the type specimens were switched. If the manuscript had been more thoroughly refereed, the mistake could have been discovered and avoided.

  19. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  20. Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Establishment in China: Stages of Invasion and Potential Future Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongyu; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is an internal feeding pest of apples and can cause substantial economic losses to fruit growers due to larval feeding which in turn degrades fruit quality and can result in complete crop loss if left uncontrolled. Although this pest originally developed in central Asia, it was not known to occur in China until 1953. For the first three decades the spread of codling moth within China was slow. Within the last three decades, addition of new commercial apple orchards and improved transportation, this pest has spread to over 131 counties in seven provinces in China. We developed regional (China) and global ecological niche models using MaxEnt to identify areas at highest potential risk of codling moth establishment and spread. Our objectives were to 1) predict the potential distribution of codling moth in China, 2) identify the important environmental factors associated with codling moth distribution in China, and 3) identify the different stages of invasion of codling moth in China. Human footprint, annual temperature range, precipitation of wettest quarter, and degree days ≥10 °C were the most important predictors associated with codling moth distribution. Our analysis identified areas where codling moth has the potential to establish, and mapped the different stages of invasion (i.e., potential for population stabilization, colonization, adaptation, and sink) of codling moth in China. Our results can be used in effective monitoring and management to stem the spread of codling moth in China. PMID:28973489

  1. Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with similar dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate®-C Plus) loaded with codle...

  2. Rapid thermal responses and thermal tolerance in adult codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

    2011-01-01

    In order to preserve key activities or improve survival, insects facing variable and unfavourable thermal environments may employ physiological adjustments on a daily basis. Here, we investigate the survival of laboratory-reared adult Cydia pomonella at high or low temperatures and their responses to pre-treatments at sub-lethal temperatures over short time-scales. We also determined critical thermal limits (CTLs) of activity of C. pomonella and the effect of different rates of cooling or heating on CTLs to complement the survival assays. Temperature and duration of exposure significantly affected adult C. pomonella survival with more extreme temperatures and/or longer durations proving to be more lethal. Lethal temperatures, explored between -20 °C to -5 °C and 32 °C to 47 °C over 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4h exposures, for 50% of the population of adult C. pomonella were -12 °C for 2h and 44 °C for 2h. Investigation of rapid thermal responses (i.e. hardening) found limited low temperature responses but more pronounced high temperature responses. For example, C. pomonella pre-treated for 2h at 5 °C improved survival at -9 °C for 2h from 50% to 90% (ppomonella, but limited acute low temperature responses. We discuss these results in the context of local agroecosystem microclimate recordings. These responses are significant to pest control programmes presently underway and have implications for understanding the evolution of thermal tolerance in these and other insects. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fate of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in harvested apples held under short photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., is a cosmopolitan pest of pome and stone fruits. It has been identified as a quarantine pest of concern in a number of countries where it is not known to occur, most of them in tropical or subtropical countries. Although considerable work has been done on the basi...

  4. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  5. Effects of irradiation on phenoloxidase levels in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neven, L.G.; Morford, M.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory trials were conducted to determine if changes in phenoloxidase, a common hemolymph component in insects, could be detected in codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). The 5 instars of codling moth were irradiated at doses of 0, 100, 300, 600, and 900 Gy and phenoloxidase levels were monitored at 0, 2, 4, and 6 d after treatment. The melanization method, protein electrophoresis, dot blot, and enzyme activity analyses were performed to determine phenoloxidase levels. No significant changes in the protein levels, enzymatic activity, or melanization rates in irradiated codling moth larvae were found. Although the melanization method may be adequate for determining whether larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (L.), were irradiated, it is not applicable to codling moth

  6. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for walnuts infested with codling moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation may be a potential quarantine treatment for either diapausing or nondiapausing codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae in walnuts. Exposure of larvae to 51.9 Gy from a 60 Co source significantly reduced emergence of normal adults. The dose required for quarantine security (99.9968% mortality) was 230 Gy based on emergence of adults from treated larvae. Normal adults did not emerge from larvae exposed to 177 Gy in walnuts

  7. Adding microencapsulated pear ester to insecticides for control of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alan L; Light, Douglas M

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of improving the efficacy of various insecticides for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), by the addition of a microencapsulated formulation of pear ester, ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE-MEC, 5% AI), was evaluated in field trials in apple from 2005 to 2009. The addition of PE-MEC (pomonella should be further investigated. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  9. Effects of chlorpyrifos on enzymatic systems of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Morales, Laura Beatriz; Alzogaray, Raúl Adolfo; Cichón, Liliana; Garrido, Silvina; Soleño, Jimena; Montagna, Cristina Mónica

    2017-06-01

    The control program of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in the Río Negro and Neuquén Valley is intended to neonate larvae. However, adults may be subjected to sublethal pesticide concentrations generating stress which might enhance both mutation rates and activity of the detoxification system. This study assessed the exposure effects of chlorpyrifos on target enzyme and, both detoxifying and antioxidant systems of surviving adults from both a laboratory susceptible strain (LSS) and a field population (FP). The results showed that the FP was as susceptible to chlorpyrifos as the LSS and, both exhibited a similar chlorpyrifos-inhibitory concentration 50 (IC 50 ) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The FP displayed higher carboxylesterase (CarE) and 7-ethoxycoumarine O-deethylase (ECOD) activities than LSS. Both LSS and FP showed an increase on CarE activity after the exposure to low-chlorpyrifos concentrations, followed by enzyme inhibition at higher concentrations. There were no significant differences neither in the activities of glutathione S-transferases (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) nor in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content between LSS and FP. Moreover, these enzymes were unaffected by chlorpyrifos. In conclusion, control adults from the FP exhibited higher CarE and ECOD activities than control adults from the LSS. AChE and CarE activities were the most affected by chlorpyrifos. Control strategies used for C. pomonella, such as rotations of insecticides with different modes of action, will probably delay the evolution of insecticide resistance in FPs from the study area. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Modeling population dynamics and dispersion of Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gharehkhani, Gholamhossein

    2009-01-01

    The study of insect dispersal plays an essential role in estimating the spread of damage caused by a newly invaded pest or the spatial distribution of an insect during the active period in growing season. Moreover concerning dispersal, quantitative information performs a crucial role in the evaluation and implementation of pest control. Since rearing clean and healthy insects in sufficient numbers is the most important prerequisite for many basic research programs and for developing pest cont...

  11. Separating the attractant from the toxicant improves attract-and-kill of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gut, Larry J; Miller, James R

    2013-10-01

    The behavior of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), responding to three attract-and-kill devices was compared in flight tunnel experiments measuring attraction and duration of target contact. Placing a 7.6 by 12.6 cm card immediately upwind of a rubber septum releasing pheromone, dramatically increased the duration on the target to > 60 s. In this setting, nearly all the males flew upwind, landed on the card first, and spent the majority of time searching the card. In contrast, male codling moths spent 90% of males contacting the paper were knocked down 2 h after voluntary exposure. These findings suggest that past attempts to combine insecticide directly with sex pheromones into a small paste, gel, or other forms of dollops are ill-advised because moths are likely over-exposed to pheromone and vacate the target before obtaining a lethal dose of insecticide. It is better to minimize direct contact with the concentrated pheromone while enticing males to extensively search insecticide-treated surface nearby the lure.

  12. Suppression of oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genchev, N.

    2002-01-01

    The Oriental fruit moth (OFM) is a major insect pest of peaches in Bulgaria. Its control usually requires several insecticide treatments per season. This, however, gives rise to serious toxic residue problems. A program for suppression of OFM populations involving the use of sterile-insect technique (SIT) has been developed as an alternative to the chemical methods for OFM. Relevant information regarding laboratory rearing, radiation and basic biology are presented here. Expected effects of some release programs are modelled using appropriate mathematical simulations. Results obtained in a small field experiment showed high efficacy of a program integrating F 1 male sterility technique and classic SIT. (author)

  13. THE EFFECT OF QUALITY OF FOOD SOURCE ON MACADAMIA NUT DAMAGE BY Gymnandrosoma aurantianum (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del contenido de nitrógeno, de los compuestos secundarios (taninos y prohantocianidinas y de la materia seca de 4 clones de macadamia y de los diferentes estados de desarrollo de la nuez, sobre la abundancia de Gymnandrosoma aurantianum. El contenido de nitrógeno varió entre clones y los estados de desarrollo de la nuez, siendo más alto en los clones más tolerantes 508>660>344>246. Los mayores contenidos de materia seca se encontraron en los clones tolerantes, 508 y 660, y en las capas externas de la nuez, que en los susceptibles 246 y 344 y en las capas internas (2 y 3. El contenido de proantocianidinas fue mayor en la segunda capa de los clones 508 y 660 que en la de los clones 246 y 344. Los resultados muestran cómo la calidad del alimento afecta el desempeño de las larvas del barrenador, donde éstas, para alimentarse de la almendra, deben superar primero una barrera física, seguida por una barrera química.

  14. Respiratory response of fifth-instar codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to rapidly changing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, L G

    1998-02-01

    Fifth-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to 10 simulated heat treatments of apples and pears and CO2 levels were monitored as a measure of respiration. Marked increases in respiration rates (microliter CO2/mg/min) were noted during these treatments. Respiration peaked between 3.5 and 4.8 microliters CO2/mg/min; the amount of time to peak respiration depended on the heating rate and was correlated to the LT95. No differences were observed between male and female larvae in the timing of the peaks of CO2 production. In treatments where mortality occurred, CO2 levels dropped to zero, but only after a considerable time after death. Respiratory recovery rates, the time it took for CO2 levels to return to normal, were recorded after treatments at time points where CO2 production reached 3/4 and maximum peak. Respiration rates at constant temperatures were recorded within the range of 10-30 degrees C. Q10 over this range was 1.49, whereas Q10 was the greatest, 2.54, between 10 and 15 degrees C.

  15. Reproductive behaviour of Crocidosema (=Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): temporal pattern of female calling and mating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altesor, Paula; Arcia, Maria P.; Rossini, Carmen; Gonzalez, Andres, E-mail: paltesor@fq.edu.u, E-mail: mparcia@fq.edu.u, E-mail: crossini@fq.edu.u, E-mail: agonzal@fq.edu.u [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Fac. de Quimica. Lab. de Ecologia Quimica; Horas, Vanusa R; Zarbin, Paulo H.G., E-mail: vanusa@quimica.ufpr.b, E-mail: pzarbin@quimica.ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Semioquimicos

    2010-06-15

    Crocidosema aporema (Walsingham) is a major pest of legumes in the southern cone of Latin America. The mating behaviour of two allopatric populations (Uruguay and Brazil) of C. aporema kept in captivity was studied by observing the posture of calling females, the temporal pattern of pheromone emission and mating, and the response of males to calling females in olfactometer tests. Female calling and mating was observed during the scotophase, from the fi rst to the seventh night after adult emergence. Male response was evaluated at night using a single calling female in a Y-shaped olfactometer. Females adopted a characteristic calling posture, extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen. Most females started calling during the second scotophase, and all females called from the third, between the fifth and seventh hours after the onset of the scotophase. Most of the couples mated once throughout the experiment, between the third and sixth night and during the middle of the dark phase. Males preferentially chose the female arm in olfactometer tests, considering both the fi rst arm chosen and the number of visits during the observation period. Our results describe for the fi rst time the temporal pattern associated to the reproductive behaviour of C. aporema. We also provide evidence that this tortricid is monoandrous, and that pheromones are used in intersexual communication for mate finding. Our data will be used to optimize the collection of female sex pheromones for chemical characterization in order to develop a monitoring tool for this pest. (author)

  16. Gustatory receptors in Lepidoptera: chemosensation and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A R; Roy, A A; Joshi, R S

    2016-10-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread insect orders and includes several agriculturally important insect species. Ecological success of the lepidopteran insects partly depends on their adaptive chemoreception tactics, which play an important role in the selection of hosts, egg-laying sites and mates. Members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, gustatory receptors (GRs), are an integral part of the Lepidoptera chemosensory machinery. They are expressed in chemosensory neurones and are known to detect different environmental stimuli. Here, we discuss various aspects of the lepidopteran GRs with an emphasis on their roles in different processes such as chemosensation, host selection and adaptation. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the large diversity of GR genes may have been generated through gene duplication and positive selection events, which also show lineage- and tissue-specific expression. Moreover, lepidopteran GR proteins are diverse and demonstrate broad ligand selectivity for several molecules including sugars, deterrents, salts and CO2 . Binding of ligands to GRs generates multiple downstream changes at the cellular level, which are followed by changes in behaviour. GRs play a critical role in chemosensation and influence the insect's behaviour. Overall, insect GRs are potential targets in the design of effective insect control strategies. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. Reproducción de Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae en Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Calvo

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A group of Annona cherimolia (Mill:Annonaceae trees was studied in Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica (June 1991-August 1992 to record egg-laying sites of the butterfly Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae. Used fruits often dehydrated and fell before maturity. Eggs are laid in fruits independently of fruit ontologic state and of height above ground. Tree parts less frequently used to lay eggs are flower primordia, leaves and stems, but the larvae move to fruits when food reserves are depleted. Pupation occurs outside the fruit. Pupae emit sound, possible for defence.

  18. THE PARASITOID Anastatus sp. (EUPELMIDAE-HYMENOPTERA ACTION ON Dirphia rosacordis WALKER, 1855 (SATURNIIDAE-LEPIDOPTERA EGGS IN ”PEQUI” (Caryocar brasiliense CAMBESS AÇÃO DO PARASITÓIDE Anastatus sp. (EUPELMIDAE - HYMENOPTERA EM OVOS DE Dirphia rosacordis WALKER, 1855 (LEPIDOPTERA - SATURNIIDAE EM PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliense CAMBESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The action of parasitoid Anastatus sp. on eggs of D. rosacordis, common for defoliating “pequizeiro” (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess, was studied on eggs collected in the field and eggs obtained in laboratory. Eggs were collected in Hidrolândia, Senador Canedo and Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. In these regions, D. rosacordis shows two generations: September and December. To obtain eggs, a D. rosacordis colony was maintained on pequi leaves over the egg mass obtained in the laboratory and kept under controlled temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod. Among 1,346 eggs obtained in laboratory conditions, 44.3% were parasitized, 40.2% were viable and 15.4 % were not viable. From 697 eggs collected in the field, 25.5% were parasitized, 58.9% were viable and 15.6% were not viable. Adult emergency was observed among 83,4% of parasitized eggs. These data suggest the possibility of using this parasitoid for the pequi caterpillar control, which also causes serious damage on Eucalyptus sp., mainly in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    KEY-WORDS: Anastatus; parasitoid; egg.

    A ação do parasitóide Anastatus sp. sobre os ovos da D. rosacordis, importante desfolhadora do pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess, foi estudada em

  19. Biologia e parasitismo de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner e Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Biology and parasitism of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo B. Beserra

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a capacidade de paratisimo e o desenvolvimento de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner e T. pretiosum Riley visando à seleção da espécie mais adequada para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório à temperatura de 25±2ºC, U.R. de 70±0% e fotoperíodo de 14L:10E. Tanto T. atopovirilia como T. pretiosum desenvolveram-se bem e mostraram-se adaptados a ovos de S. frugiperda, mesmo após serem criados por várias gerações em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella Zeller. Entretanto, fêmeas de T. atopovirilia foram mais agressivas e de maior especificidade à praga, já que apresentaram maior capacidade de parasitismo em posturas com diferentes barreiras físicas e maior aceitação pelo hospedeiro natural, em relação à A. kuehniella. Por este maior parasitismo e especificidade de T. atopovirilia aos ovos da praga, deve-se dar preferência à utilização desta espécie para controle de S. frugiperda.The parasitism capacity and development of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley were studied in order to select the most suitable species to control Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith. The experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25±2ºC, 70±10% RH and 14L:10D photoperiod. Both T. atopovirilia and T. pretiosum showed good development and adaptation to S. frugiperda eggs even after being reared for several generations in eggs of Anagasta kuehniella Zeller. However, T. atopovirilia females were more aggressive and showed higher specificity to the pest, with a higher parasitism capacity in eggs laid with different physical barriers and were more accepted by the natural host in comparison with A. kuehniella. Because of the higher parasitism rate and specificity of T. atopovirilia to the pest's egg this species should be given preference to control S. frugiperda.

  20. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitoids of Lepidoptera caterpillars feeding on Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bueno dos Reis Fernandes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae were obtained. Seven species of Ichneumonidae were reared from leaf rollers: Meniscomorpha sp. (Banchinae and Leurus caeruliventris (Cresson (Metopiinae from Dichomeris sp. (Gelechiidae; Mesochorus sp.1 (Mesochorinae [as a parasitoid of Hypomicrogaster sp. (Braconidae, Microgastrinae], Campoplex sp. (Campopleginae and Leurus sp. from Olethreutinae sp. (Tortricidae; Sphelodon annulicornis Morley (Banchinae and Eutanygaster brevipennis Cameron (Cremastinae were also reared from two unidentified species of Gelechiidae. The other eight species were reared from the larvae of exposed feeders: Diradops sp. (Banchinae from Miselia albipuncta Hampson (Noctuidae, Casinaria sp. (Campopleginae from Hymenomima conia Prout (Geometridae, Charops sp. (Campopleginae from Bagisara paulensis Schaus (Noctuidae and Oxydia vesulia (Cramer (Geometridae, two species of Hyposoter Förster (Campopleginae from Semaeopus sp. (Geometridae and H. conia, two species of Microcharops Roman (Campopleginae from B. paulensis and an unidentified species of Limacodidae and Mesochorus sp. 2 [reared from what was probably Aleiodes sp. (Braconidae, Rogadinae] from an unidentified species of Noctuidae.Parasitóides da família Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera foram obtidos durante um inventário de larvas de Lepidoptera sobre Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae. As larvas de Lepidoptera foram coletadas sobre as plantas que ocorrem nas bordas de caminhos em três áreas preservadas de mata do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Quinze esp

  1. Primer registro de Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae en perales y álamos en la Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela DAPOTO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La región del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén es la zona más importante de producción de frutas de pepita de la Argentina. La principal plaga de estos cultivos es Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Los cambios implementados en las estrategias de control, principalmente la generalización del uso de la Técnica de Confusión Sexual, han causado en los últimos años cambios en la biodiversidad en esos cultivos. Durante la temporada 2008/09, en un establecimiento frutícola de producción orgánica en Vista Alegre (Neuquén, fue detectada Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, produciendo graves daños en frutos y hojas de perales y sobre el follaje de Populus spp. Se cita por primera vez a H. indecisa para la Patagonia y el primer hallazgo de esta especie sobre Populus spp. y Pyrus communis L.

  2. Datos biológicos de Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae en plantaciones de caña de azúcar y consumo de huevos de Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae en condiciones de laboratorio Biological traits of Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae in sugar-cane crops, and consumption rates against Diatraea saccharalis eggs (Lepidoptera: Crambidae under laboratory conditions

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    Gladys M Romero Sueldo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr. es considerada la principal plaga de la caña de azúcar en el noroeste argentino. El dermáptero Doru luteipes (Scudder desarrolla importantes poblaciones en dicho cultivo y ha sido descrito como predador de plagas en maíz, algodón y coles. El objetivo de este trabajo fue brindar información sobre algunos aspectos biológicos y estimar la capacidad de predación de las ninfas de Doru luteipes, a través de la tasa de consumo de huevos de Diatraea saccharalis. Se realizaron observaciones de campo y ensayos de laboratorio, en estos últimos se colocaron individualmente en tubos de ensayo, 50 ninfas de D. luteipes recién eclosionadas y se les ofrecía diariamente cien huevos de la plaga. La proporción de sexos de D. luteipes en campo fue de aproximadamente 1:1 y sus posturas presentaron una media de 31 huevos, con una tasa de emergencia cercana al 95%. El período de incubación se prolongó entre 6 y 10 días y el desarrollo de los estadios ninfales promedió los 37,6 días. Las ninfas pasaron por cuatro estadios y consumieron una media de 591,3 huevos de D. saccharalis. Estos resultados sugieren que D. luteipes desempeña un papel importante en el control natural de las poblaciones de D. saccharalis, por lo tanto, su presencia debería tenerse en cuenta al diseñar estrategias para controlar esta plaga.Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr. is considered the key pest of sugarcane crops in the Argentine northwest. The earwig Doru luteipes (Scudder develops high populations on sugarcane, and in other regions it was depicted as a significant predator of diverse pest in corn, cotton, and cabbage crops. The aim of this contribution is to inform about different biological parameters of this Dermaptera, and to assess the predatory capacity of its nymphs by means of the estimation of consumption rates using Diatraea saccharalis eggs. Both field and laboratory observations were carried out. In the latter, 50 neonate nymphs were

  3. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success...

  4. Post-embryonic development of Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider, 1851 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed with eggs of Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: CrambidaeDesenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider, 1851 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com ovos de Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Luis Gustavo Amorim Pessoa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The lacewings (Ceraeochrysa cincta are important predators found associated to many pests in several agroecosystems. Eggs of Sitotroga cerealella and Anagasta kuehniella are used traditionally for massal rearing of these predators. Other foods can be used in substitution to the traditional ones, but little is known about the biology of lacewings and other alternative foods. So, this work was carried out to evaluate the effect of different diets on the post-embryonic development of C. cincta in laboratory. After been individualized in glass tubes, each larva was fed with S. cereallella and Diatraea saccharallis. It was evaluated the larvae duration, weight and viability in each instar, the duration, weight and viability of the pupa and pre-pupa stages and the duration of the post-embryonic period. It was adopted a completely randomized design with ten replications per treatment, each consisting of five eggs or larvae of C. cincta. Larvae were weighed 48 hours after hatching and 48 hours after each molt, and pre-pupae and pupae, 48 hours after starting these stages. There was no effect of the kind of food provided on the parameters evaluated. Therefore, D. saccharallis eggs can be used to feed C. cincta.Os crisopídeos são importantes predadores encontrados associados a diversos artrópodes-praga em diversos agroecossistemas. Para a criação massal desses predadores são utilizados tradicionalmente ovos de Sitotroga cerealella e de Anagasta kuehniella. Outros alimentos podem ser utilizados em substituição aos tradicionais, mas pouco se conhece sobre a biologia de crisopídeos e outros alimentos alternativos. Assim, este trabalho objetivou verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas sobre o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário dessa espécie em laboratório. Após a individualização em tubos de vidro, cada larva foi alimentada com ovos de S. cerealella e Diatraea saccharallis. Avaliou-se a duração, o peso e a viabilidade das larvas em cada

  5. Analysis of evolution in the lower Lepidoptera (Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Lower Lepidoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Mutuura, Akira

    1991-01-01

    The evolutionary mechanism in Lepidoptera is discussed. As a result of the comparison of evolution between the Microptergidae and the typical Lepidoptera, two different kinds of evolution are recognized. ・・・

  6. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have egg allergy: albumin globulin livetin lysozyme ovalbumin ovoglobulin ovomucin ovomucoid ovotransferrin ovovitella ovovitellin silici ... want to make sure you're still getting protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, ...

  7. Huevo, larva en primer estadio y aparato genital femenino de la mariposa Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Marcela A Rodríguez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el huevo, larva de primer estadio y aparato genital de la hembra de Chabuata castanea con material proveniente de Talcahuano, VIII región, Chile y de huevos obtenidos en laboratorio. Se fotografiaron los huevos con microscopia electrónica de barrido para analizar las variaciones entre micropila, celdas primarias y secundarias, concluyéndose que las diferencias permiten una identificación al nivel de especie.Egg, first larval stage and female genitalia of the moth Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Egg, first larval stage, and female genitalia of the widely distributed moth Chabuata castanea are described, based on material from Talcahuano, VIII region, Chile. Egg microestructures are illustrated with scannig electron microscope images which show that egg morphology allows identification to species level. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 659-664. Epub 2007 June, 29.

  8. Interessante Microlepidoptera uit Nederland in het jaar 1992 (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, K.J.; Koster, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This is the sixth compilation of Microlepidoptera collected in The Netherlands, covering the year 1992. Two species are recently recorded for the first time from The Netherlands by the Dutch Plant Protection Service, Wageningen: Olethreutes arbutella (Tortricidae) and Duponchelia fovealis

  9. Flutuação populacional de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (MEYRICK, 1909 (Lep: Tortricidae com emprego de feromônio sexual sintético na cultura da videira easonal fluctuation of the adults of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (MEYRICK, 1909 (Lep: Tortricidae using synthetic sexual pheromone in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson José Morandi Filho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-das-fruteiras, Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick, 1909 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, é uma espécie freqüentemente encontrada danificando a cultura da videira e outras frutíferas de clima temperado na região Sul do Brasil e no Uruguai. Estudou-se a flutuação populacional de A. sphaleropa na cultura da videira com emprego do feromônio sexual sintético. Com base na avaliação semanal de machos de A. sphaleropa capturados em armadilha Delta contendo o feromônio sexual sintético (Z11,13-14Ac + Z11,13-14Al + Z11-14Al na proporção 4:4:1, impregnada em liberadores de borracha na dose de 1.000µg/septo, durante a safra 2003-2004, foram observados quatro picos populacionais na cultura da videira cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon. O primeiro pico populacional ocorreu no início do mês de outubro, o segundo no início de fevereiro, o terceiro teve o acme em meados do mês de março e o quarto no mês de junho. A temperatura média diária e a precipitação pluviométrica não exerceram influência sobre a captura dos insetos nas armadilhas. As informações deste trabalho permitem direcionar as táticas de controle para os períodos em que a população do inseto é mais elevada nos parreirais.The South American Tortricid Moth (Meyrick, 1909 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is often found damaging vineyards and other temperate fruit orchards, in Southern Brazil and Uruguay. This work was conducted to study the seasonal occurrence of A. sphaleropa adults in vineyards using sexual synthetic pheromone. Based on weekly evaluation of A. sphaleropa adults caught in Delta trap baited with synthetic sexual pheromone (Z11, 13-14Ac + Z11, 13-14Al + Z11-14Al in a ratio of 4:4:1, 1000µg/septum, during 2003/2004 season, it was observed four populational peaks in a Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. The first populational peak occurred in the beginning of October, the second in the beginning of February, the third occurred in middle of March and the forth in June

  10. Effect of endogenous factors on the chemical perception of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to sex pheromone; Efeito de fatores endogenos na percepcao quimica de Grapholita molesta(Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) ao feromonio sexual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altafini, Deisi L.; Sant' Ana, Josue; Redaelli, Luiza R., E-mail: deisila@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fitotecnia

    2010-06-15

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), stands out as one of the most important pest in Rosaceae orchards in Brazil. During feeding, caterpillars bore into shoots, branches and fruits, impairing the commercial production. This work aimed to study the effect of endogenous factors in the chemical perception and in the species chemotactic behavior, seeking to optimize monitoring and the behavioral control of this pest. We evaluated male electroantennographical (EAG) and chemotactical (olfactometry) responses to the synthetic sex pheromone in different ages, virgins or mated and fed or unfed. The EAG responses of males did not differ for all evaluated factors. Nevertheless, the chemotactical behavior of males seems to decrease with age, not varying as a function of mating or feeding conditions. The knowledge about the interference of these factors in G. molesta may help with the interpretation of fi eld results, allowing the development of suitable and reliable control measures based on infochemicals for behavioral control. (author)

  11. Flutuação populacional e danos de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: tortricidae em dois sistemas de produção de pessegueiros Population fluctuation and damage from Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: tortricidae in two peach production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Poltronieri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a flutuação populacional de Grapholita molesta e verificar a fase fenológica do pessegueiro mais sensível ao ataque do inseto, em dois sistemas de produção, selecionaram-se quatro pomares de pessegueiro, sendo dois conduzidos no sistema de produção convencional (PC e dois no sistema de boas práticas agrícolas (BPA, durante as safras de 2005/06 e 2006/07, em Araucária-PR. Para verificar a flutuação, foram instaladas duas armadilhas modelo Delta por pomar, iscadas com feromônio sexual sintético, onde se registravam semanalmente as capturas dos adultos de G. molesta. Para determinar a fase mais sensível do pessegueiro ao ataque de G. molesta, foram avaliados as brotações e os frutos do ramo primário voltado para o poente, em vinte plantas por pomar, nas fases de raleio, endurecimento do caroço e maturação. A população de G. molesta, na safra de 2005/06, foi superior à de 2006/07, com os pomares BPA apresentando ocorrências superiores aos PCs. As maiores populações do inseto ocorreram após a colheita. A fase de maturação foi a mais suscetível em ambos os sistemas de produção, com os pomares BPA apresentando menor percentual de danos.With the objective to know the population fluctuation of Grapholita molesta and to verify the phenological stage that the peach tree is more sensitive to the attack of the insect in two production systems, four peach orchards were selected, two under the conventional production system (CP and two under the good agricultural practice system (GAP, in 2005/06 and 2006/07 growing seasons, in Araucária, PR, Brazil. To verify the fluctuation, two Delta model traps were installed per orchard, baited with synthetic sexual pheromone, where the capture of G. molesta adults was recorded weekly. To determine the most sensitive phase of the peach tree to G. molesta attack, the bud and fruits were evaluated on the primary branch turned to the West on twenty plants per orchard, in the thinning, stone hardening and maturing phases. The G. molesta population in the 2005/2006 growing season was greater than in 2006/07, and the GAP orchards presented greater occurrences than the CP. The biggest populations of the insect occurred postharvest. The maturation phase was the most susceptible in both production systems, but there was a lower percentage of damage to the GAP orchards.

  12. Age and multiple mating effects on reproductive success of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae Efeito da idade e de múltiplos acasalamentos no sucesso reprodutivo de Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana M. de Morais

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive success of the oriental peach moth was evaluated in four experiments: 1 assessment of the mating duration, fecundity, fertility and longevity of females paired with virgin and immediately mated males; 2 mating duration, spermatophore size, fecundity, fertility and longevity in females paired with virgin and up to four times mated males; 3 receptivity of females to additional copulations after mating with virgin or mated males, and the effects of this behavior in female fecundity, fertility and longevity; 4 influence of insects age in the reproductive output. Males (33% could copulate immediately after a previous copula. They were fertile until the fourth mating, but only in the first copula they transferred the longest (1.43 ± 0.10 mm and widest (0.83 ± 0.11 mm spermatophore, presenting the fastest mating duration (34.8 ± 2.62 min. A high proportion of females copulated by non-virgin males (84% was receptive to other copulas, in comparison to those copulated by virgin males (32.4%. However, the fecundity, fertility, and longevity were similar among females that copulate once or more. The age was the most important factor affecting reproductive variables, where one and three day old insects had a significant higher fecundity, fertility and presented a shorter mating duration in comparison with older individuals. Results pointed out that the reproductive capacity of Grapholita molesta changes a little with respect to the analyzed factors, highlighting the elevated biotic potential of the species.O sucesso reprodutivo da mariposa-oriental foi avaliado em quatro bioensaios: 1 avaliação do tempo de cópula, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de fêmeas pareadas com machos virgens e imediatamente acasalados; 2 tempo de cópula, tamanho do espermatóforo, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade em fêmeas pareadas com machos virgens e acasalados até quatro vezes; 3 receptividade de fêmeas a cópulas adicionais após o acasalamento com machos virgens ou acasalados, e o efeito deste comportamento na fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade das fêmeas; 4 influência da idade dos insetos no sucesso reprodutivo. Machos (33% foram capazes de copular logo após o primeiro acasalamento. Os machos foram igualmente férteis até o quarto acasalamento, mas somente na primeira cópula transferiram espermatóforo com maior comprimento (1,43 ± 0,10 mm e na largura (0,83 ± 0,11 mm, e apresentaram cópula de menor duração (34,8 ± 2,62 min. Uma maior proporção de fêmeas copuladas por machos não virgens (84% foram receptivas a novos acasalamentos em comparação as pareadas com virgens (32,4%. No entanto, a fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade foram semelhantes entre as fêmeas que copularam uma ou várias vezes. A idade foi o fator que mais afetou as variáveis reprodutivas, onde insetos de um e três dias de idade foram significativamente mais fecundos, férteis e apresentaram menor tempo de cópula que os mais velhos. Os resultados apontam que a capacidade de reprodução de G. molesta altera-se pouco com relação aos fatores analisados, ressaltando assim, elevado potencial biótico da espécie.

  13. Redescripción de Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoide introducido en la Argentina para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Redescription of Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoid introduced for the control of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Torréns

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe el agente de biocontrol introducido en la Argentina, Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. y se aportan nuevos caracteres para su identificación.The bio-control agent introduced in Argentina Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae for the control of Cydia pomonella (L. is redescribed, providing new characters for the species.

  14. Fitness-related traits of entomopoxviruses isolated from Adoxophyes honmai (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) at three localities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Jun; Okuno, Shohei; Ishii, Takayoshi; Nakai, Madoka; Kunimi, Yasuhisa

    2010-10-01

    Three entomopoxviruses (EPVs) isolated from diseased Adoxophyes honmai larvae at different localities (Tsukuba, Itsukaichi, and Miyazaki) in Japan were compared for biochemical identity and key parameters of virus fitness, fatal infection, speed of kill, and virus yield. When the structural peptides of occlusion bodies (OBs) and occlusion-derived viral particles were compared using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, no difference in banding patterns was observed. However, DNA restriction endonuclease analysis showed that the three isolates were genotypically different, but many commonly sized DNA fragments were observed. Five tortricid species, A. honmai, Adoxophyes orana, Adoxophyesdubia, Homona magnanima, and Archips insulanus were susceptible to all isolates. No significant differences in the key viral fitness parameters were detected among the isolates in A. orana. However, the Miyazaki isolate had a different effect on H. magnanima; it allowed infected insects to survive longer and develop to a larger size, but had a lower yield of OBs per larva at any given time to death. OB yields per unit cadaver weight for the Miyazaki isolate, which indicate the conversion rate of the insect to virus, were lower over time compared to the other two isolates. The implications for selecting a candidate isolate to control tortricid pests are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the Global Risk of Establishment of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using CLIMEX and MaxEnt Niche Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Zhu, Hongyu; Zhang, Runzhi

    2015-08-01

    Accurate assessment of insect pest establishment risk is needed by national plant protection organizations to negotiate international trade of horticultural commodities that can potentially carry the pests and result in inadvertent introductions in the importing countries. We used mechanistic and correlative niche models to quantify and map the global patterns of the potential for establishment of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.), a major pest of apples, peaches, pears, and other pome and stone fruits, and a quarantine pest in countries where it currently does not occur. The mechanistic model CLIMEX was calibrated using species-specific physiological tolerance thresholds, whereas the correlative model MaxEnt used species occurrences and climatic spatial data. Projected potential distribution from both models conformed well to the current known distribution of codling moth. None of the models predicted suitable environmental conditions in countries located between 20°N and 20°S potentially because of shorter photoperiod, and lack of chilling requirement (Japan where codling moth currently does not occur but where its preferred host species (i.e., apple) is present. Average annual temperature and latitude were the main environmental variables associated with codling moth distribution at global level. The predictive models developed in this study present the global risk of establishment of codling moth, and can be used for monitoring potential introductions of codling moth in different countries and by policy makers and trade negotiators in making science-based decisions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Parasitismo larval de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo LILJESTHRÖM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la interacción huésped-parasitoide las plantas suelen emitir señales capaces de aumentar la eficiencia de los parasitoides. Las larvas de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham se alimentan endofíticamente de leguminosas herbáceas y constituyen una plaga de la soja (Glycine max Merrill. En este estudio analizamos el parasitismo larval de C. aporema en Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L y G. max, en el noreste de Buenos Aires. La densidad larval fue mayor en L. albus (109,2 larvas/m2 que en las restantes leguminosas: 3,7; 6,9 y 11,3 en M. albus, G. officinalis y G. max, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo y número de especies parasitoides fueron menores en L. albus (9,5% por el ectoparasitoide generalista Bracon sp. que en M. albus (32,6%, Bracon sp. y los endoparasitoides Trathala sp.y Bassus sp.; G. officinalis y G. max (26,4% y 50,6% respectivamente, con Trathala sp. y Bracon sp. en ambas. Lupinus albus fue la única especie vegetal que reaccionó a la alimentación de C. aporema con producción de exudados pegajosos y olorosos que podrían haber repelido los endoparasitoides, actuando como un refugio parcial para C. aporema. Además, al ser positivamente seleccionada por C. aporema, esta leguminosa podría utilizarse como franja trampa para su control en cultivos de soja, de manera compatible con tácticas de control biológico por conservación de enemigos naturales.

  17. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vreysen, M. J. B.; Carpenter, J. E.; Marec, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2010), s. 165-181 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : area-wide integrated pest management * codling moth * genetic sexing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.276, year: 2010

  18. A model for the overwintering process of European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Baumgärtner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development, parametrization and validation of a phenology model of the overwintering process of European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller populations in northern latitudes. The model is built on diapause and poikilothermic population development theories and represents the phenological events of entries into and emergence from pre-diapause, diapause and post-diapause phases. The rate sum models for pre-diapause and post-diapause development are based on published non-linear temperature dependent rate functions. The rate sum model for diapause, however, is negatively affected by the photoperiod during diapause and positively influenced by the photoperiod at the time of diapause entry. The diapause model is parametrized with 3-year data from 25 locations in Europe and Cyprus, and validated with 1-3 year observations from 18 locations in Europe and California. Despite restrictive assumptions and limitations imposed by weather data recorded at variable distances from the observation sites, and the variable qualities of observation data, the model’s predictive and explanatory capabilities are useful for adaptive pest management and assessments of the invasive potential. The need for controlled experiments is recognized and suggestions are made for improving the model.

  19. Feasibility of Mating Disruption for Agricultural Pest Eradication in an Urban Environment: Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Perth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Woods, Bill; Lacey, Ian; Virdi, Amandip; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Suckling, David Maxwell

    2015-08-01

    Eradication technologies are needed for urban and suburban situations, but may require different technologies from pest management in agriculture. We investigated mating disruption of a model moth species recently targeted for eradication in Californian cities, by applying dollops of SPLAT releasing a two-component sex pheromone of the light brown apple moth in 2-ha plots in low-density residential Perth, Australia. The pheromone technology was applied manually at ∼1.5 m height to street and garden trees, scrubs, and walls at 500 dollops per hectare of 0.8 g containing ∼80 mg active two-component pheromone. Catches of male moths were similar among all plots before treatment, but in treated areas (six replicates) pheromone trap catches were substantially reduced for up to 29 wk posttreatment, compared with untreated control plot catches (three replicates). The treatment with pheromone reduced catch to virgin females by 86% (P environments. The need for new socially acceptable tools for eradication in urban environments is likely to increase because of increasing need for eradications. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Spatial analysis of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) male population in a mediterranean agricultural landscape in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, A; Zinni, A; Mazzocchetti, A; Trematerra, P

    2008-04-01

    The results obtained from the spatial analysis of pheromone-baited trap catch data of Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) males are reported. The research was undertaken in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. In the study area, vineyards (of Vitis vinifera L.) are the predominant cultivation, surrounded by hedgerows and small woodlots, and interspersed with cereal crops and olive groves. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of L. botrana, inside and outside vineyards, and to evaluate the effect of the landscape elements on pest distribution. A trend orientation over the experimental area was observed along the direction from northwest to southeast. Correlograms fitted using a spherical model showed in all cases an aggregated distribution and an estimated range having a mean of 174 m in 2005 and 116 m in 2006. Contour maps highlighted that spatial distribution of L. botrana was not limited to vineyards, but its presence is high particularly inside olive groves. The adult distribution on the experimental area changed during the season: hot spots of flight I were positioned inside olive groves; during flights II and III, they were concentrated in vineyards. L. botrana males were also captured in uncultivated fields, but never in high densities. Our results showed that a large proportion of the adult population of L. botrana inhabits areas outside those usually targeted by pest management programs. Thus, in Mediterranean agro-ecosystems, it is highly recommended to consider the whole landscape, with particular attention to olive crops.

  1. Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis and parasitoids of late-instar larvae of the spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, A.; Cusson, M.; Frankenhuyzen, van K.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki and parasitoids that attack late instars of the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens). In a petri-dish arena, females of Tranosema rostrale rostrale (Brishke) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) were

  2. Sex-Pheromone-Mediated Mating Disruption Technology for the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Overview and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei N. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of progress has been made over the last three decades in research on pheromone-mediated mating disruption technology for the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck. Pheromones can interrupt normal orientation, and the most likely mechanism of pheromone disruption, competitive-attraction (false-plume following, invokes competition between point sources of pheromone formulation and females for males. This technology, performed by broadcasting pheromones into orchards to disrupt mate finding, has been successfully implemented in oriental fruit moth control. Reservoir-style dispensers made of polyethylene tubes, which release pheromone throughout the full growing season, are the current industry standard. Although reasonably effective, they require labor-intensive hand application. Recently, a new formulation, paraffin wax, which maximizes competition between point sources of synthetic pheromone and feral females for males, was shown to have high disruption performance. As this formulation is highly effective, inexpensive, and easy to produce, further study and development are advisable. Increased understanding of the principles of mating disruption will aid in the design of more effective dispensers. Continued research is needed to meet grower concerns with regard to risk, efficacy, and cost and to identify other semiochemicals that can be applied to this delivery system. Greater knowledge of the integration of different biological control methods is therefore essential.

  3. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Li

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications.Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2 for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1 exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition.Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different binding characteristics for tested ligands. rGmolGOBP1 has dual functions in recognition of host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components, while rGmolGOBP2 is mainly involved in minor sex pheromone component dodecanol perception. This study also provides empirical evidence for the predicted functions of key amino acids in recombinant protein ligand-binding characteristics.

  4. Comparison of mating disruption with pesticides for management of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North Carolina apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanci, Orkun B; Schal, Coby; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2005-08-01

    The efficacy of mating disruption by using Isomate-M 100 pheromone dispensers and two formulations of microencapsulated sprayable pheromone for management of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), was compared with conventional insecticides in large plot studies in Henderson County, North Carolina, in 2000 and 2001. In addition, experiments were conducted in small and large plots to test the response of oriental fruit moth males to different application rates of sprayable pheromone. Pheromone trap catches were significantly reduced in mating disruption blocks compared with conventional and abandoned orchards. Pheromone traps placed in the upper canopy captured significantly more moths than traps placed in the lower canopy across all treatments, and lures loaded with 100 microg of pheromone caught more moths than traps with 300 microg, but the difference between doses was statistically significant at only one location in 2001. Isomate-M 100 provided excellent trap shutdown and was significantly more effective than sprayable pheromone formulations. Fruit damage by oriental fruit moth larvae was very low (oriental fruit moth population pressure in large plot studies. Mating disruption proved to be an alternative to organophosphate insecticides for managing oriental fruit moth populations in North Carolina apple orchards.

  5. Geostatistics and Geographic Information Systems to Study the Spatial Distribution of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Peach Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, F; Calvo, M V; Borges, A; Scatoni, I B

    2015-08-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), is the most serious pest in peach, and several insecticide applications are required to reduce crop damage to acceptable levels. Geostatistics and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are employed to measure the range of spatial correlation of G. molesta in order to define the optimum sampling distance for performing spatial analysis and to determine the current distribution of the pest in peach orchards of southern Uruguay. From 2007 to 2010, 135 pheromone traps per season were installed and georeferenced in peach orchards distributed over 50,000 ha. Male adult captures were recorded weekly from September to April. Structural analysis of the captures was performed, yielding 14 semivariograms for the accumulated captures analyzed by generation and growing season. Two sets of maps were constructed to describe the pest distribution. Nine significant models were obtained in the 14 evaluated periods. The range estimated for the correlation was from 908 to 6884 m. Three hot spots of high population level and some areas with comparatively low populations were constant over the 3-year period, while there is a greater variation in the size of the population in different generations and years in other areas.

  6. Comparison of microcapsule density with various apple tissues and formulations of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sprayable pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, Daniel E; Gut, L J

    2003-02-01

    The density of microcapsules was compared on 'Golden Delicious' mature and immature foliage, fruit, and 1-yr-old limbs after dip treatments with Phase III oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), microencapsulated pheromone. Microcapsules were counted with a dissecting microscope at 50x magnification after apple tissues were treated with a two-step dye staining process to increase the visibility of the microcapsules. The number of Phase III microcapsules on 1-yr limbs treated with a field concentration was two- to threefold greater than the number of microcapsules on similarly treated fruit or foliage. Phase I, III, and V OFM MEC and Checkmate OFM-F formulations of microencapsulated pheromone also were compared to determine their abundance on mature apple foliage. The Phase V OFM MEC formulation had the highest density of microcapsules when mature foliage was treated at the field rate. The Phase I treatment had the greatest difference between upper and lower leaf surfaces with 18-fold greater microcapsule density on the upper surface. On mature apple leaves treated with Phase III MEC, the number of microcapsules/cm2 was two- to threefold greater on fields of view without the mid-vein than those that included the mid-vein. The cuticle structure and abundance of trichomes are two factors that may have contributed to differences in microcapsule density among plant tissue types, top and bottom leaf surfaces, and fields of view with and without the mid-vein.

  7. [Effect of endogenous factors on the chemical perception of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to sex pheromone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altafini, Deisi L; Sant'Ana, Josué; Redaelli, Luiza R

    2010-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), stands out as one of the most important pest in Rosaceae orchards in Brazil. During feeding, caterpillars bore into shoots, branches and fruits, impairing the commercial production. This work aimed to study the effect of endogenous factors in the chemical perception and in the species chemotactic behavior, seeking to optimize monitoring and the behavioral control of this pest. We evaluated male electroantennographical (EAG) and chemotactical (olfactometry) responses to the synthetic sex pheromone in different ages, virgins or mated and fed or unfed. The EAG responses of males did not differ for all evaluated factors. Nevertheless, the chemotactical behavior of males seems to decrease with age, not varying as a function of mating or feeding conditions. The knowledge about the interference of these factors in G. molesta may help with the interpretation of field results, allowing the development of suitable and reliable control measures based on infochemicals for behavioral control.

  8. Sex-Pheromone-Mediated Mating Disruption Technology for the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): Overview and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Wei N. Kong; J. Li; Ren J. Fan; Sheng C. Li; Rui Y. Ma

    2014-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made over the last three decades in research on pheromone-mediated mating disruption technology for the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). Pheromones can interrupt normal orientation, and the most likely mechanism of pheromone disruption, competitive-attraction (false-plume following), invokes competition between point sources of pheromone formulation and females for males. This technology, performed by broadcasting pheromones into orchards to d...

  9. Similar worldwide patterns in the sex pheromone signal and response in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Barros-Parada, W; Bosch, D; Escudero-Colomar, L A; Fuentes-Contreras, E; Hernández-Sánchez, J; Jung, C; Yung, C; Kim, Y; Kovanci, O B; Levi, A; Lo, P; Molinari, F; Valls, J; Gemeno, C

    2015-02-01

    The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4, 5.4, 10.4, 30.4, and 100.1% E-blends) was tested with populations in eight stone and pome fruit orchards in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. Traps baited with the 5.4% E-blend caught significantly more males than traps with any other blend with all populations. Significantly more males were caught in traps baited with the 10.4% E-blend than in traps with the remaining blends, except with the 0.4% E-blend in Turkey. Significant differences in male moth catches occurred between the other blends with the 0.4>30.4% E-blend, and the 30.4>100.1% E-blend. Male moth catches with the 100.1% E-blend only differed from the hexane control in Chile. No apparent differences were noted to these blends in populations collected from pome or stone fruits. Flight tunnel assays to synthetic blends with a subset of populations were similar to the field results, but the breadth of the most attractive E-blends was wider. Flight tunnel assays also demonstrated a high level of male-female cross-attraction among field-collected populations. Female gland extracts from field-collected populations did not show any significant variation in their three-component blends. The only exceptions in these assays were that long-term laboratory populations were less responsive and attractive, and produced different blend ratios of the two minor components than recently collected field populations.

  10. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwei; Chen, Xiulin; Li, Boliao; Zhang, Guohui; Li, Yiping; Wu, Junxiang

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs) within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications. Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs) of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2) for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC) experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1) exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition. Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different binding characteristics for tested ligands. rGmolGOBP1 has dual functions in recognition of host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components, while rGmolGOBP2 is mainly involved in minor sex pheromone component dodecanol perception. This study also provides empirical evidence for the predicted functions of key amino acids in recombinant protein ligand-binding characteristics.

  11. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwei; Chen, Xiulin; Li, Boliao; Zhang, Guohui; Li, Yiping; Wu, Junxiang

    2016-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs) within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications. Methodology/Principal Finding Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs) of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2) for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC) experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1) exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition. Conclusion Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different binding characteristics for tested ligands. rGmolGOBP1 has dual functions in recognition of host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components, while rGmolGOBP2 is mainly involved in minor sex pheromone component dodecanol perception. This study also provides empirical evidence for the predicted functions of key amino acids in recombinant protein ligand-binding characteristics. PMID:27152703

  12. Development of a control alternative for the citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae): from basic research to the grower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Jose Roberto P.; Bento, Jose Mauricio S.; Yamamoto, Pedro T.; Vilela, Evaldo F.; Leal, Walter S.

    2004-01-01

    All research steps, developed from 1995 to 2000, to synthesize the sex pheromone of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) are described, in order to monitoring this pest that causes losses in the order of 50 million dollars per year to citriculture in the State of Sao Paulo. The basic researches conducted are described, including the development of an artificial diet for the insect, the study of its temperature and humidity requirements, behavioral studies, and synthesis of the male-attracting substance up to the formulation and distribution of the pheromone to the grower, by means of its commercialization. It is a case of success, at a cost of 50 thousand dollars, involving inter- and multidisciplinary researches, which can be adopted to other insect pests in the country. (author)

  13. Trapping female Pandemis limitata (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) moths with mixtures of acetic acid, benzenoid apple leaf volatiles, and sex pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandemis limitata (Robinson) is one of several leaf-feeding caterpillar pests of commercial tree-fruit crops in British Columbia. Recent discovery that European Pandemis spp. are attracted to lures containing acetic acid (AA) and caterpillar-induced benzenoid apple leaf volatiles, 2-phenylethanol a...

  14. Developing kairomone-based lures and traps targeting female Spilonota ocellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards treated with ex pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller) can be a serious pest of organic apples in British Columbia. Recent discovery that S. ocellana moths are attracted by a lure combining acetic acid (AA) and benzyl nitrile (BN), a caterpillar-induced apple leaf volatile, provides an opportunity to develo...

  15. Survey of conspecific herbivore-induced volatiles from apple as possible attractants for Pandemis pyrusana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to identify volatiles released by apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, foliage subjected to herbivore feeding. The volatiles released upon herbivore attack could be attractive to adult leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott when combined with acetic acid. First, volatiles relea...

  16. Evaluation of novel semiochemical dispensers simultaneously releasing pear ester and sex pheromone for mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with two rates of ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was compared with similar dispensers and two commercial dispensers l...

  17. Preferência de oviposição de Grapholita molesta (busck (lepidoptera: tortricidae em cultivares de pessegueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de cultivares de pessegueiro à infestação de Grapholita molesta. Para isso, foram realizados levantamentos do número de ponteiros atacados/cultivar por meio de amostragem visual em cem (100 ponteiros, em quatro períodos, durante os anos de 2004, 2005 e 2006, preferencialmente na primavera, quando ocorrem surtos de brotações no pessegueiro. Foram avaliadas as cultivares Tropical, Aurora 2, Doçura 2, Ouromel 3, Joia 4, Talismã, Dourado 2, Aurora 1, Régis e Rei da conserva, enxertadas sobre Okinawa e Umê. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, sendo cada bloco constituído por dez árvores, com 5 repetições, e os tratamentos, representados pelas épocas de amostragem. Nas condições em que foi conduzido o presente experimento, observou-se maior infestação das brotações de pessegueiros por G. molesta na primavera de 2004 a 2006 para as cultivares sobre 'Okinawa' e primavera de 2006 para as cultivares sobre Umê, com danos da ordem de 14,85% e 14,27%, respectivamente. Das cultivares sobre Okinawa avaliadas, Tropical, Aurora 2 e Rei da conserva foram as mais danificadas pela praga. Aurora 2 foi a cultivar sobre Umê mais danificada pela praga.

  18. Comparison of several artificial diets with different protein sources for massal rearing of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Mauro S.; Parra, Jose R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The development of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) was compared among four artificial diets with different protein sources based on biological characteristics and fertility life table in order to have the insect available throughout the year for research in different areas. All diets with variable protein sources (D1= bean, yeast, wheat germ, soybean protein and casein; D2= corn flour, wheat germ, and yeast; D3= soybean protein, and wheat germ; D4= bean, yeast and wheat germ) allowed the insect to developed at 27 +- 2 deg C; RH 65 +- 10% and 14 h photophase. In all diets the insect presented four instars with several other similar biological characteristics. Since diet D2 (corn flour, wheat germ and yeast) provided the lowest development time, the highest viability, a high value of finite ratio of increase (ll), besides being of low cost and easy preparation, it can be considered as the most adequate for laboratory rearing of E. aurantiana. Balanced nutrients showed more important than the nutritional value of the components of the diet for this insect which is, for the first time, fed on artificial diet. (author)

  19. The effects of strawberry cropping practices on the strawberry tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its natural enemies, and the presence of nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    of organic and conventional farms to test the hypothesis that farming practice (organic versus conventional) will affect the level of pest infestation and will affect the natural enemies. In addition, the number of years with strawberries on the farm, field age, and other factors that may affect pests...... and their natural enemies were considered. Farms were characterized by their cropping practices, cropping history, and other parameters. Field-collected larvae were laboratory reared to assess mortality from parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi. In 2010, a survey of nematodes was made to assess the response......-year fields in 2010. Cropping practice did not lead to significant differences in the level of total parasitism or in C. aretas parasitism; however, C. aretas contributed to a higher proportion of the parasitized larvae on conventional farms than on organic farms. Mortality from unknown causes of A. comariana...

  20. Geographic variability in response to azinphos-methyl in field-collected populations of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleño, Jimena; Anguiano, Olga L; Cichón, Liliana B; Garrido, Silvina A; Montagna, Cristina M

    2012-11-01

    Resistance to insecticides has been related to application history, genetic factors of the pest and the dynamic within the treated area. The aim of this study was to assess the geographic variation in azinphos-methyl response and the role of esterase and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes in codling moth populations collected within different areas of the Río Negro and Neuquén Valley, Argentina. Diapausing field-collected populations showed resistance ratios at the LC(50) that were 0.7-8.7 times higher than that of the susceptible strain. Mean esterase (EST) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activities (expressed as α-N min(-1) mg(-1) prot(-1) and pg 7-OHC insect(-1) min(-1) respectively) were significantly correlated with LD(50) values from the field-collected populations. In addition, azinphos-methyl response was associated with the geographic area where the insect population was collected: populations from isolated and more recent productive areas presented significantly lower resistance ratios in comparison with populations from older and more intensive productive areas. The populations assayed presented different resistance levels to azinphos-methyl. The response was highly correlated with the orchard's geographic location. EST and ECOD activities were involved in azinphos-methyl response in the given region. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Field validation of a three chemical controlled release dispenser to attract codling moth (Cydia pomonella) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella, were shown to be attracted to three chemical kairoonomal lure comprised of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A novel controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractivness ...

  2. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged / commercial orchard interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth Cydia pomonella L., populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and non-host trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex ph...

  3. Effectiveness of 12 Insecticides to a Laboratory Population of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Newly Established in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Shang, Su-Qin

    2015-06-01

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) is an economically important fruit pest that has spread rapidly from its original site in Xinjiang to other northwestern regions of China. Insecticides are widely used to control this pest but its invasion has never been completely stopped. The aim of this study was to establish a laboratory population of the codling moth occurring in China, to investigate the effectiveness of 12 conventional insecticides to this laboratory population, and to recommend the discriminating doses for use in resistance monitoring. The laboratory population was generally similar to other laboratory strains although parameters such as survival rate and larval duration were low when compared with field populations. Toxicity varied among the insecticides tested with LC50 values ranging from 0.016 mg/l for emamectin benzoate to 55.77 mg/l for chlorbenzuron. Discriminating dose levels were determined from dose-mortality reference curves for the detection of resistance in field populations. Effectiveness of 12 insecticides to a laboratory population of codling moth in China was evaluated for the first time. This can be integrated into resistance management strategies, especially in orchards with a history of frequent insecticides applications, in order to monitor or decrease insecticide resistance in the future. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Expression of a Sensory Neuron Membrane Protein SNMP2 in Olfactory Sensilla of Codling Moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinglong; Liu, Lu; Fang, Yiqing; Feng, Jinian

    2016-08-01

    In insects, sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) are critical peripheral olfactory proteins and highly promote the sensitivity of pheromone detection. In this study, we cloned an SNMP transcript (CpomSNMP2, GenBank KU302714) from the antennae of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) Its open reading frame is 1,575 bp and it encodes a protein with 524 amino acids. CpomSNMP2 contains two putative transmembrane domains and has a large extracellular loop. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CpomSNMP2 is clustered into the group of previously characterized lepidopteron SNMP2s. Expression levels of CpomSNMP2 were significantly higher in antennae of both males and females than in tissues from the thoraxes, abdomens, legs, and wings. CpomSNMP2 was distributed in sensilla trichodea of both males and females, but only in sensilla chaetica of males. This study provides evidence for olfactory roles of CpomSNMP2 in this moth. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Toxicity of emamectin benzoate to Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): laboratory and field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Anfora, Gianfranco; Angeli, Gino; Civolani, Stefano; Schmidt, Silvia; Pasqualini, Edison

    2009-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel macrocyclic lactone insecticide derived from naturally occurring avermectin molecules isolated by fermentation from the soil microorganism Streptomyces avermitilis Kim & Goodfellow. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of emamectin benzoate to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, C. molesta (Busck), under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Dose response bioassays showed that emamectin benzoate had a high level of intrinsic toxicity to early-stage larvae of both species, and that contact activity might contribute significantly to mortality. In the semi-field trials, residual toxicity lasted for more than 1 week. Ovicidal activity was recorded only for C. pomonella (approximately 30%), irrespective of the concentrations tested. Field trials confirmed the efficacy of emamectin benzoate on codling moth when applied at 7 day intervals. Fruit damage, both from the first and second generations, was comparable with that on treatment with chlorpyrifos-ethyl, used as a chemical reference. Emamectin benzoate may be considered a valuable tool for the control of codling moth as a component of an IPM programme. Its collective advantages are: high efficacy, lack of cross-resistance with currently used products, control of secondary pests such as oriental fruit moth and selective toxicity that spares beneficials. 2008 Society of Chemical Industry

  6. Assessing the quality of mass-reared codling moths (Lepidoptera: tortricidae) by using field release-recapture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, S.; Bloem, K.A.; Knight, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Following small-scale field releases of sterile, mass-reared codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), in the spring of 1995, significantly higher numbers of adults originating from larvae that had been induced into diapause were recaptured in passive interception traps compared with standard (nondiapaused) colony moths reared under either constant or fluctuating temperatures. When releases were made in the summer, significantly more diapaused females were again recaptured and similar numbers of diapaused and fluctuating temperature-reared standard males were trapped. Our field data showed that both male and female codling moths dispersed farther as ambient temperatures increased. When standard and diapaused sterile codling moths were released into replicated 1-ha plots under large-scale Sterile Insect Release program conditions in the summer and fall of 1996 and the spring of 1997, the proportion of recaptured diapaused males was significantly higher than for standard (nondiapaused) moths. This was true for recapture of males with passive interception, pheromone-baited, and virgin female-baited traps

  7. Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays of lab-reared Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) quality and field performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximum production and fitness of insect species that are mass-reared for biological control programs such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) have benefitted from the employment of quality control and quality management. With a growing interest in the use of SIT as a tactic for the suppression/e...

  8. N-butyl sulfide as an attractant and co-attractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear eester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are am...

  9. The optimal sex pheromone release rate for trapping the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Runzhi

    2016-02-16

    For successful pest management, codlemone (E, E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol) is widely used to monitor codling moth. The pheromone release rate is essential for the lure's attractiveness. The optimal sex pheromone release rate (V0) for trapping codling moth was evaluated during 2013-2014. The overwinter generation V0 was 6.7-33.4 μg wk(-1), and moth catches (MCs) were 0.82 ± 0.11 adults/trap/week; MCs for lower (V1) and higher (V2) release rates were 52.4% and 46.3%, respectively, of that for V0. The first generation V0 was 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1), with MCs of 1.45 ± 0.29 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 34.5% and 31.7%, respectively, of those for V0. Combining across generations, the final V0 was 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1), with MCs of 1.07 ± 0.06 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 51.4% and 41.1%, respectively, of that for V0. Overwinter generation emergence was relatively concentrated, requiring a wider V0. Maintaining the release rate at 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1) could optimize the lure's efficacy; this resulted in the capture of nearly 1.9 and 2.4 times more moths than V1 and V2, respectively. The results also indicate that a dispenser pheromone release rate of 200-300 times that of the female moth can perfectly outcompetes females in the field.

  10. N-Butyl sulfide as an attractant and coattractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Peter J; Ohler, Bonnie; Lo, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S; Suckling, David M; Brunner, Jay

    2014-04-01

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear ester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are among those chemicals reported to attract or enhance attractiveness to codling moth. We evaluated the trapping of codling moth with N-butyl sulfide alone and in combination with acetic acid and pear ester in apple orchards. Acetic acid was attractive in two tests and N-butyl sulfide was attractive in one of two tests. N-Butyl sulfide increased catches of codling moth when used with acetic acid to bait traps. N-Butyl sulfide also increased catches of codling moth when added to traps baited with the combination of acetic acid and pear ester. Male and female codling moth both responded to these chemicals and chemical combinations. These results provide a new three-component lure comprising N-butyl sulfide, acetic acid, and pear ester that is stronger for luring codling moth females than other attractants tested.

  11. Effects of reservoir dispenser height on efficacy of mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David L; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Miller, James R; Grieshop, Matthew J; Gut, Larry J

    2011-08-01

    The effect of varying the height of reservoir dispensers for mating disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was investigated. The goal was to improve the effectiveness of C. pomonella mating disruption through improved understanding of adult distribution within the tree canopy and the impact of pheromone dispenser placement on disruption. Two dispensers per tree were placed at 2 m and 4 m and/or one dispenser at each height on the tree at a label rate of 1000 units ha(-1) . Monitoring traps and tethered female moths were deployed in plots at 2 and 4 m heights to assess treatment effects by catches or matings respectively. Fewest male moths were captured with all dispensers placed at 4 m. Female mating was lowest, and with least variation between females tethered at 2 and 4 m, when dispensers were placed simultaneously at 2 and 4 m (28% mated). Mating was 32% with both dispensers at 4 m, 38% with both dispensers at 2 m and 46% in the no disruption control. Mating was highest across treatments when females were tethered at 2 m and dispensers placed at 4 m (40%), and when females were tethered at 4 m with dispensers placed at 2 m (46%). Traps at 4 m in trees captured more male moths than traps at 2 m, regardless of disruption dispenser positioning. Female mating was lowest when dispensers were placed simultaneously at 2 and 4 m, suggesting that current recommendations for placement of reservoir dispensers in tree crowns may be suboptimal. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Development of a control alternative for the citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae): from basic research to the grower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Jose Roberto P.; Bento, Jose Mauricio S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Garcia, Mauro S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil); Yamamoto, Pedro T. [Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura (Fundecitrus), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Vilela, Evaldo F. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; Leal, Walter S. [University of California, Davis, CA (Brazil). Dept. of Entomology

    2004-12-15

    All research steps, developed from 1995 to 2000, to synthesize the sex pheromone of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) are described, in order to monitoring this pest that causes losses in the order of 50 million dollars per year to citriculture in the State of Sao Paulo. The basic researches conducted are described, including the development of an artificial diet for the insect, the study of its temperature and humidity requirements, behavioral studies, and synthesis of the male-attracting substance up to the formulation and distribution of the pheromone to the grower, by means of its commercialization. It is a case of success, at a cost of 50 thousand dollars, involving inter- and multidisciplinary researches, which can be adopted to other insect pests in the country. (author)

  13. Could natural selection change the geographic range limits of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in North America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Morey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We artificially selected for increased freeze tolerance in the invasive light brown apple moth. Our results suggest that, by not accounting for adaptation to cold, current models of potential geographic distributions could underestimate the areas at risk of exposure to this species.

  14. Could natural selection change the geographic range limits of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Morey; Robert C. Venette; William D. Hutchison

    2013-01-01

    We artificially selected for increased freeze tolerance in the invasive light brown apple moth. Our results suggest that, by not accounting for adaptation to cold, current models of potential geographic distributions could underestimate the areas at risk of exposure to this species.

  15. Development of 2-phenlethanol and acetic acid lures to monitor Obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) under mating disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to compare the relative attraction of the benzenoid plant volatiles 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, and phenylacetonitrile in combination with acetic acid as lures for male and female adults of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), in apple, Mal...

  16. METHOD OF ANALYSIS FOR POPULATION LIMITATION OF THE LEPIDOPTERA PEST IN FRUITERS (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE IN SIBIEL VILLAGE, SIBIU CITY IN CONDITIONS OF YEAR 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STANCĂ-MOISE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is described an experiment in Sibiel, made in an apple orchard of 1,50 ha surface, which was kept under observation in order to combat the Cydia pomonella L. pest. It was used a pheromone trap as a combat method, for the application of the plant treatments in time.

  17. Target and Non‑Target Moth Species Captured by Pheromone Traps for Some Fruit Tortricid Moths (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Jakubíková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the synthetic sexual pheromones for five tortricid species, viz. Grapholita funebrana Treitschke, 1835, G. janthinana (Duponchel, 1835, G. lobarzewskii (Nowicki, 1860, G. molesta (Busck, 1916, and Pandemis heparana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775, was evaluated in two areas in the SE part of the Czech Republic. The lures for G. funebrana produced by the Pherobank showed a higher selectivity and efficiency than those by the Propher. On the contrary, pheromones for G. molesta by the Propher are more effective than those by the Pherobank. Besides the target species, 29 non-target tortricid species and 25 other Lepidoptera species were captured. The number of non-target tortricid species was comparable by the attractants for all species (15 – 17 spp., except Pandemis heparana (only 7 spp.. The most abundant non-target Tortricidae were Cnephasia stephensiana (Doubleday, 1849, Hedya pruniana (Hübner, 1799, and Epiblema cirsiana (Zeller, 1843. Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner, 1799 was recorded in outdoor conditions of the Czech Republic for the first time. Celypha rosaceana (Schläger, 1847 was found as new for Moravia. Oegoconia novimundi (Busck, 1915 (Autostichidae was attracted by the lures for Grapholita funebrana and G. molesta in unusually high number of specimens.

  18. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens. PMID:26379286

  19. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth; Herrero, Salvador; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens.

  20. Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soybean treated with resistance inducers. P Vinicius de Souza, BR Machado, M Mueller de Freitas, F Correa, A Cirilo de Sousa Almeida, FG de Jesus ...

  1. Phylogeny and Evolution of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Charles; Davis, Donald R; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-01-31

    Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution.

  2. Age and density of eggs of Helicoverpa armigera influence on Trichogramma pretiosum parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Zuim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae at different ages and densities. The rates of parasitism and emergence, the number of parasitoids emerged per egg and sex ratio of offspring were evaluated in both experiments. Eggs of H. armigera up to 36 hours provided greater parasitism and emergence of adults compared to eggs up to 60 hours old. The number of parasitoids, which emerged per host egg, was greater than one and the sex ratio remained around 80% of females, regardless of the egg development stage. Females of T. pretiosum responded with superior rates of parasitism, emergence and number of parasitoids per egg at the densities of 20 and 25 eggs of H. armigera. These results indicate that T. pretiosum parasite with superior performance in eggs of up to 36h of age and densities of 20 eggs per female day-1 in laboratory conditions. These results will help to establish the intervals between releases of parasitoids, aiming to control this pest, when adjusted with knowledge of the survival of the parasitoids in the field and in pest infestation.

  3. Egg dumping in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallamy, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Females that place eggs under the care of conspecifics have been labeled egg dumpers. Egg dumping is an effective reproductive alternative that lowers risks for, and has the potential to increase fecundity in, its practitioners. Although insect egg dumpers can be social parasites of the maternal behavior of egg recipients, dumping is more likely to be a viable reproductive alternative when the costs to egg recipients are low and thus the defense by potential hosts against egg dumping intrusions is minimal. These conditions are met in insects that guard only eggs or in insects whose eggs hatch into self-supporting precocial young that need little beyond defense from parents. When this is the case, egg dumping is favored by natural and/or kin selection as a mechanism by which dumpers can avoid parental risks and increase fecundity, and egg recipients can enhance offspring survival by diluting predation.

  4. Adult nutrition and butterfly fitness: effects of diet quality on reproductive output, egg composition, and egg hatching success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interactions between storage reserves and adult income, and that the latter may contribute significantly to reproduction. Effects of adult diet were commonly assessed by determining the number and/or size of the eggs produced, whilst its consequences for egg composition and offspring viability were largely neglected (as is generally true for insects. We here specifically focus on these latter issues by using the fruit-feeding tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which is highly dependent on adult-derived carbohydrates for reproduction. Results Adult diet of female B. anynana had pronounced effects on fecundity, egg composition and egg hatching success, with butterflies feeding on the complex nutrition of banana fruit performing best. Adding vitamins and minerals to a sucrose-based diet increased fecundity, but not offspring viability. All other groups (plain sucrose solution, sucrose solution enriched with lipids or yeast had a substantially lower fecundity and egg hatching success compared to the banana group. Differences were particularly pronounced later in life, presumably indicating the depletion of essential nutrients in sucrose-fed females. Effects of adult diet on egg composition were not straightforward, indicating complex interactions among specific compounds. There was some evidence that total egg energy and water content were related to hatching success, while egg protein, lipid, glycogen and free carbohydrate content did not seem to limit successful development. Conclusion The patterns shown here exemplify the complexity of reproductive resource allocation in B. anynana, and the need to consider egg composition and offspring viability when trying to estimate the effects of adult nutrition on fitness in this

  5. The Egg Joust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  6. Interventions for shell eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs are the second riskiest foods regulated by the U.S. FDA. Less than 3% of shell eggs are pasteurized using a hot water process that unfortunately damages the appearance and functionality of the eggs. In addition, the current process adds more than $1.50 to the cost of a dozen eggs. Therefore, al...

  7. Eucalyptus cloeziana AS A NEW HOST TO Hylesia paulex (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Igor Azevedo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified Lepidoptera species was found defoliating Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae in a cerrado area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Pupae of this insect, collected in the area, were brought to the laboratory and maintained in Petri dishes (9.0 cm x 1.5 cm under 25 ± 2oC, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and 12 hours photophase to obtain adults and eggs. This insect was identified as Hylesia paulex Dognin (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, and, in that way, the objective of the present study was to register for the first time its herbivory in E. cloeziana plants. Newly-emerged caterpillars were reared in 10 plastic pots (500ml, with 30 caterpillars per pot and fed, daily, with fresh leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae. The egg incubation period of H. paulex was 32.00 ± 1.19 days. The total duration of the seven instars of this insect was 67.83 ± 0.84 days. Hylesia paulex completed its life cycle with E. cloeziana plants, what proves its adaptability to this kind of exotic Myrtaceae in Brazil.

  8. Have eggs. Will travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...... stories and photographic material provided by forty-two egg donors, this article uses feminist cluster analysis and the concept of eggpreneurship to illustrate how global egg donors negotiate reproductive agency and choice when they travel internationally to donate their eggs. In their stories, global egg...

  9. Insecticide Effect of Zeolites on the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline De Smedt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is a key tomato insect pest. At present, it is considered to be a serious threat in various countries in Europe, North Africa, and Middle East. The extensive use and the developed resistance of T. absoluta to spinosad causes some concern, which leads to the need for alternative products. (2 Materials and Methods: Several laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the ovicidal properties of a zeolite particle film on T. absoluta. The toxicity of three different zeolites and six zeolite formulations to T. absoluta eggs and larvae was determined using different exposure methods. (3 Results: In general, the formulated zeolites yielded higher egg and larvae mortality values, especially when the zeolite particle film was residually applied. Notable differences in mortality rates from exposure to zeolites compared to other products, such as kaolin, its formulated product Surround, and the insecticide spinosad, were observed. Kaolin and Surround exhibited little or no effect for both application methods, while the hatch rate was reduced by 95% when spinosad was applied topically. Spinosad yielded egg and larvae mortality rates of 100% for both application methods. Additionally, increased oviposition activity was observed in adults exposed to the wettable powder (WP formulations. These WP formulations increased egg deposition, while Surround and spinosad elicited a negative oviposition response. (4 Conclusions: It can be derived that the tested products, zeolites BEA (Beta polymorph A, FAU (Faujasite, LTA (Linde type A, and their formulations, had no real insecticidal activity against the eggs of T. absoluta. Nevertheless, egg exposure to zeolites seemed to affect the development process by weakening the first instar larvae and increasing their mortality. Subsequently, based on the choice test, no significant difference was observed between the number of eggs laid on

  10. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes of the Culex species lay their eggs in the form of egg rafts that float in still or stagnant water. The mosquito ... mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

  11. The effects of radiation on the biology and reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Ocampo, V.; Leon, J.B. de

    2002-01-01

    The effect of irradiating male Helicoverpa armigera with a substerilizing dose (100 Gy) of gamma radiation on the growth, development and reproduction of subsequent generations was studied in the laboratory. This dose of gamma radiation had no significant detrimental effects on larval and pupal weights or on the duration of the pupal period in the F 1 progeny. However, it lengthened the duration of the larval period by two days. In the F 2 generation, the progeny of the Tf 1 FxTf 1 M cross had significantly lighter pupae. The effects of this substerilizing dose of radiation and of the resulting inherited sterility on the reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera were similar to those described for other species of Lepidoptera. No detrimental effects on P 1 and F 1 female fecundity were recorded. Crosses involving Tf 1 females laid only about one half the number of eggs laid by the controls, however the range in the number of eggs laid by these females fell within the normal range for Helicoverpa armigera. Fertility of crosses involving P 1 males was greatly affected; fertility in these females was only 61% of that exhibited by the controls. This deleterious effect was inherited in the F 1 and F 2 generations and was maximally expressed when F 1 progeny of the NFxTM cross were inbred. Egg hatch was almost completely inhibited in sibling crosses while outcrosses of the F 1 progeny showed a 64-70% reduction in egg hatch when compared to controls. (author)

  12. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  13. The preimaginal stages of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, a parasitoid associated with Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еkaterina Yegorenkova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The larval instars of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva and Kurashev are described in detail for the first time. This species is a larval-pupal ectoparasitoid of Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, which forms leaf mines in the plant Chenopodium album L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae. The female of P. gyamiensis lays a single egg on the skin of the host larva or nearby it, without any significant preference for a particular variant. The presence of long hairs on its body provides the newly-hatched first larval instar with high mobility. Some peculiarities in this parasitoid-host relationship are described.

  14. Patterns of flight behavior and capacity of unmated navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) adults related to age, gender, and wing size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W; Burks, Charles S

    2014-06-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangeworm of ages 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 d posteclosion was examined using flight mills. As a group, females flew farther and longer than males, but the differences were not statistically significant. Flight speed did not differ between sexes. Flight duration and distance did not differ with age, except that 7-d-old adults performed worse for these parameters than did 1- and 2-d-old adults. Females began their flights ≍1.5 h after the onset of dusk, and ≍1.5 h earlier in the night than males. Flight capacity and propensity were substantial for both sexes and all age classes tested. At least 20% of adults (except 7-d-old males) made a continuous flight ≥5.5 h, and median total distances flown during the 10.5-h night ranged from 7 to 15 km depending on age class. Thus navel orangeworm flight mill performance was greater than that of most pests tested from the families Pyralidae and Tortricidae. Surface area and length of forewings and hindwings were greater in females than males, but had little effect on flight performance. The results are generally consistent with field observations of navel orangeworm dispersal, but it will be important to characterize the effects of mating on flight, and flight on fecundity.

  15. The Egg Joust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-09-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops,1,2 the egg walk,3 and the great Canadian egg race,4 as well as the mousetrap cars,5 have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate6 students. Students at Greendale High School in suburban Milwaukee, WI, participate in an annual egg-jousting competition that combines the energy of a mousetrap with the delicateness of an egg. For this evening event, students gather in costume for a night of medieval intrigue where parents and friends witness the peril of two eggs colliding while atop their trusty steed.

  16. (JE Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) annually cause enormous loss to the producers and their combat has become a worldwide challenge mainly due to several reports of pesticides resistance. Today, one of the best alternatives used in this combat is the application of natural insecticides such ...

  17. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and

  18. Thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea (Lep.: Geometridae, in eggs of two alternative hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, with eggs of the alternative hosts Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae aiming to use these natural enemies in biological control programs of this pest in avocado orchards. T. pretiosum needed 151.83 and 160.04 degree-days, above threshold of 10.70 and 10.75°C, while these values were 158.50 and 155.46 degree-days, above threshold of 10.67 and 10.46°C for T. acacioi when exposed to eggs of A. kuehniella and S. cerealella, respectively.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar as exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum e T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitóides de Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, em ovos dos hospedeiros alternativos Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae visando utilizar estes inimigos naturais em programas de controle biológico desta praga em pomares de abacate. T. pretiosum apresentou temperaturas base (Tb de 10.70 e 10.75°C e constantes térmicas (K de 151.83 e 160.04 graus-dia, sendo estes valores de 10.67 e 10.46°C e 158.50 e 155.46 graus-dia para T. acacioi em ovos de A. kuehniella e S. cerealella, respectivamente.

  19. Morphology and biology of the fruit piercing moth, Ophiusa corona (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permkam, S.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and biology of the fruit-piercing moth Ophiusa coronata (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae were studied in laboratory. Eggs were spherical and colored grayish green with an average diameter of 1.03±0.01 mm (mean±SEM. The larvae were looper caterpillars, possessing 2 white bands on the black head. The body was brown to blackish, marked with black spots and red longitudinal streaks. The pupa was black-brown. The adult moth had rufous and fuscous forewings tinged with a black spot in the middle. The hind wings were bright yellow in ground color with a dark band at the anterior and the posterior borders. Time required for egg to adult development averaged 40.35±0.59 days (mean±SEM. The average duration for egg, larval and pupal developments were 4.0±0.0, 23.20±0.49 and 13.15±0.22 days, respectively. Sexual maturity for female took 10.67±1.05 days. The average duration of egg laying, number of eggs and longevity of adult moths were 7.33±1.28 days, 333.0±171.82 egg/female and 22.83±2.45 days, respectively. Feeding preference and phototaxis of adult studies showed that adults likely preferred to feed ranking from slices of pineapple, banana, papaya and citrus, whereas sapodilla and rose apple were rarely fed on. Blue light and mercury vapor light were highly attractive, whereas violet light and fluorescent light were less attractive to this adult moth species.

  20. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinical trial, atopy

  1. Egg introduction: differential allergic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dosanjh,Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinica...

  2. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  3. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg

  4. Parasitism Capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum and Trichogramma acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Sitotroga cerealella (Lep.: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and T. acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in eggs of the alternative host Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae aiming to use both species in biological control programs of Nipteria panacea Tierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera: Geometridae. The parasitism rhythm and total parasitism of these parasitoid species were affected by the temperature with higher values during the first 24 h of their life. Parasitism period was longer for T. pretiosum and T. acacioi at the lowest temperature.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley e de Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, visando o uso desses inimigos naturais em programas de controle biológico da praga do abacateiro Nipteria panacea Tierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera: Geometridae. O ritmo de parasitismo de T. acacioi e T. pretiosum variou com a temperatura, sendo maior nas primeiras 24 horas de vida desses parasitóides. Além disso, o período de parasitismo foi maior para essas duas espécies de parasitóides na menor temperatura, enquanto o parasitismo total por fêmea variou com a temperatura.

  5. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Chung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Jang, Miyeon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important and polyphagous pest, which harms various kinds of food crops and important agricultural plants, such as cotton and paprika. Effects of electron beam irradiation at six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy on the egg (24-48 h old), the larval (4-5th instar), and the pupal (7-d old for female, 5-d old for male) development, and on the adult (1-d old) reproduction were tested to identify a potential quarantine treatment dose. Increased doses of irradiation on eggs decreased egg hatchability, pupation and adult emergence and increased larval period. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation and emergence were 460.6, 236.9 and 197.8 Gy, respectively. When larvae were irradiated with more than 280 Gy, no larvae could develop into pupae. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence were 265.6 and 189.6 Gy, respectively. Even though the irradiation on pupa did not completely inhibit adult emergence, most of the pupae emerged to deformed adults. When adults were irradiated, fecundity was not affected. However, F1 egg hatching was completely inhibited at the dose of 350 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 366.5 Gy. Our results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be recommendable as an alternative to MB and as a phytosanitary treatment for quarantine. A treatment dose of less than or equal to 220 Gy is suggested as a potential quarantine treatment to H. armigera egg for prevention of pupation and to larva for prevention of adult emerge.

  7. Are all eggs equal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.

    2016-01-01

    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic

  8. Acceptability and suitability of Tuta absoluta eggs from irradiated parents to parasitism by Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnotti, Cynthia L.; Hernández, Carmen M.; Andormo, Andrea V.; Viscarret, Mariana; Botto, Eduardo N.; López, Silvia N.; Riquelme, María

    2017-01-01

    1. Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most devastating pests of tomato crops. We studied the acceptability and suitability of eggs laid by irradiated T. absoluta pairs to parasitism by the parasitoids Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma pretiosum. 2. Trichogramma absoluta pupae were irradiated with Xradiation (20834 R) and the emerged adults were separated into couples according to the crosses: ♂U × ♀U, ♂I × ♀U, ♂U × ♀I (where ‘U’ is untreated and ‘I’ is irradiated). In a no-choice experiment, 40 eggs from each cross were exposed to a female parasitoid for 24 h. 3. All T. absoluta eggs were accepted for oviposition by T. nerudai and were suitable for its development. However, eggs from irradiated females were significantly less parasitized than those from untreated females. Trichogramma pretiosum showed low parasitism on eggs from all crosses. In a choice experiment, both T. nerudai and T. pretiosum showed no differences in the parasitism of eggs from irradiated (n=40) and non-irradiated female moths (n=40). 4. These results indicate that eggs laid by irradiated parents were acceptable for oviposition and suitable for the development of these parasitoids, and also support the idea that the inherited sterility technique could be used in an integrated approach with egg parasitoids to control T. absoluta. (author)

  9. Egg Cannibalism and its Life History Consequences Vary with Life Stage, Sex, and Reproductive Status in Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Michaud, J P

    2015-08-01

    Egg cannibalism is common in Coccinellidae, but its biological consequences have not been fully explored. We examined egg cannibalism by neonates, fourth instars, and adults of Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville for effects on development, reproduction, and progeny fitness. We also tested female adults for ability to avoid cannibalizing their own eggs and first-instar larvae, and both sexes for changes in cannibalism propensity following mating, all in the presence of ad libitum food [larvae: eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), adults: Schizaphis graminum (Rondani)]. Cannibalism by neonates reduced developmental time and increased male body size. Cannibalism in the fourth instar accelerated pupation and led to the production of eggs that hatched faster, regardless of which parent cannibalized. However, egg fertility was improved only by maternal cannibalism in the fourth instar. Females recognized their own egg clusters, sometimes added eggs to them, and preferentially cannibalized nonfilial clusters. Most gravid females cannibalized a first-instar larva within 30 min, whether filial or not. Adult egg cannibalism was similar for virgin males and females, but declined after mating in males, and increased in females, although it had no effect on fecundity or fertility. Daughters of cannibal pairs were heavier than those of other mating combinations, but offspring of noncannibal parents had the fastest development. Reproductive females appeared to use egg cannibalism to reduce risk for their own eggs, increasing the number cannibalized with the number laid. Thus, egg cannibalism in coccinellids varies with life stage, sex, and reproductive condition, independent of food availability, and benefits are life stage specific. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  11. Effects of dietary boron on performance, egg production, egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study dietary boron at different doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg feed) was supplemented to layers from 4 to 64 weeks of age. There was no significant difference between treatments with respect of mortality, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and cracked eggs. Significant increases were observed in body ...

  12. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and some egg quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs were examined for both internal and external egg quality traits.Data obtained were subjected to one-way analysis of variance using the general linear procedure of SAS (2012). Differences in means were ranked using the Duncan's multiple Range test. Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and other egg quality ...

  13. An updated check list of the Cochylina (Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Euliini) of North America north of Mexico including Greenland, with comments on classification and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present an updated list of the members of the subtribe Cochylina (Tortricidae) in North America north of Mexico. We summarize the proposed changes in the classification since about 1983. We propose revised status for two genera, Rolandylis Gibeaux, 1985 and Thyraylia Walsingham, 1897. We propose ...

  14. Flu Vaccine and People with Egg Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... able to eat lightly cooked egg (e.g., scrambled egg) without reaction are unlikely to be allergic. Egg- ... able to eat lightly cooked egg (e.g., scrambled egg) without reaction, you are unlikely to be allergic ...

  15. Eggs on Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs face a very different fate. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries. In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical imaginaries that shaped...... Danish regulation of the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyse the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work, and readings in Parliament, along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that over time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current five years and today continue...... to ignite discussions on elective egg freezing. We rely on welfare-state perspectives to discuss why reproduction, in the Danish context, is seen as a legitimate and appropriate sphere to regulate, and we turn to feminist theorizing to discuss the gendered implications captured in the sociotechnical...

  16. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.

    1996-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  17. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  18. Ultraestructura de los huevos de dos mariposas nocturnas de Chile: Ormiscodes socialis y Polythysana cinerascens (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Benítez-Mora

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la estructura y ultraestructura de los huevos de las especies Ormiscodes socialis (Feisthamel y Polythysana cinerascens (Philippi, considerando la forma, tamaño, color, tipo de ovipostura, y aeropilas (cantidad, distribución y proporción en el área micropilar, entre otros. La ultraestructura es mostrada a través de las celdas primarias, celdas secundarias, aeropilas y micropilas; además se incluye a la especie ya descrita Adetomeris microphthalma (Philippi y se confecciona un cuadro comparativo para los huevos de estas especies. Se registra como nuevo hospedero de P. Cinerascens a Myoschilos oblonga Ruiz y Pavón (Santalaceae.Egg ultrastructure in two Chilean moths: Ormiscodes socialis y Polythysana cinerascens (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae. The structure and ultra-structure of the eggs from Ormiscodes socialis (Feisthamel and Polythysana cinerascens (Philippi are described, considering shape, size, coloring when recently laid, oviposition type nd aeropiles (quantity, distribution and proportion in the micropilar area, among others. The ultra-structure is shown for primary cells, secondary cells, aeropiles and icropiles. A comparative table of the eggs of these species is presented and includes the previously described eggs of Adetomeris microphthalma (Philippi. Myoschilos oblonga Ruiz y Pavón (Santalaceae is recorded as a new host for P. cinerascens. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1085-1091. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.

  19. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  20. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José C; Torres, Jorge B; Sediyama, Camilla A Z; Pereira, Fabricio F; Pastori, Patrik L; Wermelinger, Eduardo D; Ramalho, Francisco S

    2009-03-01

    Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) during egg stage (48.9%), a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae) during larval stages (10%) and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) during pupal stage (52.2%). The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%).

  1. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  2. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On genitalia of some southern African Phycitinae (Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The male and female genitalia of 28 previously known species of sothern Africa phycilinae (Lepidoptera pyralidae) are describe. Two new species, characterized by their gentalia, are described; Epicrocis varri, and Trachypteryx victoriota.

  4. Egg components, egg size, and hatchling size in leatherback turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P; Sotherland, Paul R; Tomillo, Pilar Santidrian; Bouchard, Sarah S; Reina, Richard D; Spotila, James R; Paladino, Frank V

    2006-12-01

    Relationships between egg size, egg components, and neonate size have been investigated across a wide range of oviparous taxa. Differences in egg traits among taxa reflect not only phylogenetic differences, but also interactions between biotic (i.e., maternal resource allocation) and abiotic (i.e. nest environment conditions) factors. We examined relationships between egg mass, egg composition, and hatchling size in leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) because of the unique egg and reproductive characteristics of this species and of sea turtles in general. Albumen comprised 63.0%+/-2.8% (mean+/-S.D.) of egg mass and explained most of the variation in egg mass, whereas yolk comprised only 33.0%+/-2.7%. Additionally, leatherback albumen dry mass was approximately 16% of albumen wet mass. Whereas hatchling mass increased significantly with egg mass (n = 218 clutches), hatchling mass increased by only approximately 2 g for each 10 g increase in egg mass and was approximately 10-20 g greater than yolk mass. Taken together, our results indicate that albumen might play a particularly significant role in leatherback embryonic development, and that leatherback eggs are both capable of water uptake from the nest substrate and also possess a large reservoir of water in the albumen. Relationships between egg mass and egg components, such as variation in egg mass being largely explained by variation in albumen mass and egg mass containing a relatively high proportion of albumen solids, are more similar to bird eggs than to eggs of other non-avian reptiles. However, hatchling mass correlates more with yolk mass than with albumen mass, unlike patterns observed in bird eggs of similar composition.

  5. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...... to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells...

  6. Orientation of Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae and Adults Toward Volatiles Associated With Almond Hull Split and Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Daniel S; Lawrance, Allen; Siegel, Joel P; Berenbaum, May R

    2017-06-01

    The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker, 1863, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California tree nuts, is associated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus, and previous research suggests these species are facultative mutualists. Because navel orangeworm larvae exhibit improved performance on diets containing this fungus, orientation toward hostplants infected with A. flavus may be adaptive. We conducted behavioral assays to determine if larvae respond to chemical cues produced by almond hull split and fungal infection. In petri dish arenas, larvae showed a preference for 1-octen-3-ol and 2-phenylethanol, volatiles characteristic of damaged plants, as well as methanolic extracts of almond meal with 1-octen-3-ol and the fungal volatile conophthorin. In contrast, larvae displayed aversion to ethyl benzoate, an inhibitor of fungal growth. When we assessed oviposition behavior relative to substrates with and without A. flavus, females laid almost twice as many eggs near inoculated surfaces. Moreover, an average of 63% of eggs laid near inoculated substrates were fertilized, compared with 24% of eggs near uninoculated sites. We also tested the hypothesis that unfertilized eggs are laid on nutrient-poor substrates to provide supplemental nutrition for larvae in an assay comparing larval survivorship in the presence and absence of unfertilized eggs. Neonates given eggs survived 2.5 times longer on an average than unprovisioned neonates (208.8 h vs. 85.2 h), indicating that this species may compensate with cannibalism for oviposition on lower-quality food sources. We conclude that larvae orient to probable host plant and fungal volatiles associated with hull split and document a possible strategy for larvae to establish on low-quality hosts. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Biological aspects of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: a polyphagous armyworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Specht

    Full Text Available We studied the biology of Tiracola grandirena(Herrich-Schäffer, 1868 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photo phase. Three experiments, using 150 larvae each, were conducted for the larval stage. In the first, used to assess the duration and survival of all stages, insects were reared individually and fed an artificial diet (Grenee. In the second, individuals were also reared separately, but were fed leaves of 10 plants from different families. In the third, the larvae were not individualised, the food plants were rotated such as to provide three plant species every 48 hours. In the first experiment, the viability of the eggs, larvae, pupae and prepupae was 91.9, 94.7, 32.49 and 43.5%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larvae, prepupae, pupae and adult were 6.0, 25.3, 25.7, 21.4 and 12.7 days, respectively. The prolonged prepupal period indicates that T. grandirena can develop larval (prepupal diapause. The results of the experiments with different host plants showed that T. grandirena is polyphagous at species, population and individual level.

  8. Biological aspects of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a polyphagous armyworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, A; Iltchenco, J; Fronza, E; Roque-Specht, V F; Luz, P C; Montezzano, D G

    2014-02-01

    We studied the biology of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae) at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photo phase. Three experiments, using 150 larvae each, were conducted for the larval stage. In the first, used to assess the duration and survival of all stages, insects were reared individually and fed an artificial diet (Grenee). In the second, individuals were also reared separately, but were fed leaves of 10 plants from different families. In the third, the larvae were not individualised, the food plants were rotated such as to provide three plant species every 48 hours. In the first experiment, the viability of the eggs, larvae, pupae and prepupae was 91.9, 94.7, 32.49 and 43.5%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larvae, prepupae, pupae and adult were 6.0, 25.3, 25.7, 21.4 and 12.7 days, respectively. The prolonged prepupal period indicates that T. grandirena can develop larval (prepupal) diapause. The results of the experiments with different host plants showed that T. grandirena is polyphagous at species, population and individual level.

  9. Modelling reproduction of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): climate change may modify pest incidence levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, C A; Foerster, L A

    2012-08-01

    Temperature is considered to be an important abiotic factor influencing insect reproduction. Despite the importance of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) as a pest of brassicaceous crops worldwide, the effects of temperature on its reproduction are not well understood. We evaluated the effect of constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 32.5°C on the reproduction of P. xylostella and developed an oviposition model for the species. The model combined temperature-dependent parameters of total fecundity, age-specific oviposition rate and age-specific survival. Additionally, we modelled population growth as a function of temperature. The estimated parameters allowed us to discuss the possible consequences of global warming on P. xylostella distribution. Temperature affected the length of pre-oviposition after adult emergence, oviposition period, longevity, total fecundity and egg viability. The model predicted that both daily egg production and length of oviposition period decreased at temperatures below 15°C and above 25°C. Population growth increased linearly with temperature in a range from 10°C to 25°C; however, the model predicted a reduction in population growth at temperatures above 28.6°C. Data suggested that temperature plays a critical role in P. xylostella reproduction, and subtle differences in average temperature could have an impact on its population growth. This is especially important in the context of global climate change, which in turn could alter the distribution and abundance of the pest in some regions of the world.

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on the emergence of larvae of curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Cydia kurokoi (Amsel) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Taro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Hayashi, Toru

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the emergence of larvae of the chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller), were investigated. One hundred chestnuts were irradiated in a 60 Co irradiator (Gammacell 220, Nordion, Canada) at a dose rate of 0.40 kGy/h. The doses at which irradiation was carried out were 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000 Gy. After treatment, the chestnuts were kept at 25degC, 70% RH and emerged larvae were counted daily. Larvae of the nut fruit moth, Cydia kurokoi (Amsel), also emerged from the chestnuts. The data on the chestnut weevil were subjected to probit analysis and the LD 99.9 of weevil larvae was estimated to be about 500 Gy. (author)

  11. DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL DO BICHO-FURÃO,Gymnandrosoma aurantiana (Lima, 1927(LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE,EM CITROS UTILIZANDO GEOESTATÍSTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO HENRIQUE SILVA CARVALHO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O bicho-furão, Gymnandrosoma aurantiana (Lima, 1927, é uma das principais pragas da citricultura brasileira, pois os frutos atacados pelas lagartas tornam-se inviáveis para o consumo in natura e processamento industrial. Objetivou-se estudar a distribuição espacial dos danos causados por G. aurantiana utilizando geoestatística. Para tanto, foi conduzido um experimento em um pomar de laranjeira-doce da variedade ‘Valência’, enxertado sobre limoeiro ‘Cravo’, localizado em Taquaritinga-SP, Brasil. A área foi dividida em 88 parcelas, sendo cada parcela formada por 30 plantas dispostas em três linhas de 10 plantas, e em seguida foi obtido o número de frutos atacados para os anos de 2007 e 2008. A distribuição dos frutos atacados pela praga foi agregada ao longo das avaliações, com variância maior que a média para todas as amostragens. Os dados apresentaram ajuste adequado segundo o modelo esférico, e o alcance da dependência espacial (a variou entre 40,66 e 135,40 m. A estimativa de frutos atacados nas áreas não amostradas foi obtida pela krigagem, e os principais focos da praga foram observados nas parcelas próximas aos limites da área experimental.

  12. Male oriental fruit moth response to a combined pheromone-based attracticide formulation targeting both oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, Maya L; McClaughlin, John R

    2005-04-01

    Combined attracticide formulations targeting Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in a field trapping experiment. Capture of male codling moths in traps baited with the combined formulation was reduced compared with traps baited with the codling moth formulation alone, whereas capture of male Oriental fruit moth was increased compared with traps baited with the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. Subsequent wind tunnel experiments showed that a single locus of the mixed attracticide formulation or close parallel presentation of the two formulations enhanced source contact by male Oriental fruit moths but did not influence earlier behaviors. However, the two formulations presented in a serial arrangement to Oriental fruit moth males in the wind tunnel resulted in enhanced lock-on, upwind flight, and source contact behaviors. In addition, male Oriental fruit moths remained on mixed pheromone droplets of the paste matrix longer than on droplets of the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. The increased time spent on the mixed droplet was correlated with a more rapid poisoning and a greater proportion of poisoned males compared with males exposed to the Oriental fruit moth attracticide alone. These results demonstrate that a combined attracticide formulation will have different effects on each of the targeted species. It is anticipated that, due to decreased attractiveness, a combined formulation would be less effective against the codling moth. However, a mixed formulation, due to increased attractiveness and toxicity, could be more effective against the Oriental fruit moth under field conditions.

  13. CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF THREE ODORANT-BINDING PROTEINS OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH, Grapholita molesta (BUSCK) (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Wei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Yi-Ping; Wu, Jun-Xiang; Xu, Xiang-Li

    2016-02-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) act in insect olfactory processes. OBPs are expressed in the olfactory organs and serve in binding and transport of hydrophobic odorants through the sensillum lymph to olfactory receptor neurons within the antennal sensilla. In this study, three OBP genes were cloned from the antennal transcriptome database of Grapholita molesta via reverse-transcription PCR. Recombinant GmolOBPs (rGmolOBPs) were expressed in a prokaryotic expression system and enriched via Ni ion affinity chromatography. The binding properties of the three rGmolOBPs to four sex pheromones and 30 host-plant volatiles were investigated in fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The results demonstrated that rGmolOBP8, rGmolOBP11, and rGmolOBP15 exhibited high binding affinities with the major sex pheromone components (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate, (Z)-8-dodecenyl alcohol, and dodecanol. The volatiles emitted from peach and pear, decanal, butyl hexanoate, and α-ocimene, also showed binding affinities to rGmolOBP8 and rGmolOBP11. Hexanal, heptanal, and α-pinene showed strong binding affinities to rGmolOBP15. Results of the electrophysiological recording experiments and previous behavior bioassays indicated that adult insects had strong electroantennogram and behavioral responses toward butyl hexanoate, hexanal, and heptanal. We infer that the GmolOBP8 and GmolOBP11 have dual functions in perception and recognition of host-plant volatiles and sex pheromones, while GmolOBP15 was mainly involved in plant volatile odorants' perception. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20 per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in commercial Gala apple orchards in Fraiburgo, SC, for a period of five years. The average field efficiency period of mating disruption formulation over five years was 113 days. In this period the mating interruption index on mating disruption plots was 84.8% over five years. Damage to Gala apples by oriental moth larvae was low (<0.1% in mating disruption plots but did not differ from conventional plots, except in the third year. The use of mating disruption allowed for an average reduction of 5.2 insecticide treatments per year in Gala orchards during field efficiency period. It was necessary to apply 1.0 and 1.2 applications of insecticide to control of G. molesta and A. fraterculus, respectively. Mating disruption with a low density of diffusers proved to be an effective alternative to conventional methods for control of G. molesta in Gala apple orchards in subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

  15. Population genetic structure and approximate Bayesian computation analyses reveal the southern origin and northward dispersal of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Cao, Li-Jun; Gong, Ya-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Wang, Su; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Yuan-Min; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2015-08-01

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta is one of the most destructive orchard pests. Assumed to be native to China, the moth is now distributed throughout the world. However, the evolutionary history of this moth in its native range remains unknown. In this study, we explored the population genetic structure, dispersal routes and demographic history of the OFM in China and South Korea based on mitochondrial genes and microsatellite loci. The Mantel test indicated a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance in the populations. Bayesian analysis of population genetic structure (baps) identified four nested clusters, while the geneland analysis inferred five genetic groups with spatial discontinuities. Based on the approximate Bayesian computation approach, we found that the OFM was originated from southern China near the Shilin area of Yunnan Province. The early divergence and dispersal of this moth was dated to the Penultimate glaciation of Pleistocene. Further dispersal from southern to northern region of China occurred before the last glacial maximum, while the expansion of population size in the derived populations in northern region of China occurred after the last glacial maximum. Our results indicated that the current distribution and structure of the OFM were complicatedly influenced by climatic and geological events and human activities of cultivation and wide dissemination of peach in ancient China. We provide an example on revealing the origin and dispersal history of an agricultural pest insect in its native range as well as the underlying factors. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation.

  17. Development and Fecundity Performance of Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Reared on Shoots and Fruits of Peach and Pear in Different Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Li, Guangwei; Xu, Xiangli; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-12-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) is a globally important insect pest. In some parts of its geographic range, the oriental fruit moth shifts its attack from peach orchards to pear orchards late in the growing season. The phenological effects of host plants on the performance of the moth were evaluated by examining the development and fecundity of the moth reared on peach (Prunus persica variety "Shahong") and pear (Pyrus bretshneideri variety "Dangshan Su") collected at various times of the growing season under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the moth developed faster on shoots and fruits of peach than on those of pear. The preimaginal survival rate was the highest on peach shoots, and the moth could not survive on pear fruit collected on May 10. For both peach and pear, the boring rates of neonatal larvae were significantly higher on shoots than on fruits, and the pupal mass of females was significantly higher on fruits than on shoots. The boring rate increased with pear fruits growing during later days. Fecundity was significantly less on pear shoots than on the other plant materials. The results of this study suggest a possible host adaptation process in oriental fruit moth. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Three-dimensional antennal lobe atlas of the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): comparison of male and female glomerular organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Nélia; Couton, Louise; Gemeno, César; Avilla, Jesús; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Anton, Sylvia

    2009-09-01

    The oriental fruit moth Cydia molesta is an important pest and the behavioural role of olfactory signals such as pheromones and plant volatiles have been studied extensively in both sexes. To understand odour processing further, however, detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the olfactory system is crucial. In the present study, an atlas of the antennal lobe (AL) is presented based on the three-dimensional reconstructions of both ALs of three male and three female brains by means of neuroanatomical and computational approaches. We identified 48-49 "ordinary" glomeruli and one large glomerulus situated at the entrance of the antennal nerve in males, and 49-52 "ordinary" glomeruli and one large glomerulus in the ventro-medial part of the AL in females. Anomalous supernumerary, anomalous missing and sexually dimorphic glomeruli were found in the studied individuals in greater numbers than in other lepidopteran species. Male and female maps were compared with respect to glomerular size and position with 45 glomeruli being matched, indicating a conserved glomerular pattern between the sexes. Three additional glomeruli were sexually dimorphic in size and five male-specific and six female-specific glomeruli were also found. Palp backfills resulted in the staining of a unique glomerulus in both sexes identified as the sexually dimorphic glomerulus 45. This glomerulus was never stained from antennal backfills, which stained the other glomeruli of the AL. The three-dimensional atlas can now be used to elucidate the functional role of individual glomeruli in both sexes of C. molesta.

  19. Ability of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to detoxify juglone, the main secondary metabolite of the non-host plant walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, Rafal; Ineichen, Simon; Dorn, Silvia

    2011-10-01

    Many plant species produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit attacks by herbivorous insects, and may thereby constrain insect expansion to new hosts. Walnut is a host for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, which efficiently detoxifies the main walnut defensive compound juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, which also belongs to the tribe Grapholitini, does not feed on walnut. We tested the performance of G. molesta, a highly invasive species, on artificial diets containing juglone at levels mimicking those found in walnut over the growing season. Juglone-fed G. molesta survived relatively well to adulthood, but larval and adult body weights were reduced, and larval developmental time was prolonged in a dose-dependent fashion. Chemical analysis of frass from larvae that had been fed a juglone-containing diet suggests that G. molesta reduces juglone to non-toxic 1,4,5-trihydroxynaphthalene in its gut. This unexpected tolerance of G. molesta to high levels of juglone may facilitate expansion of the host range beyond the current rosacean fruit trees used by this invasive pest.

  20. Mating disruption with low density diffusers for the management of oriental fruit moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards under subtropical climate in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Lino Bittencourt; Souza, Alexander; Argenton, Jeferson

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck, and fruit flies, Anastrepha fraterculus L., are the important apple pests under Subtropical climate in Southern Brazil, and control is normally accomplished with insecticides. An alternative strategy for the control of G. molesta is mating disruption, through the use of pheromones. Mating disruption strategies using a low density of dispensers (20) per hectare were tested in comparison with conventional pesticides for control of G. molesta in...

  1. Ajuste de modelo fenológico para predecir el comportamiento de Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en un viñedo de Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vanina DAGATTI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La temperatura es la variable que más incide en el desarrollo de Lobesia botrana (Den & Schiff, cuya relación ha sido estudiada mediante modelos matemáticos, como el de Touzeau. En Mendoza, en 2010 se registró la aparición de L. botrana. El objetivo de este trabajo es ajustar el modelo de Touzeau para predecir el comportamiento de la polilla. El estudio se realizó en un viñedo cv. Malbec desde 2012. Se emplearon trampas de feromonas. La temperatura se registró con un sensor datalogger. Se calculó la integral térmica con la fórmula de Touzeau con un umbral de 10ºC desde el 1 de julio de cada año. Los resultados indicaron que el primer vuelo se desarrolló el 18 y el 20 de octubre con 204,05 ± 10,73 grados día, el segundo en la primera decena de diciembre con 728,34 ± 41,95 grados día, el tercero durante la última quincena de enero con 1329,08 ± 151,35 grados día y el cuarto a mediados de febrero de 2012 y 2013, respectivamente con 1721,84 ± 116,63 grados día. Estos resultados son útiles para predecir la aparición de la plaga y como herramienta para establecer un sistema de alarma para los productores.

  2. Uncovering the hidden biodiversity of natural history collections: Insights from DNA barcoding and morphological characters of the Neotropical genus Orthocomotis Dognin (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razowski, Józef; Pelz, Volker; Tarcz, Sebastian

    2017-04-10

    We used a 227-bp fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (DNA "barcode") in conjunction with morphological data to study specimens of the Neotropical genus Orthocomotis Dognin, 1906, acquired from natural history collections. We examined over 20 species of Orthocomotis from 17 localities in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The analysis identified 32 haplotypes among the 62 specimens and found no haplotypes shared among species. The molecular study revealed not only the usefulness of short COI sequences in discriminating among Orthocomotis species but also showed distinctness of four clusters which correspond to those based on morphological (genitalia) characters. Moreover, the molecular results suggest the occurrence of rapid speciation in Orthocomotis. We hypothesize that this may be linked to the great biodiversity of potential host plants in Neotropical ecosystems.

  3. Temperature-dependent development and potential distribution of Episimus utilis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a candidate biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Veronica; Cuda, James P; Overholt, William A; Diaz, Rodrigo

    2008-08-01

    The invasive Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi), native to South America, is widely established throughout central and south Florida. The defoliating leaflet-roller Episimus utilis Zimmerman was selected as potential biocontrol agent of this invasive species. The objectives of this study were to determine development rate and survival of E. utilis at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, and 35 degrees C) and generate prediction maps of the number of generations per year this species may exhibit in the United States. The rate of development of E. utilis as a function of temperature was modeled using linear regression to estimate a lower developmental threshold of 9.6 degrees C and the degree-day requirement of 588. The Logan nonlinear regression model was used to estimate an upper developmental threshold of 33 degrees C. Cold tolerance of E. utilis was examined using all insect stages, and each stage was exposed to three constant temperatures (10, 5, 0 degrees C) for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 d (or until all insects died). The pupal stage was the most cold tolerant with 100% mortality after 12 d at 0 degrees C. The pupal lethal times at 5 (Ltime50 = 10 d, Ltime90 = 28 d) and 0 degrees C (Ltime50 = 5 d, Ltime90 = 9 d) were used to generate isothermal lines to predict favorable regions for E. utilis establishment. A GIS map was generated to predict the number of generations of E. utilis (range, 0.5-9.8) across all Brazilian peppertree range in the United States. The potential for establishment of E. utilis and its probable distribution in the continental United States was examined.

  4. Cross-resistance between azinphos-methyl and acetamiprid in populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), from Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alan L

    2010-08-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), has been intensely managed with the organophosphate insecticide azinphos-methyl for 50 years, and populations have developed resistance. New management programs have been developed and implemented that rely more heavily on other classes of insecticides. A prerequisite for developing effective resistance management strategies for these compounds is to establish their current levels of effectiveness. Adult and neonate larval assays were conducted to assess the response of field-collected codling moth populations from apple in Washington State. Male codling moth populations exhibited a range of responses to a discriminating concentration of azinphos-methyl in a survey of 20 populations. Populations from certified organic orchards were more susceptible than those from conventional orchards. Mean fecundity was inversely related to azinphos-methyl tolerance. Male responses to azinphos-methyl and acetamiprid varied significantly among populations and were correlated. The residual effectiveness of field applications of both insecticides varied significantly against neonate larvae. Neonate bioassays with insecticide-dipped fruit found significant differences among populations with azinphos-methyl, acetamiprid, methoxyfenozide and spinosad, but not with esfenvalerate. These results support a concern that alternation of insecticides with different modes of action may not be a sufficient strategy to avoid the evolution of broad-spectrum insecticide resistance by codling moth. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Efeito de inseticidas em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae e estruturas vegetais da macieira e do pessegueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Corrêa Chaves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental Grapholita molesta é uma das principais pragas da macieira e do pessegueiro. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a mortalidade causada por inseticidas quando aplicados sobre diferentes fases de desenvolvimento de G. molesta e sobre ponteiros e frutos de macieira e pessegueiro. Os inseticidas acetamiprido (8 g 100L-1, fosmete (100 g 100L-1, espinetoram (3,75 g 100L-1 e novalurom (4,0 g i.a 100L-1 reduziram a eclosão em níveis superiores a 80%, independentemente de a aplicação ser realizada em pré ou pós-oviposição. O etofenproxi (15 g 100L-1 foi mais eficaz quando aplicado em pós-oviposição. Em ponteiros de macieira e pessegueiro, os inseticidas acetamiprido, clorantraniliprole (4,9 g 100L-1, etofenproxi, fosmete, novalurom e espinetoram causaram mortalidade de lagartas acima de 90%. Em frutos de macieira, os inseticidas acetamiprido, clorantraniliprole, etofenproxi, fosmete e espinetoram causaram mortalidade de lagartas de 100; 79; 76; 97 e 100%, respectivamente, enquanto em frutos de pessegueiro apresentaram controle superior a 85%. O inseticida novalurom aplicado em frutos causou menor mortalidade das lagartas quando comparado à aplicação em ponteiros. Em adultos, apenas os inseticidas etofenproxi e fosmete foram tóxicos tanto a fêmeas (59 e 39% quanto a machos (79 e 80%, enquanto o espinetoram mostrou efeito apenas em machos (78%. Conclui-se que os inseticidas etofenproxi, fosmete e espinetoram foram eficientes no controle de G. molesta em todas as fases de desenvolvimento.

  6. Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalya G. Amarasekare

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term codling moth mating disruption programs. We conducted this study within a pear orchard that had previously been under seasonal mating disruption for codling moth for eight years. We replicated two treatments, “natural enemy disrupt” (application of two combination sprays of spinetoram plus chlorantraniliprole timed against first-generation codling moth and “natural enemy non-disrupt” four times in the orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e., lacewings, coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma verbasci, syrphid flies, earwigs revealed that pear psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key pear psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that pear psylla are difficult to disrupt when pear orchards are under long-term codling moth disruption.

  7. Addition of pear ester enhances disruption of mating by female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with meso dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of applying low rates (50 ha-1) of dispensers to achieve disruption of adult communication of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., in walnuts, Juglans regia (L.),was evaluated with several methods. These included cumulative catches of male moths in traps baited with either sex pheromone (...

  8. Susceptibility in field populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Ontario and Quebec apple orchards to a selection of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg-McGuffin, Kristy; Scott, Ian M; Bellerose, Sylvie; Chouinard, Gérald; Cormier, Daniel; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia

    2015-02-01

    Codling moth is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. Insecticide resistance has become a widespread pest management issue. However, the current status of insecticide resistance in Ontario and Quebec codling moth populations is unknown. Codling moth populations were collected from 27 orchards in Ontario and Quebec from 2008 to 2010. A series of laboratory bioassays were performed to establish baseline susceptibility of adults and larvae to azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid, chlorantraniliprole and methoxyfenozide. Adult codling moth percentage mortality ranged from 22 to 97% and from 21 to 85% when exposed to topical bioassays using azinphos-methyl and thiacloprid respectively. Azinphos-methyl LC50 values from three selected orchards were ca fivefold greater than those from an insecticide-susceptible population. Neonate larva percentage mortality ranged from 5 to 50%, from 15 to 65%, from 90 to 100% and from 10 to 40% when exposed to diet bioassays using azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid, chlorantraniliprole and methoxyfenozide respectively. Based on the response of the field-collected populations, resistance development to some registered insecticides was evident in some Ontario and Quebec populations. With the present status of insecticide resistance documented in these regions, modifications to codling moth management strategies should be initiated before changes in field efficacy occur. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Redescripción de Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoide introducido en la Argentina para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier TORRÉNS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe el agente de biocontrol introducido en la Argentina, Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. y se aportan nuevos caracteres para su identificación.

  10. Maximizing Information Yield From Pheromone-Baited Monitoring Traps: Estimating Plume Reach, Trapping Radius, and Absolute Density of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Michigan Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C G; Schenker, J H; McGhee, P S; Gut, L J; Brunner, J F; Miller, J R

    2017-04-01

    Novel methods of data analysis were used to interpret codling moth (Cydia pomonella) catch data from central-trap, multiple-release experiments using a standard codlemone-baited monitoring trap in commercial apple orchards not under mating disruption. The main objectives were to determine consistency and reliability for measures of: 1) the trapping radius, composed of the trap's behaviorally effective plume reach and the maximum dispersive distance of a responder population; and 2) the proportion of the population present in the trapping area that is caught. Two moth release designs were used: 1) moth releases at regular intervals in the four cardinal directions, and 2) evenly distributed moth releases across entire approximately 18-ha orchard blocks using both high and low codling moth populations. For both release designs, at high populations, the mean proportion catch was 0.01, and for the even release of low populations, that value was approximately 0.02. Mean maximum dispersive distance for released codling moth males was approximately 260 m. Behaviorally effective plume reach for the standard codling moth trap was < 5 m, and total trapping area for a single trap was approximately 21 ha. These estimates were consistent across three growing seasons and are supported by extraordinarily high replication for this type of field experiment. Knowing the trapping area and mean proportion caught, catch number per single monitoring trap can be translated into absolute pest density using the equation: males per trapping area = catch per trapping area/proportion caught. Thus, catches of 1, 3, 10, and 30 codling moth males per trap translate to approximately 5, 14, 48, and 143 males/ha, respectively, and reflect equal densities of females, because the codling moth sex ratio is 1:1. Combined with life-table data on codling moth fecundity and mortality, along with data on crop yield per trapping area, this fundamental knowledge of how to interpret catch numbers will enable pest managers to make considerably more precise projections of damage and therefore more precise and reliable decisions on whether insecticide applications are justified. The principles and methods established here for estimating absolute codling moth density may be broadly applicable to pests generally and thereby could set a new standard for integrated pest management decisions based on trapping. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  11. Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Shearer, Peter W

    2017-09-30

    This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola , in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella , negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term codling moth mating disruption programs. We conducted this study within a pear orchard that had previously been under seasonal mating disruption for codling moth for eight years. We replicated two treatments, "natural enemy disrupt" (application of two combination sprays of spinetoram plus chlorantraniliprole timed against first-generation codling moth) and "natural enemy non-disrupt" four times in the orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e., lacewings, coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma verbasci , syrphid flies, earwigs) revealed that pear psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key pear psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that pear psylla are difficult to disrupt when pear orchards are under long-term codling moth disruption.

  12. Costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): implications for pest control and the sterile insect release programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

    2011-07-01

    Sterile insect release (SIR) is used to suppress insect pest populations in agro-ecosystems, but its success hinges on the performance of the released insects and prevailing environmental conditions. For example, low temperatures dramatically reduce SIR efficacy in cooler conditions. Here, we report on the costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for laboratory and field responses of codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Using a component of field fitness, we demonstrate that low temperature acclimated laboratory-reared moths are recaptured significantly more (∼2-4×) under cooler conditions in the wild relative to warm-acclimated or control moths. However, improvements in low temperature performance in cold-acclimated moths came at a cost to performance under warmer conditions. At high ambient temperatures, warm-acclimation improved field performance relative to control or cold-acclimated moths. Laboratory assessments of thermal activity and their limits matched the field results, indicating that these laboratory assays may be transferable to field performance. This study demonstrates clear costs and benefits of thermal acclimation on laboratory and field performance and the potential utility of thermal pretreatments for offsetting negative efficacy in SIR programmes under adverse thermal conditions. Consequently, the present work shows that evolutionary principles of phenotypic plasticity can be used to improve field performance and thus possibly enhance pest control programmes seeking increased efficacy.

  13. Genetic analysis of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations with different levels of sensitivity towards the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gund, Nadine A; Wagner, Annette; Timm, Alicia E; Schulze-Bopp, Stefanie; Jehle, Johannes A; Johannesen, Jes; Reineke, Annette

    2012-06-01

    Microsatellite (simple sequence repeats, SSR) and mitochondrial DNA markers were used to assess the structure of European codling moth populations showing different levels of susceptibility towards one of the most important biocontrol agents used in apple production, the Cydia pomonella granulovirus CpGV-M. In 638 C. pomonella individuals from 33 different populations a total of 92 different alleles were scored using six SSR loci. The global estimate of genetic differentiation for all 33 populations was not significantly different from zero, thus indicating a lack of genetic differentiation. AMOVA analysis revealed a very weak but significant variance among C. pomonella populations from different geographic regions, however, no significant variation was evident between CpGV-M resistant or susceptible C. pomonella populations. Sequence analysis of a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 in eight C. pomonella populations resulted in 27 haplotypes, which were grouped in two distinct clusters. Again, no genetic differentiation between CpGV-M resistant and susceptible codling moth populations was detectable. In addition, Structure analysis using microsatellites and association tests with mtDNA haplotypes found neither population-level nor individual correlations associated with CpGV-M resistance. Accordingly, this lack of population structure does not allow discriminating between one or several, separate origins of CpGV-M resistance.

  14. Cross-amplification of microsatellites from the codling moth Cydia pomonella to three other species of the tribe Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M H; Dorn, S

    2010-11-01

    This study examined cross-species amplification of 33 microsatellite markers, previously developed for Cydia pomonella, in three related fruit moth species of the same tribe (Grapholitini), namely Grapholita molesta, Grapholita funebrana and Grapholita lobarzewskii. Eight microsatellite loci yielded polymorphic products for G. molesta, nine for G. funebrana and 11 for G. lobarzewskii. At all these loci, the number of alleles ranged between four and 11 in G. molesta, and between four and nine in G. funebrana and G. lobarzewskii each. The successful cross-amplified loci can be used for research on population genetics and gene flow of the three target species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  16. DNA barcodes reveal that the widespread European tortricid moth Phalonidia manniana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a mixture of two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutanen, Marko; Aarvik, Leif; Huemer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    , 1845, sp. rev. Their biologies also differ, P. manniana feeding in stems of Mentha and Lycopus (Lamiaceae) and P. udana feeding in stems of Lysimachia thyrsiflora and L. vulgaris (Primulaceae). We provide re-descriptions of both taxa and DNA barcodes for North European Phalonidia and Gynnidomorpha...

  17. Método práctico de cría masiva de Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. HERRERA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. es plaga cuarentenaria de la Argentina. En el año 2010 se registró su aparición en Maipú, Mendoza. El estudio describe la técnica de cría de L. botrana sobre una dieta artificial. El objetivo fue producir de manera continua ejemplares de L. botrana , determinar la duración de cada etapa de desarrollo y el porcentaje de mortalidad de los estados del insecto. La cría se desarrolló en una cámara, con fotoperíodo 16:8 (L: O, 25 ± 5 ºC de temperatura y humedad entre 30 - 50%. El ciclo de la polilla europea, bajo las condiciones del insectario, tuvo una duración de huevo hasta la muerte del adulto de 31,27 ± 2,36 días. El periodo de incubación de huevos fue 2,82 ± 0,14 días; el estado larval duró 13,63 ± 1,37 días. El estado pupal duró 6,57 ± 0,22 días y los adultos sobrevivieron 8,25 ± 0,64 días. La mortalidad de los huevos fue del 37%, seguida por la del esta- dio larval 1 con 26,30%. Los estadios restantes presentaron una mortalidad menor al 2,5%. Con las condiciones descriptas, es posible la cría en masa de L. botrana. El método permite obtener todos los estados, con conocimiento de la edad de los ejemplares y un mínimo de gasto de material y mano de obra.

  18. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species.

  19. Cyanogenesis - a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witthohn, K.; Naumann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine synthase. The authors consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidinie alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood.

  20. Use of molecular markers in biochemical taxonomy of Tischeriidae (Lepidoptera: Tischerioidea) and Elachistidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulavičiūtė, Brigita

    2010-01-01

    The field of molecular biology has expanded greatly in the last ten years and currently many entomologists want to use this technology since it is a new level of carrying out studies of insect ecological systems and taxonomy. The study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences has become the method for a wide range of taxonomic, population and evolutionary investigations in Lepidoptera (Lunt et al, 1996). The increasing popularity of molecular taxonomy will undoubtedly exert a major impact on co...

  1. Molecular diversity of Wolbachia in Lepidoptera: Prevalent allelic content and high recombination of MLST genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinsky, Yury; Kosterin, Oleg E

    2017-04-01

    Wolbachia are common endosymbiotic bacteria of Arthropoda and Nematoda that are ordinarily transmitted vertically in host lineages through the egg cytoplasm. Despite the great interest in the Wolbachia symbiont, many issues of its biology remain unclear, including its evolutionary history, routes of transfer among species, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the symbiont's effect on its host. In this report, we present data relating to Wolbachia infection in 120 species of 13 Lepidoptera families, mostly butterflies, from West Siberian localities based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the wsp locus and perform a comprehensive survey of the distribution of Wolbachia and its genetic diversity in Lepidoptera worldwide. We observed a high infection incidence in the studied region; this finding is probably also true for other temperate latitude regions because many studied species have broad Palearctic and even Holarctic distribution. Although 40 new MLST alleles and 31 new STs were described, there was no noticeable difference in the MLST allele content in butterflies and probably also in moths worldwide. A genetic analysis of Wolbachia strains revealed the MLST allele core in lepidopteran hosts worldwide, viz. the ST-41 allele content. The key finding of our study was the detection of rampant recombination among MLST haplotypes. High rates of homologous recombination between Wolbachia strains indicate a substantial contribution of genetic exchanges to the generation of new STs. This finding should be considered when discussing issues related to the reconstruction of Wolbachia evolution, divergence time, and the routes of Wolbachia transmission across arthropod hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  3. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  4. Preliminary studies on inherited sterility for field management of diamondback moth (plutella xylostella) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) on crucifiers in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewusie, E.A.; Nkumsah, A.K.; Alimatu, S.; Osae, M.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: plutellidae) is the most destructive insect pest crucifiers in Ghana and the world over. It is estimated to cost about USD 1 billion to control annually worldwide. Reliance on chemicals as the sole control measure for diamondback moth has resulted in the development of a myriad of problems including resistance, high residue levels on produce, destruction of natural enemies and pest resurgence among others. Inherited sterility in Lepidoptera insects has a potential for suppressing DBM populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the use of the technique to manage the diamond back moth in Ghana. When 3 - 4 day old pupae were treated with 130 Gy and 150 Gy of gamma radiation, 47% and 46% respectively of the male pupae developed as normal adults while 40% and 17% respectively of the female pupae developed as normal adults. However, radiation-induced reductions in fecundity and egg viability were expressed in the parental and first filial (F 1 ) generations. Sterility exceeded 66% in the treated parental male and 92% in the treated parental female in both treatments as compared with 78% and 95% in treated F 1 male and female, respectively. The sex ratio was skewed in favour of males in the parental progeny. These results indicate the possibility of using inherited sterility for DBM control. (au)

  5. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNIWATI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011 Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles erionotae, Brachymeria lasus, B. thracis, Ooencyrtus pallidipes, Anastatus sp., Pediobius erionotae, Agiommatus sumatraensis and Sympiesis sp. The surveys of the natural enemies of the banana-skipper were conducted in 1990-2006 in several localities in Java. The aim of this study was to assess the native natural enemies of E. thrax, especially the parasitic Hymenoptera. Infested eggs, larvae and pupae of E. thrax were collected and reared in the laboratory. Emerging parasitoids were preserved in both dry mounting and in 80% alcohol for the species identification. Members of families Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae were recorded as parasitoids of the banana skipper E. thrax from Java, Indonesia. Species distribution and alternative hosts of the parasitoids are presented.

  6. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu

    Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp.

    The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen

  7. First report of Endoclita signifer (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) as a new pest on Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-Hao; Yu, Yong-Hui; Wu, Yao-Jun; Qin, Jiang-Lin; Luo, You-Qing

    2013-04-01

    Endoclita signifier Walker (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) has become a new wood borer pest in Eucalyptus plantations in southern China. This article documents survey results of its geographic distribution and host plant range in Guangxi and its morphological measurements, life cycle and behavior. In total, 83 Eucalyptus growing counties were surveyed. E. signifier was found in 59 counties. Host plants included 31 species in 16 families and 24 genera. Four Eucalyptus hybrid species were recorded as its host plant with E. grandis x E. urophylla and E. urophylla x E. grandis infested the heaviest. The infestation of Eucalyptus trees 1-2 yr old was heavier than that of older trees. Most individuals of E. signifier took 1 yr to complete a generation, overwintering as larvae in tunnels in wooden stems, and pupating in February of the following year. Adults emerge, mate, and lay eggs in April, and the eggs hatch in late April or early May. Adult emergence peaks between 17:00-18:59 hours. Mating flights last under 30 min at dusk and the copulation duration was 24 h. Moths were large, weighting and average of 3.4 g. Eggs and newly hatched larvae were very small, weighing only 0.127 +/- 0.001 mg and 0.093 +/- 0.017 mg, respectively. The larvae have two distinct development stages. One stage spends 1-2 mo living in the forest litter, the second stage then moves to woody stems where it feeds for approximately 10 mo. Larvae start boring into hosts between June and November, mainly in July and August. This study indicated that E. signifier, a highly polyphagous native species, has shifted host to exotic Eucalyptus and can cause significant damage to plantations.

  8. Anti-aphrodisiac compounds of male butterflies increase the risk of egg parasitoid attack by inducing plant synomone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, Nina E; Pashalidou, Foteini G; Aponte Cordero, Wilma V; van Loon, Joop J A; Mumm, Roland; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika; Huigens, Martinus E

    2009-11-01

    During mating in many butterfly species, males transfer spermatophores that contain anti-aphrodisiacs to females that repel conspecific males. For example, males of the large cabbage white, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), transfer the anti-aphrodisiac, benzyl cyanide (BC) to females. Accessory reproductive gland (ARG) secretion of a mated female P. brassicae that is deposited with an egg clutch contains traces of BC, inducing Brussels sprouts plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) to arrest certain Trichogramma egg parasitoids. Here, we assessed whether deposition of one egg at a time by the closely related small cabbage white, Pieris rapae, induced B. oleracea var. gemmifera to arrest Trichogramma wasps, and whether this plant synomone is triggered by substances originating from male P. rapae seminal fluid. We showed that plants induced by singly laid eggs of P. rapae arrest T. brassicae wasps three days after butterfly egg deposition. Elicitor activity was present in ARG secretion of mated female butterflies, whereas the secretion of virgin females was inactive. Pieris rapae used a mixture of methyl salicylate (MeSA) and indole as an anti-aphrodisiac. We detected traces of both anti-aphrodisiacal compounds in the ARG secretion of mated female P. rapae, whereas indole was lacking in the secretion of virgin female P. rapae. When applied onto the leaf, indole induced changes in the foliar chemistry that arrested T. brassicae wasps. This study shows that compounds of male seminal fluid incur possible fitness costs for Pieris butterflies by indirectly promoting egg parasitoid attack.

  9. Primeiro registro de Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae em plantas de Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Nota Científica. First record of Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: geometridae in Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Scientific Note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claubert Wagner Guimarães de MENEZES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a oviposição e o desenvolvimento de uma nova espécie de lepidóptera associada à Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Ovos, imaturos e adultos de Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram encontrados em plantas de E. cloeziana no município de Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Este trabalho é o primeiro registro desse desfolhador em plantas de eucalipto. Ninfas de Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae foram também observadas predando as lagartas de F. sartinaria, isto indica que este predador poderá ser um potencial agente de controle biológico da espécie. A ocorrência de F. sartinaria ovipositando e se desenvolvendo em plantas de E. cloeziana mostra que este lepidóptero pode se tornar um desfolhador importante da espécie, sendo recomendável sua inclusão em monitoramentos de pragas do eucalipto visando seu manejo integrado.The aim of this study was to record the oviposition and development of a new species of lepidopteran pests of Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Eggs, immatures and adults of Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were found in plants of E. cloeziana in Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This work is the first record of this defoliator in eucalyptus plants. Nymphs of the Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have also been observed preying on the larvae of F. sartinaria, this indicates that this predator is a probable potential biological control agent of the species. The occurrence of F. sartinaria developing and laying eggs on plants of E. cloeziana shows that this insect can become an important defoliator and it is recommended its inclusion in monitoring pest of eucalyptus for integrated pest management.

  10. Effects of X-ray irradiation on different stages of Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan Aksoy, Hatice; Yazıcı, Nizamettin; Erel, Yakup

    2017-01-01

    The corn stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important corn pest in the Mediterranean countries. In this study, we investigated the influence of X-ray irradiation on different developmental stages, reproduction and DNA damage to the insect. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (5th instar), pupae (5 days after pupation) and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with X-ray irradiation at target doses of 0 (control), 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. Eggs irradiated at all doses did not hatch. When 5th instar were irradiated pupation and adult emergence significantly decreased. Fecundity of adults from irradiated pupae was inhibited and no eggs were laid. Moreover, adult longevity decreased after irradiation compared to control. Larvae, pupae, and adults of S. nonagrioides were studied using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet) directly after irradiation. X-ray irradiated larvae, pupae, and adults showed typical DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner compared with cells from non-irradiated groups. The amount of DNA damage increased as doses increased and possibly could be used to estimate dose applied in commercial phytosanitary irradiation treatments. Furthermore, irradiation would be an effective phytosanitary treatment for shipped commodities at risk infestation with S. nonagrioides.

  11. Oviposition Preferences of Pickleworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Relation to a Potential Push-Pull Cropping Management Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, R C; Spafford, H

    2016-04-25

    Pickleworm, Diaphania nitidalis Cramer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a major pest of cucurbits. The current management approach for this pest is weekly insecticide applications. A push-pull cropping approach may be an alternative management practice and could reduce reliance on pesticides. One potential push-pull scenario is the use of squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) as a trap crop and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. & Nakai) as a deterrent intercrop to manage pickleworm on cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.). This study investigated if the underlying mechanism required for the success of this management approach (a female oviposition preference or nonpreference among squash, cantaloupe, and watermelon) is present. A series of oviposition preference experiments was conducted to see how individual females responded when presented with different host plants for oviposition. Under laboratory conditions, when females had the choice of a leaf from squash, cantaloupe, and watermelon, they laid a higher proportion of their eggs on the cantaloupe leaf. However, under greenhouse conditions, when females were presented with whole plants of the three different species, they laid a higher percent of their eggs on the squash plant. Females laid a similar number of eggs on watermelon as compared with cantaloupe under greenhouse conditions, and appeared to not be averse to laying their eggs on watermelon. However, when presented with a noncucurbit, such as bean, females laid a low number of total eggs. Overall, it appears that squash may be more preferred as an oviposition substrate than cantaloupe or watermelon and may be a useful trap crop or pull. Further study to determine a suitable deterrent intercrop or push and evaluation of the proposed system under field conditions are needed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Field parasitism of Cephonodes hylas linnaeus (lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linnaeus) were carried out at two robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex. Froehner) experimental plots at the Headquarters of Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan. The parasites comprised two egg parasitoids Telenomus sp.

  13. Dissipation of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb?insecticides used to control codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae) in apples for production of baby food

    OpenAIRE

    Szpyrka, Ewa; Matyaszek, Aneta; S?owik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Dissipations of three insecticides: chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb in apples were studied following their foliar application on apples intended for production of baby food. The apples were sprayed with formulations for control of codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae). Six experiments were conducted; each insecticide was applied individually on dessert apples. A validated gas chromatography-based method with simultaneous electron capture and n...

  14. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...... control for private good attributes such as food safety also connected to the label. Our results suggest that altruistic motives may play an important role in the demand for agricultural products....

  15. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Aspectos biológicos de Halysidota pearsoni (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae com folhas de amoreira Biological aspects of Halysidota pearsoni (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae fed with leaves of morus alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar aspectos biológicos de Halysidota pearsoni Watson, 1980 (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. Lagartas de H. pearsoni foram criadas com folhas de Morus alba L. em potes plásticos até a fase de pupa. Dez casais desse lepidóptero foram individualizados em gaiolas para obtenção de ovos à temperatura de 25 ± 2 °C, umidade relativa de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Halysidota pearsoni teve período de oviposição de 3,5 ± 0,17 com 141,00 ± 9,18 ovos por fêmea, período de incubação de 7,5 ± 0,17 dias e viabilidade de ovos de 53,34 ± 5,24%. A fase larval de H. pearsoni teve seis estádios, com duração total de 28 dias, viabilidade de 91,78 ± 3,24%. A duração e a viabilidade dos períodos pré-pupal e pupal de H. pearsoni foram, respectivamente, de 7,0 ± 00 e 19,39 ± 0,74 dias e de 70,15 ± 5,63 e 93,62 ± 3,60%. O peso médio de suas pupas foi de 464,17 ± 7,70 mg e a razão sexual e de 0,45. A longevidade (dias de machos e fêmeas de H. pearsoni, com folhas de M. alba, foi de 7,40 ± 0,34 e 9,50 ± 0,45, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to study biological aspects of Halysidota pearsoni Watson, 1980 (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. Caterpillars of H. pearsoni were fed with leaves of Morus alba L. in plastic pots until pupation. Ten pairs of this insect were individualized in cages for obtain eggs at the temperature of 25 ± 2° C, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and photo phase of 12 hours. Halysidota pearsoni had an oviposition period of 3.5 ± 0.17 with 141.00 ± 9.18 eggs per female; an incubation period of 7.5 ± 0.17 days and an egg viability of 53.34 ± 5.24%. The larva stage of H. pearsoni had six instars with a total duration of 28 days and viability of 91.78 ± 3.24%. The duration and the viability of the pre-pupa and pupa periods of H. pearsoni was 7.0 ± 0.0 and 19.39 ± 0.74 days and 70.15 ± 5.63 and 93.62 ± 3.60% respectively. The pupae mean weight was 464.17 ± 7.70 mg and sex

  17. Inheritance and world variation in thermal requirements for egg hatch in Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Keena

    2016-01-01

    Mode of inheritance of hatch traits in Lymantria dispar L. was determined by crossing populations nearly fixed for the phenotypic extremes. The nondiapausing phenotype was inherited via a single recessive gene and the phenotype with reduced low temperature exposure requirements before hatch was inherited via a single dominant gene. There was no...

  18. LepNet: The Lepidoptera of North America Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Katja C; Cobb, Neil S; Gall, Lawrence F; Bartlett, Charles R; Basham, M Anne; Betancourt, Isabelle; Bills, Christy; Brandt, Benjamin; Brown, Richard L; Bundy, Charles; Caterino, Michael S; Chapman, Caitlin; Cognato, Anthony; Colby, Julia; Cook, Stephen P; Daly, Kathryn M; Dyer, Lee A; Franz, Nico M; Gelhaus, Jon K; Grinter, Christopher C; Harp, Charles E; Hawkins, Rachel L; Heydon, Steve L; Hill, Geena M; Huber, Stacey; Johnson, Norman; Kawahara, Akito Y; Kimsey, Lynn S; Kondratieff, Boris C; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Leblanc, Luc; Lee, Sangmi; Marshall, Christopher J; McCabe, Lindsie M; McHugh, Joseph V; Menard, Katrina L; Opler, Paul A; Palffy-Muhoray, Nicole; Pardikes, Nick; Peterson, Merrill A; Pierce, Naomi E; Poremski, Andre; Sikes, Derek S; Weintraub, Jason D; Wikle, David; Zaspel, Jennifer M; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2017-03-23

    The Lepidoptera of North America Network, or LepNet, is a digitization effort recently launched to mobilize biodiversity data from 3 million specimens of butterflies and moths in United States natural history collections (http://www.lep-net.org/). LepNet was initially conceived as a North American effort but the project seeks collaborations with museums and other organizations worldwide. The overall goal is to transform Lepidoptera specimen data into readily available digital formats to foster global research in taxonomy, ecology and evolutionary biology.

  19. Egg Phospholipids and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N. Blesso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are a major source of phospholipids (PL in the Western diet. Dietary PL have emerged as a potential source of bioactive lipids that may have widespread effects on pathways related to inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL function. Based on pre-clinical studies, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin appear to regulate cholesterol absorption and inflammation. In clinical studies, egg PL intake is associated with beneficial changes in biomarkers related to HDL reverse cholesterol transport. Recently, egg PC was shown to be a substrate for the generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO, a gut microbe-dependent metabolite associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. More research is warranted to examine potential serum TMAO responses with chronic egg ingestion and in different populations, such as diabetics. In this review, the recent basic science, clinical, and epidemiological findings examining egg PL intake and risk of CVD are summarized.

  20. Egg Phospholipids and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesso, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are a major source of phospholipids (PL) in the Western diet. Dietary PL have emerged as a potential source of bioactive lipids that may have widespread effects on pathways related to inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function. Based on pre-clinical studies, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin appear to regulate cholesterol absorption and inflammation. In clinical studies, egg PL intake is associated with beneficial changes in biomarkers related to HDL reverse cholesterol transport. Recently, egg PC was shown to be a substrate for the generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbe-dependent metabolite associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. More research is warranted to examine potential serum TMAO responses with chronic egg ingestion and in different populations, such as diabetics. In this review, the recent basic science, clinical, and epidemiological findings examining egg PL intake and risk of CVD are summarized. PMID:25871489

  1. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  2. Blood, sweat, and tears: a review of the hematophagous, sudophagous, and lachryphagous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, David; Goddard, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    Although adult Lepidoptera are not often considered medically relevant, some butterflies and moths are notorious for their consumption of mammalian body fluids. These Lepidoptera can be blood-feeding (hematophagous), tear-feeding (lachryphagous), or sweat-feeding (we use the term "sudophagous"). Blood-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed piercing the skin of their hosts during feeding, while tear-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed frequenting the eyes of hosts in order to directly obtain lachrymal fluid. These behaviors have negative human health implications and some potential for disease transmission. In this study, articles concerning feeding behavior of blood, sweat, and tear-feeding Lepidoptera were reviewed, with emphasis on correlations between morphological characters and feeding behaviors. Harmful effects and vector potential of these Lepidoptera are presented and discussed. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  3. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 400 Gy for Lepidoptera that infest shipped commodities as pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Parker, Andrew C; Blackburn, Carl M

    2013-04-01

    The pros and cons of a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose against all Lepidoptera pupae on all commodities are discussed. The measure of efficacy is to prevent the F1 generation from hatching (F1 egg hatch) when late pupae are irradiated. More data exist for this measure than for others studied, and it is also commercially tenable (i.e., prevention of adult emergence would require a high dose not tolerated by fresh commodities). The dose required to prevent F1 egg hatch provides a liberal margin of security for various reasons. A point at issue is that correctly irradiated adults could be capable of flight and thus be found in survey traps in importing countries resulting in costly and unnecessary regulatory action. However, this possibility would be rare and should not be a barrier to the adoption of this generic treatment. The literature was thoroughly examined and only studies that could reasonably satisfy criteria of acceptable irradiation and evaluation methodology, proper age of pupae, and adequate presentation of raw data were accepted. Based on studies with 34 species in nine families, we suggest an efficacious dose of 400 Gy. However, large-scale confirmatory testing (> or = 30,000 individuals) has only been reported for one species. A dose as low as 350 Gy might suffice if results of more large-scale studies were available or the measure of efficacy were extended beyond prevention of F1 egg hatch, but data to defend measures of efficacy beyond F1 egg hatch are scarce and more would need to be generated.

  4. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  5. Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

  6. Temperature effects on development and fecundity of Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Liu, Yan; Su, Ming-Zhu; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the impacts of temperature on the development and reproductivity of the sweet potato leaf folder, Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in sweet potato leaves under laboratory conditions. We determined developmental time of B. macroscopa larval, pupal, and pre-adult stage at different temperatures. Male and female longevity, male and female lifespan, mortality of immature stages, oviposition period of B. macroscopa were also investigated under six constant temperatures (21°C, 24°C, 27°C, 30°C, 33°C, 36°C), based on age-stage, two-sex life tables. The results revealed that eggs in 36°C were unable to hatch. At temperatures between 21°C -33°C, the duration of the pre-adult period, as well as the adult lifespan both for males and females, were shortened by increasing temperatures. The lowest larval mortality rate (15.33%) occurred at 27°C. The age-stage-specific fecundity rates with the greatest number were, in order, 30°C, 27°C, 21°C, 24°C and 33°C. The results show that B. macroscopa population levels could reach highest at the temperature of 27℃.

  7. Development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on larva of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Lacerda

    Full Text Available Biological control has been reducing the use of chemical products against insect pests, specially predatory Pentatomidae. Species of this group can present high variations in their life cycle as a result of their diet. Thus, the objective of this research was to study nymph development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Stäl, 1860 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on Bombyx mori L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae larvae (T1, compared to those fed on Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae (T2 and Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae larvae (T3 at a temperature of 25 ± 0.5ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 2%, and photophase of 12 h. Predators fed on B. mori showed duration of the nymph phase (18.68 ± 1.02 similar to those fed on T. molitor (18.32 ± 1.49. Pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and number of egg masses, besides eggs and nymphs per female, were higher with B. mori (5.83 ± 2.02; 15.00 ± 7.40; 8.42 ± 1.84; 296.69 ± 154.75; and 228.55 ± 141.04, respectively while longevity of males and females of P. distinctus was 25.76 ± 16.15 and 35.00 ± 16.15 days with T. molitor, and 20.57 ± 13.60 and 23.46 ± 12.35 days with B. mori, respectively.

  8. Comunicação científica eficiência de inseticidas à base de nim no controle de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Efficiency of neem insecticides in the control of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oderlei Bernardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a eficiência de inseticidas à base de nim no controle da mariposa-oriental G. molesta em laboratório. A dieta artificial foi cortada em cubos e imersa nas caldas dos respectivos tratamentos; em seguida, lagartas recém-eclodidas foram transferidas para tubos de vidro, contendo os cubos de dieta tratados. Os produtos testados foram: NeemAzal-T/S®, Dalneem emulsionável®, Organic Neem® e Natuneem Agrícola® na concentração de 0,5% do produto comercial (p.c. em comparação com o inseticida químico fenitrotion (Sumithion 500 CE® a 0,15% p.c. e uma testemunha (água. Os inseticidas NeemAzal-T/S® e Dalneem emulsionável® apresentaram a mortalidade de 100% das lagartas, sendo eficientes no controle do inseto em condições de laboratório. Organic Neem® e Natuneem Agrícola® demonstraram menor atividade inseticida, ocasionando mortalidade de 73,5% e 22,5%, respectivamente; no entanto, afetaram significativamente a viabilidade larval.The objective was to evaluate the efficiency of neem insecticides in the control of oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta at laboratory. The artificial diet was cut in cubes and immersed in the syrups of the respective treatments, soon afterwards, recently-emerged caterpillars were transferred, for glass tubes, containing the diet cubes treated. The tested products were: NeemAzal-T/S®, Dalneem emulsionável®, Organic Neem® and Natuneem Agrícola® in the concentration of 0.5% of the commercial product (p.c. compared with the chemical insecticide fenitrotion (Sumithion 500 CE® to 0.15% p.c. and a witness (water. The insecticides NeemAzal-T/S® and Dalneem emulsionável® presented a mortality of 100% of the caterpillars being efficient in the control of the insect in laboratory conditions. Organic Neem® and Natuneem Agrícola® demonstrated lower insecticidal activity, causing mortality of 73.5% and 22.5% respectively, however, significantly affect the larval viability.

  9. Development of a control alternative for the citrus fruit borer, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: from basic research to the grower Desenvolvimento de uma alternativa de controle para o bicho-furão-dos-citros, Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: da pesquisa básica ao produtor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto P. Parra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available All research steps, developed from 1995 to 2000, to synthesize the sex pheromone of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927 are described, in order to monitoring this pest that causes losses in the order of 50 million dollars per year to citriculture in the State of São Paulo. The basic researches conducted are described, including the development of an artificial diet for the insect, the study of its temperature and humidity requirements, behavioral studies, and synthesis of the male-attracting substance up to the formulation and distribution of the pheromone to the grower, by means of its commercialization. It is a case of success, at a cost of 50 thousand dollars, involving inter- and multidisciplinary researches, which can be adopted to other insect pests in the country.São descritas todas as etapas da pesquisa, desenvolvidas de 1995 a 2000, para a síntese do feromônio sexual de Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927, visando ao monitoramento desta praga que causa perdas da ordem de 50 milhões de dólares ao ano à citricultura paulista. As pesquisas básicas são apresentadas, incluindo o desenvolvimento de uma dieta artificial para o inseto, estudo de suas exigências térmicas e hídricas, estudos comportamentais, síntese da substância atraente para o macho desde a formulação até a distribuição do feromônio ao agricultor, e a sua comercialização. Trata-se de um caso de sucesso, a um custo de 50 mil dólares, com pesquisas inter- e multidisciplinares e que pode ser adotado para outros insetos-praga do país.

  10. Flutuação populacional e previsão de gerações de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch = Populational fluctuation and generation prediction of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, encontra-se distribuída em quase todas as partes do mundo, constituindo importante praga do pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em pomar comercial de pessegueiro localizado em Taiúva, São Paulo, durante os anos 1997 a 2003, visando obter a flutuação populacional de adultos de G. molesta relacionando-a com fatores meteorológicos. O estudo também visou determinar uma data biofix adequada para prever a ocorrência de gerações da praga por meio de um modelo de graus-dia. A amostragem da mariposa-oriental e de insetos predadores foi efetuada com armadilha plástica com suco de pêssego e armadilha adesiva amarela, respectivamente. A influência de fatores físicos e biológicos foi avaliada por análise de correlação linear simples. Os maiores picos populacionais de G. molesta ocorreram nos meses de maio, julho e outubro. As correlações obtidas sugerem que a baixa umidade ambiental pode ter sido fator de mortalidade para G. molesta. O elevado número de pulverizações de inseticida pode ter causado impacto negativo sobre inimigos naturais contribuindo para a elevada densidade do inseto-praga no período de 1998 a 1999. A data de constatação dapresença de gemas vegetativas e de flor diferenciadas no pessegueiro mostrou-se adequada para se iniciar a contagem de graus-dia para prever gerações de G. molesta. Esses resultados devem ajudar aimplementação de programas para prever picos populacionais de adultos de G. molesta visando à aplicação de inseticidas. Recomenda-se a validação do modelo de graus-dia em outras localidades para comprovar os resultados obtidos.The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, is spread around the world and is considered an important pest on peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. This work was carried out at a commercial peach orchard located in Taiúva, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1997 to 2003, aiming to obtain the population fluctuation of adults of G. molesta and to relate it to meteorological factors. This study also aimed to determine an appropriate time as a biofix to predict the occurrence of generations of G. molesta using a degree-day model. Adults of the oriental fruit moth and insect predators were sampledby plastic bottle traps with peach juice and yellow sticky traps, respectively. The influence of abiotic and biotic factors was evaluated by simple correlation analysis. The highest population peaks of G. molesta were observed in May, July and October. The correlations suggest that low environmental humidity might have been a factor of mortality to G. molesta. A negative impact on natural enemies caused by high number of insecticide applications may have been responsible for the high pest density from 1998 to 1999. The date that peach trees developed vegetative and flower buds appeared to be suitable to initiate the degree-day accumulation to predict generations of G. molesta. These results should help the implementation of programs based on predicting population peaks of adults aiming insecticide application. Before field implementation, final validation of the degree-day model is required in multiple locations.

  11. Egg temperature and embryonic metabolism of A- and B-eggs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macaroni and rockhopper penguins lay two eggs but rear only one chick to independence. The eggs are markedly dimorphic in size and, although the smaller A-egg is laid several days before the B-egg, in nests where both eggs are incubated, the B-egg always hatches first. Incubation temperatures and embryonic oxygen ...

  12. north indian fauna of genus macrobathra meyrick (lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gs

    Lepidopterorum Catalogus, 79: 630p. Meyrick E. 1910. Descriptions of Indian microlepidoptera. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 20: 143–168, 435–462, 706–736. Meyrick E. 1914a. Descriptions of Indian microlepidoptera. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 23: 18–130. Meyrick E. 1914b. Lepidoptera : Heterocera,. Family Heliodinidae.

  13. Conservation of silk genes in Trichoptera and Lepidoptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yonemura, N.; Mita, K.; Tamura, T.; Sehnal, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2009), s. 641-653 ISSN 0022-2844 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5007402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : silk evolution * Trichoptera * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2009

  14. Male secondary sexual characters in Aphnaeinae wings (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bálint, Zsolt; Heath, Alan; Katona, Gergely; Kertész, Krisztián; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Male secondary sexual characters have been discovered on the hindwing verso of genera Aphnaeus Hübner, [1819], Cigaritis Donzel, 1847, Lipaphnaeus Aurivillius, 1916 and Pseudaletis Druce, 1888 representing the Palaeotropical subfamily Aphnaeinae Lycaenidae: Lepidoptera). Relevant wing parts are illustrated, described, and some observations on the organs are briefly annotated. With an appendix and 14 figures.

  15. DNA Barcodes of Lepidoptera Reared from Yawan, Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miller, S. E.; Rosati, M. E.; Gewa, B.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Weiblen, G. D.; Herbert, P. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 2 (2015), s. 247-250 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04258S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : DNA barcodes * Lepidoptera * Papua New Guinea Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.593, year: 2015

  16. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed.

  17. Response of Males of Maruca vitrata Fabricius(Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a key pest of bean in Mauritius. Their larvae feed within flowers and pods and are thus well protected from insecticidal sprays. To achieve effective control, farmers spray their bean fields on a prophylactic basis. This has consequently led to undesirable problems that ...

  18. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY ...... WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula....

  19. Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, including one new species from Marenji Forest in southeast ... Journal of East African Natural History ... from Morogoro (Uluguru Mountains) and Ortharbela cliftoni spec. nov. from Amani (East Usambara Mountains).

  20. Male secondary sexu al characters in Aphnaeinae wings (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint, Zsolt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Male secondary sexual characters have been discovered on the hindwing verso of genera Aphnaeus Hübner, [1819], Cigaritis Donzel, 1847, Lipaphnaeus Aurivillius, 1916 and Pseudaletis Druce, 1888 representing the Palaeotropical subfamily Aphnaeinae Lycaenidae: Lepidoptera. Relevant wing parts are illustrated, described, and some observations on the organs are briefly annotated. With an appendix and 14 figures.

  1. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7

  2. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  3. Antibiosis in Ascia monuste orseis Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is one of the main insect pests of kale. The study was done to identify kale varieties resistant to A. monuste orseis by the antibiosis resistance mechanism. Kale genotypes (26) were evaluated in experiments performed at the Laboratory of Agricultural Entomology of Goiano ...

  4. Dagvlinders in 1998: nog steeds onder druk (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, K.

    1999-01-01

    Butterflies in the Netherlands still under pressure (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) New information on the Dutch Rhopalocera fauna since the distribution atlas of Tax (1989) is presented. Coenonympha pamphilus was common in large parts of the Netherlands, but has declined dramatically. C. arcania is now

  5. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  6. Eggs and Health Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Fernandez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1968, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of no more than 300 mg/day of dietary cholesterol and emphasized that no more than 3 eggs should be eaten per week, resulting in substantial reductions in egg consumption, not just by diseased populations but alsobyhealthyindividuals,andmoreimportantlybypoorcommunitiesinundevelopedcountieswho were advised against consuming a highly nutritious food.[...

  7. Eggspectation : organic egg verification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 RIKILT conducted a study on about 2,000 eggs to evaluate three different analytical verification methods: carotenoid profiling, fatty acid profiling and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The eggs were collected from about 50 Dutch farms. The selection was based on the farms’ location and

  8. Egg dumping by predatory insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corbani, A. C.; Ferrer, A.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Hemptinne, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2011), s. 290-293 ISSN 0307-6962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Egg dumping * ladybird beetles * oocyte resorption * trophic egg Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.330, year: 2011

  9. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: hemostasis implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviane Maggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal.

  10. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  11. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  12. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan R. Sambaraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  13. Oviposition behavior and performance aspects of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catta-Preta Patrícia Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Host part selection by ovipositing females of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala was determined in greenhouse and field. Performance of offspring (larval period, efficiency of food utilization, number of eggs/female and others was investigated under laboratory conditions. In the field, the number of A. monuste egg clutches on the apical and medium parts of kale leaves was greater than on the basal part. In greenhouse, A. monuste exhibited a strong preference for the apical part of kale leaves for ovipositing. The best results on food utilization indices, pupal mass and female wing size were obtained with the leaf apical part. This part of kale leaves exhibited the highest nitrogen and protein concentration and the smallest water content, when compared to the other leaf parts. However, the apical part of the leaves seems not to provide ovipositing females with enough protection against birds, making them easy preys in the field. We suggest that good relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring was hindered by predation in field conditions.

  14. Egg shell treatment methods effect on commercial eggs quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Santos de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The objective was to evaluate commercial eggs quality after being subjected to a cleaning process and immersion in whey protein concentrate (WPC as a function of storage time. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 4x7, being four methods of treating shell (not cleaned and not coated with WPC, not cleaned and coated with WPC, cleaned and not coated with WPC, cleaned and coated with WPC and seven periods of storage (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days for a total of 28 treatments, with five replicates of four eggs each. Quality parameters evaluated were weight loss of eggs (%, specific gravity (g/cm3, haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI and potential hydrogen (pH albumen. The storage period increase, regardless of the shell treatment method, causing weight loss in eggs, reductions in specific gravity in the Haugh units, yolk index and increase in the albumen pH. The cleaning method makes egg's internal quality worse during storage. Coverage of whey protein concentrate is a viable alternative for commercial eggs conservation stored at room temperature in order to minimize quality loss during storage, including eggs that need to go through the cleaning process.

  15. Bioecological aspects of Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on persimmon cultivars = Aspectos bioecológicos de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cultivares de caquizeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of Hypocala andremona (Cramer on persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L. leaves of the cultivars Atago and Giombo was studied in laboratory (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% RH, 14 hours photo period and egg distribution on plants of the cultivar Giombo in a commercial orchard, during the 2001/2002 crop season, in Londrina, Paraná state. The developmental period of larvae fed on ‘Giombo’ was longer (17.8 . 0.17 days in comparison to that of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ (15.8 . 0.27 days. In contrast, the duration of the pupal stage of insects raised on ‘Giombo’ was lower (12.0 . 0.29 days than that of insects reared on ‘Atago’ (13.3 . 0.17 days. The viabilities of larvae were 60.8 and 38.8% for insects reared on ‘Giombo’ and on ‘Atago’, respectively. Pupal viability was similar (ca. 93% between treatments. The duration of the preoviposition and incubation periods of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ were 4.0 days and 2.1 days, respectively, the fecundity 524.7 eggs, egg viability 77% and adult longevity 12.9 days. No eggs were obtained when H. andremona larvae were reared on ‘Giombo’ in laboratory. Adults preferred to lay their eggs on leaveslocated at the top of the persimmon tree canopy.A biologia de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foi estudada em folhas das cultivares de caquizeiro (Diospyrus kakiL. Atago e Giombo em laboratório (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% UR, 14h fotofase e a distribuição de ovos em plantas da cultivar Giombo em pomar comercial, durante o período de 2001/2002, em Londrina, Estado do Paraná. O período de desenvolvimento das lagartas alimentadas com ‘Giombo’ foi maior (17,8 . 0,17 dias em relação às alimentadas com‘Atago’ (15,8 . 0,27 dias. Entretanto, a duração do estágio de pupa de insetos criados em ‘Giombo’ foi menor (12,0 . 0,29 dias do que as criadas em ‘Atago’ (13,3 . 0,17 dias. As viabilidades das lagartas foram 60,8 e 38,8% para insetos alimentados em ‘Giombo’ e

  16. Species of Lepidoptera defoliators of Eucalyptus as new host for the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pupae of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll and Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were obtained from Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake plants, respectively. Specimens of a parasitoid emerged from T. arnobia pupae and also found parasitising T. leucoceraea pupae in the field were identified as Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. This is the first report on P. elaeisis parasitizing T. arnobia and T. leucoceraea pupae in natural conditions in Brazil. P. elaeisis also parasitized these hosts and Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae and Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in the laboratory. The production and release of P. elaeisis could be an efficient alternative for controlling Lepidoptera defoliators in eucalyptus plantations.Pupas de Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll e Thyrinteina leucoceraea Rindge (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram coletadas em Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, respectivamente. Espécimes de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae emergiram de T. arnobia e foram encontrados sobre pupas de T. leucoceraea em plantas de eucalipto no campo. Esse é o primeiro relato de P. elaeisis parasitando pupas de T. arnobia e T. leucoceraea em condições naturais no Brasil. Além desses hospedeiros, P. elaeisis parasitou em laboratório Bombyx mori Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Pseudaletia sequax Franclemont, Alabama argillacea Huebner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Dirphia moderata Bouvier (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae e Halysidota pearsoni Watson (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae. A produção de P. elaeisis e sua liberação em eucaliptais podem representar uma alternativa eficiente de controle de lagartas

  17. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Zanuncio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae during egg stage (48.9%, a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae during larval stages (10% and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae during pupal stage (52.2%. The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%.Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae é uma espécie brasileira nativa, comumente encontrada em plantios de Eucalyptus. Um estudo da mortalidade por fatores bióticos desse desfolhador foi feito em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de identificar os inimigos naturais e seu impacto sobre esse lepidóptero. Euselasia eucerus possui fatores bióticos de mortalidade durante todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento. Os mais importantes foram Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé e Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae durante a fase de ovo (48,9%, um Diptera: Tachinidae durante a fase de larva (10% e Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae durante a fase pupal (52,2%. A taxa de parasitismo foi mais elevada na parte basal de plantas de eucalipto (37,8%.

  18. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  19. Características biológicas de Nipteria panacea Thierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, desfolhadora do abacateiro, na região serrana do Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological characteristics of Nipteria panacea Thierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, an avocado tree defoliator, in highlands areas of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate some biological characteristics of the avocado tree defoliator, Nipteria panacea Thiery-Mieg, in laboratory. This species showed the mean development cycle of 58.1 days, embryonic period of eight days and egg viability 56.3%. Pos-embryonic development lasted 36.5 days with viability of 48.2%, pupal period 11.6 days with viability of 76.0%, and mean longevity of females was 19.5 days with a production of 177 eggs per female. Other parameters were also observed and discussed.

  20. The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera) For several years I have been collecting data concerning changes in the ranges of European insects, especially Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. The vast majority of those species which have

  1. Trophic ecology of Lepidoptera larvae associated with woody vegetation in a savanna ecosystem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholtz, CH

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of a Lepidoptera community and deals with the trophic ecology of the 27 species of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera on the eight dominant woody plants in the Burkea africana-Eragrostis pallens savanna...

  2. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  3. Geographical variation in larval host-plant use by Heliconius erato (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and consequences for adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D; Moreira, G R P

    2002-05-01

    Adult body size, one of the most important life-history components, varies strongly within and between Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) populations. This study determines if this variation is caused by geographical changes in host-plant used by the larval stage, whose reproductive parameters are influenced by female body size, with estimates of the corresponding heritability. The variation in adult body size was determined together with a survey of passion vine species (Passifloraceae) used by the larvae in seven localities in Rio Grande do Sul State: three located in the urban area of Porto Alegre and Triunfo Counties, two within Eucalyptus plantations (Barba Negra Forest, Barra do Ribeiro County, and Aguas Belas Experimental Station-Viamão County), one in a Myrtaceae Forest (Itapuã State Park-Itapuã County) and one in the Atlantic Rain Forest (Maquiné Experimental Station-Maquiné County). Effects of female body size on fecundity, egg size and egg viability were determined in an outdoor insectary. Size heritability was estimated by rearing in the laboratory offspring of individuals maintained in an insectary. The data showed that adults from populations where larvae feed only upon Passiflora suberosa are smaller than those that feed on Passiflora misera. The larvae prefer P. misera even when the dominant passion vine in a given place is P. suberosa. Fecundity increases linearly with the increase in size of females, but there is no size effect on egg size or viability. Size heritability is null for the adult size range occurring in the field. Thus, the geographical variation of H. erato phyllis adult size is primarily determined by the type, corresponding availability and quality of host-plants used by the larval stage. Within the natural size range of H. erato phyllis, the variation related to this character is not genetically based, thus being part of H. erato phyllis phenotypic plasticity.

  4. Geographical variation in larval host-plant use by Heliconius erato (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae and consequences for adult life history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGUES D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult body size, one of the most important life-history components, varies strongly within and between Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae populations. This study determines if this variation is caused by geographical changes in host-plant used by the larval stage, whose reproductive parameters are influenced by female body size, with estimates of the corresponding heritability. The variation in adult body size was determined together with a survey of passion vine species (Passifloraceae used by the larvae in seven localities in Rio Grande do Sul State: three located in the urban area of Porto Alegre and Triunfo Counties, two within Eucalyptus plantations (Barba Negra Forest, Barra do Ribeiro County, and Águas Belas Experimental Station -- Viamão County, one in a Myrtaceae Forest (Itapuã State Park -- Itapuã County and one in the Atlantic Rain Forest (Maquiné Experimental Station -- Maquiné County. Effects of female body size on fecundity, egg size and egg viability were determined in an outdoor insectary. Size heritability was estimated by rearing in the laboratory offspring of individuals maintained in an insectary. The data showed that adults from populations where larvae feed only upon Passiflora suberosa are smaller than those that feed on Passiflora misera. The larvae prefer P. misera even when the dominant passion vine in a given place is P. suberosa. Fecundity increases linearly with the increase in size of females, but there is no size effect on egg size or viability. Size heritability is null for the adult size range occurring in the field. Thus, the geographical variation of H. erato phyllis adult size is primarily determined by the type, corresponding availability and quality of host-plants used by the larval stage. Within the natural size range of H. erato phyllis, the variation related to this caracter is not genetically based, thus being part of H. erato phyllis phenotypic plasticity.

  5. Encapsulation and Self-Superparasitism of Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, María G; Desneux, Nicolas; Schneider, Marcela I

    2016-01-01

    Endoparasitoids can be killed by host encapsulation, a cellular-mediated host immunological response against parasitism that involves hemocytes aggregation. As a counteracting strategy, many parasitoids can evade this host response through self-superparasitism. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) early immature stages (egg and larva) encapsulation by the host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and 2) to determine the occurrence of self-superparasitism and the rate of escaping to encapsulation of this parasitoid. Knowledge of host-parasitoid immunological interaction is crucial when evaluating the potential of an endoparasitoid as a biological control candidate. Parasitoid-exposed T. absoluta larvae were dissected in vivo under light stereoscope microscope at 24-h intervals, for five days after exposition to detect encapsulation. The preimaginal stages of P. dignus and numbers of healthy and encapsulated immature parasitoids per host were recorded. Samples of parasitoid eggs and larvae were processed for SEM visualization of encapsulation. Necropsies evidenced that only the early first larval instar of P. dignus (up to 96 h-old) was partially or completely encapsulated. A non-melanized capsule, formed by layers of granulocyte-type hemocytes enveloping around the parasitoid body, was recorded. Approximately 50% of the parasitized T. absoluta larvae had significantly only one P. dignus egg, meanwhile supernumerary parasitization yielded up to seven immature parasitoids per host. The proportion of single-early first larval instar of P. dignus reached ≈ 0.5 and decreased significantly as the number of parasitoid individuals per host increased. P. dignus encapsulation and its ability to overcome with the host immune defense through self-superparasitism indicate that T. absoluta is a semi-permissive host for this parasitoid.

  6. Immunologic changes in children with egg allergy ingesting extensively heated egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon-Mulé, Heather; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Shreffler, Wayne G; Noone, Sally; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2008-11-01

    Prior studies have suggested that heated egg might be tolerated by some children with egg allergy. We sought to confirm tolerance of heated egg in a subset of children with egg allergy, to evaluate clinical and immunologic predictors of heated egg tolerance, to characterize immunologic changes associated with continued ingestion of heated egg, and to determine whether a diet incorporating heated egg is well tolerated. Subjects with documented IgE-mediated egg allergy underwent physician-supervised oral food challenges to extensively heated egg (in the form of a muffin and a waffle), with tolerant subjects also undergoing regular egg challenges (in a form of scrambled egg or French toast). Heated egg-tolerant subjects incorporated heated egg into their diets. Skin prick test wheal diameters and egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid IgE levels, as well as ovalbumin and ovomucoid IgG4 levels, were measured at baseline for all subjects and at 3, 6, and 12 months for those tolerant of heated egg. Sixty-four of 117 subjects tolerated heated egg, 23 tolerated regular egg, and 27 reacted to heated egg. Heated egg-reactive subjects had larger skin test wheals and greater egg white-specific, ovalbumin-specific, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels compared with heated egg- and egg-tolerant subjects. Continued ingestion of heated egg was associated with decreased skin test wheal diameters and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels and increased ovalbumin-specific and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels. The majority of subjects with egg allergy were tolerant of heated egg. Continued ingestion of heated egg was well tolerated and associated with immunologic changes that paralleled the changes observed with the development of clinical tolerance to regular egg.

  7. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    , denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite......Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  8. Size of and damage on shoots of Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae influence oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae was studied when size of and damage on shoots were variable in a natural population of Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and through sequential and simultaneous choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Females showed marked oviposition preference for undamaged and largest shoots of P. suberosa. Eggs were mostly laid on the terminal buds of intact shoots under natural conditions. In simultaneous choice trials, females preferred to oviposit on shoots from which leaves (ten were removed but the terminal bud maintained to those where leaves were kept but the terminal bud was cut out. In sequential choice trials, they did not lay eggs on shoots from which the terminal bud was removed. Females preferred to oviposit on large to short intact shoots in both sequential and simultaneous choice trials. Females laid eggs preferentially on shoots with the greatest leaf area when most plants were intact in the field during early spring. Later in fall, when mostly large, old shoots were damaged or in a reproductive stage (less desirable for oviposition, oviposition intensity was highest on the shortest, youngest shoots of P. suberosa. Thus, females might rank these quality attributes higher than size while selecting shoots for oviposition. The consequences of ovipositing selectively on intact, large shoots of P. suberosa are discussed from the view point of H. erato phyllis larval performance.

  9. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required... INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled. (a) All shell eggs packed into containers destined for the ultimate consumer shall be labeled to...

  10. Ovomucoid Is Not Superior to Egg White Testing in Predicting Tolerance to Baked Egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnikas, Lisa M.; Sheehan, William J.; Larabee, Katherine S.; Petty, Carter; Schneider, Lynda C.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children with egg allergy may tolerate baked egg products. Ovomucoid specific IgE (sIgE) antibody levels have been suggested to predict outcomes of baked egg challenges. OBJECTIVE We determined the relationship of ovomucoid and egg white sIgE levels and egg white skin prick test (SPT) wheal size with baked egg challenge outcome. METHODS Retrospective review of 1186 patients who underwent ovomucoid sIgE blood testing. Subset analysis was of 169 patients who underwent baked egg food challenges. RESULTS Egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT were different among those eating regular egg, eating baked egg only, or avoiding all egg (P egg challenges. We were able to establish >90% predictive values for passing baked egg challenge for egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT. No patient with egg white SPT wheal egg challenge. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of egg white sIgE, ovomucoid sIgE, and egg white SPT showed areas under the curve of 0.721, 0.645, and 0.624, respectively. No significant difference was observed among these immunologic parameters in their abilities to predict baked egg challenge outcome (P = .301). CONCLUSION Most children with egg allergy in this study passed baked egg challenges. Ovomucoid sIgE, although a useful clinical predictor of baked egg tolerance, was not superior to egg white SPT or sIgE in predicting outcome of baked egg challenge. PMID:24013255

  11. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  12. A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Parra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new case constructing adelid moth from Chile (Lepidoptera. The adult and larva of Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. are described and illustrated. The larvae seem to be associated with sclerophyllous forest of central Chile. The larvae make a protective case from of a piece of leaf. The name phylloikos is proposed for this form of larval case. A review of the morphology and bionomics of this species are provided.Uma nova mariposa Adelidae (Lepidoptera construtora de casulo do Chile. O adulto e a larva de Ceromitia tubulifolia sp. nov. são descritos e ilustrados. As larvas parecem estar associadas à mata esclerófila do Chile central. A larva utiliza um pedaço de folha para construir uma estrutura protetora denominada phylloikos. Comentários sobre aspectos morfológicos e bionômicos da espécie são apresentados.

  13. It’s what’s inside that counts: Egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Hartman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm3) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6–13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  14. A unique guild of Lepidoptera associated with the glacial relict populations of Labrador tea (Ledum palustre Linnaeus, 1753) in Central European peatlands (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 166 (2014), s. 319-327 ISSN 0300-5267 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Insecta * Lepidoptera * relict peat bogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014

  15. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems ...

  16. DNA barcodes of caterpillars (Lepidoptera) from Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miller, S. E.; Hrček, Jan; Novotný, Vojtěch; Weiblen, G. D.; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2013), s. 107-109 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0115 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0515678 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2013

  17. Notes on the life history of Acraea encedon l. (Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle of Acraea encedon (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) was completed in 40.3 + 2.64 days at a mean daily temperature of 27.91 + 0.440C and relative humidity of 84.8 + 2.62%. The duration of the developmental period of the different life stages of the insect are: embryonic development, 7.5 + 0.54 days; 1st instar, 10.4 + ...

  18. New data on the Pterophoridae fauna of Liberia (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustjuzhanin, Petr; Kovtunovich, Vasily; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2017-03-27

    There have been no special studies on plume moths of Liberia until recently. In the World Catalogue of Insects (Gielis 2003) only two species are reported from Liberia: Agdistis tamaricis (Zeller, 1847) and Megalorhipida leucodactyla (Fabricius, 1794) despite its well-known richness for other Lepidoptera groups (Fox et al. 1965, Larsen 2005) and its biogeographic position in the centre of the Upper Guinean biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000).

  19. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Greg; Anweiler, Gary; Schmidt, Christian; Kondla, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This checklist documents the 2367 Lepidoptera species reported to occur in the province of Alberta, Canada, based on examination of the major public insect collections in Alberta and the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes. Records from relevant literature sources published since 1950 and from selected older works are also included. The entry for each species includes the scientific name, the author and year of publication of the original description, occurrence s...

  20. The richness and diversity of Lepidoptera species in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The family Nymphalidae was the most dominant one in the parc with 32.48%. The diversity index (H' and H'max) and the equitability (E) calculated for the 6 types of habitats is H'= 2,74 bits, H'max = 4,09 bits and E = 0,67 bits, meaning that the Lepidoptera species are at equilibrium with the different types of habitat which ...

  1. Launching and steering flagship Lepidoptera for conservation benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. New

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, particularly butterflies and large moths, are popular targets for conservation efforts and as flagship species can help to publicize the need for habitat and resource protection and the ecological value of invertebrates. Here I present an overview of the relevant issues in selecting and promoting flagship species, and discuss how local community support for conservation may be encouraged, using examples from Australia.

  2. Host plants of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Specht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work has the objective to catalogue the information of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae host plants. The list of plants comprehends new reports of host plants in Brazil and information from literature review around the world. It is listed 174 plants which are from 39 botanic families. The higher number of host plants of C. includens are in Asteraceae (29, Solanaceae (21, Fabaceae (18 and Lamiaceae (12.

  3. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-10-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems for studying the role of phenotypic plasticity within generations. As ectotherms, they are highly sensitive to environmental variation, and indeed many butterflies show adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. Here, we synthesize what is known about trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera, compile evidence for different environmental cues that are important drivers of trans-generational effects, and point out which offspring traits are mainly impacted. Finally, we emphasize directions for future research that are needed for better understanding of the adaptive nature of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera in particular, but potentially also in other organisms.

  4. Impact of Lateral Transfers on the Genomes of Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezen, Jean-Michel; Josse, Thibaut; Bézier, Annie; Gauthier, Jérémy; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of “alien” DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera. Large DNA viruses, such as baculoviruses and the symbiotic viruses of parasitic wasps (bracoviruses), have the potential to mediate these transfers in Lepidoptera. In particular, using ultra-deep sequencing, newly integrated transposons have been identified within baculovirus genomes. Bacterial genes have also been acquired by genomes of Lepidoptera, as in other insects and nematodes. In addition, insertions of bracovirus sequences were present in the genomes of certain moth and butterfly lineages, that were likely corresponding to rearrangements of ancient integrations. The viral genes present in these sequences, sometimes of hymenopteran origin, have been co-opted by lepidopteran species to confer some protection against pathogens. PMID:29120392

  5. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species.

  6. Impact of Lateral Transfers on the Genomes of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Drezen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of “alien” DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera. Large DNA viruses, such as baculoviruses and the symbiotic viruses of parasitic wasps (bracoviruses, have the potential to mediate these transfers in Lepidoptera. In particular, using ultra-deep sequencing, newly integrated transposons have been identified within baculovirus genomes. Bacterial genes have also been acquired by genomes of Lepidoptera, as in other insects and nematodes. In addition, insertions of bracovirus sequences were present in the genomes of certain moth and butterfly lineages, that were likely corresponding to rearrangements of ancient integrations. The viral genes present in these sequences, sometimes of hymenopteran origin, have been co-opted by lepidopteran species to confer some protection against pathogens.

  7. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  8. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. PMID:26389951

  9. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Goulart Montezano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotic potential and reprodutcive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in the laboratory: This study aimed to evaluate the biotic potential and reproductive parameters of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782 under controlled conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hour photophase. The longevity, pre-, post- and oviposition periods, fecundity and fertility of 15 couples was evaluated. The longevity of females (10.80 days was not significantly higher than those of males (9.27 days. The mean durations of the pre, post and oviposition periods were 2.067, 0.600 and 8.133 days, respectively. The mean fecundity per female was 1,398 eggs and the mean fertility was 1,367.50 larvae. On average, females copulated 1.133 times. A strong positive correlation was observed between the number of mating and fecundity (r = 0.881, P <0.001. However a strong negative correlation was observed between the number of copulations and the duration of the pre-oviposition period (r = -0.826, P = 0.002 and longevity (r = -0.823, P = 0.001. The biotic potential of S. eridania was estimated at 1.894 x 10(25 individuals/female/year. The net reproductive rate (Ro was 560.531 times per generation and the mean generation time (T was 35.807 days. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.177, with a finite rate of increase (l of 1.193, per week

  11. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a 60 Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release

  12. Temperature-dependent development and reproduction of rice leaffolder, Marasmia exigua (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Ju Liao

    Full Text Available Marasmia exigua (Butler (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the major rice leaffolders negatively affecting the rice production in the world. The growth and development of M. exigua was studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. The results showed that M. exigua eggs failed to hatch at 10°C and the larvae could not complete development at 15 and 35°C. The developmental times of each stage, survival rates of pre-adult, adult longevity, fecundities and oviposition days of M. exigua at 20, 25, 27 and 30°C were investigated using age-stage, two-sex life table. The total pre-adult development time decreased with the increase in temperature decreasing from 61.58 days at 20°C to 28.94 days at 30°C. The highest survival rate was observed at 25°C (73%. Male adult longevities were generally longer than that of females, except at 30°C. The highest mean fecundity, age-stage specific fecundity and age-specific fecundity peak values were all observed at 27°C. The maximum intrinsic rate of increase r and finite rate of increase λ were observed at 27°C, while the maximum net reproduction rate R0 was observed at 25°C. The longest mean generation time occurred at 20°C and the shortest at 27°C. These results provide better understanding on the development, reproduction and dynamic of M. exigua populations, their distribution, and might be utilized to forecast and manage M. exigua outbreaks in China.

  13. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  14. Eggs on Ice. Imaginaries on Eggs and Cryopreservation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs follow very different trajectories. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries (Jasanoff, 2015). In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical...

  15. Evaluation of Reproductive Performance, Egg Production and Egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 18 weeks of age, seventy two (72) adult females FE were housed singly in battery cages and evaluated for egg production from sexual maturity to 52 weeks in lay. The results showed ... Percentage hen housed production (HHP) was 53.10% while the percentage hen day production (HDP) was 57.6%. Age had significant ...

  16. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flocks already in lay. Manipulation of sexual maturity does not require light-proof houses but the changes in eggmass which result are irreversible, being correlated with permanent changes in body size. Increases in egg size achieved with ahemerallight-dark cycles, on the other hand, are temporary and can easily be ...

  17. Aspectos biológicos e morfológicos de Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla Biological and morphological aspects of Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae in Eucalyptus urophylla leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Vinha Zanuncio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae foi estudada em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla em laboratório a 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% de umidade relativa e fotoperíodo de 12 horas de luz e 12 horas de escuro. Essa espécie teve duração da fase larval de 34,88 dias e cinco estádios larvais. Houve mortalidade de lagartas no primeiro, terceiro e quarto estádios com 5,00; 7,89; e 14,28%, respectivamente. Os períodos de pré-pupa e de pupa foram de 4,33 ± 0,33 e 3,90 ± 0,23 e de 18,78 ± 0,69 e 18,82 ± 0,41 dias para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. Cada fêmea de M. amilia depositou 4,86 ± 0,48 posturas com 19,84 ± 1,76 ovos por postura. O período de incubação dos ovos foi de 8,60 ± 0,24 dias, com viabilidade de 88,63%. A longevidade de adultos foi de 5,66 ± 0,61 e 9,22 ± 0,79 dias, com envergadura das asas de 42,70 ± 0,32 e 49,70 ± 0,17 mm para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente, e razão sexual de 0,56. As lagartas dessa espécie apresentaram tamanho de 0,90 ± 0,01 mm no primeiro estádio a 4,40 ± 1,42 mm no último.The biology of Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae was studied on Eucalyptus urophylla leaves in laboratory conditions (25 ± 2ºC, 60 ± 10% relative humidity and 12L:12D photoperiod. This species showed 33.88 day for the larval stage with five larval instars. Larval mortality occurred during first, third and fourth instars with 5.00, 7.89 and 14.28%, respectively. Pre-pupa and pupa stages lasted 4.33 ± 0.33 and 3.90 ± 0.23, and 18.78 ± 0.69 and 18.82 ± 0.41 days for males and females, respectively. Each female laid 4.86 ± 0.48 egg masses with 19.84 ± 1.76 eggs per egg mass. Incubation period lasted 8.60 ± 0.24 days with 88.63%. egg viability. Adult longevity was 5.66 ± 0.61 and 9.22 ± 0.79 days with adult wingspan of 42.70 ± 0.32 and 49.70 ± 0.17 mm for males and females, respectively, with 0.56 sex ratio. Length of this species' caterpillars was 0.90 ± 0.01 mm at the

  18. Diseases of amphibian eggs and embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Majumdar, S.K.; Huffman, J.E.; Brenner, F.J.; Panah, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibians generally are prolific egg producers. In tropical and semi-tropical regions, deposition of eggs may occur year-round or may coincide with rainy seasons, while in temperate regions, deposition of eggs usually occurs immediately after emergence from hibernation. Numbers of eggs produced by each species may vary from a few dozen to thousands. Accordingly, some eggs may be infertile and wastage of embryos is to be expected. Fertility, viability and decomposition of eggs and embryos must be considered before it is assumed that diseases are present. An important consideration in the evaluation of egg masses is the fact that some will contain infertile and non-viable eggs. These infertile and nonviable eggs will undergo decomposition and they may appear similar to eggs that are infected by a pathogen. Evaluation of egg masses and embryos for the presence of disease may require repeated observations in a given breeding season as well as continued monitoring of egg masses during their growth and development and over successive breeding seasons. Amphibian eggs rarely are subjected to a comprehensive health (diagnostic) examination; hence, there is scant literature on the diseases of this life stage. Indeed, the eggs of some North American amphibians have yet to be described. Much basic physiology and normal biomedical baseline data on amphibian eggs is lacking. For example, it is known that the aquatic eggs of some species of shrimp quickly are coated by a protective and commensal bacterium that effectively impedes invasion of the eggs by other environmental organisms and potential pathogens. In the absence of this bacterium, shrimp eggs are rapidly killed by other bacteria and fungi (Green, 2001). The possibility that amphibian eggs also have important symbiotic or commensal bacteria needs to be investigated. Furthermore, the quantity and types of chemicals in the normal gelatinous capsules of amphibian eggs have scarcely been examined. Abnormalities of the

  19. Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

  20. Egg weight detection on machine vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Yike; Ying, Yibin; Rao, Xiuqin

    2006-10-01

    A machine vision system for egg weight detection was developed. Egg image was grabbed by a CCD camera and a frame grabber. An indicator composed of R, G, B intensity was used for image segmentation. A series of algorithms were developed to evaluate egg's vertical diameter, maximal horizontal diameter, upper horizontal diameter and nether horizontal diameter. Based on extracted four size features of vertical and maximal/upper/nether horizontal diameter, a regression model between egg's weight and its size was established using SAS, which was used to detect egg's weight. The experiment results indicated that, for egg weight detection on the machine vision system, the correlative coefficient of the regression model was 0.9781 and the absolute error was no more than +/-3 g, which would be lower work load on human graders and an increased flexibility in the egg quality control process in egg's industrialization.

  1. Shell Eggs from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high amount of iron in the cooking water. Scrambled eggs cooked at too high a temperature or held ... must be cooked thoroughly until yolks are firm. Scrambled eggs should not be runny. Casseroles and other dishes ...

  2. Occupational asthma induced by inhaled egg lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, J A; Kraut, A; Bernstein, D I; Warrington, R; Bolin, T; Warren, C P; Bernstein, I L

    1993-02-01

    A 26-year-old man employed in a company which manufactured hen egg white derived lysozyme for use in the pharmaceutical industry was evaluated for occupational asthma. The worker began to experience immediate-onset asthmatic symptoms two months after starting to work with egg lysozyme powder. The work process involved the production of approximately 1,000 kg of purified dried lysozyme powder per week. Prick skin testing was positive to egg lysozyme (50 mg/ml) and other egg protein components, but negative to whole egg white and egg yolk reagents. Serum specific IgE to egg lysozyme was documented. Decrements in serial peak expiratory flow rates were associated with lysozyme exposure at work. A specific bronchoprovocation challenge to lysozyme powder was positive demonstrating an isolated immediate asthmatic response (48 percent decrease from baseline FEV1). This is the first reported case of lysozyme-induced asthma specifically caused by inhalational exposure to egg lysozyme.

  3. Raw eggs-moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Doug

    1999-09-01

    High school physics students often have difficulty with understanding when and where to use an appropriate calculation to solve a problem. In this activity students have to solve a real problem using formulas they have seen before, but in a context with which they are unfamiliar; namely dropping a raw egg on a moving target-their instructor.

  4. How do eggs pan out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, N

    1998-07-01

    Once upon a time, eggs were considered a "breakfast of champions." Just about every active, hard-working person enjoyed them fried, scrambled, poached, or even raw in eggnog and protein drinks. Then, Americans became cholesterol-conscious and began to substitute bagels, cereal, and other high-carbohydrate, low-cholesterol breakfast foods.

  5. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  6. Plant response to butterfly eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griese, Eddie; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika; Fatouros, Nina E.

    2017-01-01

    Plants employ various defences killing the insect attacker in an early stage. Oviposition by cabbage white butterflies (Pieris spp.) on brassicaceous plants, including Brassica nigra, induces a hypersensitive response (HR) - like leaf necrosis promoting desiccation of eggs. To gain a deeper insight

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on the behaviour of the sugar cane borer Diatrea saccharalis (Fabr., 1794) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Duran, J.V.

    1980-08-01

    Some effects of gamma radiation on the behaviour of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr., 1794) (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) were studied under controlled conditions of temperature (28 +- 2 0 C) and relative humidity (75 +- 10%). The insects were reared in an artificial diet and the adults were irradiated at 24 hour age, in each treatment, to observe the effects of the gamma radiation on the sugar cane borer, in order to provide data for future researches in the Sterile Insect Technique. Cobalt-60 was used as a source of radiation with a dose-rate of 353 krad/hour. Also an activi-meter and climatized room were used. The effects of radiation under cooling (5 +- 1 0 C) and normal conditions were determined concerning the insect activity, oviposition, competitiveness, mating and longevity. These data were obtained for both sexes and the conclusions were as follows: a) The sterilizing dosis of gamma radiation do not affect the sexual behaviour of the insect, even under cooling conditions; b) the percentages of egg unviability are directly proportional to the dosis either for the females or the males; c) D. saccharalis is active only in the scotophase and therefore it can be characterized as a nocturnal insect. (Author) [pt

  8. Comparative Effectiveness and Injury to Tomato Plants of Three Neotropical Mirid Predators of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lenteren, Joop C; Bueno, V H P; Calvo, F J; Calixto, Ana M; Montes, Flavio C

    2018-03-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key pest of tomato and is quickly spreading over the world. We conducted an experiment aimed at evaluating the control capacity and risk for plant damage of three Neotropical mirid species, Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho; Hemiptera: Miridae), Engytatus varians (Distant; Hemiptera: Miridae) and Macrolophus basicornis (Stal; Hemiptera: Miridae) on T. absoluta infested tomato plants in large cages in an experimental greenhouse. During three successive periods of 9 wk each, we followed population development of the three mirids when exposed to T. absoluta, and of T. absoluta alone in separate cages in the greenhouse. We determined weekly the numbers of T. absoluta eggs and larvae per leaf, the number of mirid predators per leaf, the percentage of damaged leaves and fruits by T. absoluta, and the weight of fruits. Two of the mirid predators, C. infumatus and M. basicornis, successfully established on T. absoluta infested tomato plants and significantly reduced T. absoluta numbers, which ultimately resulted in an increased yield. These two mirid species hardly injured tomato plants or fruits as a result of plant feeding. Surprisingly, the species E. varians, which showed high predation rates in laboratory experiments, did not establish and reduce pest populations in any of the tests.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of the New World Troidini swallowtails (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) based on COI, COII, and EF-1alpha genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Lucci Freitas, André Victor; Brower, Andrew V Z; Solferini, Vera Nisaka

    2005-09-01

    A phylogeny of the Neotropical members of the Tribe Troidini (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was obtained with sequences of three protein-coding genes: two mitochondrial (COI and COII), and one nuclear (EF-1alpha). Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of 33 taxa resulted in very similar trees regardless of method used with the 27 troidines always forming a monophyletic clade. Within Troidini, the genus Battus is sister group to the remaining troidines, followed by a clade formed by the Paleotropical taxa (here represented by three exemplars). The genus Euryades is the next branch, and sister group of Parides. The genus Parides is monophyletic, and is divided into four main groups by Maximum Parsimony analysis, with the most basal group composed of tailed species restricted to SE Brazil. Character optimization of ecological and morphological traits over the phylogeny proposed for troidines indicated that the use of several species of Aristolochia is ancestral over the use of few or a single host-plant. For the other three characters, the ancestral states were the absence of long tails, forest as the primary habitat and oviposition solitary or in loose group of several eggs.

  10. Organic and free-range egg production

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershøj, M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter includes information on the development of the free range and the organic egg production and their market shares in different countries. Consumer behaviour is investigated particularly in relation to the price and availability of non-cage eggs. Regulations on the production of free range and organic eggs and their present and future impact are examined. Nutrient supply, animal welfare, productivity, safety and environmental impact of the types of egg production are covered with a...

  11. Vitamin B12 absorption from eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D

    1975-09-01

    The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.

  12. Age-specific life table of swallowtail butterfly Papilio demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUWARNO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno. 2012. Age-specific life table of swallowtail butterfly Papilio demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 13: 28-33. Age-specific life table of Papilio demoleus L. in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Development of P. demoleus was observed from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. Survivorship of P. demoleus in the DS was lower than in the SWS and in the PWS. The mortality (qx of the fifth instar larvae P. demoleus in all seasons was higher than in other stages. Predators, parasitoids, and rainfall were the most important factors of mortality in immature stages of P. demoleus. Predators caused the highest mortality in all stages of P. demoleus, except the pupal stage. Predation in the DS (94.39% was higher than in the SWS (90.88% and PWS (84.04% but no significantly different among the seasons. Meanwhile there was significantly different of mortality caused by parasitoids and the rain among the seasons. Spiders were the important mortality agent in the eggs and young larvae, meanwhile in the older larvae were S. dichotomus and Podisus sp. Ooencyrtus papilioni and Pteromalus puparum were the important parasitoids for the eggs and pupae of P. demoleus, respectively. In summary, the season influenced the survivorship of P. demoleus in citrus plantation. P. demoleus had the highest survival in the wet primary season (PWS, while the lowest survival was observed in the dry season (DS.

  13. Differences in internal egg quality characteristics between white and brown shell eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Dogan

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the differences among the internal quality characteristics of brown and white shell table eggs and to examine the relationship between quality characteristics. A total of 235 eggs from brown and white laying hens (Nick-chick; 95 wk of age) were used in this study. Internal egg quality characteristics including egg weight, albumen height, Haugh Unit, yolk height, yolk index, albumen pH, yolk pH, yolk color were determined. The Haugh unit (Pwhite shell eggs were higher than that of brown shell eggs. On the contrary, the yolk a*(Pwhite shell eggs were lower than that of brown shell eggs. There were no significant differences were found between white and brown shell eggs for egg weight, albumen and yolk pH values. Significant (Pegg quality of white shell eggs. Similarly, there were significant (Pegg weight and albumen height (r=0.39), albumen height and yolk height (r=0.35), Haugh unit and yolk index (r=0.36) in internal egg quality of brown shell eggs. Significant (Pwhite shell eggs, and yolk L* and yolk a* (r=-0.56) in brown shell eggs. No significant relationships were observed among others internal egg quality criteria.

  14. The Effects of Egg Shape Index on Egg Quality Traits of Guinea Fowl (Numida meleagris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Alkan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigated the effects of the egg shape index on egg quality characteristics in Guinea fowl. For this, the eggs were classified in terms of egg shape index, as ≤ 75, and ≥ 78. A total of 100 Guinea fowl eggs were evaluated to determine the egg quality traits ( egg weight, eggshell thickness, eggshell surface area, eggshell weight per unit surface area, eggshell ratio, albumen index, albumen ratio, yolk index, yolk ratio, yolk/albumen ratio, haugh unit and egg volume. In this study, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight per unit surface area, eggshell ratio, albumen index, albumen ratio, yolk index, yolk ratio, yolk/albumen ratio and haugh unit were not significantly affected by egg shape index groups. Whereas egg weight, eggshell surface area and egg volume were significantly affected by egg shape index groups. At the same time, there were found significant relationship between the egg shape index and egg quality traits. Egg shape index was found to be an important factor affecting the egg quality characteristics.

  15. Storage of Eggs in Water Affects Internal Egg Quality, Embryonic Development, and Hatchling Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3

  16. Effect of location of eggs in the incubator on hatchability of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the hatchability of all eggs set and of fertile eggs was the highest in eggs placed in the front of the machine. Furthermore, early and middle stage deaths during incubation were lower in the front of the incubator compared to the back. The differences between eggs placed in the upper, middle and lower parts of the machine ...

  17. Prospects of table eggs production in Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Sytchevnik, Anna; Golovkov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Problems of development of egg production in Belarus are considered. Dynamics of volume of egg production is considered for the period of 1995-2009. Results of production and sale of eggs by integrated (mass production) poultry farms are analyzed by means of a correlation method.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EGG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    although the problem is alleviated in many other countries where it is an acceptable practice to feed treated egg shell back to animals as a source of calcium and this is a very efficient option for the disposal of egg shells. Egg shell waste primarily contains calcium, magnesium carbonate (lime) and protein [1]. In order to ...

  19. [Diagnostic stain of helminth eggs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L

    1976-12-01

    A description is given of a diagnostic method for the staining of eggs and larvae of intestinal helminth in smears of both fresh and fixed stool samples. The contents of the eggs and larvae stain red, the background various shades of blue. The most contrasting staining was obtained with thin-walled eggs.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genomes of five skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further

  1. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  2. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  3. Interrelation of mating, flight, and fecundity in navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) females

    Science.gov (United States)

    The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an economically important pest of nut crops in California. Improved management will require better understanding of insect dispersal, particularly relative to when mating occurs. A previous study demonstrated a more robus...

  4. Parasitoid communities attacking externally feeding folivorous Lepidoptera in New Guinea rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    HRČEK, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The host - parasitoid community of externally feeding folivorous Lepidoptera and their parasitoids was studied on 45 focal tree species in a New Guinea rainforest. The patterns of parasitation rate, parasitoid species richness and parasitoid host specificity are described.

  5. De valkruidmineervlinder Digitivalva arnicella in Nederland: herontdekking en behoud (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Koster, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of Digitivalva arnicella in the Netherlands: rediscovery and conservation (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae) Digitivalva arnicella (Heyden, 1863), previously only known from two localities before 1902, has been rediscovered in eight localities in the northern part of the

  6. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medjedba, A. Vol 25, No 3 (2013) - Articles Etude du comportement de ponte du carpocapse (Cydia pomonella L.) (Lepidoptera ; Tortricidae) sur deux varietes de pommier (Malus domestica BORKH.) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1015-2288.

  8. Agronomie Africaine - Vol 25, No 3 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lepidoptera ; Tortricidae) sur deux varietes de pommier (Malus domestica BORKH.) EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I Brahim, N Lombarkia, N Lombarkia, N Lombarkia, ...

  9. Variation in phenology and monoterpene patterns of defoliated and nondefoliated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Judith Engle; Catherine Parks; Boyd. Wickman

    1993-01-01

    Foliage was collected from paired Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) trees characterized as either "resistant" or "susceptible" western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attack. Resistant trees produced more...

  10. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  11. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luciana Bueno dos Reis; Dias Filho, Manoel Martins; Fernandes, Marcelo Adorna; Penteado-Dias, Angelica Maria

    2010-01-01

    Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae). The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae) were obtained. Seven species of Ichneu...

  12. Materiały do znajomości Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniak, Edward; Walczak, Urszula; Karsholt, Ole

    2014-01-01

    A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland.......A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland....

  13. DIVERSIDADE DE LEPIDOPTERA EM UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL EM MUZAMBINHO, MINAS GERAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dirlene Aparecida de Andrade; Isabel Ribeiro do Valle Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring Lepidoptera populations provides important information to assess the dynamics and ecological changes in ecosystems. In this work, it was evaluated and characterized the Lepidoptera fauna of forest fragment of the IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho, MG state. Throughout 12 months, 590 Individuals of 69 species belonging to 10 families were captured. The most abundant family was Nymphalidae (73.56% of subjects). The most abundant ...

  14. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-01-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to diatomite at pH6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30°C was about 100-fold larger than that of nativ...

  15. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...

  16. Effect of host availability and egg load in Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and its consequences on progeny quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso L. Hohmann

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to determine whether Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti manifested a somatic-gametic trade-off and whether it was affected by host availability and host size. Large wasps produced on Trichoplusia ni Hübner and limited to five or 15 T. ni eggs daily, produced a similar number of progeny as wasps offered hosts from emergence. Similar results were obtained when they were deprived of T. ni eggs for one, three, five, or ten days and then provided with unlimited hosts daily until death. In contrast, small wasps produced from Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier and deprived of T. ni eggs for one to three days suffered a significant reduction in progeny production. Regardless of size, the egg load of non-ovipositing wasps increased significantly with time and a positive relationship existed between the life span of a female and the length of time she was deprived of hosts.Experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar se fêmeas de Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae têm a habilidade de direcionar a alocação de recursos (reprodução/longevidade e se esse comportamento é afetado pela disponibilidade e pelo tamanho dos hospedeiros. Fêmeas de parasitóides grandes, oriundas de ovos de Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, expostas a cinco ou 15 ovos de T. ni, diariamente, produziram número similar de descendentes que aquelas fêmeas que tiveram acesso a número ilimitado de hospedeiros desde a emergência. Resultados similares foram obtidos quando elas foram mantidas temporariamente sem ovos de T. ni durante um, três, cinco ou dez dias, e então providas com um suplemento ilimitado de hospedeiros. Contrariamente, fêmeas pequenas, oriundas de ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, mantidas temporariamente sem ovos de T. ni durante um período de um a três dias, apresentaram uma redução significativa no número de descendentes produzidos. Independentemente do

  17. Extinction cascades partially estimate herbivore losses in a complete Lepidoptera--plant food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian S; Altermatt, Florian

    2013-08-01

    The loss of species from an ecological community can have cascading effects leading to the extinction of other species. Specialist herbivores are highly diverse and may be particularly susceptible to extinction due to host plant loss. We used a bipartite food web of 900 Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) herbivores and 2403 plant species from Central Europe to simulate the cascading effect of plant extinctions on Lepidoptera extinctions. Realistic extinction sequences of plants, incorporating red-list status, range size, and native status, altered subsequent Lepidoptera extinctions. We compared simulated Lepidoptera extinctions to the number of actual regional Lepidoptera extinctions and found that all predicted scenarios underestimated total observed extinctions but accurately predicted observed extinctions attributed to host loss (n = 8, 14%). Likely, many regional Lepidoptera extinctions occurred for reasons other than loss of host plant alone, such as climate change and habitat loss. Ecological networks can be useful in assessing a component of extinction risk to herbivores based on host loss, but further factors may be equally important.

  18. The Lepidoptera associated with forestry crop species in Brazil: a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuck, Manoela; Carneiro, E; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2012-10-01

    Despite the long history of forestry activity in Brazil and its importance to the national economy, there is still much disorder in the information regarding pests of forestry species. Considering the importance of the entomological knowledge for the viability of silvicultural management, this work aimed to gather information on the species of Lepidoptera associated with forestry crops within Brazil using a historical approach. Through a literature review, all registered species of Lepidoptera related to forestry crops in Brazil from 1896 to 2010 were identified. The historical evaluation was based on the comparison of the number of published articles, species richness, and community similarities of the Lepidoptera and their associated forest crops, grouped in 10-year samples. A total of 417 occurrences of Lepidoptera associated with forestry species were recorded, from which 84 species are related with 40 different forestry crops. The nocturnal Lepidoptera were dominant on the records, with Eacles imperialis magnifica Walker as the most frequent pest species cited. Myrtaceae was the most frequent plant family, with Cedrela fissilis as the most cited forestry crop species. A successional change in both Lepidoptera species and their host plants was observed over the decades. The richness of lepidopteran pest species increased over the years, unlike the richness of forestry crop species. This increase could be related to the inefficient enforcement of sanitary barriers, to the increase of monoculture areas, and to the adaptability of native pests to exotic forestry species used in monoculture stands.

  19. Sex pheromone monitoring as a versatile tool for determining presence and abundance of Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae) in German apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Czyrt, T; Schmid, S; Leithold, G; Vilcinskas, A

    2012-01-01

    Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae), the codling moth, is an apple, pear, quince and walnut pest with considerable impact on horticultural production systems in many parts of the world. In commercial apple production, it is responsible for a yearly damage level of 40 billion dollars. In response to the need of tight codling moth control there are several options for intervention by pest managers in commercially operated orchards. Spray and count methods have been used for decades with success, but at considerable external costs for the integrity of ecological cycles. Also, problems with pesticide residues and with resistant strains are an issue of concern. For environmental reasons, toxicological means are discounted here. Instead, flight curves based on sex pheromone trapping and monitoring are preferred means towards determining the optimal timing of interventions by biotechnical and biological control methods. Finally, ecological reasons are discussed for vastly different population levels of C. pomonella developing in closely neighboring field sections which operated under different environmental management.

  20. Biology and thermal requirements to Trichogramma spp. selection for Ecdytolopha aurantiana control; Selecao de Trichogramma spp., para o controle de Ecdytolopha aurantiana, com base na biologia e exigencias termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rosa M.S.; Parra, Jose R.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: rmsmolina@ig.com.br, e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Fronza, Vanoli [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Uberaba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vanoli@epamig.br

    2005-03-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum Riley, 1879 as agents of control of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important Citrus pest in Sao Paulo State (South-East Brazil). In order to provide subsidies to programs of biological control with these parasitoids, studies of biology in different temperatures, thermal requirements and parasitism capacity were carried out. The temperatures (18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 deg C) did not affect the sex ratio, however, female longevity of both species was higher at 22 and 25 deg C. The temperature of 25 deg C tended to be more suitable to both emergency rate and female longevity. The egg-adult period for both Trichogramma species was inversely proportional to temperature. The thermal requirements of the two species were very close, about 108 DD (degree days). Neither the natural rearing host, E. aurantiana, nor the alternative host Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), affected the number of parasitized eggs per Trichogramma female. The parasitism rate and the number of emerged adults per egg on E. aurantiana eggs were higher than on A. kuehniella eggs. However, the emergency rate was higher when the parasitoids were reared on A. kuehniella eggs. Both Trichogramma species could be tested in the field for citrus fruit borer control. The thermal requirements and the parasitism capacity also could be good parameters for selection of Trichogramma species/strains. (author)

  1. Egg care by termite soldiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Čížek, Lukáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, - (2005), 357-359 ISSN 0020-1812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2146 Grant - others:NSF(US) DEB-97-07928; NSF(US) DEB-02-11591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termite soldier * egg transport Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.618, year: 2005

  2. Medical and social egg freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Until recently, limited options for preserving fertility in order to delay childbearing were available. Although egg freezing and successful thawing is now possible, it remains unclear to what extent women are aware of the availability of this technique, their attitudes towards its ...... planning. Reassurance regarding its efficacy appears more important than its potential adverse effects on their health or that of future children, or the costs of the procedure....

  3. Impact of egg handling and conditions during extended storage on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Ward, G E; Regmi, P; Karcher, D M

    2018-02-01

    The international trade of shell eggs has become more important in recent years in order to feed a growing worldwide population, meet food manufacturing demands, and address supply issues during disease outbreaks or product recalls. The primary barriers for the export and import of shell eggs are: whether to wash eggs and egg storage temperature. The current study was undertaken to compare egg quality factors as influenced by egg washing and storage temperature. Three lots of nest run white shell eggs were collected on consecutive d from a commercial in-line egg production facility. The treatment and storage conditions were selected to encompass the primary egg handling and storage conditions utilized throughout the world: washed; washed, oiled; and unwashed stored at 4°C; and unwashed stored at 22°C. Eggs were assessed weekly from 0 to 15 wk. Percent egg weight loss was greatest for the unwashed 22°C eggs (15.72%) and least for washed, oiled 4°C (0.33%, P < 0.0001). Less than 24 h at 22°C had a greater impact on yolk shape measurements decline than 15 wk at 4°C (P < 0.05). After 15 wk, average Haugh unit scores for all refrigerated treatments were still Grade A, and unwashed 22°C dropped from Grade AA to almost Grade B in one week. Room temperature storage of eggs rapidly declines egg quality. Egg treatment did not impact egg quality factors when stored at 4°C. Washing and oiling eggs before refrigerated storage did suppress the rate of egg weight loss. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2017.

  4. Safety and feasibility of heated egg yolk challenge for children with egg allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Sato, Sakura; Asaumi, Tomoyuki; Ogura, Kiyotake; Borres, Magnus P; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-06-01

    Hen's egg allergy is a frequent cause of childhood food allergy. Egg yolk is used in various commonly consumed foods; if children with allergy to hen's egg could eat heated egg yolk, their quality of life (QOL) would improve. No reports exist regarding oral food challenges (OFCs) for heated egg yolk. We aimed to clarify whether pediatric patients allergic to hen's egg could consume heated egg yolk. Data from pediatric patients who had undergone OFCs for heated egg yolk were evaluated retrospectively. Among 919 patients, positive OFC results were obtained in 17.0% of patients; seven presented with severe symptoms. Older age, high specific IgE value for ovomucoid, low total IgE levels, and history of anaphylaxis related to food other than hen's egg were risk factors for positive OFC results. Specific IgE values for egg white, ovomucoid, and egg yolk, indicative of a negative predictive value >95%, were 0.71, 0.41, and 0.17 kU A /l, respectively. A specific IgE to ovomucoid levels of 100 kU A /l predicted heated egg yolk-positive OFCs for 38.3% of patients. Among 763 patients with a negative OFC, seven (0.9%) reacted to heated egg yolk at home, and 756 (99.1%) consumed hen's egg yolk safely. Most pediatric patients allergic to heated hen's egg safely consumed heated egg yolk. Heated egg yolk OFCs rarely provoked severe symptoms and may be recommended for improving the QOL of children with allergy to hen's egg. © 2017 The Authors Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: a new parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: um novo parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae is recorded as parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae é registrado como parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  6. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-07-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.05 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto diatomite at pH 6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30 degrees C was about 100-fold larger than that of native egg albumin; however, the adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin decreased to about 1/100 with temperature decreasing from 30 to 6 degrees C. The saturated adsorption amount of egg albumin was also increased by the methylation. The flocculating ability of methylated egg albumin was examined with a diatomite suspension at 6 and 30 degrees C in the pH range from pH 2 to 11. The diatomite suspension was effectively flocculated by the addition of small amounts of methylated egg albumin (only 0.5-1 wt% against diatomite) over a wide pH range from pH 3 to 10.

  7. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  8. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  9. Rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk from different poultry specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Votava, J.; Buchar, J.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this study is differences in rheological behaviour of hen (ISA BROWN), goose (Anser anser f. domestica) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) egg white and egg yolk. The rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Rheological behaviour was pseudoplastic and flow curves were fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and Ostwald-de Waele model with high values of coeficients of determination R2. The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors during flow of egg white and egg yolk in real tube has been shown. Preliminary information on time-dependent behaviour of tested liquids has been also obtained.

  10. Lepidoptera outbreaks in response to successional changes after the passage of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of Lepidoptera occurred in large numbers in spring and early summer after the passage of Hurricane Hugo over the north-east of Puerto Rico. Spodoptera eridania (Noctuidae) was the most common of the larvae and fed on 56 plant species belonging to 31 families. All the Lepidoptera fed on early successional vegetation. Some of the plants represent new host...

  11. Maternal effects of egg size on emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg composition and hatchling phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzialowski, Edward M; Sotherland, Paul R

    2004-02-01

    Parental investment in eggs and, consequently, in offspring can profoundly influence the phenotype, survival and ultimately evolutionary fitness of an organism. Avian eggs are excellent model systems to examine maternal allocation of energy translated through egg size variation. We used the natural range in emu Dromaius novaehollandiae egg size, from 400 g to >700 g, to examine the influence of maternal investment in eggs on the morphology and physiology of hatchlings. Female emus provisioned larger eggs with a greater absolute amount of energy, nutrients and water in the yolk and albumen. Variation in maternal investment was reflected in differences in hatchling size, which increased isometrically with egg size. Egg size also influenced the physiology of developing emu embryos, such that late-term embryonic metabolic rate was positively correlated with egg size and embryos developing in larger eggs consumed more yolk during development. Large eggs produced hatchlings that were both heavier (yolk-free wet and dry mass) and structurally larger (tibiotarsus and culmen lengths) than hatchlings emerging from smaller eggs. As with many other precocial birds, larger hatchlings also contained more water, which was reflected in a greater blood volume. However, blood osmolality, hemoglobin content and hematocrit did not vary with hatchling mass. Emu maternal investment in offspring, measured by egg size and composition, is significantly correlated with the morphology and physiology of hatchlings and, in turn, may influence the success of these organisms during the first days of the juvenile stage.

  12. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  13. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  14. Field infestation of rambutan fruits by internal-feeding pests in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, G T; Follett, P A; Yoshimoto, J M

    2000-06-01

    More than 47,000 mature fruits of nine different varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) were harvested from orchards in Hawaii to assess natural levels of infestation by tephritid fruit flies and other internal feeding pests. Additionally, harvested, mature fruits of seven different rambutan varieties were artificially infested with eggs or first-instars of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to assess host suitability. When all varieties were combined over two field seasons of sampling, fruit infestation rates were 0.021% for oriental fruit fly, 0.097% for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and 0.85% for pyralids (Lepidoptera). Species of Cryptophlebia included both C. illepida (Butler), the native Hawaiian species, and C. ombrodelta (Lower), an introduced species from Australia. Cryptophlebia spp. had not previously been known to attack rambutan. The pyralid infestation was mainly attributable to Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milliere), a species also not previously recorded on rambutan in Hawaii. Overall infestation rate for other moths in the families Blastobasidae, Gracillariidae, Tineidae, and Tortricidae was 0.061%. In artificially infested fruits, both species of fruit fly showed moderately high survivorship for all varieties tested. Because rambutan has such low rates of infestation by oriental fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp., the two primary internal-feeding regulatory pests of rambutan in Hawaii, it may be amenable to the alternative treatment efficacy approach to postharvest quarantine treatment.

  15. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Wiemann; Tzu-Ruei Yang; Philipp N. Sander; Marion Schneider; Marianne Engeser; Stephanie Kath-Schorr; Christa E. Müller; P. Martin Sander

    2017-01-01

    Protoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV) give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selecti...

  16. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. As the Egg Turns: Monitoring Egg Attendance Behavior in Wild Birds Using Novel Data Logging Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Scott A.; Clatterbuck, Corey A.; Kelsey, Emma C.; Naiman, Alex D.; Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C.

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Art...

  18. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P shell emulsion across treatment or week (P < 0.05). The decreasing trend of SE prevalence obtained over the study period indicate that refrigeration is effective at inhibiting SE growth. These results indicate that egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Igic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  20. The performance and egg quality characteristics of layers fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg quality indices (egg shape index, egg specific gravity, Haugh unit, egg shell thickness, albumen index and yolk index) were not affected by the treatments (P > 0.05). Egg shell index was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by Garcinia kola meal. At 2.5% level, it significantly enhanced percent albumin and reduced percent ...